WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected demographic socioeconomic

  1. Housing East Asia: socioeconomic and demographic challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doling, J.; Ronald, R.

    2014-01-01

    Housing and home ownership has been strongly embedded in East Asian socioeconomic and policy models. Based on the primacy of national economic growth objectives, it was promoted as a means of, on the one hand, contributing directly to economic growth through the motor of the construction industry,

  2. demographic and socioeconomic factors influencing malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gyuk et al.

    Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and malaria vaccines should be made easily accessible to members of households alongside with environmental hygiene in order to reduce the incidence of malaria in the area. Keywords: Malaria, Incidence, Prevalence and Socioeconomic factors. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is one of the ...

  3. Socio-Economic, Demographic and Lifestyle Determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are the accumulation of high body adiposity, which can have detrimental health effects and contribute to the development of numerous preventable non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors on the ...

  4. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the demographic variables and socio-economic status on the prevalence of health hazards amongst residents of Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for this study was estimated to be 131,587 residents.

  5. Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors Affecting Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors Affecting Contraceptive use in Malawi. Martin E. Palamuleni. North West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, Republic of South Africa. *For correspondence: E-mail: martin.palamuleni@nwu.ac.za; Phone: + 27 18 ...

  6. Correspondence between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the adult Brazilian population

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    Vladimir Schuindt da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the correlation between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators among Brazilian adults, using data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey from 2008/2009.METHODS: We analyzed the joint relationships between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the Brazilian adult population (99,532,672 individuals, through the multiple correspondence analysis technique.RESULTS: The featured profile of the Brazilian adult population with regard to overweight was correlated with ages from 30 years of the most developed and economically social geographic regions of Brazil; however between genders, the correlation was in the opposite direction in the variables income, education, and subjective issues about life conditions related to food and nutrition security.CONCLUSION: By the joint relationship between overweight and selected demographic and socioeconomic indicators, the urgency of the development of strategies and/or preventive public health programs of health problems with overweight in the Brazilian adult population is suggested.

  7. Demographic development in selected microregions

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    Milan Palát

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the population development analysis of the Běleč, Lučina, Cézava and Podluží regions. In the studied period an increase in the mid-year population occurred, the proportion of women was predominant. As for demographic indicators, following parameters were evaluated: the number of population, the structure of population according to sex and age, death rate, birth-rate, marriage rate, divorce rate and migration. To express the development prediction of these indicators methods of time series were used. The population is getting older due to the extending live expectancy and decreasing mortality rate. The demographic aging of the population brings about a number of economic and social impacts, which require treatment both on the all-society and regional level.

  8. Diabetic Prevalence in Bangladesh: The Role of Some Associated Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Tasneem

    2012-12-01

    The study attempts at examining the association of a few selected socio-economic and demographic characteristics on diabetic prevalence. Nationally representative data from BIRDEM 2000 have been used to meet the objectives of the study. Cross tabulation, Chi-square and logistic regression analysis have been used to portray the necessary associations. Chi- square reveals significant relationship between diabetic prevalence and all the selected demographic and socio-economic variables except ìeducationî while logistic regression analysis shows no significant contribution of ìageî and ìeducationî in diabetic prevalence. It has to be noted that, this paper dealt with all the three types of diabetes- Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational.

  9. Energy intake from restaurants: demographics and socioeconomics, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Nguyen, Binh T; Han, Euna

    2012-11-01

    Eating food away from home and restaurant consumption have increased over the past few decades. To examine recent changes in calories from fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and to assess characteristics associated with consumption. Analyses of 24-hour dietary recalls from children, adolescents, and adults using nationally representative data from the 2003-2004 through 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, including analysis by gender, ethnicity, income, and location of consumption. Multivariate regression analyses of associations between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food and full-service restaurants. In 2007-2008, 33%, 41%, and 36% of children, adolescents, and adults, respectively, consumed foods and/or beverages from fast-food restaurant sources and 12%, 18%, and 27% consumed from full-service restaurants. Their respective mean daily caloric intake from fast food was 191, 404, and 315 kcal, down by 25% (p ≤ 0.05), 3%, and 9% from 2003-2004; and among consumers, intake was 576, 988, and 877 kcal, respectively, down by 12% (p ≤ 0.05), 2%, and 7%. There were no changes in daily calories consumed from full-service restaurants. Consumption prevalence and average daily caloric intake from fast-food (adults only) and full-service restaurants (all age groups) were higher when consumed away from home versus at home. There were some demographic and socioeconomic associations with the likelihood of fast-food consumption, but characteristics generally were not associated with the extent of caloric intake among those who consumed from fast-food or from full-service restaurants. In 2007-2008, fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption remained prevalent and a source of substantial energy intake. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Demographic, habitual, and socioeconomic determinants of Internet addiction disorder: an empirical study of Korean teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Mann Hyung

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the demographic, socioeconomic, and habitual causes of juvenile Internet addiction. All do not agree that Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is a new type of addiction, but they agree that the IAD phenomenon has widely spread over recent years. This is also true in Korea. For this study, six schools in Korea were selected to collect data: two from Seoul, two from suburban areas, and two from rural areas. Two hundred and forty copies were collected out of some 700 copies distributed. Multiple regression models were employed to explore significant predictors of IAD. This study showed that at least two out of 100 teenagers in Korea are seriously suffering from IAD and that approximately one out of two is exposed to a kind of IAD. The causes of IAD are not only associated with habitual backgrounds for use of the Internet, but also demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Therefore, it can be said that the development of IAD is an interactive process between juveniles' habits of using Internet, and their demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. As IAD progresses, a single type of intervention such as parent interventions or school interventions does not work effectively. Multimodal interventions are required to provide counseling services for individuals suffering from IAD.

  11. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of childhood anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswmai, Sankar; Das, Kishore K

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months. Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%). Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (panemia. The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of childhood anemia

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    Sankar Goswmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate socio-economic and demographic determinants of anemia among Indian children aged 6-59 months. METHODS: Statistical analysis was performed on the cross-sectional weighted sample of 40,885 children from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey by using multinomial logistic regression to assess the significance of some risk factors in different degrees of child anemia. Anemia was diagnosed by World Health Organization (WHO cut-off points on hemoglobin level. Pearson's chi-squared test was applied to justify the associations of anemia with different categories of the study population. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 69.5%; 26.2% mild, 40.4% moderate, and 2.9% severe anemia. Overall prevalence rate, along with mild and moderate cases, showed an increasing trend up to 2 years of age and then decreased. Rural children had a higher prevalence rate. Of 28 Indian states in the study, 10 states showed very high prevalence, the highest being Bihar (77.9%. Higher birth order, high index of poverty, low level of maternal education, mother's anemia, non-intake of iron supplements during pregnancy, and vegetarian mother increased the risks of all types of anemia among children (p < 0.05. Christian population was at lower risk; and Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, and Other Backward Class categories were at higher risk of anemia. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a need for proper planning and implementation of preventive measures to combat child anemia. Economically under-privileged groups, maternal nutrition and education, and birth control measures should be priorities in the programs.

  13. Relationship between Socioeconomic Demographic Characteristics with Antibiotic Self-Medication in Community Dwelling Adults

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    Michael Aditya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases escalation in developing countries especially in Indonesia lead to increasing use of antibiotics in the community. Self-medication with antibiotics may increase the risk of resistant bacteria and irrational use of antibiotics. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between socioeconomic -demographic characteristics with antibiotic self-medication. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted on people from Sayang Village in West Java Indonesia aged over 18 years and had experience in using antibiotics. A total of 146 respondents were selected as the sample of this study. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic demographic characteristics with antibiotic self-medication. Results: Out of 146 questionnaires that were completed, 111 were female and 35 male respondents, 75 respondents had experience in using antibiotics without prescription. The survey showed significant relation between antibiotics use with monthly income (p=0,031 and source of income (p=0,009. Conclusions: The study confirms that there is relation between monthly income and source of income with antibiotic self-medication.

  14. Socio-economic and Demographic Determinants of Children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines determinants of children's primary school enrolment. Using the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data, a Binary Logistic Regression model was fitted to identify the correlates. The findings indicate that the increase in the number of siblings decreases the likelihood of children's enrolment ...

  15. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT ON PRIVATE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS

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    Lana Kordić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Health care systems face pressure to increase the quality of health care at the same time with pressure to reduce public spending. The attempt to overcome the gap between needs and opportunities can be resolved through the introduction of public-private partnerships. Goals of this study are to investigate variation of the number, form and efficiency of private providers of general/family medicine services in primary health care and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic environment on those variations, among counties. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are identified as independent variables that influence the health care need and utilization and consequently the decision of private entities to engage in the provision of health care services. This study extended previous studies because it has introduced socioeconomic and demographic variables. This may shed same new lights on the relationship between private providers of health service and efficiency of providing health service in primary health care.

  16. Demographic and Socio-economic Structure of Gaziantep City Population: Notes from a Fieldwork

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    Şerife GENİŞ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the important socio-spatial consequences of the liberalization and globalization of Turkish economy in the aftermath of 1980 has been the expansion of industrialization to the periphery and the emergence of industrial cities interchangebly called “Anatolian Tigers” or “local industrialization nodes.” The meaning of economic transformation experienced by these cities however remains controversial in the literature on social change and development. The main subject of debate focuses on the content of this economic transformation as well as its sustainability and its impact on social and human development. This article focuses on Gaziantep, one of the significant examples of these new industrial cities experiencing striking socio-economic and spatial transformations. Based on a fieldwork carried through a city-wide representative sample and conducted between the period of December 2008 and April 2009, this article examines and evaluates selected demographic and socio-economic indicators of Gaziantep city population. Some of the most significant problems the city faces are mass migration from its own periphery, a large young population with significantly low levels of education, high levels of unemployment and extensive temporary/informal employment

  17. Influence Of Socioeconomic Clinical And Demographic Variables On Caries Experience Of Preschool Children In Piracicaba, Sp

    OpenAIRE

    Cortellazzi K.L.; Tagliaferro E.P.S.; Assaf A.V.; Tafner A.P.M.F.; Ambrosano G.M.B.; Bittar T.O.; Meneghim M.C.; Pereira A.C.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of socioeconomic, clinical and demographic variables on caries experience in 5-year-old preschool children in Piracicaba. METHODOLOGY: The sample consisted of 728 children attending 22 public (n=428) and 18 private (n=300) preschools. Dental caries was measured using the dmft/dmfs indexes and by detecting initial caries lesion (IL). Gingivitis, crowding, spacing, fluorosis and mouth breathing were also recorded. The socioeconomic variables (monthly family income...

  18. Population demographics and socioeconomic impact of osteoporotic fractures in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrain, Jacques; Paiement, Guy; Chevrier, Normand; Lalumière, Gaston; Laflamme, Georges-Henri; Caron, Pierre; Fillion, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Through a survey of the literature and an analysis of selected national and regional statistics, a review of the incidence of osteoporosis and its consequences was performed. Results illustrate that the consequences of osteoporosis are preventable and should sensitize clinicians to the importance of early detection and the identification of risk factors for disease prevention and to early treatment once disease has been established. A marked increase in the annual incidence of hip fractures in all Canadians is noted. Whereas the incidence was less than 20,000 in 1981, the incidence of hip fracture grew to 27,342 in 1995, with 73% occurring in women. It is estimated that in Canada at least one in four women older than 50 years will have one or more osteoporosis-related fractures in their lifetimes. The consequences of these fractures are considerable, both for patients and healthcare services. Only half of all victims regain total autonomy, and the total direct costs in Canada stemming from osteoporosis are estimated to be $1.3 billion per year.

  19. [The socioeconomic and demographic characterization of children and adolescents who study and work outside their home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Renata Cristina da Penha; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Secco, Iara Aparecida de Oliveira; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of children and adolescents who study and work outside their home. This non-experimental, correlational, cross-sectional study was performed using questionnaires applied to primary education students, enrolled in public schools in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil). Two schools were selected through a draw. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 14.0. Of the 133 students who answered the questionnaire, 36 (27.7%) reported working outside their home, 20.6% were between 11 and 13 years of age, and 66.7% were male (p=0.000) and had started working early to help with the family income (p=0.003). The salary they received helped comprise the family income, and it was found that as the family income increased, the need for the youngsters to work was reduced. It was found that many factors contribute to these subjects' early start at work, including family size, structure and poverty.

  20. Selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers in part-time farming in Emohua, Rivers State. DO Onu. Abstract. The study investigates selected socio-demographic factors affecting involvement of farmers in part-time farming in Emohua, Rivers State. Structured questionnaire was administered to 87 ...

  1. Socioeconomic, psychological and demographic determinants of Australian baby boomers' financial planning for retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Jack; O'Loughlin, Kate; Kendig, Hal

    2012-09-01

    Research from around the Western World has shown that psychological, socioeconomic and demographic factors can influence levels of financial planning. This study aims to determine how these factors interrelate to predict planning outcomes. Data from the Ageing Baby Boomers in Australia Study were used to examine the effects of multiple factors on financial planning for 709 employed Australians nearing retirement. The results showed that higher income, future time perspective (FTP) and financial knowledge independently predicted levels of retirement planning. The effects of FTP and financial knowledge on financial planning were consistent across levels of socioeconomic status. While similar issues in financial planning appeared across socioeconomic status, a 'one size fits all' approach to retirement policy may not be effective. Instead, policy should be targeted towards the diverse needs of different groups. Raising public awareness of FTP and financial knowledge may provide a useful starting point. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  2. Socioeconomic status and fertility before, during, and after the demographic transition: An introduction

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    Martin Dribe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a long interest in the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns that could help us understand the mechanisms behind the transition. In previous research the widely held view is that there was a change in the association between social status and fertility in conjunction with the fertility transition, implying that fertility went from being positively connected to social status (higher status was connected with higher fertility to being negatively associated with fertility. Objective: The aim of this collection is to study socioeconomic patterns in the fertility transition in a variety of contexts using similar approaches and measures of socioeconomic status. Methods: All contributions use different kinds of micro-level socioeconomic and demographic data and statistical models in the analysis. Data either come from census-like records or population registers. Conclusions: There is no consistent evidence for the hypothesis that socioeconomic status was positively related to fertility before the demographic transition. While such a correlation was clearly present in some contexts it was clearly not in other contexts. There is more unanimous support for the idea that the upper-and middle classes acted as forerunners in the transition, while especially farmers were late to change their fertility behavior. It is also evident that both parity-specific stopping and prolonged birth intervals (spacing were important in the fertility transition.

  3. Socio-economic and demographic correlates of stunting among adolescents of Assam, North- east India

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    Seb Rengma Melody

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age is a key indicator of long-term chronic undernutrition which reflects an anthropometric failure to reach linear growth potentials due to prolonged food deprivation and/or disease or illness during the early stage of life. The present study assesses the prevalence and socio-economic and demographic correlates of stunting among adolescents of the North-east India. This cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1,818 (830 boys; 988 girls adolescents (aged 10-18 years belonging to ethnically heterogeneous populations of Karbi Anglong district of Assam, using stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were recorded using standard procedures. Socio-economic and demographic variables were obtained using pre-structured schedule. The age-sex specific L, M and S reference values were used to calculate height-for-age Z-score (HAZ. According to WHO, HAZ found to be 0.05. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that several socio-economic and demographic variables were significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05. The step-wise multiple logistic regression analysis showed that sex (boys, age groups (13-15 years and 16-18 years, father’s occupation (cultivator and Rupees ≤5000 household income was significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05. Appropriate nutritional intervention programmes and dissemination of knowledge at population level related to undernutrition are necessary to ameliorate their nutritional status.

  4. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte

    Purpose: To investigate whether fast food outlets and supermarkets are socially patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast food outlets, supermarkets, and neighborhood level socio......-economic indicators in 2006. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators for all neighborhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n = 400). We applied area-level socio-economic and demographic information from Statistics Denmark. Counts of fast food outlets and supermarkets were...... regressed on SES indicators (percentage of: recent immigrants, lack of high school diploma, population under 35 yr, and average household income in Euros) using negative binomial analysis. Findings: In the fully adjusted models, income was significantly associated with fast food exposure...

  5. Influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the quality of life

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    Grbić Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of life is a multidimensional concept, which is best expressed by the subjective well-being. Evaluation of the quality of life is the basis for measuring the well-being, and the determination of factors that determine the quality of life quality is the basis for its improvement Objective. To evaluate and assess the determinants of the perceived quality of life of group distinguishing features which characterize demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the population in Serbia aged over 20 years (9479 examinees. The quality of life was expressed by the perception of well-being (pleasure of life. Data on the examinees (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected by using a questionnaire for adults of each household. To process, analyze and present the data, we used the methods of parametric descriptive statistics (mean value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, variance analysis and factor analysis. Results. Although men evaluated the quality of life with a slightly higher grading, there was no statistically significant difference in the evaluation of the quality of life in relation to the examinee’s gender (p>0.005. Among the examinees there was a high statistically significant difference in grading the quality of life depending on age, level of education, marital status and type of job (p<0.001. In relation to the number of children, there was no statistically significant difference in he grading of the quality of life (p>0.005. Conclusion. The quality of life is influenced by numerous factors that characterize each person (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individual. Determining factors of the quality of life are numerous and diverse, and the manner and the strength of their influence are variable.

  6. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalli, Ângelo Giuseppe; Cancela, Marianna de Camargo; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old) according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95%) were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states). Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and consequently

  7. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

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    Januse Nogueira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95% were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states. Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and

  8. Socioeconomic determinants of e-government adoption in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the impact of socioeconomic factors on e-government adoption, specifically addressing the digital divide in Tanzania. A survey was administered on 450 citizens, in order to examine the effect of demographic characteristics on e-government usage. The findings of this study revealed that income, age, ...

  9. Depression Following Spinal Cord Injury: Its Relationship to Demographic and Socioeconomic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaeipour, Zahra; Taheri-Otaghsara, Seyedeh-Mohadeseh; Naghdi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem that decreases life satisfaction and quality of life in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression after SCI and its association with pathophysiological, demographic, and socioeconomic factors, including sex, age, level of injury, financial status, and suicidal thoughts. This was a cross-sectional study of 134 adults (≥ 18 years old) with SCI who were referred to the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center (BASIR) clinic, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for outpatient rehabilitation. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II Persian), a 21-question multiple-choice inventory, was used to measure the presence and severity of depression. Data were collected by interview. Sixty-six (49.3%) participants had mild to severe depression. There was a higher probability of depression in individuals with SCI who were female, had tetraplegia, had suicidal thoughts, had a history of suicide attempt, had a low education level, or were taken cared for by a family member other than a spouse or parents. Depression was highly prevalent in individuals with SCI and was related to some demographic, pathophysiological, and socioeconomic indicators. The primary predictive indicators and the factors influencing depression should be determined to provide early detection and timely treatment to prevent more complications and improve quality of life for individuals with SCI.

  10. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

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    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  11. Associations between health care seeking and socioeconomic and demographic determinants among people reporting alarm symptoms of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Rikke P; Jarbol, Dorte E; Larsen, Pia V

    2013-01-01

    Late diagnosis of cancer may partly be explained by the fact that some patients do not seek health care promptly when experiencing an alarm symptom. Socioeconomic and demographic differences exist concerning knowledge and awareness of cancer alarm symptoms in the general population and socioecono...... and socioeconomic differences are found in cancer incidence and survival. We therefore hypothesise that socioeconomic and demographic differences in health care-seeking behaviour are present among people with alarm symptoms.......Late diagnosis of cancer may partly be explained by the fact that some patients do not seek health care promptly when experiencing an alarm symptom. Socioeconomic and demographic differences exist concerning knowledge and awareness of cancer alarm symptoms in the general population...

  12. Tooth brushing frequency in Mexican schoolchildren and associated socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Tooth brushing (with fluoridated toothpaste) is the most cost-effective intervention in dentistry and it is widely recommended to preserve good oral health. We aimed to determine the frequency of tooth brushing and the variables associated with this practice in schoolchildren living in southeast Mexico. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1644 schoolchildren, 6 to 13 years old. Questionnaires with socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables were administered to mothers/guardians of children. The dependent variable was the frequency of tooth brushing, which was categorized as 0 = tooth brushing less than once a day and 1 = tooth brushing at least once a day. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the final results. Results Mean age was 9.06±2.02 years and 49.1% were girls. The prevalence of tooth brushing at least once a day was 49.8%. In the multivariate model, characteristics related to tooth brushing frequency (p<0.05) were: older age (OR=1.11), being female (OR=1.64), having a larger family (OR=0.87), having had a visit to a dentist during the year preceding the study (OR=1.37), and having had fluoride applications by a professional (OR=1.39). Conclusions The results suggested that different variables (demographic, socioeconomic and dental) are associated with the frequency of tooth brushing. Family size (proxy variable for socioeconomic status) may indicate certain oral health inequalities in this population. PMID:24907713

  13. The influence of selected socio-economic variables on poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of selected socio-economic variables on poultry farmers' choice of commercial and self-compounded feeds in Lagos area of Nigeria. ... cost consideration was the major factor determining the choice of feed types by the farmers.

  14. Characterizing relationships between personal exposures to VOCs and socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Wei; Majeed, Mohammed A.; Chu, Pei-Ling; Lin, Hui-Chih

    Socioeconomic and demographic factors have been found to significantly affect time-activity patterns in population cohorts that can subsequently influence personal exposures to air pollutants. This study investigates relationships between personal exposures to eight VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-,p-xylene, chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene) and socioeconomic, demographic, time-activity pattern factors using data collected from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) VOC study. Socio-demographic factors (such as race/ethnicity and family income) were generally found to significantly influence personal exposures to the three chlorinated compounds. This was mainly due to the associations paired by race/ethnicity and urban residence, race/ethnicity and use of air freshener in car, family income and use of dry-cleaner, which can in turn affect exposures to chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene, respectively. For BTEX, the traffic-related compounds, housing characteristics (leaving home windows open and having an attached garage) and personal activities related to the uses of fuels or solvent-related products played more significant roles in influencing exposures. Significant differences in BTEX exposures were also commonly found in relation to gender, due to associated significant differences in time spent at work/school and outdoors. The coupling of Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Bootstrap Aggregating (Bagging) techniques were used as effective tools for characterizing robust sets of significant VOC exposure factors presented above, which conventional statistical approaches could not accomplish. Identification of these significant VOC exposure factors can be used to generate hypotheses for future investigations about possible significant VOC exposure sources and pathways in the general U.S. population.

  15. The influence of socioeconomic and demographic variables on willingness to donate cadaveric human organs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Manikam, Rishya; Chandarsekaran, Sankara K; Thangiah, Govindamal; Puspharajan, Saravanan; Swaminathan, Dasan

    2014-11-01

    The growing shortage in human organs has raised serious concerns. To address this problem, we examine in this article the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors, and respondents' willingness to donate cadaveric organs using a large survey of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above.A convenience sampling method was used to extract information from a total of 10,350 participants from Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur over the period of April 2, 2013 to February 29, 2014. In addition to analyzing the data using incidence of willingness to donate by demographic and socioeconomic factors, we carried out logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio of respondents' willingness to become cadaveric organ donors controlling for age.About less than a third of the participants pledged to donate their organs upon death with women (35.6%) showing a higher incidence compared with men (33.2%). The Chinese (35.7%) and Malays (35.0%) pledged to contribute more than the Indians (31.6%) and the logistic regressions show that Malays (adjusted odds ration [OR] = 1.18) and Chinese (adjusted OR = 1.21) are more likely to donate than Indians (reference group). The results by religion were significant among Muslims and Hindus but not Buddhists. The likelihood of Muslims donating was the lowest (adjusted OR = 0.26). Income was also highly significant but the relationship with willingness to donate was negative. Against tertiary education, all other occupations were significant. However, the respondents with primary education enjoyed the highest adjusted OR (5.46) whereas that of secondary (0.48) and higher secondary (0.83) education was low. Among occupations (against supervisory, clerical, and direct workers), it was significant only among the unemployed and managers with adjusted OR of 1.50 and 1.58, respectively.Sex, education, ethnicity, religion, and income are important demographic and socioeconomic influences on the likelihood of Malaysians willing to become

  16. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Marques Sotero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202 living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Results: Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (p<0.01 and meat, offal, and eggs (p<0.01, when compared with children of the case group. On the other hand, the median of consumption scores of manufactured goods was higher among children in the case group (p<0.01. Conclusions: Maternal socioeconomic status influenced the quality of food offered to the infant. In the case group, children up to 24 months already consumed industrial products instead of healthy foods on their menu.

  17. [Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic maternal factors associated with dietary patterns of infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Andréa Marques; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-12-01

    To analyze dietary patterns of infants and its association with maternal socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two groups of mothers of children up to 24 months (n=202) living in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. The case group consisted of mothers enrolled in a Family Health Unit. The comparison group consisted of mothers who took their children to two private pediatric offices of the city. Dietary intake was assessed using a qualitative and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The evaluation of the FFQ was performed by a method in which the overall rate of consumption frequency is converted into a score. Children of higher income families and mothers with better education level (control group) showed the highest median of consumption scores for fruits and vegetables (p<0.01) and meat, offal, and eggs (p<0.01), when compared with children of the case group. On the other hand, the median of consumption scores of manufactured goods was higher among children in the case group (p<0.01). Maternal socioeconomic status influenced the quality of food offered to the infant. In the case group, children up to 24 months already consumed industrial products instead of healthy foods on their menu. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Socioeconomic Diversity in Selective Private Colleges: An Organizational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, James C.; Rosinger, Kelly Ochs

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few students in selective colleges come from disadvantaged backgrounds, so the rewards of attending such schools go mainly to those already advantaged from birth. There is substantial variation in those colleges' socioeconomic composition, however. Some selective private institutions proportionately enroll five times as many lower-SES…

  19. Associations between reporting of cancer alarm symptoms and socioeconomic and demographic determinants: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen Rikke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reporting of symptoms which may signal cancer is the first step in the diagnostic pathway of cancer diseases. Cancer alarm symptoms are common in the general population. Public awareness and knowledge of cancer symptoms are sparse, however, and many people do not seek medical help when having possible cancer symptoms. As social inequality is associated with cancer knowledge, cancer awareness, and information-seeking, our hypothesis is that social inequality may also exist in the general population with respect to reporting of cancer alarm symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between socioeconomic and demographic determinants and reporting of common cancer alarm symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed based on a stratified sample of the Danish general population. A total of 13 777 randomly selected persons aged 20 years and older participated. Our main outcome measures were weighted prevalence estimates of self-reporting one of the following cancer alarm symptoms during the preceding 12 months: a lump in the breast, coughing for more than 6 weeks, seen blood in urine, or seen blood in stool. Logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the associations between each covariate and reporting of cancer alarm symptoms. Results A total of 2 098 (15.7% of the participants reported one or more cancer alarm symptoms within the preceding 12 months. Women, subjects out of the workforce, and subjects with a cancer diagnosis had statistically significantly higher odds of reporting one or more cancer alarm symptoms. Subjects with older age and subjects living with a partner had lower odds of reporting one or more cancer alarm symptoms. When analysing the four alarm symptoms of cancer separately most tendencies persisted. Conclusions Socioeconomic and demographic determinants are associated with self

  20. Identifying socio-demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities in a diverse London community: the South East London Community Health (SELCoH study

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    Hatch Stephani L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responses to public health need require information on the distribution of mental and physical ill health by demographic and socioeconomic factors at the local community level. Methods The South East London Community Health (SELCoH study is a community psychiatric and physical morbidity survey. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face computer assisted interviews with 1698 adults aged 16 years and over, from 1076 randomly selected private households in two south London boroughs. We compared the prevalence of common mental disorders, hazardous alcohol use, long standing illness and general physical health by demographic and socioeconomic indicators. Unadjusted and models adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic indicators are presented for all logistic regression models. Results Of those in the sample, 24.2% reported common mental disorder and 44.9% reported having a long standing illness, with 15.7% reporting hazardous alcohol consumption and 19.2% rating their health as fair or poor. The pattern of indicators identifying health inequalities for common mental disorder, poor general health and having a long term illness is similar; individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have poorer health and physical health worsens as age increases for all groups. The prevalence of poor health outcomes by ethnic group suggests that there are important differences between groups, particularly for common mental disorder and poor general health. Higher socioeconomic status was protective for common mental disorder, fair or poor health and long standing illness, but those with higher socioeconomic status reported higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. The proportion of participants who met the criteria for common mental disorder with co-occurring functional limitations was similar or greater to those with poor physical health. Conclusions Health service providers and policy makers should prioritise high risk, socially defined

  1. Spatial data on energy, environmental, socioeconomic, health and demographic themes at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory: 1978 inventory. [SEEDIS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, B.R.; Merrill, D.W. (eds.)

