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Sample records for selected demographic socioeconomic

  1. EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON CONSUMPTION OF SELECTED FOOD NUTRIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of socioeconomic and demographic factors on the consumption of food energy, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron are examined. Socioeconomic and demographic factors analyzed are urbanization, region, race, ethnicity, sex, employment status, food stamp participation, household size, weight, height, age, and income. Several of these factors significantly affect consumption of certain nutrients. Income is an important factor affect...

  2. Housing East Asia: socioeconomic and demographic challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doling, J.; Ronald, R.

    2014-01-01

    Housing and home ownership has been strongly embedded in East Asian socioeconomic and policy models. Based on the primacy of national economic growth objectives, it was promoted as a means of, on the one hand, contributing directly to economic growth through the motor of the construction industry,

  3. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gyuk et al.

    demographic environment also plays a significant role in the ... Also, Child mortality rates are known to be higher in poor .... especially Christian women have better health education than ... urban life which could have some impacts on malaria prevention .... insecticides, leave in decent areas and are able to access medical ...

  4. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the demographic variables and socio-economic status on the prevalence of health hazards amongst residents of Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for this study was estimated to be 131,587 residents.

  5. Socio-Economic, Demographic and Lifestyle Determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are the accumulation of high body adiposity, which can have detrimental health effects and contribute to the development of numerous preventable non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors on the ...

  6. Diabetic Prevalence in Bangladesh: The Role of Some Associated Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Tasneem

    2012-12-01

    The study attempts at examining the association of a few selected socio-economic and demographic characteristics on diabetic prevalence. Nationally representative data from BIRDEM 2000 have been used to meet the objectives of the study. Cross tabulation, Chi-square and logistic regression analysis have been used to portray the necessary associations. Chi- square reveals significant relationship between diabetic prevalence and all the selected demographic and socio-economic variables except ìeducationî while logistic regression analysis shows no significant contribution of ìageî and ìeducationî in diabetic prevalence. It has to be noted that, this paper dealt with all the three types of diabetes- Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational.

  7. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of childhood anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Goswmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months. METHODS: Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%. Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p < 0.05. Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs.

  8. Demographic and socioeconomic disparity in nutrition: application of a novel Correlated Component Regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Vernier, Céderic; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the most important demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with diet quality, evaluated in terms of compliance with national dietary recommendations, selection of healthy and unhealthy food choices, energy density and food variety. We hypothesised that different demographic and socioeconomic factors may show disparate associations with diet quality. Study design A nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based study. Participants A total of 1352 apparently healthy and non-institutionalised subjects, aged 18–69 years, participated in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study in 2007–2008. The participants attended the nearest study centre after a telephone appointment, and were interviewed by trained research staff. Outcome measures Diet quality as measured by 5 dietary indicators, namely, recommendation compliance index (RCI), recommended foods score (RFS), non-recommended foods score (non-RFS), energy density score (EDS), and dietary diversity score (DDS). The novel Correlated Component Regression (CCR) technique was used to determine the importance and magnitude of the association of each socioeconomic factor with diet quality, in a global analytic approach. Results Increasing age, being male and living below the poverty threshold were predominant factors associated with eating a high energy density diet. Education level was an important factor associated with healthy and adequate food choices, whereas economic resources were predominant factors associated with food diversity and energy density. Conclusions Multiple demographic and socioeconomic circumstances were associated with different diet quality indicators. Efforts to improve diet quality for high-risk groups need an important public health focus. PMID:25967988

  9. Demographic implications of socioeconomic transition among the tribal populations of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemam, N S; Reddy, B M

    1998-06-01

    The demographic implications of socioeconomic transition are studied among the three subsistence categories of the Gangte, a little known tribe from northeast India. Reproductive histories of 444 ever-married women and other data on the 343 households from which these women were drawn were collected from 11 villages representing the 3 transitional groups. A trend of increasing household income and literacy of couples was observed from shifting cultivators to settled agriculturists to the town-dwelling Gangte. The effect of socioeconomic transition is also seen in the constriction at the base of the age-sex pyramid of the town dwellers compared with the other subsistence categories, suggesting a relatively lower proportion of children in the 0-5-year-old age group. Although exogamy is practiced among all the subsistence categories, a considerably higher percentage of admixture with non-Gangte is observed among the town dwellers compared with the others. Overall infant and child mortality among the Gangte is low. However, variation exists among the three subsistence groups in the sense that a considerable reduction is seen from the traditional shifting cultivators to the urbanized town dwellers, reflecting better socioeconomic conditions and greater awareness and accessibility of the town dwellers to public health amenities. No consistent or perceptible trend is evident in mean number of live births. The genetic implications of this demographic transition are reflected in Crow's indexes of selection.

  10. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic variables affecting the diverse degrees of consanguineous marriages in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Colantonio, S E

    2004-02-01

    In a population the inbreeding coefficient alpha is determined by the relative incidence of the various degrees of consanguineous marriages--uncle-niece or aunt-nephew (C12), first cousin (C22), first cousin once removed (C23), second cousin (C33)--which may be related to temporal, geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Using published information from Spain corresponding to urban and rural areas, in this article we seek to establish how each specific relationship behaves with respect to geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors, to determine differential urban-rural patterns, and to study whether the diverse types of consanguineous matings relate homogeneously to these factors. For this purpose we performed multiple regressions in which the dependent variables were the different degrees of consanguinity previously selected and the independent variables were geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Our results indicate that the various types of consanguineous marriages in Spain are more conditioned by geographic, demographic, and economic variables than by the inbreeding level alpha (the coefficient of determination was between 0.22 and 0.72; the maximum for alpha was 0.35). A regional pattern exists in Spain and corresponds to close and to remote kinship, which may be mainly related to economic and family factors. Close relationships appear to be more associated with economic variables, whereas second-cousin marriages correspond largely to rural areas of the Spanish Central Plateau.

  11. Relationship between Socioeconomic Demographic Characteristics with Antibiotic Self-Medication in Community Dwelling Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Aditya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases escalation in developing countries especially in Indonesia lead to increasing use of antibiotics in the community. Self-medication with antibiotics may increase the risk of resistant bacteria and irrational use of antibiotics. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between socioeconomic -demographic characteristics with antibiotic self-medication. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted on people from Sayang Village in West Java Indonesia aged over 18 years and had experience in using antibiotics. A total of 146 respondents were selected as the sample of this study. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic demographic characteristics with antibiotic self-medication. Results: Out of 146 questionnaires that were completed, 111 were female and 35 male respondents, 75 respondents had experience in using antibiotics without prescription. The survey showed significant relation between antibiotics use with monthly income (p=0,031 and source of income (p=0,009. Conclusions: The study confirms that there is relation between monthly income and source of income with antibiotic self-medication.

  12. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of childhood anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Goswmai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6–59 months. Methods: Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%. Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p < 0.05. Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. Conclusion: The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos determinantes de anemia em crianças indianas com idade de 6 a 59 meses. Métodos: A análise estatística foi realizada na amostra transversal ponderada de 40885 crianças da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde da Família de 2005–2006, Governo da Índia, utilizando a técnica de

  13. Associations between reporting of cancer alarm symptoms and socioeconomic and demographic determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Rikke Pilsgaard; Paulsen, Maja Skov; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reporting of symptoms which may signal cancer is the first step in the diagnostic pathway of cancer diseases. Cancer alarm symptoms are common in the general population. Public awareness and knowledge of cancer symptoms are sparse, however, and many people do not seek medical...... help when having possible cancer symptoms. As social inequality is associated with cancer knowledge, cancer awareness, and information-seeking, our hypothesis is that social inequality may also exist in the general population with respect to reporting of cancer alarm symptoms. The aim of this study...... was to investigate possible associations between socioeconomic and demographic determinants and reporting of common cancer alarm symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed based on a stratified sample of the Danish general population. A total of 13 777 randomly selected persons aged 20...

  14. [Ideas on socioeconomic and cultural determinants of demographic trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, N

    1987-01-01

    Despite numerous attempts, little progress has been made in developing generally applicable theories concerning the social, economic, and cultural determinants of demographic change. The diversity of the intervening factors and the variability of their influence in different societies hinder theoretical development. The so-called intermediate variables of Davis and Blake gained widespread acceptance, but had less explanatory power than factors situated closer to the beginning of the causal chain. Bongaarts has demonstrated that just 4 proximal fertility determinants account for almost all the observed fertility differences at the global level. Historical declines in fertility are usually attributed to factors related to modernization, but no precise identification or organization of these factors has been achieved. The factors most frequently invoked to explain fertility changes in the developed countries include loss of functions of the family, mortality decline, increases in social mobility, greater economic and social participation of women, and increased educational level. Analysis of historical data shows that there is no unique combination of social changes that permit explanation of fertility declines in different countries and periods, and none of the factors alone can be considered a prerequisite for fertility decline. Although income in recent decades is usually negatively related to fertility, in Europe until the mid-19th century it was usually positively related. Gary Becker and Richard Easterlin have attempted to explain why the relationship is negative, focusing on the fertility effects of parental aspirations. The historical-structural school that began to develop in the mid-1960s emphasizes characteristics of LAtin American underdevelopment and resulting social structures as determinants of demographic behavior. Fertility levels are explained by reference to the different survival strategies adopted by families with different forms of insertion in

  15. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT ON PRIVATE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Kordić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Health care systems face pressure to increase the quality of health care at the same time with pressure to reduce public spending. The attempt to overcome the gap between needs and opportunities can be resolved through the introduction of public-private partnerships. Goals of this study are to investigate variation of the number, form and efficiency of private providers of general/family medicine services in primary health care and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic environment on those variations, among counties. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are identified as independent variables that influence the health care need and utilization and consequently the decision of private entities to engage in the provision of health care services. This study extended previous studies because it has introduced socioeconomic and demographic variables. This may shed same new lights on the relationship between private providers of health service and efficiency of providing health service in primary health care.

  16. Demographic development of ukrainian rural area: lessons of history, modern socio-economic threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Melnychuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to urgent problems of demographic development of rural areas, their impact on socioeconomic processes at all levels of the national economic system. The content of demographic and economic antonyms of «demographic development» and «demographic catastrophe» has been characterized. The article analyzes the historical background of demographic change in rural areas, their socio-economic consequences. It’s reasonably concluded that the economic development of Ukraine requires urgent settlement of the negative socio-demographic trends that are characteristic for a Ukrainian village. Nowadays, these trends are of a destructive nature. They lead to a protracted crisis of agricultural production which is very difficult to overcome solely with the tools of technical and technological modernization. This will complicate the food security of the state for many years; lower the level and quality of life of the population, lead to greater territorial disparities and degradation of rural areas and the marginalization of residents of Ukrainian villages.

  17. Coexisting Disadvantages in later Life: Demographic and Socio-Economic Inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Josephine; Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify which of certain demographic and socio-economic groups in the oldest part of the population that have an increased probability of experiencing simultaneous disadvantages in different life domains - here termed coexisting disadvantages. To do so, we compared analyses of coexisting disadvantages, measured as two or more simultaneous disadvantages, with analyses of single disadvantages and specific combinations of disadvantages. Indicators of physical health problems, ADL limitations, psychological health problems, limited financial resources, and limited social resources were included. We used nationally representative data from 2011 on people aged 76 and older in Sweden ( n  = 765). Results showed that coexisting disadvantages were associated with specific demographic and socio-economic groups, particularly certain marital status groups. Moreover, the differences between the demographic and socio-economic groups were only found for those who reported coexisting disadvantages, and not for those who reported only one disadvantage, which suggests that demographic and social factors become more important as disadvantages compound. Further, we analysed pairwise combinations of disadvantages. We found that different combinations of disadvantages tended to be associated with different groups, information useful from a social planning perspective since different combinations of disadvantages may imply different needs for help and support.

  18. Socio-economic and Demographic Determinants of Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Central Nepal

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    Srijana Pandey, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The importance of maternal health services in lessening maternal mortality and morbidity as well as neonatal deaths has received substantial recognition in the past decade. The lack of antenatal care has been identified as a risk factor for maternal mortality and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting attendance of antenatal care services in Nepal. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in Central Nepal. Using semi-structured questionnaire, interviews were conducted with married women aged between 15-49 years, who had delivered their babies within one year. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the sample. Results were obtained by frequency distribution and cross-tabulation of the variables. Results: More than half of the women were not aware of the consequences of lack of antenatal care. Age, education, income, type of family were strongly associated with the attendance at antenatal care service. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: In Nepal and in other developing countries, maternal mortality and morbidity continue to pose challenges to the health care delivery system. Variety of factors including socio-demographic, socio-economic, cultural and service availability as well as accessibility influences the use of maternal health services.

  19. [The socioeconomic and demographic characterization of children and adolescents who study and work outside their home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Renata Cristina da Penha; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Secco, Iara Aparecida de Oliveira; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of children and adolescents who study and work outside their home. This non-experimental, correlational, cross-sectional study was performed using questionnaires applied to primary education students, enrolled in public schools in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil). Two schools were selected through a draw. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 14.0. Of the 133 students who answered the questionnaire, 36 (27.7%) reported working outside their home, 20.6% were between 11 and 13 years of age, and 66.7% were male (p=0.000) and had started working early to help with the family income (p=0.003). The salary they received helped comprise the family income, and it was found that as the family income increased, the need for the youngsters to work was reduced. It was found that many factors contribute to these subjects' early start at work, including family size, structure and poverty.

  20. Associations between health care seeking and socioeconomic and demographic determinants among people reporting alarm symptoms of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Rikke P; Jarbol, Dorte E; Larsen, Pia V

    2013-01-01

    Late diagnosis of cancer may partly be explained by the fact that some patients do not seek health care promptly when experiencing an alarm symptom. Socioeconomic and demographic differences exist concerning knowledge and awareness of cancer alarm symptoms in the general population...... and socioeconomic differences are found in cancer incidence and survival. We therefore hypothesise that socioeconomic and demographic differences in health care-seeking behaviour are present among people with alarm symptoms....

  1. What influence Customer Patronage of Insurance Policies: An Empirical Assessment of Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Insurance Patronage in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Fofie, Gloria A.

    2016-01-01

    The study attempts to explore and assess the social, economic and demographic factors that are likely to influence the patronage of insurance in Ghana. Employing a cross-sectional and convenient sampling method, 200 respondents were selected to answer semi-structured questionnaires. Using a Probit econometric regression model for analysis, the results indicate these socio-economic and demographic determinants are positively and significantly related to insurance demand, except that of religio...

  2. Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Roberts, Katharine E; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Red and processed meat (RPM) intake varies widely globally. In some high-income countries (HIC) the last decade has witnessed an overall decline or stabilisation in the consumption of RPM, in contrast to emerging economies where its consumption continues to increase with rising income and rapid urbanisation. The production and consumption of RPM have become major concerns regarding the environmental impacts of livestock in particular, but also because of associations between high RPM consumption and diet-related non-communicable disease. Therefore, it is important to identify socioeconomic and demographic drivers of the consumption of RPM. This paper explores how consumption of RPM differs with age, gender, socioeconomic status and in different global contexts. There are some key socioeconomic and demographic patterns in RPM consumption. Men tend to consume RPM more often and in higher quantities, and there is evidence of a social gradient in HIC, with lower socioeconomic groups consuming RPM more often and in larger quantities. Patterns for consumption with age are less clear cut. It is apparent that consumers in HIC are still consuming high levels of RPM, although the downward shifts in some socioeconomic and demographic groups is encouraging and suggests that strategies could be developed to engage those consumers identified as high RPM consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, RPM consumption is rising, especially in China and Brazil, and in urban areas. Ways of encouraging populations to maintain their traditional healthy eating patterns need to be found in low- and middle-income countries, which will have health, environmental and economic co-benefits.

  3. Coexisting Disadvantages in later Life: Demographic and Socio-Economic Inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Heap, Josephine; Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify which of certain demographic and socio-economic groups in the oldest part of the population that have an increased probability of experiencing simultaneous disadvantages in different life domains - here termed coexisting disadvantages. To do so, we compared analyses of coexisting disadvantages, measured as two or more simultaneous disadvantages, with analyses of single disadvantages and specific combinations of disadvantages. Indicators of physical health p...

  4. Major Demographic Changes in Bangladesh and their Socio-economic Correlates: Analysis of Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Hossain; Tisdell, Clement A.

    2003-01-01

    Catalogues the demographic changes in Bangladesh during the period 1975-2000 and examines how they relate to key socio-economic attributes. Trends are examined in population growth, growth of the working age population, women’s workforce participation, age-dependency ratio, female-male ratio, longevity, fertility, mortality and mean age at first marriage. Bangladesh has made significant breakthroughs in all these areas, a feat not matched by most other South Asian countries, but comparable wi...

  5. Socioeconomic, psychological and demographic determinants of Australian baby boomers' financial planning for retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Jack; O'Loughlin, Kate; Kendig, Hal

    2012-09-01

    Research from around the Western World has shown that psychological, socioeconomic and demographic factors can influence levels of financial planning. This study aims to determine how these factors interrelate to predict planning outcomes. Data from the Ageing Baby Boomers in Australia Study were used to examine the effects of multiple factors on financial planning for 709 employed Australians nearing retirement. The results showed that higher income, future time perspective (FTP) and financial knowledge independently predicted levels of retirement planning. The effects of FTP and financial knowledge on financial planning were consistent across levels of socioeconomic status. While similar issues in financial planning appeared across socioeconomic status, a 'one size fits all' approach to retirement policy may not be effective. Instead, policy should be targeted towards the diverse needs of different groups. Raising public awareness of FTP and financial knowledge may provide a useful starting point. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  6. SECULAR GROWTH AND MATURATION CHANGES IN HUNGARY IN RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzsar, Eva B; Zsakai, Annamaria; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyses the secular changes in the body development patterns of Hungarian children between the 1910s and the beginning of the 2000s in relation to socioeconomic and demographic changes in the country. Individual growth data of children were available from two national growth studies (1983-86, 2003-06), while sample-size weighted means of children's body dimensions were collected through regional studies between the 1920s and 1970s. Gross domestic product, Gini index, life expectancy at birth and under-5 mortality rate were used to assess the changes in economic status, income inequalities of the society and the population's general health status, respectively. Secular changes in food consumption habits were also examined. The positive Hungarian secular changes in socioeconomic status were associated with a continuous increase in children's body dimensions. The negative socioeconomic changes reflected only in wartime and post-war periods of children's growth, and the considerable socioeconomic changes at the beginning of the 1990s did not appear to influence the positive trend in children's growth. The positive secular trend in stature and body mass did not level off at the beginning of the 2000s: the socioeconomic conditions that support optimal growth and maturation could improve in Hungary.

  7. Selected socioeconomic barriers of education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tillová, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Selected socioeconomic barriers of education in Sub-Saharan Africa Abstract The aim of bachelor thesis is to describe and understand the process of education in Sub-Saharan Africa and analyze components that cause limited access to education. The first part of the thesis describes the process of education in Sub-Saharan Africa using selected indicators. The second main part focuses on the description and possible relations between selected socioeconomic barriers and literacy. Selected barrier...

  8. Influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the quality of life

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    Grbić Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of life is a multidimensional concept, which is best expressed by the subjective well-being. Evaluation of the quality of life is the basis for measuring the well-being, and the determination of factors that determine the quality of life quality is the basis for its improvement Objective. To evaluate and assess the determinants of the perceived quality of life of group distinguishing features which characterize demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the population in Serbia aged over 20 years (9479 examinees. The quality of life was expressed by the perception of well-being (pleasure of life. Data on the examinees (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected by using a questionnaire for adults of each household. To process, analyze and present the data, we used the methods of parametric descriptive statistics (mean value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, variance analysis and factor analysis. Results. Although men evaluated the quality of life with a slightly higher grading, there was no statistically significant difference in the evaluation of the quality of life in relation to the examinee’s gender (p>0.005. Among the examinees there was a high statistically significant difference in grading the quality of life depending on age, level of education, marital status and type of job (p<0.001. In relation to the number of children, there was no statistically significant difference in he grading of the quality of life (p>0.005. Conclusion. The quality of life is influenced by numerous factors that characterize each person (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individual. Determining factors of the quality of life are numerous and diverse, and the manner and the strength of their influence are variable.

  9. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

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    Januse Nogueira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95% were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states. Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and

  10. Socioeconomic determinants of e-government adoption in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the impact of socioeconomic factors on e-government adoption, specifically addressing the digital divide in Tanzania. A survey was administered on 450 citizens, in order to examine the effect of demographic characteristics on e-government usage. The findings of this study revealed that income, age, ...

  11. Regional differences in low birth weight in Spain: biological, demographic and socioeconomic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Zuluaga, Pilar; Colantonio, S E; Román-Busto, J

    2015-01-01

    The geographic and demographic dimensions of Spain, in terms of surface and number of inhabitants, and its heterogeneous socioeconomic development offer an adequate opportunity to study the provincial differences in birth weight from 1996 to 2010, focusing on possible factors determining the relative frequency of low birth weight. The study analysed geographic differences with regard to biological, demographic and socioeconomic factors that interfere with the female reproductive pattern. The variables considered here were: birth order, proportion of premature deliveries, mother's age, multiparity, mother's country of origin and professional qualifications. Two periods (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were compared by means of principal components analysis. An increase in the relative frequency of deliveries weighing less than 2500 g occurred in most of the 52 geographic units studied, differences being significant in 42. Only in five cases was there a non-significant reduction in the proportion of low weight births. The first component after principal component analysis indicated that low birth weight was positively related to maternal age and to multiple deliveries, and negatively to the mother's low professional qualification. The second component related positively to the incidence of premature deliveries and to non-Spanish status and negatively in the case of primiparous mothers. The progressive increase in low birth weight incidence observed in Spain from 1996 onwards has occurred with considerable variation in each province. In part, this diversity can be attributed to the unequal reproductive patterns of immigrant mothers.

  12. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  13. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh

    2010-04-28

    Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006). The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA) was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions). The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB) among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (beta = 0.03; p Muslim women (beta = 0.07; p media (beta = -0.05; p women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure

  14. Impact of Delayed Time to Advanced Imaging on Missed Appointments Across Different Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daye, Dania; Carrodeguas, Emmanuel; Glover, McKinley; Guerrier, Claude Emmanuel; Harvey, H Benjamin; Flores, Efrén J

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of wait days (WDs) on missed outpatient MRI appointments across different demographic and socioeconomic factors. An institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted among adult patients scheduled for outpatient MRI during a 12-month period. Scheduling data and demographic information were obtained. Imaging missed appointments were defined as missed scheduled imaging encounters. WDs were defined as the number of days from study order to appointment. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the contribution of race and socioeconomic factors to missed appointments. Linear regression was performed to assess the relationship between missed appointment rates and WDs stratified by race, income, and patient insurance groups with analysis of covariance statistics. A total of 42,727 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean WDs were 7.95 days. Multivariate regression showed increased odds ratio for missed appointments for patients with increased WDs (7-21 days: odds ratio [OR], 1.39; >21 days: OR, 1.77), African American patients (OR, 1.71), Hispanic patients (OR, 1.30), patients with noncommercial insurance (OR, 2.00-2.55), and those with imaging performed at the main hospital campus (OR, 1.51). Missed appointment rate linearly increased with WDs, with analysis of covariance revealing underrepresented minorities and Medicaid insurance as significant effect modifiers. Increased WDs for advanced imaging significantly increases the likelihood of missed appointments. This effect is most pronounced among underrepresented minorities and patients with lower socioeconomic status. Efforts to reduce WDs may improve equity in access to and utilization of advanced diagnostic imaging for all patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Characterizing relationships between personal exposures to VOCs and socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Wei; Majeed, Mohammed A.; Chu, Pei-Ling; Lin, Hui-Chih

    Socioeconomic and demographic factors have been found to significantly affect time-activity patterns in population cohorts that can subsequently influence personal exposures to air pollutants. This study investigates relationships between personal exposures to eight VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-,p-xylene, chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene) and socioeconomic, demographic, time-activity pattern factors using data collected from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) VOC study. Socio-demographic factors (such as race/ethnicity and family income) were generally found to significantly influence personal exposures to the three chlorinated compounds. This was mainly due to the associations paired by race/ethnicity and urban residence, race/ethnicity and use of air freshener in car, family income and use of dry-cleaner, which can in turn affect exposures to chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene, respectively. For BTEX, the traffic-related compounds, housing characteristics (leaving home windows open and having an attached garage) and personal activities related to the uses of fuels or solvent-related products played more significant roles in influencing exposures. Significant differences in BTEX exposures were also commonly found in relation to gender, due to associated significant differences in time spent at work/school and outdoors. The coupling of Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Bootstrap Aggregating (Bagging) techniques were used as effective tools for characterizing robust sets of significant VOC exposure factors presented above, which conventional statistical approaches could not accomplish. Identification of these significant VOC exposure factors can be used to generate hypotheses for future investigations about possible significant VOC exposure sources and pathways in the general U.S. population.

  16. On the plausibility of socioeconomic mortality estimates derived from linked data: a demographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Mathias; Spoerri, Adrian; Jasilionis, Domantas; Viciana Fernandèz, Francisco

    2017-07-14

    Reliable estimates of mortality according to socioeconomic status play a crucial role in informing the policy debate about social inequality, social cohesion, and exclusion as well as about the reform of pension systems. Linked mortality data have become a gold standard for monitoring socioeconomic differentials in survival. Several approaches have been proposed to assess the quality of the linkage, in order to avoid the misclassification of deaths according to socioeconomic status. However, the plausibility of mortality estimates has never been scrutinized from a demographic perspective, and the potential problems with the quality of the data on the at-risk populations have been overlooked. Using indirect demographic estimation (i.e., the synthetic extinct generation method), we analyze the plausibility of old-age mortality estimates according to educational attainment in four European data contexts with different quality issues: deterministic and probabilistic linkage of deaths, as well as differences in the methodology of the collection of educational data. We evaluate whether the at-risk population according to educational attainment is misclassified and/or misestimated, correct these biases, and estimate the education-specific linkage rates of deaths. The results confirm a good linkage of death records within different educational strata, even when probabilistic matching is used. The main biases in mortality estimates concern the classification and estimation of the person-years of exposure according to educational attainment. Changes in the census questions about educational attainment led to inconsistent information over time, which misclassified the at-risk population. Sample censuses also misestimated the at-risk populations according to educational attainment. The synthetic extinct generation method can be recommended for quality assessments of linked data because it is capable not only of quantifying linkage precision, but also of tracking problems in

  17. Urban form, demographic and socio-economic correlates of walking, cycling, and e-biking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This paper explores the urban form, demographic and socio-economic dependencies of walking, cycling and e-biking in Beijing based on a survey (N = 1427) of daily travel among residents in eight neighborhoods, enriched with urban form variables. The results show that walking is most...... frequently used, followed by cycling, which in turn is more frequent than e-biking. Walking and cycling are preferred when the accessibility of public facilities and services is good, while e-bikes are used when public transport provision is low. Urban form variables of population density, job employment...... be encouraged to keep on walking, cycling and e-biking even if their income situation may improve in the future....

  18. [Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Andréa Marques; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-12-01

    To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202) living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group) showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (pde Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Digest: Demographic inferences accounting for selection at linked sites†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Alexis; Duranton, Maud

    2018-05-16

    Complex demography and selection at linked sites can generate spurious signatures of divergent selection. Unfortunately, many attempts at demographic inference consider overly simple models and neglect the effect of selection at linked sites. In this issue, Rougemont and Bernatchez (2018) applied an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework that accounts for indirect selection to reveal a complex history of secondary contacts in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that might explain a high rate of latitudinal clines in this species. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Marques Sotero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202 living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Results: Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (p<0.01 and meat, offal, and eggs (p<0.01, when compared with children of the case group. On the other hand, the median of consumption scores of manufactured goods was higher among children in the case group (p<0.01. Conclusions: Maternal socioeconomic status influenced the quality of food offered to the infant. In the case group, children up to 24 months already consumed industrial products instead of healthy foods on their menu.

  1. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental changes affecting circulation of neglected tropical diseases in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2015-11-01

    Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies. It was found that poverty, unregulated urbanization and inadequate sanitation are important socioeconomic factors that have great effect on the transmission dynamics of the diseases. The environmental factors which affect the epidemiology of these diseases in the country are scarcity of water, construction of dams, land reclamation for agriculture beside the climate factors. Unfortunately, the panic increase in the population growth rate minimizes the efforts done by the governorate to elevate the public health services. These conditions also affect the transmission of epidermal parasitic skin diseases including scabies, head lice and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. The control programs and the recommendations to combat the diseases were discussed. The present study showed that the ecological factors affecting each neglected tropical disease in Egypt are somewhat similar which makes it worthy to develop an integrated control approaches aiming at improving the leading factors of neglected tropical diseases circulation in the country. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of socioeconomic determinants with community clinic awareness and visitation among women: evidence from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Reyer, Joshua A; Hirosawa, Tomoya; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Islam, Mohammod Monirul; Siddique, Md Ruhul Furkan; Hossain, Shaila; Sakamoto, Junichi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-10-21

    Although Bangladesh has achieved tremendous success in health care over the last four decades, it still lagged behind in the areas of maternal and child malnutrition and primary health care (PHC). To increase access to PHC, the Bangladesh government established approximately 18,000 community clinics (CCs). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of socioeconomic determinants of women aged 12-49 years with the CCs awareness and visitation. We analyzed secondary data provided by Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2011. A two-stage cluster sampling was used to collect the data. A total of 18,222 ever married women aged 12-49 years were identified from selected households and 17,842 were interviewed. The main outcome measures of our study were awareness and visitation of CCs. Bivariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to examine the associations between the awareness and visiting CCs with socioeconomic determinants. Low prevalence of awareness about CC (18 %) was observed among studied women and only 17 % of them visited CCs. Significant associations (P economic conditions, young age, and primary education. Awareness and access to CCs might be increased through community activities that involve health care workers. The government should also lower barriers to PHC access through CCs by providing adequate logistics, such as human resources and equipment.

  3. The Impact of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors on Major Salivary Gland Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Lucia S; Megwalu, Uchechukwu C

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on survival in patients with major salivary gland malignancies. Population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer database. The study cohort consisted of 10,735 men and women ages 20 and older who were diagnosed with major salivary gland carcinoma from 1973 to 2009. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the overall and disease-specific survival was higher for women than for men (P impact on overall survival. Male sex (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.49), increasing age, and single status (HR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.19-1.39) had poor prognostic impact on disease-specific survival. For patients with salivary gland malignancies, there is a survival benefit for younger patients, female patients, and married patients. This highlights the significance of demographic factors on survival outcomes for patients with salivary gland malignancies and highlights areas for further research on health disparities. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  4. Spatial data on energy, environmental, socioeconomic, health and demographic themes at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory: 1978 inventory. [SEEDIS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, B.R.; Merrill, D.W. (eds.)

    1979-04-01

    Spatial data files covering energy, environmental, socio-economic, health, and demographic themes are described. Descriptions provide data dates, abstracts, geographic coverage, documentation, original data source, availability limitations, and contact person. A current version of this document is maintained as part of the Socio-Economic-Environmental-Demographic Information System (SEEDIS) within the Computer Science and Applied Mathematics Department, and is available for on-line retrieval using the Virginia Sventek, (415) 486-5216 or (FTS) 451-5216 for further information.

  5. Does food group consumption vary by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults? The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Yang, Su-Jau; Berenson, Gerald S

    2007-02-01

    To examine if food group consumption varies by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting in Louisiana. Cross-sectional. Young adults (n=1,266, 74% European American, 26% African American; 39% men, 61% women) aged 20 to 38 years, enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Food group consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Socioeconomic (eg, income and education), demographic (eg, age, sex, and ethnicity), and lifestyle (eg, marital status and physical activity) information was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire and the subjects were stratified according to these groups. Analysis of covariance (adjusted for covariates) was used to detect differences in the mean servings of food groups consumed per day between the various socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle groups. Compared to income$45,000 had lower consumption of burgers/sandwiches (Pconsumption of mixed dishes (P12 years of education. European-American men consumed more servings of dairy products (Pfood group consumption varies by socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting. Food and nutrition professionals who encounter diverse populations need to consider the influence of income, education, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and physical activity on food consumption patterns when planning diets, nutrition education programs, and interventions for young adults.

  6. The Demographic Crisis and Global Migration - Selected Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frątczak, Ewa Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Currently the world is undergoing a serious demographic shift, characterised by slowing population growth in developed countries. However, the population in certain less-developed regions of the world is still increasing. According to UN data, as of 2015, (World...2015), 244 million people (or 3.3% of the global population) lived outside their country of birth. While most of these migrants travel abroad looking for better economic and social conditions, there are also those forced to move by political crises, revolutions and war. Such migration is being experienced currently in Europe, a continent which is thus going through both a demographic crisis related to the low fertility rate and population ageing, and a migration crisis. Global migrations link up inseparably with demographic transformation processes taking place globally and resulting in the changing tempo of population growth. Attracting and discouraging migration factors are changing at the same time, as is the scale and range of global migration, and with these also the global consequences. The focus of work addressed in this paper is on global population, the demographic transformation and the role of global migrations, as well as the range and scale of international migration, and selected aspects of global migrations including participation in the global labour market, the scale of monetary transfers (remittances) and the place of global migration in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Transforming...2015) and the Europe of two crises (Domeny 2016).

  7. Development of geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast: socio-economic, demographic, and political considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Williamson, J.K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The institutional aspect of the study attempts to identify possible effects of geothermal research, development, and utilization on the area and its inhabitants in three chapters. Chapters I and II address key socio-economic and demographic variables. The initial chapter provides an overview of the area where the resource is located. Major data are presented that can be used to establish a baseline description of the region for comparison over time and to delineate crucial area for future study with regard to geothermal development. The chapter highlights some of the variables that reflect the cultural nature of the Gulf Coast, its social characteristics, labor force, and service in an attempt to delineate possible problems with and barriers to the development of geothermal energy in the region. The following chapter focuses on the local impacts of geothermal wells and power-generating facilities using data on such variables as size and nature of construction and operating crews. Data are summarized for the areas studied. A flow chart is utilized to describe research that is needed in order to exploit the resource as quickly and effectively as possible. Areas of interface among various parts of the research that will include exchange of data between the social-cultural group and the institutional, legal, environmental, and resource utilization groups are identified. (MCW)

  8. Socioeconomic and demographic characterization of an endemic malaria region in Brazil by multiple correspondence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Raquel M; Riback, Thais I S; Lima, Tiago F M; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Cruz, Oswaldo G; Oliveira, Francisco G S; Moresco, Gilberto G; Honório, Nildimar A; Codeço, Cláudia T

    2017-10-02

    In the process of geographical retraction of malaria, some important endemicity pockets remain. Here, we report results from a study developed to obtain detailed community data from an important malaria hotspot in Latin America (Alto Juruá, Acre, Brazil), to investigate the association of malaria with socioeconomic, demographic and living conditions. A household survey was conducted in 40 localities (n = 520) of Mâncio Lima and Rodrigues Alves municipalities, Acre state. Information on previous malaria, schooling, age, gender, income, occupation, household structure, habits and behaviors related to malaria exposure was collected. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was applied to characterize similarities between households and identify gradients. The association of these gradients with malaria was assessed using regression. The first three dimensions of MCA accounted for almost 50% of the variability between households. The first dimension defined an urban/rurality gradient, where urbanization was associated with the presence of roads, basic services as garbage collection, water treatment, power grid energy, and less contact with the forest. There is a significant association between this axis and the probability of malaria at the household level, OR = 1.92 (1.23-3.02). The second dimension described a gradient from rural settlements in agricultural areas to those in forested areas. Access via dirt road or river, access to electricity power-grid services and aquaculture were important variables. Malaria was at lower risk at the forested area, OR = 0.55 (1.23-1.12). The third axis detected intraurban differences and did not correlate with malaria. Living conditions in the study area are strongly geographically structured. Although malaria is found throughout all the landscapes, household traits can explain part of the variation found in the odds of having malaria. It is expected these results stimulate further discussions on modelling approaches targeting a

  9. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (χ(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (χ(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that

  10. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors’ own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Results : The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. Conclusions : An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  11. [Socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional, and physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosana de Morais Borges; Fornés, Nélida Schmid; Stringhini, Maria Luiza Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    To identify the association of socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional and of physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with T1DM. Sectional study of 71 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Socioeconomic, demographic and anthropometric data were obtained. The glycemic control was classified by the index of glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Four 24-hours recalls of food consumption and physical activity were applied. The A1C was inadequate for the majority of the adolescents. The low educational level of the caregivers influenced the inadequate glycemic control. Patients with lower insulin dose presented better glycemic control. The food consumption was high of fat and poor of carbohydrate. Most of the patients were sedentary. Factors related to education, insulin and food consumption influenced the glycemic control.

  12. Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallottini, Ana Carolina; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-05-02

    Identifying which risk groups have a higher intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Data from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based survey ( n = 1662; age range 12-97 years), were used. Dietary intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. Baseline characteristics were collected. Associations between BCAA intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were determined using linear regression. Total BCAA intake was 217.14 mg/kg·day (Leu: 97.16 mg/kg·day; Ile: 56.44 mg/kg·day; Val: 63.54 mg/kg·day). BCAA intake was negatively associated with female sex in adolescents and adult groups, with no white race in adolescents, and with former smoker status in adults. Conversely, BCAA was positively associated with household per capita income in adolescents and adults. No associations were observed in the older adults group. Main food contributors to BCAA were unprocessed red meat, unprocessed poultry, bread and toast, beans and rice. Adolescents and adults were the most vulnerable to having their BCCA intake influenced by demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.

  13. Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pallottini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying which risk groups have a higher intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods: Data from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 1662; age range 12–97 years, were used. Dietary intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. Baseline characteristics were collected. Associations between BCAA intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were determined using linear regression. Results: Total BCAA intake was 217.14 mg/kg·day (Leu: 97.16 mg/kg·day; Ile: 56.44 mg/kg·day; Val: 63.54 mg/kg·day. BCAA intake was negatively associated with female sex in adolescents and adult groups, with no white race in adolescents, and with former smoker status in adults. Conversely, BCAA was positively associated with household per capita income in adolescents and adults. No associations were observed in the older adults group. Main food contributors to BCAA were unprocessed red meat, unprocessed poultry, bread and toast, beans and rice. Conclusions: Adolescents and adults were the most vulnerable to having their BCCA intake influenced by demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.

  14. Socio-economic, Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAP), household related and demographic based appearance of non-dengue infected individuals in high dengue risk areas of Kandy District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayanga, Lahiru; Gunathilaka, Nayana; Iqbal, M C M; Pahalagedara, Kusumawathie; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma

    2018-02-21

    Socio-economic, demographic factors and Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAPs) have been recognized as critical factors that influence the incidence and transmission of dengue epidemics. However, studies that characterize above features of a risk free or low risk population are rare. Therefore, the present study was conducted to characterize the household related, demographic, socio-economic factors and KAPs status of five selected dengue free communities. An analytical cross-sectional survey was conducted on selected demographic, socio-economic, household related and KAPs in five selected dengue free communities living in dengue risk areas within Kandy District, Central Province, Sri Lanka. Household heads of 1000 randomly selected houses were interviewed in this study. Chi-square test for independence, cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates (PCO) analysis were used for data analysis. Knowledge and awareness regarding dengue, (prevention of the vector breeding, bites of mosquitoes, disease symptoms and waste management) and attitudes of the community (towards home gardening, composting, waste management and maintenance of a clean and dengue free environment) are associated with the dengue free status of the study populations. The vector controlling authorities should focus on socio-economic, demographic and KAPs in stimulating the community to cooperate in the integrated vector management strategies to improve vector control and reduce transmission of dengue within Kandy District.

  15. South African medical schools: Current state of selection criteria and medical students' demographic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, L J; van Zyl, G J; St Clair Gibson, A; Viljoen, M; Iputo, J E; Mammen, M; Chitha, W; Perez, A M; Hartman, N; Fonn, S; Green-Thompson, L; Ayo-Ysuf, O A; Botha, G C; Manning, D; Botha, S J; Hift, R; Retief, P; van Heerden, B B; Volmink, J

    2015-12-16

    Selection of medical students at South African (SA) medical schools must promote equitable and fair access to students from all population groups, while ensuring optimal student throughput and success, and training future healthcare practitioners who will fulfil the needs of the local society. In keeping with international practices, a variety of academic and non-academic measures are used to select applicants for medical training programmes in SA medical schools. To provide an overview of the selection procedures used by all eight medical schools in SA, and the student demographics (race and gender) at these medical schools, and to determine to what extent collective practices are achieving the goals of student diversity and inclusivity. A retrospective, quantitative, descriptive study design was used. All eight medical schools in SA provided information regarding selection criteria, selection procedures, and student demographics (race and gender). Descriptive analysis of data was done by calculating frequencies and percentages of the variables measured. Medical schools in SA make use of academic and non-academic criteria in their selection processes. The latter include indices of socioeconomic disadvantage. Most undergraduate medical students in SA are black (38.7%), followed by white (33.0%), coloured (13.4%) and Indian/Asian (13.6%). The majority of students are female (62.2%). The number of black students is still proportionately lower than in the general population, while other groups are overrepresented. Selection policies for undergraduate medical programmes aimed at redress should be continued and further refined, along with the provision of support to ensure student success.

  16. Socioeconomic Inequality in Malnutrition in Under-5 Children in Iran: Evidence From the Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasian Kia, Abdollah; Rezapour, Aziz; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Afzali Abarghouei, Vajiheh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in under-5 children in Iran in order to help policymakers reduce such inequality. Data on 8443 under-5 children were extracted from the Iran Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey. The wealth index was used as proxy for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight, and wasting was calculated using the concentration index. The concentration index was calculated for the whole sample, as well as for subcategories defined in terms of categories such as area of residence (urban and rural) and the sex of children. Stunting was observed to be more prevalent than underweight or wasting. The results of the concentration index at the national level, as well as in rural and urban areas and in terms of children's sex, showed that inequality in stunting and underweight was statistically significant and that children in the lower quintiles were more malnourished. The wasting index was not sensitive to socioeconomic status, and its concentration index value was not statistically significant. This study showed that it can be misleading to assess the mean levels of malnutrition at the national level without knowledge of the distribution of malnutrition among socioeconomic groups. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and underweight were observed at the national level and in both urban and rural areas. Regarding the influence of nutrition on the health and economic well-being of preschool-aged children, it is necessary for the government to focus on taking targeted measures to reduce malnutrition and to focus on poorer groups within society who bear a greater burden of malnutrition.