    1979-04-01

    Spatial data files covering energy, environmental, socio-economic, health, and demographic themes are described. Descriptions provide data dates, abstracts, geographic coverage, documentation, original data source, availability limitations, and contact person. A current version of this document is maintained as part of the Socio-Economic-Environmental-Demographic Information System (SEEDIS) within the Computer Science and Applied Mathematics Department, and is available for on-line retrieval using the Virginia Sventek, (415) 486-5216 or (FTS) 451-5216 for further information.

  2. Impact of demographic change, socioeconomics, and health care resources on life expectancy in Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Taylor, Beverly Joan

    2013-05-01

    Demographic and socioeconomic changes and the availability of health care resources were collected to examine the impacts on life expectancy in Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. An ecological design collecting 29 years (1980-2008) data for three Southeast Asian countries. Life expectancy, demographics, socioeconomic status, and health care resources were collected. The structural equation model indicates that more available health care resources and socioeconomic advantages were more likely to increase life expectancy. By contrast, demographic change was more likely to increase life expectancy by way of health care resources. Results show that factors that had direct impacts on life expectancy in all three countries were socioeconomic status and health care resources. Demographic changes had an indirect influence on life expectancy via health care resources. These findings suggest that policymakers should be focusing on how to remove the barriers that impede access to health care services during economic downturns. In addition, how to increase preventive care for the populations that have less access to health care in communities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development of geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast: socio-economic, demographic, and political considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Williamson, J.K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The institutional aspect of the study attempts to identify possible effects of geothermal research, development, and utilization on the area and its inhabitants in three chapters. Chapters I and II address key socio-economic and demographic variables. The initial chapter provides an overview of the area where the resource is located. Major data are presented that can be used to establish a baseline description of the region for comparison over time and to delineate crucial area for future study with regard to geothermal development. The chapter highlights some of the variables that reflect the cultural nature of the Gulf Coast, its social characteristics, labor force, and service in an attempt to delineate possible problems with and barriers to the development of geothermal energy in the region. The following chapter focuses on the local impacts of geothermal wells and power-generating facilities using data on such variables as size and nature of construction and operating crews. Data are summarized for the areas studied. A flow chart is utilized to describe research that is needed in order to exploit the resource as quickly and effectively as possible. Areas of interface among various parts of the research that will include exchange of data between the social-cultural group and the institutional, legal, environmental, and resource utilization groups are identified. (MCW)

  4. Demographic-socioeconomic profile and sexual behavior of pregnant adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Melize Santos Menezes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence pregnancy pictures the interaction between the exertion of sexuality and the reproductive life, as a process influenced by the historical and social context of the embedded person. This study aims to portray the demographic and socioeconomic profile and the sexual behavior of pregnant teenagers. It is a cross-sectional study accomplished at Family Health Units in a Brazilian northeast city. Participated in the study 50 adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age. It was adopted a survey with open and closed ended questions. Among the adolescents menarche occurred at an average of 11.68 years of age (pd = 1.3; 48% of them had their first sexual intercourse before 16 years-old (group average = 14.30 – dp = 1.71; the majority were primigravidae; abstained from alcohol ingestion during the gestational period and did not use birth-control methods; 98% had low family income. The pregnancy was a reason for school evasion. The knowledge of birth-control methods was not an impedible factor to the early pregnancy. The appropriation of the guideline for birth control has become one of the biggest difficulties in the basic health basic system to avoid unplanned pregnancy. In this situational context, there are sociocultural, political and economic factors involved.

  5. Demographic and socio-economic correlates of dental pain among adults in the United Kingdom, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, A; Croucher, R E; Marcenes, W

    2007-05-12

    To report the demographic and socio-economic correlates for dental pain in UK adults, and characterise those with dental pain who did not access dental services and perceived treatment need. Secondary analysis of the 1998 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data. Survey of random sample of UK households between September and December 1998. Face-to-face interviews with community-dwelling adults, aged 16 years and over. MAIN: outcome measures Self-reported dental pain in the past 12 months. Dental attendance and perceived treatment need of those reporting dental pain. Of the 4,942 valid responses, 46.1% were men, the proportion of subjects in each 10-year band age group up to 65 years ranged from 10 to 23%, and 42.6% were manual workers. Dental pain was reported by 28%. After controlling for gender and age, manual workers were more likely to report dental pain (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.06-1.37), non-utilisation of dental services (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.12-1.82), and perceived treatment need (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03-1.60). Inequality by social class, age and gender exists in the experience of dental pain, access to dental services and perceived treatment need in the UK adult population. Dental health services need to address the needs of this particular section of the population if the Government is to live up to its commitment to reducing oral health inequality and improving access.

  6. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors’ own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Results : The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. Conclusions : An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  7. Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pallottini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying which risk groups have a higher intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods: Data from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 1662; age range 12–97 years, were used. Dietary intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. Baseline characteristics were collected. Associations between BCAA intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were determined using linear regression. Results: Total BCAA intake was 217.14 mg/kg·day (Leu: 97.16 mg/kg·day; Ile: 56.44 mg/kg·day; Val: 63.54 mg/kg·day. BCAA intake was negatively associated with female sex in adolescents and adult groups, with no white race in adolescents, and with former smoker status in adults. Conversely, BCAA was positively associated with household per capita income in adolescents and adults. No associations were observed in the older adults group. Main food contributors to BCAA were unprocessed red meat, unprocessed poultry, bread and toast, beans and rice. Conclusions: Adolescents and adults were the most vulnerable to having their BCCA intake influenced by demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.

  8. Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallottini, Ana Carolina; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-05-02

    Identifying which risk groups have a higher intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Data from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 1662; age range 12-97 years), were used. Dietary intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. Baseline characteristics were collected. Associations between BCAA intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were determined using linear regression. Total BCAA intake was 217.14 mg/kg·day (Leu: 97.16 mg/kg·day; Ile: 56.44 mg/kg·day; Val: 63.54 mg/kg·day). BCAA intake was negatively associated with female sex in adolescents and adult groups, with no white race in adolescents, and with former smoker status in adults. Conversely, BCAA was positively associated with household per capita income in adolescents and adults. No associations were observed in the older adults group. Main food contributors to BCAA were unprocessed red meat, unprocessed poultry, bread and toast, beans and rice. Adolescents and adults were the most vulnerable to having their BCCA intake influenced by demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.

  9. Socio-economic, Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAP), household related and demographic based appearance of non-dengue infected individuals in high dengue risk areas of Kandy District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayanga, Lahiru; Gunathilaka, Nayana; Iqbal, M C M; Pahalagedara, Kusumawathie; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma

    2018-02-21

    Socio-economic, demographic factors and Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAPs) have been recognized as critical factors that influence the incidence and transmission of dengue epidemics. However, studies that characterize above features of a risk free or low risk population are rare. Therefore, the present study was conducted to characterize the household related, demographic, socio-economic factors and KAPs status of five selected dengue free communities. An analytical cross-sectional survey was conducted on selected demographic, socio-economic, household related and KAPs in five selected dengue free communities living in dengue risk areas within Kandy District, Central Province, Sri Lanka. Household heads of 1000 randomly selected houses were interviewed in this study. Chi-square test for independence, cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates (PCO) analysis were used for data analysis. Knowledge and awareness regarding dengue, (prevention of the vector breeding, bites of mosquitoes, disease symptoms and waste management) and attitudes of the community (towards home gardening, composting, waste management and maintenance of a clean and dengue free environment) are associated with the dengue free status of the study populations. The vector controlling authorities should focus on socio-economic, demographic and KAPs in stimulating the community to cooperate in the integrated vector management strategies to improve vector control and reduce transmission of dengue within Kandy District.

  10. Why and How Socioeconomic Factors Should Be Used in Selective College Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Philip

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses the socioeconomic factors pressing for consideration in selective college admission policies and processes. It also presents an institutional example of using socioeconomic factors in a selective college admission process. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. The demographic and socioeconomic factors predictive for populations at high-risk for La Crosse virus infection in West Virginia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Haddow

    Full Text Available Although a large body of literature exists for the environmental risk factors for La Crosse virus (LACV transmission, the demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for developing LACV infection have not been investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for LACV infection in West Virginia from 2003 to 2007, using two forward stepwise discriminant analyses. The discriminant analyses were used to evaluate a number of demographic and socioeconomic factors for their ability to predict: 1 those census tracts with at least one reported case of LACV infection versus those census tracts with no reported cases of LACV infection and 2 to evaluate significantly high-risk clusters for LACV infection versus significantly low-risk clusters for LACV infection. In the first model, a high school education diploma or a general education diploma or less and a lower housing densitywere found to be predictive of those census tracts with at least one case of LACV infection. A high school or a general education diploma or less, lower housing density, and housing built in 1969 and earlier were all found to be predictive of those census tracts displaying high-risk clusters versus census tracts displaying low-risk clusters in the second model. The cluster discriminant analysis was found to be more predictive than the census tract discriminant analysis as indicated by the Eigenvalues, canonical correlation, and grouping accuracy. The results of this study indicate that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are at the highest risk for LACV infection and should be a focus of LACV infection prevention efforts.

  12. Socio-economic and demographic variations in school lunch participation of French children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2011-02-01

    To assess school canteen attendance in a French nationally representative sample of children and to analyse its association with the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the children and their families. Data from the second French national cross-sectional food consumption survey (INCA2), performed in 2006-2007, were used. Information on usual weekly school canteen attendance was collected through a self-reported questionnaire, and demographic and socio-economic variables through a face-to-face questionnaire. The associations between school canteen attendance and the socio-economic and demographic variables were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. The INCA2 sample was representative of the children aged 3-17 years in France. Analysis was performed on 1413 schoolchildren who completed the school canteen attendance questions. Some 65·6 % of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years had school lunch at least once weekly. This rate of attendance was positively correlated with age. Whatever the school level, school canteen attendance was positively associated with the educational level of the caregiver/parent. In pre- and elementary-school children, enrolment at the school canteen was also higher when the caregiver/parent worked, or in single-parent families. In secondary-school children, school lunch participation decreased with children living in more densely populated areas and increased with the level of the household's living standards. School canteen attendance was positively associated with children's socio-economic background. This could reduce the effectiveness of the forthcoming school meal composition regulations designed to improve the diet of children from deprived backgrounds, who are more likely to have unhealthy food habits.

  13. Demographic and socio-economic associations with academic attainment (UCAS tariff scores) in applicants to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, David; James, David; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2007-03-01

    In the United Kingdom medical students are selected predominantly on their academic merit. Their academic achievement marks are equated via the tariff point score structure administered by the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS). We studied the applicant databases for 1998-2003 for one English medical school to determine the factors that predict high tariff point scores. Complete demographic data and relative socio-economic status, educational institution attended and tariff point score was available for 8997 UK applicants aged 21 years or younger to the 5-year Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (BM BS) course at Nottingham University medical school (and partially complete data for a further 1891 applicants). The data were subjected to standard univariate and multivariate analyses and to path analysis. In these samples, the independent predictors of a high tariff point score were being younger and male. The effect sizes were small, although significant. Higher tariff point scores were achieved by those from households less materially disadvantaged. Ethnicity was also a predictor with white, Chinese and those of mixed ethnic origin achieving higher tariff point scores than those from other groups. Finally, the type of school attended predicted academic achievement with applicants from further education colleges, independent schools and grant-maintained schools achieving higher tariff point scores. Notwithstanding the relatively homogeneous (predominantly young, white, high academic achievers) applicant pool to a single UK medical school we identified consistent significant predictors of high tariff point scores. As high tariff point scores are still the major entry criterion to UK medical schools, our findings will be of value in informing policy decisions concerning 'widening access' schemes being established at government request.

  14. Socioeconomic Inequality in Malnutrition in Under-5 Children in Iran: Evidence From the Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasian Kia, Abdollah; Rezapour, Aziz; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Afzali Abarghouei, Vajiheh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in under-5 children in Iran in order to help policymakers reduce such inequality. Data on 8443 under-5 children were extracted from the Iran Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey. The wealth index was used as proxy for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight, and wasting was calculated using the concentration index. The concentration index was calculated for the whole sample, as well as for subcategories defined in terms of categories such as area of residence (urban and rural) and the sex of children. Stunting was observed to be more prevalent than underweight or wasting. The results of the concentration index at the national level, as well as in rural and urban areas and in terms of children's sex, showed that inequality in stunting and underweight was statistically significant and that children in the lower quintiles were more malnourished. The wasting index was not sensitive to socioeconomic status, and its concentration index value was not statistically significant. This study showed that it can be misleading to assess the mean levels of malnutrition at the national level without knowledge of the distribution of malnutrition among socioeconomic groups. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and underweight were observed at the national level and in both urban and rural areas. Regarding the influence of nutrition on the health and economic well-being of preschool-aged children, it is necessary for the government to focus on taking targeted measures to reduce malnutrition and to focus on poorer groups within society who bear a greater burden of malnutrition.

  15. [Dietary habits and food consumption in Spanish children and adolescents (1998-2000): socioeconomic and demographic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Majem, Lluís; Ribas Barba, Lourdes; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Roman Viñas, Blanca; Aranceta Bartrina, Javier

    2003-06-28

    Although children and adolescents have special nutritional requirements due to their physical development, little is known about the concept of a healthy diet. This study shows the food consumption of the Spanish population aged 2-24 years in relation to socio-economic and geographic factors. A representative sample of the Spanish population (n = 3.534 individuals, 1.905 female and 1.629 male) was studied. Both a 24-hours recall and a general questionnaire with socio-economic, demographic and life style items were administered. Most individuals consumed meals at home. The consumption of vegetables (90.4 g), cereals (181.1 g) and potatoes (69.7 g) was low, the consumption of red meat (71.6 g) and sausages (46.8 g) was high, and fish consumption was low (47.7 g). Girls had insufficient intakes of milk (280.9 g). We noticed geographical differences in food consumption which may be reflected in various health outcomes in adulthood. The familiar socioeconomic status and the educational level of the mother showed some influence on the intakes of meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, yoghurt and cheese. Nutritional education programs are needed to settle the observed nutritional inadequacies in the food habits of Spanish children and adolescents so that the future health of the population improves. It is also needed to reduce the inequalities linked to geographic and socio-economic factors.

  16. The Incidence of HIV in Windhoek, Namibia: Demographic and Socio-Economic Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aulagnier, M.; Janssens, W.; de Beer, I.; van Rooy, G.; Gaeb, E.; Hesp, C.; van der Gaag, J; Rinke de Wit, T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate HIV incidence and prevalence in Windhoek, Namibia and to analyze socio-economic factors related to HIV infection. Method: In 2006/7, baseline surveys were performed with 1,753 private households living in the greater Windhoek area; follow-up visits took place in 2008 and 2009.

  17. Latino Population Growth, Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics, and Implications for Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Jorge; De La Rosa, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    Data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics indicate that Latinos lag behind non-Latinos in education and in other socioeconomic characteristics. Although there are some positive indications such as the decrease of individuals and children living in poverty and an increase in the number of individuals working…

  18. Incidence of HIV in Windhoek, Namibia: demographic and socio-economic associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aulagnier, Marielle; Janssens, Wendy; de Beer, Ingrid; van Rooy, Gert; Gaeb, Esegiel; Hesp, Cees; van der Gaag, Jacques; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2011-01-01

    To estimate HIV incidence and prevalence in Windhoek, Namibia and to analyze socio-economic factors related to HIV infection. In 2006/7, baseline surveys were performed with 1,753 private households living in the greater Windhoek area; follow-up visits took place in 2008 and 2009. Face-to-face

  19. The effects of socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of regions on the spatial patterns of the Second Demographic Transition in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Mäenpää

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies to what extent regional socioeconomic and cultural characteristics explain spatial patterns in the Second Demographic Transition in Finland. The country's 75 functional regions are used as area units. A summary indicator of the transition based on divorce and cohabitation is used as the dependent variable. The results show that the spatial pattern is mainly determined according to the regional level of urbanization, but the effect is mediated by cultural characteristics (secularization and support for the socialist and green parties. The cultural characteristics have only a modest independent effect.

  20. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  1. Contrasting Socio-Economic and Demographic Profiles of Two, Small Island, Economic Species: MIRAB versus PROFIT/SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Oberst

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The MIRAB model developed by Bertram and Watters, based on remittances and aid, has dominated the small island economy literature for two decades. Recently, two challenges have surfaced: the PROFIT formulation emphasizing domestic policy flexibility - a so-called ‘resourcefulness of jurisdiction’ - and a dynamic private sector (Baldacchino, 2006; and the SITE model, stressing the role of tourism (McElroy, 2006. To date, there has been no comparative assessment of these different island models. This article addresses this gap. Its point of departure is to consider SITE islands as a subspecies of the PROFIT cluster. It constructs comprehensive profiles across 27 socio-economic and demographic variables for two island sub-groups with populations of less than three million: 23 MIRAB and 35 PROFIT-SITE. Results indicate PROFIT-SITE islands are much more affluent, socially advanced and demographically mature than their MIRAB counterparts.

  2. Relative Importance of Demographic, Socioeconomic and Health Factors on Life Expectancy in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md. Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2014-01-01

    Background We attempted to identify the pathways by which demographic changes, socioeconomic inequalities, and availability of health factors influence life expectancy in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Methods Data for 91 countries were obtained from United Nations agencies. The response variable was life expectancy, and the determinant factors were demographic events (total fertility rate and adolescent fertility rate), socioeconomic status (mean years of schooling and gross national income per capita), and health factors (physician density and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] prevalence rate). Path analysis was used to determine the direct, indirect, and total effects of these factors on life expectancy. Results All determinant factors were significantly correlated with life expectancy. Mean years of schooling, total fertility rate, and HIV prevalence rate had significant direct and indirect effects on life expectancy. The total effect of higher physician density was to increase life expectancy. Conclusions We identified several direct and indirect pathways that predict life expectancy. The findings suggest that policies should concentrate on improving reproductive decisions, increasing education, and reducing HIV transmission. In addition, special attention should be paid to the emerging need to increase life expectancy by increasing physician density. PMID:24390415

  3. Self-reported early detection activities for breast cancer in Colombia in 2010: impact of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Font-Gonzalez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore which socioeconomic and demographic characteristics influence Colombian women to utilize screening mammography (SMMG. Materials and methods. Data of women aged 40-49 years (n=12 345 and 50-69 years (n=14 771 from the Colombian national survey of demography and health 2010 was analyzed. Risk estimates (odds ratios, OR of self-reported SMMG use were obtained using logistic regression. Results. Among women aged 50-69 years, high wealth index (OR=4.7; CI95%, 3.9-5.8, affiliation to special or contributory health insurance regime (OR=3.4; CI95% 2.6-4.6 and OR=2.5; CI95% 2.1-3.0 respectively, health consultation in previous year (OR=2.7; CI95% 2.3-3.1, high education level (OR=2.3; CI95% 1.8-2.9 and very good selfreported health (OR=1.5; CI95% 1.1-2.0 positively influenced SMMG utilization. Among women aged 40-49 years, likelihood of having a SMMG was high after a health consultation in the previous year. Conclusions. Socioeconomic and demographic differences in use of SMMG need to be contemplated in screening recommendations before considering an organized population-based programme.

  4. Fast food intake in Canada: Differences among Canadians with diverse demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Billette, Jean-Michel

    2015-02-03

    To estimate the contribution of fast food to daily energy intake, and compare intake among Canadians with varied demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Using the National Cancer Institute method, nationally representative estimates of mean usual daily caloric intake from fast food were derived from 24-hour dietary recall data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (n = 17,509) among participants age ≥ 2 years. Mean daily intake and relative proportion of calories derived from fast food were compared among respondents with diverse demographic (age, sex, provincial and rural/urban residence), socio-economic (income, education, food security status) and health and lifestyle characteristics (physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake, vitamin/ mineral supplement use, smoking, binge drinking, body mass index (BMI), self-rated health and dietary quality). On average, Canadians reported consuming 146 kcal/day from fast food, contributing to 6.3% of usual energy intake. Intake was highest among male teenagers (248 kcal) and lowest among women ≥ 70 years of age (32 kcal). Fast food consumption was significantly higher among respondents who reported lower fruit and vegetable intake, poorer dietary quality, binge drinking, not taking vitamin/mineral supplements (adults only), and persons with higher BMI. Socio-economic status, physical activity, smoking and self-rated health were not significantly associated with fast food intake. While average Canadian fast food consumption is lower than national US estimates, intake was associated with lower dietary quality and higher BMI. Findings suggest that research and intervention strategies should focus on dietary practices of children and adolescents, whose fast food intakes are among the highest in Canada.

  5. Socio-economic and demographic profile of the West Valley, New York area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, R.

    1978-06-01

    The analysis is focused on the target area population and economic indicators. It is concluded that the area surrounding the plant is economically poor, if not in fact depressed. It is typical of older agricultural areas in much of the eastern U.S. The area is rural in character with little commercial and industrial development. The area is sparsely populated with little prospect for significant increases in population. During the period of construction and operation of the reprocessing plant there appeared to be no consistent areawide patterns of socio-economic development. The only socio-economic impact which may be inferred from the presence of the plant occurred in the immediate vicinity of the plant (i.e. the town of Ashford). This is not surprising considering the small scale of the employment (150-250 persons) at the facility. Growth projections made in the early 1960's (at the time of plant development) were not met. Future county planning does not consider the plant a significant factor. In fact this is because the fate of the plant is out of local hands. More importantly, however, planning into the 1980's and 1990's shows that the plant is not expected to have future impact. (i.e. substantial new growth is not projected in the immediate vicinity of the facility.)

  6. Climate forcing and infectious disease transmission in urban landscapes: integrating demographic and socioeconomic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Martinez, Pamela P; Pascual, Mercedes

    2016-10-01

    Urbanization and climate change are the two major environmental challenges of the 21st century. The dramatic expansion of cities around the world creates new conditions for the spread, surveillance, and control of infectious diseases. In particular, urban growth generates pronounced spatial heterogeneity within cities, which can modulate the effect of climate factors at local spatial scales in large urban environments. Importantly, the interaction between environmental forcing and socioeconomic heterogeneity at local scales remains an open area in infectious disease dynamics, especially for urban landscapes of the developing world. A quantitative and conceptual framework on urban health with a focus on infectious diseases would benefit from integrating aspects of climate forcing, population density, and level of wealth. In this paper, we review what is known about these drivers acting independently and jointly on urban infectious diseases; we then outline elements that are missing and would contribute to building such a framework. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Influence of socioeconomic and demographic status on spirometry testing in patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette M; Søndergaard, Jens; Christensen, René Depont

    2013-01-01

    a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study. Danish national registers were linked, retrieving data...... on prescriptions, spirometry testing, socioeconomic and demographic variables in all first time users of medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008. RESULTS: A total of 37,734 persons were included and approximately half of the cohort had spirometry performed. Among medication users under 65 years...... educational level (>12 years) was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed in women (OR = 0.86, CI = 0.78-0.94). Cohabitation status was not associated with having spirometry performed. Among medication users over 65 years of age, living alone was associated with reduced odds of having...

  8. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing nutritional status among early childbearing young mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ashraful; Islam, Nurul; Bharati, Premananda; Aik, Saw; Hossain, Golam

    2016-08-26

    Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator. Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2011. The survey was performed on 17,842 married women aged 15-49. We focused on early childbearing mothers (age ≤ 24, and who had delivered their first child ≤ 20). Mothers who were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)) would be further classified into various grades of chronic energy deficiency (CED): mild (17.0 ≤ BMI nutritional status. Mean age of the mothers was 20.49 ± 2.37 years (ranged 15-24 years). The prevalence of underweight among early childbearing mothers was 32.1 % (urban 25 % and rural 35.1 %). Most of the underweight mothers had mild (62.2 %) CED, while the remaining had either moderate (25.9 %) or severe (11.9 %) CED. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that young mothers from rural areas, poor families, and those who were illiterate or with low level of education, working, and married to unemployed husband were at higher risk for being underweight. Young mothers who had non-caesarean delivered, delivered at home, or married at early age and had more than two children were also at higher risk for being underweight. The prevalence of underweight among early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh is very high (32.1 %), associated with the still common practice of teenage marriage. Education level, wealth index, occupation, place of residence, age at first marriage and parity were important predictors for their nutritional status. The government and non-government organizations should take initiatives to reduce the prevalence of underweight mothers in Bangladesh.