  17. Socioeconomic Inequality in Malnutrition in Under-5 Children in Iran: Evidence From the Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Almasian Kia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in under-5 children in Iran in order to help policymakers reduce such inequality. Methods Data on 8443 under-5 children were extracted from the Iran Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey. The wealth index was used as proxy for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight, and wasting was calculated using the concentration index. The concentration index was calculated for the whole sample, as well as for subcategories defined in terms of categories such as area of residence (urban and rural and the sex of children. Results Stunting was observed to be more prevalent than underweight or wasting. The results of the concentration index at the national level, as well as in rural and urban areas and in terms of children’s sex, showed that inequality in stunting and underweight was statistically significant and that children in the lower quintiles were more malnourished. The wasting index was not sensitive to socioeconomic status, and its concentration index value was not statistically significant. Conclusions This study showed that it can be misleading to assess the mean levels of malnutrition at the national level without knowledge of the distribution of malnutrition among socioeconomic groups. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and underweight were observed at the national level and in both urban and rural areas. Regarding the influence of nutrition on the health and economic well-being of preschool-aged children, it is necessary for the government to focus on taking targeted measures to reduce malnutrition and to focus on poorer groups within society who bear a greater burden of malnutrition.

  18. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area.

  19. Latino Population Growth, Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics, and Implications for Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Jorge; De La Rosa, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    Data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics indicate that Latinos lag behind non-Latinos in education and in other socioeconomic characteristics. Although there are some positive indications such as the decrease of individuals and children living in poverty and an increase in the number of individuals working…

  20. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  1. Associations between retail food store exterior advertisements and community demographic and socioeconomic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgor, Zeynep; Powell, Lisa; Rimkus, Leah; Chaloupka, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the association between the prevalence of various types of outdoor food and beverage advertising found on the building exteriors and properties of retail food outlets and community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition in a nationwide sample of food outlets in the U.S. Our major finding from multivariable analysis is that food stores in low-income communities have higher prevalence of all food and beverage ads, including those for unhealthy products such as regular soda, controlling for community racial/ethnic composition and other covariates. This adds to growing research pointing to socioeconomic disparities in food and beverage marketing exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Demographic and socio-economic patterns of hospitalization for infectious diseases in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellencweig, A Y; Slater, P E

    1986-06-01

    Hospitalization rates in Israel for five common enteric communicable diseases were computed according to age, sex, religion, origin and place of residence. Higher rates were found for non-Jews of both sexes and males of all origins. Higher rates were also found for settlements inhabited by new immigrants of low socio-economic classes. These findings suggest that more emphasis should be placed upon sanitary improvements and education for better health, rather than on merely improving the health delivery system.

  3. [The beginnings of the demographic transition in Croatia and its socioeconomic foundations (until 1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, I

    1986-01-01

    This is a historical survey of the process of modernization and the formulation of political and economic systems in Croatia, Yugoslavia, from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Population dynamics and concurrent demographic transitions are addressed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  4. An Investigation into the Relationship among Psychiatric, Demographic and Socio-Economic Variables with Bayesian Network Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunal Bilek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing the Beck Depression Inventory score, the Beck Hopelessness Scale score and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem score and the relationships among the psychiatric, demographic and socio-economic variables with Bayesian network modeling. The data of 823 university students consist of 21 continuous and discrete relevant psychiatric, demographic and socio-economic variables. After the discretization of the continuous variables by two approaches, two Bayesian networks models are constructed using the b n l e a r n package in R, and the results are presented via figures and probabilities. One of the most significant results is that in the first Bayesian network model, the gender of the students influences the level of depression, with female students being more depressive. In the second model, social activity directly influences the level of depression. In each model, depression influences both the level of hopelessness and self-esteem in students; additionally, as the level of depression increases, the level of hopelessness increases, but the level of self-esteem drops.

  5. Fast food intake in Canada: Differences among Canadians with diverse demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Billette, Jean-Michel

    2015-02-03

    To estimate the contribution of fast food to daily energy intake, and compare intake among Canadians with varied demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Using the National Cancer Institute method, nationally representative estimates of mean usual daily caloric intake from fast food were derived from 24-hour dietary recall data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (n = 17,509) among participants age ≥ 2 years. Mean daily intake and relative proportion of calories derived from fast food were compared among respondents with diverse demographic (age, sex, provincial and rural/urban residence), socio-economic (income, education, food security status) and health and lifestyle characteristics (physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake, vitamin/ mineral supplement use, smoking, binge drinking, body mass index (BMI), self-rated health and dietary quality). On average, Canadians reported consuming 146 kcal/day from fast food, contributing to 6.3% of usual energy intake. Intake was highest among male teenagers (248 kcal) and lowest among women ≥ 70 years of age (32 kcal). Fast food consumption was significantly higher among respondents who reported lower fruit and vegetable intake, poorer dietary quality, binge drinking, not taking vitamin/mineral supplements (adults only), and persons with higher BMI. Socio-economic status, physical activity, smoking and self-rated health were not significantly associated with fast food intake. While average Canadian fast food consumption is lower than national US estimates, intake was associated with lower dietary quality and higher BMI. Findings suggest that research and intervention strategies should focus on dietary practices of children and adolescents, whose fast food intakes are among the highest in Canada.

  6. The demographic and socio-economic basis of the problem of greenhouse effect growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbrial, T. de

    1991-01-01

    After some considerations on the world demographic situation and population growth prevision, the economic growth is related to various scenarios of CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. The consequences of the temperature rise of the atmosphere are analyzed and prevention measures are discussed (for example, construction of seawalls against sea level rise in the USA, is evaluated). Various emission reduction methods are examined: energy rationing, pollution right legislation, fiscal methods [fr

  7. A Five Year Study of Selected Demographics of Middlesex Community College Graduates: 1985-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, John H.; Muzeroll, Terry

    This analysis of selected demographic statistics of Middlesex Community College (MxCC) graduates is intended for future academic advising, curriculum planning, and decision making. This demographic profile is comprised of data from studies published between 1985 and 1989. The study focuses on fundamental demographic indicators, such as sex, age,…

  8. Climate forcing and infectious disease transmission in urban landscapes: integrating demographic and socioeconomic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Martinez, Pamela P; Pascual, Mercedes

    2016-10-01

    Urbanization and climate change are the two major environmental challenges of the 21st century. The dramatic expansion of cities around the world creates new conditions for the spread, surveillance, and control of infectious diseases. In particular, urban growth generates pronounced spatial heterogeneity within cities, which can modulate the effect of climate factors at local spatial scales in large urban environments. Importantly, the interaction between environmental forcing and socioeconomic heterogeneity at local scales remains an open area in infectious disease dynamics, especially for urban landscapes of the developing world. A quantitative and conceptual framework on urban health with a focus on infectious diseases would benefit from integrating aspects of climate forcing, population density, and level of wealth. In this paper, we review what is known about these drivers acting independently and jointly on urban infectious diseases; we then outline elements that are missing and would contribute to building such a framework. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing nutritional status among early childbearing young mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ashraful; Islam, Nurul; Bharati, Premananda; Aik, Saw; Hossain, Golam

    2016-08-26

    Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator. Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2011. The survey was performed on 17,842 married women aged 15-49. We focused on early childbearing mothers (age ≤ 24, and who had delivered their first child ≤ 20). Mothers who were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)) would be further classified into various grades of chronic energy deficiency (CED): mild (17.0 ≤ BMI Bangladesh is very high (32.1 %), associated with the still common practice of teenage marriage. Education level, wealth index, occupation, place of residence, age at first marriage and parity were important predictors for their nutritional status. The government and non-government organizations should take initiatives to reduce the prevalence of underweight mothers in Bangladesh.

  10. Influence of socioeconomic and demographic status on spirometry testing in patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette M; Søndergaard, Jens; Christensen, René Depont

    2013-01-01

    a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study. Danish national registers were linked, retrieving data...... on prescriptions, spirometry testing, socioeconomic and demographic variables in all first time users of medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008. RESULTS: A total of 37,734 persons were included and approximately half of the cohort had spirometry performed. Among medication users under 65 years...... spirometry performed among men (OR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.88). CONCLUSION: Social inequity in spirometry testing among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease was confirmed in this study. Increased focus on spirometry testing among elderly men living alone, among the unemployed...

  11. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  12. Blood donation by African migrants and refugees in Australia: the role of demographic and socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilten, Z; Waters, N; Polonsky, M; Renzaho, A

    2014-02-01

    To establish blood donation rates among African refugees and migrants and identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with their blood donation. A cross-sectional survey of 425 migrants and refugees living in Victoria and South Australia was used to assess blood donation status. The association between blood donation and demographic and socio-economic factors was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall, 73 participants (17·2%; 95% CI: 13·6-20·8) reported having donated blood previously. Of the total sample, 2·4% (95% CI: 0·9-3·8) reported having given blood in Australia; 12·9% (95% CI: 9·7-16·1) had given blood prior to migration to Australia (i.e. country of birth or transition); and 1·9% (95% CI: 0·6-3·2) indicated they had given blood in an unspecified country. In the univariate model, age, country of birth, blood donation knowledge, religion, educational attainment, migration and employment status were all associated with blood donation status. However, in the multivariate model, only age >45 years (odds ratio [OR] 5·72; 95% CI 2·11-15·46), African region of origin (OR 15·89; 95% CI 3·89-65) and blood donation knowledge (OR 4·46; 95% CI 1·57-12·7) were associated with blood donation. In order to increase the number of blood donors among African migrants, promoting knowledge and awareness of issues associated with blood donation in Australia should be emphasized. Consideration should be given to identifying these potential migrant donors to improve the availability of compatible blood for patients of African descent. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. Risks associated with tendinitis: effects from demographic, socioeconomic, and psychological status among Brazilian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Paulo; Costa, Carla Maria; de Almeida, Márcia Furquim

    2010-01-01

    Self-reported tendinitis/tenosynovitis was evaluated by gender, age group, skin color, family income, and educational and psychological status. !The study was carried out in a representative sample of formally contracted Brazilian workers from a household survey. A total of 54,660 participants were included. Occupations were stratified according to estimated prevalences of self-reported injuries. Non-conditional logistic regression was performed, and all variables were analyzed in two occupational groups. The overall prevalence rate of tendinitis/tenosynovitis was 3.1%: 5.5% in high-prevalence occupations (n = 10,726); and 2.5% in low-prevalence occupations (n = 43,934). White female workers between the ages of 45 and 64 years and at a higher socioeconomic level were more likely to report tendinitis/tenosynovitis regardless of their occupational category. An adjusted OR = 3.59 [95% CI: 3.15--4.09] was found between tendinitis/tenosynovitis and psychological status. Among formally contracted Brazilian workers, higher income can imply greater physical and psychological demands that, regardless of occupational stratum, increase the risk of tendinitis/tenosynovitis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Assessing the Short-Term Global Health Experience: A Cross-Sectional Study of Demographics, Socioeconomic Factors, and Disease Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geen, Olivia; Pumputis, Allison; Kochi, Cristina; Costa, Andrew; Stobbe, Karl

    2017-08-01

    Interest in short-term global health experiences to underserviced populations has grown rapidly in the last few decades. However, there remains very little research on what participants can expect to encounter. At the same time, it has been suggested that in order for physicians and workers to provide safe and effective care, volunteers should have a basic understanding of local culture, health systems, epidemiology, and socioeconomic needs of the community before arriving. Our objective was to add to the limited literature on what short-term global health trips can expect to encounter through a cross-sectional study of patient demographics, socioeconomic markers, and the prevalence of diseases encountered on a short-term medical service trip to Lima, Peru. Descriptive analysis was conducted on clinic data collected from patients living in Pamplona Alta and Pamplona Baja, Lima, Peru, in July 2015. We found that volunteers encountered mainly female patients (70.8%), and that there were significant socioeconomic barriers to care including poverty, poor housing, environmental exposures, and lack of continuity of health care. Analysis of the disease prevalence found a high proportion of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in the adult populations (18.8% and 11.4%, respectively), and a high presentation of upper respiratory tract infections (25.4%) and parasites (22.0%) in the pediatric group. These findings can be used by future short-term medical service trips to address potential gaps in care including the organization of weekend clinics to allow access to working men, and the use of patient education and nonpharmacological management of acute and chronic disease.

  15. Demographic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Local Financial Autonomy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ Vasile JEMNA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Local autonomy is a rarely explored concept in the literature, still holding an increasing importance in the current context of Romania’s development in the European Union. In this paper we attempt to provide an overall survey on the financial dimension of local autonomy, assuming that local autonomy cannot be implemented, unless local authorities have adequate financial resources. In this study we also analyze the possibility to measure the local revenue autonomy and to identify the variables which represent the determinants of the local revenue autonomy. Using empirical evidence from Romanian counties, we analyze the regional distributions for own revenues and for the significant determinants of local revenue autonomy. By means of econometric modeling we will highlight the variables which are statistically significant and explain the variation of the local revenues of Romanian counties, as well as the order of importance of the determinants of local financial autonomy. The empirical results show us that, although, theoretically, the counties have a great administrative and financial autonomy, practically this autonomy is very reduced (an average of under 40% for local revenue. The modeling results show that the degree of local financial autonomy can be increased by increasing economic development, urbanization, the average living area per person and fertility. Unemployment and a high level of demographic dependency contribute to the decrease of local financial autonomy.

  16. Disability acquisition and mental health: effect modification by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics using data from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Simpson, Julie Anne; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2017-09-18

    There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001. Four waves of data were included in this analysis, from 2011 to 2014. Individuals who acquired a disability (n=387) were compared with those who remained disability-free in all four waves (n=7936). Mental health was measured using the mental health subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health, testing for effect modification by key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. To maximise causal inference, we used a propensity score approach with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding and multiple imputation using chained equations to assess the impact of missing data. On average, disability acquisition was associated with a 5-point decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: -5.1, 95% CI -7.2 to -3.0). There was strong evidence that income and relationship status modified the effect, with more detrimental effects in the lowest (-12.5, 95% CI -18.5 to -6.5) compared with highest income quintile (-1.1, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.7) and for people not in a relationship (-8.8, 95% CI -12.9 to -4.8) compared with those who were (-3.7, 95% CI -6.1 to -1.4). Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of disability acquisition on mental health is substantially greater for socioeconomic

  17. Household Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Cryptosporidium Seropositivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Becker

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoa that infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife globally. In the United States, cryptosporidiosis occurs in an estimated 750,000 persons annually, and is primarily caused by either of the Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, exposure to which occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocytes shed from infected hosts. Although most cryptosporidiosis cases are caused by genotype 1 and are of human origin, the zoonotic sources of genotype 2, such as livestock, are increasingly recognized as important for understanding human disease patterns. Social inequality could mediate patterns of human exposure and infection by placing individuals in environments where food or water contamination and livestock contact is high or through reducing the availability of educational and sanitary resources required to avoid exposure.We here analyzed data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES between 1999 and 2000, and related seropositivity to Cryptosporidium parvum to correlates of social inequality at the household and individual scale. After accounting for the complex sampling design of NHANES and confounding by individual demographics and household conditions, we found impaired household food adequacy was associated with greater odds of Cryptosporidium seropositivity. Additionally, we identified individuals of non-white race and ethnicity and those born outside the United States as having significantly greater risk than white, domestic-born counterparts. Furthermore, we provide suggestive evidence for direct effects of family wealth on Cryptosporidium seropositivity, in that persons from low-income households and from families close to the poverty threshold had elevated odds of seropositivity relative to those in high-income families and in households far above the poverty line.These results refute assertions that cryptosporidiosis in the United States is independent of

  18. Racial, socioeconomic, and demographic disparities in access to fertility preservation in young women diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Joseph M; Smith, James F; Ebbel, Erin E; Craig, Amaranta; Katz, Patricia P; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2012-09-15

    This study seeks to examine the relation between sociodemographic characteristics and the utilization of fertility preservation services in reproductive age women diagnosed with cancer. A total of 1041 women diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 18 and 40 years responded to a retrospective survey on demographic information and reproductive health history. Five cancer types were included: leukemia, Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Nine hundred eighteen women reported treatment with potential to affect fertility (chemotherapy, pelvic radiation, pelvic surgery, or bone marrow transplant). Student t test, linear regression, and multivariate logistic regression were used where appropriate to determine the relation between sociodemographic characteristics and the odds of using fertility preservation services. Sixty-one percent of women were counseled on the risk of cancer treatment to fertility by the oncology team. Overall, 4% of women pursued fertility preservation. In multivariate analysis, women who had not attained a bachelor's degree (odds ratio [OR], 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.9) were less likely to be counseled. Trends also suggested possible disparities in access to fertility preservation with age older than 35 years (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-1.4) or previous children (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-1.1) at diagnosis. Disparities in access to fertility preservation based on ethnicity and sexual orientation were also observed. Sociodemographic health disparities likely affect access to fertility preservation services. Although awareness of fertility preservation has improved in the past decade, an unmet need remains for reproductive health counseling and fertility preservation in reproductive age women diagnosed with cancer. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect

  20. The demographic transition influences variance in fitness and selection on height and BMI in rural Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Rickard, Ian J; Lummaa, Virpi; Prentice, Andrew M; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stearns, Stephen C

    2013-05-20

    Recent human history is marked by demographic transitions characterized by declines in mortality and fertility. By influencing the variance in those fitness components, demographic transitions can affect selection on other traits. Parallel to changes in selection triggered by demography per se, relationships between fitness and anthropometric traits are also expected to change due to modification of the environment. Here we explore for the first time these two main evolutionary consequences of demographic transitions using a unique data set containing survival, fertility, and anthropometric data for thousands of women in rural Gambia from 1956-2010. We show how the demographic transition influenced directional selection on height and body mass index (BMI). We observed a change in selection for both traits mediated by variation in fertility: selection initially favored short females with high BMI values but shifted across the demographic transition to favor tall females with low BMI values. We demonstrate that these differences resulted both from changes in fitness variance that shape the strength of selection and from shifts in selective pressures triggered by environmental changes. These results suggest that demographic and environmental trends encountered by current human populations worldwide are likely to modify, but not stop, natural selection in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busnello Ellis DA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison, with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7. After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income

  2. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  3. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  4. [Demographic, socioeconomic, and health profile of working and non-working Brazilian children and adolescents: an analysis of inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquilin, Isabella de Oliveira Campos; Marín-León, Leticia; Luz, Verônica Gronau; La-Rotta, Ehideé Isabel Gómez; Corrêa Filho, Heleno Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the work done by Brazilian children and adolescents and compare the socioeconomic and health profile of those that worked (or were looking for work) versus non-working youngsters. Based on the 2008 Brazilian National Sample Household Survey (PNAD/2008), we selected children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age, divided into two analytical categories: "workers" (working or looking for employment) and "non-workers". We calculated prevalence rates for the characteristics of their main work, as well as socioeconomic and health variables comparing the two categories. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios, adjusted by health characteristics, with "non-workers" as the reference category. Compared to "non-workers", the "workers" category was associated with a higher proportion of boys; age 14 to 17 years; black or brown skin color; lower school attendance; and worse housing conditions. Child labor was associated with worse self-rated health; chronic backache; arthritis or rheumatism; and depression. Effective policies to support families need to be strengthened to effectively fight child labor.

  5. Socio-economic conditions in selected biosphere reserves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2006), s. 157-169 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic conditions * biosphere reserves * sustainable development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Demographic and socio-economic influences on community-based care and caregivers of people with dementia in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoling Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Dementia is a major public health challenge and China has the largest population with dementia in the world. However, dementia care and caregivers for Chinese are less investigated. Objectives and design To evaluate demographic and socio-economic influences on dementia care, management patterns and caregiver burden in a household community-dwelling-based survey, using participants’ care receipts and Zarit scale. Setting and participants Rural and urban communities across six provinces of China comprising 4837 residents aged ≥60 years, in whom 398 had dementia and 1312 non-dementia diseases. Results People with dementia were less likely to receive care if they were living in rural compared to urban areas (Odd ratio (OR = 0.20; 95%CI: 0.10–0.41, having education level below compared to above secondary school (OR = 0.24; 95%CI: 0.08–0.70, manual labourer compared to non-manual workers (OR = 0.27; 95%CI: 0.13–0.55, having personal annual income below RMB 10,000 yuan (£1000 compared to above (OR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.13–0.74 or having four or more than compared to less four children (OR = 0.52; 95%CI: 0.27–1.00. Caregivers for dementia compared with those for non-dementia diseases were younger and more likely to be patients’ children or children in-law, had lower education and spent more caring time. Caregiver burden increased with low education, cutback on work and caring for patients who were younger or living in rural areas, and this caregiver burden was three-fold greater than that for non-dementia diseases. Conclusions There are a number of inequalities in dementia care and caregiver burden in China. Reducing the socio-economic gap and increasing education may improve community care for people with dementia and preserve caregivers’ well-being.

  7. Fear of Treatments Surpasses Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors in Affecting Patients With Breast Cancer in Urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rayne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer in women in South Africa, and often patients present late. There is little understanding of the psychosocial stresses affecting women with breast cancer in Africa. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 263 patients with breast cancer at two sites (one government and one private facility in Johannesburg. Self-reported levels of fear were recorded on summative scales and their relationship to demographic variables assessed through univariable and multivariable modified Poisson regression. Results: Fears related to treatments and prognosis, particularly radiation, loss of hair, and loss of breast, were far stronger than those related to socioeconomic barriers. Relative risk (RR of most fears was higher in women younger than age 40 years, including treatment affordability (RR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.26 to 2.56, hair loss (RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.95, and surgery (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.68. Difficulty taking time off work predicted fear of job loss (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.59 to 4.21 and missing appointments because of transport (RR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.52 to 3.96 or family commitments (RR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.52 to 3.96. Women with dependents and black women were more afraid of dying (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.90; and RR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.24, respectively; however, socioeconomic status in this sample was a strong confounder of race and explained most of the racial differences in levels of fear. Conclusion: The most significant fears around breast cancer were related to treatment modalities and adverse effects rather than transport, financial, or work concerns. Young age and job insecurity were predictive of increased fears. Education about treatments has a key role to play in improving access to breast cancer care in South Africa.

  8. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Hosey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM. We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25–64 years. Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (12 years. Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends.

  9. The impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajchanovska Domnika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Speech development in preschool children should be consistent with a child’s overall development. However, disorders of speech in childhood are not uncommon. Objective. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola. Methods. The study is observational and prospective with two years duration. During the period from May 2009 to June 2011, 1607 children aged 3 and 5 years, who came for regular examinations, were observed. The following research methods were applied: pediatric examination, psychological testing (Test of Chuturik, interviews with parents and a questionnaire for behavior of children (Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Results. 1,607 children were analyzed, 772 aged three years, 835 aged five years, 51.65% male and 49.35% female. The prevalence of speech disorders was 37.65%. Statistical analysis showed that these disorders were more frequent in three years old children, males living in rural areas and in larger families. They did not have their own rooms at home, they were using mobile phones and were spending many hours per day watching television, (p<0.01. Also, children whose parents had lower levels of education and were engaged in agriculture, often had significant speech disorders, (p<0.01. Conclusion. Speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola have a high prevalence. Because of their influence on later cognitive development of children, the process requires cooperation among parents, children, speech and the audiologist with the significant role in prevention, early detection and treatment.

  10. Characteristics Of Street Children In Cameroon: A Situational Analysis Of Demographic, Socio-Economic And Behavioural Profiles And Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumber, Samuel N; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M

    2016-11-18

    The issue of street children is one of the global social problems rising in low- and middle-income countries. These children are vulnerable, but because of a lack of sufficient information, it is very difficult for stakeholders to address their plight in Cameroon. To examine the situation and characteristics of street children in three Cameroonian cities. To describe the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural profiles of street children. To identify challenges of street children and to compare the results from the three cities on account of their different settings, cultural history and challenges. The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted through researcher-administered questionnaires to 399 street children (homeless for at least a month), in three Cameroonian cities from 1 January 2015 to 30 March 2015. The majority of the participants were boys, more than 70% were homeless for less than 12 months and poverty was found to be the most common reason for being on the street. Most of the participants earned less than 500CFA francs (USD 0.85), with many of them resorting to begging, drug abuse, sex work and other risky behaviours. Only two of the respondents (0.5%) regarded the public attitude towards them as supportive. As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children.

  11. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  12. Socio-economic disparities in tobacco consumption in rural India: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Gorain, Ashoke; Majumdar, Saikat; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-09-01

    India houses over 275 million tobacco users, with 164 million users of only smokeless tobacco, 69 million exclusive smokers, and 42 million users of both smoking and smokeless tobacco. This study aims to examine the socio-economic factors associated with types of tobacco use in a selected rural Indian population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with surveillance data from the Birbhum Population Project (BIRPOP). Total respondents of 29,783 individuals (16,038 men and 13,745 women) aged ≥15 years were surveyed between October 2010 and January 2011. Apart from bivariate analyses, a binary logistic regression was applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratio for socio-economic factors (religion, social group, education, occupation, and wealth quintile) associated with current tobacco use, current smokeless tobacco use, and current bidi use among men and women. Nearly 22% of men and 26% of women were using smokeless tobacco. While 46% of men were smoking bidi, only 4% of women reported smoking bidi. Overall, men are more likely to use tobacco. Irrespective of gender, with increasing years of education, people are less inclined to use tobacco, and unemployed people are less likely to use tobacco. With increasing income, the odds of smokeless tobacco use and the odds of smoking bidi are higher among women and men, respectively. The BIRPOP study indicates that irrespective of gender and income, raising the level of awareness through household-based health education could be an effective intervention to minimise the level of tobacco use. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  13. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Augusto C. Silveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763 were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07. The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG, which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth weight. Associations were estimated using simple and hierarchical multiple linear regression, considering the survey sampling design, and presented in standard deviations of CWG with their respective 95% of confidence intervals. Hierarchical models were designed considering the UNICEF Conceptual Framework for Malnutrition (basic, underlying and immediate causes. RESULTS: The poorest Brazilian regions (-0.14 [-0.25; -0.04] and rural areas (-0.14 [-0.26;-0.02] were inversely associated with CWG in the basic causes model. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for maternal and household characteristics. In the final hierarchical model, lower economic status (-0.09 [-0.15; -0.03], human capital outcomes (maternal education < 4th grade (-0.14[-0.29; 0.01], higher maternal height (0.02[0.01; 0.03], and fever in the past 2 weeks (-0.13[-0.26; -0.01] were associated with postnatal weight gain. CONCLUSION: The results showed that poverty and lower human capital are still key factors associated with poor postnatal weight gain. The approach used in these analyses was sensitive to characterize inequalities among different socioeconomic contexts and to identify factors associated with CWG in different levels of determination.

  14. The impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics on life expectancy: a cross-country study in three Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. © 2013 APJPH.

  15. Demographic, health services and socio-economic factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis mortality in Los Altos Region of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera-Ortiz, J C; Sánchez-Pérez, H J; Ochoa-Díaz, H; Arana-Cedeño, M; Lezama, Ma Salazar; Mateo, M Martín

    2008-08-01

    Chiapas is one of the Mexican states having the highest rates of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB), due to the numerous factors impeding its management and control (poverty, poor housing and nutrition, shortage of health resources, among others). To analyse the PTB mortality of a cohort of patients in Los Altos Region of Chiapas, who had been diagnosed with PTB from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002; and, to identify demographic, socioeconomic and health services utilization factors, associated with death from PTB. Analysis of a cohort of patients aged over 14 years diagnosed with PTB in the above mentioned period (n = 431) in Los Altos region of Chiapas. The records of the Tuberculosis Programme were reviewed, and patients were located through a search attempting to locate them in their homes. Those found alive were interviewed and asked to provide sputum samples. In the case of deceased patients, a verbal autopsy was obtained from a member of their family. The records of the PTB Programme in the area were incomplete and erroneous in many cases. The results of the home follow-up visits were: 208 (48%) patients located alive, five of whom were still PTB positive (three with multi-drug resistance); 145 (34%) could not be located and 78 (18%) had already died. Apparently, in at least 40 cases, the deaths were associated with PTB. Of these forty, 33 (83%) died without having received any medical care. The factors associated with dying from PTB were: 45 and over years of age (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 0.98-1.3), 0-3 schooling years (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.1-9.6), engaged in agriculture (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.4), not living in main villages of their municipality (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.3), living in a rural community (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.1-6.8), not having been treated in DOTS (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.3) and having defaulted from treatment (OR = 11.5; 95% CI = 5.3-24.8). The high rate of mortality due to PTB observed constitutes a serious public health problem deserving

  16. Spatial, socio-economic and demographic variation of childlessness in India: A special reference to reproductive health and marital breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praween Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective India observe double burden of fertility – childlessness along with high fertility, which brings it close to a developed country. Childlessness has serious demographic, social and health implications. We explored spatial variation of childlessness women in India along with several socio-economic and demographic correlates. Further we examined maternal and reproductive health problems among childless women and linkages between marital breakdown (divorce and childlessness, in comparison to fertile women. Methods Cross-sectional data from 27,505 currently married women, aged 21-49 years, who were interviewed in 1998-99 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2. These women had been filtered out from all India samples (90,303 based on criteria such as, age more than 20 years, currently not using any family planning methods, marital duration more than 3 years and staying with their husband. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for childlessness, adjusting for various covariates. Results Overall, 7% of currently married women in India were childless. Southern (10.9 and Western (10.7 region shows highest percentage of childless women while central region exhibits lowest (4.7% percentage of childlessness. Andhra Pradesh state shows highest percent of childless women (13.3% followed by Goa (11.8%. Women with high school complete and above education (OR:1.16;p=0.053, women belonging to other religion (OR:1.51;p=0.004, women belonging to other (general caste (OR:1.20;p=0.007, women belonging to higher standard of living households (OR:1.30;p<0.0001, currently not working women (OR:1.42;p<0.0001, spousal age gap of 15 years and above (OR:1.55;p<0.0001 were more likely to be childless whereas women in rural area (OR:0.53;p<0.0001 and Muslims women (OR:0.53;p<0.0001 were almost half likely to be childless than their counterparts. Maternal health problems, self reported reproductive health

  17. Evaluating selected demographic factors related to consumer preferences for furniture from commercial and from underutilized species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    This technical note describes consumer preferences within selected demographic categories in two major Pacific Northwest markets for six domestic wood species. These woods were considered for construction of four furniture pieces. Chi-square tests were performed to determine species preferences based on gender, age, and income. Age and income were statistically...

  18. Evaluating selected demographic factors related to consumer preferences for furniture from commercial and from underutilized species

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    This technical note describes consumer preferences within selected demographic categories in two major Pacific Northwest markets for six domestic wood species. These woods were considered for construction of four furniture pieces. Chi-square tests were performed to determine species preferences based on gender, age, and income. Age and income were statistically...

  19. [The relationship between selected socioeconomic characteristics and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araica, H

    1980-01-01

    Until about a decade ago, the countries of the Central American isthmus had some of the highest population growth rates in the world due to a spectacular decline in mortality and continued high fertility. In the 1960s nonprofit organizations appeared which publicized the possibility of family planning in the hope of avoiding abortion and its sequelae. Financing from international and bilateral organizations enabled government family planning programs to distribute contraceptives, resulting in a demographic change induced from the exterior and skipping of some steps in the demographic transition. The passage to a more moderate level of fertility is observable in all the countries of the region to a greater or lesser degree and in varying magnitudes depending on social class and economic power. Information on differential fertility from the 1976 Costa Rica Fertility Survey suggests the course of development in the next few years in the other countries of Central America. Age of entry into first union averaged 19.0 years for the total sample of women aged 25-44; it was higher in urban areas and almost a year lower in most rural areas. Female educational level had a greater effect; age at 1st union was 18.2 for those with less than 3 years of education and 20.9 for those with over 10 years. Women with less than 3 years of education had a total of 6.6 children, while those with 6-10 years had 3.0 and those with over 10 years had 2.1. Women in the San Jose metropolitan area had 3.3 children, and women in the most rural areas had 5.4. Currently working women had 3.6 children and those who had never worked had 4.7 children. 83.0% of the total sample in metropolitan San Jose, 75.0% in urban areas outside the central valley, and 74.6% in rural areas outside the central valley used contraception. 68.5% with less than 3 years of education but 82.2% with over 10 years used contraception. 81.6% currently working but 79.0% who had never worked used some method.

  20. Socio-economic determinants in selecting childhood diarrhoea treatment options in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawoko Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhoea disease which has been attributed to poverty constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged five and below in most low-and-middle income countries. This study sought to examine the contribution of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics to caregiver's treatment choices for managing childhood diarrhoea at household level in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to Demographic and Health Survey data conducted in 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The unit of analysis were the 12,988 caregivers of children who were reported to have had diarrhoea two weeks prior to the survey period. Results There were variability in selecting treatment options based on several socioeconomic characteristics. Multilevel-multinomial regression analysis indicated that higher level of education of both the caregiver and that of the partner, as well as caregivers occupation were associated with selection of medical centre, pharmacies and home care as compared to no treatment. In contrast, caregiver's partners' occupation was negatively associated with selection medical centre and home care for managing diarrhoea. In addition, a low-level of neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage was significantly associated with selection of both medical centre and pharmacy stores and medicine vendors. Conclusion In the light of the findings from this study, intervention aimed at improving on care seeking for managing diarrhoea episode and other childhood infectious disease should jointly consider the influence of both individual SEP and the level of economic development of the communities in which caregivers of these children resides.

  1. Spatial, socio-economic and demographic variation of childlessness in India: A special reference to reproductive health and marital breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praween Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective India observe double burden of fertility – childlessness along with high fertility, which brings it close to a developed country. Childlessness has serious demographic, social and health implications. We explored spatial variation of childlessness women in India along with several socio-economic and demographic correlates. Further we examined maternal and reproductive health problems among childless women and linkages between marital breakdown (divorce and childlessness, in comparison to fertile women. Methods Cross-sectional data from 27,505 currently married women, aged 21-49 years, who were interviewed in 1998-99 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2. These women had been filtered out from all India samples (90,303 based on criteria such as, age more than 20 years, currently not using any family planning methods, marital duration more than 3 years and staying with their husband. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for childlessness, adjusting for various covariates. Results Overall, 7% of currently married women in India were childless. Southern (10.9 and Western (10.7 region shows highest percentage of childless women while central region exhibits lowest (4.7% percentage of childlessness. Andhra Pradesh state shows highest percent of childless women (13.3% followed by Goa (11.8%. Women with high school complete and above education (OR:1.16;p=0.053, women belonging to other religion (OR:1.51;p=0.004, women belonging to other (general caste (OR:1.20;p=0.007, women belonging to higher standard of living households (OR:1.30;p<0.0001, currently not working women (OR:1.42;p<0.0001, spousal age gap of 15 years and above (OR:1.55;p<0.0001 were more likely to be childless whereas women in rural area (OR:0.53;p<0.0001 and Muslims women (OR:0.53;p<0.0001 were almost half likely to be childless than their counterparts. Maternal health problems, self reported reproductive health

  2. Socio-economic and demographic determinants affecting participation in the Swedish cervical screening program: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Gudrun; Wang, Jiangrong; Östberg, Anna-Lena; Adolfsson, Annsofie; Nemes, Szilard; Sparén, Pär; Strander, Björn

    2018-01-01

    Cervical screening programs are highly protective for cervical cancer, but only for women attending screening procedure. Identify socio-economic and demographic determinants for non-attendance in cervical screening. Design: Population-based case-control study. Setting: Sweden. Population: Source population was all women eligible for screening. Based on complete screening records, two groups of women aged 30-60 were compared. The case group, non-attending women, (N = 314,302) had no smear registered for 6-8 years. The control group (N = 266,706) attended within 90 days of invitation. Main outcome measures: Risk of non-attendance by 9 groups of socioeconomic and demographic variables. Analysis: Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and OR after adjustment for all variables in logistic regression models were calculated. Women with low disposable family income (adjOR 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-2.11), with low education (adjOR 1.77; CI 1.73-1.81) and not cohabiting (adjOR 1.47; CI 1.45-1.50) were more likely to not attend cervical screening. Other important factors for non-attendance were being outside the labour force and receiving welfare benefits. Swedish counties are responsible for running screening programs; adjusted OR for non-participation in counties ranged from OR 4.21 (CI 4.06-4.35) to OR 0.54 (CI 0.52-0.57), compared to the reference county. Being born outside Sweden was a risk factor for non-attendance in the unadjusted analysis but this disappeared in certain large groups after adjustment for socioeconomic factors. County of residence and socio-economic factors were strongly associated with lower attendance in cervical screening, while being born in another country was of less importance. This indicates considerable potential for improvement of cervical screening attendance in several areas if best practice of routines is adopted.

  3. SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVE BANGLADESHI CHILDREN AND TREND OVER THE TWELVE-YEAR PERIOD 1996-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The nutritional status of under-five-year-old children is a sensitive indicator of a country's health status as well as economic condition. The objectives of this study were to analyse trends in the nutritional status in Bangladeshi children over the period 1996-2007 and to examine the associations between nutritional and socioeconomic status variables. Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) were the source of data, and a total of 16,278 children were examined. The Z-scores of the children were analysed as continuous as well as categorical variables (stunted, underweight and wasted). The socioeconomic status variables used were region, urban-rural residence, education and occupation of the parents, house type and household possession score. A series of General Linear Model and Sequential Linear and Binary Logistic Regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status. The trends of Z-scores were analysed by survey, as well as by child birth cohort. Region, house type, educational level of parents and household possession score showed significant associations with all three Z-scores of children after removing the effects of age, period of DHS and other explanatory variables in the model. No significant sex difference was observed between any of the Z-scores. There were improvements in mean WAZ and HAZ between 1996 and 2007 but deterioration in mean WHZ over this period. The obesity rate was below 2% in 2007, although the absolute numbers of obese children had nearly doubled in this 12-year period. Children from poorer households showed greater improvement than their better-off counterparts. The study reveals that over the years there has been substantial improvement in nutritional status of under-five children in Bangladesh and the main gains have been amongst the lower socioeconomic groups; it is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem, like poverty

  4. Can money buy green? Demographic and socioeconomic predictors of lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness in urban residential areas

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    Weiqi Zhou; Austin Troy; J. Morgan Grove; Jennifer C. Jenkins

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand how household characteristics influence lawn characteristics, as lawns play an important ecological role in human-dominated landscapes. This article investigates household and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics as predictors of residential lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness. The study area is the Gwynns Falls...

  5. Perfectionism, selected demographic and job characteristics as predictors of burnout in operating suite nurses

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    Dorota Włodarczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was aimed at verifying the predictive power of perfectionism for professional burnout among nurses exposed to distress resulting from work in an operating suite and testing whether this effect exists after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 nurses (93 women; mean age: 38.67 years. The majority in the group worked in public facilities (68%, in duty system (62%, as operating (75% or anesthesiology (25% nurses. To test perfectionism The Polish Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism Questionnaire (AMPQ (Perfekcjonizm Adaptacyjny i Dezadaptacyjny - PAD, developed by Szczucka, was used. To examine burnout the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI by Demerouti et al. was adopted. The effects of selected demographic and job characteristics were controlled. Results: The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics maladaptive perfectionism was a significant predictor of disengagement and exhaustion whereas adaptive perfectionism predicted a better work engagement. Significant predictors were also: education, number of workplaces, duty system and marital status. Conclusions: The study allowed to confirm the hypothesis on a harmful role of maladaptive perfectionism in shaping burnout among operating suite nurses. The hypothesis on protective function of adaptive perfectionism was confirmed only partially, with regard to disengagement. The results of the study also highlighted some risk factors of burnout which may exist in this occupational group. This confirms the need to continue research in this area. Med Pr 2013;64(6:761–773

  6. Are All Colleges Equally Equalizing? How Institutional Selectivity Impacts Socioeconomic Disparities in Graduates' Labor Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Matt S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which the magnitude of disparities in the labor market outcomes of college graduates stemming from socioeconomic background varies according to institutional selectivity. The data used for the study are drawn from the National Center for Education Statistics' Education Longitudinal Study of…

  7. Demographically-Based Evaluation of Genomic Regions under Selection in Domestic Dogs.

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    Adam H Freedman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Controlling for background demographic effects is important for accurately identifying loci that have recently undergone positive selection. To date, the effects of demography have not yet been explicitly considered when identifying loci under selection during dog domestication. To investigate positive selection on the dog lineage early in the domestication, we examined patterns of polymorphism in six canid genomes that were previously used to infer a demographic model of dog domestication. Using an inferred demographic model, we computed false discovery rates (FDR and identified 349 outlier regions consistent with positive selection at a low FDR. The signals in the top 100 regions were frequently centered on candidate genes related to brain function and behavior, including LHFPL3, CADM2, GRIK3, SH3GL2, MBP, PDE7B, NTAN1, and GLRA1. These regions contained significant enrichments in behavioral ontology categories. The 3rd top hit, CCRN4L, plays a major role in lipid metabolism, that is supported by additional metabolism related candidates revealed in our scan, including SCP2D1 and PDXC1. Comparing our method to an empirical outlier approach that does not directly account for demography, we found only modest overlaps between the two methods, with 60% of empirical outliers having no overlap with our demography-based outlier detection approach. Demography-aware approaches have lower-rates of false discovery. Our top candidates for selection, in addition to expanding the set of neurobehavioral candidate genes, include genes related to lipid metabolism, suggesting a dietary target of selection that was important during the period when proto-dogs hunted and fed alongside hunter-gatherers.

  8. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen: associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics.

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    Svastisalee, Chalida M; Nordahl, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte; Holstein, Bjørn E; Powell, Lisa M; Due, Pernille

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis. Copenhagen, Denmark. The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio = 0·66-0·80) in the final model. In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.

  9. Socioeconomic and demographic differences in walking and cycling in the Netherlands : How do these translate into differences in health benefits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, J; Helbich, M.; Dijst, M; Kamphuis, C

    2017-01-01

    Walking and cycling are effective means to increase people's daily physical activity. Since little is known about how differences in walking and cycling translate into inequalities in health benefits on the population level, this study quantified these health benefits for demographic and

  10. Dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years and their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and body mass index

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    Leonardo Pozza Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years. Methods We used principal components analysis to identify dietary intake patterns of 3,427 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. We used multiple linear regression models to evaluate whether socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic position, mother’s age at birth, and child’s sex and skin colour, early feeding practices (exclusive breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of complementary foods, and BMI z-score at 6 years were associated with dietary intake patterns. Results We identified seven dietary components of children’s dietary intake patterns, namely: fruits and vegetables, snacks and treats, coffee and bread, milk, cheese and processed meats, rice and beans and carbohydrates. Dietary patterns were socially patterned, since six dietary components were associated with socioeconomic position. Moreover, high intake of snacks and treats and less fruits and vegetables were associated with children born to teenage mothers, with those exclusively breastfed for less than one month, and with those who started on complementary feeding before 4 months. Finally, overweight and obese children at 6 years presented lower intake of four out of seven dietary components, but we need to be cautious in interpretation due to limitations on food consumption reporting and due to possible reverse causality. Conclusion Dietary intake patterns in children are strongly influenced by socioeconomic characteristics. Other factors such as younger maternal

  11. Convergence processes of selected demographic indicators in regions of the Czech Republic

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    Bohumil Minařík

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of authors deal with problems of convergence, divergence and disparities, particularly with reference to economic growth and its comparison in groups of countries. This paper is aimed at problems of using basic methods of measuring the convergence at the evaluation of the development of selected demographic characteristics of particular regions of the Czech Republic for the period 1992 to 2007. From demographic data provided by the Czech Statistical Office some indicators were selected associated with aging the CR population. In particular, following indicators were used: the proportion of productive population, coefficient of loading the productive population by young persons, coefficient of loading the productive population by old persons, coefficient of the total loading and index of age. A precondition served as a working hypothesis that in addition to the negative demographic development affecting the CR as a whole, the convergence of its particular regions also occurred, viz. regions at the level of NUTS 3. At the quantification of convergence processes in particular regions of the CR, the method of beta convergence was used (in a simplified linearized form as well as the method of sigma convergence. Both methods predicate unambiguously on the convergence of the CR regions from the point of view of all examined demographic indicators. From the aspect of both methods, the fastest convergence occurred in the studied period in the indicator of loading the productive population by old persons. In this indicator (as the only from monitored ones, no disparity showed as well, ie a region showing an isolated development was not noted. Opposite situation manifested itself at the indicator of loading the productive population by young persons. Only elimination of the capital city of Prague reversed an original result showing evidence of the divergence of regions from the aspect of this indicator. Disparities of the capital city of Prague

  12. Demographic and socioeconomic influences on Helicobacter pylori gastritis and its pre-neoplastic lesions amongst US residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta, R M; Turner, K O; Sonnenberg, A

    2017-08-01

    Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) can lead to chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. To investigate in a cross-sectional study these changes among different socioeconomic and ethnic groups within the USA. We used the Miraca Life Sciences database, an electronic depository of clinicopathological records from patients distributed throughout the USA, to extract data from 487 587 patients who underwent oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy with biopsy between 1/2008 and 12/2014. We then classified patients into ethnic and socioeconomic categories using previously validated algorithms, as well as ZIP code-based information derived from the 2011-2012 US Census. The prevalence of Hp increased significantly until the age-group 40-49, before it leveled off and started a gradual decrease. The prevalence of chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia increased significantly with age. The prevalence of Hp, chronic inactive gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and atrophy decreased significantly with the percentage of Whites per ZIP code. The prevalence of all four diagnoses also decreased significantly with rising levels of income or college education. Hp, chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were more common among Hispanics and the influence of income or college education less pronounced than in the entire population. Hp, chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were also more common among East-Asians, Hp and atrophy decreasing with rising income but remaining unaffected by levels of college education. Ethnicity and socioeconomic factors influence the occurrence of Hp gastritis, and its progression to chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy or intestinal metaplasia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Alicia Alicia Gonzalez Zacarias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, socio-demographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications.

  14. Does planning of births affect childhood undernutrition? Evidence from demographic and health surveys of selected South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Juel; Goli, Srinivas

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of child undernutrition in South Asia is high, as is also the unmet need for family planning. In previous literature, the biodemographic relationship of family planning, particularly birth order and birth spacing, and nutritional status of children have been assessed separately. The aim of this study was to work on the hypothesis that the planning of births comprising timing, spacing, and number of births improves child undernutrition, especially in the areas with high prevalence of stunting and underweight. We used recent Demographic and Health Survey data from four selected South Asian countries. Binary logistic regression models were applied to estimate the adjusted percentage of stunting and underweight by identified independent factors. Findings suggested that after controlling for other socioeconomic factors, children in the first birth order with >24 mo of interval between marriage and first birth have a lower risk for stunting (20%; p planning of births. The probability of child undernutrition is lower among children born with >24 mo of birth spacing than its counterpart in all birth orders, but the significance of birth spacing reduces with increasing birth orders. Appropriate planning of births using family planning methods in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce childhood undernutrition. Thus, the planning of births emerges as an important biodemographic approach to eradicate childhood undernutrition especially in developing regions like South Asia and thereby to achieve sustainable development goals by 2030. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. What limits the utilization of health services among china labor force? analysis of inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liming; Zeng, Jingchun; Zeng, Zhi

    2017-02-02

    Inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status for China labor force place them at greater health risks, and marginalized them in the utilization of healthcare services. This paper identifies the inequalities which limit the utilization of health services among China labor force, and provides a reference point for health policy. Data were collected from 23,505 participants aged 15 to 65, from the 2014 China Labor Force Dynamic Survey (a nationwide cross-sectional survey covering 29 provinces with a multi-stage cluster, and stratified, probability sampling strategy) conducted by Sun Yat-sen University. Logistic regression models were used to study the effects of demographic (age, gender, marital status, type of hukou and migration status), socio-economic (education, social class and insurance) and health status (self-perceived general health and several chronic illnesses) variables on the utilization of health services (two-week visiting and hospitalization during the past 12 months). Goodness of fit was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Discrimination ability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Migrants with more than 1 (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) or none chronic illnesses (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) are more likely to be two week visiting to the clinic than non-migrants; migrants with none chronic illnesses (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45 ~ 0.82) are less likely to be in hospitalization during the past 12 months than non-migrants. Female, elder, hukou of non-agriculture, higher education level, higher social class, purchasing more insurance and poorer self-perceived health were predictors for more utilization of health service. More insurance benefited more two-week visiting (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 ~ 1.17) and hospitalization during the past 12 months (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 ~ 1.18) for individuals with none chronic illness but not ≥1 chronic illnesses. All models achieved good calibration

  16. Exploring spatial patterns in the associations between local AIDS incidence and socioeconomic and demographic variables in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flavio F; Waller, Lance A

    2016-05-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), universally provided in Brazil since 1996, resulted in a reduction in overall morbidity and mortality due to AIDS or AIDS-related complications, but in some municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, AIDS incidence remains high. Public health surveillance remains an invaluable tool for understanding current AIDS epidemiologic patterns and local socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with increased incidence. Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) explores spatial varying impacts of these factors across the study area focusing attention on local variations in ecological associations. The set of sociodemographic variables under consideration revealed significant associations with local AIDS incidence and these associations varied geographically across the study area. We find the effects of predictors on AIDS incidence are not constant across the state, contrary to assumptions in the global models. We observe and quantify different local factors driving AIDS incidence in different parts of the state. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitivity of measuring the progress in financial risk protection to survey design and its socioeconomic and demographic determinants: A case study in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Liu, Kai; Li, Lingling; Yang, Yuhong

    2017-04-01

    Reliable and comparable information on households with catastrophic health expenditure (HCHE) is crucial for monitoring and evaluating our progress towards achieving universal financial risk protection. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of measuring the progress in financial risk protection to survey design and its socioeconomic and demographic determinants. Using the Rwanda Integrated Living Conditions Survey in 2005 and 2010/2011, we derived the level and trend of the percentage of the HCHE using out-of-pocket health spending data derived from (1) a health module with a two-week recall period and six (2005)/seven (2010/2011) survey questions (Method 1) and (2) a consumption module with a four-week/ten-/12-month recall period and 11(2005)/24 (2010/2011) questions (Method 2). Using multilevel logistic regression analysis, we investigated the household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that affected the sensitivity of estimating the HCHE to survey design. We found that Method 1 generated a significantly higher HCHE estimate (9.2%, 95% confidence interval 8.4%-10.0%) than Method2 (7.4%, 6.6%-8.1%) in 2005 and lower estimate (5.6%, 5.2%-6.1%) than Method 2 (8.2%, 7.6%-8.7%) in 2010/2011. The estimated trends of the HCHE using the two methods were not consistent between the two years. A household's size, its income quintile, having no under-five children, and educational level of its head were positively associated with the consistency of its HCHE status when using the two survey methods. Estimates of the progress in financial risk protection, especially among the most vulnerable households, are sensitive to survey design. These results are robust to various thresholds of catastrophic health spending. Future work must focus on mitigating survey effects through the development of statistical tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demographic and socioeconomic inequalities for self-rated health and happiness in elderly: the situation for Turkey regarding World Values Survey between 1990 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Mandiracioglu, Aliye

    2015-01-01

    To define the socioeconomic and demographic determinants for self-rated health and happiness for Turkish elderly (≥60) using the World Values Survey (WVS) database. WVS data for Turkey covering 23 years (1990-2013) with five separate cross-sections (1990, 1996, 2001, 2007, 2013) were pooled for analysis (n=870). Dependent variables were self-rated health (SRH) and perception of happiness.Their relation with age, sex, number of children, marital status, income, education, employment status and class perception were evaluated. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were used. Regression coefficients and their standard errors were derived to calculate odds ratios. Mean age was 66.96±5.78 (60-91), 58.16% were male and 76.32% were married. The majority (61.10%) was at lowest income level and 80.60% had education attainment at primary level or below. Very happy/quite happy were 81.77% while only 46.59% perceived their health as very good/good. The crisis year (2001) increased the risk of bad self-rated health 4.4 times, being a women 2.0 times, while being a widow had a 2.3-fold, low-income 3.0-fold effect. The odds for unhappy status was increased 4.3 times at low-income levels and 8.4 times for the divorced/separate living partners. Happiness state improved after crisis period. SRH and happiness of Turkish elderly bare demographic and socioeconomic inequalities. The inexistence of a partner, being a women, low-income level and major threats for it, like economic crisis, are important drivers for elderly health and happiness. To improve well-being of elderly, better social policies for income is essential and at economic crisis times, support policies should be prioritized for vulnerable groups, including elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact Of Maternal Socio-Economic Determinants On Early Childhood Stunting In Maldives An Analysis Of Maldives Demographic Health Survey 2009

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    Aminath Adeela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its characteristics of low socio-economic status poor living conditions poor maternal education large family size inadequate access to quality food safe water and health services. Recently there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designingimplementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey MDHS 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included size of child at birth height of the mother duration of breastfeeding difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother after adjusting for socio-economic factors.

  20. Changes in food habits after migration among South Asians settled in Oslo: the effect of demographic, socio-economic and integration factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Margareta; Råberg, Marte; Kumar, Bernadette; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The aim is to explore changes in food habits after migration, and the resultant present food consumption patterns, as well as the effect of demographic, socio-economic and integration factors on these changes. Analyses were based on data collected through the Oslo Immigrant Health study, from 629 persons 30-60 years of age, born in Sri Lanka and Pakistan, and living in Oslo, Norway. A majority of the Sri Lankans reported increase in the consumption of meat, milk, butter, margarine and potatoes. Around half of those from Pakistan reported increased consumption of oil, meat, fish and potatoes. Both groups reported a decrease in bean and lentil consumption. Multivariate regression showed that age was negatively related to increases in butter and margarine consumption, and a good command of the Norwegian language reduced the likelihood of increased consumption of oil and butter. The likelihood of having present fat and sugar rich food patterns were reduced with age and years of education, whereas scoring high on an index of integration increased the likelihood of a fat rich food pattern. In conclusion, a number of demographic and socio-cultural factors may modify the changes in food habits after migration. Some of these may have substantial health implications.

  1. The Socioeconomic and Demographic Features of Children with Cerebral Palsi Applied to our Centre from Southern Eastern Anatolian Region

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    Sedat Nacitarhan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy is a general term which is used to describe a group of disorders that define muscle control impairment due to lesion in the developing brain. The aim of the present study was to indicate the common features of the children with cerebral palsy and their families in South Eastern region of Turkey, the most underdeveloped community in our country. In addition, the rate of marriage between the relatives (consanguineous marriage is higher in this region than the other regions.A total of 258 children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy were enrolled to our study. These children were born in South Eastern Anatolian region and live here throughout their childhood. Their families were also living in this region. The members of the families were interviewed with the questionnaire to obtain information. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with Graphpad Prism Ver 3.00.68.99 percent of the patients in our study were men, and 31.01 percent were women. They were between the ages of 10-375 months, average was 75.43±59.15 months. Rate of people, who was not under any social security guarantee, was 15.5%. 50.3% of mothers were not literate. Families’ income was 8.5% good, 42.6% poor. In families, there was 33.3% rate of relationship between partners (consanguineous marriage. In 15.5% of families, there was another retarded child. 55 percent of mothers were never been under health check in pregnancy period. Retarded child was usually from first delivery (26.3%. 3.1% of our patients had twin pregnancy. Only 59,6% of the whole births were given at the hospital or by the help of a midwife. Children were suckled along 6.4±6.4 months. Only 8,5% of the children were being educated.Finally, we concluded that reducing convertible risk factors caused by the low education level of our region, underdeveloped socioeconomic conditions and some traditions (e.g. consanguineous marriage and delivery in house instead of health organization has

  2. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors affecting patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Polk, Deborah E; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2013-08-01

    Dental caries of the permanent dentition is a multifactorial disease resulting from the complex interplay of endogenous and environmental risk factors. The disease is not easily quantitated due to the innumerable possible combinations of carious lesions across individual tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition. Global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index (which was developed for surveillance applications), may not be optimal for studying the epidemiology of dental caries because they ignore the distinct patterns of decay across the dentition. We hypothesize that specific risk factors may manifest their effects on specific tooth surfaces leading to patterns of decay that can be identified and studied. In this study, we utilized two statistical methods of extracting patterns of decay from surface-level caries data to create novel phenotypes with which to study the risk factors affecting dental caries. Intra-oral dental examinations were performed on 1068 participants aged 18-75 years to assess dental caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not and used as input for principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori knowledge of the patterns. Demographic (age, sex, birth year, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment), anthropometric (height, body mass index, waist circumference), endogenous (saliva flow), and environmental (tooth brushing frequency, home water source, and home water fluoride) risk factors were tested for association with the caries patterns identified by PCA and FA, as well as DMFS, for comparison. The ten strongest patterns (i.e. those that explain the most variation in the data set) extracted by PCA and FA were considered. The three strongest patterns identified by PCA reflected (i) global extent of decay (i.e. comparable to DMFS index), (ii) pit and fissure surface caries and (iii) smooth surface caries, respectively. The

  3. Influence of socioeconomic and demographic status on spirometry testing in patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status is known to influence the prevalence, severity and mortality of obstructive lung diseases, but it is uncertain whether it affects the use of diagnostic spirometry in patients initiating treatment for these conditions. The objective of this paper was to examine a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study. Danish national registers were linked, retrieving data on prescriptions, spirometry testing, socioeconomic and demographic variables in all first time users of medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008. Results A total of 37,734 persons were included and approximately half of the cohort had spirometry performed. Among medication users under 65 years of age, being unemployed was significantly associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed, the strongest association was seen in men (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.73-0.91). Medium income was associated with increased odds of having spirometry performed in men (OR = 1.18, CI = 1.06-1.30) and high educational level (>12 years) was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed in women (OR = 0.86, CI = 0.78-0.94). Cohabitation status was not associated with having spirometry performed. Among medication users over 65 years of age, living alone was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed among men (OR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.88). Conclusion Social inequity in spirometry testing among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease was confirmed in this study. Increased focus on spirometry testing among elderly men living alone, among the unemployed and among women with higher education is required when initiating medication. PMID:23768408

  4. Socioeconomic, demographic and smoking-related correlates of the use of potentially reduced exposure to tobacco products in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Raees A; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, new non-traditional, potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), claiming to contain fewer harmful chemicals than the traditional products, have been introduced in the market. Little is known about socioeconomic, demographic and smoking-related determinants of the likelihood of using these products among smokers. The aim of this study was to examine these determinants. Data from the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey was used. We limited the analysis to current smokers (n=40724). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the association between covariates and the probability of the use of PREPs. We found that younger age, lower education, higher nicotine addiction and having an intention to quit are associated with higher likelihood of the use of PREPs. The likelihood of using these products was found to be higher among respondents who are unemployed or have a service, production, sales or farming occupation than those with a professional occupation. Smokers living in the midwest, south or west, were found to have a greater likelihood of the use of PREPs than those living in the northeast. Because there is little evidence to suggest that PREPs are less harmful that other tobacco products, their marketing as harm-minimising products should be regulated. Smokers, in particular those who are younger, have a lower socioeconomic status, and are more nicotine-dependent, should be the target of educational programmes that reveal the actual harm of PREPs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. DECOMPOSING THE SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITY IN UTILIZATION OF MATERNAL HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN SELECTED COUNTRIES OF SOUTH ASIA AND SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Nawal, Dipty; Rammohan, Anu; Sekher, T V; Singh, Deepshikha

    2017-10-30

    The gap in access to maternal health care services is a challenge of an unequal world. In 2015, each day about 830 women died due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Almost all of these deaths occurred in low-resource settings, and most could have been prevented. This study quantified the contributions of the socioeconomic determinants of inequality to the utilization of maternal health care services in four countries in diverse geographical and cultural settings: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal and Zimbabwe. Data from the 2010-11 Demographic and Health Surveys of the four countries were used, and methods developed by Wagstaff and colleagues for decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in health were applied. The results showed that although the Concentration Index (CI) was negative for the selected indicators, meaning maternal health care was poorer among lower socioeconomic status groups, the level of CI varied across the different countries for the same outcome indicator: CI of -0.1147, -0.1146, -0.2859 and -0.0638 for inequalities in maternal health care varied across the selected countries. The findings are significant for a global understanding of the various determinants of maternal health care use in high-maternal-mortality settings in different geographical and socio-cultural contexts.

  6. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic determinants of childbearing desires among married women attending health centers in Hamedan (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatam Hosseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in values and attitudes of the Iranian society during the past few decades have greatly influenced the reproductive decisions and actions of individuals and families, especially women. The aim of this study was to analyze the determinants of childbearing desires of married women attending Health Centers in Hamedan. Methods: Data were collected through a survey which was conducted during November and December, 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 273 eligible women who were selected randomly. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Results showed that 70.7 percent of women did not want to have another child in addition to the children they had at the time of survey. Among these women, 55 percent and 84.3 percent had one and two children, respectively. Further, 78.4 percent of respondents stated that two children were the ideal number of children for the households. The most important reasons for the two-children pattern were economic problems and families’ problems in rearing and training the children, respectively. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of stopping childbearing was higher among working women,women with more children, women at the end of reproduction age, women evaluating children’s benefits lower than their expenditures, and women with little tendency to prefer sons to daughters. Conclusion: Population policies to prevent further decline in fertility should be focused on employment, family, and quality of life, especially among women without children, women with one child and newly married couples.

  7. Evaluating mechanisms of diversification in a Guineo-Congolian tropical forest frog using demographic model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portik, Daniel M; Leaché, Adam D; Rivera, Danielle; Barej, Michael F; Burger, Marius; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Blackburn, David C; Fujita, Matthew K

    2017-10-01

    The accumulation of biodiversity in tropical forests can occur through multiple allopatric and parapatric models of diversification, including forest refugia, riverine barriers and ecological gradients. Considerable debate surrounds the major diversification process, particularly in the West African Lower Guinea forests, which contain a complex geographic arrangement of topographic features and historical refugia. We used genomic data to investigate alternative mechanisms of diversification in the Gaboon forest frog, Scotobleps gabonicus, by first identifying population structure and then performing demographic model selection and spatially explicit analyses. We found that a majority of population divergences are best explained by allopatric models consistent with the forest refugia hypothesis and involve divergence in isolation with subsequent expansion and gene flow. These population divergences occurred simultaneously and conform to predictions based on climatically stable regions inferred through ecological niche modelling. Although forest refugia played a prominent role in the intraspecific diversification of S. gabonicus, we also find evidence for potential interactions between landscape features and historical refugia, including major rivers and elevational barriers such as the Cameroonian Volcanic Line. We outline the advantages of using genomewide variation in a model-testing framework to distinguish between alternative allopatric hypotheses, and the pitfalls of limited geographic and molecular sampling. Although phylogeographic patterns are often species-specific and related to life-history traits, additional comparative studies incorporating genomic data are necessary for separating shared historical processes from idiosyncratic responses to environmental, climatic and geological influences on diversification. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Socioeconomic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The session on Socioeconomic Evaluations consisted of the following seven papers: (1) Socioeconomic Considerations in Nuclear Waste Management; (2) High-Level Radioactive Waste - the Social Decision; (3) Role of Impact Assessment in Program Planning - A Social Science Perspective; (4) Social and Demographic Impacts Associated with Large-Scale Resource Developments - Implications for Nuclear Waste Repositories; (5) Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Large-Scale Development Projects - Implications for Nuclear Waste Repositories; (6) Socioeconomic Analyses of the Proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project; and (7) Existing Institutional Arrangements and Fiscal Incentives for Siting Publicly Sensitive Facilities

  9. Socioeconomic Forecasting : [Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Because the traffic forecasts produced by the Indiana : Statewide Travel Demand Model (ISTDM) are driven by : the demographic and socioeconomic inputs to the model, : particular attention must be given to obtaining the most : accurate demographic and...

  10. Development of selective attention in preschool-age children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hampton Wray

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task. The lower SES group was followed longitudinally for one year. At age four, the higher SES group exhibited a significant attention effect (larger ERP response to attended compared to unattended condition, an effect not observed in the lower SES group. At age five, the lower SES group exhibited a significant attention effect comparable in overall magnitude to that observed in the 4-year-old higher SES group, but with poorer distractor suppression (larger response to the unattended condition. Together, these findings suggest both a maturational delay and divergent developmental pattern in neural mechanisms for selective attention in young children from lower compared to higher SES backgrounds. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of studying neurodevelopment within narrow age ranges and in children from diverse backgrounds.

  11. Development of selective attention in preschool-age children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton Wray, Amanda; Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Isbell, Elif; Bell, Theodore; Neville, Helen

    2017-08-01

    Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task. The lower SES group was followed longitudinally for one year. At age four, the higher SES group exhibited a significant attention effect (larger ERP response to attended compared to unattended condition), an effect not observed in the lower SES group. At age five, the lower SES group exhibited a significant attention effect comparable in overall magnitude to that observed in the 4-year-old higher SES group, but with poorer distractor suppression (larger response to the unattended condition). Together, these findings suggest both a maturational delay and divergent developmental pattern in neural mechanisms for selective attention in young children from lower compared to higher SES backgrounds. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of studying neurodevelopment within narrow age ranges and in children from diverse backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. [Meals consumption among thirteen years olds and selected family socio-economic correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzycka-Stalmach, Magdalena; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna; Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria; Wojdan-Godek, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the influence of selected family socioeconomic factors on the regularity of meals consumption among 13-years aged adolescents. Group of 605 13-years olds identified in the prospective cohort study in 2008 was analysed. Data was gathered with use of posted questionnaires. On the basis of information given by children the regularity (4-5 times a week) of meals consumption on school days and eating meals with parents were correlated with parents' educational level, occupational status and perceived family wealth. The study also recognised the distinction between urban and rural residents. Most questionnaires were filled out by mothers (95%), only 5% by fathers. In urban area, the mother's occupation and the perceived family wealth, correlate with children meals consumption and eating meals with parents. Children whose mothers have a job eat breakfast 1.5 times and supper 3 times less regularly, than children whose mothers don't work. Children from poor families eat breakfast 14 times less regularly than children from rich families as well as eat supper 3 times less regularly than children from average wealthy families. In the rural area, the regularity of meals consumption significantly influence the mother's education. Children whose mothers have a secondary education, compared with children of mothers with basic education, are 4 times more likely to eat dinner and supper regularly. The family socioeconomic factors significantly correlate with regularity of 13-years olds meals consumption and regularity of family meals. The place of residence involve the different factors influencing meals consumption habits. It was shown that children and fathers were too little engaged in family life, including family meals preparation and consumption.

  13. Examining African American and white outdoor recreation participation after demographic standardization on selected characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Christensen; John F. Dwyer

    1995-01-01

    The "marginality" explanation of differences between the outdoor recreation participation of African Americans and Whites was evaluated using demographic standardization of age, income, and education for a sample of African American and White Illinois residents. After standardization, African America/White differences in outdoor recreation participation were...

  14. A method for selection of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation route considering socioeconomic cost based on contingent valuation method (CVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik

    2008-02-01

    A transportation of SNF may cause an additional radiation exposure to human beings. It means that the radiological risk should be estimated and managed quantitatively for the public who live near the shipments route. Before the SNF transportation is performed, the route selection is concluded based on the radiological risk estimated with RADTRAN code in existing method generally. It means the existing method for route selection is based only on the radiological health risk but there are not only the impacts related to the radiological health risk but also the socioeconomic impacts related to the cost. In this study, a new method and its numerical formula for route selection on transporting SNF is proposed based on cost estimation because there are several costs in transporting SNF. The total cost consists of radiological health cost, transportation cost, and socioeconomic cost. Each cost is defined properly to the characteristics of SNF transportation and many coefficients and variables describing the meaning of each cost are obtained or estimated through many surveys. Especially to get the socioeconomic cost, contingent valuation method (CVM) is used with a questionnaire. The socioeconomic cost estimation is the most important part of the total cost originated from transporting SNF because it is a very dominant cost in the total cost. The route selection regarding SNF transportation can be supported with the proposed method reasonably and unnecessary or exhausting controversies about the shipments could be avoided

  15. Selected Demographic Aspects of Buyers’ Activity on the Local Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foryś Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Demographic factors next to economic, political and legal ones, are important elements determining the development of the housing market. The analysis of the age structure of the population and of the dynamics of change shows that the population of baby boomers in the age group that is actively entering the labor market and becoming independent is a stimulant for the development of the housing market. Individuals who are gaining economic independence generate new needs and, with appropriate financial resources, also future demand for their own accommodation.

  16. Differentiation of behavioral health factors among students depending on selected socio-demographic, environmental and cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ślusarska

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Introduction. Behavioral factors of health are an important area of empirical cognition from the perspective of long-term individual as well as social investment in health. Aim. The assessment of health behaviors and their differentiation due to selected socio-demographic and environmental-cultural characteristics in a group of young adults. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional studies in the group of students of the city of Lublin were performed using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI by Z. Juczyński. The study also included the survey questions in the field of socio-demographic and cultural- environmental indicators. Results. The analysis concerned data on 1,593 randomly selected people (63.53% women, 36.47% men, aged 20-35 years (x = 22.16, SD =2.81. In the group, at 45.07% of students, the rate of intensity of health behaviors according to HBI was low, at 39.60% - was the average, and in only 11.30% -it was high. Conclusions. In the group, low rates of health behaviors intensity predominated. Among women, the students of medical university, non-smokers and those characterized by regular physical activity a higher level of health behaviors was shown.   Key words: behavioral factors, socio-demographic indicators, health status, young adults.

  17. Marriage choices and social reproduction.: The interrelationship between partner selection and intergenerational socioeconomic mobility in 19th-century Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dribe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relationship between partner selection and socioeconomic status (SES attainment and mobility in five rural parishes in southern Sweden, 1815-1894. Three different aspects of partner selection are considered: age, social origin, and geographical origin. We use an individual-level database containing information on the SES origin (parental land holding and occupation, age difference, and place of birth of the married couple. The results show a powerful association between partner selection and SES attainment and mobility. Social heterogamy was particularly important, but age heterogamy and geographic exogamy was also clearly related to both SES attainment and mobility.

  18. Association between demographic and socioeconomic conditions with exercise practice and physical fitness in community projects participants aged 50 years or more in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapé, Átila Alexandre; Marques, Renato Francisco Rodrigues; Lizzi, Elisângela Aparecida da Silva; Yoshimura, Fernando Eidi; Franco, Laercio Joel; Zago, Anderson Saranz

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between both demographic and socioeconomic conditions with physical fitness and regular practice of physical exercises in participants of community projects, supervised by a physical education teacher. This enabled to investigate whether the adoption of an active lifestyle depends only on the personal choice or has any influence of socioeconomic factors. 213 individuals aged over 50 years joined the study, and provided information about their socioeconomic status (age, gender, education/years of study, and income); usual level of physical activity (ULPA); and physical fitness, by a physical battery tests which allowed the calculation of general functional fitness index (GFFI). The generalized linear model showed that participants ranked in the highest GFFI groups (good and very good) had more years of study and higher income (p 15), income (all groups) and age (p 6 months) were also associated with education and income (p < 0.05); among the groups with exercise practice whether greater than or equal to six months, that supervised showed better results in the GFFI (p < 0.05). The association between variables strengthens the hypothesis that adherence and maintenance of physical exercise might not be only dependent of individual's choice, but also the socioeconomic factors, which can influence the choice for any active lifestyle.

  19. Inferring the Mode of Selection from the Transient Response to Demographic Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Daniel; Do, Ron; Reich, David; Sunyaev, Shamil

    2014-03-01

    Despite substantial recent progress in theoretical population genetics, most models work under the assumption of a constant population size. Deviations from fixed population sizes are ubiquitous in natural populations, many of which experience population bottlenecks and re-expansions. The non-equilibrium dynamics introduced by a large perturbation in population size are generally viewed as a confounding factor. In the present work, we take advantage of the transient response to a population bottleneck to infer features of the mode of selection and the distribution of selective effects. We develop an analytic framework and a corresponding statistical test that qualitatively differentiates between alleles under additive and those under recessive or more general epistatic selection. This statistic can be used to bound the joint distribution of selective effects and dominance effects in any diploid sexual organism. We apply this technique to human population genetic data, and severely restrict the space of allowed selective coefficients in humans. Additionally, one can test a set of functionally or medically relevant alleles for the primary mode of selection, or determine the local regional variation in dominance coefficients along the genome.

  20. Do sedentary behaviors mediate associations between socio-demographic characteristics and BMI in women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Abbott, Gavin; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Ball, Kylie

    2015-04-09

    Women living in deprived neighborhoods are a risk group for overweight and obesity, particularly during the childbearing years. Several socio-demographic characteristics may compound this risk, but little is known about why this might be the case. Sedentary behaviors are emerging as a socio-demographically patterned risk factor for obesity. The purpose of the present study was to assess socio-demographic differences in sedentary behaviors, and to examine whether these behaviors could explain the relation between socio-demographic variables and BMI (BMI) in this risk group. Women aged 18-46 years were recruited from 40 urban and 40 rural deprived neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. In total, 3879 women reported socio-demographic variables (age, educational level, employment status, marital status, number of children, residential location and country of birth), sedentary behaviors (television time, computer time, total screen time and total sedentary time), physical activity, and height and weight, which were used to calculate BMI. For each socio-demographic variable, four single mediation models were conducted using two-level mixed-models regression analyses. Mediating effects were examined using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients procedure and the Sobel test. All socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with sedentary behaviors. Single mediation analyses revealed that television time (αβ = 0.017, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.030) and total screen time (αβ = 0.006, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.012) mediated 14.1% and 4.9% of the relationship between educational level and BMI, respectively. Total screen time mediated 45.1% of the relationship between employment status and BMI (αβ = -0.020, 95% CI = -0.033, -0.006), and television time mediated 8.2% of the relationship between country of birth and BMI (αβ = -0.008, 95% CI = -0.016, -0.001). Sedentary behaviors differed depending on socio-demographic characteristics, and partly

  1. Could non-grade based selection improve medical student socio-demographic diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

    2013-01-01

    selected with a non-grade-based or ’non-cognitive’ admission program. The two admission groups were compared on seven social indices (doctor parent, ethnic origin, father’s education, mother’s education, parenthood, parents live together, parent on benefit). Result: Selection strategy made no difference...... to the social diversity of admitted medical students. The non-cognitive admission program studied was not a useful initiative for improving medical student diversity nor did it further disadvantaged educationally vulnerable population groups in these cohorts. Discussion: The social heritage and general...

  2. HLA DNA sequence variation among human populations: molecular signatures of demographic and selective events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular differences between HLA alleles vary up to 57 nucleotides within the peptide binding coding region of human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, but it is still unclear whether this variation results from a stochastic process or from selective constraints related to functional differences among HLA molecules. Although HLA alleles are generally treated as equidistant molecular units in population genetic studies, DNA sequence diversity among populations is also crucial to interpret the observed HLA polymorphism. In this study, we used a large dataset of 2,062 DNA sequences defined for the different HLA alleles to analyze nucleotide diversity of seven HLA genes in 23,500 individuals of about 200 populations spread worldwide. We first analyzed the HLA molecular structure and diversity of these populations in relation to geographic variation and we further investigated possible departures from selective neutrality through Tajima's tests and mismatch distributions. All results were compared to those obtained by classical approaches applied to HLA allele frequencies.Our study shows that the global patterns of HLA nucleotide diversity among populations are significantly correlated to geography, although in some specific cases the molecular information reveals unexpected genetic relationships. At all loci except HLA-DPB1, populations have accumulated a high proportion of very divergent alleles, suggesting an advantage of heterozygotes expressing molecularly distant HLA molecules (asymmetric overdominant selection model. However, both different intensities of selection and unequal levels of gene conversion may explain the heterogeneous mismatch distributions observed among the loci. Also, distinctive patterns of sequence divergence observed at the HLA-DPB1 locus suggest current neutrality but old selective pressures on this gene. We conclude that HLA DNA sequences advantageously complement HLA allele frequencies as a source of data used

  3. Nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 109-123 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : protected landscape areas * nature protection * biosphere reserves * socio-economic development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  4. Selective Attention: A Comparative Study on Argentine Students from Different Socioeconomic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Mirta S.; Greco, Carolina; Korzeniowski, Celina; Morelato, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Attentional Efficiency (AE) is defined as the accuracy with which a child discriminates, from a group of similar stimuli, those which are identical to a model, within a certain time period. Various factors may be associated with a higher or lower AE, among which is socioeconomic context. The goals of this study were: 1) To describe…

  5. Demographic Variables and Selective, Sustained Attention and Planning through Cognitive Tasks among Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive tasks are considered to be applicable and appropriate in assessing cognitive domains. The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship existence between variables of age, sex and education with selective, sustained attention and planning abilities by means of computerized cognitive tasks among healthy adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented during 6 months from June to November, 2010 on 84 healthy adults (42 male and 42 female. The whole participants performed computerized CPT, STROOP and TOL tests after being content and trained. Results: The obtained data indicate that there is a significant correlation coefficient between age, sex and education variables (p<0.05. Discussion: The above-mentioned tests can be used to assess selective, sustained attention and planning.

  6. Determinants of Bank Selection Choices in Malaysia: A Demographic based Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Celestine Fernandez, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    Banking is an important contributor to the economic growth around the world. The benefits of understanding consumer selection decisions will provide bankers with a competitive advantage as it has the ability to influence the marketing mix. With rising overheads and price competition, the profit margins earned from bank services are being narrowed. Banks will have to capture a sizeable customer base to sustain their profitability and turnover. Malaysia was chosen for this study as banks have b...

  7. Demographic Variables and Selective, Sustained Attention and Planning through Cognitive Tasks among Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Zarghi; Zali; A; Tehranidost; M; Mohammad Reza Zarindast; Ashrafi; F; Doroodgar; Khodadadi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive tasks are considered to be applicable and appropriate in assessing cognitive domains. The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship existence between variables of age, sex and education with selective, sustained attention and planning abilities by means of computerized cognitive tasks among healthy adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented during 6 months from June to November, 2010 on 84 healthy adults (42 male and 42 female). The whole part...

  8. The role of demographics in students' selection of higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wiese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the choice factors students consider when selecting a higher education institution, with a focus on the differences between gender and language groups. Problem investigated: The educational landscape has seen several changes, such as stronger competition between institutions for both student enrolments and government funding. These market challenges have led to an interest in students' institution selection processes as it has implications for the way higher education institutions (HEIs manage their marketing and recruitment strategies. The research objective of this study was to identify the most important choice factors of prospective South African students. It also aimed to determine if any gender and language differences exist with regard to students' institution selection processes. Methodology: A convenience sample of 1 241 respondents was drawn, representing six South African universities. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect the data. Questions from the ASQ (Admitted Student Questionnaire and CIRP (The Cooperative Institutional Research Programme were used and adapted to the South African context after pilot testing. Hypotheses were analysed using the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA test with Wilks' lambda as the test statistic. Findings/Implications: Irrespective of gender or language, the most important choice factor for respondents was the quality of teaching at HEIs. The findings showed that males and females differ according to the selection of certain choice factors which suggest that HEIs can consider recruitment strategies for each gender group. Significant differences between the language groups were found for 17 of the 23 choice factors, signalling that different language groups make decisions based on different choice factors. African language-speaking students have, amongst other, indicated that the multiculturalism of the institution is a very important choice factor for

  9. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Tabak, Izabela; Dzielska, Anna; Wąż, Krzysztof; Oblacińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors. PMID:28009806

  10. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mazur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  11. Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, D; Laurent, O; Filleul, L; Havard, S; Deguen, S; Segala, C; Pedrono, G; Riviere, E; Schillinger, C; Rouil, L; Arveiler, D; Eilstein, D

    2007-01-01

    Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project

  12. The impact of selection, gene flow and demographic history on heterogeneous genomic divergence: three-spine sticklebacks in divergent environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Hansen, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous genomic divergence between populations may reflect selection, but should also be seen in conjunction with gene flow and drift, particularly population bottlenecks. Marine and freshwater three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations often exhibit different lateral armour plate morphs. Moreover, strikingly parallel genomic footprints across different marine-freshwater population pairs are interpreted as parallel evolution and gene reuse. Nevertheless, in some geographic regions like the North Sea and Baltic Sea, different patterns are observed. Freshwater populations in coastal regions are often dominated by marine morphs, suggesting that gene flow overwhelms selection, and genomic parallelism may also be less pronounced. We used RAD sequencing for analysing 28 888 SNPs in two marine and seven freshwater populations in Denmark, Europe. Freshwater populations represented a variety of environments: river populations accessible to gene flow from marine sticklebacks and large and small isolated lakes with and without fish predators. Sticklebacks in an accessible river environment showed minimal morphological and genomewide divergence from marine populations, supporting the hypothesis of gene flow overriding selection. Allele frequency spectra suggested bottlenecks in all freshwater populations, and particularly two small lake populations. However, genomic footprints ascribed to selection could nevertheless be identified. No genomic regions were consistent freshwater-marine outliers, and parallelism was much lower than in other comparable studies. Two genomic regions previously described to be under divergent selection in freshwater and marine populations were outliers between different freshwater populations. We ascribe these patterns to stronger environmental heterogeneity among freshwater populations in our study as compared to most other studies, although the demographic history involving bottlenecks should also be considered in the

  13. The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Selection of Anticoagulation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sholzberg

    Full Text Available Without third-party insurance, access to marketed drugs is limited to those who can afford to pay. We examined this phenomenon in the context of anticoagulation for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF.To determine whether, among older Ontarians receiving anticoagulation for NVAF, patients of higher socioeconomic status (SES were more likely to switch from warfarin to dabigatran prior to its addition to the provincial formulary.Population-based retrospective cohort study of Ontarians aged 66 years and older, between 2008 and 2012.Socioeconomic status, as approximated by median neighborhood income.We identified two groups of older adults with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: those who appeared to switch from warfarin to dabigatran after its market approval but prior to its inclusion on the provincial formulary ("switchers", and those with ongoing warfarin use during the same interval ("non-switchers".We studied 34,797 patients, including 3183 "switchers" and 31,614 "non-switchers". We found that higher SES was associated with switching to dabigatran prior to its coverage on the provincial formulary (p<0.0001. In multivariable analysis, subjects in the highest quintile were 50% more likely to switch to dabigatran than those in the lowest income quintile (11.3% vs. 7.3%; adjusted odds ratio 1.50; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.68. Following dabigatran's addition to the formulary, the income gradient disappeared.We documented socioeconomic inequality in access to dabigatran among patients receiving warfarin for NVAF. This disparity was eliminated following the drug's addition to the provincial formulary, highlighting the importance of timely reimbursement decisions.

  14. Environmental exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke and selected socio-economic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kalinowski

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. Study results indicate the problem of exposure of pregnant women to smoke. Studied socio-economic factors affect the degree of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. There is a need to implement systematic activities in the field of social education about the influence of tobacco smoke on intrauterine development of the fetus. For this purpose it would be useful to develop a health program for women of child-bearing age with focus on the most vulnerable social groups of women. It is also necessary to provide people actively smoking from pregnant women, in particular of home environment, with health education.

  15. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

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    Jarosław Domaradzki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in family on coordinational traits of children aged 10–11. Material and methods: 199 children aged 10-11 underwent medical examination in 2008 in Polkowice and data collected were used in this study.. Information on parents’ education and number of children was used to divide children into four groups: lower education and 3 or more children in family, lower education and less than 3 children in family, higher education and more than 3 children in family and higher education and less than 3 children in family. Three coordinational traits were measured: short time memory, precision of hand and speed movement of the hand. MANOVA test was used to estimate differences between groups and to check interactions between factors. Results: From among 4 groups of boys, these from the worst socio-economic status of family received the worst results in all three tests. Differences between them and the rest of the groups were statistically significant. Differences between the rest of the groups were not statistically significant. In the girls groups children from families with higher parents’ education received statistically significant better results in test of memory. There were not differences between all 4 groups in precision of the hand test. Girls from family with higher parents’ education and 3 or more children in family received the best results in speed of the hand test. Conclusions: Boys are the gender more eco-sensitive. The family with more than 2 children in family

  16. Correlates of smoking with socioeconomic status, leisure time physical activity and alcohol consumption among Polish adults from randomly selected regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitas-Slubowska, Donata; Hurnik, Elzbieta; Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Anna

    2010-12-01

    To determine the association between smoking status and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) among Polish adults. 466 randomly selected men and women (aged 18-66 years) responded to an anonymous questionnaire regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, LTPA, and SES. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of smoking status with six socioeconomic measures, level of LTPA, and frequency and type of alcohol consumed. Smokers were defined as individuals smoking occasionally or daily. The odds of being smoker were 9 times (men) and 27 times (women) higher among respondents who drink alcohol several times/ week or everyday in comparison to non-drinkers (p times higher compared to those with the high educational attainment (p = 0.007). Among women we observed that students were the most frequent smokers. Female students were almost three times more likely to smoke than non-professional women, and two times more likely than physical workers (p = 0.018). The findings of this study indicated that among randomly selected Polish man and women aged 18-66 smoking and alcohol consumption tended to cluster. These results imply that intervention strategies need to target multiple risk factors simultaneously. The highest risk of smoking was observed among low educated men, female students, and both men and women drinking alcohol several times a week or every day. Information on subgroups with the high risk of smoking will help in planning future preventive strategies.