  9. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  10. Blood donation by African migrants and refugees in Australia: the role of demographic and socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilten, Z; Waters, N; Polonsky, M; Renzaho, A

    2014-02-01

    To establish blood donation rates among African refugees and migrants and identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with their blood donation. A cross-sectional survey of 425 migrants and refugees living in Victoria and South Australia was used to assess blood donation status. The association between blood donation and demographic and socio-economic factors was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall, 73 participants (17·2%; 95% CI: 13·6-20·8) reported having donated blood previously. Of the total sample, 2·4% (95% CI: 0·9-3·8) reported having given blood in Australia; 12·9% (95% CI: 9·7-16·1) had given blood prior to migration to Australia (i.e. country of birth or transition); and 1·9% (95% CI: 0·6-3·2) indicated they had given blood in an unspecified country. In the univariate model, age, country of birth, blood donation knowledge, religion, educational attainment, migration and employment status were all associated with blood donation status. However, in the multivariate model, only age >45 years (odds ratio [OR] 5·72; 95% CI 2·11-15·46), African region of origin (OR 15·89; 95% CI 3·89-65) and blood donation knowledge (OR 4·46; 95% CI 1·57-12·7) were associated with blood donation. In order to increase the number of blood donors among African migrants, promoting knowledge and awareness of issues associated with blood donation in Australia should be emphasized. Consideration should be given to identifying these potential migrant donors to improve the availability of compatible blood for patients of African descent. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Disability acquisition and mental health: effect modification by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics using data from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Simpson, Julie Anne; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2017-09-18

    There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001. Four waves of data were included in this analysis, from 2011 to 2014. Individuals who acquired a disability (n=387) were compared with those who remained disability-free in all four waves (n=7936). Mental health was measured using the mental health subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health, testing for effect modification by key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. To maximise causal inference, we used a propensity score approach with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding and multiple imputation using chained equations to assess the impact of missing data. On average, disability acquisition was associated with a 5-point decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: -5.1, 95% CI -7.2 to -3.0). There was strong evidence that income and relationship status modified the effect, with more detrimental effects in the lowest (-12.5, 95% CI -18.5 to -6.5) compared with highest income quintile (-1.1, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.7) and for people not in a relationship (-8.8, 95% CI -12.9 to -4.8) compared with those who were (-3.7, 95% CI -6.1 to -1.4). Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of disability acquisition on mental health is substantially greater for socioeconomic

  12. Disability acquisition and mental health: effect modification by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics using data from an Australian longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Julie Anne; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. Design and setting The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001. Four waves of data were included in this analysis, from 2011 to 2014. Participants Individuals who acquired a disability (n=387) were compared with those who remained disability-free in all four waves (n=7936). Primary outcome measure Mental health was measured using the mental health subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. Methods Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health, testing for effect modification by key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. To maximise causal inference, we used a propensity score approach with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding and multiple imputation using chained equations to assess the impact of missing data. Results On average, disability acquisition was associated with a 5-point decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: −5.1, 95% CI −7.2 to –3.0). There was strong evidence that income and relationship status modified the effect, with more detrimental effects in the lowest (−12.5, 95% CI −18.5 to –6.5) compared with highest income quintile (−1.1, 95% CI –4.9 to 2.7) and for people not in a relationship (−8.8, 95% CI −12.9 to –4.8) compared with those who were (−3.7, 95% CI −6.1 to –1.4). Conclusions Our results

  13. Demographic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Local Financial Autonomy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ Vasile JEMNA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Local autonomy is a rarely explored concept in the literature, still holding an increasing importance in the current context of Romania’s development in the European Union. In this paper we attempt to provide an overall survey on the financial dimension of local autonomy, assuming that local autonomy cannot be implemented, unless local authorities have adequate financial resources. In this study we also analyze the possibility to measure the local revenue autonomy and to identify the variables which represent the determinants of the local revenue autonomy. Using empirical evidence from Romanian counties, we analyze the regional distributions for own revenues and for the significant determinants of local revenue autonomy. By means of econometric modeling we will highlight the variables which are statistically significant and explain the variation of the local revenues of Romanian counties, as well as the order of importance of the determinants of local financial autonomy. The empirical results show us that, although, theoretically, the counties have a great administrative and financial autonomy, practically this autonomy is very reduced (an average of under 40% for local revenue. The modeling results show that the degree of local financial autonomy can be increased by increasing economic development, urbanization, the average living area per person and fertility. Unemployment and a high level of demographic dependency contribute to the decrease of local financial autonomy.

  14. Examining demographic and socio-economic correlates of accurate knowledge about blood donation among African migrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, A M N; Polonsky, M J

    2012-10-01

    To develop and test a knowledge questionnaire about blood donation in African migrant communities in Australia, which is applicable to other communities, and to assess the relationship between the demographic and socio-economic characteristics and knowledge of the African migrant community. Using a cross-sectional survey of 425 African migrants and refugees living in Victoria and South Australia, we assessed the knowledge questionnaire for readability, item difficulty, point-biserial correlation and reliability. The relationships between demographic and socio-economic factors and knowledge about blood donation were then evaluated using hierarchical multiple regression. The knowledge scale was found to have good psychometric properties and to be reliable: a Flesch reading ease score of 64.7; an average index of item difficulty of 0.42; a point-biserial correlation of 0.38 and a Kuder-Richardson-20 coefficient of 0.78 indicating strong internal consistency. A quarter of respondents (26.1%; 95% CI: 21.9, 30.3) had poor knowledge about issues related to blood donation; 51.1% (95% CI: 46.3, 55.8) had moderate knowledge and 22.8% (95% CI: 18.8, 26.8) were highly knowledgeable. Factors associated with blood donation knowledge were religion, pre-migration area of residence, country of birth, length of stay in Australia, and previous blood donation status. Age, gender, educational attainment, migration and employment status were non-significant. Knowledge and awareness of issues associated with blood donation is important in regard to blood donation decisions, and this article has developed a measure using African migrant communities in Australia that has appropriate psychographic properties. The measure can, therefore, be used by researchers when studying the role of knowledge in relation to blood donation across cultural groups in Australia and other countries. It also identifies that demographic characteristics affect knowledge, which suggests that targeted interventions

  15. Household Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Cryptosporidium Seropositivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Becker

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoa that infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife globally. In the United States, cryptosporidiosis occurs in an estimated 750,000 persons annually, and is primarily caused by either of the Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, exposure to which occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocytes shed from infected hosts. Although most cryptosporidiosis cases are caused by genotype 1 and are of human origin, the zoonotic sources of genotype 2, such as livestock, are increasingly recognized as important for understanding human disease patterns. Social inequality could mediate patterns of human exposure and infection by placing individuals in environments where food or water contamination and livestock contact is high or through reducing the availability of educational and sanitary resources required to avoid exposure.We here analyzed data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES between 1999 and 2000, and related seropositivity to Cryptosporidium parvum to correlates of social inequality at the household and individual scale. After accounting for the complex sampling design of NHANES and confounding by individual demographics and household conditions, we found impaired household food adequacy was associated with greater odds of Cryptosporidium seropositivity. Additionally, we identified individuals of non-white race and ethnicity and those born outside the United States as having significantly greater risk than white, domestic-born counterparts. Furthermore, we provide suggestive evidence for direct effects of family wealth on Cryptosporidium seropositivity, in that persons from low-income households and from families close to the poverty threshold had elevated odds of seropositivity relative to those in high-income families and in households far above the poverty line.These results refute assertions that cryptosporidiosis in the United States is independent of

  16. Socioeconomic, demographic and legal influences on consanguinity and kinship in northern coastal Sweden 1780-1899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerbladh, I; Bittles, A H

    2011-07-01

    Most studies on consanguinity have been conducted on contemporary populations and have focused on the prevalence and types of preferred intra-familial marriage. With its comprehensive birth, marriage and deaths records dating back to the late 17th century, and the legal bar on first cousin marriage removed in the mid-19th century, Sweden offers unique opportunities to examine the factors that determine by whom, where and why consanguineous marriages were contracted. The present study covers the period 1780-1899 and presents a detailed portrait of cousin and sibling exchange marriages in the Skellefteå region of northern coastal Sweden. The combined prevalence of first, second and third cousin marriage increased from 2.3% in 1790-1810 to 8.8% in 1880-1899, and multi-generation consanguinity also increased significantly over the study period. The distribution and prevalence of first cousin marriages was strikingly non-random, with a significantly greater propensity for consanguinity among land-owning families, especially involving first-born sons, within specific pedigrees, and in a number of more remote inland communities. Additional factors associated with a greater likelihood of consanguineous marriage included physical or mental disability among males, and among females the prior birth of an illegitimate child. Besides the inherent interest in the social and demographic structure of this region of northern Sweden during the course of the 19th century, in future studies it will be important to determine the degree to which the observed patterns of consanguineous and sibling exchange marriages in these past generations could have influenced present-day genetic structure. © Cambridge University Press, 2011

  17. Marriage and cohabitation: demographic and socioeconomic differences in Quebec and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyser, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishCohabitation has become so prevalent in Canada that it is now the most commonmode of entry into conjugality. Yet in drawing comparisons across Canadianprovinces, cohabitation is far more prevalent in the province of Quebec thanelsewhere. With this in mind, the purpose of the current paper is three fold. First,we set out to briefly situate the recent growth in the number of common-lawunions in Canada and Quebec into a broader historical and international context.Secondly, we review available information from the 2001 Census and the 1998General Social Survey on some of the key socioeconomic and demographiccharacteristics of persons who cohabit relative to those that marry. Thirdly, weconsider how these changes are important to public policy, and of direct interest to legislators andthe Canadian legal system. Major differences are documentedin comparing Quebec with elsewhere in Canada in terms of the education, laborforce participation, median income, income poverty and homeownership. Thedifferences documented between persons who marry relative to cohabiters arefound to be much less in Quebec than elsewhere, in a context wherebycohabitation has become far more widespread, an observation with directimplications for public policy.FrenchLa cohabitation est devenue tant prévalente au Canada qu’elle représenteactuellement le mode d’entrée dans la vie conjugale le plus répandu. Cependant,quand on compare entre les provinces canadiennes, la cohabitation est beaucoupplus prévalente dans la province de Québec que dans le reste du pays. En tenantcompte de ce fait, cet article a les trois buts suivant : Premièrement, nousdonnons un bref aperçu de la récente hausse du nombre d’unions de fait dansson plus large contexte historique et international ; deuxièmement, nous révisonsl’information recueillie par le Recensement de 2001 et l’Enquête socialenationale de 1998 au sujet de certaines caractéristiques socioéconomiques etd

  18. The importance of the timescale of the fitness metric for estimates of selection on phenotypic traits during a period of demographic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scranton, Katherine; Lummaa, Virpi; Stearns, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    Although fitness is central to the evolutionary process, metrics vary by timescale. Different timescales may give rise to different estimates of selection, especially during demographic transitions caused by rapid environmental and socioeconomic change. In this study, we used a dataset of a human population in Finland from 1775 to 1950 to compare two fitness metrics and their estimates of selection pressures, before and during a demographic transition. Both metrics, lifetime reproductive success and an annual metric of individual performance, declined while selection on the ages at first and last reproduction remained nearly constant, favouring individuals with wider reproductive windows. The ability to partition the annual metric into contributions from reproduction and survival revealed the short-term effects of a famine and the reversal of selection pressure via the survival component of annual fitness. Although the metrics generally agreed, the annual metric detected the effects of environmental variation and demographic change occurring within a generation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. [Emigration from Burkina Faso from 1960 to 1985. Analysis of demographic and socioeconomic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, P

    1991-04-01

    Labor migration from Burkina Faso did not end when direct recruitment of workers by planters from the Ivory Coast was terminated at independence in 1960. Methodological problems and differences in the objectives of the 1975 and 1985 censuses and the 1960-61 sample survey have limited the usefulness of existing data on migration. Migrants from Burkina Faso have always been unskilled workers in search of wage employment. The migrant population in 1960-61 was estimated at 152,442, of whom 90% were males primarily under 40 years old. The proportion of women and children increased from 8.2% in 1961 to 12.8% in 1973. Between the 1975 and 1985 censuses, there were few significant changes in the dominant characteristics of migrants. 80% of the 808,000 residents living abroad according to official sources were male and 80% were aged 15-40 years. 53% of migrants according to a 1975 study were under 20 years old at the 1st departure, and most were single. At the national level, labor migration is viewed as a necessary evil that should continue as long as possible in the absence of employment opportunities at home. After independence in 1960, 56.6% of migrants from Burkina Faso went to the Ivory Coast, 31.3% to Ghana, and 3.9% to Mali. In 1975 and 1985 respectively, 74.4% and 91.2% went to the Ivory Coast and 11.8% and 8.8% to Ghana. The demographic consequences of migration in Burkina Faso include a lowering of the natural increase rate and a reduction of the economically active population amounting to about 16% between 1975-85. The disproportionate departure of men has left an increasing number of women in charge of agricultural operations. A strong current of return migration has also developed, including many children under 15. It was estimated in 1990 that half of migrants to the Ivory Coast receive professional training, with the other half exposed to new agricultural techniques and methods of organizing work. 87% of returning male migrants in 1985 went back to their

  20. High-cost health care users in Ontario, Canada: demographic, socio-economic, and health status characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosella, Laura C; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany; Wodchis, Walter P; Calzavara, Andrew; Manson, Heather; Goel, Vivek

    2014-10-31

    Health care spending is overwhelmingly concentrated within a very small proportion of the population, referred to as the high-cost users (HCU). To date, research on HCU has been limited in scope, focusing mostly on those characteristics available through administrative databases, which have been largely clinical in nature, or have relied on ecological measures of socio-demographics. This study links population health surveys to administrative data, allowing for the investigation of a broad range of individual-level characteristics and provides a more thorough characterization of community-dwelling HCU across demographic, social, behavioral and clinical characteristics. We linked three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) to medical claim data for the years 2003-2008 for Ontario, Canada. Participants were ranked according to gradients of cost (Top 1%, Top 2-5%, Top 6-50% and Bottom 50%) and multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate a wide range of factors, including health behaviors and socio-demographics, likely associated with HCU status. Using a total sample of 91,223 adults (18 and older), we found that HCU status was strongly associated with being older, having multiple chronic conditions, and reporting poorer self-perceived health. Specifically, in the fully-adjusted model, poor self-rated health (vs. good) was associated with a 26-fold increase in odds of becoming a Top 1% HCU (vs. Bottom 50% user) [95% CI: (18.9, 36.9)]. Further, HCU tended to be of lower socio-economic status, former daily smokers, physically inactive, current non-drinkers, and obese. The results of this study have provided valuable insights into the broader characteristics of community-dwelling HCU, including unique demographic and behavioral characteristics. Additionally, strong associations with self-reported clinical variables, such as self-rated general and mental health, highlight the importance of the patient perspective for HCU. These findings have the

  1. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  2. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  3. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busnello Ellis DA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison, with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7. After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income

  4. The impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchanovska, Domnika; Ivanovska, Beti Zaifirova

    2015-01-01

    Speech development in preschool children should be consistent with a child's overall development. However, disorders of speech in childhood are not uncommon. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola. The study is observational and prospective with two years duration. During the period from May 2009 to June 2011, 1607 children aged 3 and 5 years, who came for regular examinations, were observed. The following research methods were applied: pediatric examination, psychological testing (Test of Chuturik), interviews with parents and a questionnaire for behavior of children (Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL). 1,607 children were analyzed, 772 aged three years, 835 aged five years, 51.65% male and 49.35% female.The prevalence of speech disorders was 37.65%. Statistical analysis showed that these disorders were more frequent in three years old children, males living in rural areas and in larger families.They did not have their own rooms at home, they were using mobile phones and were spending many hours per day watching television, (pchildren whose parents had lower levels of education and were engaged in agriculture, often had significant speech disorders, (pdisorders in preschool children in Bitola have a high prevalence. Because of their influence on later cognitive development of children, the process requires cooperation among parents, children, speech and the audiologist with the significant role in prevention, early detection and treatment.

  5. Demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of daily versus non-daily sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, P; Aerenhouts, D; Clarys, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants on daily versus non-daily sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption. Cross-sectional design in 1852 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption was recorded. Principal component analysis was used for dietary pattern analysis. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages were consumed daily by 36.3% and 33.2% of the participants, respectively. Age, body mass index (BMI), non-smoking and income were negatively related to sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. High BMI and trying to lose weight were related to artificially sweetened beverages consumption. Three major patterns were obtained from principal component analysis: first, the 'meat pattern', was loaded for red meats and processed meats; second, the 'healthy pattern', was loaded for tomatoes, fruit, whole grain, vegetables, fruit, fish, tea and nuts; finally, the 'sweet pattern' was loaded for sweets, desserts, snacks, high-energy drinks, high-fat dairy products and refined grains. The sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was strongly related with both the meat and sweet dietary patterns and inversely related to the healthy dietary pattern. The artificially sweetened beverage consumption was strongly related with the sweet and healthy dietary pattern. Daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was inversely associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was clearly associated with weight-loss intention.

  6. Demographic history, selection and functional diversity of the canine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Wayne, Robert K; Freedman, Adam H; Davis, Brian W

    2017-12-01

    The domestic dog represents one of the most dramatic long-term evolutionary experiments undertaken by humans. From a large wolf-like progenitor, unparalleled diversity in phenotype and behaviour has developed in dogs, providing a model for understanding the developmental and genomic mechanisms of diversification. We discuss pattern and process in domestication, beginning with general findings about early domestication and problems in documenting selection at the genomic level. Furthermore, we summarize genotype-phenotype studies based first on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and then with whole-genome data and show how an understanding of evolution informs topics as different as human history, adaptive and deleterious variation, morphological development, ageing, cancer and behaviour.

  7. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Hosey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM. We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25–64 years. Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (12 years. Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends.

  8. Fear of Treatments Surpasses Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors in Affecting Patients With Breast Cancer in Urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rayne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer in women in South Africa, and often patients present late. There is little understanding of the psychosocial stresses affecting women with breast cancer in Africa. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 263 patients with breast cancer at two sites (one government and one private facility in Johannesburg. Self-reported levels of fear were recorded on summative scales and their relationship to demographic variables assessed through univariable and multivariable modified Poisson regression. Results: Fears related to treatments and prognosis, particularly radiation, loss of hair, and loss of breast, were far stronger than those related to socioeconomic barriers. Relative risk (RR of most fears was higher in women younger than age 40 years, including treatment affordability (RR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.26 to 2.56, hair loss (RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.95, and surgery (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.68. Difficulty taking time off work predicted fear of job loss (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.59 to 4.21 and missing appointments because of transport (RR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.52 to 3.96 or family commitments (RR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.52 to 3.96. Women with dependents and black women were more afraid of dying (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.90; and RR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.24, respectively; however, socioeconomic status in this sample was a strong confounder of race and explained most of the racial differences in levels of fear. Conclusion: The most significant fears around breast cancer were related to treatment modalities and adverse effects rather than transport, financial, or work concerns. Young age and job insecurity were predictive of increased fears. Education about treatments has a key role to play in improving access to breast cancer care in South Africa.

  9. Spatial patterns of multidrug resistant tuberculosis and relationships to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefyalew Addis Alene

    Full Text Available Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia.An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015. District level population data were extracted from the Ethiopia National and Regional Census Report. Spatial autocorrelation was explored using Moran's I statistic, Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA, and the Getis-Ord statistics. A multivariate Poisson regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive (CAR prior structure, and with posterior parameters estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation approach with Gibbs sampling, in WinBUGS.A total of 264 MDR-TB patients were included in the analysis. The overall crude incidence rate of MDR-TB for the six-year period was 3.0 cases per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was observed in Metema (21 cases per 100,000 population and Humera (18 cases per 100,000 population districts; whereas nine districts had zero cases. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was observed in districts located in the Ethiopia-Sudan and Ethiopia-Eritrea border regions, where large numbers of seasonal migrants live. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was positively associated with urbanization (RR: 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.04 and the percentage of men (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.99 in the districts; after accounting for these factors there was no residual spatial clustering.Spatial clustering of MDR-TB, fully explained by demographic factors (urbanization and percent male, was detected in the border regions of northwest Ethiopia

  10. Spatial patterns of multidrug resistant tuberculosis and relationships to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Viney, Kerri; McBryde, Emma S; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia. An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015. District level population data were extracted from the Ethiopia National and Regional Census Report. Spatial autocorrelation was explored using Moran's I statistic, Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA), and the Getis-Ord statistics. A multivariate Poisson regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure, and with posterior parameters estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation approach with Gibbs sampling, in WinBUGS. A total of 264 MDR-TB patients were included in the analysis. The overall crude incidence rate of MDR-TB for the six-year period was 3.0 cases per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was observed in Metema (21 cases per 100,000 population) and Humera (18 cases per 100,000 population) districts; whereas nine districts had zero cases. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was observed in districts located in the Ethiopia-Sudan and Ethiopia-Eritrea border regions, where large numbers of seasonal migrants live. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was positively associated with urbanization (RR: 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.04) and the percentage of men (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.99) in the districts; after accounting for these factors there was no residual spatial clustering. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB, fully explained by demographic factors (urbanization and percent male), was detected in the border regions of northwest Ethiopia, in

  11. The impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajchanovska Domnika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Speech development in preschool children should be consistent with a child’s overall development. However, disorders of speech in childhood are not uncommon. Objective. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola. Methods. The study is observational and prospective with two years duration. During the period from May 2009 to June 2011, 1607 children aged 3 and 5 years, who came for regular examinations, were observed. The following research methods were applied: pediatric examination, psychological testing (Test of Chuturik, interviews with parents and a questionnaire for behavior of children (Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Results. 1,607 children were analyzed, 772 aged three years, 835 aged five years, 51.65% male and 49.35% female. The prevalence of speech disorders was 37.65%. Statistical analysis showed that these disorders were more frequent in three years old children, males living in rural areas and in larger families. They did not have their own rooms at home, they were using mobile phones and were spending many hours per day watching television, (p<0.01. Also, children whose parents had lower levels of education and were engaged in agriculture, often had significant speech disorders, (p<0.01. Conclusion. Speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola have a high prevalence. Because of their influence on later cognitive development of children, the process requires cooperation among parents, children, speech and the audiologist with the significant role in prevention, early detection and treatment.

  12. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  13. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Augusto C. Silveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763 were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07. The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG, which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth weight. Associations were estimated using simple and hierarchical multiple linear regression, considering the survey sampling design, and presented in standard deviations of CWG with their respective 95% of confidence intervals. Hierarchical models were designed considering the UNICEF Conceptual Framework for Malnutrition (basic, underlying and immediate causes. RESULTS: The poorest Brazilian regions (-0.14 [-0.25; -0.04] and rural areas (-0.14 [-0.26;-0.02] were inversely associated with CWG in the basic causes model. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for maternal and household characteristics. In the final hierarchical model, lower economic status (-0.09 [-0.15; -0.03], human capital outcomes (maternal education < 4th grade (-0.14[-0.29; 0.01], higher maternal height (0.02[0.01; 0.03], and fever in the past 2 weeks (-0.13[-0.26; -0.01] were associated with postnatal weight gain. CONCLUSION: The results showed that poverty and lower human capital are still key factors associated with poor postnatal weight gain. The approach used in these analyses was sensitive to characterize inequalities among different socioeconomic contexts and to identify factors associated with CWG in different levels of determination.

  14. Tools for the selection of microeconomic from socioeconomic rentability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El Khomssi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this research paper is to propose useful and practical criteria to answer the question of targeting aid of a micro-economic structure: Generating Activity of Revenues type. To achieve this goal, an attempt is made to construct macro and micro indices linking the capital of a Generating Activity of Revenues with the update, which allowed us to obtain: - A socioeconomic partition of structures constituting the fabric of Generating Activity of Revenues. - Indices based on the global rentability permitting to order these structures of this basis notion.

  15. Implant and endodontic treatment selection are influenced by patients' demographic characteristics, insurance status, and medical history: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Wolff, Larry F

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine any potential association between demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, dental insurance, and medical and tobacco history between patients that received endodontic treatment or extraction and implant treatment in a university dental clinic. Dental charts of patients who received root canal treatment and implant therapy were retrieved from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry records. Age at the time of the procedure, gender, medical history, tobacco use, dental insurance status, zip code, and type of treatment provided were recorded. Patients who had both treatment modalities were excluded from the analysis. A total of 8,540 records of patients with a mean age of 50.66 years who have received either endodontic treatment (73.6%) or implant therapy (26.4%) were included. A statistically significant (P history significantly affected the treatment selection between implant and endodontic treatment in a university setting.

  16. Predictive global trends in the incidence and mortality of pancreatic cancer based on geographic location, socio-economic status, and demographic shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, Chandrakanth; Chowdhury, Sanjib; Ahmad, Humera; Ravipati, Advaitaa; Song, Tianqiang; Shrikandhe, Shailesh; Smith, Lynette

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic Cancer (PC) is a lethal malignancy that accounts for about 4% of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe the influence of geography (based on WHO regions), socio-economic development (based on Human Development Index [HDI]) and demographic shift on the temporal trends in global incidence and mortality of PC. Data (2012-2030) relating to the incidence, mortality of PC and demographic shifts based on WHO regions and HDI areas were extracted from GLOBOCAN 2012. Linear regression was used to evaluate trends in total incidence and mortality. We noted a definite association between PC and higher socio-economic status. Advanced age (age ≥65) contributed to the rising burden in all socio-economic regions of the world except in the Low Human Development (LHD) countries where the disease predominantly affected population global burden of PC is expected to rise significantly over the next few decades regardless of geographic location, socio-economic development, age and gender. Advance knowledge of this data can help formulate strategies to specifically target countries and populations that promote public health policy to tackle this lethal disease on the global stage. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:736-742. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen: associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen.......To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen....

  18. Socio-economic and Socio-demographic Determinants of BNP values in children with Pneumonia In Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Osa Osarogiagbon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The level of BNP is usually used as a guide to heart failure. However, there is need for the level of this peptide to be known in non-cardiac conditions that may cause inflammation and hypoxia. Aims To determine socio-demographic determinants of BNP in children with pneumonia. To determine the socio-economic determinants of BNP in children with pneumonia. Methods Over a year, consecutive children diagnosed radiologically with pneumonia were evaluated echocardiographically for CHD. Also, children with heart failure were excluded. Inclusion criteria included all those children with ongoing pneumonia without any evidence of any other co-morbidity whether acute or chronic. Biodata and sociodemographic variables of children with pneumonia that met the inclusion criteria were collected and studied. Results Of the 50 subjects recruited for the study, 26 (52 per cent were males. The mean age for males 14.27±13.33, females 12.03±11.83, mean height for males 74.00±3.46 and 72.00±0.00 for females, the mean weight range from 8.30±1.87 and 7.08±3.40 for males and females respectively. The mean BNP value for all subjects was 459.55±422.61, of which males had a mean value of 500.33±.399.93 and females 415.38±450.25 with a p value of 0.483. The mean brain natriuretic factor for weight range 1–5.9kg was 203.83±116.04 that of 6–10.9kg was 645.22±314.26, while that of 11–15.9kg was the lowest with 115.85±72.46. Conclusion Apart from congenital heart disease and several other morbidities both chronic and acute, sociodemographic characteristics of the patient and some clinical features may also affect BNP levels in the blood. Patients with pneumonia had higher mean values of BNP when compared with normal cut-off

  19. A lifecourse perspective on socio-economic inequalities in health: the influence of childhood socio-economic conditions and selection processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mheen, H. D.; Stronks, K.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    In this article a lifecourse perspective on socio-economic inequalities in health is presented. In a lifecourse perspective, cumulation of adverse socio-economic circumstances and selection are important mechanisms, which successively may cause a downward spiral. A conceptual model is examined with

  20. Selected socio-demographic variables and their effect on the quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result : Seventy one percent (71.0%) were married, thirteen percent (13.0%) had Post-graduate education, twenty nine percent (29.0%) had Primary education and only twenty four percent (24%) earned monthly income of more than 30,000 Naira and above. Among the selected social demographic variables, Level of ...

  1. Medical student selection criteria and socio-demographic factors as predictors of ultimately working rurally after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette; Playford, Denese E; Riley, Geoffrey J

    2015-04-14

    We have previously demonstrated that both coming from a rural background and spending a year-long clinical rotation in our Rural Clinical School (RCS) have independent and additive effects to increase the likelihood of medical students practicing rurally following graduation. The current study assesses the extent to which medical school selection criteria and/or the socio-demographic profile of medical students may further facilitate or hamper the selection of students ultimately destined for the rural medical workforce. The study comprised 729 students, admitted from secondary school since 1999 and having graduated by 2011, whose actual workplace location in 2014 was classified as either urban or rural using the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency database. Selection factors on entry (score from a standardised interview, percentile scores for the 3 components of the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) and prior academic performance as assessed by the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank) together with socio-demographic factors (age, gender, decile for the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD)), were examined in relation to ultimate rural destination of practice. In logistic regression, those practicing in a rural location in 2014 were more likely to have come from the lower 6 IRSAD deciles (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.44, 5.23, P = 0.002), to be older (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.09, 3.18, p = 0.023) and to have a lower UMAT-3 (Non-verbal communication) score (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99, P = 0.005). After further controlling for either rural background or RCS participation, only age and UMAT-3 remained as independent predictors of current rural practice. In terms of the socio-demographic profiles of those selected for medical school entry from secondary school, only older age weakly augmented the selection of graduates likely to ultimately work in a rural destination. Among the selection factors, having achieved

  2. Demographic and socio-economic factors related to food intake and adherence to nutritional recommendations in a cohort of pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Burnier, Daniel; Porcherie, Marion

    2011-06-01

    To examine: (i) children's food intake and adherence to both Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating and Dietary Reference Intakes; and (ii) the social and demographic factors related to children's food intake. A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010, a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in 1998 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Information on energy, macronutrient and food consumption was derived from responses to a 24 h dietary recall interview addressed to children's mothers and day-care staff when the children were 4 years old. A total of 1549 children aged 4 years who participated in a nutritional sub-study. The mean daily total energy intake was 6360 kJ (1520 kcal) for girls and 6916 kJ (1653 kcal) for boys. For boys and girls alike, energy intake was comprised of approximately 54 % carbohydrates, 31 % fats and 15 % proteins. The mean number of servings consumed from each of the four essential food groups closely approached the dietary recommendations made by Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating; however, full dietary guidelines. The dietary intake of pre-school children was associated with socio-economic and demographic factors, most notably mother's level of education, mother's immigrant status and sex of the child. Diet-related disparities associated with socio-economic and demographic factors exist from as early as 4 years of age.

  3. Selected elements of socio-demographic status and lifestyle as factors determining subjective assessment of life in women after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Czerniak, Urszula; Laski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to specify whether socio-demographic factors and physical activity result in differences in subjective assessment of life in women diagnosed with breast cancer. The study group consisted of 145 women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. The women had undergone radical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The participants filled in an anonymous questionnaire which contained a number of detailed questions relating to their socio-demographic standing, life style, condition and the current self-assessment of life after breast cancer. In order to assess the differences between groups made on the basis of socio-economic variables, the Kruskal-Wallis rank test was used. For a comprehensive assessment of relations, multiple correspondence analysis on the basis of Burt tables was used. Their mean age at the time of the study was 57.1 years. The analysis of the effect of education and marital status on differences in the assessment of quality of life showed that these variables resulted in differences in the sphere related to social contacts (better educated women more often avoided social contacts) and in feeling of fatigue and exhaustion (the participants who were in a relationship indicated less fatigue and exhaustion). Mastectomy caused by breast cancer in women and related chemotherapy and radiotherapy negatively affect the physical and emotional condition of patients involving mental stress. Selected socio-demographic factors and elements of life style co-exist with each other, interpenetrating; thus the assessment of quality of life should comprise a set of factors and take into consideration their mutual interrelations.

  4. SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVE BANGLADESHI CHILDREN AND TREND OVER THE TWELVE-YEAR PERIOD 1996-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The nutritional status of under-five-year-old children is a sensitive indicator of a country's health status as well as economic condition. The objectives of this study were to analyse trends in the nutritional status in Bangladeshi children over the period 1996-2007 and to examine the associations between nutritional and socioeconomic status variables. Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) were the source of data, and a total of 16,278 children were examined. The Z-scores of the children were analysed as continuous as well as categorical variables (stunted, underweight and wasted). The socioeconomic status variables used were region, urban-rural residence, education and occupation of the parents, house type and household possession score. A series of General Linear Model and Sequential Linear and Binary Logistic Regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status. The trends of Z-scores were analysed by survey, as well as by child birth cohort. Region, house type, educational level of parents and household possession score showed significant associations with all three Z-scores of children after removing the effects of age, period of DHS and other explanatory variables in the model. No significant sex difference was observed between any of the Z-scores. There were improvements in mean WAZ and HAZ between 1996 and 2007 but deterioration in mean WHZ over this period. The obesity rate was below 2% in 2007, although the absolute numbers of obese children had nearly doubled in this 12-year period. Children from poorer households showed greater improvement than their better-off counterparts. The study reveals that over the years there has been substantial improvement in nutritional status of under-five children in Bangladesh and the main gains have been amongst the lower socioeconomic groups; it is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem, like poverty

  5. Can money buy green? Demographic and socioeconomic predictors of lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness in urban residential areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiqi Zhou; Austin Troy; J. Morgan Grove; Jennifer C. Jenkins

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand how household characteristics influence lawn characteristics, as lawns play an important ecological role in human-dominated landscapes. This article investigates household and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics as predictors of residential lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness. The study area is the Gwynns Falls...

  6. Sexual selection can both increase and decrease extinction probability: reconciling demographic and evolutionary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, Carlos; Knell, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Previous theoretical models of the effect of sexual selection on average individual fitness in a population have mostly predicted that sexually selected populations should adapt faster and clear deleterious mutations more quickly than populations where sexual selection is not operating. While some laboratory studies have supported these predictions, others have not and studies of field systems have tended to find negative effects of sexual selection, or no effect. The negative effects of sexual selection found in field and other studies are usually ascribed to the costs associated with strong sexual selection acting on the population. Here, using an individual-based model that allows feedback between demographic and evolutionary processes, we find that sexual selection can lead to both increases and decreases in population-level fitness measures such as extinction probability and adaptation rate. Whether fitness increases or decreases depends on a variety of environmental and demographic factors including the nature of environmental change, the carrying capacity of the environment, the average fecundity of the population in question and the strength of condition dependence. In many cases, our model predicts that sexual selection leads to higher extinction probability in small populations because of an increased risk of demographic stochasticity, but lower extinction probability in larger populations because of faster adaptation rates. This is consistent with field studies that have mostly focussed on very small populations such as recently introduced birds, and tend to find negative effects, and also with laboratory studies that tend to use larger populations and have tended to find positive effects. These findings go at least some way towards an understanding of the apparent contradictions between theoretical predictions, laboratory studies and field data. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  7. Racial inequalities in the socioeconomic, demographic and health conditions of elderly from Maranhão State, Legal Amazon, Brazil: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Silva, Alécia Maria da; Silva,Raimundo Antonio da; Thomaz, Erika Barbara Abreu Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Aging with quality of life does not occur equally among the racial groups of Brazilian elderly, and few studies have analyzed this issue in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. The objective of this study was to investigate racial inequalities in the socioeconomic, demographic and health conditions of elderly residents of Maranhão state, Brazil. The present work is a cross-sectional study of 450 elders aged 60 years or older included in the 2008 National Household Sample Survey. The prev...

  8. Are All Colleges Equally Equalizing? How Institutional Selectivity Impacts Socioeconomic Disparities in Graduates' Labor Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Matt S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which the magnitude of disparities in the labor market outcomes of college graduates stemming from socioeconomic background varies according to institutional selectivity. The data used for the study are drawn from the National Center for Education Statistics' Education Longitudinal Study of…

  9. Mental disorders and distress: Associations with demographics, remoteness and socioeconomic deprivation of area of residence across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Joanne C; Meadows, Graham N; Shawyer, Frances; Inder, Brett; Patten, Scott

    2016-12-01

    Australian policy-making needs better information on socio-geographical associations with needs for mental health care. We explored two national surveys for information on disparities in rates of mental disorders and psychological distress. Secondary data analysis using the 2011/2012 National Health Survey and 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Key data were the Kessler 10 scores in adults in the National Health Survey (n = 12,332) and the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 6558) and interview-assessed disorder rates in the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Estimation of prevalence of distress and disorders for sub-populations defined by geographic and socioeconomic status of area was followed by investigation of area effects adjusting for age and gender. Overall, approximately one person in 10 reported recent psychological distress at high/very-high level, this finding varying more than twofold depending on socioeconomic status of area with 16.1%, 13.3%, 12.0%, 8.4% and 6.9% affected in the most to least disadvantaged quintiles, respectively, across Australia in 2011/2012. In the most disadvantaged quintile, the percentage (24.4%) with mental disorders was 50% higher than that in the least disadvantaged quintile (16.9%) in 2007, so this trend was less strong than for Kessler10 distress. These results suggest that disparities in mental health status in Australia based on socioeconomic characteristics of area are substantial and persisting. Whether considering 1-year mental disorders or 30-day psychological distress, these occur more commonly in areas with socioeconomic disadvantage. The association is stronger for Kessler10 scores suggesting that Kessler10 scores behaved more like a complex composite indicator of the presence of mental and subthreshold disorders, inadequate treatment and other responses to stressors linked to socioeconomic disadvantage. To reduce the observed disparities, what might be

  10. Population genetics of mouse lemur vomeronasal receptors: current versus past selection and demographic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Mundy, Nicholas I; Radespiel, Ute

    2017-01-21

    A major effort is underway to use population genetic approaches to identify loci involved in adaptation. One issue that has so far received limited attention is whether loci that show a phylogenetic signal of positive selection in the past also show evidence of ongoing positive selection at the population level. We address this issue using vomeronasal receptors (VRs), a diverse gene family in mammals involved in intraspecific communication and predator detection. In mouse lemurs, we previously demonstrated that both subfamilies of VRs (V1Rs and V2Rs) show a strong signal of directional selection in interspecific analyses. We predicted that ongoing sexual selection and/or co-evolution with predators may lead to current directional or balancing selection on VRs. Here, we re-sequence 17 VRs and perform a suite of selection and demographic analyses in sympatric populations of two species of mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis) in northwestern Madagascar. M. ravelobensis had consistently higher genetic diversity at VRs than M. murinus. In general, we find little evidence for positive selection, with most loci evolving under purifying selection and one locus even showing evidence of functional loss in M. ravelobensis. However, a few loci in M. ravelobensis show potential evidence of positive selection. Using mismatch distributions and expansion models, we infer a more recent colonisation of the habitat by M. murinus than by M. ravelobensis, which most likely speciated in this region earlier on. These findings suggest that the analysis of VR variation is useful in inferring demographic and phylogeographic history of mouse lemurs. In conclusion, this study reveals a substantial heterogeneity over time in selection on VR loci, suggesting that VR evolution is episodic.

  11. Demographically-Based Evaluation of Genomic Regions under Selection in Domestic Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam H Freedman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Controlling for background demographic effects is important for accurately identifying loci that have recently undergone positive selection. To date, the effects of demography have not yet been explicitly considered when identifying loci under selection during dog domestication. To investigate positive selection on the dog lineage early in the domestication, we examined patterns of polymorphism in six canid genomes that were previously used to infer a demographic model of dog domestication. Using an inferred demographic model, we computed false discovery rates (FDR and identified 349 outlier regions consistent with positive selection at a low FDR. The signals in the top 100 regions were frequently centered on candidate genes related to brain function and behavior, including LHFPL3, CADM2, GRIK3, SH3GL2, MBP, PDE7B, NTAN1, and GLRA1. These regions contained significant enrichments in behavioral ontology categories. The 3rd top hit, CCRN4L, plays a major role in lipid metabolism, that is supported by additional metabolism related candidates revealed in our scan, including SCP2D1 and PDXC1. Comparing our method to an empirical outlier approach that does not directly account for demography, we found only modest overlaps between the two methods, with 60% of empirical outliers having no overlap with our demography-based outlier detection approach. Demography-aware approaches have lower-rates of false discovery. Our top candidates for selection, in addition to expanding the set of neurobehavioral candidate genes, include genes related to lipid metabolism, suggesting a dietary target of selection that was important during the period when proto-dogs hunted and fed alongside hunter-gatherers.

  12. Demographically-Based Evaluation of Genomic Regions under Selection in Domestic Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Adam H.; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Davis, Brian W.; Gronau, Ilan; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wayne, Robert K.; Novembre, John

    2016-01-01

    Controlling for background demographic effects is important for accurately identifying loci that have recently undergone positive selection. To date, the effects of demography have not yet been explicitly considered when identifying loci under selection during dog domestication. To investigate positive selection on the dog lineage early in the domestication, we examined patterns of polymorphism in six canid genomes that were previously used to infer a demographic model of dog domestication. Using an inferred demographic model, we computed false discovery rates (FDR) and identified 349 outlier regions consistent with positive selection at a low FDR. The signals in the top 100 regions were frequently centered on candidate genes related to brain function and behavior, including LHFPL3, CADM2, GRIK3, SH3GL2, MBP, PDE7B, NTAN1, and GLRA1. These regions contained significant enrichments in behavioral ontology categories. The 3rd top hit, CCRN4L, plays a major role in lipid metabolism, that is supported by additional metabolism related candidates revealed in our scan, including SCP2D1 and PDXC1. Comparing our method to an empirical outlier approach that does not directly account for demography, we found only modest overlaps between the two methods, with 60% of empirical outliers having no overlap with our demography-based outlier detection approach. Demography-aware approaches have lower-rates of false discovery. Our top candidates for selection, in addition to expanding the set of neurobehavioral candidate genes, include genes related to lipid metabolism, suggesting a dietary target of selection that was important during the period when proto-dogs hunted and fed alongside hunter-gatherers. PMID:26943675

  13. Dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years and their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pozza Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years. Methods We used principal components analysis to identify dietary intake patterns of 3,427 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. We used multiple linear regression models to evaluate whether socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic position, mother’s age at birth, and child’s sex and skin colour, early feeding practices (exclusive breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of complementary foods, and BMI z-score at 6 years were associated with dietary intake patterns. Results We identified seven dietary components of children’s dietary intake patterns, namely: fruits and vegetables, snacks and treats, coffee and bread, milk, cheese and processed meats, rice and beans and carbohydrates. Dietary patterns were socially patterned, since six dietary components were associated with socioeconomic position. Moreover, high intake of snacks and treats and less fruits and vegetables were associated with children born to teenage mothers, with those exclusively breastfed for less than one month, and with those who started on complementary feeding before 4 months. Finally, overweight and obese children at 6 years presented lower intake of four out of seven dietary components, but we need to be cautious in interpretation due to limitations on food consumption reporting and due to possible reverse causality. Conclusion Dietary intake patterns in children are strongly influenced by socioeconomic characteristics. Other factors such as younger maternal

  14. The demographic and socio-economic characteristics of post-1965 immigrants to New York City: a comparative analysis by national origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-guzman, H; Grosfoguel, R

    2000-01-01

    This article analyzes and compares the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of persons born abroad who immigrated to New York City after 1965 and still lived in the City in 1990. Using data from the 1990 Census, the authors classify persons into the 24 largest national origin groups and compare their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics (sex, age, educational attainment, labor force participation, unemployment, occupation, income, and poverty). The authors pose and answer three empirical questions. The first question is: What are some of the main differences by national origin in the composition of persons immigrating to New York City after 1965? The second question is: What are some of the main differences in the location of post-1965 immigrants in New York's socioeconomic structure? The third question is: What are some of the differences in the economic rewards received by persons who immigrated to New York City since 1965? The authors find that immigrants with less than a high school education have higher labor force participation rates than the US-born population in the same educational category and also have slightly higher earnings. Immigrants with a high school degree have labor force participation rates close to (or slightly higher than) the average for the US-born population but their incomes are slightly lower than the average income for the US-born population. Immigrants with a college degree have participation rates similar or slightly lower than those of the US-born population while their earnings are significantly lower than those of US-born college graduates.

  15. Demographic and socioeconomic influences on Helicobacter pylori gastritis and its pre-neoplastic lesions amongst US residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta, R M; Turner, K O; Sonnenberg, A

    2017-08-01

    Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) can lead to chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. To investigate in a cross-sectional study these changes among different socioeconomic and ethnic groups within the USA. We used the Miraca Life Sciences database, an electronic depository of clinicopathological records from patients distributed throughout the USA, to extract data from 487 587 patients who underwent oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy with biopsy between 1/2008 and 12/2014. We then classified patients into ethnic and socioeconomic categories using previously validated algorithms, as well as ZIP code-based information derived from the 2011-2012 US Census. The prevalence of Hp increased significantly until the age-group 40-49, before it leveled off and started a gradual decrease. The prevalence of chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia increased significantly with age. The prevalence of Hp, chronic inactive gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and atrophy decreased significantly with the percentage of Whites per ZIP code. The prevalence of all four diagnoses also decreased significantly with rising levels of income or college education. Hp, chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were more common among Hispanics and the influence of income or college education less pronounced than in the entire population. Hp, chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were also more common among East-Asians, Hp and atrophy decreasing with rising income but remaining unaffected by levels of college education. Ethnicity and socioeconomic factors influence the occurrence of Hp gastritis, and its progression to chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy or intestinal metaplasia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. What limits the utilization of health services among china labor force? analysis of inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liming; Zeng, Jingchun; Zeng, Zhi

    2017-02-02

    Inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status for China labor force place them at greater health risks, and marginalized them in the utilization of healthcare services. This paper identifies the inequalities which limit the utilization of health services among China labor force, and provides a reference point for health policy. Data were collected from 23,505 participants aged 15 to 65, from the 2014 China Labor Force Dynamic Survey (a nationwide cross-sectional survey covering 29 provinces with a multi-stage cluster, and stratified, probability sampling strategy) conducted by Sun Yat-sen University. Logistic regression models were used to study the effects of demographic (age, gender, marital status, type of hukou and migration status), socio-economic (education, social class and insurance) and health status (self-perceived general health and several chronic illnesses) variables on the utilization of health services (two-week visiting and hospitalization during the past 12 months). Goodness of fit was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Discrimination ability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Migrants with more than 1 (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) or none chronic illnesses (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) are more likely to be two week visiting to the clinic than non-migrants; migrants with none chronic illnesses (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45 ~ 0.82) are less likely to be in hospitalization during the past 12 months than non-migrants. Female, elder, hukou of non-agriculture, higher education level, higher social class, purchasing more insurance and poorer self-perceived health were predictors for more utilization of health service. More insurance benefited more two-week visiting (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 ~ 1.17) and hospitalization during the past 12 months (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 ~ 1.18) for individuals with none chronic illness but not ≥1 chronic illnesses. All models achieved good calibration

  17. Demographic and socio-economic differences between men seeking infertility evaluation and those seeking surgical sterilization: from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, James M; Patel, Darshan P; Brant, William O; Myers, Jeremy B; Cullen, Mark R; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2015-08-01

    To identify differences in demographic and socio-economic factors between men seeking infertility evaluation and those undergoing vasectomy, to address disparities in access to these services. Data from Cycle 6 and Cycle 7 (2002 and 2006-2008) of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were reviewed. The NSFG is a multistage probability survey designed to capture a nationally representative sample of households with men and women aged 15-45 years in the USA. The variables analysed included age, body mass index, self-reported health, alcohol use, race, religious affiliation, marital status, number of offspring, educational attainment, income level, insurance status and metropolitan home designation. Our primary outcome was the correlation of these demographic and socio-economic factors with evaluation for male infertility or vasectomy. Of the 11 067 men identified through the NSFG, 466 men (4.2%) sought infertility evaluation, representing 2 187 455 men nationally, and 326 (2.9%) underwent a vasectomy, representing 1 510 386 men nationally. Those seeking infertility evaluation were more likely to be younger and have fewer children (P = 0.001, 0.001) and less likely to be currently married (78 vs 74%; P = 0.010) or ever married (89 vs 97%; P = 0.002). Men undergoing a vasectomy were more likely to be white (86 vs 70%; P = 0.001). Men seeking infertility evaluation were more likely to have a college or graduate degree compared with men undergoing a vasectomy (68 vs 64%; P = 0.015). There was no difference between the two groups for all other variables. While differences in demographic characteristics such as age, offspring number and marital status were identified, measures of health, socio-economic status, religion and insurance were similar between men undergoing vasectomy and those seeking infertility services. These factors help characterize the utilization of male reproductive health services in the USA and may help address disparities in access to

  18. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A; Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Arias-Morales, Carlos E; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Rogers, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, sociodemographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications.

  19. Demographic and socioeconomic inequalities for self-rated health and happiness in elderly: the situation for Turkey regarding World Values Survey between 1990 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Mandiracioglu, Aliye

    2015-01-01

    To define the socioeconomic and demographic determinants for self-rated health and happiness for Turkish elderly (≥60) using the World Values Survey (WVS) database. WVS data for Turkey covering 23 years (1990-2013) with five separate cross-sections (1990, 1996, 2001, 2007, 2013) were pooled for analysis (n=870). Dependent variables were self-rated health (SRH) and perception of happiness.Their relation with age, sex, number of children, marital status, income, education, employment status and class perception were evaluated. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were used. Regression coefficients and their standard errors were derived to calculate odds ratios. Mean age was 66.96±5.78 (60-91), 58.16% were male and 76.32% were married. The majority (61.10%) was at lowest income level and 80.60% had education attainment at primary level or below. Very happy/quite happy were 81.77% while only 46.59% perceived their health as very good/good. The crisis year (2001) increased the risk of bad self-rated health 4.4 times, being a women 2.0 times, while being a widow had a 2.3-fold, low-income 3.0-fold effect. The odds for unhappy status was increased 4.3 times at low-income levels and 8.4 times for the divorced/separate living partners. Happiness state improved after crisis period. SRH and happiness of Turkish elderly bare demographic and socioeconomic inequalities. The inexistence of a partner, being a women, low-income level and major threats for it, like economic crisis, are important drivers for elderly health and happiness. To improve well-being of elderly, better social policies for income is essential and at economic crisis times, support policies should be prioritized for vulnerable groups, including elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitivity of measuring the progress in financial risk protection to survey design and its socioeconomic and demographic determinants: A case study in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Liu, Kai; Li, Lingling; Yang, Yuhong

    2017-04-01

    Reliable and comparable information on households with catastrophic health expenditure (HCHE) is crucial for monitoring and evaluating our progress towards achieving universal financial risk protection. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of measuring the progress in financial risk protection to survey design and its socioeconomic and demographic determinants. Using the Rwanda Integrated Living Conditions Survey in 2005 and 2010/2011, we derived the level and trend of the percentage of the HCHE using out-of-pocket health spending data derived from (1) a health module with a two-week recall period and six (2005)/seven (2010/2011) survey questions (Method 1) and (2) a consumption module with a four-week/ten-/12-month recall period and 11(2005)/24 (2010/2011) questions (Method 2). Using multilevel logistic regression analysis, we investigated the household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that affected the sensitivity of estimating the HCHE to survey design. We found that Method 1 generated a significantly higher HCHE estimate (9.2%, 95% confidence interval 8.4%-10.0%) than Method2 (7.4%, 6.6%-8.1%) in 2005 and lower estimate (5.6%, 5.2%-6.1%) than Method 2 (8.2%, 7.6%-8.7%) in 2010/2011. The estimated trends of the HCHE using the two methods were not consistent between the two years. A household's size, its income quintile, having no under-five children, and educational level of its head were positively associated with the consistency of its HCHE status when using the two survey methods. Estimates of the progress in financial risk protection, especially among the most vulnerable households, are sensitive to survey design. These results are robust to various thresholds of catastrophic health spending. Future work must focus on mitigating survey effects through the development of statistical tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Socioeconomic, demographic study on substance abuse among students of professional college in a southern town, Berhampur of Odisha state (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sachidananda; Tripathy, Radhamadhab; Palo, Subrat Kumar; Jena, Dhaneswari

    2013-11-01

    Currently there is an increasing trend of substance abuse in developing countries like India. This study attempted to identify the different predisposing factors, associated psycho-social and medical problems, prevalence and types of substance abuse in students. The study covered a cross-section of 720 students with an overall male to female ratio of 4.1:1. The majority of the sufferers were from middle socioeconomic class, aged between 15 and 19 years. Common substances of abuse were chewable tobacco and cannabis. The risk of abuse was more in hostellers hailing from broken families (62.5%). Friends had the highest influence (59%). Most of them (49.4%) tried multiple times to give up, but peer pressure (53%) compelled them to restart. In 60.8% cases the parents were completely unaware about this behavior. The commonly associated problems were psychological (34.3%) and medical (29.5%). Our study at the end points out major risk factors and their remedial measures to curb substance abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact Of Maternal Socio-Economic Determinants On Early Childhood Stunting In Maldives An Analysis Of Maldives Demographic Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminath Adeela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its characteristics of low socio-economic status poor living conditions poor maternal education large family size inadequate access to quality food safe water and health services. Recently there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designingimplementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey MDHS 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included size of child at birth height of the mother duration of breastfeeding difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother after adjusting for socio-economic factors.