  17. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is linked to neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschoolers from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds

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    Elif Isbell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While a growing body of research has identified experiential factors associated with differences in selective attention, relatively little is known about the contribution of genetic factors to the skill of sustained selective attention, especially in early childhood. Here, we assessed the association between the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR genotypes and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in young children from lower socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded during a dichotic listening task from 121 children (76 females, aged 40–67 months, who were also genotyped for the short and long allele of 5-HTTLPR. The effect of selective attention was measured as the difference in ERP mean amplitudes elicited by identical probe stimuli embedded in stories when they were attended versus unattended. Compared to children homozygous for the long allele, children who carried at least one copy of the short allele showed larger effects of selective attention on neural processing. These findings link the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR to enhanced neural mechanisms of selective attention and lay the groundwork for future studies of gene-by-environment interactions in the context of key cognitive skills.

  18. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is linked to neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschoolers from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Elif; Stevens, Courtney; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Bell, Theodore; Neville, Helen J

    2016-12-01

    While a growing body of research has identified experiential factors associated with differences in selective attention, relatively little is known about the contribution of genetic factors to the skill of sustained selective attention, especially in early childhood. Here, we assessed the association between the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotypes and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in young children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a dichotic listening task from 121 children (76 females, aged 40-67 months), who were also genotyped for the short and long allele of 5-HTTLPR. The effect of selective attention was measured as the difference in ERP mean amplitudes elicited by identical probe stimuli embedded in stories when they were attended versus unattended. Compared to children homozygous for the long allele, children who carried at least one copy of the short allele showed larger effects of selective attention on neural processing. These findings link the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR to enhanced neural mechanisms of selective attention and lay the groundwork for future studies of gene-by-environment interactions in the context of key cognitive skills. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Demographic and Socio-Economic Situation of the Nomadic Population of Chervleny Yar Area in the Middle of the 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr P. Nikitin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to identify the probable number of people who could have lived in the Don-Khoper interfluve in the middle of the 14th century. The results of demographic observations are based on natural resources, historical and archaeological realities of the region, special characteristics of nomadic economy. The area between the Don and the Khoper in the middle of the 14th century was an administrative unit of the ulus of Jochi (the Horde. The information about the territorial entity was preserved in the Metropolitan Charters for Sarai and Ryazan eparchies. Thanks to contemporary archaeological studies of this area, the nomadic and sedentary population can be claimed to have existed in that area in the middle of the 14th century. The nomadic territory of Chervleny Yar was bounded by the Don in the West, by Khoper in the East, by the mouth of the Hopper in the South, and by the most northern nomadic burials of that period. The information about natural resources of the steppes can be the basis of the demographic model designed. The data of ethnology, history, archaeology and ecology are used as a basis. The author analyzes the provision of the nomads with food as biological resources of the ecosystem between the Don and the Khoper rivers. To calculate the probable number of the population, the author takes into account the health calorie intake, the average number of livestock per person in nomadic communities, the size of territory under consideration and the availability of forage for livestock. All the data for calculating the number of population are collected in the Table. Possible number of nomadic population of the Chervleny Yar in the middle of the 14th century can make 26,042–69,444 people, on the condition of the minimum possible yield and optimal load on the ecosystem between the Don and the Khoper. The indicated number refers to the group of the population that never left the area between the Don and the Khoper and

  20. A planning tool for tree species selection and planting schedule in forestation projects considering environmental and socio-economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollan, Catherine Denise; Li, Richard; San Juan, Jayne Lois; Dizon, Liezel; Ong, Karl Benedict

    2018-01-15

    Species selection is a crucial step in the planning phase of forestation programs given its impact on the results and on stakeholder interactions. This study develops a planning tool for forestation programs that incorporates the selection of tree species and the scheduling of planting and harvesting, while balancing the maximization of the carbon sequestered and income realized, into the forestation decision-making and planning process. The validation of the goal programming model formulated demonstrates that the characteristics of natural tree species along with the behavior of growth and timing of yield are significant factors in achieving the environmental and socio-economic aspirations. The proposed model is therefore useful in gauging species behavior and performance over time. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted where the behavior of the income generated and carbon sequestered with respect to the external factors such as carbon market prices, percentage area allocated for protection and discount factor was assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating Research Gaps of Pharmaceutical take back Events: An Analysis of take back Program Participants' Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Geographic Characteristics and the Public Health Benefits of take back Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, K. I.; Hodge, V.; Maxey, G.; Tiwari, C.; Cready, C.; Huggett, D. B.

    2017-06-01

    Research continues to show that pharmaceutical environmental contamination causes adverse effects to aquatic life. There are also public health risks associated with pharmaceuticals because in-home reserves of medications provide opportunities for accidental poisoning and intentional medication abuse. Pharmaceutical take back programs have been seen as a potential remedy for these issues; however, a thorough review of past programs indicates limited research has been conducted on take back programs. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in take back program research. To address these gaps and ultimately determine if take back programs could improve public health, research was conducted in conjunction with the take back program Denton drug disposal days held in Denton, Texas. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of Denton drug disposal days participants were investigated using surveys and Geographic Information Systems. Potential impacts of the Denton drug disposal days program on public health were determined by comparing data from Denton drug disposal days events with data supplied by the North Texas Poison Center. Results suggest that Denton drug disposal days events may have prevented accidental poisonings or intentional abuse, however only qualitative comparisons support this statement and there was insufficient empirical evidence to support the conclusion that Denton drug disposal days events were exclusively responsible for public health improvements. An interesting finding was that there was a definitive travel threshold that influenced participation in Denton drug disposal days events. Overall, this study fills some geographic, socioeconomic, and demographic data gaps of take back programs and proposes methods to analyze and improve participation in future take back programs. These methods could also be applied to improve participation in other local environmentally-focused programs such as household hazardous collection events.

  2. Investigating Research Gaps of Pharmaceutical take back Events: An Analysis of take back Program Participants' Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Geographic Characteristics and the Public Health Benefits of take back Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, K I; Hodge, V; Maxey, G; Tiwari, C; Cready, C; Huggett, D B

    2017-06-01

    Research continues to show that pharmaceutical environmental contamination causes adverse effects to aquatic life. There are also public health risks associated with pharmaceuticals because in-home reserves of medications provide opportunities for accidental poisoning and intentional medication abuse. Pharmaceutical take back programs have been seen as a potential remedy for these issues; however, a thorough review of past programs indicates limited research has been conducted on take back programs. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in take back program research. To address these gaps and ultimately determine if take back programs could improve public health, research was conducted in conjunction with the take back program Denton drug disposal days held in Denton, Texas. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of Denton drug disposal days participants were investigated using surveys and Geographic Information Systems. Potential impacts of the Denton drug disposal days program on public health were determined by comparing data from Denton drug disposal days events with data supplied by the North Texas Poison Center. Results suggest that Denton drug disposal days events may have prevented accidental poisonings or intentional abuse, however only qualitative comparisons support this statement and there was insufficient empirical evidence to support the conclusion that Denton drug disposal days events were exclusively responsible for public health improvements. An interesting finding was that there was a definitive travel threshold that influenced participation in Denton drug disposal days events. Overall, this study fills some geographic, socioeconomic, and demographic data gaps of take back programs and proposes methods to analyze and improve participation in future take back programs. These methods could also be applied to improve participation in other local environmentally-focused programs such as household hazardous collection events.

  3. Major dietary patterns in relation to demographic and socio-economic status and food insecurity in two Iranian ethnic groups living in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Nouri-Saeidlou, Sakineh

    2016-12-01

    To identify major dietary patterns and their association with socio-economic status (SES) and food insecurity in two major ethnic groups living in Urmia, north-west Iran. A cross-sectional study. All four geographical zones of Urmia city. Participants (n 723; 427 women and 296 men), aged 20-64 years, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri Turks and 278 Kurds). Three major dietary patterns were extracted: 'Traditional High SES' (THS), 'Traditional Low SES' (TLS) and 'Transitional'. After adjusting for confounders, the THS pattern was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with moderate or severe food insecurity in Azeri Turks; whereas, among Kurds, it was more common in women and positively associated with age. The TLS pattern was more common among men and negatively associated with educational level and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men, positively associated with being married and negatively associated with household income/capita. The 'Transitional' pattern was positively associated with being employed and negatively associated with age and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men and negatively associated with age, being married and physical activity level. Findings suggest that household SES and food insecurity are associated with detrimental dietary patterns and that this effect may be stronger than cultural and ethnic background. These patterns differ by age and gender. Therefore, such characteristics should be considered in planning and formulating diet-related policies and programmes.

  4. [Evaluation of selected socioeconomic factors in patients with acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is commonly overused psychoactive substance in Poland and all around the world. It causes addiction, which occurs as a result of its chronic administration. One of the main symptoms of addiction is hunger due to psychoactive substance that prevents interruption of its adoption and contributes to relapse drinking. Acute poisoning with ethyl alcohol and alcohol withdrawal syndrome are diseases causing a potential danger to life. The prevalence of use and abuse of alcoholic beverages is a potential risk, causing health problems, including permanent damage of the central and peripheral nervous system and socio-economic problems. The aim of this study is to analyze certain aspects of the socio-economic situation of the patients hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome in 2010. 299 patients history was evaluated, among which 161 were treated for acute intoxication with ethanol and 138 due to alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Objects of interest were elements of subjective tests including: marital status of patients, their education and professional activity and the problem of homelessness. The study group consisted of 299 patients in age from 16 to 77 years, hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome. It was found that the largest group consisted of patients remaining married (42.81%) and unmarried (30.43%). Alcohol abuse affects people of all levels of education. In the present study, most patients had a vocational education (37.79%) and medium (23.08%). Patients were analyzed in terms of economic activity, among which about 40% were unemployed. In the whole group more than 10% of those were homeless. Ethyl alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal represents a significant hazard. As a result of reliance, patients lose control of alcohol consumption and they

  5. An experiment on selecting most informative variables in socio-economic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many studies where data are collected on several variables, there is a motivation to find if fewer variables would provide almost as much information. Variance of a variable about its mean is the common statistical measure of information content, and that is used here. We are interested whether the variability in one variable is sufficiently correlated with that in one or more of the other variables that the first variable is redundant. We wish to find one or more ‘principal variables’ that sufficiently reflect the information content in all the original variables. The paper explains the method of principal variables and reports experiments using the technique to see if just a few variables are sufficient to reflect the information in 11 socioeconomic variables on 130 countries from a World Bank (WB database. While the method of principal variables is highly successful in a statistical sense, the WB data varies greatly from year to year, demonstrating that fewer variables wo uld be inadequate for this data.

  6. Comparative study on demographic-economic model-building for three selected countries of the ESCAP region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The research project involves building models for 3 selected ESCAP countries, Indonesia, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, which are at different stages of demographic transition. This project involves country level research workd esigned, implemented, and monitored with the assistance of ESCAP. Accordingly the 1st Study Directors' Meeting was held in Bangkok during November 16-30, 1979 in a series of informal interactive working sessions for Study Directors, modelling experts, and resource persons. The participants were Study Directors from the above mentioned countries and a few experts from Malaysia, Thailand, ILO, UNRISD, and IBRD. The main objective of the meeting was to help finance the basic model framework in order that National Study Directors will be able to commence their modelling work after the Meeting. As evidenced by the Report of the 1st Study Directors' Meeting, this objective was achieved. Following this meeting, the 3 case studies are being simultaneously undertaken in countries by national study teams with technical support provided by ESCAP.

  7. The relationships of coping, negative thinking, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics with anxiety of young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan S R; Staten, Ruth Topsy; Lennie, Terry A; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding young adults' anxiety requires applying a multidimensional approach to assess the psychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive aspects of this phenomenon. A hypothesized model of the relationships among coping style, thinking style, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics and anxiety among college students was tested using path analysis. A total of 257 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed an online survey. The independent variables were measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, the Brief COPE Inventory, the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Cognition Checklist-Anxiety. The outcome, anxiety, was measured using the Anxiety subscale of the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Only negative thinking and maladaptive coping had a direct relationship with anxiety. Negative thinking was the strongest predictor of both maladaptive coping and anxiety. These findings suggest that helping undergraduates manage their anxiety by reducing their negative thinking is critical. Designing and testing interventions to decrease negative thinking in college students is recommended for future research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Selective attention neutralizes the adverse effects of low socioeconomic status on memory in 9-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Ackerman, Laura K; Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima

    2016-04-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has a documented impact on brain and cognitive development. We demonstrate that engaging spatial selective attention mechanisms may counteract this negative influence of impoverished environments on early learning. We previously used a spatial cueing task to compare target object encoding in the context of basic orienting ("facilitation") versus a spatial selective attention orienting mechanism that engages distractor suppression ("IOR"). This work showed that object encoding in the context of IOR boosted 9-month-old infants' recognition memory relative to facilitation (Markant and Amso, 2013). Here we asked whether this attention-memory link further interacted with SES in infancy. Results indicated that SES was related to memory but not attention orienting efficacy. However, the correlation between SES and memory performance was moderated by the attention mechanism engaged during encoding. SES predicted memory performance when objects were encoded with basic orienting processes, with infants from low-SES environments showing poorer memory than those from high-SES environments. However, SES did not predict memory performance among infants who engaged selective attention during encoding. Spatial selective attention engagement mitigated the effects of SES on memory and may offer an effective mechanism for promoting learning among infants at risk for poor cognitive outcomes related to SES. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  10. [Selected family socio-economic factors as predictors of peer violence among school children in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, Magdalena; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Analyses concerning peer violence among girls and boys aged 13-17 years, in the context of socio- -economic characteristics of the family: family structure, parental employment status and perceived family wealth. Preliminary data from the recent HBSC studies conducted in 12 voivodeships in Poland in 2013 was used. The analyzes concerned 2300 students aged 13-17 years (45% boys) and focused on the following types of violence: being a perpetrator and a victim of bullying, participation in fights and cyberbullying. Chi-square test analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Significantly more boys than girls experienced bullying (28% vs. 22%) and was perpetrators of violence in the school (39% vs. 25%). The youth from single-parent families significantly more often than students from two-parent families, participated in fights and was the perpetrators of violence in the school. Being a perpetrator and a victim of violence concerned mostly students from poor families and boys, whose father was unemployed. The following risk factors was identified- among boys: low economic status of the family (victims of bullying) and single-parent family (victims of cyberbullying), father's unemployment (the perpetrator of bullying) and age 13-14 years (victims and perpetrators of bullying, participation in fights) and among girls: low economic status of the family (cyberbullying), mother's unemployment and age 13-14 years (victims of violence). The family socio-economic factors, gender and age determine the type and the prevalence of peer violence. Low economic status of the family and single-parent family increases the risk of experiencing violence. For the prevention of bullying the educational role of the father and his commitment to family budget are important.

  11. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P.; Thapa-Magar, Khum B.; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes. PMID:27936247

  12. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P; Thapa-Magar, Khum B; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes.

  13. Selection of kin for spouse: Importance of socioeconomic status, reputation and beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran Bakoush

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The frequency of kin marriages in studied population did not change significantly in the last generation. Knowledge of biological harm of inbreeding has only a small inhibitory effect on choice of kin for spouse. Family reputation was far more important in selection of spouse than family wealth, social status and beauty of spouse, but reputation was uncorrelated with choice of kin for spouse.

  14. Genetic variability, local selection and demographic history: genomic evidence of evolving towards allopatric speciation in Asian seabass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Wan, Zi Yi; Lim, Huan Sein; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-08-01

    Genomewide analysis of genetic divergence is critically important in understanding the genetic processes of allopatric speciation. We sequenced RAD tags of 131 Asian seabass individuals of six populations from South-East Asia and Australia/Papua New Guinea. Using 32 433 SNPs, we examined the genetic diversity and patterns of population differentiation across all the populations. We found significant evidence of genetic heterogeneity between South-East Asian and Australian/Papua New Guinean populations. The Australian/Papua New Guinean populations showed a rather lower level of genetic diversity. FST and principal components analysis revealed striking divergence between South-East Asian and Australian/Papua New Guinean populations. Interestingly, no evidence of contemporary gene flow was observed. The demographic history was further tested based on the folded joint site frequency spectrum. The scenario of ancient migration with historical population size changes was suggested to be the best fit model to explain the genetic divergence of Asian seabass between South-East Asia and Australia/Papua New Guinea. This scenario also revealed that Australian/Papua New Guinean populations were founded by ancestors from South-East Asia during mid-Pleistocene and were completely isolated from the ancestral population after the last glacial retreat. We also detected footprints of local selection, which might be related to differential ecological adaptation. The ancient gene flow was examined and deemed likely insufficient to counteract the genetic differentiation caused by genetic drift. The observed genomic pattern of divergence conflicted with the 'genomic islands' scenario. Altogether, Asian seabass have likely been evolving towards allopatric speciation since the split from the ancestral population during mid-Pleistocene. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Influence of Self-Esteem and Selected Demographic Characteristics on First Semester Academic Achievement of Students Enrolled in a College of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Mae B.; Burnett, Michael F.; Gaspard, Camile P.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem and selected demographic characteristics on academic achievement among students at the freshman level in the College of Agriculture at Louisiana State University. The sample of the study was all students at Louisiana State University enrolled in the Introduction to…

  16. Effects of potential partners' physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status on sexuality and partner selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J M; Levy, G D

    1990-04-01

    Male (n = 170) and female (n = 212) college students viewed photographs, which had been prerated for physical attractiveness, of three opposite-sex individuals. These photographs were paired with three levels of occupational status and income. Subjects indicated their willingness to engage in relationships of varying levels of sexual intimacy and marital potential with the portrayed individuals. Analyses of variance, correlations, and trend analyses supported the hypotheses. Compared to men, women are more likely to prefer or insist that sexual intercourse occur in relationships that involve affection and marital potential, and women place more emphasis than men do on partners' SES in such relationships. Consequently, men's SES and their willingness and ability to invest affection and resources in relationships may often outweigh the effects of their physical attractiveness in women's actual selection of partners. These results and the literature reviewed are more consistent with parental investment theory than with the view that these sex differences are solely the result of differential access to resources and differential socialization.

  17. Effects of Selected Cultural, Financial, and School-Based Factors on Girl-Child's Educational Access and Socioeconomic Development in Sarkish Flower Farm, Nakuru County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronoh, T. K.; Sang, A. K.; Sisungo, Z. W.; Mumiukha, C. K.; Ayub, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper sought to establish the effects of selected cultural, financial, and school-based factors on the girl-child's access to educational and socioeconomic development in Kenya. It is arguably observed that various local and international conventions, treaties, commissions, and state actors have strived to promote the development of…

  18. The relationship between demographic variables and leisure perceptions of selected South African first year university students / J.T. Weilbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbach, Johannes Theron

    2013-01-01

    Participation in campus leisure and recreation programmes can provide university students with various benefits, but the provision of effective leisure programmes are complicated by the changes that have taken place in the demographic composition of the student population attending South African universities. Increases in the proportion of black students attending university, and decreases in the proportion of white students means that current students possibly exhibit leisure behaviours that...

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L M Wong

    Full Text Available Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous.We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA. Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10 and quintiles (Q1 and Q5 were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII and concentration index (CIX.In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels.Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kerry L M; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar G

    2017-01-01

    Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous. We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA). Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10) and quintiles (Q1 and Q5) were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (CIX). In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels. Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  1. Exploring the Framing of Animal Farming and Meat Consumption: On the Diversity of Topics Used and Qualitative Patterns in Selected Demographic Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Hanneke J; Aarts, Noelle; van Woerkum, Cees M J

    2018-01-24

    In various contexts, people talk about animal farming and meat consumption using different arguments to construct and justify their (non-)acceptability. This article presents the results of an in-depth qualitative inquiry into the content of and contextual patterns in the everyday-life framing regarding this issue, performed among consumers in various settings in two extremes in the European sphere: the Netherlands and Turkey. We describe the methodological steps of collecting, coding, and organizing the variety of encountered framing topics, as well as our search for symbolic convergence in groups of consumers from different selected demographic contexts (country, urban-rural areas, gender, age, and education level). The framing of animal farming and meat consumption in everyday-life is not a simple one-issue rational display of facts; people referred to a vast range of topics in the categories knowledge, convictions, pronounced behaviour, values, norms, interests, and feelings. Looking at framing in relation to the researched demographic contexts, most patterns were found on the level of topics; symbolic convergence in lines of reasoning and composite framing was less prominent in groups based on single demographic contexts than anticipated. An explanation for this lies in the complexity of frame construction, happening in relation with multiple interdependent contextual features.

  2. Effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics on nutrition knowledge and eating behavior of elementary students in two provinces in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Qian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National and international child health surveys have indicated an increase in childhood obesity in China. The increase has been attributed to a rising standard of living, increasing availability of unhealthy foods, and a lack of knowledge about healthy diet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on the BMI, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior of elementary school children. Methods Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used. Information on demographics, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior was gathered by means of questionnaires. The schools’ doctors provided the height and weight data. The study was set in one economically advantaged and one economically disadvantaged province in China. The participants were Grade 3 students, ages 8–10 years (N = 3922. Results A cluster analysis identified four socio-demographic variables distinguished by parental education and family living arrangement. A one-way ANOVA compared differences among the clusters in BMI, child nutrition knowledge, and child eating behavior. Students in the cluster with lowest parent education level had the lowest nutrition knowledge scores and eating behavior scores. There was no significant benefit from college education versus high school education of parents in the other three clusters. BMI was not affected by parent education level. Conclusion The nutrition status of elementary school age children will benefit most by increasing the general level of education for those adults who are presently least educated.

  3. Effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics on nutrition knowledge and eating behavior of elementary students in two provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Zhang, Fan; Newman, Ian M; Shell, Duane F; Du, Weijing

    2017-07-14

    National and international child health surveys have indicated an increase in childhood obesity in China. The increase has been attributed to a rising standard of living, increasing availability of unhealthy foods, and a lack of knowledge about healthy diet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on the BMI, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior of elementary school children. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used. Information on demographics, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior was gathered by means of questionnaires. The schools' doctors provided the height and weight data. The study was set in one economically advantaged and one economically disadvantaged province in China. The participants were Grade 3 students, ages 8-10 years (N = 3922). A cluster analysis identified four socio-demographic variables distinguished by parental education and family living arrangement. A one-way ANOVA compared differences among the clusters in BMI, child nutrition knowledge, and child eating behavior. Students in the cluster with lowest parent education level had the lowest nutrition knowledge scores and eating behavior scores. There was no significant benefit from college education versus high school education of parents in the other three clusters. BMI was not affected by parent education level. The nutrition status of elementary school age children will benefit most by increasing the general level of education for those adults who are presently least educated.

  4. The media image of the relationship between nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, 2-3 (2005), s. 123-133 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic development * content analysis Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  5. Causality, selectivity or artefacts? Why socioeconomic inequalities in health are not smallest in the Nordic countries : Commentaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.; Eikemo, T.A

    2009-01-01

    Commentaries: The Nordic welfare states aim at providing equality of the highest standards for all their citizens. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that socioeconomic inequalities in morbidity and mortality are not among the smallest in these countries as compared with other European

  6. The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Dewberry, Chris; Nicholson, Sandra; Dowell, Jonathan S

    2013-11-14

    Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), and its four sub-scales, along with measures of educational attainment, individual and contextual socio-economic background factors, as predictors of performance in the first year of medical school training. A prospective study of 4,811 students in 12 UK medical schools taking the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008 as a part of the medical school application, for whom first year medical school examination results were available in 2008 to 2010. UKCAT scores and educational attainment measures (General Certificate of Education (GCE): A-levels, and so on; or Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA): Scottish Highers, and so on) were significant predictors of outcome. UKCAT predicted outcome better in female students than male students, and better in mature than non-mature students. Incremental validity of UKCAT taking educational attainment into account was significant, but small. Medical school performance was also affected by sex (male students performing less well), ethnicity (non-White students performing less well), and a contextual measure of secondary schooling, students from secondary schools with greater average attainment at A-level (irrespective of public or private sector) performing less well. Multilevel modeling showed no differences between medical schools in predictive ability of the various measures. UKCAT sub-scales predicted similarly, except that Verbal Reasoning correlated positively with performance on Theory examinations, but negatively with Skills assessments. This collaborative study in 12 medical schools shows the power of large-scale studies of medical education for answering previously unanswerable but important questions about medical student selection, education and training. UKCAT has predictive validity as a predictor of medical school outcome

  7. How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnc, N.; Domac, J.

    2007-01-01

    Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO 2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)

  8. Women's empowerment and male involvement in antenatal care: analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Na, Muzi; Cherewick, Megan; Hindin, Michelle; Mullany, Britta; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2014-08-30

    Increasing women's status and male involvement are important strategies in reducing preventable maternal morbidity and mortality. While efforts to both empower women and engage men in maternal health care-seeking can work synergistically, in practice they may result in opposing processes and outcomes. This study examines whether a woman's empowerment status, in sum and across economic, socio-familial, and legal dimensions, is associated with male partner accompaniment to antenatal care (ANC). Women's empowerment was measured based on the sum of nine empowerment items in the 2010-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys in eight sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso (n = 2,490), Burundi (n = 1,042), Malawi (n = 1,353), Mozambique (n = 414), Rwanda (n = 1,211), Senegal (n = 505), Uganda (n = 428) and Zimbabwe (n = 459). In cross-sectional analyses, bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of male partner accompaniment to ANC between women with above-average versus below-average composite and dimensional empowerment scores. In the majority of countries, male accompaniment to ANC was not uncommon. However, findings were mixed. Positive associations in women's composite empowerment and male involvement were observed in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.50) and Uganda (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.35), and in the economic empowerment dimension in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.47). In Malawi, significant negative associations were observed in the odds of male accompaniment to ANC and women's composite (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97) and economic empowerment scores (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94). No significant differences were observed in Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, or Zimbabwe. Women's empowerment can be positively or negatively associated with male antenatal accompaniment. Male involvement efforts may benefit from empowerment initiatives that promote women's participation in social and economic spheres

  9. Changing demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

  10. Optimal location selection for the installation of urban green roofs considering honeybee habitats along with socio-economic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Jae Ha; Lee, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Won Kyung; Sohn, So Young

    2017-03-15

    This study proposes a new framework for the selection of optimal locations for green roofs to achieve a sustainable urban ecosystem. The proposed framework selects building sites that can maximize the benefits of green roofs, based not only on the socio-economic and environmental benefits to urban residents, but also on the provision of urban foraging sites for honeybees. The framework comprises three steps. First, building candidates for green roofs are selected considering the building type. Second, the selected building candidates are ranked in terms of their expected socio-economic and environmental effects. The benefits of green roofs are improved energy efficiency and air quality, reduction of urban flood risk and infrastructure improvement costs, reuse of storm water, and creation of space for education and leisure. Furthermore, the estimated cost of installing green roofs is also considered. We employ spatial data to determine the expected effects of green roofs on each building unit, because the benefits and costs may vary depending on the location of the building. This is due to the heterogeneous spatial conditions. In the third step, the final building sites are proposed by solving the maximal covering location problem (MCLP) to determine the optimal locations for green roofs as urban honeybee foraging sites. As an illustrative example, we apply the proposed framework in Seoul, Korea. This new framework is expected to contribute to sustainable urban ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Socioeconomic data base report for the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the data base of socioeconomic characteristics of 14 counties and 13 key cities that surround the two locations in the Palo Duro Basin. The information describes the demographic features, economic base, community facilities and services, and governmental and fiscal structure. The land use patterns and zoning requirements for selected cities of varying sizes and complexities and the general social characteristics of the region as a whole are described also. Extensive references, 23 figures, 92 tables

  12. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Stefanie; Müller, Ivan; Walter, Cheryl; Seelig, Harald; Steenkamp, Liana; Pühse, Uwe; du Randt, Rosa; Smith, Danielle; Adams, Larissa; Nqweniso, Siphesihle; Yap, Peiling; Ludyga, Sebastian; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Gerber, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all pselective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (pattention and thereby impede their academic performance. Poor academic achievement will make it difficult for children to realize their full potential, perpetuating a vicious cycle of poverty and poor health. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN68411960.

  13. Socioeconomic differences in selected dietary habits among Norwegian 13–14 year-olds: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelene Skårdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social inequalities in health are a major and even growing problem in all European countries. Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe 1 differences in dietary habits among Norwegian adolescents by gender and socioeconomic status; 2 differences in self-reported knowledge of dietary guidelines among their parents according to socioeconomic status. Design: In 2012, a cross-sectional study where students filled in a web-based food frequency questionnaire at school was conducted in nine lower secondary schools in Vest-Agder County, Norway. Socioeconomic status (SES and knowledge of dietary guidelines were obtained from the parents using a web-based questionnaire. In total, 517 ninth-grade students (mean age 13.9 out of 742 invited students participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 69.7%. The total number of dyads with information on both parents and students was 308 (41.5%. Results: The findings indicate that there is a tendency for girls to have a healthier diet than boys, with greater intake of fruits and vegetables (girls intake in median 3.5 units per day and boys 2.9 units per day, and lower intake of soft drinks (girls 0.25 l in median versus boys 0.5 l per week. Students from families with higher SES reported a significant higher intake of vegetables and fish, and lower intake of soft drinks and fast food than those from lower SES. Parents with higher SES reported a significantly better knowledge of dietary guidelines compared to those with lower SES. Conclusions: Differences in dietary habits were found between groups of students by gender and SES. Differences were also found in parents’ self-reported knowledge of dietary guidelines. This social patterning should be recognized in public health interventions.

  14. Physical activity of adult residents of Katowice and selected determinants of their occupational status and socio-economic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Puciato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of physical activity (PA is often addressed in the literature, but its socio-economic determinants are not fully recognized. To date no studies of the adult population of Katowice have been carried out. Research in this area is of great importance in the context of the documented influence of PA on health and extension of retirement age in Poland. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between PA and socio-economic status of adult residents of Katowice. Materials and Methods: The study carried out in 2010 comprised 2053 people (987 women and 1066 men aged 30-65 years. To evaluate PA in the study group the diagnostic survey method and a research tool in the form of an abridged version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, with specification expanded by the authors, were used. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was employed. Results: The likelihood of meeting the standards of health-enhancing PA was higher in men than in women, and it decreased with age and education level of the respondents. The highest proportion of those meeting the recommendation of health-enhancing PA was observed among blue-collar workers, operators, teachers, police and soldiers. The lowest probability of meeting the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine was found among economists and lawyers, office workers, the unemployed, managers, and engineers, pensioners and health care professionals. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the correlation between PA and socio-economic status of the respondents. The analysis of the results indicates the necessity to promote PA programs mainly among women, the elderly, the unemployed, pensioners and representatives of professions, such as economists, lawyers, managers, engineers, and health professionals. Med Pr 2013;64(5:649–657

  15. Country Demographic Profiles: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This profile of the population of Thailand contains 35 tables of selected demographic information, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality, beginning in 1950. An adjusted distribution of the population by age and sex is given for the latest census year, as well as for 1976. Projections of the number of women of…

  16. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Gall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES, parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children.The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement.Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores, and lower grip strength (all p<0.05. In a multiple regression model, low selective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.05 and low shuttle run performance (p<0.001, whereas higher academic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.001 and with higher shuttle run performance (p<0.05.Soil-transmitted helminth infections and low physical fitness appear to hamper children's capacity to pay attention

  17. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ivan; Walter, Cheryl; Seelig, Harald; Steenkamp, Liana; Pühse, Uwe; du Randt, Rosa; Smith, Danielle; Adams, Larissa; Nqweniso, Siphesihle; Yap, Peiling; Ludyga, Sebastian; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Gerber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children’s capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. Methodology The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8–12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Principal findings Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all p<0.05). In a multiple regression model, low selective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.05) and low shuttle run performance (p<0.001), whereas higher academic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.001) and with higher shuttle run performance (p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance Soil-transmitted helminth infections and low physical

  18. Socioeconomic Site Study Plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    Social and economic issues and concerns of the Deak Smith County site area will be evaluated during site characterization. Effects that the area could experience from a repository project include demographic, economic, community service, fiscal, and social impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is designed to provide a strategy to assess the potential for those impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is structured to provide an overview of the socioeconomic program requirements, objectives, and activities to be conducted during site characterization. This report will describe the study design and its rationale; data collection, management, and reporting; program schedules and milestones; site study organization and management; and quality assurance issues. 43 refs

  19. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  20. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  1. Atypical auditory refractory periods in children from lower socio-economic status backgrounds: ERP evidence for a role of selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Paulsen, David; Yasen, Alia; Neville, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies indicate that lower socio-economic status (SES) is associated with reduced effects of selective attention on auditory processing. Here, we investigated whether lower SES is also associated with differences in a stimulus-driven aspect of auditory processing: the neural refractory period, or reduced amplitude response at faster rates of stimulus presentation. Thirty-two children aged 3 to 8 years participated, and were divided into two SES groups based on maternal education. Event-related brain potentials were recorded to probe stimuli presented at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 200, 500, or 1000 ms. These probes were superimposed on story narratives when attended and ignored, permitting a simultaneous experimental manipulation of selective attention. Results indicated that group differences in refractory periods differed as a function of attention condition. Children from higher SES backgrounds showed full neural recovery by 500 ms for attended stimuli, but required at least 1000 ms for unattended stimuli. In contrast, children from lower SES backgrounds showed similar refractory effects to attended and unattended stimuli, with full neural recovery by 500 ms. Thus, in higher SES children only, one functional consequence of selective attention is attenuation of the response to unattended stimuli, particularly at rapid ISIs, altering basic properties of the auditory refractory period. Together, these data indicate that differences in selective attention impact basic aspects of auditory processing in children from lower SES backgrounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of ... In order to improve households' food security status in both rural and urban areas, ... as reduction in household size through birth control, and increase in household ...

  3. Impact of Demographics, Organ Impairment, Disease, Formulation, and Food on the Pharmacokinetics of the Selective S1P1 Receptor Modulator Ponesimod Based on 13 Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Dominik; Lehr, Thorsten; Dingemanse, Jasper; Krause, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Ponesimod is a selective, orally active sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in phase III clinical trials. Ponesimod dose-dependently reduces peripheral blood lymphocyte counts by blocking the egress of lymphocytes from lymphoid organs. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was performed based on pooled data from 13 clinical studies. Interindividual variability (IIV) and the impact of key demographic variables and other covariates on ponesimod exposure were assessed quantitatively. A two-compartment model with sequential zero/first-order absorption, including lag time, intercompartmental drug flow, and first-order clearance, adequately described the PK of ponesimod. Body weight, race, MS, psoriasis, hepatic impairment, drug formulation, and food were identified to significantly affect the concentration-time profile. The inclusion of these covariates into the model explained approximately 25 % of the IIV in the PK of ponesimod. Model predictions indicated that the impact of the identified covariates on ponesimod steady-state exposure is within 20 % of exposure, and thus within the margins of the IIV, with the exception of hepatic impairment. Changes up to threefold were predicted for severe cases of liver dysfunction. The rich data set enabled building a comprehensive population PK model that accurately predicts the concentration-time data of ponesimod. Covariates other than hepatic impairment were considered not clinically relevant and thus do not require dose adjustment. A potential dose adaptation can be conducted based on the final model.

  4. Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher…

  5. School District Personnel Selection Practices: Exploring the Effects of Demographic Factors on Rural Values within a Person-Organization Fit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paula S.; Miller, Stephen K.

    A study examined the extent to which demographic factors predict rural values in Kentucky public school district hiring officials. Among the demographic factors considered were school district metropolitan classification, school district size, community racial composition, decision makers' position in the organizational hierarchy, and decision…

  6. Prevalence, distribution and correlates of tobacco smoking and chewing in Nepal: a secondary data analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy N; Harsha Kumar HN; Sathian Brijesh; Arokiasamy John T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Nearly four-fifths of estimated 1.1 million smokers live in low or middle-income countries. We aimed to provide national estimates for Nepal on tobacco use prevalence, its distribution across demographic, socio-economic and spatial variables and correlates of tobacco use. Methods A secondary data analysis of 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was done. A representative sample of 9,036 households was selected by two-stage stratified, probability proportional to ...

  7. Socioeconomic impacts of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Federal and state decision makers, community leaders, and residents must know how communities will be changed by the impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This chapter identifies the factors affecting an assessment of socioeconomic impacts and the types of impacts (economic, demographic, fiscal, community service, and social) likely to occur as a result of repository development. Each of these types can be divided into standard (those which typically results from any large-scale development) and special impact categories (those which result from the fact that radioactive materials will be handled). 3 tables

  8. Socioeconomic and sociocultural determinants of psychological distress and quality of life among patients with psoriasis in a selected multi-ethnic Malaysian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Zhenli; Bong, Yii Bonn; Tan, Leng Leng; Lim, Shu Xian; Yong, Adrian Sze Wai; Ch'ng, Chin Chwen; Tan, Maw Pin; Thevarajah, Suganthi; Ismail, Rokiah

    2017-02-01

    Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of psychological comorbidities. This cross-sectional study aimed at determining associations between sociocultural and socioeconomic factors with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) scores and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Adult patients with psoriasis were recruited from a Dermatology outpatient clinic via convenience sampling. Interviews were conducted regarding socio-demographic factors and willing subjects were requested to complete the DASS and DLQI questionnaires. The Pearson χ 2 test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis to determine independent predictors of depression, anxiety, stress and severe impairment of quality of life. Unadjusted analysis revealed that depression was associated with Indian ethnicity (p = .041) and severe impairment of quality of life was associated with Indian ethnicity (p = .032), higher education (p = .013), higher income (p = .042), and employment status (p = .014). Multivariate analysis revealed that Indian ethnicity was a predictor of depression (p = .024). For stress, tertiary level of education (p = .020) was an independent risk factor while a higher monthly income was a protective factor (p = .042). The ethnic Indians and Malays were significantly more likely than the ethnic Chinese to suffer reduced quality of life (p = .001 and p = .006 respectively) and subjects with tertiary education were more likely to have severe impairment of quality of life (p = .002). Our study was unique in determining sociocultural influences on psychological complications of psoriasis in a South East Asian population. This has provided invaluable insight into factors predictive of adverse effects of psoriasis on psychological distress and quality of life in our patient population. Future studies should devise interventions to specifically target at risk groups in the development of strategies to

  9. Demographic characteristics of MS patients in Poland's upper Silesia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzchala, Krystyna; Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Dobrakowski, Pawel; Kubicka-Baczyk, Katarzyna; Niedziela, Natalia; Sowa, Pawel

    2015-05-01

    In Poland, no national registry of MS patients has yet been introduced. So far, no demographic studies have been conducted in patients with MS in Upper Silesia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, a selected demographic and clinical parameters in MS patients from the Upper Silesia region and compare these characteristics with previously published data from other regions of Poland. 640 patients with clinically defined MS, were prospectively and randomly selected for the study. Social, socio-economic, and demographic data were obtained through a questionnaire study. All subjects performed a self-assessment of their health condition using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS version questionnaires. The ratio of women to men was 2.18. The average age of onset was 29.6 ± 11.1 years; the disease duration was 7.9 ± 4.5 years. The relapsing-remitting form of MS was diagnosed in 73.12%. In 71.25% the onset was monofocal and in 28.75% multifocal disease onset was observed. Among the studied population 339 (52.97%) patients were still employed. A mean EQ-VAS score of 66.11 ± 20.12 was calculated. Results from our study identify for the first time the demographic and clinical characteristics of the Upper Silesia MS population.

  10. Demographic and health situation of children in conditions of economic destabilization in the Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2014-01-01

    In new conditions of socio-economic development in the Ukraine, the health of the population of children is considered as the most reliable indicator of socio-economic development of the country. The primary goal of the study was analysis of the effect of contemporary socio-economic transformations, their scope, and strength of effect on the demographic and social situation of children in various regions of the Ukraine. The methodological objectives of the study were as follows: development of a synthetic measure of the state of health of the population of children, based on the Hellwig's method, and selection of districts in the Ukraine according to the present health-demographic situation of children. The study was based on statistical data from the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, Centre of Medical Statistics in Kiev, Ukrainian Ministry of Defence, as well as Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine. The following research methods were used: analysis of literature and Internet sources, selection and analysis of statistical materials, cartographic and statistical methods. Basic indices of the demographic and health situation of the population of children were analyzed, as well as factors of a socio-economic nature which affect this situation. A set of variables was developed for the synthetic evaluation of the state of health of the population of children. The typology of the Ukrainian districts was performed according to the state of health of the child population, based on the Hellwig's taxonomic method. Deterioration was observed of selected quality parameters, as well as a change in the strength and directions of effect of factors of organizational-institutional, socioeconomic, historical and cultural nature on the population of children potential.

  11. Socioeconomic conditions and number of pain sites in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannestad Toril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in deprived socioeconomic situations run a high pain risk. Although number of pain sites (NPS is considered highly relevant in pain assessment, little is known regarding the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and NPS. Methods The study population comprised 653 women; 160 recurrence-free long-term gynecological cancer survivors, and 493 women selected at random from the general population. Demographic characteristics and co-morbidity over the past 12 months were assessed. Socioeconomic conditions were measured by Socioeconomic Condition Index (SCI, comprising education, employment status, income, ability to pay bills, self-perceived health, and satisfaction with number of close friends. Main outcome measure NPS was recorded using a body outline diagram indicating where the respondents had experienced pain during the past week. Chi-square test and forward stepwise logistic regression were applied. Results and Conclusion There were only minor differences in SCI scores between women with 0, 1-2 or 3 NPS. Four or more NPS was associated with younger age, higher BMI and low SCI. After adjustment for age, BMI and co-morbidity, we found a strong association between low SCI scores and four or more NPS, indicating that there is a threshold in the NPS count for when socioeconomic determinants are associated to NPS in women.