  3. Medical student socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes toward patient centered care: do race, socioeconomic status and gender matter? A report from the Medical Student CHANGES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, Rachel R; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean; Yeazel, Mark; Nelson, David; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-03-01

    To determine whether attitudes toward patient-centered care differed by socio-demographic characteristics (race, gender, socioeconomic status) among a cohort of 3191 first year Black and White medical students attending a stratified random sample of US medical schools. This study used baseline data from Medical Student CHANGES, a large national longitudinal cohort study of medical students. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of race, gender and SES with attitudes toward patient-centered care. Female gender and low SES were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward patient-centered care. Age was also a significant predictor of positive attitudes toward patient-centered care such that students older than the average age of US medical students had more positive attitudes. Black versus white race was not associated with attitudes toward patient-centered care. New medical students' attitudes toward patient-centered care may shape their response to curricula and the quality and style of care that they provide as physicians. Some students may be predisposed to attitudes that lead to both greater receptivity to curricula and the provision of higher-quality, more patient-centered care. Medical school curricula with targeted messages about the benefits and value of patient-centered care, framed in ways that are consistent with the beliefs and world-view of medical students and the recruitment of a socioeconomically diverse sample of students into medical schools are vital for improved care. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Prevalence and socio-economic factors determining use of modern contraception among married men in Kyrgyzstan: evidence from a demographic and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogay, V; Itua, I

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of modern contraceptive use (MCU), and to identify socio-economic factors that are associated with MCU among married men in Kyrgyzstan. A cross-sectional study based on the 2012 Kyrgyzstan Demographic and Health Survey data. This study used data from 460 married men aged 20-49 years. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's Chi-squared test and logistic regression were used to estimate the prevalence of MCU, and to define factors that influence MCU among married men in Kyrgyzstan. The prevalence of MCU among married men aged 20-49 years was 22.2%. Men in the richer quintile were less likely to use modern contraceptives than men in the poorest quintile (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.267, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.100-0.715). Men with three living children had higher odds of MCU than men with no children or one child (aOR 3.534, 95% CI 1.221-10.229). Men who were unemployed were more likely to use modern contraceptives than men who were employed as manual labourers (aOR 4.511, 95% CI 1.104-18.442). Top priority should be given to strengthening family planning communication programmes among married men and male education. There is a need to pay attention to the socio-economic determinants of MCU among men in the development of family planning programmes. Emphasis should be placed on increasing MCU among men with high socio-economic status. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in food habits after migration among South Asians settled in Oslo: the effect of demographic, socio-economic and integration factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Margareta; Råberg, Marte; Kumar, Bernadette; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The aim is to explore changes in food habits after migration, and the resultant present food consumption patterns, as well as the effect of demographic, socio-economic and integration factors on these changes. Analyses were based on data collected through the Oslo Immigrant Health study, from 629 persons 30-60 years of age, born in Sri Lanka and Pakistan, and living in Oslo, Norway. A majority of the Sri Lankans reported increase in the consumption of meat, milk, butter, margarine and potatoes. Around half of those from Pakistan reported increased consumption of oil, meat, fish and potatoes. Both groups reported a decrease in bean and lentil consumption. Multivariate regression showed that age was negatively related to increases in butter and margarine consumption, and a good command of the Norwegian language reduced the likelihood of increased consumption of oil and butter. The likelihood of having present fat and sugar rich food patterns were reduced with age and years of education, whereas scoring high on an index of integration increased the likelihood of a fat rich food pattern. In conclusion, a number of demographic and socio-cultural factors may modify the changes in food habits after migration. Some of these may have substantial health implications.

  6. The Socioeconomic and Demographic Features of Children with Cerebral Palsi Applied to our Centre from Southern Eastern Anatolian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Nacitarhan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy is a general term which is used to describe a group of disorders that define muscle control impairment due to lesion in the developing brain. The aim of the present study was to indicate the common features of the children with cerebral palsy and their families in South Eastern region of Turkey, the most underdeveloped community in our country. In addition, the rate of marriage between the relatives (consanguineous marriage is higher in this region than the other regions.A total of 258 children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy were enrolled to our study. These children were born in South Eastern Anatolian region and live here throughout their childhood. Their families were also living in this region. The members of the families were interviewed with the questionnaire to obtain information. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with Graphpad Prism Ver 3.00.68.99 percent of the patients in our study were men, and 31.01 percent were women. They were between the ages of 10-375 months, average was 75.43±59.15 months. Rate of people, who was not under any social security guarantee, was 15.5%. 50.3% of mothers were not literate. Families’ income was 8.5% good, 42.6% poor. In families, there was 33.3% rate of relationship between partners (consanguineous marriage. In 15.5% of families, there was another retarded child. 55 percent of mothers were never been under health check in pregnancy period. Retarded child was usually from first delivery (26.3%. 3.1% of our patients had twin pregnancy. Only 59,6% of the whole births were given at the hospital or by the help of a midwife. Children were suckled along 6.4±6.4 months. Only 8,5% of the children were being educated.Finally, we concluded that reducing convertible risk factors caused by the low education level of our region, underdeveloped socioeconomic conditions and some traditions (e.g. consanguineous marriage and delivery in house instead of health organization has

  7. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of full immunization among children of 12–23 months in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Fraidoon; A. Reyer, Joshua; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunization is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce vaccine-preventable diseases morbidity and mortality. Vaccination coverage is very low in Afghanistan; National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) Survey 2008 estimated the coverage of fully immunized children to be 37%. The current study was designed to examine the factors influencing full immunization among children aged 12–23 months. Demographic and vaccination data of 2,561 children of 12–23 months was extracted from the Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012. The data was analyzed by logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The study found that 38.8% of the children were fully immunized. The coverage for specific vaccines was 80.9% for BCG, 72.0% for OPV3, 64.8% for measles, and 50.1% for Penta3. Urban residence (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.40–0.90 relative to rural), children of poorer families (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.10–1.67 relative to poorest), some education (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.20–2.11 relative to no education) and antenatal care (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.44–2.01 relative to not received) were found to be significant predicators of full immunization. This study indicated that the full-immunization rate in Afghanistan was quite low compared to the national target of 90% coverage. Therefore, strategies taking into account the identified factors seem to be vital to improve vaccination coverage. PMID:28626253

  8. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of full immunization among children of 12-23 months in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Fraidoon; A Reyer, Joshua; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Immunization is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce vaccine-preventable diseases morbidity and mortality. Vaccination coverage is very low in Afghanistan; National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) Survey 2008 estimated the coverage of fully immunized children to be 37%. The current study was designed to examine the factors influencing full immunization among children aged 12-23 months. Demographic and vaccination data of 2,561 children of 12-23 months was extracted from the Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012. The data was analyzed by logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The study found that 38.8% of the children were fully immunized. The coverage for specific vaccines was 80.9% for BCG, 72.0% for OPV3, 64.8% for measles, and 50.1% for Penta3. Urban residence (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.40-0.90 relative to rural), children of poorer families (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.10-1.67 relative to poorest), some education (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.20-2.11 relative to no education) and antenatal care (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.44-2.01 relative to not received) were found to be significant predicators of full immunization. This study indicated that the full-immunization rate in Afghanistan was quite low compared to the national target of 90% coverage. Therefore, strategies taking into account the identified factors seem to be vital to improve vaccination coverage.

  9. Importance of Urban Factor and Selected Socio-Economic Variables in the Differentiation of Coordination Motor Abilities Level (CMA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaworski, Janusz; Madejski, Eligiusz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the urban factor and socio-economic status on selected coordination motor abilities of non-practicing physical education female students...

  10. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.001. Irrespective to gender, relative risk, here odds ratio, (OR of low level of education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7–7.6, working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7–3.7, and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2–2.3 were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  11. Prediction of persistence in the use of intra-uterine device from selected demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, E P

    1978-01-01

    85 residents of the Tondo, Philippines who were IUD registrants at the Mary Johnston Hospital Family Planning Clinic were interviewed to determine which combination(s) of certain selected demographic variables have the potential for predicting persistence in IUD use. Data collected concerned length of use of the IUD, age, number of living children, education and income of the respondent at the time of adoption. Regression analysis using REGRESS program evaluation of t-values, F-values, Durbin Watson statistic coefficients of determination was the analysis undertaken. Predictions of persistence can be made from the single factors of age of respondent and the number of living children a woman has. Predictions can also be made from combinations of the following factors: number of living children and age of the respondent; number of living children and monthly family income; number of living children and educational achievement of the respondent; and age and monthly family income of the respondent.

  12. Influence of socioeconomic and demographic status on spirometry testing in patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Mette M; Søndergaard, Jens; Christensen, René dePont; Jarbøl, Dorte E

    2013-06-14

    Socioeconomic status is known to influence the prevalence, severity and mortality of obstructive lung diseases, but it is uncertain whether it affects the use of diagnostic spirometry in patients initiating treatment for these conditions. The objective of this paper was to examine a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. We conducted a population-based cohort study. Danish national registers were linked, retrieving data on prescriptions, spirometry testing, socioeconomic and demographic variables in all first time users of medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008. A total of 37,734 persons were included and approximately half of the cohort had spirometry performed. Among medication users under 65 years of age, being unemployed was significantly associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed, the strongest association was seen in men (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.73-0.91). Medium income was associated with increased odds of having spirometry performed in men (OR =1.18, CI = 1.06-1.30) and high educational level (>12 years) was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed in women (OR = 0.86, CI = 0.78-0.94). Cohabitation status was not associated with having spirometry performed. Among medication users over 65 years of age, living alone was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed among men (OR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.88). Social inequity in spirometry testing among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease was confirmed in this study. Increased focus on spirometry testing among elderly men living alone, among the unemployed and among women with higher education is required when initiating medication.

  13. Socio-economic inequalities in curative health-seeking for children in Egypt: analysis of the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona M R; Ploubidis, George B

    2015-10-24

    The existence and magnitude of socio-economic inequalities in health-seeking behaviours for child curative care in Egypt and mechanisms underlying these associations have not been comprehensively assessed. This study examined whether socio-economic position (SEP) was associated with health-seeking behaviours for diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children and explored potential mechanisms underlying these associations using mediation analysis. Children aged under-five years living with their mothers sampled by the 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI in the two-week period preceding the survey. If either illness was reported, three dimensions of health-seeking were examined in adjusted mediation models, separately by illness: whether medical care was sought, whether such care was timely (within one day of symptom onset), and whether it was sought from private providers. Latent variables of parental socio-cultural capital and household-level economic capital were the main exposures of interest. In the sample of 10,006 children, 8.4% had diarrhoea and 7.6% had ARI. Care was sought for 62.0% of children with diarrhoea and 78.5% with ARI; two-thirds of care-seeking for both illnesses was timely. More than 7 in 10 children who sought care were taken to private providers. Socio-cultural capital or economic capital were not independently associated with seeking care for either illness. Socio-cultural capital was positively associated with timely care-seeking, and economic capital was positively associated with private provider use in adjusted analyses for both illnesses. SEP was not a strong determinant of care-seeking for diarrhoea or ARI, but there was a modest positive effect of SEP on timely receipt of care and private provider use. Further research is needed to explore perceptions of illness severity and the availability and quality of care from public and private providers.

  14. Participation in cancer screening among female migrants and non-migrants in Germany: A cross-sectional study on the role of demographic and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzoska, Patrick; Abdul-Rida, Chadi

    2016-07-01

    In many European countries, migrants utilize cancer screening less often than non-migrants. In Germany, in contrast, higher rates of utilization among migrants as compared with non-migrants have been reported. The role of demographic and socioeconomic factors potentially confounding the association between migration status and participation in screening, however, could not be studied. The present study aims to investigate the utilization of cancer screening among migrant and nonmigrant women residing in Germany, adjusting for potential confounders.We used self-reported information from women surveyed on whether they have ever participated in screening for cancer (n = 11,709). The data was collected as part of a cross-sectional representative telephone survey conducted by the Robert Koch-Institute in 2010. We distinguished between three groups of women: (1) respondents of non-German nationality, those who had immigrated to Germany after their birth or those who have two foreign-born parents ("migrants with two-sided migration background"), (2) respondents who only have one foreign-born parent ("migrant with one-sided migration background"), and (3) all others ("non-migrants").To account for confounders, logistic regression analysis was performed. Only individuals proficient in German were included in the survey, allowing to control for a bias arising from poor language proficiency.84.9% of nonmigrant women, 82.1% of women with a one-sided, and 70.5% of women with a two-sided migration background had utilized screening for cancer at least once in their lifetime before the survey. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) as compared with nonmigrant women were 0.99 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.77-1.27) and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.47-0.64), respectively.The study shows that migrant women with a two-sided migration background residing in Germany utilize screening for cancer less often than nonmigrant women-independently of demographic and socioeconomic factors. This is in line

  15. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic determinants of childbearing desires among married women attending health centers in Hamedan (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatam Hosseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in values and attitudes of the Iranian society during the past few decades have greatly influenced the reproductive decisions and actions of individuals and families, especially women. The aim of this study was to analyze the determinants of childbearing desires of married women attending Health Centers in Hamedan. Methods: Data were collected through a survey which was conducted during November and December, 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 273 eligible women who were selected randomly. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Results showed that 70.7 percent of women did not want to have another child in addition to the children they had at the time of survey. Among these women, 55 percent and 84.3 percent had one and two children, respectively. Further, 78.4 percent of respondents stated that two children were the ideal number of children for the households. The most important reasons for the two-children pattern were economic problems and families’ problems in rearing and training the children, respectively. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of stopping childbearing was higher among working women,women with more children, women at the end of reproduction age, women evaluating children’s benefits lower than their expenditures, and women with little tendency to prefer sons to daughters. Conclusion: Population policies to prevent further decline in fertility should be focused on employment, family, and quality of life, especially among women without children, women with one child and newly married couples.

  16. Use of geographic information systems technology to track critical health code violations in retail facilities available to populations of different socioeconomic status and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcey, Valerie L; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2011-09-01

    Research shows that community socioeconomic status (SES) predicts, based on food service types available, whether a population has access to healthy food. It is not known, however, if a relationship exists between SES and risk for foodborne illness (FBI) at the community level. Geographic information systems (GIS) give researchers the ability to pinpoint health indicators to specific geographic locations and detect resulting environmental gradients. It has been used extensively to characterize the food environment, with respect to access to healthy foods. This research investigated the utility of GIS in determining whether community SES and/or demographics relate to access to safe food, as measured by food service critical health code violations (CHV) as a proxy for risk for FBI. Health inspection records documenting CHV for 10,859 food service facilities collected between 2005 and 2008 in Philadelphia, PA, were accessed. Using an overlay analysis through GIS, CHV were plotted over census tracts of the corresponding area. Census tracts (n = 368) were categorized into quintiles, based on poverty level. Overall, food service facilities in higher poverty areas had a greater number of facilities (with at least one CHV) and had more frequent inspections than facilities in lower poverty areas. The facilities in lower poverty areas, however, had a higher average number of CHV per inspection. Analysis of CHV rates in census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations found Hispanic facilities had more CHV than other demographics, and Hispanic and African American facilities had fewer days between inspections. This research demonstrates the potential for utilization of GIS mapping for tracking risks for FBI. Conversely, it sheds light on the subjective nature of health inspections, and indicates that underlying factors might be affecting inspection frequency and identification of CHV, such that CHV might not be a true proxy for risk for FBI.

  17. INVESTMENT PROJECTS IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana GOROBIEVSCHI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic development of states in XXI century is focused on specific of sustainable development. Currently in Moldova it is realized through economic, social, infrastructure and other projects at different scales. These projects require major resources, but, given the limited nature of the resources, decisionmakers always have to choose the most feasible and the most effective ideas of projects. For such a selection there is a number of criteria / indicators: internal rate of return, payback period, actuarial indicators, etc. In addition to these criteria, the authors propose to use in selection of investment projects economical-mathematical model that takes into account the restrictions prior to the project and its impact by various stakeholders (people involved in the designing and implementation of the project and the direct and indirect beneficiaries of the project.

  18. Analysis of clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of quality of life of persons with intellectual disability: a cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Nayara Silva; Gavina, Victor Pinheiro; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Silveira, Flávia Maia; Assaf, Andréa Videira

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the perception of parents about the impact of oral problems in their children, and of demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of Brazilian adolescents and young adults with intellectual disability (ID), in 2014. The sample consisted of 119 individuals. Data collection was performed in stages: calibration and pilot study; Application of questionnaires; Exam of caries, periodontal and need for dental prostheses, in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria. The data were subjected to both bivariate and multivariate analyses to test the association of independent variables with the dependent variable (QoL). Worse QoL was associated with the presence of periodontal pocket (p = 0.03; OR = 2.50; 95% CI 1.06 to 5.90), treatment need (p = 0.01; OR = 5.00; 95% CI 1.37 to 18.31), and need for dental prostheses (p = 0.03; OR = 2.89; 95% CI 1.13 to 7.37). It was concluded that clinical determinants had the greatest influence on OHRQoL of individuals with ID. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS, FEEDING AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF 8-15-YEAR-OLD BULGARIAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya

    2015-12-01

    to study of impact of some socio-economic and demographic factors, feeding and physical activity on the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among Bulgarian children and adolescents. the sample of this research included 881 children and adolescents from both sexes, aged from 8 to 15 years, that were measured transversally in the period 2012- 2014 in eight government school in Smolyan region, Bulgaria. Of each child the height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. The evaluation of nutritional status was made using the IOTF cut-off points of BMI for children and adolescents. By the questionnaire the information about educational level of parents, number of children in the family, place of residence, nutrition and feeding habits and physical activity of children and adolescents were collected. The data were analyzed by software Statistica 10.0. there is a significant positive relation between the factor ''overeating" and the BMI values for both sexes and a negative relation between the factor ''meals frequency" and BMI for boys (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of selective attention in preschool-age children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton Wray, Amanda; Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Isbell, Elif; Bell, Theodore; Neville, Helen

    2017-08-01

    Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task. The lower SES group was followed longitudinally for one year. At age four, the higher SES group exhibited a significant attention effect (larger ERP response to attended compared to unattended condition), an effect not observed in the lower SES group. At age five, the lower SES group exhibited a significant attention effect comparable in overall magnitude to that observed in the 4-year-old higher SES group, but with poorer distractor suppression (larger response to the unattended condition). Together, these findings suggest both a maturational delay and divergent developmental pattern in neural mechanisms for selective attention in young children from lower compared to higher SES backgrounds. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of studying neurodevelopment within narrow age ranges and in children from diverse backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The Relationship among Principals' Emotional Intelligence Skills with Respect to School Accountability Ratings and Selected Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labby, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among principals' emotional intelligence skills, school accountability ratings, and selected demographic factors. Method: The sample was comprised of Texas public school principals from elementary, middle school/junior high, and high schools and their school accountability…

  2. Could non-grade based selection improve medical student socio-demographic diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Students with lower socioeconomic backgrounds have been found to be underrepresented in medical education. There is little evidence as to whether the type of student admission strategy used could make a difference to diversity of medical students. The aim of this paper was to examin...

  3. Selected Demographic Variables, School Music Participation, and Achievement Test Scores of Urban Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Daryl W.

    2008-01-01

    Nontransient 6th- and 8th-grade urban middle school students' achievement test scores were examined before (4th grade) and during (6th or 8th grade) enrollment in a performing ensemble. Ensemble participation (band, choir, none) and subject variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and home environment were considered. Fourth- and 6th-grade…

  4. Examining African American and white outdoor recreation participation after demographic standardization on selected characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Christensen; John F. Dwyer

    1995-01-01

    The "marginality" explanation of differences between the outdoor recreation participation of African Americans and Whites was evaluated using demographic standardization of age, income, and education for a sample of African American and White Illinois residents. After standardization, African America/White differences in outdoor recreation participation were...

  5. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław Domaradzki

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in ...

  6. Selected Demographic Aspects of Buyers’ Activity on the Local Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foryś Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Demographic factors next to economic, political and legal ones, are important elements determining the development of the housing market. The analysis of the age structure of the population and of the dynamics of change shows that the population of baby boomers in the age group that is actively entering the labor market and becoming independent is a stimulant for the development of the housing market. Individuals who are gaining economic independence generate new needs and, with appropriate financial resources, also future demand for their own accommodation.

  7. Association between selected socio demographic variables and musculoskeletal symptoms experienced by dentists in a southern Karnataka district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, A B; Sripathi Rao, B H; Hussain, A; D'Sa, J L

    2012-01-01

    The majority of working dentists experience some type of musculoskeletal discomfort during the course of their professional career. The prevalence and location of musculoskeletal symptoms are influenced by work habits, postures adopted by dentists while performing their professional work and socio demographic variables. The current study was carried out to find the association between musculoskeletal symptoms experienced by dentists and selected socio demographic variables in a southern Karnataka district. For this study 300 dentists were selected by using convenience sampling method among post graduate dental students, faculty members and private practitioners with more than one year of experience from in and around Mangalore city. In order to find the association, a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire - Musculoskeletal Disorder Rating Scale was used. The study showed that there was statistically significant association between frequency of pain and average patient(s) treated per day. The association between intensity of pain and average patient(s) treated per day was highly significant. Further there was a significant association between intensity of pain and field of dental practice. With regard to the field of dental practice, frequency of stiffness was significantly associated with the age. The association between frequency of stiffness and no. of year(s) in profession was highly significant. The study revealed a significant association between musculoskeletal symptoms experienced by the dentists and socio demographic variables like; age, field of dental practice, no. of years in profession and average patients treated per day.

  8. Inferring the Mode of Selection from the Transient Response to Demographic Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Daniel; Do, Ron; Reich, David; Sunyaev, Shamil

    2014-03-01

    Despite substantial recent progress in theoretical population genetics, most models work under the assumption of a constant population size. Deviations from fixed population sizes are ubiquitous in natural populations, many of which experience population bottlenecks and re-expansions. The non-equilibrium dynamics introduced by a large perturbation in population size are generally viewed as a confounding factor. In the present work, we take advantage of the transient response to a population bottleneck to infer features of the mode of selection and the distribution of selective effects. We develop an analytic framework and a corresponding statistical test that qualitatively differentiates between alleles under additive and those under recessive or more general epistatic selection. This statistic can be used to bound the joint distribution of selective effects and dominance effects in any diploid sexual organism. We apply this technique to human population genetic data, and severely restrict the space of allowed selective coefficients in humans. Additionally, one can test a set of functionally or medically relevant alleles for the primary mode of selection, or determine the local regional variation in dominance coefficients along the genome.

  9. Predicting dementia using socio-demographic characteristics and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Thibault; Baramova, Marieta; Gabelle, Audrey; Artero, Sylvaine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Berr, Claudine

    2017-03-23

    Our study aimed to determine whether the consideration of socio-demographic features improves the prediction of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) at 5 years when using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in the general older population. Our analyses focused on 2558 subjects from the prospective Three-City Study, a cohort of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and over, with FCSRT scores. Four "residual scores" and "risk scores" were built that included the FCSRT scores and socio-demographic variables. The predictive performance of crude, residual and risk scores was analyzed by comparing the areas under the ROC curve (AUC). In total, 1750 subjects were seen 5 years after completing the FCSRT. AD was diagnosed in 116 of them. Compared with the crude free-recall score, the predictive performances of the residual score and of the risk score were not significantly improved (AUC: 0.83 vs 0.82 and 0.88 vs 0.89 respectively). Using socio-demographic features in addition to the FCSRT does not improve its predictive performance for dementia or AD.

  10. Demographic Factors Influencing Selection of an Ideal Graduate Institution: A Literature Review with Recommendations for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Simon A.; Chuang, Ning-Kuang

    2010-01-01

    Choosing a graduate (masters and doctoral) program of study at an ideal institution is probably one of the most important decisions students and their family will make. The graduate college selection involves identifying the most critical academic and non-academic factors, and weighing their importance against the large quantity of choices…

  11. HLA DNA sequence variation among human populations: molecular signatures of demographic and selective events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    Full Text Available Molecular differences between HLA alleles vary up to 57 nucleotides within the peptide binding coding region of human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, but it is still unclear whether this variation results from a stochastic process or from selective constraints related to functional differences among HLA molecules. Although HLA alleles are generally treated as equidistant molecular units in population genetic studies, DNA sequence diversity among populations is also crucial to interpret the observed HLA polymorphism. In this study, we used a large dataset of 2,062 DNA sequences defined for the different HLA alleles to analyze nucleotide diversity of seven HLA genes in 23,500 individuals of about 200 populations spread worldwide. We first analyzed the HLA molecular structure and diversity of these populations in relation to geographic variation and we further investigated possible departures from selective neutrality through Tajima's tests and mismatch distributions. All results were compared to those obtained by classical approaches applied to HLA allele frequencies.Our study shows that the global patterns of HLA nucleotide diversity among populations are significantly correlated to geography, although in some specific cases the molecular information reveals unexpected genetic relationships. At all loci except HLA-DPB1, populations have accumulated a high proportion of very divergent alleles, suggesting an advantage of heterozygotes expressing molecularly distant HLA molecules (asymmetric overdominant selection model. However, both different intensities of selection and unequal levels of gene conversion may explain the heterogeneous mismatch distributions observed among the loci. Also, distinctive patterns of sequence divergence observed at the HLA-DPB1 locus suggest current neutrality but old selective pressures on this gene. We conclude that HLA DNA sequences advantageously complement HLA allele frequencies as a source of data used

  12. Determinants of Bank Selection Choices in Malaysia: A Demographic based Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Celestine Fernandez, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    Banking is an important contributor to the economic growth around the world. The benefits of understanding consumer selection decisions will provide bankers with a competitive advantage as it has the ability to influence the marketing mix. With rising overheads and price competition, the profit margins earned from bank services are being narrowed. Banks will have to capture a sizeable customer base to sustain their profitability and turnover. Malaysia was chosen for this study as banks have b...

  13. The role of demographics in students' selection of higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wiese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the choice factors students consider when selecting a higher education institution, with a focus on the differences between gender and language groups. Problem investigated: The educational landscape has seen several changes, such as stronger competition between institutions for both student enrolments and government funding. These market challenges have led to an interest in students' institution selection processes as it has implications for the way higher education institutions (HEIs manage their marketing and recruitment strategies. The research objective of this study was to identify the most important choice factors of prospective South African students. It also aimed to determine if any gender and language differences exist with regard to students' institution selection processes. Methodology: A convenience sample of 1 241 respondents was drawn, representing six South African universities. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect the data. Questions from the ASQ (Admitted Student Questionnaire and CIRP (The Cooperative Institutional Research Programme were used and adapted to the South African context after pilot testing. Hypotheses were analysed using the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA test with Wilks' lambda as the test statistic. Findings/Implications: Irrespective of gender or language, the most important choice factor for respondents was the quality of teaching at HEIs. The findings showed that males and females differ according to the selection of certain choice factors which suggest that HEIs can consider recruitment strategies for each gender group. Significant differences between the language groups were found for 17 of the 23 choice factors, signalling that different language groups make decisions based on different choice factors. African language-speaking students have, amongst other, indicated that the multiculturalism of the institution is a very important choice factor for

  14. Health selection and the process of social stratification: the effect of childhood health on socioeconomic attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Steven A

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates whether childhood health acts as a mechanism through which socioeconomic status is transferred across generations. The study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to track siblings and to estimate fixed-effects models that account for unobserved heterogeneity at the family level. The results demonstrate that disadvantaged social background is associated with poor childhood health. Subsequently, poor health in childhood has significant, direct, and large adverse effects on educational attainment and wealth accumulation. In addition, childhood health appears to have indirect effects on occupational standing, earnings, and wealth via educational attainment and adult health status. The results further show that socioeconomic health gradients are best understood as being embedded within larger processes of social stratification.

  15. Premature mortality in Slovenia in relation to selected biological, socioeconomic, and geographical determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnik, Barbara; Vidmar, Gaj; Javornik, Jana; Laaser, Ulrich

    2006-02-01

    To determine biological (sex and age), socioeconomic (marital status, education, and mother tongue) and geographical (region) factors connected with causes of death and lifespan (age at death, years-of-potential-life-lost, and mortality rate) in Slovenia in the 1990s. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we analyzed all deaths in the 25-64 age group (N=14 816) in Slovenia in 1992, 1995, and 1998. Causes of death, classified into groups according to the 10th revision of International Classification of Diseases, were linked to the data on the deceased from the 1991 Census. Stratified contingency-table analyses were performed. Years-of-potential-life-lost (YPLL) were calculated on the basis of population life-tables stratified by region and linearly modeled by the characteristics of the deceased. Poisson regression was applied to test the differences in mortality rate. Across all socioeconomic strata, men died at younger age than women (index of excess mortality in men exceeded 200 for all studied years) and from different prevailing causes (injuries in men aged women aged >35 years). For men, higher education was associated with fewer deaths from digestive and respiratory system diseases. The least educated women died relatively often from circulatory diseases, but rarely from neoplasms. Single people died from neoplasms less often. Marriage in comparison with divorce reduced the mortality rate by 1.9-fold in both men and women (Pwomen decreased with increasing education level (Pimpact of education level on premature mortality. The share of neoplasms was the highest in the cluster of socioeconomically prosperous regions, whereas the share of circulatory diseases was increased in poorer regions. Significant differences were found between individual regions in age at death and mortality rate, and the differences decreased over the studied period. These data may aid in understanding the nature, prevalence and consequences of mortality as related to

  16. Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, D [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Laurent, O [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Filleul, L [CIRE Aquitaine, Bordeaux (France); Havard, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Deguen, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Segala, C [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Pedrono, G [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Riviere, E [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Schillinger, C [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Rouil, L [INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Arveiler, D [Registre des Cardiopathies Ischemiques du Bas-Rhin, Laboratoire d' epidemiologie et de sante publique-EA 1801, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Eilstein, D [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice (France)

    2007-10-15

    Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.

  17. Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, D.; Laurent, O.; Filleul, L.; Havard, S.; Deguen, S.; Segala, C.; Pedrono, G.; Rivière, E.; Schillinger, C.; Rouïl, L.; Arveiler, D.; Eilstein, D.

    2007-10-01

    Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes—asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction—at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics—INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000 2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.

  18. Inference of gorilla demographic and selective history from whole-genome sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Kimberly F; Kelley, Joanna L; Song, Shiya; Veeramah, Krishna R; Woerner, August E; Stevison, Laurie S; Ryder, Oliver A; Ape Genome Project, Great; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Wall, Jeffrey D; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    Although population-level genomic sequence data have been gathered extensively for humans, similar data from our closest living relatives are just beginning to emerge. Examination of genomic variation within great apes offers many opportunities to increase our understanding of the forces that have differentially shaped the evolutionary history of hominid taxa. Here, we expand upon the work of the Great Ape Genome Project by analyzing medium to high coverage whole-genome sequences from 14 western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), 2 eastern lowland gorillas (G. beringei graueri), and a single Cross River individual (G. gorilla diehli). We infer that the ancestors of western and eastern lowland gorillas diverged from a common ancestor approximately 261 ka, and that the ancestors of the Cross River population diverged from the western lowland gorilla lineage approximately 68 ka. Using a diffusion approximation approach to model the genome-wide site frequency spectrum, we infer a history of western lowland gorillas that includes an ancestral population expansion of 1.4-fold around 970 ka and a recent 5.6-fold contraction in population size 23 ka. The latter may correspond to a major reduction in African equatorial forests around the Last Glacial Maximum. We also analyze patterns of variation among western lowland gorillas to identify several genomic regions with strong signatures of recent selective sweeps. We find that processes related to taste, pancreatic and saliva secretion, sodium ion transmembrane transport, and cardiac muscle function are overrepresented in genomic regions predicted to have experienced recent positive selection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Past, present, and future climate at select INDEPTH member Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M; Rocklöv, Joacim; Sankoh, Osman A

    2012-11-23

    Climate and weather affect human health directly and indirectly. There is a renewed interest in various aspects of environmental health as our understanding of ongoing climate change improves. In particular, today, the health effects in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are not well understood. Many computer models predict some of the biggest changes in places where people are equipped with minimal resources to combat the effects of a changing environment, particularly with regard to human health. This article documents the observed and projected climate profiles of select sites within the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) network of Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Africa and Asia to support the integration of climate research with health practice and policy. The climatology of four meteorological stations representative of a suite of INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) was assessed using daily data of 10 years. Historical and future trends were analyzed using reanalysis products and global climate model projections. The climate characteristics of the HDSS sites investigated suggest vulnerability to different environmental stressors, and the changes expected over the next century are far greater in magnitude than those observed at many of the INDEPTH member sites. The magnitude of potential future climate changes in the LMICs highlights the need for improvements in collaborative climate-health research in these countries. Climate data resources are available to support such research efforts. The INDEPTH studies presented in this supplement are the first attempt to assess and document associations of climatic factors with mortality at the HDSSs.

  20. Socio-economic determinants of selected dietary indicators in British pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, R G; Dykes, J; Sheiham, A

    2001-12-01

    To assess the proportion of pre-school children meeting reference nutrient intakes (RNIs) and recommendations for daily intakes of iron, zinc, vitamins C and A, and energy from non-milk extrinsic sugars. To assess whether meeting these five dietary requirements was related to a series of socio-economic variables. Secondary analysis of data on daily consumption of foods and drinks from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of children aged 1.5-4.5 years based on 4-day weighed intakes. One thousand six hundred and seventy-five British pre-school children aged 1.5-4.5 years in 1993. Only 1% of children met all five RNIs/recommendations examined; 76% met only two or fewer. Very few children met the recommendations for intakes of zinc (aged over four years) and non-milk extrinsic sugars (all ages). The number of RNIs/recommendations met was related to measures of socio-economic class. Children from families in Scotland and the North of England, who had a manual head of household and whose mothers had fewest qualifications, met the least number of RNIs/recommendations. Very few pre-school children have diets that meet all the RNIs and recommendations for iron, zinc, vitamins C and A, and energy from non-milk extrinsic sugars. Dietary adequacy with respect to these five parameters is related to socio-economic factors. The findings emphasise the need for a range of public health policies that focus upon the social and economic determinants of food choice within families.

  1. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Tabak, Izabela; Dzielska, Anna; Wąż, Krzysztof; Oblacińska, Anna

    2016-12-21

    Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users-71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users-13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users-7.2%, poly-users-7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  2. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mazur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  3. Socio-economic determinants of selected dietary indicators in British pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, R. G.; Dykes, J.; Sheiham, A.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the proportion of pre-school children meeting reference nutrient intakes (RNIs) and recommendations for daily intakes of iron, zinc, vitamins C and A, and energy from non-milk extrinsic sugars. To assess whether meeting these five dietary requirements was related to a series of socio-economic variables.Design: Secondary analysis of data on daily consumption of foods and drinks from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of children aged 1.5-4.5 years based on 4-da...

  4. Demographic processes affect HIV-1 evolution in primary infection before the onset of selective processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Joshua T; Rolland, Morgane; Liu, Yi; McLaughlin, Sherry; McNevin, John; Zhao, Hong; Wong, Kim; Stoddard, Julia N; Raugi, Dana; Sorensen, Stephanie; Genowati, Indira; Birditt, Brian; McKay, Angela; Diem, Kurt; Maust, Brandon S; Deng, Wenjie; Collier, Ann C; Stekler, Joanne D; McElrath, M Juliana; Mullins, James I

    2011-08-01

    HIV-1 transmission and viral evolution in the first year of infection were studied in 11 individuals representing four transmitter-recipient pairs and three independent seroconverters. Nine of these individuals were enrolled during acute infection; all were men who have sex with men (MSM) infected with HIV-1 subtype B. A total of 475 nearly full-length HIV-1 genome sequences were generated, representing on average 10 genomes per specimen at 2 to 12 visits over the first year of infection. Single founding variants with nearly homogeneous viral populations were detected in eight of the nine individuals who were enrolled during acute HIV-1 infection. Restriction to a single founder variant was not due to a lack of diversity in the transmitter as homogeneous populations were found in recipients from transmitters with chronic infection. Mutational patterns indicative of rapid viral population growth dominated during the first 5 weeks of infection and included a slight contraction of viral genetic diversity over the first 20 to 40 days. Subsequently, selection dominated, most markedly in env and nef. Mutants were detected in the first week and became consensus as early as day 21 after the onset of symptoms of primary HIV infection. We found multiple indications of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations while reversions appeared limited. Putative escape mutations were often rapidly replaced with mutually exclusive mutations nearby, indicating the existence of a maturational escape process, possibly in adaptation to viral fitness constraints or to immune responses against new variants. We showed that establishment of HIV-1 infection is likely due to a biological mechanism that restricts transmission rather than to early adaptive evolution during acute infection. Furthermore, the diversity of HIV strains coupled with complex and individual-specific patterns of CTL escape did not reveal shared sequence characteristics of acute infection that could be harnessed for

  5. The impact of selection, gene flow and demographic history on heterogeneous genomic divergence: three-spine sticklebacks in divergent environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Hansen, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous genomic divergence between populations may reflect selection, but should also be seen in conjunction with gene flow and drift, particularly population bottlenecks. Marine and freshwater three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations often exhibit different lateral armour plate morphs. Moreover, strikingly parallel genomic footprints across different marine-freshwater population pairs are interpreted as parallel evolution and gene reuse. Nevertheless, in some geographic regions like the North Sea and Baltic Sea, different patterns are observed. Freshwater populations in coastal regions are often dominated by marine morphs, suggesting that gene flow overwhelms selection, and genomic parallelism may also be less pronounced. We used RAD sequencing for analysing 28 888 SNPs in two marine and seven freshwater populations in Denmark, Europe. Freshwater populations represented a variety of environments: river populations accessible to gene flow from marine sticklebacks and large and small isolated lakes with and without fish predators. Sticklebacks in an accessible river environment showed minimal morphological and genomewide divergence from marine populations, supporting the hypothesis of gene flow overriding selection. Allele frequency spectra suggested bottlenecks in all freshwater populations, and particularly two small lake populations. However, genomic footprints ascribed to selection could nevertheless be identified. No genomic regions were consistent freshwater-marine outliers, and parallelism was much lower than in other comparable studies. Two genomic regions previously described to be under divergent selection in freshwater and marine populations were outliers between different freshwater populations. We ascribe these patterns to stronger environmental heterogeneity among freshwater populations in our study as compared to most other studies, although the demographic history involving bottlenecks should also be considered in the

  6. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with non-willingness to participate in health promotion programmes among adults of a lower socioeconomic status in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charis Wei Ling; Heng, Bee Hoon; Molina, Joseph Antonio; Wong, Lai Yin; George, Pradeep Paul; Cheah, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Lower socioeconomic groups have been found to have poorer health outcomes and engage in fewer health promoting behaviours. Understanding the reasons behind adverse lifestyle habits and non-willingness to participate in health promotion programmes among lower socioeconomic groups will enable administrators to modify the programmes and increase participation in this population. This study aimed to determine reasons for non-exercise, smoking and non-willingness to participate, and characteristics associated with non-willingness to participate in health promotion programmes among residents in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a purposive sample of residents living in four housing developments of one- and two-room households in Singapore from June to October 2009. The patterns of exercise and smoking, receptiveness towards health promotion programmes and the reasons for non-willingness to participate were elicited. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify differences between groups. Seven hundred and seventy-eight responses were analysed. Only 36.1% of respondents were willing to participate in at least one health promotion programme (health screening, talk or workshop). Older respondents aged 45-64 years and more than 65 years were less likely to participate than their younger counterparts (18-44 years). Malays were more likely than Chinese to participate, and respondents who do not exercise were less likely to participate than respondents who exercise (regularly/occasionally). Reasons for non-willingness to participate were 'not interested' and 'no time'. Health promotion messages should adapt to the needs and situation of the disadvantaged, to increase participation.

  7. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Domaradzki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in family on coordinational traits of children aged 10–11. Material and methods: 199 children aged 10-11 underwent medical examination in 2008 in Polkowice and data collected were used in this study.. Information on parents’ education and number of children was used to divide children into four groups: lower education and 3 or more children in family, lower education and less than 3 children in family, higher education and more than 3 children in family and higher education and less than 3 children in family. Three coordinational traits were measured: short time memory, precision of hand and speed movement of the hand. MANOVA test was used to estimate differences between groups and to check interactions between factors. Results: From among 4 groups of boys, these from the worst socio-economic status of family received the worst results in all three tests. Differences between them and the rest of the groups were statistically significant. Differences between the rest of the groups were not statistically significant. In the girls groups children from families with higher parents’ education received statistically significant better results in test of memory. There were not differences between all 4 groups in precision of the hand test. Girls from family with higher parents’ education and 3 or more children in family received the best results in speed of the hand test. Conclusions: Boys are the gender more eco-sensitive. The family with more than 2 children in family

  8. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is linked to neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschoolers from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds

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    Elif Isbell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While a growing body of research has identified experiential factors associated with differences in selective attention, relatively little is known about the contribution of genetic factors to the skill of sustained selective attention, especially in early childhood. Here, we assessed the association between the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR genotypes and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in young children from lower socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded during a dichotic listening task from 121 children (76 females, aged 40–67 months, who were also genotyped for the short and long allele of 5-HTTLPR. The effect of selective attention was measured as the difference in ERP mean amplitudes elicited by identical probe stimuli embedded in stories when they were attended versus unattended. Compared to children homozygous for the long allele, children who carried at least one copy of the short allele showed larger effects of selective attention on neural processing. These findings link the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR to enhanced neural mechanisms of selective attention and lay the groundwork for future studies of gene-by-environment interactions in the context of key cognitive skills.

  9. A planning tool for tree species selection and planting schedule in forestation projects considering environmental and socio-economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollan, Catherine Denise; Li, Richard; San Juan, Jayne Lois; Dizon, Liezel; Ong, Karl Benedict

    2017-10-30

    Species selection is a crucial step in the planning phase of forestation programs given its impact on the results and on stakeholder interactions. This study develops a planning tool for forestation programs that incorporates the selection of tree species and the scheduling of planting and harvesting, while balancing the maximization of the carbon sequestered and income realized, into the forestation decision-making and planning process. The validation of the goal programming model formulated demonstrates that the characteristics of natural tree species along with the behavior of growth and timing of yield are significant factors in achieving the environmental and socio-economic aspirations. The proposed model is therefore useful in gauging species behavior and performance over time. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted where the behavior of the income generated and carbon sequestered with respect to the external factors such as carbon market prices, percentage area allocated for protection and discount factor was assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Demographic and Socio-Economic Situation of the Nomadic Population of Chervleny Yar Area in the Middle of the 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr P. Nikitin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to identify the probable number of people who could have lived in the Don-Khoper interfluve in the middle of the 14th century. The results of demographic observations are based on natural resources, historical and archaeological realities of the region, special characteristics of nomadic economy. The area between the Don and the Khoper in the middle of the 14th century was an administrative unit of the ulus of Jochi (the Horde. The information about the territorial entity was preserved in the Metropolitan Charters for Sarai and Ryazan eparchies. Thanks to contemporary archaeological studies of this area, the nomadic and sedentary population can be claimed to have existed in that area in the middle of the 14th century. The nomadic territory of Chervleny Yar was bounded by the Don in the West, by Khoper in the East, by the mouth of the Hopper in the South, and by the most northern nomadic burials of that period. The information about natural resources of the steppes can be the basis of the demographic model designed. The data of ethnology, history, archaeology and ecology are used as a basis. The author analyzes the provision of the nomads with food as biological resources of the ecosystem between the Don and the Khoper rivers. To calculate the probable number of the population, the author takes into account the health calorie intake, the average number of livestock per person in nomadic communities, the size of territory under consideration and the availability of forage for livestock. All the data for calculating the number of population are collected in the Table. Possible number of nomadic population of the Chervleny Yar in the middle of the 14th century can make 26,042–69,444 people, on the condition of the minimum possible yield and optimal load on the ecosystem between the Don and the Khoper. The indicated number refers to the group of the population that never left the area between the Don and the Khoper and

  11. Investigating Research Gaps of Pharmaceutical take back Events: An Analysis of take back Program Participants' Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Geographic Characteristics and the Public Health Benefits of take back Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, K. I.; Hodge, V.; Maxey, G.; Tiwari, C.; Cready, C.; Huggett, D. B.

    2017-06-01

    Research continues to show that pharmaceutical environmental contamination causes adverse effects to aquatic life. There are also public health risks associated with pharmaceuticals because in-home reserves of medications provide opportunities for accidental poisoning and intentional medication abuse. Pharmaceutical take back programs have been seen as a potential remedy for these issues; however, a thorough review of past programs indicates limited research has been conducted on take back programs. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in take back program research. To address these gaps and ultimately determine if take back programs could improve public health, research was conducted in conjunction with the take back program Denton drug disposal days held in Denton, Texas. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of Denton drug disposal days participants were investigated using surveys and Geographic Information Systems. Potential impacts of the Denton drug disposal days program on public health were determined by comparing data from Denton drug disposal days events with data supplied by the North Texas Poison Center. Results suggest that Denton drug disposal days events may have prevented accidental poisonings or intentional abuse, however only qualitative comparisons support this statement and there was insufficient empirical evidence to support the conclusion that Denton drug disposal days events were exclusively responsible for public health improvements. An interesting finding was that there was a definitive travel threshold that influenced participation in Denton drug disposal days events. Overall, this study fills some geographic, socioeconomic, and demographic data gaps of take back programs and proposes methods to analyze and improve participation in future take back programs. These methods could also be applied to improve participation in other local environmentally-focused programs such as household hazardous collection events.

  12. Measuring maternal health literacy in adolescents attending antenatal care in a developing country - the impact of selected demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigaga, Mpolampola D A S; Guttersrud, Øystein; Pettersen, Kjell S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how selected demographic characteristics 'explain' the observed variance in the distribution of maternal health literacy estimates in adolescents attending antenatal care in Uganda, as estimated by the 'Maternal health literacy scale'. By the age of 20 years, more than 60% of Ugandan females are mothers. In the Busoga region of Uganda, the percentage of pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers is at its highest (above 30%). Validated questionnaire survey. The Maternal health literacy scale was administered to 384 adolescents aged 15-19 years attending antenatal care in Jinja and Iganga districts of the Busoga region during the period of July 2013-December 2013. The Mann-Whitney U test in SPSS21 was used to determine if the two levels of dichotomised person factors, i.e. demographic characteristics, relate to 'significantly' different mean maternal health literacy estimates, not strictly following the normal distribution, as measured by the Maternal health literacy scale. The person factors, age, education level, pregnancy order and prepregnancy awareness about conception, explained approximately 12% of the observed variance in maternal health literacy estimates. Prepregnancy awareness about conception was the single most contributory factor to the observed variance in estimated maternal health literacy levels. More research on women of childbearing age is warranted to explore the impact of further person factors on the maternal health literacy in pregnant adolescents. Using the person factors found to show 'significant' impact on maternal health literacy in pregnant adolescents, target-specific interventions aimed at improving maternal health literacy in pregnant adolescents can be formulated. By accounting for these factors in reproductive health policy designs, one might take preventive actions to curb the prevalence of adolescent pregnancies in both developing and developed countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Major dietary patterns in relation to demographic and socio-economic status and food insecurity in two Iranian ethnic groups living in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Nouri-Saeidlou, Sakineh

    2016-12-01

    To identify major dietary patterns and their association with socio-economic status (SES) and food insecurity in two major ethnic groups living in Urmia, north-west Iran. A cross-sectional study. All four geographical zones of Urmia city. Participants (n 723; 427 women and 296 men), aged 20-64 years, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri Turks and 278 Kurds). Three major dietary patterns were extracted: 'Traditional High SES' (THS), 'Traditional Low SES' (TLS) and 'Transitional'. After adjusting for confounders, the THS pattern was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with moderate or severe food insecurity in Azeri Turks; whereas, among Kurds, it was more common in women and positively associated with age. The TLS pattern was more common among men and negatively associated with educational level and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men, positively associated with being married and negatively associated with household income/capita. The 'Transitional' pattern was positively associated with being employed and negatively associated with age and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men and negatively associated with age, being married and physical activity level. Findings suggest that household SES and food insecurity are associated with detrimental dietary patterns and that this effect may be stronger than cultural and ethnic background. These patterns differ by age and gender. Therefore, such characteristics should be considered in planning and formulating diet-related policies and programmes.

  14. Using spatial analysis to predict health care use at the local level: a case study of type 2 diabetes medication use and its association with demographic change and socioeconomic status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta Dijkstra

    Full Text Available Local health status and health care use may be negatively influenced by low local socio-economic profile, population decline and population ageing. To support the need for targeted local health care, we explored spatial patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM drug use at local level and determined its association with local demographic, socio-economic and access to care variables. We assessed spatial variability in these associations. We estimated the five-year prevalence of T2DM drug use (2005-2009 in persons aged 45 years and older at four-digit postal code level using the University of Groningen pharmacy database IADB.nl. Statistics Netherlands supplied data on potential predictor variables. We assessed spatial clustering, correlations and estimated a multiple linear regression model and a geographically weighted regression (GWR model. Prevalence of T2DM medicine use ranged from 2.0% to 25.4%. The regression model included the extent of population ageing, proportion of social welfare/benefits, proportion of low incomes and proportion of pensioners, all significant positive predictors of local T2DM drug use. The GWR model demonstrated considerable spatial variability in the association between T2DM drug use and above predictors and was more accurate. The findings demonstrate the added value of spatial analysis in predicting health care use at local level.

  15. Using spatial analysis to predict health care use at the local level: a case study of type 2 diabetes medication use and its association with demographic change and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Aletta; Janssen, Fanny; De Bakker, Marinus; Bos, Jens; Lub, René; Van Wissen, Leo J G; Hak, Eelko

    2013-01-01

    Local health status and health care use may be negatively influenced by low local socio-economic profile, population decline and population ageing. To support the need for targeted local health care, we explored spatial patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug use at local level and determined its association with local demographic, socio-economic and access to care variables. We assessed spatial variability in these associations. We estimated the five-year prevalence of T2DM drug use (2005-2009) in persons aged 45 years and older at four-digit postal code level using the University of Groningen pharmacy database IADB.nl. Statistics Netherlands supplied data on potential predictor variables. We assessed spatial clustering, correlations and estimated a multiple linear regression model and a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. Prevalence of T2DM medicine use ranged from 2.0% to 25.4%. The regression model included the extent of population ageing, proportion of social welfare/benefits, proportion of low incomes and proportion of pensioners, all significant positive predictors of local T2DM drug use. The GWR model demonstrated considerable spatial variability in the association between T2DM drug use and above predictors and was more accurate. The findings demonstrate the added value of spatial analysis in predicting health care use at local level.

  16. [Evaluation of selected socioeconomic factors in patients with acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is commonly overused psychoactive substance in Poland and all around the world. It causes addiction, which occurs as a result of its chronic administration. One of the main symptoms of addiction is hunger due to psychoactive substance that prevents interruption of its adoption and contributes to relapse drinking. Acute poisoning with ethyl alcohol and alcohol withdrawal syndrome are diseases causing a potential danger to life. The prevalence of use and abuse of alcoholic beverages is a potential risk, causing health problems, including permanent damage of the central and peripheral nervous system and socio-economic problems. The aim of this study is to analyze certain aspects of the socio-economic situation of the patients hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome in 2010. 299 patients history was evaluated, among which 161 were treated for acute intoxication with ethanol and 138 due to alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Objects of interest were elements of subjective tests including: marital status of patients, their education and professional activity and the problem of homelessness. The study group consisted of 299 patients in age from 16 to 77 years, hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome. It was found that the largest group consisted of patients remaining married (42.81%) and unmarried (30.43%). Alcohol abuse affects people of all levels of education. In the present study, most patients had a vocational education (37.79%) and medium (23.08%). Patients were analyzed in terms of economic activity, among which about 40% were unemployed. In the whole group more than 10% of those were homeless. Ethyl alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal represents a significant hazard. As a result of reliance, patients lose control of alcohol consumption and they

  17. An experiment on selecting most informative variables in socio-economic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many studies where data are collected on several variables, there is a motivation to find if fewer variables would provide almost as much information. Variance of a variable about its mean is the common statistical measure of information content, and that is used here. We are interested whether the variability in one variable is sufficiently correlated with that in one or more of the other variables that the first variable is redundant. We wish to find one or more ‘principal variables’ that sufficiently reflect the information content in all the original variables. The paper explains the method of principal variables and reports experiments using the technique to see if just a few variables are sufficient to reflect the information in 11 socioeconomic variables on 130 countries from a World Bank (WB database. While the method of principal variables is highly successful in a statistical sense, the WB data varies greatly from year to year, demonstrating that fewer variables wo uld be inadequate for this data.

  18. Hispanic Demographics: Looking Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Emily G.

    This paper provides an overview of the current socioeconomic characteristics of Hispanics in the United States, and suggests factors of particular significance in projecting future Hispanic demographics and their implications for the Hispanic community and the broader American population. Hispanics are the second largest minority group and more…

  19. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P.; Thapa-Magar, Khum B.; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes. PMID:27936247

  20. [Selected family socio-economic factors as predictors of peer violence among school children in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, Magdalena; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Analyses concerning peer violence among girls and boys aged 13-17 years, in the context of socio- -economic characteristics of the family: family structure, parental employment status and perceived family wealth. Preliminary data from the recent HBSC studies conducted in 12 voivodeships in Poland in 2013 was used. The analyzes concerned 2300 students aged 13-17 years (45% boys) and focused on the following types of violence: being a perpetrator and a victim of bullying, participation in fights and cyberbullying. Chi-square test analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Significantly more boys than girls experienced bullying (28% vs. 22%) and was perpetrators of violence in the school (39% vs. 25%). The youth from single-parent families significantly more often than students from two-parent families, participated in fights and was the perpetrators of violence in the school. Being a perpetrator and a victim of violence concerned mostly students from poor families and boys, whose father was unemployed. The following risk factors was identified- among boys: low economic status of the family (victims of bullying) and single-parent family (victims of cyberbullying), father's unemployment (the perpetrator of bullying) and age 13-14 years (victims and perpetrators of bullying, participation in fights) and among girls: low economic status of the family (cyberbullying), mother's unemployment and age 13-14 years (victims of violence). The family socio-economic factors, gender and age determine the type and the prevalence of peer violence. Low economic status of the family and single-parent family increases the risk of experiencing violence. For the prevention of bullying the educational role of the father and his commitment to family budget are important.