  12. Serbian demographers on demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    ageing were singled out the most as significant for examining in the immediate future. The inclusion of Stanovništvo on the Science Citation Information Journal List and expanding the circle of authors were the basic recommendations of the respondents regarding better quality of the journal. All interviewed experts mentioned various kinds of knowledge and characteristics necessary for demographers to posses in order to be successful. Contrary to the homogeneous opinion that a demographer should be a superior-researcher, a wide range of responses were given to the question regarding selecting the best indicator for determining the successfulness of researchers in the study of population. As many as eight out of ten interviewed experts believe population ageing is the greatest population challenge which Serbia is facing. However, a low level of consensus appeared among the demographers as regards the range of the political response. Namely, five experts declared they were pessimists in view of the possibilities for mitigating the challenge they singled out. On the contrary, five interviewed experts expressed optimism, as they believe in the economic development of Serbia, the possibilities of institutional adjustments to demographic changes, and/or in man and his rationality. Conclusion: Demographers in Serbia highly appreciate the discipline they belong to. At the same time they are strict critics and have high expectations in all matters dealing with demography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006: Istraživanje demografskih fenomena u funkciji javnih politika u Srbiji

  13. Choice of place of fruit purchase depending on socio-economic and demographic features of consumers Wybór miejsca zakupu owoców w zależności od cech demograficznych i społeczno-ekonomicznych konsumentów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Czernyszewicz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to establish influence of some consumer features like sex, age, education, income, type of family and source of income for declaration of the place of fruit purchase, reasons of choice of the place of fruit purchase and changeability of consumer preferences between years 2002 and 2006. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the data from questionnaire studies carried out among the inhabitants of Lublin in the years 2002, 2003 and 2006. Results of the studies point out that the consumers’ demographic and socio-economic features significantly differentiated preferences concerning the choice of the place of apple and citrus fruit purchase and had no effect on the place pf seasonal fruits purchase. Term of studies was significantly influenced by preferences concerning place of apples and seasonal fruits purchase. Place of citrus fruit purchase did not significantly change in the analysed period.

  14. Socioeconomic status and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association.......To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association....

  15. Demographic Modelling in Weed Biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to guide the pre-release selection...

  16. Differences in the Neural Mechanisms of Selective Attention in Children from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Lauinger, Brittni; Neville, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds show deficits in aspects of attention, including a reduced ability to filter irrelevant information and to suppress prepotent responses. However, less is known about the neural mechanisms of group differences in attention, which could reveal the stages of processing at…

  17. Smoking behavior in Vietnam: demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    OpenAIRE

    cuong, nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause for diseases and death. Information on factors affecting the smoking status is useful for policies on smoking reduction, especially in developing countries. This paper examines to what extent individuals’ characteristics can affect the smoking status using a household survey in Vietnam. It is found that gender and age are the most crucial determinants of smoking. Middle-aged men is the main users of tobacco. Other important factors associated with the decision on s...

  18. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    to public needs (Government –wide audit report on solid waste 2002). .... of their waste at communal collection containers, into ... respondents indicated the availability of collection services in ... household solid waste management with a high.

  19. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approaches to reduce related morbidity and mortality include screening for cervical cancer and administration of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine to HPV non-infected females to trigger host resistance. The uptake of HPV vaccine globally has been reported to be less than 1%. Objectives: To assess the level and ...

  20. A critical examination of socioeconomic and demographic factors as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe has a long history with e-government. The Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA) traces back the first introduction of an electronic system in the Zimbabwean government to 1972 with the introduction of the Central Computing Services (CCS), which fell under the Ministry of Finance, whose main ...

  1. Association of some socio-economic and socio- Demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth order, maternal education and maternal occupation were important determinants of wasting. There is an urgent requirement of nutritional intervention programmes to ameliorate the nutritional status of the children. Keywords: Malnutrition, Child health, Under Five, Anthropometry, Wasting, Mid upper Arm Circumference, ...

  2. STRATEGIC PLANNING DIMENSIONS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs IN SOUTH AFRICA: THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE AND VARIATIONS IN SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAXWELL SANDADA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the strategic dimensions of SMEs and how each dimension is rated by owners and managers of SMEs. The other objective of the study was to ascertain if differences in strategic planning practices existed with respect to demographic variables namely gender, age and position in the organization. It was found that the main dimensions of strategic planning are mission and vision, environmental scanning, employee participation in the strategic planning process, time horizon of strategic planning, implementation incentives, evaluation and control, formality of strategic planning and source of information about the environment. It was also found that mission and vision, formality of strategic planning and evaluation and control were the most valued factors. No significant statistical difference existed among owners and managers of different age, gender and positions in strategic planning practices. The value of the study is that it offers various dimensions of strategic planning that SMEs can implement to be competitive and sustainable.

  3. Psycho-socioeconomic factors affecting complementary and alternative medicine use among selected rural communities in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Rajendran, Anantha Kumar; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a source of cure has gained much spectrum worldwide, despite skeptics and advocates of evidence-based practice conceptualized such therapies as human nostrum. This study aimed to explore the factors affecting CAM use among rural communities in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 288 occupants across four rural villages within the District of Selama, Perak, Malaysia. A survey that consisted of socio-economic characteristics, history of CAM use and the validated Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) were used. The prevalence of self-reported CAM use over the past one year was 53.1%. Multiple logistic regression analyses yielded three significant predictors of CAM use: monthly household income of less than MYR 2500, higher education level, and positive attitude towards CAM. Psycho-socioeconomic factors were significantly associated with CAM use among rural communities in Malaysia.

  4. Socioeconomic status and self-reported oral health in Iranian adolescents: the role of selected oral health behaviors and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaghi, Vahid; Underwood, Martin; Marinho, Valeria; Eldridge, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated health inequality for self-reported oral health outcomes among adolescents. The role of oral health behaviors and psychological factors in explaining oral health inequality was investigated using the hypothesis of mediation. This was a cross-sectional study that used self-completed questionnaires. This study sampled 639 (315 male and 324 female) 15- to 17-year-old adolescents (second and third grade high school students) of both sexes in the city of Sanandaj in the province of Kurdistan, western Iran. Socioeconomic indicators of the study were subjective socioeconomic status, wealth index, and parental education. Oral health behaviors were measured as toothbrushing frequency, dental flossing frequency, and dental visits. Psychological factors were self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Self-reported oral health outcomes were single item self-rated oral health and the experience of dental pain. Regression analysis was used to test four conditions for the hypothesis of mediation. The results showed that the inequality is present in oral health for some pairs of relationships between socioeconomic status and oral health outcomes. Adjustment for oral health behaviors and psychological factors, individually and simultaneously, led to loss of statistical significance for some pairs of the relationships. However, adjustment for oral health behaviors and psychological factors led to only small changes in the associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study found a graded oral health inequality, but no strong evidence to support the hypothesis that oral health behaviors and psychological factors mediate oral health inequality for self-reported oral health outcomes. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Socioeconomic and demographic profile of leprosy carriers attended in nursing consultations Perfil socioeconómico y demográfico de portadores de lepra atendidos en consulta de enfermería Perfil socioeconômico e demográfico de portadores de hanseníase atendidos em consulta de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Teresinha Cassamassimo Duarte

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a contagious infectious disease that manifests due to unfavorable socioeconomic factors, endemic levels and individual conditions. This study aimed to recognize the socioeconomic and demographic profile and degree of incapacity installed in leprosy carriers attended at the School Health Center in Botucatu. Data were obtained through nursing consultation performed in 37 patients. The results showed a predominance of individuals with stable union (78%, whites (92%, age between 30 and 49 years old (51%, low level of schooling (68% with incomplete primary education and those with per capita familial income less than one minimum salary (59 %. More than one third of the patients investigated (35% presented some degree of physical incapacity. The association of low socioeconomic profile with the presence of physical incapacities assigns greater vulnerability to this population and can negatively influence their quality of life.La lepra es una enfermedad infecto-contagiosa que se manifiesta debido a factores socioeconómicos desfavorables, niveles de endemia y condiciones individuales. El objetivo de este estudio fue reconocer el perfil socioeconómico y demográfico y el grado de incapacidad instalado de los portadores de lepra atendidos en el Centro de Salud Escuela de Botucatu. Los datos fueron obtenidos a través de consulta de enfermería realizada en 37 pacientes. Los resultados mostraron una predominancia de individuos con unión estable (97,8%, blancos (92%, con edad entre 30 y 49 años (51%, con bajo nivel de escolaridad (68 % con enseñanza primaria incompleta y con renta familiar per capita menor que un salario mínimo (59 %. Más de un tercio de los pacientes investigados (35% presentaban algún grado de incapacidad física. La asociación del bajo perfil socioeconómico con la presencia de incapacidades físicas imprime mayor vulnerabilidad a esa población, lo que puede influenciar negativamente su calidad de vida.A hansen

  6. Analysis of the development of selected indicators of the demographic statics and dynamics of the Czech Republic in 1993–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the presentation of findings obtained in the study of the average level, variability, dynamics, developmental trends and a short-time point extrapolation prediction of the population in the Czech Republic and their structure according to gender and scale of the economic generation. In addition to the exact evaluation of the selected indicators, the analysis is also aimed to general rates of natural reproduction of population and their movement in the defined territorial unit and time interval 1993–2003. There are also presented relative rates of marriages, divorces, live births and deaths to mid-year population.

  7. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  8. Socio-demographic characteristics affecting sport tourism choices: A structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Slak Valek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective tourism management in the field of sports tourism requires an understanding of differences in socioeconomic characteristics both within and between different market segments. Objective: In the broad tourism market demographic characteristics have been extensively analyzed for differences in destination choices, however little is known about demographic factors affecting sport tourists' decisions. Methods: A sample of Slovenian sports tourists was analyzed using data from a comprehensive survey of local and outbound tourist activity conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia in 2008. After data weighting the information for 353,783 sports related trips were available for analysis. The research model adopted suggests that four socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, level of education and income significantly affect a tourist's choice of sports related travel either locally within Slovenia or to a foreign country. Furthermore the destination (local or foreign has an influence on the choice of the type of accommodation selected and the tourist's total expenditure for the trip. For testing the first part of our model (the socio-demographic characteristics effects a linear regression was used, and for the final part of the model (the selection of accommodation type and travel expenditure t-test were applied. Results: The result shows the standardized β regression coefficients are all statistically significant at the .001 level for the tested socio-demographic characteristics and also the overall regression model was statistically significant at .001 level. Conclusions: With these results the study confirmed that all the selected socio-demographic characteristics have a significant influence on the sport-active tourist when choosing between a domestic and foreign tourism destination which in turn affect the type of accommodation chosen and the level of expenditure while travelling.

  9. Dancing with Demographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    Demographic projections concerning the shortage of teachers in Canada, their pay scale, the feminization of teaching, the gender gap in salaries, and teacher autonomy have often been incorrect, or correct for the wrong reasons. Instead of relying on demographic predictions, teachers should contemplate who they really want to be professionally,…

  10. Urban-rural variations in health in the Netherlands: does selective migration play a part?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, R.A.; Mheen, H.D. van de; Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: urban-rural health differences are observed in many countries, even when socioeconomic and demographic characteristics are controlled for. People living in urban areas are often found to be less healthy. One of the possible causes for these differences is selective migration with

  11. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  12. Socioeconomic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with dietary patterns of women living in Southern Brazil Fatores sócio-econômicos, demográficos e de estilo de vida associados com padrões alimentares de mulheres residentes no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lenz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the association between dietary patterns and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed in 1,026 adult women from Southern Brazil. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. In the multivariable analysis, a Poisson regression model was used to estimate the prevalence ratio and 95%CI. Wealthier women were more likely to follow healthy diets. A Low Cost Healthy Diet was more prevalent among women with a partner, and a High Cost Healthy Diet was more prevalent among women not currently working and who exercised regularly. Women with lower education levels were less likely to follow a Low Cost Healthy Diet, but more likely to follow the Higher-Risk Low Cost Diet. The Low Cost Higher-Risk Diet was more prevalent among women with a lower income. Low and medium cost healthy diets were positively associated with age. The results showed that women's dietary choices are influenced by socioeconomic factors and are not only dependent on food prices.Para identificar fatores relacionados com padrões alimentares, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional com uma amostra de 1.026 mulheres entre 20 a 60 anos, no Sul do Brasil. Os padrões alimentares foram identificados com análise de componentes principais. Razões de prevalência e intervalos de 95% de confiança foram calculados com regressão de Poisson. Após ajustamento, os padrões alimentares saudáveis foram mais prevalentes em mulheres com melhor escolaridade e classe econômica. Padrão Saudável de Baixo Custo foi mais prevalente entre mulheres casadas/união e Padrão Saudável de Alto Custo naquelas que não trabalhavam e tinham atividade física regular. Mulheres com baixa escolaridade foram menos prováveis de seguir o Padrão Saudável de Baixo Custo, e sim mais prováveis de seguir Padrão de Risco de Baixo Custo. O Padrão de Risco de Baixo Custo também foi mais prevalente

  13. Quality of life among children from São Paulo, Brazil: the impact of demographic, family and socioeconomic variables Qualidade de vida em crianças da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil: impacto das variáveis demográficas, familiares e sócio-econômicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ascenção Klatchoian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0 is a questionnaire that evaluates the health related quality of life of children and adolescents, considering different aspects of their development, including the physical, emotional, social and educational. We verified the impact of demographic, social, and economic factors, as well as the family situation, on the health related quality of life of a group of school children of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The PedsQL 4.0 was applied to 240 children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 and their respective parents. More than two thirds of the families were from lower social strata (C, D, and E. A statistically significant difference was observed in scores when evaluating the health related quality of life across socioeconomic strata and we observed statistically significant differences in the emotional, social, psychosocial and total scores. The PedsQL 4.0 scores obtained through interviews were satisfactory when compared with other urban populations of children and adolescents, probably due to the homogeneity of the population studied.O Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0 é um questionário que avalia a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em crianças e adolescentes nos aspectos físico, emocional, escolar e social. Estudamos o impacto dos fatores demográficos, sociais, econômicos e familiares, na qualidade de vida de um grupo de escolares da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Participaram do estudo 240 crianças e adolescentes de 2 a 18 anos. Mais de 2/3 das famílias eram provenientes de classes sociais C, D e E. Observamos que houve diferença estatisticamente significante nos aspectos emocional, social e no escore psicossocial e total, com escores mais elevados nas crianças das classes A + B, seguidas pela classe C e pela D + E, em todas as situações. Os escores obtidos usando-se a aplicação verbal do PedsQL 4.0 foram satisfatórios quando comparados a outras popula

  14. Do socio-economic disparities in dental treatment needs exist in Lithuanian adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Brukiene, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    To explore disparities in needs for dental treatment which arise from individual and area-based socio-economic determinants. A cross-sectional study conducted in 22 randomly selected Lithuanian areas. In each of the pre-selected areas, one secondary school was randomly chosen. A total of 885 15-16-year-olds participated. Outcome measures. Dental treatment need was evaluated following the WHO guidelines and aQuantitative Summative Dental Treatment Needs Index (QSDTNI) was used to calculate the total burden of needs. The information about socio-economical determinants was obtained from a structured questionnaire and national statistics database. Individual socio-economic status (SES) measures were: parents' occupation, family structure, family income and affordability to have holiday used as a proxy measure for income. The area-based SES estimates were: unemployment, average household income, educational attainment, natural increase/decrease of population in an area and net migration rate. Data was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. None of significant bivariate associations between individual socio-economic variables and the QSDTNI were detected. Among area-based variables natural increase/decrease of population in an area and net migration rate were significantly related to the QSDTNI. Two individual and two area-based factors were extracted and introduced into Linear Multiple Regression Analysis (LMR). The LMR model was significant, but only one factor, i.e. area demographics, significantly contributed to this model. There are no clear social disparities in dental treatment needs in Lithuanian adolescents.

  15. Exile and demographic population growth in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Radoslav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of the 2002 population census on refugee population are analyzed in this paper with a basic aim to determine the significance (contribution of refugee corpus in demographic development of the Republic of Serbia. By analyzing the data, it has been determined that the refugee corpus does not significantly differ from the domicile population in the basic, above all demographic and other qualitative characteristics. The differences which can be noticed with certain (primarily socio-economic characteristics, due to the proportionally small participation of refugee persons in relation to the total (domicile population, could not significantly influence the total demographic, socio-economic and other characteristics of the population of central Serbia and Vojvodina. The most significant contribution of refugee (classifying the refugee corpus in the country's total population is reflected in the mitigation of the depopulation trend, namely population growth, not only both micro-entities, but also lower administrative-territorial entities (districts depending on the enumerated refugee population in them. However, population projections indicate that by the middle of this century (2050 the positive effects of the basically larger number of inhabitants will be lost caused by the inflow of refugee population.

  16. Fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos, ambientais e comportamentais associados ao excesso de peso em adolescentes: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Socioeconomic, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors associated with overweight in adolescents: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Oliveira Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    were consulted (Lilacs, Adolec, SciELO, Medline via Pubmed, ISI Web of Knowlwdge and Cochrane Library between January 3 and 13, 2008. The following key-words and respective MeSH terms were used: "overweight", "obesity", "adolescence", "adolescents", "risk factors", "associated factors". Articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese published between 1997 and 2007 were evaluated, and only observational studies with adolescents aged from 10 to 19 years, diagnosed with OW using international criteria were included. Studies based on convenience samples or that did not investigate social, environmental and psycho-behavioral factors as independent variables were excluded. RESULTS: 202 articles were selected by reading the titles and abstracts and applying initial eligibility criterion. The review of complete publications allowed including and analyzing 56 articles. Socioeconomic level was found to be inversely associated with OW in developed countries and directly associated in developing countries. The habit of going on weight loss diets, the number of hours per day watching TV/video, having an obese mother and/or father and the occurrence of OW in childhood were directly associated with OW. The habit of having breakfast and physical activity were observed to be protective factors. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic, behavioral, family, and childhood variables were associated with OW and should be considered in interventions directed toward the problem among adolescents.

  17. Fatores associados à aptidão clínica para a doação de sangue: determinantes demográficos e socioeconômicos Factors associated to clinical aptness for blood donation: demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Brener

    2008-04-01

    technological advances and increasing demand for blood transfusions. However, despite investment to increase the number of blood donors, there is a chronic shortage of blood. The aim of this study was to compare demographic and social-economic characteristics comparing individuals that were considered eligible with temporarily and permanent non-eligible blood donors. A case-comparison study was carried out at the Blood Donation Center (Hemocentro of Belo Horizonte from a survey involving 3,527 candidates for blood donation. Comparisons stratified by gender were made for all characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to verify the association between the variables and eligibility for blood donation. Candidates for blood donation were similar according to the socio-economic level and dissimilar according to gender, age and type of donation. For both genders, the following characteristics were statistically associated in respect to eligibility for blood donation: to be young (18 to 29 years, to have a stable relationship and employment and not to own an automobile. For men, the presence of less than two people per bedroom of their residence was also statistically significant. Distinct demographic and social-economic profiles were identified in relation to gender and eligibility category. Similar profiles were found between temporarily non-eligible and eligible candidates, especially among women. Therefore, adopting multiple strategies in blood donor recruitment is justified in order to make contact with the different groups.

  18. Adolescent prostitution in south-western Nigeria: demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Adolescent prostitution, an interesting area of reproductive health focus, is of great socioeconomic and medical burden in Nigeria. Objective: This study aims to determine the demographic characteristics and risk factors for adolescent prostitution in Nigeria Method: This was a cross- sectional study using ...

  19. Socio-demographic determinants of antenatal clinic utilization in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of antenatal clinic utilization in a Nigerian university teaching hospital. ... CONCLUSION:Among other social factors female education improved women's ability to take decisions on reproductive matters. Poor education and low socioeconomic status not only increase women's vulnerability ...

  20. Socio-demographic determinants of malnutrition among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Several factors including the parental literacy, illness, socioeconomic status, poor sanitation and hygienic practices affect the physical growth of children. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-demographic determinants of malnutrition among primary school aged children in Enugu, Nigeria. Methods: ...

  1. Individual Differences in Neural Mechanisms of Selective Auditory Attention in Preschoolers from Lower Socioeconomic Status Backgrounds: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Elif; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Neville, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention, the ability to enhance the processing of particular input while suppressing the information from other concurrent sources, has been postulated to be a foundational skill for learning and academic achievement. The neural mechanisms of this foundational ability are both vulnerable and enhanceable in children from lower…

  2. Base line study on demographic and health pattern around uranium mining area at Tummalapalle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondare, Devidas; Bala Krishna, C.; Ganesh, B.; Vinod Kumar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study is to document baseline data on the socio-economic, demographic and health status of the study area with specific objective to generate household information on infrastructure, housing, agriculture, drinking water and sanitation facilities

  3. Socio-demographic determinants of body mass index among school children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry A. Akinsola

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that the BMI of school children is influenced by the socio-demographic characteristics surrounding them. Therefore, efforts should be made to improve the socio-economic standing of families in this community.

  4. Comparison of the Five Danish Regions Regarding Demographic Characteristics, Healthcare Utilization, and Medication Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Rasmussen, Lotte; Hansen, Morten Rix

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers: The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, The Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and The Danish National Health Service Register for Primary Care. We compared the Danish regions regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics...

  5. Socio-economic and cultural determinants of human african trypanosomiasis at the Kenya - Uganda transboundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Jemeli Rutto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r. infection in Teso and Busia Districts, Western Kenya and Tororo and Busia Districts, Southeast Uganda. A conceptual framework was postulated to explain interactions of various socio-economic, cultural and tsetse control factors that predispose individuals and populations to HAT. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between April and October 2008. Four administrative districts reporting T.b.r and lying adjacent to each other at the international boundary of Kenya and Uganda were purposely selected. Household data collection was carried out in two villages that had experienced HAT and one other village that had no reported HAT case from 1977 to 2008 in each district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 384 randomly selected household heads or their representatives in each country. The percent of respondents giving a specific answer was reported. Secondary data was also obtained on socio-economic and political issues in both countries. RESULTS: Inadequate knowledge on the disease cycle and intervention measures contributed considerable barriers to HAT, and more so in Uganda than in Kenya. Gender-associated socio-cultural practices greatly predisposed individuals to HAT. Pesticides-based crop husbandry in the 1970's reportedly reduced vector population while vegetation of coffee and banana's and livestock husbandry directly increased occurrence of HAT. Livestock husbandry practices in the villages were strong predictors of HAT incidence. The residents in Kenya (6.7% applied chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapeutic controls against trypanosomiasis to a

  6. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  7. Perfil demográfico e sócio-econômico da população de internos dos hospitais psiquiátricos da cidade do Rio de Janeiro Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of patients from psychiatric hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Lyra da Silva

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O perfil dos pacientes internados em hospitais psiquiátricos, embora fundamental para implementação de mudanças na política assistencial, nem sempre é conhecido. Realizou-se um censo dos pacientes nos vinte hospitais psiquiátricos do Rio de Janeiro. Neste artigo, são apresentadas as características demográficas e sócio-econômicas dos 3.223 pacientes (66,0% homens; 52,6% com idade inferior a 40 anos em 24 de outubro de 1995. Dentre estes, 73,8% não haviam completado o 1º grau e 25,5% eram analfabetos; 71,6% dos homens e 61,1% das mulheres eram solteiros. Homens e mulheres eram divorciados/separados em igual proporção (13%. À época da primeira internação 43,1% dos pacientes tinham atividade laborativa remunerada. Porém, no momento do censo, apenas metade mantinha essas atividades. Cerca de 50% dos pacientes não recebia visitas ou estas eram esporádicas. Esse dado, juntamente com os fatos de 37,4% estarem internados há mais de um ano e de 65,1% não saírem de licença do hospital, caracteriza uma situação de isolamento. Os resultados do censo são discutidos tendo com base em dados epidemiológicos, e hipóteses são formuladas para explicar alguns desses achados.Knowledge on the characteristics of patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals is essential to adequate care, yet such information is not always available. A survey was conducted on patients in the 20 psychiatric hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This paper presents demographic and socioeconomic data on the study population: 3223 persons (66.0% male; 52.6% under 40 on October 24, 1995. 73.8% had not finished elementary school; 25.5% were illiterate. 71.6% of the males and 61.1% of the females were single. Both groups had the same divorce percentage (13%. 43.1% of patients had jobs at the time of first admission, but only half had kept them by the time of this survey. Some 50% of the patients only received visits at extended intervals or not at all

  8. Socioeconomic Status and Stroke Prevalence in Morocco: Results from the Rabat-Casablanca Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Thomas; Baglione, Quentin; Audibert, Martine; Viallefont, Anne; Mourji, Fouzi; El Alaoui Faris, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. Methods Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. Findings Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural) and richest (mainly urban) households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89). Conclusion We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population, which leads in

  9. Socioeconomic status and stroke prevalence in Morocco: results from the Rabat-Casablanca study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Engels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. METHODS: Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. FINDINGS: Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural and richest (mainly urban households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89. CONCLUSION: We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population

  10. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this screening tool. There are six demographic indicators: Demographic Index, Supplementary Demographic Index, Individuals under Age 5, Individuals over Age 64, Percent Low-Income, Linguistic Isolation, Percent Minority, and Less than High School Education.

  11. Adjudicating socioeconomic rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christo Heunis

    It is trite to say that the adjudication of socio-economic rights is a new enterprise in South African jurisprudence, as it is to the jurisprudence of many other jurisdictions. Professor van Rensburg's paper seeks to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the interpretation and application ...

  12. [Recent demographic trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1982 is presented. A decline in fertility, the first since 1977, is noted, together with an increase in divorce, as well as a negative migration balance for the first time since 1967. Topics covered include natural increase and migration, fertility, marriage and divorce, mortality, adoption, and legislation affecting the family. Special consideration is given to the mortality experience of those who were subjected to compulsory labor during World War II.

  13. Elasticities and the link between demographic and evolutionary dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Multivariate selection models and demographic matrix projections are closely related. The subtle differences among the parameters of both approaches (sensitivities, elasticities, selection differentials, and gradients) can be confusing. I suggest a hierarchical framework for analysis using

  14. Socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics of groups of community and institutionalized elderly Quechua Indians of Peru, and their association with nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Laura; Drusini, Andrea G

    2005-06-01

    Socio-demographic, behavioral, functional and anthropometric data for groups of elderly Quechua Indians of Peru were used to investigate the effects of gender and lifestyle patterns on nutritional status. Two community-dwelling samples were selected for study, representative of divergent lifestyles in terms of their combination of socio-economic, demographic and cultural contexts, plus an ad-hoc sample of institutionalized individuals with controlled food intake and reduced physical activity. Results suggest that differences in socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics exist between the sexes and across settings (low- vs. highland) and lifestyles (institutionalized vs. community-dwelling; semi-urban vs. rural). These factors are likely to be related to diverging dietary and physical activity patterns, and have considerable effects on the nutritional status of the respondents.

  15. [Maternal mortality: the demographic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, D

    1989-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined maternal mortality (MM) as a death following a delivery or during the 42 day period following a prolonged or complicated delivery. This definition is ambiguous because it does not take into account the institutional causes (deficiencies) that lead to MM in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) nor does it reflect all the reasons leading to MM because of the lack of nationwide health information systems and the lack of accurate statistics. While developed countries can depend on the state to provide accurate statistics, developing countries depend on hospitals, health training centers and special surveys to provide such data which often leads to 25-50% gross underestimations of MM. The most recent WHO data (1989) shows that SSA has the highest MM rates worldwide, ranging from 500- 700/100,000 as compared to Asia with 55-650; Latin America with 110-210 and the developed countries with 10-48. The data for SSA doesn't reflect the true situation in the rural areas where MM rates are over 1000/1000,000. MM is a symptom of poor countries where women contribute to their own deaths through repeated pregnancies, causing significant socioeconomic losses to society. UNICEF (1988) has categorized the demographic factors as high risk for women based on: 1) the age of the mother, and 2) the number of pregnancies. Family planning (FP) reduces MM by preventing illegal abortions; it reduces the number of unwanted pregnancies and increases the earnings of a community by reducing the number of pregnant women. The experience of developed countries demonstrates how women have avoided high-risk and unwanted pregnancies.

  16. Demographic characteristics of nuclear installations sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumenc, A.; Faure, J.

    1988-01-01

    The selection of a nuclear installations sites can not be conceived without a deep analysis of demographic context. This analysis permits to define the critical populations around the installation and is an essential element of emergency plans. 1 tab., 2 refs. (F.M.)

  17. demographic factors associated factors associated with malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    .8%) than those in other nce of 35.4% which was actors can predispose alence of malaria in a study were significantly eveloping guidelines and more effective disease endemic areas (Bashar et therefore attempts to rmation on possible demographic factors d out in four selected geria; Major Ibrahim B. Hospital Zaria, Hajiya.

  18. Demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive influence of demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and personality on job performance among civil servants in Southwest Nigeria. The sample consists of 400 civil servants (males = 275, females = 125) randomly selected from Southwestern ...

  19. SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INEQUALITIES AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    and patterns in the socio-economic development in the study area.The pattern ... Department of Urban and Regional Planning ... perspective of network density of paved road ... available and a number of cooperative .... The case of Akwa Ibom.

  20. Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Owusu-Agyei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

  1. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities of child malnutrition in Bangladesh during 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Pulok, Mohammad Habibullah; Sabah, Md Nasim-Us Sabah; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how socioeconomic status and demographic factors determine child malnutrition as well as how these factors account for socioeconomic inequality in child malnutrition over 2007-2011 in Bangladesh. The dataset of this study originates from two cross sectional rounds (2007 and 2011) of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). This study uses standard ordinary least square (OLS) models to estimate the determinants of child malnutrition. This study then employs...

  3. Caregiver Statistics: Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home Selected Long-Term Care Statistics Order this publication Printer-friendly version What is ... needs and services are wide-ranging and complex, statistics may vary from study to study. Sources for ...

  4. Alcohol Consumption in Family Budgets: Effects of Purchasing Power and Households Demographic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García Arancibia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems associated with family alcohol consumption is the effect on household resource distribution, with a larger incidence in those households that are socially more vulnerable. This study examines the influence that household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have on the share of alcoholic beverages in the household budget, using data from Santa Fe, Argentina for the period 2004-2005. Engel parametric curves are estimated using a sample selection model (Tobit type II. The sample is subdivided using the poverty line as the criterion. The results show that the most relevant characteristics differ depending on whether the household is poor or not. In non-poor households, variables such as the age of the household head, the share of women and the number of minors have a statistically significant effect on alcohol’s share of expenditures. In contrast, only characteristics related to purchasing power are relevant in poor households.

  5. Does home equipment contribute to socioeconomic gradients in Australian children’s physical activity, sedentary time and screen time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dot Dumuid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activity behaviours (physical activity, sedentary time and screen time have been linked to health outcomes in childhood. Furthermore, socioeconomic disparities have been observed in both children’s activity behaviours and health outcomes. Children’s physical home environments may play a role in these relationships. This study aimed to examine the associations and interactions between children’s physical home environment, socioeconomic status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and screen time. Methods Australian children (n = 528 aged 9–11 years from randomly selected schools participated in the cross-sectional International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Children’s physical home environment (access to equipment, socioeconomic status (household income and parental education and demographic variables (gender and family structure were determined by parental questionnaire. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively by 7-day 24-h accelerometry. Screen time was obtained from child survey. The associations between the physical home environment, socioeconomic status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and screen time were examined for 427 children, using analysis of covariance, and linear and logistic regression, with adjustment for gender and family structure. Results The presence of TVs (p < 0.01 and video game consoles (p < 0.01 in children’s bedrooms, and child possession of handheld video games (p = 0.04, cell phones (p < 0.01 and music devices (p = 0.04 was significantly and positively associated with screen time. Ownership of these devices (with the exception of music devices was inversely related to socioeconomic status (parental education. Children’s moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (p = 0.04 and possession of active play equipment (p = 0.04 were

  6. Does home equipment contribute to socioeconomic gradients in Australian children's physical activity, sedentary time and screen time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumuid, Dot; Olds, Timothy S; Lewis, Lucy K; Maher, Carol

    2016-08-05

    Activity behaviours (physical activity, sedentary time and screen time) have been linked to health outcomes in childhood. Furthermore, socioeconomic disparities have been observed in both children's activity behaviours and health outcomes. Children's physical home environments may play a role in these relationships. This study aimed to examine the associations and interactions between children's physical home environment, socioeconomic status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and screen time. Australian children (n = 528) aged 9-11 years from randomly selected schools participated in the cross-sectional International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Children's physical home environment (access to equipment), socioeconomic status (household income and parental education) and demographic variables (gender and family structure) were determined by parental questionnaire. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively by 7-day 24-h accelerometry. Screen time was obtained from child survey. The associations between the physical home environment, socioeconomic status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and screen time were examined for 427 children, using analysis of covariance, and linear and logistic regression, with adjustment for gender and family structure. The presence of TVs (p music devices (p = 0.04) was significantly and positively associated with screen time. Ownership of these devices (with the exception of music devices) was inversely related to socioeconomic status (parental education). Children's moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (p = 0.04) and possession of active play equipment (p = 0.04) were both positively associated with socioeconomic status (household income), but were not related to each other (with the exception of bicycle ownership). Children with less electronic devices, particularly in their bedrooms

  7. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  8. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045

  9. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p=0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378 and microcredit membership (p=0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386. Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p<0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460 were more likely to be anemic.

  10. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic determinants of health services utilization in Greece: the Hellas Health I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis; Oikonomou, Nikolaos; Pallikarona, Georgia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Mariolis, Anargiros; Pappa, Evelina; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the demographic and socioeconomic determinants of utilization of the Greek primary and hospital health care services. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional nationwide household survey Hellas Health I (2006). The sample (N = 1005) was representative of the Greek adult population in terms of age and residency, and was selected by means of a three-stage, proportional-to-size sampling design. The presence of a family doctor was reported in a higher degree by participants of higher social classes and private insurance. After adjusting for self-perceived general health and chronic illness, contacts with health care professionals during the past four weeks were found less for residents of rural areas, while contacts with health care professionals during the past 12 months were found less for men than women, for individuals without private insurance and for individuals of lower education. More out-of-pocket payments were reported by the 34-44 age group, rural area residents and individuals with private insurance. Higher use of private health care services was reported by participants of higher social classes and residents of rural areas and private insurance. Only hospital admissions were not directly influenced by demographic and socioeconomic factors. The findings imply the existence of inequities in access and use of primary health services with clear implications to related policies.

  11. Association of Living Arrangement Conditions and Socioeconomic Differentials with Anemia Status among Women in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda; Feng, Zhanchun

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036-1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037-1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981-2.460) were more likely to be anemic.

  12. Socio-economic predictors of performance in the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette

    2013-11-29

    largely reflected substantial socio-demographic differences across Australian states and territories. Better performance by Australian candidates in the UMAT is linked to an increase in socio-economic advantage and reduced disadvantage.This observation provides a firm foundation for selection processes at medical schools in Australia that have incorporated affirmative action pathways to quarantine places for students from areas of socio-economic disadvantage.

  13. Economic study of socioeconomic characteristics and resource use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in 2008 in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Primary data which were obtained from randomly selected maize farmers were used for the study. Both socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers and production activities were studied. The socioeconomic characteristics were ...

  14. Impact of socioeconomic factors on outcome of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Robert L; Ruh, Erin L; Chen, Jiajing; Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Parvizi, Javad; Della Valle, Craig J; Hamilton, William G; Nunley, Ryan M

    2014-01-01

    Few data exist regarding the impact of socioeconomic factors on results of current TKA in young patients. Predictors of TKA outcomes have focused primarily on surgical technique, implant details, and individual patient clinical factors. The relative importance of these factors compared to patient socioeconomic status is not known. We determined whether (1) socioeconomic factors, (2) demographic factors, or (3) implant factors were associated with satisfaction and functional outcomes after TKA in young patients. We surveyed 661 patients (average age, 54 years; range, 18-60 years; 61% female) 1 to 4 years after undergoing modern primary TKA for noninflammatory arthritis at five orthopaedic centers. Data were collected by an independent third party with expertise in collecting healthcare data for state and federal agencies. We examined specific questions regarding satisfaction, pain, and function after TKA and socioeconomic (household income, education, employment) and demographic (sex, minority status) factors. Multivariable analysis was conducted to examine the relative importance of these factors for each outcome of interest. Patients reporting incomes of less than USD 25,000 were less likely to be satisfied with TKA outcomes and more likely to have functional limitations after TKA than patients with higher incomes; no other socioeconomic factors were associated with satisfaction. Women were less likely to be satisfied and more likely to have functional limitations than men, and minority patients were more likely to have functional limitations than nonminority patients. Implants were not associated with outcomes after surgery. Socioeconomic factors, in particular low income, are more strongly associated with satisfaction and functional outcomes in young patients after TKA than demographic or implant factors. Future studies should be directed to determining the causes of this association, and studies of clinical results after TKA should consider stratifying patients

  15. The Impact Of Demographic Factors On Organisational Commitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Study Investigated the Impact of demographic factors on organization commitment among workers in selected work organizations in Lagos State of Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relevance of demographic factors on workers' commitment to organizations goal achievement in Nigeria. The ex-post ...

  16. Population growth, demographic change, and cultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, G; Sage, C

    1994-01-01

    The inclusion of both ecological and socioeconomic components within landscapes makes possible the perception of the hierarchical character of landscape organization. A research approach is needed to conceptualize cultural landscapes as the product of interaction between society and nature. Richard Norgaard's 1984 paper on coevolutionary agricultural development attempts to meet this challenge. Coevolution is the interactive synthesis of natural and social mechanisms of change that characterize the relationship between social systems and ecosystems. The relationship between population, consumption, and environmental changes is complex. Currently industrialized countries present the biggest threat to global environmental resources. The issue of carrying capacity is the corollary of population and the environment. It is primarily the technological factor rather than population that needs to be controlled. The relationship between rich and poor countries is determined by superior economic power. An analysis of landscape change is made, tracing the coevolution of society and environment from the end of the feudal era and making comparisons with continental Europe. Over the years since 1945 the need to realize potential economies of scale has resulted in a wholesale loss of woodlands, hedgerows, and small ponds in the UK. In a global context the likely impacts of population growth and demographic change on landscapes will be influenced by such socioeconomic factors as technology and affluence; policies that ignore cause and effect; and the traditional tendency to treat the environment as a waste repository and a supply depot.

  17. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years.

  19. Demographic structure and macroeconomic trends

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Yunus; Basso, H.S.; Smith, Ronald; Grasl, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in demographic structure on long term\\ud trends of key macroeconomic variables using a Panel VAR for 21 OECD economies from 1970-2014. The panel data variation assists the identification of demographic effects, while the dynamic structure,\\ud incorporating multiple channels of influence, uncovers long-term effects.\\ud We propose a theoretical model, relating demographics, innovation and\\ud growth, whose simulations match our empirical findings. The current\\ud...

  20. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

  1. socio-economic population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    not ideal, underscores the peculiarities of experience in a general hospital in a low socio-economic setting. In conclusion, hernia surgery in a general hospital setting can be safely performed with the judicious use of intravenous Kctamine in children and emergency adult surgery as long as awareness of its side-effects and.

  2. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  3. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  4. A Community Patient Demographic System

    OpenAIRE

    Gabler, James M.; Simborg, Donald W.

    1985-01-01

    A Community Patient Demographic System is described. Its purpose is to link patient identification, demographic and insurance information among multiple organizations in a community or among multiple registration systems within the same organization. This function requires that there be a competent patient identification methodology and clear definition of local responsibilities for number assignment and database editing.

  5. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  6. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors affecting anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gogoi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child

  7. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors affecting anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gogoi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child

  8. Monitoring of health and demographic outcomes in poor urban settlements: evidence from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques; Beguy, Donatien; Zulu, Eliya M; Ezeh, Alex C; Muindi, Kanyiva; Elung'ata, Patricia; Otsola, John K; Yé, Yazoumé

    2011-06-01

    The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) was set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements to provide a platform for investigating linkages between urban poverty, health, and demographic and other socioeconomic outcomes, and to facilitate the evaluation of interventions to improve the wellbeing of the urban poor. Data from the NUHDSS confirm the high level of population mobility in slum settlements, and also demonstrate that slum settlements are long-term homes for many people. Research and intervention programs should take account of the duality of slum residency. Consistent with the trends observed countrywide, the data show substantial improvements in measures of child mortality, while there has been limited decline in fertility in slum settlements. The NUHDSS experience has shown that it is feasible to set up and implement long-term health and demographic surveillance system in urban slum settlements and to generate vital data for guiding policy and actions aimed at improving the wellbeing of the urban poor.

  9. ONWI socioeconomic activities in support of SRPO socioeconomic program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The introduction describes the purpose of ONWI's Socioeconomic Program for SRPO nuclear waste repository program and the organization within ONWI dedicated to socioeconomic activities. Chapter 2 of this report, Statutory Requirements and Mission Plan Strategy, documents the specific directives and guidelines contained in the NWPA and in the Mission Plan that define DOE's socioeconomic responsibilities. Chapter 3, ONWI Socioeconomic Objectives and Activities to Assist SRPO, describes ONWI's socioeconomic objectives and provides a detailed discussion of the major activities planned to assist SRPO in the impact assessment, mitigation, and monitoring phases of the program. Chapter 4 lists references cited in the report. 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Socioeconomic trends in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. (orig.)

  11. Socioeconomic factors as predictors of organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malay B; Vilchez, Valery; Goble, Adam; Daily, Michael F; Berger, Jonathan C; Gedaly, Roberto; DuBay, Derek A

    2018-01-01

    Despite numerous initiatives to increase solid organs for transplant, the gap between donors and recipients widens. There is little in the literature identifying socioeconomic predictors for donation. We evaluate the correlation between socioeconomic factors and familial authorization for donation. A retrospective analysis of adult potential donor referrals between 2007 and 2012 to our organ procurement organization (OPO) was performed. Potential donor information was obtained from the OPO database, death certificates, and the US Census Report. Data on demographics, education, residence, income, registry status, cause and manner of death, as well as OPO assessments and approach for donation were collected. End point was familial authorization for donation. A total of 1059 potential donors were included, with an overall authorization rate of 47%. The majority was not on the donor registry (73%). Younger donors (18-39 y: odds ratio [OR] = 4.9, P donation first mentioned by the local health care provider (OR = 1.8, P = 0.01) were also independently associated with higher authorization rates. Donor registration correlated most strongly with the highest authorization rates. These results indicate that public educational efforts in populations with unfavorable socioeconomic considerations may be beneficial in improving donor registration. Collaborations with local providers as well as OPO in-hospital assessments and approach techniques can help with improving authorization rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of socioeconomic factors in injured children at Mousavi and Valiasr hospitals of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hasaniha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Injury is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality that deprives the injured individuals of a normal life but also imposes high emotional and financial costs for the patients and their family. This study was done in order to determine the socioeconomic factors in injured children at Mousavi and Valiasr hospitals of Zanjan.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 650 injured children under 15 who referred to Mousavi and Valiasr hospitals of zanjan were randomly selected. Using a questionnaire, information on demographic and socioeconomic factors including sex, age, and type of injury, parents' age, occupation and salary were gathered. Data was analyzed using measure of central tendency, frequency tables and Chi-Square Test.Results: From 650 injured children, %61.5 were boys and %38.5 were girls. The mean (SD age of these children was 7.8 (4.3. Three hundred eighty five of the children (%59.2 were urban and 265 (%40.8 were rural. Most of injured children had a father who was worker or a mother who was housewife. The level of education of parents was low in most cases. Furthermore, the frequency of injuries in children had a significant association with family income and socioeconomic factors.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that carrying out prevention programs for students and parents, especially families of low socioeconomic status has a major role in reducing injury risk factors from the children's living environment.  