  1. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripu M Kunwar

    Full Text Available Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively. Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes.

  2. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  3. The relationships of coping, negative thinking, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics with anxiety of young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan S R; Staten, Ruth Topsy; Lennie, Terry A; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding young adults' anxiety requires applying a multidimensional approach to assess the psychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive aspects of this phenomenon. A hypothesized model of the relationships among coping style, thinking style, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics and anxiety among college students was tested using path analysis. A total of 257 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed an online survey. The independent variables were measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, the Brief COPE Inventory, the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Cognition Checklist-Anxiety. The outcome, anxiety, was measured using the Anxiety subscale of the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Only negative thinking and maladaptive coping had a direct relationship with anxiety. Negative thinking was the strongest predictor of both maladaptive coping and anxiety. These findings suggest that helping undergraduates manage their anxiety by reducing their negative thinking is critical. Designing and testing interventions to decrease negative thinking in college students is recommended for future research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Influence of Self-Esteem and Selected Demographic Characteristics on First Semester Academic Achievement of Students Enrolled in a College of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Mae B.; Burnett, Michael F.; Gaspard, Camile P.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem and selected demographic characteristics on academic achievement among students at the freshman level in the College of Agriculture at Louisiana State University. The sample of the study was all students at Louisiana State University enrolled in the Introduction to…

  5. Selecting among second-step antidepressant medication monotherapies: predictive value of clinical, demographic, or first-step treatment features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, A John; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Warden, Diane; Luther, James F; Davis, Lori L; Fava, Maurizio; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2008-08-01

    Little is known about selecting among second-step medications for major depressive disorder after intolerance or lack of remission with an initial selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. To determine whether sociodemographic, clinical, or first-step treatment features predict remission with or intolerance overall or differentially to any 1 of 3 second-step medications after an unsatisfactory outcome with citalopram hydrobromide. An equipoise stratified randomized study. Participants were recruited from July 17, 2001, through April 20, 2004. Public or private sector primary care (n = 18) and psychiatric care (n = 23) settings across the United States. Representative outpatients aged 18 to 75 years with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (N = 727). Sustained-release bupropion hydrochloride was started at 150 mg/d and incrementally increased to 400 mg/d. Sertraline hydrochloride was started at 50 mg/d and incrementally increased to 200 mg/d. Extended-release venlafaxine hydrochloride was started at 37.5 mg/d and incrementally increased to 375 mg/d. The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Rated and the Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side Effects Rating. Remission was more likely among participants who were white, employed, cohabiting or married, or privately insured or who had prior intolerance to citalopram or at least a response to citalopram, and no prior suicide attempts. Remission was less likely among participants with concurrent generalized anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, panic, or posttraumatic stress disorders; social phobia; anxious or melancholic features; or more severe depression. Intolerance was less likely for Hispanic participants, but more likely for participants with previous suicide attempts or intolerance to citalopram. Participants with concurrent substance use were less likely to remit (odds ratio, 0.37) and more likely not to tolerate extended-release venlafaxine. Intolerance to citalopram was associated with

  6. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel: Tests of the social causation, health selection and the indirect selection hypothesis using dynamic fixed effects panel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-02-01

    Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel regression models following the method suggested by Anderson and Hsiao. We propose using this method to estimate the associations over time since it allows one to control for all unobserved time-invariant factors and hence lower the chances of biased estimates due to unobserved heterogeneity. The results showed no proof of the social causation hypothesis over a one to five year period and limited support for the health selection hypothesis was seen only for men in relation to HH income. These findings were robust in multiple sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the indirect selection hypothesis may be the most important in explaining social inequality in health in adulthood, indicating that the well-known cross-sectional correlations between health and SEP in adulthood seem not to be driven by a causal relationship, but instead by dynamics and influences in place before the respondents turn 30 years old that affect both their health and SEP onwards. The conclusion is limited in that we do not consider the effect of specific diseases and causal relationships in adulthood may be

  7. Exploring the Influence of Select Demographic, Academic, and Athletic Variables on the Retention of Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Wessel, Roger D.; Pierce, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The population of 674 first-year student-athletes culled from 5 successive freshman classes (2004-2008) at a mid-size midwestern university was examined to determine what combination of demographic, academic, and athletic variables best predicted retention into the 2nd academic year. The dependent variable of retention was chosen because it is a…

  8. The relationship between demographic variables and leisure perceptions of selected South African first year university students / J.T. Weilbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbach, Johannes Theron

    2013-01-01

    Participation in campus leisure and recreation programmes can provide university students with various benefits, but the provision of effective leisure programmes are complicated by the changes that have taken place in the demographic composition of the student population attending South African universities. Increases in the proportion of black students attending university, and decreases in the proportion of white students means that current students possibly exhibit leisure behaviours that...

  9. Selected elements of socio-demographic status and lifestyle as factors determining subjective assessment of life in women after mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Czerniak, Urszula; ?aski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study The main objective of the study is to specify whether socio-demographic factors and physical activity result in differences in subjective assessment of life in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Material and methods The study group consisted of 145 women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. The women had undergone radical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The participants filled in an anonymous questionnaire which contained a number of detailed questions relating...

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L M Wong

    Full Text Available Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous.We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA. Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10 and quintiles (Q1 and Q5 were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII and concentration index (CIX.In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels.Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  11. Selection on MHC in a Context of Historical Demographic Change in 2 Closely Distributed Species of Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys australis and C. talarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrera, Ana Paula; Mora, Matías Sebastián

    2017-09-01

    Selection necessarily acts within the same current and historical demographic framework as neutral evolutionary processes, and the outcome of the interplay between these forces may vary according to their relative strength. In this study, we compare the variation at a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus (DRB exon 2), typically subject to strong diversifying selection, and mitochondrial diversity (D-loop) across populations encompassing the entire distribution of 2 species of South American subterranean rodents: Ctenomys australis and C. talarum (tuco-tucos). Although these species are parapatric along most of their distribution, historically they have followed distinct demographic trajectories associated with sea level changes during the Quaternary. We surveyed 8 populations of C. australis and 15 of C. talarum, from which we analyzed 70 and 212 D-loop haplotypes and 91 and 346 DRB genotypes, respectively. Both species have gone through a recent demographic expansion; however, the signal of this process only encompasses the entire distribution of one of the species: C. australis. While balancing selection on MHC in C. talarum-enhanced DRB diversity at the local level compared to D-loop, although not promoting divergence among populations, in C. australis local diversifying selection may have driven higher population differentiation at DRB than at D-loop. Our findings reinforce the idea that the relative strength of selection acting on MHC genes varies spatially and temporally within and among species, even between species using the same macrohabitat and exposed to similar immune challenges. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Impact of socioeconomic status on cancer incidence and stage at diagnosis: selected findings from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results: National Longitudinal Mortality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Limin X; Reichman, Marsha E; Miller, Barry A; Hankey, Benjamin F; Singh, Gopal K; Lin, Yi Dan; Goodman, Marc T; Lynch, Charles F; Schwartz, Stephen M; Chen, Vivien W; Bernstein, Leslie; Gomez, Scarlett L; Graff, John J; Lin, Charles C; Johnson, Norman J; Edwards, Brenda K

    2009-05-01

    Population-based cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) are mainly based on medical records and administrative information. Individual-level socioeconomic data are not routinely reported by cancer registries in the United States because they are not available in patient hospital records. The U.S. representative National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) data provide self-reported, detailed demographic and socioeconomic data from the Social and Economic Supplement to the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS). In 1999, the NCI initiated the SEER-NLMS study, linking the population-based SEER cancer registry data to NLMS data. The SEER-NLMS data provide a new unique research resource that is valuable for health disparity research on cancer burden. We describe the design, methods, and limitations of this data set. We also present findings on cancer-related health disparities according to individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic characteristics for all cancers combined and for cancers of the lung, breast, prostate, cervix, and melanoma. Records of cancer patients diagnosed in 1973-2001 when residing 1 of 11 SEER registries were linked with 26 NLMS cohorts. The total number of SEER matched cancer patients that were also members of an NLMS cohort was 26,844. Of these 26,844 matched patients, 11,464 were included in the incidence analyses and 15,357 in the late-stage diagnosis analyses. Matched patients (used in the incidence analyses) and unmatched patients were compared by age group, sex, race, ethnicity, residence area, year of diagnosis, and cancer anatomic site. Cohort-based age-adjusted cancer incidence rates were computed. The impact of socioeconomic status on cancer incidence and stage of diagnosis was evaluated. Men and women with less than a high school education had elevated lung cancer rate ratios of 3.01 and 2.02, respectively, relative to

  13. A study using demographic data of genetic drift and natural selection in an isolated Mediterranean community: Bayárcal (La Alpujarra, south-east Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, F; Tarelho, A R; Camargo, A M; Alonso, V

    2011-07-01

    Natural selection and genetic drift are two evolutionary mechanisms that can be analysed in human populations using their fertility and mortality patterns, and their reproductive size and isolation, respectively. This paper analyses the models of natural selection and genetic drift in Bayárcal, south-east Spain, and compares them with the observed models in the rest of the Alpujarran region. Demographic data were obtained from a sample of 77 families (48.45% of the population, with 547 inhabitants). The genetic drift and natural selection action was evaluated with the Coefficient of Breeding Isolation (CBI of Lasker and Kaplan) and Crow's index, respectively. The CBI (23.23/12.61) suggests that genetic drift is near to acting, and Crow's index (I=0.58) is slightly higher than that observed in the rest of La Alpujarra. Although the reproductive isolation of Bayárcal is not effective enough for genetic drift to act, it is near when marital migrants inside the Bayárcal valley are considered as a native population. The natural selection pattern is not different from that of the rest of La Alpujarra, but it tends towards the model of developing communities, where the demographic transition has not yet begun. © Cambridge University Press, 2011

  14. How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajnc, N. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Domac, J. [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-12-15

    Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO{sub 2} emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)

  15. Effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics on nutrition knowledge and eating behavior of elementary students in two provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Zhang, Fan; Newman, Ian M; Shell, Duane F; Du, Weijing

    2017-07-14

    National and international child health surveys have indicated an increase in childhood obesity in China. The increase has been attributed to a rising standard of living, increasing availability of unhealthy foods, and a lack of knowledge about healthy diet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on the BMI, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior of elementary school children. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used. Information on demographics, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior was gathered by means of questionnaires. The schools' doctors provided the height and weight data. The study was set in one economically advantaged and one economically disadvantaged province in China. The participants were Grade 3 students, ages 8-10 years (N = 3922). A cluster analysis identified four socio-demographic variables distinguished by parental education and family living arrangement. A one-way ANOVA compared differences among the clusters in BMI, child nutrition knowledge, and child eating behavior. Students in the cluster with lowest parent education level had the lowest nutrition knowledge scores and eating behavior scores. There was no significant benefit from college education versus high school education of parents in the other three clusters. BMI was not affected by parent education level. The nutrition status of elementary school age children will benefit most by increasing the general level of education for those adults who are presently least educated.

  16. Effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics on nutrition knowledge and eating behavior of elementary students in two provinces in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Qian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National and international child health surveys have indicated an increase in childhood obesity in China. The increase has been attributed to a rising standard of living, increasing availability of unhealthy foods, and a lack of knowledge about healthy diet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on the BMI, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior of elementary school children. Methods Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used. Information on demographics, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior was gathered by means of questionnaires. The schools’ doctors provided the height and weight data. The study was set in one economically advantaged and one economically disadvantaged province in China. The participants were Grade 3 students, ages 8–10 years (N = 3922. Results A cluster analysis identified four socio-demographic variables distinguished by parental education and family living arrangement. A one-way ANOVA compared differences among the clusters in BMI, child nutrition knowledge, and child eating behavior. Students in the cluster with lowest parent education level had the lowest nutrition knowledge scores and eating behavior scores. There was no significant benefit from college education versus high school education of parents in the other three clusters. BMI was not affected by parent education level. Conclusion The nutrition status of elementary school age children will benefit most by increasing the general level of education for those adults who are presently least educated.

  17. The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), and its four sub-scales, along with measures of educational attainment, individual and contextual socio-economic background factors, as predictors of performance in the first year of medical school training. Methods A prospective study of 4,811 students in 12 UK medical schools taking the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008 as a part of the medical school application, for whom first year medical school examination results were available in 2008 to 2010. Results UKCAT scores and educational attainment measures (General Certificate of Education (GCE): A-levels, and so on; or Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA): Scottish Highers, and so on) were significant predictors of outcome. UKCAT predicted outcome better in female students than male students, and better in mature than non-mature students. Incremental validity of UKCAT taking educational attainment into account was significant, but small. Medical school performance was also affected by sex (male students performing less well), ethnicity (non-White students performing less well), and a contextual measure of secondary schooling, students from secondary schools with greater average attainment at A-level (irrespective of public or private sector) performing less well. Multilevel modeling showed no differences between medical schools in predictive ability of the various measures. UKCAT sub-scales predicted similarly, except that Verbal Reasoning correlated positively with performance on Theory examinations, but negatively with Skills assessments. Conclusions This collaborative study in 12 medical schools shows the power of large-scale studies of medical education for answering previously unanswerable but important questions about medical student selection, education and training. UKCAT has predictive validity as a

  18. The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Dewberry, Chris; Nicholson, Sandra; Dowell, Jonathan S

    2013-11-14

    Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), and its four sub-scales, along with measures of educational attainment, individual and contextual socio-economic background factors, as predictors of performance in the first year of medical school training. A prospective study of 4,811 students in 12 UK medical schools taking the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008 as a part of the medical school application, for whom first year medical school examination results were available in 2008 to 2010. UKCAT scores and educational attainment measures (General Certificate of Education (GCE): A-levels, and so on; or Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA): Scottish Highers, and so on) were significant predictors of outcome. UKCAT predicted outcome better in female students than male students, and better in mature than non-mature students. Incremental validity of UKCAT taking educational attainment into account was significant, but small. Medical school performance was also affected by sex (male students performing less well), ethnicity (non-White students performing less well), and a contextual measure of secondary schooling, students from secondary schools with greater average attainment at A-level (irrespective of public or private sector) performing less well. Multilevel modeling showed no differences between medical schools in predictive ability of the various measures. UKCAT sub-scales predicted similarly, except that Verbal Reasoning correlated positively with performance on Theory examinations, but negatively with Skills assessments. This collaborative study in 12 medical schools shows the power of large-scale studies of medical education for answering previously unanswerable but important questions about medical student selection, education and training. UKCAT has predictive validity as a predictor of medical school outcome

  19. Optimal location selection for the installation of urban green roofs considering honeybee habitats along with socio-economic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Jae Ha; Lee, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Won Kyung; Sohn, So Young

    2017-03-15

    This study proposes a new framework for the selection of optimal locations for green roofs to achieve a sustainable urban ecosystem. The proposed framework selects building sites that can maximize the benefits of green roofs, based not only on the socio-economic and environmental benefits to urban residents, but also on the provision of urban foraging sites for honeybees. The framework comprises three steps. First, building candidates for green roofs are selected considering the building type. Second, the selected building candidates are ranked in terms of their expected socio-economic and environmental effects. The benefits of green roofs are improved energy efficiency and air quality, reduction of urban flood risk and infrastructure improvement costs, reuse of storm water, and creation of space for education and leisure. Furthermore, the estimated cost of installing green roofs is also considered. We employ spatial data to determine the expected effects of green roofs on each building unit, because the benefits and costs may vary depending on the location of the building. This is due to the heterogeneous spatial conditions. In the third step, the final building sites are proposed by solving the maximal covering location problem (MCLP) to determine the optimal locations for green roofs as urban honeybee foraging sites. As an illustrative example, we apply the proposed framework in Seoul, Korea. This new framework is expected to contribute to sustainable urban ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in Adriatic ichthyofauna : selected species of fish, their socioeconomic relevance and possible influence on ecosystem of Adriatic sea

    OpenAIRE

    Šamanić, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the salient topic of new fish species found in the Adriatic Sea, describe their biology and possible impact on the ecosystem. I will highlight the socio-economic importance of certain fish species. Furthermore, I will focus on climate impact as well as anthropogenic factors that cause migration in fish species towards the Mediterranean and the Adriatic Sea. Throughout the thesis, I will try to disclose information on the very important topic of settlem...

  1. Women's empowerment and male involvement in antenatal care: analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Na, Muzi; Cherewick, Megan; Hindin, Michelle; Mullany, Britta; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2014-08-30

    Increasing women's status and male involvement are important strategies in reducing preventable maternal morbidity and mortality. While efforts to both empower women and engage men in maternal health care-seeking can work synergistically, in practice they may result in opposing processes and outcomes. This study examines whether a woman's empowerment status, in sum and across economic, socio-familial, and legal dimensions, is associated with male partner accompaniment to antenatal care (ANC). Women's empowerment was measured based on the sum of nine empowerment items in the 2010-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys in eight sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso (n = 2,490), Burundi (n = 1,042), Malawi (n = 1,353), Mozambique (n = 414), Rwanda (n = 1,211), Senegal (n = 505), Uganda (n = 428) and Zimbabwe (n = 459). In cross-sectional analyses, bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of male partner accompaniment to ANC between women with above-average versus below-average composite and dimensional empowerment scores. In the majority of countries, male accompaniment to ANC was not uncommon. However, findings were mixed. Positive associations in women's composite empowerment and male involvement were observed in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.50) and Uganda (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.35), and in the economic empowerment dimension in Burkina Faso (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.47). In Malawi, significant negative associations were observed in the odds of male accompaniment to ANC and women's composite (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97) and economic empowerment scores (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94). No significant differences were observed in Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, or Zimbabwe. Women's empowerment can be positively or negatively associated with male antenatal accompaniment. Male involvement efforts may benefit from empowerment initiatives that promote women's participation in social and economic spheres

  2. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Stefanie; Müller, Ivan; Walter, Cheryl; Seelig, Harald; Steenkamp, Liana; Pühse, Uwe; du Randt, Rosa; Smith, Danielle; Adams, Larissa; Nqweniso, Siphesihle; Yap, Peiling; Ludyga, Sebastian; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Gerber, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children. The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores), and lower grip strength (all pperformance (pacademic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (pperformance (pacademic performance. Poor academic achievement will make it difficult for children to realize their full potential, perpetuating a vicious cycle of poverty and poor health. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN68411960.

  3. Physical activity of adult residents of Katowice and selected determinants of their occupational status and socio-economic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Puciato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of physical activity (PA is often addressed in the literature, but its socio-economic determinants are not fully recognized. To date no studies of the adult population of Katowice have been carried out. Research in this area is of great importance in the context of the documented influence of PA on health and extension of retirement age in Poland. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between PA and socio-economic status of adult residents of Katowice. Materials and Methods: The study carried out in 2010 comprised 2053 people (987 women and 1066 men aged 30-65 years. To evaluate PA in the study group the diagnostic survey method and a research tool in the form of an abridged version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, with specification expanded by the authors, were used. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was employed. Results: The likelihood of meeting the standards of health-enhancing PA was higher in men than in women, and it decreased with age and education level of the respondents. The highest proportion of those meeting the recommendation of health-enhancing PA was observed among blue-collar workers, operators, teachers, police and soldiers. The lowest probability of meeting the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine was found among economists and lawyers, office workers, the unemployed, managers, and engineers, pensioners and health care professionals. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the correlation between PA and socio-economic status of the respondents. The analysis of the results indicates the necessity to promote PA programs mainly among women, the elderly, the unemployed, pensioners and representatives of professions, such as economists, lawyers, managers, engineers, and health professionals. Med Pr 2013;64(5:649–657

  4. Socioeconomic differences in selected dietary habits among Norwegian 13–14 year-olds: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelene Skårdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social inequalities in health are a major and even growing problem in all European countries. Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe 1 differences in dietary habits among Norwegian adolescents by gender and socioeconomic status; 2 differences in self-reported knowledge of dietary guidelines among their parents according to socioeconomic status. Design: In 2012, a cross-sectional study where students filled in a web-based food frequency questionnaire at school was conducted in nine lower secondary schools in Vest-Agder County, Norway. Socioeconomic status (SES and knowledge of dietary guidelines were obtained from the parents using a web-based questionnaire. In total, 517 ninth-grade students (mean age 13.9 out of 742 invited students participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 69.7%. The total number of dyads with information on both parents and students was 308 (41.5%. Results: The findings indicate that there is a tendency for girls to have a healthier diet than boys, with greater intake of fruits and vegetables (girls intake in median 3.5 units per day and boys 2.9 units per day, and lower intake of soft drinks (girls 0.25 l in median versus boys 0.5 l per week. Students from families with higher SES reported a significant higher intake of vegetables and fish, and lower intake of soft drinks and fast food than those from lower SES. Parents with higher SES reported a significantly better knowledge of dietary guidelines compared to those with lower SES. Conclusions: Differences in dietary habits were found between groups of students by gender and SES. Differences were also found in parents’ self-reported knowledge of dietary guidelines. This social patterning should be recognized in public health interventions.

  5. SOCIOECONOMIC VARIATIONS IN INDUCED ABORTION IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankara, Hasan Giray

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated. The inequalities and their first difference (difference in inequalities between 2003 and 2008) were decomposed using the approaches of Wagstaff et al. (2003). Higher socioeconomic characteristics (such as higher levels of wealth and education and better neighbourhood) were found to be associated with higher rates of abortion. Inequality analyses indicated that although deprived women become more familiar with abortion over time, abortion was still more concentrated among affluent women in the 2008 survey. The decomposition analyses suggested that wealth, age, education and level of regional development were the most important contributors to income-related inequality in abortion. Therefore policies that (i) increase the level of wealth and education of deprived women, (ii) develop deprived regions of Turkey, (iii) improve knowledge about family planning and, especially (iv) enhance the accessibility of family planning services for deprived and/or rural women, may be beneficial for reducing socioeconomic variations in abortion in the country.

  6. Demographic and Sociocultural Characteristics of Sickle Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly highernumber of people fromlowest socioeconomic class practice scarification (p=0.0001). Demographic and sociocultural factors do not appear to influence the prevalence of HBsAg among childrenwith SCAinEnugu,Nigeria. Sickle cell anaemia; Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia, Demographic, Sociocultural ...

  7. Prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em mulheres: associação com variáveis sócio-econômicas e demográficas Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among women: association with socioeconomic and demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Jiménez

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST têm sido debatidas no ambiente científico e nos meios de comunicação de massa, em especial, por sua associação a maior risco de infecção pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV. Estudou-se a adoção de comportamentos por mulheres para proteção das DST, tal como a associação destes a variáveis sócio-econômicas e demográficas. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, com dados secundários de pesquisa feita em Campinas, São Paulo, na qual foram entrevistadas 635 mulheres selecionadas mediante a técnica de amostragem "bola de neve". Foram classificadas em: adolescentes e adultas de status sócio-econômico médio-alto ou baixo. Grande proporção delas não se prevenia das DST, em particular, as de status baixo. Em todos os grupos, o condom masculino foi o método de prevenção mais referido. Houve associação negativa entre parceiro fixo e uso de condom, e a principal razão para não usá-lo foi "só ter um parceiro e confiar nele". Em meio às adolescentes, ocorreu associação positiva entre escolaridade acima da oitava série e uso de condom, bem como negativa entre idade e uso desse método. Entre adultas o uso exclusivo de condom esteve, em geral, positivamente associado a status sócio-econômico.Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have been a subject of discussion both among scientists and in the mass media, especially because of their association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. We studied the adoption of specific protective behaviors for the prevention of STDs among women, as well as the associations between these behaviors and socioeconomic and demographic variables. This was a descriptive study based on secondary data from a previous study carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected using the social network ("snowball" technique. Subjects were classified into four groups: adolescents and adults of upper middle and lower

  8. Using spatial analysis to predict health care use at the local level : A case study of type 2 diabetes medication use and its association with demographic change and socioeconomic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Aletta; Janssen, Fanny; De Bakker, Marinus; Bos, Jens; Lub, René; van Wissen, Leonardus; Hak, Eelko

    2013-01-01

    Local health status and health care use may be negatively influenced by low local socio-economic profile, population decline and population ageing. To support the need for targeted local health care, we explored spatial patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug use at local level and

  9. Demographic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, N

    1986-01-01

    In this review of the literature, the author focuses on the changes in demographic anthropology, generally since 1970, with greater emphasis on the literature since 1980. 20 years ago the literature on population in the field of anthropology was sparse, inconsistent, and frequently full of factual and logical errors. Part of the problem was that anthropologists did not apply demographic techniques to their research. In the 1980s, communication between anthropology and demography has increased significantly. Methodological advances in demography have helped anthropologists overcome problems in describing and estimating parameters of populations. New techniques include estimations of demographic parameters from the close study of kinship, computer simulations, model life tables, and techniques in paleodemography. The author discusses microanalysis and includes examples of some of the best known and most detailed quantitative studies of small populations from the 1970s and 1980s. The author then reviews macrostudies where attention is directed to the problems of boundedness of small populations and their rates of change and influence from outside over time, including 1) basic research on concepts; 2) primate population and social organization; 3) paleodemography; 4) population problems in huter-gatherer studies; 5) population problems in archeology; 6) the origin of agriculture; and 7) diet and population. Next the author discusses theoretical overviews of 3 areas of demography: 1) population and demography, 2) population and social structure, and 3) population and cultural evolution. Implications for future research include 1) creating a standard methodology for studying populations; 2) creating a clear vocabulary; 3) publishing in high quality journals; 4) establishing a data bank to encourage secondary analysis of materials and their use in comparative studies; 5) reconsidering and republishing previous research; 6) saving raw data, producing descriptive tables

  10. Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Gall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES, parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children.The study cohort included 835 children, aged 8-12 years, from eight primary schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The d2-test was utilized to assess selective attention. This is a paper and pencil letter-cancellation test consisting of randomly mixed letters d and p with one to four single and/or double quotation marks either over and/or under each letter. Children were invited to mark only the letters d that have double quotation marks. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed via the 20 m shuttle run test and muscle strength using the grip strength test. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique was employed to detect helminth eggs in stool samples. SES and food insecurity were determined with a pre-tested questionnaire, while end of year school results were used as an indicator of academic achievement.Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths had lower selective attention, lower school grades (academic achievement scores, and lower grip strength (all p<0.05. In a multiple regression model, low selective attention was associated with soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.05 and low shuttle run performance (p<0.001, whereas higher academic achievement was observed in children without soil-transmitted helminth infection (p<0.001 and with higher shuttle run performance (p<0.05.Soil-transmitted helminth infections and low physical fitness appear to hamper children's capacity to pay attention

  11. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  12. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  13. Whole-genome sequence analyses of Western Central African Pygmy hunter-gatherers reveal a complex demographic history and identify candidate genes under positive natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Veeramah, Krishna R; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Hammer, Michael F; Gutenkunst, Ryan N

    2016-03-01

    African Pygmies practicing a mobile hunter-gatherer lifestyle are phenotypically and genetically diverged from other anatomically modern humans, and they likely experienced strong selective pressures due to their unique lifestyle in the Central African rainforest. To identify genomic targets of adaptation, we sequenced the genomes of four Biaka Pygmies from the Central African Republic and jointly analyzed these data with the genome sequences of three Baka Pygmies from Cameroon and nine Yoruba famers. To account for the complex demographic history of these populations that includes both isolation and gene flow, we fit models using the joint allele frequency spectrum and validated them using independent approaches. Our two best-fit models both suggest ancient divergence between the ancestors of the farmers and Pygmies, 90,000 or 150,000 yr ago. We also find that bidirectional asymmetric gene flow is statistically better supported than a single pulse of unidirectional gene flow from farmers to Pygmies, as previously suggested. We then applied complementary statistics to scan the genome for evidence of selective sweeps and polygenic selection. We found that conventional statistical outlier approaches were biased toward identifying candidates in regions of high mutation or low recombination rate. To avoid this bias, we assigned P-values for candidates using whole-genome simulations incorporating demography and variation in both recombination and mutation rates. We found that genes and gene sets involved in muscle development, bone synthesis, immunity, reproduction, cell signaling and development, and energy metabolism are likely to be targets of positive natural selection in Western African Pygmies or their recent ancestors. © 2016 Hsieh et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. The influence of self-efficacy and socio-demographic factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of selected Youth Corp members in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moa-Liberty Alausa Waheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of self-efficacy and socio-demographic factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of selected Youth Corp members. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design and a sample size of 300 National Youth Service Corp members were randomly selected in the five divisions of Lagos State with ages ranging from 18 to 30. Three hypotheses were tested using multiple regression and t-tests. The results show that there is a significant joint influence of sex, age, ethnicity and self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions (r2 = 0.90; P <.01]; male participants are more susceptible to entrepreneurial intentions than their female counterparts [t = 26.46, P <.01] and that Youth Corp members with a high self-efficacy rate significantly higher on entrepreneurial intentions (t = 25.09, P <.01]. Based on these findings, the study recommended that a self-efficacy programme should be included in the school curriculum so as to enhance entrepreneurial intentions among fresh graduates and, by so doing, reducing the high rate of unemployment in society. It was also recommended that future studies should use a larger sample and explore experimental methods so as to see if a causal relationship can be established among variables.