  13. Opportunity for natural selection among some selected population groups of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Farida Ahmed; Mithun, Sikdar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for seven population groups inhabiting different geographical locations of Northeast India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crow’s as well as Johnston and Kensinger’s index have been used for the present purpose. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among the Deoris followed by the Kaibartas. The lowest selection index was found among the Oraon population. If the relative contribution of fertility and mortality components to the total index is considered to be multiplicative, it is observed that in all these communities the fertility component exceeds that of mortality component, which may indicate initiation of demographic transitional phase in the selected populations with the betterment of healthcare and socioeconomic condition within the last few decades. PMID:21031053

  14. Opportunity for natural selection among some selected population groups of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Farida Ahmed; Mithun, Sikdar

    2010-05-01

    Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for seven population groups inhabiting different geographical locations of Northeast India. Crow's as well as Johnston and Kensinger's index have been used for the present purpose. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among the Deoris followed by the Kaibartas. The lowest selection index was found among the Oraon population. If the relative contribution of fertility and mortality components to the total index is considered to be multiplicative, it is observed that in all these communities the fertility component exceeds that of mortality component, which may indicate initiation of demographic transitional phase in the selected populations with the betterment of healthcare and socioeconomic condition within the last few decades.

  15. Regional Resilience of the Ural Federal District in Economic Shocks and Crises: Medico-Demographic and Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Health, demographic and environmental consequences of 1998 and 2008 economic crises for the Ural Federal District are considered in the paper. Regional resilience is defined as the ability of a regional socio-economic system to withstand, absorb or overcome an internal or external economic shock. The quantitative analysis of regional resilience of the subject entities of the Ural Federal District is based on two interrelated dimensions: resistance, those are the vulnerability or sensitivity of a regional socio-economic system to disturbances and disruptions; and the speed and extend of recovery from such a disruption. Because resilience as a concept captures resistance to the shock and recovery from it, resistance indexes and recovery indexes are used for assessing the impact of regions to recessionary shocks. Three sets of resilience indicators were used: economic, environmental and medico-demographic ones. The main criteria for selecting resilience indicators were their robustness as a measure of the territorial impact of the economic crisis and availability of long time series. Special attention is paid to the question identification of the qualitative and quantitative factors, which form the territorial characteristics enabling some regions to resist, or move out of, economic downturn more effectively than others. Unfortunately, a valid answer to the question why some regions are more able to withstand an economic downturn than others, or are able to recover faster, cannot be given at present. Resilience to an economic shock does not necessarily imply that the economy is otherwise strong and performing well over the longer-term. Regions that experience strong economic growth prior to a shock may appear to be less resilient. Such components of the regional socio-economic system as reserves of natural resources, sectoral structure of regional economy, skills of population, diversified economy and quality of governance do not define uniquely

  16. [The demographic potential of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A

    1998-05-01

    This is a general review of current demographic trends in Russia. The author analyzes the decline in population size that is taking place at the end of the twentieth century, and traces its origins as far back as the disturbances associated with World War I, the Communist revolution, and the civil war that followed it. Political repression during the Stalinist period and the tribulations experienced during World War II also contributed to the current demographic crisis. The author discusses the changes in migration patterns and the declining fertility and increasing mortality rates. The decline in life expectancy is also addressed. Some comparisons are made with the demographic situation in other European countries.

  17. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  18. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  19. Neck pain in a sample of Greek urban population (fifteen to sixty-five years): analysis according to personal and socioeconomic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranjalis, George; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Stavrinou, Lampis C; Tsamandouraki, Kiki; Alamanos, Yiannis

    2011-07-15

    A cross-sectional study of neck pain and its related aspects in a sample of Greek urban population (15-65 years). To estimate the prevalence of neck pain in a Greek urban population (15-65 years) and to study the association of neck pain with several socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The results of several prevalence studies carried out in different populations indicate a high frequency of neck pain in the general population. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are likely to influence neck pain frequency and neck pain-associated burden. A 1000-person sample of the general Greek population (15-65 years) living in the Greek capital and other urban centers of the country was selected by multiple-stage sampling, with definition of sample quotas based on demographic characteristics. Data on neck pain and its related aspects, including healthcare utilization, as well as demographic, socioeconomic, and employment data, were collected through personal interviews. Of the 204 individuals who reported neck pain during the last month, 35 (17.2%) consulted a physician, 72 (35.3%) received medication, and 15 (7.4%) stayed in bed for some time, during this period and because of neck pain. The mean duration of pain for individuals who reported neck pain during the last month was 12 days. A total of 8.6% of working individuals who experienced neck pain during the last month reported work absenteeism due to this pain, during this period; the mean duration of absence was 4.6 days. Neck pain frequency was related to several sociodemographic factors. Female sex, increased age, and being married showed a statistically significant association with the presence of neck pain. The present results indicate that neck pain is a common symptom in the studied Greek urban population. Nevertheless, relatively few individuals seek medical advice for this symptom. Neck pain frequency is associated with age, sex, and marital status.

  20. Socioeconomic status as an effect modifier of alcohol consumption and harm: analysis of linked cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Whitley, Elise; Lewsey, Jim; Gray, Linsay; Leyland, Alastair H

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors. The Scottish Health Surveys are record-linked cross-sectional surveys representative of the adult population of Scotland. We obtained baseline demographics and data for alcohol consumption (units per week and binge drinking) from Scottish Health Surveys done in 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. We matched these data to records for deaths, admissions, and prescriptions. The primary outcome was alcohol-attributable admission or death. The relation between alcohol-attributable harm and socioeconomic status was investigated for four measures (education level, social class, household income, and area-based deprivation) using Cox proportional hazards models. The potential for alcohol consumption and other risk factors (including smoking and body-mass index [BMI]) mediating social patterning was explored in separate regression models. Reverse causation was tested by comparing change in area deprivation over time. 50 236 participants (21 777 men and 28 459 women) were included in the analytical sample, with 429 986 person-years of follow-up. Low socioeconomic status was associated consistently with strikingly raised alcohol-attributable harms, including after adjustment for weekly consumption, binge drinking, BMI, and smoking. Evidence was noted of effect modification; for example, relative to light drinkers living in

  1. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeredolu Patricia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

  2. Association of an adult obesity, blood pressure adulthood socio-economic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Zahra Dana; Abdoli, Aminreza; Shahsanaee, Armindokht

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate an effect of childhood and adulthood socio-economic position on selected cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, blood pressure level and smoking behavior. This is a cross-sectional study performed on 479 individuals, randomly selected by random clustered sampling from men and women aged 30-50 years, living in Esfahan. Their demographic characteristics, education, occupation and smoking behavior were questioned. Their weight, height and blood pressure were also measured, and their BMI (Body Mass Index) was calculated. The data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software. In men, the odds ratio for ever smoking to never smoking at higher levels of education in comparison with the lower levels was 6.08 (2.65-14.11). For manual occupation to non-manual occupation, it was 3.55 (1.88-6.68). The odds ratio for obesity and overweight vs no overweight, for manual occupation to non-manual occupation was 3.12 (1.81-5.40) in men and for father's occupation it was 2.03 (1.10-3.74). In women, their education with the odds ratio of 2.11 (1.17-3.82) and father's occupation with the odds ratio of 6.63 (3.50-12.58) altered their chance of being obese or overweight. Also, in women, the mean systolic blood pressure was significantly lower at higher educational levels and in those whose fathers' occupation were manual but lower in manual workers. The current socio-economic position in individuals is associated with an obesity and smoking behavior, particularly in men. Childhood socio-economic position increases the chance of an obesity and higher blood pressure, particularly in women.

  3. Socioeconomic and psychosocial correlates of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Mejía, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    It has been proposed that psychosocial variables are important determinants of oral health outcomes. In addition, the effect of socioeconomic factors in oral health has been argued to work through the shaping of psychosocial stressors and resources. This study therefore aimed to examine the role of psychosocial factors in oral health after controlling for selected socioeconomic and behavioural factors. Logistic and generalised linear regression analyses were conducted on self-rated oral health, untreated decayed teeth and number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) from dentate participants in a national survey of adult oral health (n = 5364) conducted in 2004-2006 in Australia. After controlling for all other variables, more frequent dental visiting and toothbrushing were associated with poorer self-rated oral health, more untreated decay and higher DMFT. Pervasive socioeconomic inequalities were demonstrated, with higher income, having a tertiary degree, higher self-perceived social standing and not being employed all significantly associated with oral health after controlling for the other variables. The only psychosocial variables related to self-rated oral health were the stressors perceived stress and perceived constraints. Psychosocial resources were not statistically associated with self-rated oral health and no psychosocial variables were significantly associated with either untreated decayed teeth or DMFT after controlling for the other variables. Although the role of behavioural and socioeconomic variables as determinants of oral health was supported, the role of psychosocial variables in oral health outcomes received mixed support. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. High Altitude Remains Associated with Elevated Suicide Rates after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status: A Study from South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaelim; Choi, Nari; Lee, Yu-Jin; An, Hyonggin; Kim, Namkug; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    There have been several studies supporting a possible relationship between high suicide rate and high altitude. However socioeconomic status may confound this association because low socioeconomic status, which is known to be related to a high suicide rate, is also associated with living at high altitude. This study aims to explore whether the relationship between high altitude and high suicide rate remains after adjusting for socioeconomic status in South Korea. We collected demographic data...

  5. Geothermal development in southwest Idaho: the socioeconomic data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.

    1979-09-01

    This report inventories, analyzes, and appraises the exiting socioeconomic data base for the ten counties in southwest Idaho that would be impacted by any significant geothermal development. The inventory describes key sociological demographic, and economic characteristics, and presents spatial boundaries, housing data, and projections of population and economic activity for the counties. The inventory identifies the significant gaps in the existing data base and makes recommendations for future research.

  6. Geothermal development in southwest Idaho: the socioeconomic data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer,S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This report inventories, analyzes, and appraises the existing socioeconomic data base for the ten counties in southwest Idaho that would be impacted by any significant geothermal development. The inventory describes key sociological demographic, and economic characteristics, and presents spatial boundaries, housing data, and projections of population and economic activity for the counties. The inventory identifies the significant gaps in the existing data base and makes recommendations for future research.

  7. Testicular microlithiasis is associated with ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a database of scrotal...... on the examination report and a representative image obtained and stored. A total of 1105 cases with TML were reviewed and random sample of 1105 controls from the same database was also reviewed. Demographics were recorded including ethnicity (white, black, and others) and socioeconomic groups (IMD Quintile......). RESULTS: Black men had increased prevalence of TML (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72-2.75) compared with white men. Among the 1105 TML cases, 423 (38.3%) were white, 273 (24.7%) black, 152 (13.8%) had other ethnicities, and 257 (23.2%) had no ethnicity recorded. In the control...

  8. Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-10-01

    The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105,000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. Demographic inferences from large-scale NGS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil Tingskov

    .g. human genetics. In this thesis, the three papers presented demonstrate the advantages of NGS data in the framework of population genetics for elucidating demographic inferences, important for understanding conservation efforts, selection and mutational burdens. In the first whole-genome study...... that the demographic history of the Inuit is the most extreme in terms of population size, of any human population. We identify a slight increase in the number of deleterious alleles because of this demographic history and support our results using simulations. We use this to show that the reduction in population size...

  10. Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Artha J; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    There is a large proportion of minority youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Disproportionate minority contact (DMC) occurs when the proportion of any ethnic group is higher at any given stage in the juvenile justice process than the proportion of this group in the general population. There are several theories explaining the presence and persistence of DMC. This article reviews the history of DMC and the theories and implications of this problem. It discusses several targets for interventions designed to reduce DMC and offer resources in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Demographics in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, James S.

    2011-05-01

    Astronomy has been undergoing a significant demographic shift over the last several decades, as shown by data presented in the 2000 National Research Council (NRC) report "Federal Funding of Astronomical Research," and the 2010 NRC report, "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics." For example, the number of advertised postdoctoral positions in astronomy has increased much more rapldly than the number of faculty positions, contributing to a holding pattern of early-career astronomers in multiple postdoctoral positions. This talk will summarize some of the current demographic trends in astronomy, including information about gender and ethnic diversity, and describe some of the possible implications for the future. I thank the members of the Astro2010 Demographics Study Group, as well as numerous white-paper contributors to Astro2010, for providing data and analyses.

  12. Social demographic change and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Parental age at child's birth--which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992-2000 birth cohorts--is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents' DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism.

  13. Indicadores sócio-econômicos, demográficos e estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes residentes em um assentamento rural do Rio de Janeiro Socioeconomic and demographic indicators and nutritional status of children in a rural land settlement in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Valeria da Veiga

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se indicadores sócio-econômicos e perfil nutricional de 201 crianças e adolescentes do assentamento rural de São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Considerou-se déficit nutricional valores abaixo de -2 escore z da mediana da referência National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS para os índices peso para idade (P/I e estatura para idade (E/I para os menores de 5 anos e peso para estatura (P/E e E/I entre 5,0 a 9,9 anos. Para os adolescentes utilizou-se os cortes inferiores ao percentil 5 (magreza e superiores ao percentil 85 (sobrepeso da distribuição de índice de massa corporal (IMC da população brasileira. Encontrou-se: 53,8% dos domicílios com 4 a 6 moradores, 34,5% com fossa rudimentar, 31,2% sem água canalizada, 11,0% sem banheiro, 58,2% queimavam ou enterravam o lixo e 13,6% das mães eram analfabetas. A faixa de 0 a 4,9 anos não apresentou nenhum tipo de déficit nutricional e entre 5 a 9,9 anos apenas um apresentou baixo peso e três sobrepeso. Concluiu-se que a baixa prevalência de déficits nutricionais no grupo estudado, apesar da exposição a fatores de risco, pode relacionar-se com a presença de fatores de proteção como o acesso a serviços de saúde e que o sobrepeso em adolescentes (13,3% foi relevante.This study evaluated socioeconomic indicators and nutritional status in 201 children and adolescents in a rural land settlement in São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Nutritional deficit was defined as a value below -2 z score for the reference median from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS for weight-for-age (W/A and stature-for-age (S/A for children under five years of age and weight-for-stature (W/S and S/A for children from 5.0 to 9.9 years. For adolescents, the study used cut-off points at the 5th percentile (thin and 85th percentile (overweight from the distribution of body mass index (BMI in the Brazilian population. According to the study, 53.8% of the households had 4 to 6

  14. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  15. Influence of Family and Socio-Demographic Variables on Students with Low Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Pedro F.; Garcia-Linares, M. Cruz; de la Torre, Manuel J.; Carpio, M. de la Villa

    2005-01-01

    In this study we compare the distribution of parental educational styles and the scores reported both by parents and students for various family characteristics (acceptance, control, involvement, and expectations) and socio-demographic factors (socio-economic status, family structure, number of children, and order of birth of the children) in a…

  16. Using Twitter data for demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Yildiz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social media data is a promising source of social science data. However, deriving the demographic characteristics of users and dealing with the nonrandom, nonrepresentative populations from which they are drawn represent challenges for social scientists. Objective: Given the growing use of social media data in social science research, this paper asks two questions: 1 To what extent are findings obtained with social media data generalizable to broader populations, and 2 what is the best practice for estimating demographic information from Twitter data? Methods: Our analyses use information gathered from 979,992 geo-located Tweets sent by 22,356 unique users in South East England between 23 June and 4 July 2014. We estimate demographic characteristics of the Twitter users with the crowd-sourcing platform CrowdFlower and the image-recognition software Face++. To evaluate bias in the data, we run a series of log-linear models with offsets and calibrate the nonrepresentative sample of Twitter users with mid-year population estimates for South East England. Results: CrowdFlower proves to be more accurate than Face++ for the measurement of age, whereas both tools are highly reliable for measuring the sex of Twitter users. The calibration exercise allows bias correction in the age-, sex-, and location-specific population counts obtained from the Twitter population by augmenting Twitter data with mid-year population estimates. Contribution: The paper proposes best practices for estimating Twitter users' basic demographic characteristics and a calibration method to address the selection bias in the Twitter population, allowing researchers to generalize findings based on Twitter to the general population.

  17. Socioeconomic position and the primary care interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Anders

    2018-01-01

    to the easiness to interpret the symptoms of the underlying cancer. Methods. We conducted a population-based cohort study using survey data on time intervals linked at an individually level to routine collected data on demographics from Danish registries. Using logistic regression we estimated the odds......Introduction. Diagnostic delays affect cancer survival negatively. Thus, the time interval from symptomatic presentation to a GP until referral to secondary care (i.e. primary care interval (PCI)), should be as short as possible. Lower socioeconomic position seems associated with poorer cancer...... younger than 45 years of age and older than 54 years of age had longer primary care interval than patients aged ‘45-54’ years. No other associations for SEP characteristics were observed. The findings may imply that GPs are referring patients regardless of SEP, although some room for improvement prevails...

  18. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  19. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Ebener, Stefan; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  20. Are Demographics the Nation's Destiny?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Gene V.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the demographic trends affecting America's public schools. As an expert on empirical evaluation of education, the author believes the major debates over vouchers, charter schools, bilingual education, and other issues are not really about preparing the next generation to compete with China or India, or about…

  1. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...

  2. Socioeconomic data base report for Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This report is published as a product of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The objective of this program is to develop terminal waste storage facilities in deep, stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear wastes. Domed salt formations within the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin are among areas under consideration for repository sites. Within this region, the Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome in southeastern Mississippi are being evaluated as potential repository sites. This document presents socioeconomic baseline data for an eight-county area (50-mile radius) surrounding the Richton and Cypress Creek Dome sites and most likely to be affected by repository development. Information presented provides part of the technical basis upon which socioeconomic impacts can be assessed and repository sites selected, evaluated, and licensed

  3. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  4. Socioeconomic status and patterns of care in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, A.; Vinod, S.K.; Jalaludin, B.; Yuile, P.; Delaney, G.P.; Barton, M.

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival

  5. Socioeconomic modifications of the universal soil loss equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, A.; Koşkan, Ö.; Başaran, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    While social scientists have long focused on socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical modelers typically study soil loss using physical factors. In the current environment, it is becoming increasingly important to consider both approaches simultaneously for the conservation of soil and water, and the improvement of land use conditions. This study uses physical and socioeconomic factors to find a coefficient that evaluates the combination of these factors. It aims to determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on soil loss and, in turn, to modify the universal soil loss equation (USLE). The methodology employed in this study specifies that soil loss can be calculated and predicted by comparing the degree of soil loss in watersheds, with and without human influence, given the same overall conditions. A coefficient for socioeconomic factors, therefore, has been determined based on adjoining watersheds (WS I and II), employing simulation methods. Combinations of C and P factors were used in the USLE to find the impact of their contributions to soil loss. The results revealed that these combinations provided good estimation of soil loss amounts for the second watershed, i.e., WS II, from the adjoining watersheds studied in this work. This study shows that a coefficient of 0.008 modified the USLE to reflect the socioeconomic factors, such as settlement, influencing the amount of soil loss in the studied watersheds.

  6. Socio-economic modifications of the Universal Soil Loss Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, A.; Koşkan, Ö.; Başaran, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    While social scientists have long focused on socio-economic and demographic factors, physical modelers typically study soil loss using physical factors. In the current environment, it is becoming increasingly important to consider both approaches simultaneously for the conservation of soil and water, and the improvement of land use conditions. This study uses physical and socio-economic factors to find a coefficient that evaluates the combination of these factors. It aims to determine the effect of socio-economic factors on soil loss and, in turn, to modify the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The methodology employed in this study specifies that soil loss can be calculated and predicted by comparing the degree of soil loss in watersheds, with and without human influence, given the same overall conditions. A coefficient for socio-economic factors, therefore, has been determined based on adjoining watersheds (WS I and II), employing simulation methods. Combinations of C and P factors were used in the USLE to find the impact of their contributions on soil loss. The results revealed that these combinations provided good estimation of soil loss amounts for the second watershed, i.e. WS II, from the adjoining watersheds studied in this work. This study shows that a coefficient of 0.008 modified the USLE to reflect the socio-economic factors as settlement influencing the amount of soil loss in the watersheds studied.

  7. Socio-economic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small

  8. [Recent demographic trends in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, C

    1993-01-01

    Coverage of Turkey's vital registration system remains incomplete, and it cannot yet be used to measure annual population changes. Data and demographic indices based on the 1990 census and the 1989 National Demographic Survey are the most recent available. Turkey's population in 1990 was 56 million. The proportion urban increased to 59% from 49.2% in 1980. Nearly 35% of the population was under 15 years old, and the median age was 21.6 for males and 22.3 for females. The average age at first marriage in 1989 was 24.8 for men and 21.8 for women. Mortality has been in continuous decline. The crude death rate dropped from 16.4/1000 in 1960-65 to slightly under 8 in 1989. Life expectancy at birth was 63.3 for men and 66 for women. The infant mortality rate declined from 166 in 1965-70 to 85 in 1989. Rural or urban residence and maternal educational level were the most significant determinants of infant mortality differentials. Turkey's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1960 to 4.3 in 1978 and 3.4 in 1988-89. The crude birth rate declined from around 40/1000 in 1968 to under 28/1000 in 1989. Fertility began to decline in the last third of the nineteenth century in Istanbul and other large cities of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul's total fertility rate was a relatively low 3.9 even before World War I. Turkey adopted a policy to slow demographic growth in the mid 1960s, and family planning activities were supported by nongovernmental organizations. The direct impact of these policies on demographic behavior appears to have been somewhat limited, and the use of traditional methods of birth limitation remains widespread. Abortion was legalized in 1983 and is available at public hospitals. The proportion of married women aged 15-49 who use contraception increased from 38% in 1973 to 63% in 1988. Regional differentials in demographic indices are significant in Turkey, with the Anatolian East and Southeast lagging behind other regions in fertility and mortality decline

  9. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  10. Socioeconomic status and health of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates

  11. Discovering complex interrelationships between socioeconomic status and health in Europe: A case study applying Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Studies assume that socioeconomic status determines individuals' states of health, but how does health determine socioeconomic status? And how does this association vary depending on contextual differences? To answer this question, our study uses an additive Bayesian Networks model to explain the interrelationships between health and socioeconomic determinants using complex and messy data. This model has been used to find the most probable structure in a network to describe the interdependence of these factors in five European welfare state regimes. The advantage of this study is that it offers a specific picture to describe the complex interrelationship between socioeconomic determinants and health, producing a network that is controlled by socio-demographic factors such as gender and age. The present work provides a general framework to describe and understand the complex association between socioeconomic determinants and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Socio-demographic predictors of sleep complaints in indigenous Siberians with a mixed economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah J; Klimova, Tatiana M; Knuston, Kristen L; Fedorova, Valentina I; Fedorov, Afanasy; Yegorovna, Baltakhinova M; Leonard, William R

    2015-08-01

    Socio-demographic indicators closely relate to sleep in industrialized populations. However we know very little about how such factors impact sleep in populations undergoing industrialization. Within populations transitioning to the global economy, the preliminary evidence has found an inconsistent relationship between socio-demographics and sleep complaints across countries and social strata. Surveys were conducted on a sample of rural Sakha (Yakut) adults (n = 168) during the autumn of 2103 to assess variation in socio-demographics and sleep complaints, including trouble sleeping and daytime sleepiness. Socio-demographic variables included age, gender, socioeconomic measures, and markers of traditional/market-based lifestyle. We tested whether the socio-demographic variables predicted sleep complaints using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions. Trouble sleeping was reported by 18.5% of the participants and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) by 17.3%. Trouble sleeping was significantly predicted by older age, female gender, and mixing traditional and market-based lifestyles. EDS was not significantly predicted by any socio-demographic variable. These findings support the few large-scale studies that found inconsistent relationships between measures of socioeconomic status and sleep complaints in transitioning populations. Employing a mix of traditional and market-based lifestyles may leave Sakha in a space of vulnerability, leading to trouble sleeping. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E; Engen, Phillip A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with a

  14. Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.A.; Meenan, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

  15. Economic Effects of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litra A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania goes through profound changes due to unprecedented demographic developments. As a result of declining birth rates and emigration after 1990, by the year 2060 is looming a possible doubling of the percentage of the population 65 years and over, from 15 to 30%, and the working age population to fall by about 30 percent. Deterioration of the relationship between labour force and inactive population leads to pressure on the public budget and tax system, strains on pension and social security systems, redefining consumer preferences, type and size of the saved or spent amounts, higher demand for healthcare services, increasing poverty risk for elderly households.

  16. Demographic Determinants of Locus of Control among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Levenson Multidimensional Locus of Control Inventory and a Socio - demographic data collection sheet were used to collect data from 262 (183 males and 79 females) students selected through convenience sampling. Data were th analyzed using the 16th version of the SPPS. Percentages, means, t-test and ANOVA ...

  17. Projecting Drivers of Human Vulnerability under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohat, Guillaume

    2018-03-19

    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) are the new set of alternative futures of societal development that inform global and regional climate change research. They have the potential to foster the integration of socioeconomic scenarios within assessments of future climate-related health impacts. To date, such assessments have primarily superimposed climate scenarios on current socioeconomic conditions only. Until now, the few assessments of future health risks that employed the SSPs have focused on future human exposure-i.e., mainly future population patterns-, neglecting future human vulnerability. This paper first explores the research gaps-mainly linked to the paucity of available projections-that explain such a lack of consideration of human vulnerability under the SSPs. It then highlights the need for projections of socioeconomic variables covering the wide range of determinants of human vulnerability, available at relevant spatial and temporal scales, and accounting for local specificities through sectoral and regional extended versions of the global SSPs. Finally, this paper presents two innovative methods of obtaining and computing such socioeconomic projections under the SSPs-namely the scenario matching approach and an approach based on experts' elicitation and correlation analyses-and applies them to the case of Europe. They offer a variety of possibilities for practical application, producing projections at sub-national level of various drivers of human vulnerability such as demographic and social characteristics, urbanization, state of the environment, infrastructure, health status, and living arrangements. Both the innovative approaches presented in this paper and existing methods-such as the spatial disaggregation of existing projections and the use of sectoral models-show great potential to enhance the availability of relevant projections of determinants of human vulnerability. Assessments of future climate-related health impacts should thus rely

  18. A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdul Nasir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

  19. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-13

    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  20. Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Mihić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary research results. With respect to the subject matter, research goals as well as previous findings and primary research results, corresponding hypotheses were set and mainly confirmed. The results showed that demographic factors, such as the age and working status, are related to most impulse buying indicators and to the impulsivity collective indicator. However, household income produced opposite results. Household income proved to have no major influence on the majority of impulse buying indicators but to be related noticeably to the collective impulsivity indicator, indicating that this result should be regarded with caution. Research results also pointed to the fact that the majority of individual indicators (innovativeness, tendency to the fashionable and shopping enjoyment are positively and negatively related to the impulse buying behavior and that individual difference factors have a greater influence on impulse buying than do demographic characteristics. The paper also summarizes research limitations as well as the work contribution and future research guidelines.

  1. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  2. Socioeconomic and demographic factors contributing to outcomes in patients with primary lymphoma of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Jacobs

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: This population-based study of PLB identified age, marital status, and tumor location as independent indicators of prognosis. This finding supports the clinical suspicion that an appendicular tumor location confers a better prognosis than an axial tumor location.

  3. Demographic and Socio-economic Determinants of Smoking Behavior: Evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Cuong Viet Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause for diseases and death. Information on factors affecting the smoking status is useful for policies on smoking reduction, especially in developing countries. This paper examines to what extent individuals' characteristics are correlated with the smoking status using a household survey in Vietnam. It is found that gender and age are the most crucial determinants of smoking. Middle-aged men is the main users of tobacco. Other important factors associated with the decis...

  4. Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse : Evidence from the 2006 Census

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Nicholas; Yap, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Across almost all standard indicators, the Indigenous population of Australia has worse outcomes than the non-Indigenous population. Despite the abundance of statistics and a plethora of government reports on Indigenous outcomes, there is very little information on how Indigenous disadvantage accumulates or is mitigated through time at the individual level. The research that is available highlights two key findings. Firstly, that Indigenous disadvantage starts from a very early age and widens...

  5. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte

    regressed on SES indicators (percentage of: recent immigrants, lack of high school diploma, population under 35 yr, and average household income in Euros) using negative binomial analysis. Findings: In the fully adjusted models, income was significantly associated with fast food exposure......, but not with supermarket exposure. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income, in the presence of populations under 35 yrs of age, remained a significant predictor for fast food outlet exposure (IRR = 0.66-0.80) in the final model. Conclusions: In the city of Copenhagen, low-income neighborhoods...... have better exposure to supermarkets than their high income counterparts. However, we detected the opposite trend in the patterning of fast food outlets, such that neighborhoods in the lowest income quartile had less exposure to food outlets than higher income ones. These findings support studies...

  6. Demographic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Local Financial Autonomy in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Dănuţ Vasile JEMNA; Mihaela ONOFREI; Elena CIGU

    2013-01-01

    Local autonomy is a rarely explored concept in the literature, still holding an increasing importance in the current context of Romania’s development in the European Union. In this paper we attempt to provide an overall survey on the financial dimension of local autonomy, assuming that local autonomy cannot be implemented, unless local authorities have adequate financial resources. In this study we also analyze the possibility to measure the local revenue autonomy and to identify the variable...

  7. Demographic and Socio-economic Determinants of Birth Interval Dynamics in Manipur: A Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanajaoba Singh N,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The birth interval is a major determinant of levels of fertility in high fertility populations. A house-to-house survey of 1225 women in Manipur, a tiny state in North Eastern India was carried out to investigate birth interval patterns and its determinants. Using survival analysis, among the nine explanatory variables of interest, only three factors – infant mortality, Lactation and use of contraceptive devices have highly significant effect (P<0.01 on the duration of birth interval and only three factors – age at marriage of wife, parity and sex of child are found to be significant (P<0.05 on the duration variable.

  8. Socioeconomic and work related determinants of pregnancy outcome in Southern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuntiseranee, Pitchaya; Olsen, Jørn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    1999-01-01

    to November 1995. The pregnant women were followed up from the 17th week of gestation until delivery. The socioeconomic indicators selected were family socioeconomic status, maternal education, maternal occupation, family income and work exposure characteristics based upon Karasek's job content questionnaires...... with small for gestational age. Confounder adjustment indicated that the observed social status differences in pregnancy outcomes were mainly attributable to mother's characteristics and antenatal service use. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic indicators alone were not associated with reduced fetal growth...

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in the use of outpatient services in Brazil according to health care need: evidence from the World Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza-Júnior Paulo RB

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian health system is founded on the principle of equity, meaning provision of equal care for equal needs. However, little is known about the impact of health policies in narrowing socioeconomic health inequalities. Using data from the Brazilian World Health Survey, this paper addresses socioeconomic inequalities in the use of outpatient services according to intensity of need. Methods A three-stage cluster sampling was used to select 5000 adults (18 years and over. The non-response rate was 24.7% and calibration of the natural expansion factors was necessary to obtain the demographic structure of the Brazilian population. Utilization was established by use of outpatient services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Socioeconomic inequalities were analyzed by logistic regression models using years of schooling and private health insurance as independent variables, and controlling by age and sex. Effects of the socioeconomic variables on health services utilization were further analyzed according to self-rated health (good, fair and poor, considered as an indicator of intensity of health care need. Results Among the 5000 respondents, 63.4% used an outpatient service in the year preceding the survey. The association of health services utilization and self-rated health was significant (p Conclusions The analysis showed that the social gradient in outpatient services utilization decreases as the need is more intense. Among individuals with good self-rated health, possible explanations for the inequality are the lower use of preventive services and unequal supply of health services among the socially disadvantaged groups, or excessive use of health services by the wealthy. On the other hand, our results indicate an adequate performance of the Brazilian health system in narrowing socioeconomic inequalities in health in the most serious situations of need.

  10. Socioeconomic disparities in maternity care among Indian adolescents, 1990-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010; and adolescent (aged 15-19 mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG-5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15-19 in India during 1990-2006. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990-2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. CONCLUSION: Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive 'adolescent scheme' along the lines of 'Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and Child

  11. "Where People Like Me Don't Belong": Faculty Members from Low-Socioeconomic-Status Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines class as a potential source of stigma faculty members from low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) backgrounds. Based on 47 interviews with demographically diverse respondents at a wide range of institutions, the article examines respondents' narratives of direct and indirect stigmatization around class as well as respondents'…

  12. Prevalence, distribution and correlates of tobacco smoking and chewing in Nepal: a secondary data analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Harsha Kumar, Hn; Sathian, Brijesh; Arokiasamy, John T

    2011-12-20

    Nearly four-fifths of estimated 1.1 million smokers live in low or middle-income countries. We aimed to provide national estimates for Nepal on tobacco use prevalence, its distribution across demographic, socio-economic and spatial variables and correlates of tobacco use. A secondary data analysis of 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was done. A representative sample of 9,036 households was selected by two-stage stratified, probability proportional to size (PPS) technique. We constructed three outcome variables 'tobacco smoke', 'tobacco chewer' and 'any tobacco use' based on four questions about tobacco use that were asked in DHS questionnaires. Socio-economic, demographic and spatial predictor variables were used. We computed overall prevalence for 'tobacco smoking', 'tobacco chewing' and 'any tobacco use' i.e. point estimates of prevalence rates, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for strata and clustering at primary sampling unit (PSU) level. For correlates of tobacco use, we used multivariate analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% CIs. A p-value smoking' and 'tobacco chewing' were 30.3% (95% CI 28.9, 31.7), 20.7% (95% CI 19.5, 22.0) and 14.6% (95% CI 13.5, 15.7) respectively. Prevalence among men was significantly higher than women for 'any tobacco use' (56.5% versus 19.6%), 'tobacco smoking' (32.8% versus 15.8%) and 'tobacco chewing' (38.0% versus 5.0%). By multivariate analysis, older adults, men, lesser educated and those with lower wealth quintiles were more likely to be using all forms of tobacco. Divorced, separated, and widowed were more likely to smoke (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.14, 1.94) and chew tobacco (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.97, 1.93) as compared to those who were currently married. Prevalence of 'tobacco chewing' was higher in eastern region (19.7%) and terai/plains (16.2%). 'Tobacco smoking' and 'any tobacco use' were higher in rural areas, mid-western and far western and mountainous areas. Prevalence of

  13. Sleep in adolescents of different socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Pereira Gomes Felden

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population.

  14. Relation Between Demographic Factors And Hospitalization In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation Between Demographic Factors And Hospitalization In Patients With Gastrointestinal Disorders, Using Quantail Regression Analysis. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate relation between demographic factors and hospitalization in gastrointestinal disorders.

  15. Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 juin 2009 ... Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in Developing Countries ... countries comes from analysis of demographic and health survey data. ... Navrongo (Ghana), Matlab (Bangladesh) and Filabavi (Viet Nam) ...

  16. Socioeconomic inequality of diabetes patients' health care utilization in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortsø, Camilla; Lauridsen, Jørgen; Emneus, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Understanding socioeconomic inequalities in health care is critical for achieving health equity. The aim of this paper is threefold: 1) to quantify inequality in diabetes health care service utilization; 2) to understand determinants of these inequalities in relation to socio-demographic and clin......Understanding socioeconomic inequalities in health care is critical for achieving health equity. The aim of this paper is threefold: 1) to quantify inequality in diabetes health care service utilization; 2) to understand determinants of these inequalities in relation to socio...... differences in inequality estimates. While income, alike other measures of labor market attachment, to a certain extent is explained by morbidity and thus endogenous, education is more decisive for patients' ability to take advantage of the more specialized services provided in a universal health care system....

  17. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  18. Socio-Economic Characteristics Of Snail Farmers, Consumers And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic characteristic of snail farmers in Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) was evaluated in two out of the four zones that were available. The two zones selected were Ibadan/Ibarapa and Oyo zones, to determine the factors related to snail production, consumption and marketing in the ...

  19. Socio-economic and partner relationship factors associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven hundred and eighty seven second to third trimester pregnant women were recruited at booking for antenatal care at two primary health care clinics. Prenatal structured interviews assessed socio-economic, quality of partner relationships and selected physical health measures. Depressive symptoms were measured ...

  20. Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Crop Farmers' Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the influence of socio-economic factors on crop farmers production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. Purposive and stratefied random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River Project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured ...

  1. Socio-Economic Status as Predictor of Deviant Behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated socio-economic status as predictor of deviant behaviours among Nigeria secondary school students. The subject were sixty five students with an age range of 10 – 19 years drawn from Senior secondary school (SSS) 1 – III in four secondary schools in Oyo State. The subjects were selected from those ...

  2. Socio-economic Determinants of Domestic Violence Suffered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by rural women crop farmers in Orlu agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 80 rural women crop farmers for the study. Data were collected using structured interview schedule and ...

  3. Socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; Nigeria. Primary data was collected using a well structured questionnaire administered to 180 registered cocoa farmers selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ...

  4. Human Capital Development in Nigeria: A Socio-Economic Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper establishes the link between education and selected human development indicators. Rapid socio-economic development has been observed to depend essentially on the calibre of human capital in a nation. Although Nigeria is one of the most populous nations in Africa, the country is still largely ...

  5. The Socio-Demographic Changes in Romania: an Analysis from the Human Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara BORZA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The social and demographic changes registered in recent years, at European and Romanian level, have produced some effects visible in various reference areas. By this paper, we propose to achieve an empirical analysis meant to emphasize the main socio-economic changes of the last 10 years and their influence on the human society development. Based on the inventory of statistical data referring to the socio-demographic dynamics and using a research methodology based on inductive reasoning, dynamic and dialectics analysis, we will obtain some results of research that indicate: the human development is in positive evolution, even the number of population is decreasing.

  6. Transportation and quantitative analysis of socio-economic development of relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun

    2017-12-01

    Transportation has a close relationship with socio-economic. This article selects the indicators which can measure the development of transportation and socio-economic, using the method of correlation analysis, regression analysis, intensity of transportation analysis and transport elastic analysis, to analyze the relationship between them quantitatively, so that it has the fact guiding sense in the national development planning for the future.

  7. Integrating environmental and socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.M.; Cluett, C.; Page, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969, considerable scientific and regulatory attention has been given to the preparation of environmental impact assessments. Part of this attention has been directed to definition of the proper scope of an environmental assessment and to debate about how the ''human environment'' should be addressed. This debate continues, and is reflected in the ongoing evolution of the definition of and relationship between the ''environmental'' and ''socioeconomic'' components of an integrated environmental impact assessment. This paper discusses the need for close integration between the environmental and socioeconomic assessment efforts and examines some of the benefits and difficulties of achieving this integration

  8. THE SECOND DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY: A Review and Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Batool; Morgan, S Philip

    2017-07-01

    References to the second demographic transition (SDT) concept/theoretical framework have increased dramatically in the last two decades. The SDT predicts unilinear change toward very low fertility and a diversity of union and family types. The primary driver of these changes is a powerful, inevitable and irreversible shift in attitudes and norms in the direction of greater individual freedom and self-actualization. First, we describe the origin of this framework and its evolution over time. Second, we review the empirical fit of the framework to major changes in demographic and family behavior in the U.S., the West, and beyond. As has been the case for other unilinear, developmental theories of demographic/family change, the SDT failed to predict many contemporary patterns of change/difference. Finally, we review previous critiques and identify fundamental weaknesses of this perspective, and provide brief comparisons to selected alternative approaches.

  9. Socio-demographic correlates of divorce in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, G A

    1988-05-01

    "This paper links data obtained from a one-in-five systematic sample of New Zealand divorce files covering the period 1940-78 with published marriage and birth statistics to examine socio-demographic differentials in divorce rates among couples married between 1939 and 1973. Differentials investigated are those by age at marriage, relative age of bride and groom, marital status prior to marriage, relative marital status of bride and groom, pregnancy status of the wife at marriage, timing of the first birth, religion, country of birth and socioeconomic status. Several findings of overseas studies, such as the special proneness to divorce of very youthful marriages and remarriages following previous divorces, are verified for New Zealand. After controlling for age at marriage, pregnancy does not seem to have directly increased the risk of divorce." excerpt

  10. MEDICO-DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION IN THE REPUBLICS OF CHECHNYA AND INGUSHETIA IN 2005-2010

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Evloeva

    2012-01-01

    Political and socio-economical destabilization, military conflicts, lack of infrastructure and massive migratory movements formed a current medico-demographic situation in the Republics of Chechnya and Ingushetia: the fertility and birth rates here are very high and exceeds twice the same figures all over the Russian Federation. At the same time the infant mortality and feto-infantile losses rates are also very high. The high fertility leads to overpopulation, low per capita income, worsening...

  11. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS), round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines ...

  12. Socio-demographic, Epidemiological and Environmental Determinants of Acute Gastroenteritis in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Prafulbhai Rupani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Socio-demographic factors (higher socio-economic status, epidemiological correlates (change in taste of water, another family member been affected with acute gastroenteritis and eating outside food and environmental determinants (waste disposal in a common dump and waste accumulation around house significantly determines the occurrence of cases of acute gastroenteritis. Keywords: case-control studies;diarrhea; epidemiologic determinants; gastroenteritis; social determinants of health. | PubMed

  13. Food and families' socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, J D

    1994-09-01

    This paper explores the relationship between food expenditures and consumption patterns and families' socioeconomic status in the United States. Three themes follow through the paper. One is that as income rises over time and across socioeconomic groups, a smaller percent of that income is spent of food. Simultaneously, a larger percent of the food dollar buys services and food preparation moves farther away from the home. Second, characteristics of people like age and ethnicity contribute to diversity in food consumption but labor force participation by women has led the trend in away-from-home-food preparation. New scientific information and technology have changed attitudes about nutrition and food safety and their linkages to health. Finally, the continuous introduction of affordable new foods into the diet and culture of families in all socioeconomic groups has been a quiet evolution. Trying to differentiate socioeconomic groups in the United States by their food and nutritional status is almost a nonstory except for fascinating intragroup diversities that change rapidly in the postmodern society.

  14. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of

  15. Testicular microlithiasis is associated with ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Malene R; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren R; Osther, Palle J; Vedsted, Peter; Sellars, Maria E; Sidhu, Paul S; Møller, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. From a database of scrotal ultrasound examinations in a single institution, all men who underwent routine ultrasound examinations for a variety of symptoms from 1998 to 2015 were included. Skilled observers performed all examinations, and presence of any form of intra-testicular calcification, including TML, was recorded on the examination report and a representative image obtained and stored. A total of 1105 cases with TML were reviewed and random sample of 1105 controls from the same database was also reviewed. Demographics were recorded including ethnicity (white, black, and others) and socioeconomic groups (IMD Quintile). Black men had increased prevalence of TML (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72-2.75) compared with white men. Among the 1105 TML cases, 423 (38.3%) were white, 273 (24.7%) black, 152 (13.8%) had other ethnicities, and 257 (23.2%) had no ethnicity recorded. In the control group of 1105 men without TML, 560 (50.7%) were white, 171 (15.5%) black, 111 (10.0%) had other specified ethnicities, and 263 (23.8%) had no ethnicity recorded. Men from the most deprived socioeconomic groups had higher prevalence of TML than men in the most affluent groups, with a trend in OR from the least deprived to the most deprived group. Pathogenesis and clinical relevance of TML is unknown but our results point towards possible ethnic and socioeconomic variation in the underlying causes of TML.

  16. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preliminary socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bolton, P.A.; Malhotra, S.; McStay, J.R.; Slingsby, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report was prepared as a part of the continuing site characterization activities for a proposed nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) to be located on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The purpose of this study is to assess the social and economic impacts that could be caused by the construction and operation of the proposed NWRB facility. The specific objectives of this study are to describe historical socioeconomic trends in the study area, to describe current conditions, to project future baseline conditions without the NWRB, to project potential impacts due to the proposed NWRB under two alternative regional development scenarios and assess their significance, and to suggest an overall impact management and mitigation strategy. A closely related objective is to assemble a comprehensive socioeconomic data base that can be easily updated for future analyses. This study examines employment, labor supply, population change, housing, local transportation, revenues, and expenditures for public services. This report documents the marked demographic and economic decline that has occurred in the study area since 1981 and concludes that future baseline growth will resume at a relatively slower pace after further expected declines have been experienced through about 1985. The projected socioeconomic impacts of the NWRB development are assessed under two alternative baseline scenarios and are not expected to be significant in either case. With careful planning and attention to impact mitigation, including public participation and interaction with local and regional planning agencies, potential socioeconomic impacts can be anticipated and managed effectively. Recommendations are made for providing frequent updating of the data base and for improving the analysis of socioeconomic impacts. 68 references, 19 figures, 38 tables

  17. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  18. Public health and demographic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, C.H.; Loebl, A.S.; Miller, F.L.; Ritchey, P.N. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to assess the methodology and available data sources appropriate for use in analytical studies and environmental impact statements concerning the health effects of nuclear power plants. The techniques developed should be applicable as well to evaluation of the known risks of high levels of radiation exposure and of conflicting evidence on low-level effects, such as those associated with the normal operations of nuclear power plants. To accomplish this purpose, a two-pronged approach has been developed. The first involves a determination of the public health and demographic data sources of local, state, and federal origin that are available for use in analyses of health effects and environmental impact statements. The second part involves assessment of the methods used by epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other scientists as found in the literature on health effects. This two-pronged approach provides a means of assessing the strength and shortcomings of studies of the impact of nuclear facilities on the health of the general population in a given locality

  19. Demographic, social, and economic effects on Mexican causes of death in 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, J B; Butler, E W

    1998-01-01

    This study examined spatial geographic patterns of cause of death and 28 demographic and socioeconomic influences on causes of death for 31 Mexican states plus the Federal District for 1990. Mortality data were obtained from the state death registration system and are age standardized. The 28 socioeconomic variables were obtained from Census records. Analysis included 2 submodels: one with all 28 socioeconomic variables in a stepwise regression, and one with each of the 4 groups of factors. The conceptual model is based on epidemiological transition theory and empirical findings. There are 4 stages in mortality decline. Effects are grouped as demographic, sociocultural, economic prosperity, and housing, health, and crime factors. Findings indicate that cancer and cardiovascular disease were strongly correlated and consistently high in border areas as well as the Federal District and Jalisco. Respiratory mortality had higher values in the Federal District, Puebla, and surrounding states, as well as Jalisco. The standardized total mortality rate was only in simple correlations associated inversely with underemployment. All cause specific mortality was associated with individual factors. Respiratory mortality was linked with manufacturing work force. Cardiovascular and cancer mortality were associated with socioeconomic factors. In submodel I, cause specific mortality was predicted by crowding, housing characteristics, marriage and divorce, and manufacturing work force. In submodel II, economic group factors had the strongest model fits explaining 33-60% of the "r" square. Hypothesized effects were only partially validated.

  20. Correlation between perception of quality of life and social/demographic/medical variables as well as anti-health behaviours among alcohol-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The level of life quality of people with alcohol dependence is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as: gender, marital status and having a family. Additionally promoting anti-health behaviors such as smoking or using psychoactive substances among those with alcohol dependence also reduces the quality of life in this population. Aim of the research: The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of selected psycho-social and medical factors on the quality of life in alcohol-dependent patients in relation to the duration of abstinence. Study data served to determine whether there is a correlation between the presence of selected psycho-social and medical factors and a patient’s subjective perception of his/her quality of life. Material and methods: The study involved alcohol-dependent patients undergoing treatment in the Residential Alcohol Addiction Therapy Department of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lublin. In the first stage of the study, the severity of the alcohol problem was assessed with the MAST and CAGE tests and quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. An Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. In the second stage of the study, the SF-36 scale was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. Results : The socio-economic factors that had a statistically significant impact on the quality of life of the alcohol-dependent individuals comprised sex, marital status and having a family. Marital status was shown to be one of the most important family-related factors significantly influencing the quality of life. Having a family was not a factor associated with subjective improvement of the quality of life during abstinence for alcohol-dependent individuals. Awareness of socio-economic and medical factors influencing quality of life in individuals addicted to alcohol and gambling is an important

  1. Socio-Economic Environment as the Basis for Innovation Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Akhmetova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors carried out a correlation analysis of the socio-economic environment factors, which have a decisive influence on the territorial innovative development according to data for the year 2012. The paper discloses socio-economic determinants that provide to reinforce territory’s innovative development. These determinants are higher education development, improving of social and transport infrastructure, growth in small business and trade. The paper also carried out a dynamic analysis according to data for period of 2012 - 2014 in the group of regions (Russian Federation "Generators of Innovations" and disclosed the positive impact of selected key determinants on the regional innovative development. The results of this research may be used in the government practice of different territories (countries, regions for decision-making in the field of socio-economic development.

  2. Socioeconomic inequality and child maltreatment in Iranian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Z; Nedjat, S; Aflatouni, A; Mahram, M; Majdzadeh, R

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and child maltreatment have not been studied using the concentration index as an indicator of inequality. The study aimed to assess the association of child maltreatment with socioeconomic status among schoolchildren in Qazvin province, Islamic Republic of Iran. In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire based on the ISPCAN Child Maltreatment Screening Tool-Children's Version and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire was filled by 1028 children aged 9-14 years, selected through multistage stratified random sampling. The concentration indices for economic inequality were -0.086 for any type of child maltreatment and -0.155, -0.098 and -0.139 for the physical, psychological and neglect subtypes of maltreatment respectively. The number of children and the economic status of the family also showed a significant association with child maltreatment in all 3 subtypes. Appropriate planning for effective interventions for at-risk children of lower socioeconomic status should be considered by the relevant decision-makers.

  3. Evaluation of socio-demographic variables affecting the periodontal health of pregnant women in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagjit Singh Dhaliwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature is replete with reports that pregnant women have an increased level of periodontal disease as compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. There are many studies correlating the effect of periodontal disease on the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The development of periodontal diseases during pregnancy can be influenced by factors such as preexisting oral conditions, general health, and socio-cultural background. There is very little data studying the effect of socio-demographic factors on the periodontal health of pregnant women. This study evaluated the periodontal status of a sample of pregnant women of Chandigarh and adjoining areas. The study also investigated the relationship between these variables and a series of demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: The participants were 190 pregnant women attending Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient department of Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. The participants were examined for their periodontal health and various socio-demographic variables were recorded on performas designed for the purpose of study. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The results revealed that the mean bleeding index scores and probing depth increased with statistical significance when the socio-economic status was lower ( P0.1. The plaque index was not significantly associated with the socio-economic status, profession, place of residence, and trimester of pregnancy ( P>0.1. Conclusion: In the population of pregnant women investigated under this study, the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics showed non-significant correlation except socio-economic status which showed statistically significant correlation with bleeding on probing and pocket depth. Further studies may be required in Indian population to determine the association of periodontal diseases in pregnant women with socio-demographic variables.

  4. Gender inequalities and demographic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A summary was provided of the central findings about gender inequalities in Egypt, India, Ghana, and Kenya published by the Population Council in 1994. These countries exhibited gender inequalities in different ways: the legal, economic, and educational systems; family planning and reproductive health services; and the health care system. All countries had in common a high incidence of widowhood. Widowhood was linked with high levels of insecurity, which were linked with high fertility. Children thus became insurance in old age. In Ghana, women's insecurity was threatened through high levels of marital instability and polygyny. In Egypt, insecurity was translated into economic vulnerability because of legal discrimination against women when family systems were disrupted. In India and all four countries, insecurity was reflective of limited access to education, an impediment to economic autonomy. In all four countries, women's status was inferior due to limited control over reproductive decision making about childbearing limits and contraception. In India, the cultural devaluation of girls contributed to higher fertility to satisfy the desire for sons. In India and Egypt, family planning programs were dominated by male-run organizations that were more concerned about demographic objectives than reproductive health. The universal inequality was the burden women carry for contraception. Family planning programs have ignored the local realities of reproductive behavior, family structures, and gender relations. The assumption that husbands and wives have similar fertility goals or that fathers fully share the costs of children is mistaken in countries such as Ghana. Consequently, fertility has declined less than 13% in Ghana, but fertility has declined by over 30% in Kenya. Family planning programs must be aware of gender issues.

  5. Adolescent sleep disturbance and school performance: the confounding variable of socioeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, James F; Forister, Natalie; Kwiatkowki, Carol

    2007-02-15

    To assess how selected socioeconomic variables known to affect school performance alter the association between reported sleep disturbance and poor school performance in a contiguous middle school/high school population. A school district/college IRB approved questionnaire was distributed in science and health classes in middle school and high school. This questionnaire included a frequency scaled pediatric sleep disturbance questionnaire for completion by students and a permission and demographic questionnaire for completion by parents (completed questionnaires n = 238 with 69.3% including GPA). Sleep complaints occur at high frequency in this sample (sleep onset insomnia 60% > 1 x /wk.; 21.2% every night; sleepiness during the day (45.7% > 1 x /wk.; 15.2 % every night), and difficulty concentrating (54.6% > 1 x /wk.; 12.9% always). Students with lower grade point averages (GPAs) were more likely to have restless/aching legs when trying to fall asleep, difficulty concentrating during the day, snoring every night, difficulty waking in the morning, sleepiness during the day, and falling asleep in class. Lower reported GPAs were significantly associated with lower household incomes. After statistically controlling for income, restless legs, sleepiness during the day, and difficulty with concentration continued to significantly affect school performance. This study provides additional evidence indicating that sleep disturbances occur at high frequencies in adolescents and significantly affect daytime performance, as measured by GPA. The socioeconomic variable of household income also significantly affects GPA. After statistically controlling for age and household income, the number and type of sleep variables noted to significantly affect GPA are altered but persistent in demonstrating significant effects on school performance.

  6. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity as predictors of regional infant mortality rate in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Kollarova, Jana; Rosic, Martin; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exploring the associations of regional differences in infant mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity could offer important clues for designing public health policy measures. Methods Data included perinatal and infant mortality in the 79 districts of the Slovak

  8. Socio Demographic Determinants of Delivery Practice in Rural Women of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meherunnessa Begum

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every year, world wide, 200 million women become pregnant. The development of urban areas allowed women to receive more care and treatment. However, in rural areas such measures are not available to every woman. Data on delivery practice of rural woman may help the social and public health planners and decision makers to minimize and prevent maternal mortality and morbidity ensuring safe motherhood.Objective: The aim of the study was to observe the delivery practice of rural women of Bangladesh.Materials and method: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected from Dhamrai upazila, Dhaka, Bangladesh in April 2008. Total 159 women of reproductive age group at least having one child were selected purposively to elicit information on various demographic, socioeconomic, cultural and selected programmatic variables including maternal health care and delivery practices.Results: Among the respondents about 55% were literate. Majority (80% of the respondents delivered at home and most of the them (71% felt that home delivery was comfortable where as about 29% of the respondents were compelled to deliver at home due to family decision and financial constraint. Among the deliveries about 82% occurred normally and 18.2% were by cesarean section. A considerable percentage of deliveries (49% were attended by traditional birth attendants. Blade was used for cutting umbilical cord in majority of the cases (74% who delivered at home. Most of the respondents (90% took ante natal check up and about 74% were vaccinated by tetanus toxoid.Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that a lot of work is still to do for the policy makers and health planners to target, plan, develop and deliver maternal health services to the rural women of Bangladesh.

  9. Factors Associated with Malnutrition among Under-Five Children: Illustration using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2014 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Talukder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children in Bangladesh by analyzing the data from a nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS in 2014. The ordinal dependent variable—child nutrition status (severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, and nourished—was developed by calculating weight-for-age Z score (WAZ. Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing gamma measure and chi-square test of independence to explore the association between child nutrition status and selected independent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular ordinal model—namely, the proportional odds (PO model—was considered. All the selected covariates were found highly significant (p < 0.01 in the bivariate setup. However, in the multivariate setup, father’s and mother’s education, wealth index, mother’s body mass index (BMI, and antenatal care service during pregnancy were found highly significant (p < 0.01 factors for child malnutrition. Among the divisions, only Dhaka had more control on child malnutrition, compared to the Sylhet division. Birth interval of children was also reported as a significant factor at a 5% level of significance. Finally, the results of this paper strongly highlighted the necessity of increasing parent’s education level, improving the mother’s nutritional status, and increasing facilities providing antenatal care service in order to achieve better nutrition status among under-five children in Bangladesh.

  10. Public Pension Reform, Demographics, and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    von Weizsäcker, Robert K

    1994-01-01

    Starting from a simple, descriptive model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system is introduced. The resulting government budget constraint entails interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown ...

  11. Gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, C; Etches, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: There is uncertainty about whether position in a socioeconomic hierarchy confers different mortality risks on men and women. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in risk of death.

  12. Socioeconomic differences in perinatal health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    been used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors on perinatal health. Conclusion: Danish register data is an invaluable source of information on socioeconomic differences in perinatal health. Danish registers continue to provide excellent opportunities for research and surveillance...

  13. Socioeconomic information, Plainsboro area, New Jersey: Supplementary documentation for an environmental assessment for the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] at PPPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, L.K.; Bender, D.S.

    1987-07-01

    This report contains socioeconomic information on the Plainsboro, New Jersey, area, the proposed location of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) facility. It was prepared as supplemental information for an environmental assessment for the CIT at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The report contains descriptions of the demographic, economic, and community resource characteristics, and, based on information available in early 1987, considers the socioeconomic effect of the proposed facility. In all areas examined, the anticipated socioeconomic impacts of the proposed CIT facility at PPPL are negligible or minimal. 29 refs., 8 figs., 24 tabs

  14. A study of the demographic characteristics of domestic tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Liu, X; Zhao, R

    1996-01-01

    "A sample survey was conducted [in China]: more than 6,000 questionnaires were submitted and retrieved from domestic tourists in Shanghai, Xi'ian, Huangshan, and Huashan in order to provide data for demographic analysis of the special fluid population of tourists. The paper looks at the relationship between tourists' gender, age, income, occupation, education, and family structure, as well as their tourist activity, selection of destinations, shopping, and other tourist behaviors." excerpt

  15. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  16. Demographic Risks of the Pension Reform in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Konstantinovich Solovyev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze the impact of the demographic crisis in the country’s fiscal system. In the article, the pension system for the first time is considered as a multifactorial model, which during the different historical periods corrects the degree of its dependence on the interdependent complex of macroeconomic and demographic factors. The economically sound and socially correct accounting of the interference of retirement age and the specified development factors of pension system requires a fundamental change in the methodological approaches to the problem of raising the retirement age by using the actuarial methods of forecasting. The actuarial analysis of the problem of retirement age shows that the perception of the linear dependence on demographic parameters of the age when the national pension is awarded cannot be considered as a tool for regulating the efficiency of the pension system. For the science-based solution to the problem of rising the retirement age, along with the dynamics of demographic parameters, it is necessary to take into account the whole range of macroeconomic conditions for the state development as well as the long-term socio-economic consequences. Another significant result of the study are the specific parameters of the actuarial assessments of the impact of demographic and macroeconomic conditions of increasing the retirement age in Russia, conducted using the state statistical data. The practical proposals to mitigate the negative economic consequences are formulated. The key conclusion reached is that the raising of the retirement age should be aimed exclusively at the economic stimulation of the formation of the pension rights of the insured in the long term, rather than to the short-term savings of the state budget. The methodological approaches grounded in the work, and the quantitative results of the actuarial calculations may be applied in the shaping the public pension policy when

  17. Socio-economic determinants of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M; Howlader, A A

    1980-01-01

    Infant mortality in Bangladesh is 1 of the highest in Asian countries. There are several reasons why infant mortality is still high in Bangladesh. A large number of births occur prematurely, or there is poor handling by birth attendants leading to injury and infection. In addition, there is a gross shortage of maternity clinics, trained midwives, and other paramedical personnel in the country. The children are generally born in the most unhygienic of conditions. Malnutrition is a common factor. In recent years, the study of socioeconomic differentials of infant and child mortality has occupied an important position in demographic research. Given the limited data available to measure many variables which could have an effect on mortality as measured here by infant mortality, the analysis has been essentially confined to an analysis of differences in infant mortality by various socioeconomic characteristics. The factors and relative contributions of the combined effects of medical services, general socioeconomic and environmental factors need to be examined. Mortality can be seen in this context as a final consequence of the interactions between health, work, and income. Due to lack of data availability, very little work has been done on this. The World Fertility Survey has given a unique opportunity to researchers to explore this field more comprehensively.

  18. A socioeconomic profile of vulnerable land to desertification in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes, soil vulnerability, loss in biodiversity, and growing human pressure are threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems which are increasingly considered as a desertification hotspot. In this region, land vulnerability to desertification strongly depends on the interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. The present study proposes a multivariate exploratory analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of land vulnerability to desertification and the socioeconomic contexts found in three geographical divisions of Italy (north, center and south) based on statistical indicators. A total of 111 indicators describing different themes (demography, human settlements, labor market and human capital, rural development, income and wealth) were used to discriminate vulnerable from non-vulnerable areas. The resulting socioeconomic profile of vulnerable areas in northern and southern Italy diverged significantly, the importance of demographic and economic indicators being higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy. On the contrary, human settlement indicators were found more important to discriminate vulnerable and non-vulnerable areas in northern Italy, suggesting a role for peri-urbanization in shaping the future vulnerable areas. An in-depth knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of vulnerable land may contribute to scenarios' modeling and the development of more effective policies to combat desertification. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The association between socioeconomic status and obesity in Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterico, Julio A; Stanojevic, Sanja; Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2012-11-01

    Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country's development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008), we investigated this relationship in women aged 15-49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multistage nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.3-14.8); 8.4% (95% CI: 7.5-9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95% CI: 15.2-17.2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru.

  20. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

  1. The Association between Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in Peruvian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterico, J.A.; Stanojevic, S.; Ruiz, P.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A.; Miranda, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country’s development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008) we investigated this relationship in women aged 15 to 49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multi-staged nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95%CI: 13.3–14.8); 8.4% (95%CI: 7.5–9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95%CI: 15.2–17-2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru. PMID:21959344

  2. Special Demographic Zone in Poland - in Search for the Gist of the Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Gerejczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The objective of this paper is to identify the gist of the Special Demographic Zone phenomenon by analyzing the changes in the demographic structure of the EU population at country and regional level. Design/methodology/approach - We have applied the Boolean keyword and subject term searches of scholarly articles published in EBSCO and EMERALD databases, as well as in Google Scholar, between 2006 and 2016, inclusive. The key words used in the analysis were: Special Demographic Zone and Special Demographic Zones. This systematic literature review enabled us to identify 15 scientific articles connected directly with the topic in question. Findings - We found that there are 3 strategies employed by the local and regional self-governments to tackle the demographic challenges. We present them as a 3A model, representing strategies: to acknowledge, to adapt and to (counter act. We perceive the Special Demographic Zone, defined as a policy tool, as a specific case of an act strategy. Research implications/limitations - The main implication of the research is that there are already tools and mechanism ready to be utilized by the self-governments in order to tackle demographic challenges, which contribute to the local and regional sustainable development. The recommendation for local authorities is to determine which policy direction (as presented in the 3A model should be embarked on in a given territory in order to maximize the sustainable effect of undertaken actions. Originality/value/contribution - The originality of this work lies in the development of a theoretical 3A model of self-government's policy reactions to the encountered demographic challenges and in the conceptualization of a Special Demographic Zone as a special case of an act policy strategy within the broad framework of regional socioeconomic policy. Furthermore, the article draws on up-to-date statistical data.

  3. Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Brenna; Lusk, Jayson L; Davis, David

    2013-02-08

    Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans' health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners' socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious - probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did little for those consumers who were already

  4. Demographic processes of developmentally peripheral areas in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pénzes János

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates the demographic processes and challenges of the Hungarian developmentally peripheral settlements. Demographic challenges can be regarded as important consequences of the social and economic disadvantages in spatial terms. However, the interrelating negative demographic tendencies cause even more backward situation blocking or hindering the development. The objective of the current analysis is to discover the demographic characteristics of the peripheral settlements, to detect the spatial disparities and to point out the correlation between backwardness and the investigated demographic phenomena with the help of the census databases 1980-2011 and local datasets on Roma population. Using methods of multivariate statistical analysis, seven indicators were selected in order to achieve the goals of the paper. Backward areas are primarily characterized by population decrease with significant disparities, but there were growing communities among them as well. Some small villages in Northern and Southwestern Hungary will foreseeably face complete depopulation within few years. Primarily small sized villages faced intense decrease in rate of natural change, but dynamic population growth was also detected. Migration loss tends to correlate with the extent of peripherality, as increasing values of migration balance accompany decreasing ratio of peripheral settlements in the area. The ratio of elderly population shows an expressively two-faced character, with the extremely aging and very juvenile settlements. The ratios of Roma population reflect the scale of peripherality. Extended ethnic change could be predicted in Northeastern and Southwestern Hungary and near the Middle Tisza valley. Presented demographic processes will make the backwardness of most of the peripheral settlements stable.

  5. Socioeconomic Inequality in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.

  6. The socioeconomic impacts of high-level nuclear waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Hamm, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste repositories will be located in sparsely settled rural areas in the U.S. These projects will significantly effect the economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social (the socioeconomic) dimensions of those rural areas. This paper examines some of the potential socioeconomic impacts and the characteristics of mitigation programs necessary, if these impacts are to be addressed. Both standard impacts, those resulting from the fact that--like many other large-scale developments--repositories will involve a substantial number of new workers and residents (relative to the size of existing communities) and special impacts, those resulting from the fact that repositories store radioactive materials, are examined

  7. [Intersection between gender and socioeconomic status in medical sciences career choice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, Sandra; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth; Delgado-Sáncnchez, Guadalupe; Tamez-González, Silivia

    2006-01-01

    Analyze the relationship between gender identity and socioeconomic level associated with career choice among undergraduate students selecting the area of health sciences. Our sample was comprised of first year medical nutrition, dentistry and nursing students (n=637) admitted to the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Xochimilco. A self administered questionnaire was used. The dependent variable was career choice. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, gender norms in student's homes, and gender stereotype internalization. More female nursing students came from low socioeconomic strata, while medical students had a higher socioeconomic status. Among males, more nursing and medical students belonged to a higher socioeconomicstrata. Nutrition and dentistry students belonged to a medium strata. In comparison with males from high socioeconomic strata more male participants reported that household chores were divided among men and women. For women, as the socioeconomic level increased, the participation of men and women also increased. In the indicators of internalization of gender stereotypes, nursing students had the highest rates in the submission scale, but the lowest for masculinity and machismo. As the socioeconomic strata increased, the characteristics of masculinity and machismo also increased. The present results seem to indicate that among women of low socioeconomic strata more traditional gender stereotypes prevail which lead them to seek career choices considered femenine. Among men, there is a clear relationship between career choice, socioeconomic level and internalization of gender stereotypes.

  8. Demographic and Economic Changes and Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan

    The interaction of demographic and economic shifts has led to, and will continue to effect, changes in the postsecondary education system and institutions. Demographic shifts include aging of the population, more women in the paid labor force, and increased numbers of minorities. Economic shifts include the growth of the information sector,…

  9. Is there a Demographic Time-bomb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2006-01-01

    The article discuss whether the demographic transition in Europe will have any impact on the future of the European welfare states......The article discuss whether the demographic transition in Europe will have any impact on the future of the European welfare states...

  10. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans

    The demographic transition is a universal phenomenon. All regions of the world experience a change from high levels of mortality and fertility to low levels. The onset and pace of the demographic transition vary between regions and countries because of differences in timing of events and conditions

  11. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic...

  12. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Matthijs, K.; Neels, K.; Timmerman, C.; Haers, J.; Mels, S.

    2016-01-01

    Willekens, F. (2015) Demographic transitions in Europe and the world. In: K. Matthijs, K. Neels, C. Timmerman. J. Haers and S. Mels eds. Population change at work in Europe, the Middle-East and North Africa. Beyond the demographic divide. Ashgate (International Population Studies Series) pp. 13-44.

  13. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Summary of Socioeconomic Data Analysis Conducted in Support of the Radiological Monitoring Program, During FY 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.K. Roe

    2001-01-01

    This report is a summary of socioeconomic data analyses conducted in support of the Radiological Monitoring Program during fiscal year 2001. Socioeconomic data contained in this report include estimates for the years 2000 and 2001 of the resident population in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The estimates presented in this report are based on selected Census 2000 statistics, and housing and population data that were acquired and developed in accordance with LP-RS-00 1 Q-M and 0, Scientific Investigation of Economic, Demographic, and Agricultural Characteristics in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The study area from which data were collected is delineated by a radial grid, consisting of 160 grid cells, that is suitable for evaluating the pathways and potential impacts of a release of radioactive materials to the environment within a distance of 84 kilometers from Yucca Mountain. Data are presented in a tabular format by the county, state, area, and grid cell in which housing units, households, and resident population are located. Also included is a visual representation of the distribution of the 2000 residential populations within the study area, showing Census 2000 geography, county boundaries, and taxing district boundaries for selected communities

  14. Measuring socio-economic position in dietary research: is choice of socio-economic indicator important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Hewitt, Belinda; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian

    2003-04-01

    To examine the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and diet, by assessing the unadjusted and simultaneously adjusted (independent) contributions of education, occupation and household income to food purchasing behaviour. The sample was randomly selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design, and the response rate was 66.4%. Data were collected by face-to-face interview. Food purchasing was examined on the basis of three composite indices that reflected a household's choice of grocery items (including meat and chicken), fruit and vegetables. Brisbane City, Australia, 2000. : Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas (Census Collectors Districts). When shopping, respondents in lower socio-economic groups were less likely to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar. Disadvantaged groups purchased fewer types of fresh fruits and vegetables, and less often, than their counterparts from more advantaged backgrounds. When the relationship between SEP and food purchasing was examined using each indicator separately, education and household income made an unadjusted contribution to purchasing behaviour for all three food indices; however, occupation was significantly related only with the purchase of grocery foods. When education and occupation were simultaneously adjusted for each other, the socio-economic patterning with food purchase remained largely unchanged, although the strength of the associations was attenuated. When household income was introduced into the analysis, the association between education, occupation and food purchasing behaviour was diminished or became non-significant; income, however, showed a strong, graded association with food choice. The food purchasing behaviours of socio-economically disadvantaged groups were least in accord with dietary guideline recommendations, and hence are more consistent with greater risk for the development of diet

  15. Urban mobility, socioeconomic and urban transport variables in metropolitan areas in three continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de; Nassi, C.D.

    2016-07-01

    Transportation is the soul of urban cities. Find sustainable ways to keep people moving in our cities is more important than ever. Historically, cities have developed in different ways. Each has its own personality and complexity. But in all cases, transport and mobility have played a key role in city life. Due to the relevance of mobility this article tries to establish the relationship between some variables. The method was developed by collecting, analyzing and comparing data on metropolitan regions in North America, South America, Europe and Oceania through a mathematical model. From each selected location the following data were gathered: population, area (km²), demographic density (inhab/km²), socio-economic aspects (annual GDP per capita), transport system (subway extension), number of trips per person per day and modal split (% non-motorized, % public transport and % private transport). In this study we analyze some variables that influence the number of trips per person per day. Understanding the associations between all the variables that influence the number of trips per person per day contributes the planners to determine whether changes are needed to improve in the transport system in the metropolitan region. (Author)

  16. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  17. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

    1984-02-01

    The ONWI Socioeconomic Program Plan spells out DOE's approach to analyzing the socioeconomic impacts from siting, constructing, and operating radioactive waste repositories and discusses mitigation strategies. The peer review indicated the following modifications should be made to the Plan: encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process; place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA

  18. Final Report: Demographic Tools for Climate Change and Environmental Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Brian [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-24

    This report summarizes work over the course of a three-year project (2012-2015, with one year no-cost extension to 2016). The full proposal detailed six tasks: Task 1: Population projection model Task 2: Household model Task 3: Spatial population model Task 4: Integrated model development Task 5: Population projections for Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) Task 6: Population exposure to climate extremes We report on all six tasks, provide details on papers that have appeared or been submitted as a result of this project, and list selected key presentations that have been made within the university community and at professional meetings.

  19. Socio-Economic Inequality of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Md. Saimul; Linton, Natalie; Rawal, Lal B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health challenge, and undermine social and economic development in much of the developing world, including Bangladesh. Epidemiologic evidence on the socioeconomic status (SES)-related pattern of NCDs remains limited in Bangladesh. This study assessed the relationship between three chronic NCDs and SES among the Bangladeshi population, paying particular attention to the differences between urban and rural areas. Materials and Method Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study. Using a concentration index (CI), we measured relative inequality across pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, hypertension, and BMI (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. A CI and its associated curve can be used to identify whether socioeconomic inequality exists for a given health variable. In addition, we estimated the health achievement index, integrating mean coverage and the distribution of coverage by rural and urban populations. Results Socioeconomic inequalities were observed across diseases and risk factors. Using CI, significant inequalities observed for pre-hypertension (CI = 0.09, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = 0.10, p = 0.001), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.01, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = 0.19, pconditions among the urban richest, a significant difference in CI was observed for pre-hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.005), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.15, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = -0.26, p = 0.004) and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.25, p = 0.004) were observed more among the low wealth quintiles of rural population. In the same vein, the poorest rural households had more co-morbidities compared to the richest rural households (p = 0.003), and prevalence of co-morbidities was much higher for the richest urban households compared to the poorest urban households. On the other hand in rural the

  20. Socio-Economic Inequality of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin Biswas

    Full Text Available Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are a major public health challenge, and undermine social and economic development in much of the developing world, including Bangladesh. Epidemiologic evidence on the socioeconomic status (SES-related pattern of NCDs remains limited in Bangladesh. This study assessed the relationship between three chronic NCDs and SES among the Bangladeshi population, paying particular attention to the differences between urban and rural areas.Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study. Using a concentration index (CI, we measured relative inequality across pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, hypertension, and BMI (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. A CI and its associated curve can be used to identify whether socioeconomic inequality exists for a given health variable. In addition, we estimated the health achievement index, integrating mean coverage and the distribution of coverage by rural and urban populations.Socioeconomic inequalities were observed across diseases and risk factors. Using CI, significant inequalities observed for pre-hypertension (CI = 0.09, p = 0.001, hypertension (CI = 0.10, p = 0.001, pre-diabetes (CI = -0.01, p = 0.005, diabetes (CI = 0.19, p<0.001, and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.45, p<0.001. In contrast to the high prevalence of the chronic health conditions among the urban richest, a significant difference in CI was observed for pre-hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.001, hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.005, pre-diabetes (CI = -0.15, p = 0.005, diabetes (CI = -0.26, p = 0.004 and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.25, p = 0.004 were observed more among the low wealth quintiles of rural population. In the same vein, the poorest rural households had more co-morbidities compared to the richest rural households (p = 0.003, and prevalence of co-morbidities was much higher for the richest urban households

  1. Socio-Economic Inequality of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Md Saimul; Linton, Natalie; Rawal, Lal B

    2016-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health challenge, and undermine social and economic development in much of the developing world, including Bangladesh. Epidemiologic evidence on the socioeconomic status (SES)-related pattern of NCDs remains limited in Bangladesh. This study assessed the relationship between three chronic NCDs and SES among the Bangladeshi population, paying particular attention to the differences between urban and rural areas. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study. Using a concentration index (CI), we measured relative inequality across pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, hypertension, and BMI (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. A CI and its associated curve can be used to identify whether socioeconomic inequality exists for a given health variable. In addition, we estimated the health achievement index, integrating mean coverage and the distribution of coverage by rural and urban populations. Socioeconomic inequalities were observed across diseases and risk factors. Using CI, significant inequalities observed for pre-hypertension (CI = 0.09, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = 0.10, p = 0.001), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.01, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = 0.19, p<0.001), and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.45, p<0.001). In contrast to the high prevalence of the chronic health conditions among the urban richest, a significant difference in CI was observed for pre-hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.005), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.15, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = -0.26, p = 0.004) and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.25, p = 0.004) were observed more among the low wealth quintiles of rural population. In the same vein, the poorest rural households had more co-morbidities compared to the richest rural households (p = 0.003), and prevalence of co-morbidities was much higher for the richest urban households compared

  2. Prevalence of major depressive disorder and socio-demographic correlates: Results of a representative household epidemiological survey in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Yan, Fang; Ma, Xin; Guo, Hong-Li; Tang, Yi-Lang; Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Zhu, Hong; Guo, Xiao-Bing; Yang, Yang; Li, Peng; Cao, Xin-Dong; Li, Hai-Ying; Li, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Ping; Xu, Qiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent mental disorder in the general population and has been associated with socioeconomic factors. Beijing has undergone significant socioeconomic changes in last decade, however no large-scale community epidemiological surveys of MDD have been conducted in Beijing since 2003. To determine the prevalence of MDD and its socio-demographic correlates in a representative household sample of the general population in Beijing, China. Data were collected from the 2010 representative household epidemiological survey of mental disorders in Beijing. The multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select qualified subjects in 18 districts and counties, and then face-to-face interviews were administered using the Chinese version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P) during November 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. 19,874 registered permanent residents were randomly identified and 16,032 (response rate=80.7%) completed face-to-face interviews. The time-point and life-time prevalence rates of MDD were estimated to be 1.10% (95% CI: 0.94-1.26%) and 3.56% (95% CI: 3.27-3.85%) respectively. Significant differences were found in sex, age, location of residence, marital status, education, employment status, personal/family monthly income, perception of family environment and relationship with others, when comparing residents with MDD to those without MDD. Those who were female, aged 45 or above, reported low family income, or reported an "average" or "poor" family environment were associated with a higher risk of MDD. The prevalence of MDD reported in this survey is relatively lower than that in other western countries. Female sex, age older than 45, low family income, and poor family environment appear to be independent risk factors for MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluka N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study lies in the acute need to modernise the tools for a more accurate and comparable reflection of the demographic reality of spatial objects of different scales. This article aims to test the methods of “demographic rankings” developed by Yermakov and Shmakov. The method is based on the principles of indirect standardisation of the major demographic coefficients relative to the age structure.The article describes the first attempt to apply the method to the analysis of birth and mortality rates in 1995 and 2010 for 140 countries against the global average, and for the Baltic Sea states against the European average. The grouping of countries and the analysis of changes over the given period confirmed a number of demographic development trends and the persistence of wide territorial disparities in major indicators. The authors identify opposite trends in ranking based on the standardised birth (country consolidation at the level of averaged values and mortality (polarisation rates. The features of demographic process development in the Baltic regions states are described against the global and European background. The study confirmed the validity of the demographic ranking method, which can be instrumental in solving not only scientific but also practical tasks, including those in the field of demographic and social policy.

  4. Socio-economic database online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Tamisier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The SEDO project develops a flexible and reusable platform combining fast access, user freedom, and coherence of the results for presenting socio-economic data. Its first aim is to deliver on the Net the results of longitudinal surveys about the life in Luxemburg. Several search methods are available: hierarchical browsing, engine query, and top down navigation with minimal clicks for quick access to the main trends. Without the use of statistical tools nor expertise in the domain the user can perform advanced statistical calculations. Last, a modular architecture guarantees the portability of the application.

  5. The Association of Health Insurance with institutional delivery and access to skilled birth attendants: evidence from the Kenya Demographic and health survey 2008-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Were, Lawrence P O; Were, Edwin; Wamai, Richard; Hogan, Joseph; Galarraga, Omar

    2017-07-03

    Healthcare financing through health insurance is gaining traction as developing countries strive to achieve universal health coverage and address the limited access to critical health services for specific populations including pregnant women and their children. However, these reforms are taking place despite limited evaluation of impact of health insurance on maternal health in developing countries including Kenya. In this study we evaluate the association of health insurance with access and utilization of obstetric delivery health services for pregnant women in Kenya. Nationally representative data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09 was used in this study. 4082 pregnant women with outcomes of interest - Institutional delivery (Yes/No - delivery at hospital, dispensary, maternity home, and clinic) and access to skilled birth attendants (help by a nurse, doctor, or trained midwife at delivery) were selected from 8444 women ages 15-49 years. Linear and logistic regression, and propensity score adjustment are used to estimate the causal association of enrollment in insurance on obstetric health outcomes. Mothers with insurance are 23 percentage points (p insured. In addition mothers of lower socio-economic status benefit more from enrollment in insurance compared to mothers of higher socio-economic status. For both institutional delivery and access to skilled birth attendants, the average difference of the association of insurance enrollment compared to not enrolling for those of low SES is 23 percentage points (p health insurance is associated with increased access and utilization of obstetric delivery health services for pregnant women. Notably, those of lower socio-economic status seem to benefit the most from enrollment in insurance.

  6. Hip fractures and area level socioeconomic conditions: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Kilian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a limited number of studies have analyzed the association between hip fracture incidence and socioeconomic conditions. Most, but not all found an association, and results are in part conflicting. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between hip fractures and socioeconomic conditions in Germany, from 1995 to 2004, on a census tract area level. Methods We used data from the national hospital discharge diagnosis register and data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of 131 census tracts from official statistics. Associations between the hip fracture incidence and socioeconomic conditions were analyzed by multiple Poisson regression models, taking overdispersion into account. Results The risk of hip fracture decreased by 4% with a 7% increase (about one interquartile range of non-German nationals. It decreased by 10% with a 6% increased rate of unemployment, increased by 7% with a 2% increase of the proportion of welfare recipients, and also increased by 3% with an increase of the proportion of single parent families of 1.9%. Conclusion Our results showed weak associations between indicators of socioeconomic conditions at area level and hip fracture risk; the varied by type of indicator. We conclude that hip fracture incidence might be influenced by the socioeconomic context of a region, but further analysis using more specific markers for deprivation on a smaller scale and individual-level data are needed.

  7. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is not associated with wound healing in diabetic foot ulcer patients treated in a multidisciplinary setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Canner, Joseph K; Mathioudakis, Nestoras; Sherman, Ronald L; Hines, Kathryn; Lippincott, Christopher; Black, James H; Abularrage, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poor glycemic control and higher hospital admission rates in patients with diabetes. We sought to quantify the effects of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation on wound healing among a cohort of patients with diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) treated in a multidisciplinary setting. Socioeconomic disadvantage was calculated for all patients using the area deprivation index (ADI) stratified by quartile (from ADI-0: least through ADI-3: most). Predictors of wound healing were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models accounting for patient demographics, wound characteristics, and ADI category. Six hundred twenty-one wounds were evaluated, including 59% ADI-0, 7% ADI-1, 12% ADI-2, and 22% ADI-3. After accounting for patient demographics and wound characteristics, the likelihood of wound healing was similar between groups (ADI-3 versus ADI-0: hazards ratio [HR] 1.03 [95% confidence interval 0.76-1.41]). Independent predictors of poor wound healing included peripheral arterial disease (HR 0.75), worse wound stage (stage 4: HR 0.48), larger wound area (HR 0.99), and partially dependent functional status (HR 0.45) (all, P healing was largely dependent on wound characteristics and vascular status rather than patient demographics or neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Use of a multidisciplinary approach to the management of DFU may overcome the negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage frequently described in the diabetic population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  9. Socioeconomic and Gender Group Differences in Early Literacy Skills: A Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…

  10. Prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njokama Fidelis O

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional interview study of 1675 randomly selected public primary and secondary school pupils aged 5 to less than 18 years was conducted in the Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria from October 1998 to September 1999. Results The overall prevalence of child labour was 64.5%: 68.6% among primary and 50.3% among secondary school pupils. Major economic activities included street trading (43.6%, selling in kiosks and shops (25.4% and farming (23.6%. No child was involved in bonded labour or prostitution. Girls were more often involved in labour activities than boys (66.8% versus 62.1%, p = 0.048: this difference was most obvious with street trading (p = 0.0004. Most of the children (82.2% involved in labour activities did so on the instruction of one or both parents in order to contribute to family income. Children of parents with low socio-economic status or of poorly educated parents were significantly involved in labour activities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001 respectively. Child labour was also significantly associated with increasing number of children in the family size (p = 0.002. A higher prevalence rate of child labour was observed among children living with parents and relations than among those living with unrelated guardians. Conclusion It is concluded that smaller family size, parental education and family economic enhancement would reduce the pressure on parents to engage their children in labour activities.

  11. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  12. Antropometric assessment of nutritional status and socio-demographic characteristics in children up to 2 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, A.; Ramzan, A.; Memon, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to realize that normal length and weight being attained at 1 year of age, would predict the nutritional status at 3 years of age. To asses the nutritional status and the associated socio-demographic characteristics in supposedly healthy Children of up to 2 years of age and highlight the importance of anthropometric measurements in routine child health care. Anthropometric measurements i.e. height and weight, were measured and a standard Questionnaire was used to interview the mothers regarding socio-demographic back ground information after a verbal informed consent and ensuring confidentiality. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height of the children were compared with the National Centre of Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population of the United States and Z -score< - 2 SD were considered as stunted, under weight and wasted respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS software package. We observed stunting in 22%, wasting in 15% and under weight in 31.6% children. Majority of children with low weight were between 19 - 24 months of age Regarding socio-economic status of the households, 53.8% had family income less than Rs. 6000 month and almost 50% had a family size of 6-10 persons. Parents' education to the level of illiteracy (father, 27% and mother, 4 0%) and incomplete immunization ( 20%) were other associated factors for stunting, wasting and under weight. About 32% of children up to 2 years of age in the selected population were under weight, followed by stunning (22%). Policy Message: Anthropometric measurement of children is useful in routine child care settings as it will facilitate early identification and timely interventions for emerging health problems. (author)

  13. Demographic and occupational determinants of the work ability of firemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozeh, Marjan; Saremi, Mahnaz; Kavousi, Amir; Maleki, Azam

    2017-01-24

    Firefighters tackle various stressors that affect their health and job performance; therefore, assessment of their work ability is necessary. This study aimed to investigate the demographic and occupational determinants of the work ability of firemen. In this cross-sectional study, 375 firemen working in Tehran Fire Department were randomly selected. Demographic, occupational, and work ability index (WAI) questionnaires were applied as research tools. The mean firemen's WAI score was relatively high. There were significant relationships between WAI and age, body mass index, work experience, and weekly leisure-time physical exercise hours. Single employees, those who did not have extra jobs and did not smoke, had greater scores compared to their counterparts. Poisson regression revealed that age and weekly leisure-time physical exercise hours could affect WAI significantly. Although Iranian firemen revealed good work ability, recognizing factors affecting this ability and preparing facilities to promote their function is necessary.

  14. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querbes, A.; Vaesen, K.; Houkes, W.N.

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological

  15. Lethality and Autonomous Systems: The Roboticist Demographic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moshkina, Lilia V; Arkin, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Office. The robotics researcher demographic, one of several targeted in this survey that includes policy makers, the military, and the general public, provides the data for this report...

  16. Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of Yam In Delta State, Nigeria. ... analysis reveals that wholesale yam marketing in the study area was male - dominated (78.8%), most of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  17. Socioeconomic inequality in self-reported oral health status: the experience of Thailand after implementation of the universal coverage policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkotra, Tewarit

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to quantify the extent to which socioeconomic-related inequality in self-reported oral health status among Thais is present after the country implemented the Universal Coverage policy and to decompose the determinants and their associations with inequality in self-reported oral health status in particular with the worse condition. The study employed a concentration index to measure socioeconomic-related inequality in self-reported oral health status, and the decomposition method to identify the determinants and their associations with inequality in oral health-related measures. Data from 32,748 Thai adults aged 15-75 years from the nationally representative Health &Welfare Survey and Socio-Economic Survey 2006 were used in analyses. Reports of worse oral health status of the lower socioeconomic-status group were more common than their higher socioeconomic-status counterparts. The concentration index (equaling -0.208) corroborates the finding of pro-poor inequality in self-reported worse oral health. Decomposition analysis demonstrated certain demographic-, socioeconomic-, and geographic characteristics are particularly associated with poor-rich differences in self-reported oral health status among Thai adults. This study demonstrated socioeconomic-related inequality in oral health is discernable along the entire spectrum of socioeconomic status. Inequality in perceived oral health status among Thais is present even while the country has virtually achieved universality of health coverage. The study also indicates population subgroups, particularly the poor, should receive consideration for improving oral health status as revealed by underlying determinants.

  18. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits are still increasing in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Accordini, Simone; Nguyen, Giang; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marcello; Antonicelli, Leonardo; Attena, Francesco; Bellisario, Valeria; Bono, Roberto; Briziarelli, Lamberto; Casali, Lucio; Corsico, Angelo Guido; Fois, Alessandro; Panico, MariaGrazia; Piccioni, Pavilio; Pirina, Pietro; Villani, Simona; Nicolini, Gabriele; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-08-27

    Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits have stabilized in many Western countries. This study aimed at evaluating whether socioeconomic disparities in smoking habits are still enlarging in Italy and at comparing the impact of education and occupation. In the frame of the GEIRD study (Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases) 10,494 subjects, randomly selected from the general population aged 20-44 years in seven Italian centres, answered a screening questionnaire between 2007 and 2010 (response percentage = 57.2%). In four centres a repeated cross-sectional survey was performed: smoking prevalence recorded in GEIRD was compared with prevalence recorded between 1998 and 2000 in the Italian Study of Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Current smoking was twice as prevalent in people with a primary/secondary school certificate (40-43%) compared with people with an academic degree (20%), and among unemployed and workmen (39%) compared with managers and clerks (20-22%). In multivariable analysis smoking habits were more affected by education level than by occupation. From the first to the second survey the prevalence of ever smokers markedly decreased among housewives, managers, businessmen and free-lancers, while ever smoking became even more common among unemployed (time-occupation interaction: p = 0.047). At variance, the increasing trend in smoking cessation was not modified by occupation. Smoking prevalence has declined in Italy during the last decade among the higher socioeconomic classes, but not among the lower. This enlarging socioeconomic inequality mainly reflects a different trend in smoking initiation.

  19. The Socioeconomic Status of 100 Renal Transplant Recipients in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Jamshid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding the socioeconomic status in Iranian kidney transplant (KT recipients is lacking. In this cross sectional descriptive study we evaluated the socio-economic status of 100 KT recipients in Shiraz organ transplantation center. In a cross-sectional design, we randomly selected and interviewed 100 RT recipients (50 males and 50 females. Data regarding age, gender, martial status, occupation, level of education, number of children, type of insurance, monthly household income, place of residence, ownership of a personal transportation device, duration and frequency of pre-transplant dialysis, family history of CRF (Chronic renal failure, and etiology of renal disease were obtained. There were 50 (50% patients aged between 16 and 35 years, 55 had a family history of CRF, 60 had been on dialysis for more than a year, 61 were married, 47 did not have any children, 41 had more than 3 children, and 65 were unemployed due to physical and emotional impairment as a result of their disease. The majority (73% did not have a high school diploma, 15% were illiterate, 85% were below the poverty line, 52% were from rural areas, and 98% were covered by insurance. We conclude that patients with CKD in our study had acquired this condition possibly due to negligence and lack of basic health care in the lower socioeconomic class. In addition, KT is an available therapeutic modality to lower socio-economic level in Iran.

  20. Effect of lifestyle, education and socioeconomic status on periodontal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Rupasree; Chava, Vijay K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The health model which forms the basis is knowledge, attitude, temporary, and permanent behaviors. Currently, more emphasis has been directed towards the combined influence of lifestyle, education, levels and socioeconomic factors, instead of regular risk factors in dealing with chronic illnesses. The present study is conducted to correlate the periodontal health of people with reference to lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore. A total of 1350 subjects were examined and 948 patients were randomly selected from out patient department. Information about their lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status were recorded using a questionnaire and correlated with the periodontal status. Results: The statistical analysis showed significant decrease in periodontitis when income and education levels increased. Also the prevalence of periodontitis associated with a healthy lifestyle is significantly lower when compared to an unhealthy lifestyle. Conclusions: There is a strong association of lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status with periodontal health. PMID:22114373

  1. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed.......Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... previous studies have limited value because they are based on recall or area-based measures of socioeconomic position, and might thus be subject to selective participation and misclassification. In this study we investigated differences in CRC screening participation using register-based individual...

  2. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studie...

  3. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  4. Socio-economic differentials in child stunting are consistently larger in urban than rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T.; Morris, Saul Sutkover

    2000-01-01

    Urban-rural comparisons of childhood undernutrition suggest that urban populations are better-off than rural populations. However, these comparisons could mask the large differentials that exist among socioeconomic groups in urban areas. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 11 countries from three regions were used to test the hypothesis that intra-urban differentials in child stunting were greater than intra-rural differentials, and that the prevalence of stunting among the...

  5. The Influence of Socio-Economic Characteristics on Food Advertisement Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Govindasamy, Ramu; Italia, John

    1999-01-01

    Only 22 percent of surveyed consumers reported making frequent use of food advertisements when purchasing food products. However, certain demographic segments appear to place a greater emphasis on food advertisements than others. This study empirically evaluates which socio-economic characteristics encourage consumers to be more likely to take food advertisements into account when purchasing grocery products. The results indicate that those with lower annual incomes, those with lower levels o...

  6. Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient......-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11 994....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi...

  7. Session II-E. Socioeconomic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Major tasks of the socioeconomic program are designed to address and resolve issues raised by federal, state, and local agencies and the public, and to meet legal and regulatory requirements. The tasks are intended to: (1) characterize socioeconomic and other nontechnical issues, and recommend possible resolution, (2) develop socioeconomic impact methodologies and provide impact assessments, (3) design and implement a community development approach to impact mitigation, and (4)conduct institutional and organizational analyses. The following papers relate to these socioeconomic tasks: (1) an integrated approach to socioeconomic considerations in nuclear waste management; (2)ethical considerations surrounding nuclear waste isolation and mitigation; (3) institutional issues in transportation of nuclear wastes; (4) framework for evaluating the utility of incentive systems for radioactive waste repository siting; (5)special issues in impact mitigation; (6) effective programs for public participation in siting large public facilities; (7) a program for community development assistance; and (8) examination of factors affecting socioeconomic mitigation costs

  8. Socio-economic evaluation of selected biogas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F.; Martinsen, L.

    2013-05-15

    Financial and welfare economic analyses are conducted of 15 different biogas production scenarios that vary in terms of plant size and type of input. All considered scenarios lead to welfare economic losses. Overall welfare economic GHG reduction costs seem to increase with increasing crop/crop material share of input, and although the costs vary significantly across scenarios they are quite high for all scenarios. The financial analyses suggest that biogas production generally will be financially profitable for the agricultural sector and local CHP facilities but unprofitable for the biogas plants and the State. Seen from a policy perspective the results highlights the importance of designing regulatory instruments in a way that create incentives for private actors to engage in welfare economically desirable biogas production activities while discouraging the expansion of welfare economically undesirable activities. (Author)

  9. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility: selected Mexican regions, 1976-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, J B; Butler, E W; Pavgi, S

    1988-01-01

    Cumulative fertility is analyzed for 4 regions of Mexico, based on World Fertility Survey data of 1976-77; the state of Baja California, the Northwest region, the State of Jalisco, and the Northeast region. Based on stepwise regression methodology, the study compares results for 12 subsamples of married respondents, 3 age categories by 4 regions. The dependent variables are children ever born and children ever born in the last 5 years. Migration, urban, educational, and occupational variables are included as independent variables. Regression results reveal level of education is the major, and negative, influence on fertility. Other results include specific negative effects for prior occupation, size of place of residence, and childhood place of residence. Fertility effects appear different for migration origin and destination regions, but more similar for younger ages. Effects of migration on fertility are small. Mean fertility as measured by children ever born was 4.34 for the 1976-77 World Fertility Survey samples versus 3.69 for the Mexican census of 1980. Fertility varied somewhat by region with the highest and lowest values in Jalisco and the Northeast, respectively. Expected age-related changes in fertility were noted.

  10. Socio-economic characteristics of patients with generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry and 228,500 control subjects matched by age and gender. Demographic and socio-economic data were retrieved from Statistics Denmark. Differences between cases and controls were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: On 1 January 2012, 2285 patients......PURPOSE: To examine socio-economic characteristics of patients with generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study with analysis of socio-economic characteristics including income, education, employment status and civil status in 2285 patients from...... with a Danish civil registration number were registered as having a generalized retinal dystrophy. At the age of 40 years, less patients than controls had a high education (odds ratio (OR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI95), 0.41-0.62), a high income (OR, 0.21; CI95, 0.17-0.26) and were married (OR, 0.39; CI...

  11. Socioeconomic status and smoking among thai adults: results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2011-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.

  12. Household and community socioeconomic influences on early childhood malnutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Kuate-Defo, Barthelemy

    2006-05-01

    This paper uses multilevel modelling and Demographic and Health Survey data from five African countries to investigate the relative contributions of compositional and contextual effects of socioeconomic status and place of residence in perpetuating differences in the prevalence of malnutrition among children in Africa. It finds that community clustering of childhood malnutrition is accounted for by contextual effects over and above likely compositional effects, that urban-rural differentials are mainly explained by the socioeconomic status of communities and households, that childhood malnutrition occurs more frequently among children from poorer households and/or poorer communities and that living in deprived communities has an independent effect in some instances. This study also reveals that socioeconomic inequalities in childhood malnutrition are more pronounced in urban centres than in rural areas.

  13. Measuring socio-economic inequality: From dwellers' perspective within Bangalore urban agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.

  14. Inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique: differentials by parental socio-economic position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macassa, Gloria; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Bernhardt, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between socio-economic parental position (education and occupation) and child death in Mozambique using data from the Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey carried out between March and July 1997. The analysis included 9142 children born within 10 years...... before the survey. In spite of the Western system of classification used in the study, the results partly showed a parental socio-economic gradient of infant and child mortality in Mozambique. Father's education seemed to reflect the family's social standing in the Mozambique context, showing a strong...... statistical association with postneonatal and child mortality. However, maternal education as a measure of socio-economic position was not statistically significantly associated with child mortality. This finding may partly be explained by the extreme hardships experienced by the country (civil war...

  15. Low-socioeconomic status workers: their health risks and how to reach them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Huang, Yi; Hannon, Peggy A; Williams, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    To help workplace health promotion practitioners reach low-socioeconomic status workers at high risk for chronic diseases. We describe low-socioeconomic status workers' diseases, health status, demographics, risk behaviors, and workplaces, using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, and Bureau of Labor Statistics. Workers with household annual incomes less than $35,000, or a high school education or less, report more chronic diseases and lower health status. They tend to be younger, nonwhite, and have much higher levels of smoking and missed cholesterol screening. They are concentrated in the smallest and largest workplaces and in three low-wage industries that employ one-quarter of the population. To decrease chronic diseases among low-socioeconomic status workers, we need to focus workplace health promotion programs on workers in low-wage industries and small workplaces.

  16. A structural equation modeling approach to understanding pathways that connect socioeconomic status and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Sydney A; Beebe, Laura A; Thompson, David M; Wagener, Theodore L; Terrell, Deirdra R; Campbell, Janis E

    2018-01-01

    The inverse association between socioeconomic status and smoking is well established, yet the mechanisms that drive this relationship are unclear. We developed and tested four theoretical models of the pathways that link socioeconomic status to current smoking prevalence using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey, we selected four indicator variables (poverty ratio, personal earnings, educational attainment, and employment status) that we hypothesize underlie a latent variable, socioeconomic status. We measured direct, indirect, and total effects of socioeconomic status on smoking on four pathways through four latent variables representing social cohesion, financial strain, sleep disturbance, and psychological distress. Results of the model indicated that the probability of being a smoker decreased by 26% of a standard deviation for every one standard deviation increase in socioeconomic status. The direct effects of socioeconomic status on smoking accounted for the majority of the total effects, but the overall model also included significant indirect effects. Of the four mediators, sleep disturbance and psychological distress had the largest total effects on current smoking. We explored the use of structural equation modeling in epidemiology to quantify effects of socioeconomic status on smoking through four social and psychological factors to identify potential targets for interventions. A better understanding of the complex relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking is critical as we continue to reduce the burden of tobacco and eliminate health disparities related to smoking.

  17. Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Takehito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65 at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361 across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000 than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

  18. Delay to Reconstruction of the Adolescent Anterior Cruciate Ligament: The Socioeconomic Impact on Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Justin T; Carry, Patrick M; Terhune, Elizabeth B; Spruiell, Murray; Heare, Austin; Mayo, Meredith; Vidal, Armando F

    2014-08-01

    A delay in pediatric and adolescent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is associated with an increase in the number of concomitant meniscal and chondral injuries. Factors that contribute to this delay have not been well described. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are related to ACL surgery timing. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All subjects who underwent primary ACL reconstruction at a single tertiary pediatric hospital between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Variables included concomitant knee injuries (cartilage or meniscus injuries requiring additional operative treatment) and chronologic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards analyses were used to identify factors related to ACL surgery timing. The mean age of the 272 subjects was 15.2 ± 2.12 years. Time to surgery was significantly different among subjects who required multiple additional surgical procedures at time of ACL reconstruction (median, 3.3 months) compared with subjects with 1 (median, 2.0 months) or no additional injuries (median, 1.6 months). Subjects underwent ACL reconstruction significantly sooner if they were older at the time of injury (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2 per 1 year; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2; P socioeconomic and demographic factors and ACL surgery timing to optimize outcomes.

  19. IPCC Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset consists of population, human development, economic, water resources, land...

  20. Does exclusion of cancers registered only from death-certificate information diminish socio-demographic disparities in recorded survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Roder, David; Morrell, Stephen; You, Hui; Currow, David C

    2017-06-01

    Death Certificate Only (DCO) cancer cases are commonly excluded from survival analyses due to unknown survival time. This study examines whether socio-demographic factors are associated with DCO diagnosis, and the potential effects of excluding DCO cases on socio-demographic cancer survival disparities in NSW, Australia. NSW Cancer Registry data for cases diagnosed in 2000-2008 were used in this study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of DCO registration by socio-demographic sub-group (socio-economic disadvantage, residential remoteness, country of birth, age at diagnosis). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the probability of death from cancer by socio-demographic subgroup when DCO cases were included and excluded from analyses. DCO cases consisted of 1.5% (n=4336) of all cases (n=299,651). DCO diagnosis was associated with living in socio-economically disadvantaged areas (most disadvantaged compared with least disadvantaged quintile: odds ratio OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40), living in inner regional (OR 1.16, 95%CI 1.08-1.25) or remote areas (OR 1.48, 95%CI 1.01-2.19), having an unknown country of birth (OR 1.63, 95%CI 1.47-1.81) and older age. Including or excluding DCO cases had no significant impact on hazard ratios for cancer death by socio-economic disadvantage quintile or remoteness category, and only a minor impact on hazard ratios by age. Socio-demographic factors were associated with DCO diagnosis in NSW. However, socio-demographic cancer survival disparities remained unchanged or varied only slightly irrespective of including/excluding DCO cases. Further research could examine the upper limits of DCO proportions that significantly alter estimated cancer survival differentials if DCOs are excluded. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Socio-Economic Determinants of the Need for Dental Care in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trohel, Gilda; Bertaud-Gounot, Valérie; Soler, Marion; Chauvin, Pierre; Grimaud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter. A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data) was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need. In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3-37.8]). It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9-34.6]), without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0-34.6]) and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2-35.4]). It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02-1.44]), income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92-2.12]) and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26-1.86]). These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level.

  2. Socioeconomic and work related determinants of pregnancy outcome in Southern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuntiseranee, Pitchaya; Olsen, Jørn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    1999-01-01

    to November 1995. The pregnant women were followed up from the 17th week of gestation until delivery. The socioeconomic indicators selected were family socioeconomic status, maternal education, maternal occupation, family income and work exposure characteristics based upon Karasek's job content questionnaires...... and antenatal care utilisation, only family income remained correlated with birth weight. No association with any socioeconomic status indicators was found when using dichotomous outcome (low birth weight, small for gestational age or preterm delivery). Only high psychological job demand was associated...

  3. Educational and Demographic Profile: Mariposa County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Mariposa County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  4. The HOME Inventory and Family Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; Caldwell, Bettye M.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the relation between the Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME) Inventory and sex, race, socioeconomic status, the amount of crowding in the home, and birth order. Performs multivariate analysis of covariance on an intact family sample using HOME subscales as criterion measures and status and structural variables as…

  5. Statistical methods and applications from a historical perspective selected issues

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The book showcases a selection of peer-reviewed papers, the preliminary versions of which were presented at a conference held 11-13 June 2011 in Bologna and organized jointly by the Italian Statistical Society (SIS), the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and the Bank of Italy. The theme of the conference was "Statistics in the 150 years of the Unification of Italy." The celebration of the anniversary of Italian unification provided the opportunity to examine and discuss the methodological aspects and applications from a historical perspective and both from a national and international point of view. The critical discussion on the issues of the past has made it possible to focus on recent advances, considering the studies of socio-economic and demographic changes in European countries.

  6. The degradation of Brazilian socioeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCUS ALBAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, a number of illegal activities operated under the radar of conventional analysis have taken place in Brazil. This study proposes an Extended Keynesian Model in order to understand this phenomenon, a model that explains that crises happen because of the replacement of productive activities with unproductive and destructive activities. The model is used here to examine Brazil’s socioeconomic history since the institution of the economic plan that established the actual currency “Real” (R$, concluding that as the plan’s concern was predominantly with stabilization and not growth, productive activities have never been promoted on an appropriate scale. This has paved the way for the advancement of unproductive and destructive activities which have ultimately led to the country’s increasing degradation.

  7. Using Remote Sensing, Weather, and Demographic Data to Create Risk Maps for Zika, Dengue, and Chikungunya in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, C.; Conrad, J.; Del Valle, S.; Ziemann, A.; Fairchild, G.; Generous, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses have dynamics coupled to weather, ecology, human infrastructure, socio-economic demographics, and behavior. We use time-varying remote sensing and weather data, along with demographics and ecozones to predict risk through time for Zika, dengue, and chikungunya outbreaks in Brazil. We use distributed lag methods to quantify the lag between outbreaks and weather. Our statistical model indicates that the relationships between the variables are complex, but that quantifying risk is possible with the right data at appropriate spatio-temporal scales.

  8. Demographic survey around proposed nuclear power plant site in Haryana covering 30 km radius area from the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was planned to have a demographic survey of the households living within 30 km radius of the proposed site. Objectives of the present study were to attain the quantitative baseline demographic data around (within 30 km radius) the proposed site of nuclear power plant, zone-wise and sector-wise distribution of the population around proposed site up to a distance of 30 km from the site, to obtain the data on socio-economic, cultural, and religious perspectives of the target populations, to obtain the data on disease/illness pattern in the target population, health status and mortality rate

  9. The geographic and demographic scope of shared sanitation: an analysis of national survey data from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Marieke; Rosa, Ghislaine; Fuller, James; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    A large and growing proportion of the world's population rely on shared sanitation facilities that have historically been excluded from international targets due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this study to describe the prevalence and scope of households that report relying on shared sanitation and to characterise them in terms of selected socio-economic and demographic covariates. We extracted data from the most recent national household surveys of 84 low- and middle-income countries from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. We describe the prevalence of shared sanitation and explore associations between specified covariates and reliance on shared sanitation using log-binomial regression. While household reliance on any type of shared sanitation is relatively rare in Europe (2.5%) and the Eastern Mediterranean (7.7%), it is not uncommon in the Americas (14.2%), Western Pacific (16.4%) and South-East Asia (31.3%), and it is most prevalent in Africa (44.6%) where many shared facilities do not meet the definition of 'improved' even if they were not shared (17.7%). Overall, shared sanitation is more common in urban (28.6%) than in rural settings (25.9%), even after adjusting for wealth. While results vary geographically, people who rely on shared sanitation tend to be poorer, reside in urban areas and live in households with more young children and headed by people with no formal education. Data from 21 countries suggest that most sharing is with neighbours and other acquaintances (82.0%) rather than the public. The determinants of shared sanitation identified from these data suggest potential confounders that may explain the apparent increased health risk from sharing and should be considered in any policy recommendation. Both geographic and demographic heterogeneity indicate the need for further research to support a change in policies. © 2014

  10. Characterizing hospital inpatients: the importance of demographics and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, W D; Janakiramanan, B; Stanley, T J

    1988-01-01

    To compete effectively, hospital administrators must understand inpatients who are involved in hospital-choice decisions more clearly. To this end, a methodology is presented to measure and assess the importance of inpatients' personal attributes in predicting hospital selection. Empirical results show that demographic characteristics are poor--but attitudes are useful--segmentation variables that delineate differences between two particular hospitals' inpatients. More generally, the survey method and statistical procedures outlined are applicable (with slight modification) to markets with a greater number of competitors.

  11. Social System of River City High School Senior Class: Socio-economic Status (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Richard F.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…

  12. The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Pearl Millet ( Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated farmers' socio-economic factor affecting pearl millet production in randomly selected villages in Magumeri Local Government Area of Borno State. A total of 80 farmers were selected through stratified random sampling and were administered with questionnaires. The results revealed that educational ...

  13. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  14. Community College Attendance and Socioeconomic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sueuk; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, 1988 (NELS: 88), this paper documents differences in the socioeconomic plans of students in two-year and four-year colleges. We found attendance at a two-year college led to a modest but statistically significant disadvantage in socioeconomic plans. However, the impact of attending a…

  15. Socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A.R. Hosseinpoor (Ahmad); N. Speybroeck (Niko); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); J. Vega (Jeanette)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The objectives of this study were to report on socioeconomic inequality in childhood malnutrition in the developing world, to provide evidence for an association between socioeconomic inequality and the average level of malnutrition, and to draw attention to different patterns

  16. Gendered socioeconomic conditions and HIV risk behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite this possibility, there are surprisingly few definitive studies that examine the effects of socioeconomic status on HIV risk and prevention behaviours among youth in South Africa. Using household survey data collected in 2001, this study investigates how socioeconomic disadvantage has influenced the sexual ...

  17. Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2001 ... Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America, Canada, and Spain. Couverture du livre Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America. Directeur(s):. Gary McMahon et Felix Remy. Maison(s) d'édition: Banque ...

  18. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  19. Socioeconomic and cultural features of consensual unions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Consensual unions are a well-known practice among the lower social strata in Latin America. However, this type of union is increasing in the region, among higher educated groups and in countries where they were never widespread, such as in Brazil. This study uses couples' data from the demographic census available at IPUMS (N=193,689 to identify the socioeconomic and cultural features of consensual unions in Brazil. The effects of women's education, couples' income, children, and religion on nuptial behavior are analyzed. Utilizing logistic multilevel analysis, special attention is paid to the effect of differences in the cultural environment of states in the five major regions in which these unions occur. Results indicate that socioeconomic factors affect the incidence of consensual unions in Brazil. Consensual unions are more common among lower income couples and less educated women, but are also found among the upper classes. Cultural diversity between Brazilian states is also reflected in nuptial behavior. Significant variance at the state level is partially explained by the ethnic composition of each state.

  20. Socio-economic aspects of waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruetter, H.

    2008-01-01

    Besides technical aspects and those of safety, it is the economic and social environment of a future underground geologic repository which plays a major role. Compared to other large scale technical plants, facilities for radioactive waste management must overcome incomparably greater obstacles. All the more care must be taken in clarifying the issues affecting the public and the economy in the region of a potential site. On behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for Energy (BFE), Ruetter + Partner conducted a basic study which, in a number of case studies, dealt with the socio-economic aspects of experiences with existing and planned facilities in Switzerland and abroad. The study focused on these main points, which are outlined briefly in the article: - Socio-economic issues in the site selection procedure. - Methodological approach. - Findings made in the case studies. - Factors influencing the acceptance of a repository. (orig.)

  1. [Gaps in effective coverage by socioeconomic status and poverty condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    To analyze, in the context of increased health protection in Mexico, the gaps by socioeconomic status and poverty condition on effective coverage of selected preventive interventions. Data from the National Health & Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006, using previously defined indicators of effective coverage and stratifying them by socioeconomic (SE) status and multidimensional poverty condition. For vaccination interventions, immunological equity has been maintained in Mexico. For indicators related to preventive interventions provided at the clinical setting, effective coverage is lower among those in the lowest SE quintile and among people living in multidimensional poverty. Comparing 2006 and 2012, there is no evidence on gap reduction. While health protection has significantly increased in Mexico, thus reducing SE gaps, those gaps are still important in magnitude for effective coverage of preventive interventions.

  2. Socioeconomic data base report for the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report is published as a product of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. The objective of this program is to develop terminal waste storage facilities in deep, stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the Federal Government is responsible. The Socioeconomic Analysis Report for the Paradox Basin in Utah is part of the CRWM Program described above. This report presents baseline data on the demography, economics, community facilities, government and fiscal structure, and social structure characteristics in San Juan and Grand Counties, the socioeconomic study area. The technical criteria upon which a repository site(s) will be selected, evaluated, and licensed for high-level waste disposal will be partially based on the data in this report

  3. Socioeconomic issues and analyses for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive Waste facility siting and development can raise major social and economic issues in the host area. Initial site screening and analyses have been conducted for both potential high-level and low-level radioactive waste facilities; more detailed characterization and analyses are being planned. Results of these assessments are key to developing community plans that identify and implement measures to mitigate adverse socioeconomic impacts. Preliminary impact analyses conducted at high-level sites in Texas and Nevada, and site screening activities for low-level facilities in Illinois and California have identified a number of common socioeconomic issues and characteristics as well as issues and characteristics that differ between the sites and the type of facilities. Based on these comparisons, implications for selection of an appropriate methodology for impact assessment and elements of impact mitigation are identified

  4. Socioeconomic gradients in general and oral health of primary school children in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkari, Ali; Sabokseir, Aira; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Health status is largely determined by socio-economic status. The general health of individuals at higher social hierarchy is better than people in lower levels. Likewise, people with higher socio-economic status have better oral health than lower socio-economic groups. There has not been much work regarding the influence of socio-economic status on the health conditions of children in developing countries, particularly in Iran. The aim of this study was to compare the oral and general health conditions of primary school children of three different socio-economic areas in the city of Shiraz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 335, 8- to 11-year-old primary schoolchildren in Shiraz. The children were selected by a three-stage cluster sampling method from three socio-economically different areas. Tools and methods used by the United Kingdom's Medical Research Council were used to obtain anthropometric variables as indicators of general health. The Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index for permanent teeth, dmft Index for primary teeth, the Modified Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) Index, the Gingival Index (GI) and the Debris Index-Simplified (DI-S) were used for oral health assessment.  Height (Poral health status of the primary schoolchildren of Shiraz. The influence of socio-economic status on health condition means children have different life chances based on their socio-economic conditions. These findings emphasize the significance of interventions for tackling socio-economic inequalities in order to improve the health status of children in lower socio-economic areas.

  5. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Circumstances and the Co-Occurrence of Unhealthy Lifestyles: Evidence from 206,457 Australians in the 45 and Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles has tended to focus mainly upon the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. This study investigated the relevance of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance for multiple unhealthy lifestyles. Method An unhealthy lifestyle index was constructed for 206,457 participants in the 45 and Up Study (2006?2009) by summing binary responses on smoking, alcohol, physical activity and five diet-related variables. Higher...

  6. Migration and health: a study of effects of early life experiences and current socio-economic situation on mortality of immigrants in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Klinthäll, Martin; Lindström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Previous research has demonstrated mortality differences between immigrants and natives living in Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early life conditions in the country of birth and current socio-economic conditions in adult life in Sweden on cardiovascular, cancer, all other cause and total mortality among immigrants and natives in Sweden. Design. The cohort data concerning individual demographic characteristics and socio-economic conditions stems fro...

  7. Familial and socio-economic correlates of somatisation disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola M. Obimakinde

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Somatisation disorder can result from an interplay between suboptimal family environment and socio-economic deprivation, which enhances the underlying cognitive tendency for this disorder. There are pertinent familial and socio-economic factors associated with this disorder, but research addressing this is sparse. Aim and setting: The study aims to evaluate family and socio-economic factors that are associated with somatisation disorder amongst patients presenting to the Family Medicine clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: This is an observational case-control study of 120 participants who presented to the clinic between May and August 2009. Data collection was by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire using the World Health Organization Screener for Somatoform Disorder and Somatoform Disorder Schedule to ascertain somatisation in 60 patients who were then matched with 60 controls. The respondents’ demographic and family data were also collected and their interpersonal relationships were assessed with the Family Relationship Index. Results: The somatising patients were mostly females (70%, with a female to male ratio of 2.3:1 and mean age of 43.65 ± 13.04 years.Living in a polygamous family (as any member of the family was significantly related to somatisation (p = 0.04. Somatisation was also more common in people who were separated, divorced or widowed (p = 0.039. Somatisers from a lower social class or those earning below a dollar a day experienced poorer cohesion (p = 0.042 and more conflicts (p = 0.019 in their interpersonal relationship. Conclusion: This study was able to demonstrate that a polygamous family setting, disrupted marriage, low social status and financial constraints are correlates of somatisation. It is of essence to identify these factors in holistic management of somatising patients.

  8. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures......, and a full identity that relates the six of them. One of these identities is the age-period-cohort identity, while the other three are relatively novel. We provide a topological overview of the diagrams that pertain to these identities. The 3-d geometric representation of the full six-way identity...

  9. ron Intake in Adults from Medellin According to Demographics, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Yulieth Mantilla Gutiérrez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the iron intake in healthy adults of Medellín according to demographics, and to determine the association between the consumption of iron and hemoglobin in this popula¬tion. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study in 109 subjects. We applied a semiquantitative survey of food consumption frequency source of iron given the frequency of consumption and portion. Summary measures, frequencies, Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis ANOVA and Spearman correlation were calculated. We used SPSS version 20.0, considering a significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean age subjects was 32, 64.2 % were female, 81.6 % with technical or university studies, 29.3 % students and 43.9 % of low socioeconomic status. We found a daily intake of 12.3 mg/day on average, 61 % from non-heme iron. The total iron consumed was statistically higher in unemployed subjects than in workers, students and housewives. The heme iron intake was statistically higher in individuals with graduate. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing iron consumption by sex, age group and hemoglobin. Conclusions: The low intake of iron is not influenced by sex or age group, but by occupation and education, and is a factor that cannot reduce the prevalence of iron and other micronutrients deficiencies. It requires to implement more and better strategies for nutrition education and increased avail¬ability, production and consumption of safe food

  10. [The beginning of the Cuban demographic revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Castellon, R

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Cuban demographic revolution associated with the main economic, political, and social changes in the country are analyzed. The authors begin with a brief historical outline of the political-economic situation in the country in the middle of the 19th century. There is emphasis on the dependency of the Cuban economy and its monoproducer nature (with sugar being the major export). This was due to the Spanish colonization and to the subsequent American neocolonization. The discovery of the cause for yellow fever by a Cuban physician and the sanitation campaign conducted by the Americans contributed to a diminishing of mortality. A great migratory flow occurred due to the price of sugar in the world market. This must have influenced Cuban demographic patterns which are a major factor linked to the demographic revolution. The influence on proliferation of urbanization and educational trends is emphasized. The low participation in economic activities of women during the early part of the century did affect fertility levels. The trends in mortality throughout the period 1907-43 are pointed out. It was found that 1 major aspect which had a bearing on Cuban demographic patterns was the 2 large migratory flows. An analysis of growth rates in the population--which also confirms the demographic changes in Cuba--is presented. It is concluded that the 4th decade of this century witnessed Cuba's entry in a new stage of the demographic revolution, a stage in which decreased fertility and mortality go together to create a new period. (author's)

  11. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS, round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines health. People suffering from work-life-imbalance are more likely to become ill than those with more free time and flexible working hours.

  12. Demographics, phenotypic health characteristics and genetic analysis of centenarians in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Gu, Danan

    2017-01-01

    -old aged 65-79. Based on the CLHLS data and other relevant studies, we summarize demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as self-reported and objectively-tested health indicators of centenarians in China, with an emphasis on gender differences and rural/urban disparities. We then compare five......After a brief introduction to the background, significance and unique features of the centenarian population in China, we describe the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS), which is the world's largest study of centenarians, nonagenarians, octogenarians, and compatible young...

  13. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in stillbirth rates in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Mortensen, Laust; Prunet, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    in their country. Conclusions: Data on stillbirths and socioeconomic status from routine systems showed widespread and consistent socioeconomic inequalities in stillbirth rates in Europe. Further research is needed to better understand differences between countries in the magnitude of the socioeconomic gradient.......Background: Previous studies have shown that socioeconomic position is inversely associated with stillbirth risk, but the impact on national rates in Europe is not known. We aimed to assess the magnitude of social inequalities in stillbirth rates in European countries using indicators generated...... from routine monitoring systems. Methods: Aggregated data on the number of stillbirths and live births for the year 2010 were collected for three socioeconomic indicators (mothers' educational level, mothers' and fathers' occupational group) from 29 European countries participating in the Euro...

  15. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening: Analysis of large sub populations

    OpenAIRE

    Vainer Anna; Yaari Einat; Peled Ronit; Wilf-Miron Rachel; Porath Avi; Kokia Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Populations having lower socioeconomic status, as well as ethnic minorities, have demonstrated lower utilization of preventive screening, including tests for early detection of breast and colorectal cancer. The objective To explore socio-demographic disparities in adherence to screening recommendations for early detection of cancer. Methods The study was conducted by Maccabi Healthcare Services, an Israeli HMO (health plan) providing healthcare services to 1.9 million memb...

  16. Socio-demographic predictors and average annual rates of caesarean section in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nuruzzaman Khan

    Full Text Available Globally the rates of caesarean section (CS have steadily increased in recent decades. This rise is not fully accounted for by increases in clinical factors which indicate the need for CS. We investigated the socio-demographic predictors of CS and the average annual rates of CS in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014.Data were derived from four waves of nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS conducted between 2004 and 2014. Rate of change analysis was used to calculate the average annual rate of increase in CS from 2004 to 2014, by socio-demographic categories. Multi-level logistic regression was used to identify the socio-demographic predictors of CS in a cross-sectional analysis of the 2014 BDHS data.CS rates increased from 3.5% in 2004 to 23% in 2014. The average annual rate of increase in CS was higher among women of advanced maternal age (≥35 years, urban areas, and relatively high socio-economic status; with higher education, and who regularly accessed antenatal services. The multi-level logistic regression model indicated that lower (≤19 and advanced maternal age (≥35, urban location, relatively high socio-economic status, higher education, birth of few children (≤2, antenatal healthcare visits, overweight or obese were the key factors associated with increased utilization of CS. Underweight was a protective factor for CS.The use of CS has increased considerably in Bangladesh over the survey years. This rising trend and the risk of having CS vary significantly across regions and socio-economic status. Very high use of CS among women of relatively high socio-economic status and substantial urban-rural difference call for public awareness and practice guideline enforcement aimed at optimizing the use of CS.

  17. Socio-demographic predictors and average annual rates of caesarean section in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Nuruzzaman; Islam, M Mofizul; Shariff, Asma Ahmad; Alam, Md Mahmudul; Rahman, Md Mostafizur

    2017-01-01

    Globally the rates of caesarean section (CS) have steadily increased in recent decades. This rise is not fully accounted for by increases in clinical factors which indicate the need for CS. We investigated the socio-demographic predictors of CS and the average annual rates of CS in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014. Data were derived from four waves of nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) conducted between 2004 and 2014. Rate of change analysis was used to calculate the average annual rate of increase in CS from 2004 to 2014, by socio-demographic categories. Multi-level logistic regression was used to identify the socio-demographic predictors of CS in a cross-sectional analysis of the 2014 BDHS data. CS rates increased from 3.5% in 2004 to 23% in 2014. The average annual rate of increase in CS was higher among women of advanced maternal age (≥35 years), urban areas, and relatively high socio-economic status; with higher education, and who regularly accessed antenatal services. The multi-level logistic regression model indicated that lower (≤19) and advanced maternal age (≥35), urban location, relatively high socio-economic status, higher education, birth of few children (≤2), antenatal healthcare visits, overweight or obese were the key factors associated with increased utilization of CS. Underweight was a protective factor for CS. The use of CS has increased considerably in Bangladesh over the survey years. This rising trend and the risk of having CS vary significantly across regions and socio-economic status. Very high use of CS among women of relatively high socio-economic status and substantial urban-rural difference call for public awareness and practice guideline enforcement aimed at optimizing the use of CS.

  18. Demographics, political power and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz-eakin, D

    1993-01-01

    "Growth theory may be used to predict the response of saving, capital formation, and output growth to large demographic shifts. Such large shifts would also be expected to alter the demand for government services and the desired levels of taxation in the population. This paper extends the overlapping-generations model of economic growth to predict the evolution of government tax and spending policy through the course of a major demographic shift. Simulations suggest that this approach may yield valuable insights into the evolution of policy in the United States and other industrialized economies." excerpt

  19. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  20. Influence of socioeconomic factors in muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rizo-Baeza

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction and objective: In muscle dysmorphia (MD the patient thinks he is smaller and less muscular than he really is. As in other addictive diseases, its prevention and early diagnosis are the key to avoid associated disorders. It is established as an objective to determine if there are associated socio-demographic factors. Material and methods: Cross-sectional observational study of 140 men, between 16-45 years old, who practice bodybuilding in gyms of different socioeconomic levels, at least 6 months prior to the study, 4 days / week, 1 hour / day, who signed the informed consent and without chronic illness. The main variable was the presence of symptoms of DM using the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (44 patients and the secondary variables were age, coexistence, children, educational level and monthly income. Frequencies were used in the qualitative variables, and averages and standard deviations in the quantitative variables, in the bivariate analysis of the Chisquare test and the t-student test respectively and the binary logistic regression (presence / absence of MD to eliminate confounding factors, the probabilities were calculated associated Results: The gymnasts have an average age of 26.1 (SD = 7.1 years; the majority live with their parents (56.4%; they do not have children (89.3%; the academic levels are balanced and the economic income is mostly low / medium (79.3%. In the bivariate analysis, is observed a higher risk at a younger age (p = 0.027 and when they live with their parents (limit of significance. Significance is not observed with the variables having children, educational level or economic income. In the binary logistic regression these meanings are lost, although the graphic representation of the probability in relation with age seems to be a risk factor, as well as living with the parents or as a couple. Conclusion: Among men who practice bodybuilding, it is usually a risk to suffer MD, to be younger