  15. Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher…

  16. Socioeconomic and sociocultural determinants of psychological distress and quality of life among patients with psoriasis in a selected multi-ethnic Malaysian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Zhenli; Bong, Yii Bonn; Tan, Leng Leng; Lim, Shu Xian; Yong, Adrian Sze Wai; Ch'ng, Chin Chwen; Tan, Maw Pin; Thevarajah, Suganthi; Ismail, Rokiah

    2017-02-01

    Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of psychological comorbidities. This cross-sectional study aimed at determining associations between sociocultural and socioeconomic factors with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) scores and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Adult patients with psoriasis were recruited from a Dermatology outpatient clinic via convenience sampling. Interviews were conducted regarding socio-demographic factors and willing subjects were requested to complete the DASS and DLQI questionnaires. The Pearson χ 2 test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis to determine independent predictors of depression, anxiety, stress and severe impairment of quality of life. Unadjusted analysis revealed that depression was associated with Indian ethnicity (p = .041) and severe impairment of quality of life was associated with Indian ethnicity (p = .032), higher education (p = .013), higher income (p = .042), and employment status (p = .014). Multivariate analysis revealed that Indian ethnicity was a predictor of depression (p = .024). For stress, tertiary level of education (p = .020) was an independent risk factor while a higher monthly income was a protective factor (p = .042). The ethnic Indians and Malays were significantly more likely than the ethnic Chinese to suffer reduced quality of life (p = .001 and p = .006 respectively) and subjects with tertiary education were more likely to have severe impairment of quality of life (p = .002). Our study was unique in determining sociocultural influences on psychological complications of psoriasis in a South East Asian population. This has provided invaluable insight into factors predictive of adverse effects of psoriasis on psychological distress and quality of life in our patient population. Future studies should devise interventions to specifically target at risk groups in the development of strategies to

  17. Demographic Future of Gorski Kotar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lajić

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Demographic development of Gorski Kotar has largely been a reflection of unfavourable natural-geographic and socio-economic circumstances, which had impelled emigration of the population from this region already by the end of the 19th century, and this process has not stopped till nowadays. The decrease in the total number of inhabitants has been strongly influenced by decades of emigration. Since the 1960s, negative natural movements have significantly contributed to total depopulation. Based on the analysis of negative demographic processes in the Gorski Kotar region, several kinds of demographic projections have been made for the period until 2021. According to these projections, further negative demographic tendencies and additional diminution of the Gorski Kotar population, as well as a negative birth-rate and the erosion of all demographic and economic structures are expected. Population ageing will be a fundamental determinant of future demographic development of the observed area, because every third inhabitant will be more than 60 years old and this points to potential problems in the social and economic development of the region.

  18. Socioeconomic conditions and number of pain sites in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannestad Toril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in deprived socioeconomic situations run a high pain risk. Although number of pain sites (NPS is considered highly relevant in pain assessment, little is known regarding the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and NPS. Methods The study population comprised 653 women; 160 recurrence-free long-term gynecological cancer survivors, and 493 women selected at random from the general population. Demographic characteristics and co-morbidity over the past 12 months were assessed. Socioeconomic conditions were measured by Socioeconomic Condition Index (SCI, comprising education, employment status, income, ability to pay bills, self-perceived health, and satisfaction with number of close friends. Main outcome measure NPS was recorded using a body outline diagram indicating where the respondents had experienced pain during the past week. Chi-square test and forward stepwise logistic regression were applied. Results and Conclusion There were only minor differences in SCI scores between women with 0, 1-2 or 3 NPS. Four or more NPS was associated with younger age, higher BMI and low SCI. After adjustment for age, BMI and co-morbidity, we found a strong association between low SCI scores and four or more NPS, indicating that there is a threshold in the NPS count for when socioeconomic determinants are associated to NPS in women.

  19. Demographic and health situation of children in conditions of economic destabilization in the Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2014-01-01

    In new conditions of socio-economic development in the Ukraine, the health of the population of children is considered as the most reliable indicator of socio-economic development of the country. The primary goal of the study was analysis of the effect of contemporary socio-economic transformations, their scope, and strength of effect on the demographic and social situation of children in various regions of the Ukraine. The methodological objectives of the study were as follows: development of a synthetic measure of the state of health of the population of children, based on the Hellwig's method, and selection of districts in the Ukraine according to the present health-demographic situation of children. The study was based on statistical data from the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, Centre of Medical Statistics in Kiev, Ukrainian Ministry of Defence, as well as Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine. The following research methods were used: analysis of literature and Internet sources, selection and analysis of statistical materials, cartographic and statistical methods. Basic indices of the demographic and health situation of the population of children were analyzed, as well as factors of a socio-economic nature which affect this situation. A set of variables was developed for the synthetic evaluation of the state of health of the population of children. The typology of the Ukrainian districts was performed according to the state of health of the child population, based on the Hellwig's taxonomic method. Deterioration was observed of selected quality parameters, as well as a change in the strength and directions of effect of factors of organizational-institutional, socioeconomic, historical and cultural nature on the population of children potential.

  20. Serbian demographers on demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    ageing were singled out the most as significant for examining in the immediate future. The inclusion of Stanovništvo on the Science Citation Information Journal List and expanding the circle of authors were the basic recommendations of the respondents regarding better quality of the journal. All interviewed experts mentioned various kinds of knowledge and characteristics necessary for demographers to posses in order to be successful. Contrary to the homogeneous opinion that a demographer should be a superior-researcher, a wide range of responses were given to the question regarding selecting the best indicator for determining the successfulness of researchers in the study of population. As many as eight out of ten interviewed experts believe population ageing is the greatest population challenge which Serbia is facing. However, a low level of consensus appeared among the demographers as regards the range of the political response. Namely, five experts declared they were pessimists in view of the possibilities for mitigating the challenge they singled out. On the contrary, five interviewed experts expressed optimism, as they believe in the economic development of Serbia, the possibilities of institutional adjustments to demographic changes, and/or in man and his rationality. Conclusion: Demographers in Serbia highly appreciate the discipline they belong to. At the same time they are strict critics and have high expectations in all matters dealing with demography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006: Istraživanje demografskih fenomena u funkciji javnih politika u Srbiji

  1. Socioeconomic Status, Psychological Distress, and Other Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among American Indians of the Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Phyllis Trujillo; Shipman, Virginia C.; May, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship of selected demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), and psychological characteristics was examined in interviews with 176 Northern Plains American Indian mothers whose children were referred to diagnostic clinics for evaluation of developmental disabilities, including fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Thirty-nine mothers…

  2. STRATEGIC PLANNING DIMENSIONS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN SOUTH AFRICA: THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE AND VARIATIONS IN SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES.

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell SANDADA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the strategic dimensions of SMEs and how each dimension is rated by owners and managers of SMEs. The other objective of the study was to ascertain if differences in strategic planning practices existed with respect to demographic variables namely gender, age and position in the organization. It was found that the main dimensions of strategic planning are mission and vision, environmental scanning, employee participation in the strategic planning proces...

  3. Socioeconomic status and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association.......To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association....

  4. Socioeconomic implications of tobacco use in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rijo M; Mamudu, Hadii M; Liber, Alex C

    2012-10-01

    Country-level evidence from Africa on the prevalence of tobacco use and the role played by both demographic and socioeconomic factors, as influences on the use of tobacco products, is sparse. This paper analyzes the determinants of tobacco use in Ghana and explores the association between tobacco use and poverty in the country. Data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of households (n = 12,323), were used to generate descriptive statistics and characterize tobacco use in the country. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationships between tobacco use and age, place of residence, region, education status, wealth, marital status, alcohol use, and whether the person has children. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for tobacco users and nonusers on the likelihood of their purchase of selected commodities indicative of living standards. Tobacco use was significantly higher among those living in poverty stricken regions, those with less education, lower levels of wealth, parents, and alcohol users. Tobacco use was significantly higher among men (7%) than women (0.4%), and it increased to a peak age of 41.4 years before it declined. Using tobacco was also associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing health insurance. Tobacco use is inextricably related to poverty in Ghana. Policies should be formulated to target populations and regions with higher tobacco prevalence to combat both poverty and tobacco use simultaneously.

  5. Changing trends in European alcoholic beverage drinking: selected social, demographic, economic factors, drinking's related harms, and prevention control policies between the 1960s and 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Fabio; Maccari, Francesco; Pepe, Pasquale; Allamani, Allaman

    2014-10-01

    This study confirms that during the decades following WW II there was a tendency towards closure of consumption of alcoholic beverages among the European countries. The Northern countries, which during the 1960s manifested the lowest rates of alcohol consumption, ended up with greater consumption rates than the Southern countries, manifested the opposite trend; greater amounts of consumptions in the 1960s and lower consumptions in the 2000s. During the same some period, social, demographic and economic indicators--urbanization, rate of elderly males, Income, female education, female employment and mother's age at their childbirths, tended to increase, while the alcoholic beverage control policy strategies showed differences according to the country. Liver disease-related mortality, decreased in most countries. Study limitations are noted.

  6. Association of some socio-economic and socio- Demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rural), maternal education, household income and mothers' age were significantly associated with the prevalence of wasting (p<0.05). Conclusion: Using MUAC-for-age, a high prevalence of wasting was observed among the children. Birth order ...

  7. Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors Affecting Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, fertility remains high and fertility decline is slow. This paper uses data from the 2000 and 2004 ... As a policy measure, information, education and communication programmes on family planning should be intensified, particularly in rural areas and targeting men. (Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17[3]: 91-104).

  8. SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD GAMBLING IN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C. Worthington; Kerry Brown; Mary Crawford; David Pickernell

    2003-01-01

    Regression modelling is used to predict gambling patterns in Australia on the basis of the unit record files underlying the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Household Expenditure Survey of 6,892 households. Eight categories of gambling expenditure are examined, namely: lottery tickets, lotto type games and instant lottery (scratch cards), TAB and related on course betting, poker machines and ticket machines, blackjack, roulette and other casino-type games, TAB-betting (excluding animal racing...

  9. A critical examination of socioeconomic and demographic factors as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe has a long history with e-government. The Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA) traces back the first introduction of an electronic system in the Zimbabwean government to 1972 with the introduction of the Central Computing Services (CCS), which fell under the Ministry of Finance, whose main ...

  10. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    managing the storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and ... transportation, treatment and disposal of waste in such a way as to render .... spread diseases. The test of the relationship between household solid wastes collection and health hazards had a moderately high positive relationship. This denotes that ...

  11. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approaches to reduce related morbidity and mortality include screening for cervical cancer and administration of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine to HPV non-infected females to trigger host resistance. The uptake of HPV ... Fivety six point eight percent were married and 33.1% were unemployed. More than one third ...

  12. Individualism and demographic change

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a counterweight to the omnipresent gloomy analyses of demographic change in Western societies. The central argument is that the strains and challenges which demographic change poses for different sub-orders of society can lead to a higher appreciation of the individual in these sub-orders, possibly entailing self-correcting properties of the process of demographic change. First, a two-fold division is provided for the causes of demographic change, distinguishing bet...

  13. Demographic Dividends Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Williamson

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits demographic dividend issues after almost 2 decades of debate. In 1998, David Bloom and I used a convergence model to estimate the impact of demographic-transition-driven age structure effects and calculated what the literature has come to call the “demographic dividend.” These early estimates seem to be similar to those coming from more recent overlapping generation models, when properly estimated. Research has shown that the demographic dividend is not simply a labor part...

  14. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics and Food Security Status in Urban and Rural Areas of Kwara and Kogi States ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 3 (2012) > ... Food security is a critical issue in Nigeria today as the country struggles with high rates of food prices and poverty.

  15. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The timings of historical fertility transitions in different regions are well understood by demographers, but much less is known regarding their specific features and causes. In the study reported in this paper, we used longitudinal micro-level data for five local populations in Europe and North...... America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...... on fertility behaviour. Our results do not provide support for the hypothesis of universally high fertility among the upper classes in pre-transitional society, but do support the idea that the upper classes acted as forerunners by reducing their fertility before other groups. Farmers and unskilled workers...

  16. STRATEGIC PLANNING DIMENSIONS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs IN SOUTH AFRICA: THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE AND VARIATIONS IN SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAXWELL SANDADA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the strategic dimensions of SMEs and how each dimension is rated by owners and managers of SMEs. The other objective of the study was to ascertain if differences in strategic planning practices existed with respect to demographic variables namely gender, age and position in the organization. It was found that the main dimensions of strategic planning are mission and vision, environmental scanning, employee participation in the strategic planning process, time horizon of strategic planning, implementation incentives, evaluation and control, formality of strategic planning and source of information about the environment. It was also found that mission and vision, formality of strategic planning and evaluation and control were the most valued factors. No significant statistical difference existed among owners and managers of different age, gender and positions in strategic planning practices. The value of the study is that it offers various dimensions of strategic planning that SMEs can implement to be competitive and sustainable.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Selected Demographic Parameters for Evaluating Parity of Women in Poland, Spain, England and Wales for the Period 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strama, Agnieszka; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dudek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The Central Statistical Offices in Europe indicate an increase of women's parity age and extramarital births. The aim of this study was to analyze the chosen demographics of parity in European countries of Poland, Spain, England and Wales in 1996-2011. Statistical packet: women's average age at the time of their first and subsequent births, newborns' average body weight in relation to the age of mother; live marital and extramarital births. The age of mothers giving birth to their first and subsequent children in 1998-2011 in all of the researched countries is presented, and next compared in 1999, 2005 and 2011. An analysis of the births of children in marital and extramarital relationships as well as the body weight of live newborns is presented in detail in 1996-2006, and next in 6 year periods: 1999, 2005 and 2011. The average age of the mother giving birth to her first baby in 1996-2011 oscillates around: 26-27 years in England and Wales, 28-30 years in Spain and 23-26 years in Poland. In Poland, the highest average children's body weight, 3394 g, was achieved by children born by mothers at the age of 25-29. In Spain, however, at the mothers' age of 20-24, it was 3317 g. In England and Wales, at 30-34 years, it was 3262 g. The number of extramarital births in comparison to marital births is increasing. England and Wales has the lowest percentage of marital births, whereas Poland, the highest. In Spain, England and Wales we can observe an increase of extramarital births, while in Poland this number is stable at around 21.3%. The age of women having their first baby, the parity of later children, and extramarital births are increasing. In Poland, infant body weight is significantly bigger than in Spain, England and Wales.

  18. Socioeconomic and demographic profile of leprosy carriers attended in nursing consultations Perfil socioeconómico y demográfico de portadores de lepra atendidos en consulta de enfermería Perfil socioeconômico e demográfico de portadores de hanseníase atendidos em consulta de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Teresinha Cassamassimo Duarte

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a contagious infectious disease that manifests due to unfavorable socioeconomic factors, endemic levels and individual conditions. This study aimed to recognize the socioeconomic and demographic profile and degree of incapacity installed in leprosy carriers attended at the School Health Center in Botucatu. Data were obtained through nursing consultation performed in 37 patients. The results showed a predominance of individuals with stable union (78%, whites (92%, age between 30 and 49 years old (51%, low level of schooling (68% with incomplete primary education and those with per capita familial income less than one minimum salary (59 %. More than one third of the patients investigated (35% presented some degree of physical incapacity. The association of low socioeconomic profile with the presence of physical incapacities assigns greater vulnerability to this population and can negatively influence their quality of life.La lepra es una enfermedad infecto-contagiosa que se manifiesta debido a factores socioeconómicos desfavorables, niveles de endemia y condiciones individuales. El objetivo de este estudio fue reconocer el perfil socioeconómico y demográfico y el grado de incapacidad instalado de los portadores de lepra atendidos en el Centro de Salud Escuela de Botucatu. Los datos fueron obtenidos a través de consulta de enfermería realizada en 37 pacientes. Los resultados mostraron una predominancia de individuos con unión estable (97,8%, blancos (92%, con edad entre 30 y 49 años (51%, con bajo nivel de escolaridad (68 % con enseñanza primaria incompleta y con renta familiar per capita menor que un salario mínimo (59 %. Más de un tercio de los pacientes investigados (35% presentaban algún grado de incapacidad física. La asociación del bajo perfil socioeconómico con la presencia de incapacidades físicas imprime mayor vulnerabilidad a esa población, lo que puede influenciar negativamente su calidad de vida.A hansen

  19. Sobrepeso/obesidade em adolescentes escolares da cidade de João Pessoa - PB: prevalência e associação com fatores demográficos e socioeconômicos Overweight/obesity in adolescent students from the city of João Pessoa, PB, Brazil: prevalence and association with demographic and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

    2008-04-01

    demográficos e socioeconômicos.OBJECTIVES: Overweight/obesity in childhood and adolescence has been described as one of the greatest public health problems of current times, in recognition of the rapid growth in its prevalence and its relationship with many different health problems. In this idea, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity in high school adolescents from the city of João Pessoa, PB, and to analyze its relationship with demographic and socio-economic factors. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 2,402 high school students (public and private schools, aged 14 to 18 years (16.5±0.2. In addition to demographic details (age and sex and socio-economic data (economic class, parents educational background, the students reported their body weight (kg and height (cm. Overweight/obesity was determined based on body mass index (BMI= weight[kg]/stature[m²] according to criteria proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 10% and was more common among boys than girls (13.5% vs. 7.4%, prevalence ratio [PR]=1.82; 95%CI=1.42-2.32 and had no association with age in either sex. Results of a multivariate analysis found evidence of greater probability of overweight/obesity among boys from higher economic classes (PR=2.75; 95%CI=1.56-4.82. Conversely, among the girls the probability of overweight/obesity was lower for girls whose parents had a higher education background level (PR=0.42; 95%CI=0.21-0.87. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent students in João Pessoa, PB was similar to what has been observed in other Brazilian studies. The richer boys and poorer girls were the subsets with the greatest chance of exhibiting overweight/obesity. Within this context, intervention actions should take into consideration the different prevalence rates of overweight/obesity in different demographic and socio-economic strata.

  20. Analysis of the development of selected indicators of the demographic statics and dynamics of the Czech Republic in 1993–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the presentation of findings obtained in the study of the average level, variability, dynamics, developmental trends and a short-time point extrapolation prediction of the population in the Czech Republic and their structure according to gender and scale of the economic generation. In addition to the exact evaluation of the selected indicators, the analysis is also aimed to general rates of natural reproduction of population and their movement in the defined territorial unit and time interval 1993–2003. There are also presented relative rates of marriages, divorces, live births and deaths to mid-year population.

  1. Urban-rural variations in health in the Netherlands: does selective migration play a part?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, R.A.; Mheen, H.D. van de; Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: urban-rural health differences are observed in many countries, even when socioeconomic and demographic characteristics are controlled for. People living in urban areas are often found to be less healthy. One of the possible causes for these differences is selective migration with

  2. Bayesian variable selection in modelling geographical heterogeneity in malaria transmission from sparse data: an application to Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diboulo, Eric; Sié, Ali; Diadier, Diallo A; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Yé, Yazoume; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-02-22

    Quantification of malaria heterogeneity is very challenging, partly because of the underlying characteristics of mosquitoes and also because malaria is an environmentally driven disease. Furthermore, in order to assess the spatial and seasonal variability in malaria transmission, vector data need to be collected repeatedly over time (at fixed geographical locations). Measurements collected at locations close to each other and over time tend to be correlated because of common exposures such as environmental or climatic conditions. Non- spatial statistical methods, when applied to analyze such data, may lead to biased estimates. We developed rigorous methods for analyzing sparse and spatially correlated data. We applied Bayesian variable selection to identify the most important predictors as well as the elapsing time between climate suitability and changes in entomological indices. Bayesian geostatistical zero-inflated binomial and negative binomial models including harmonic seasonal terms, temporal trends and climatic remotely sensed proxies were applied to assess spatio-temporal variation of sporozoite rate and mosquito density in the study area. Bayesian variable selection was employed to determine the most important climatic predictors and elapsing (lag) time between climatic suitability and malaria transmission. Bayesian kriging was used to predict mosquito density and sporozoite rate at unsampled locations. These estimates were converted to covariate and season-adjusted maps of entomological inoculation rates. Models were fitted using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that Anophele. gambiae is the most predominant vector (79.29%) and is more rain-dependant than its sibling Anophele. funestus (20.71%). Variable selection suggests that the two species react differently to different climatic conditions. Prediction maps of entomological inoculation rate (EIR) depict a strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity in malaria transmission risk despite

  3. Socio-demographic characteristics affecting sport tourism choices: A structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Slak Valek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective tourism management in the field of sports tourism requires an understanding of differences in socioeconomic characteristics both within and between different market segments. Objective: In the broad tourism market demographic characteristics have been extensively analyzed for differences in destination choices, however little is known about demographic factors affecting sport tourists' decisions. Methods: A sample of Slovenian sports tourists was analyzed using data from a comprehensive survey of local and outbound tourist activity conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia in 2008. After data weighting the information for 353,783 sports related trips were available for analysis. The research model adopted suggests that four socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, level of education and income significantly affect a tourist's choice of sports related travel either locally within Slovenia or to a foreign country. Furthermore the destination (local or foreign has an influence on the choice of the type of accommodation selected and the tourist's total expenditure for the trip. For testing the first part of our model (the socio-demographic characteristics effects a linear regression was used, and for the final part of the model (the selection of accommodation type and travel expenditure t-test were applied. Results: The result shows the standardized β regression coefficients are all statistically significant at the .001 level for the tested socio-demographic characteristics and also the overall regression model was statistically significant at .001 level. Conclusions: With these results the study confirmed that all the selected socio-demographic characteristics have a significant influence on the sport-active tourist when choosing between a domestic and foreign tourism destination which in turn affect the type of accommodation chosen and the level of expenditure while travelling.

  4. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  5. Dancing with Demographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    Demographic projections concerning the shortage of teachers in Canada, their pay scale, the feminization of teaching, the gender gap in salaries, and teacher autonomy have often been incorrect, or correct for the wrong reasons. Instead of relying on demographic predictions, teachers should contemplate who they really want to be professionally,…

  6. The business of demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C

    1984-06-01

    The emergence of "demographics" in the past 15 years is a vital tool for American business research and planning. Tracing demographic trends became important for businesses when traditional consumer markets splintered with the enormous changes since the 1960s in US population growth, age structure, geographic distribution, income, education, living arrangements, and life-styles. The mass of reliable, small-area demographic data needed for market estimates and projections became available with the electronic census--public release of Census Bureau census and survey data on computer tape, beginning with the 1970 census. Census Bureau tapes as well as printed reports and microfiche are now widely accessible at low cost through summary tape processing centers designated by the bureau and its 12 regional offices and State Data Center Program. Data accessibility, plummeting computer costs, and businessess' unfamiliarity with demographics spawned the private data industry. By 1984, 70 private companies were offering demographic services to business clients--customized information repackaged from public data or drawn from proprietary data bases created from such data. Critics protest the for-profit use of public data by companies able to afford expensive mainframe computer technology. Business people defend their rights to public data as taxpaying ceitzens, but they must ensure that the data are indeed used for the public good. They must also question the quality of demographic data generated by private companies. Business' demographic expertise will improve when business schools offer training in demography, as few now do, though 40 of 88 graduate-level demographic programs now include business-oriented courses. Lower cost, easier access to business demographics is growing as more census data become available on microcomputer diskettes and through on-line linkages with large data bases--from private data companies and the Census Bureau itself. A directory of private and

  7. Body fatness in relation to physical activity and selected socioeconomic parameters of adolescents aged 15-17 years in Merida, Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Castillo, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis; Dickinson, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of overweight and obesity in adolescents are major concerns in many countries, including Mexico. To study anthropometric and body composition characteristics (BCC) and their relations with socioeconomic status (SES), biological history and physical activity (PA) of school-going adolescent boys and girls in the city of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 321 adolescents (156 boys and 165 girls) aged 15-17 years from public and private schools in Merida, was taken from a study carried out in 2008-2009. Body mass index had significant correlations to BCC (fat mass and fat-free mass). The rate of stunting was higher in girls (18.20%) than in boys (7.69%). Stunted adolescents had higher body fat (%) than normally growing peers. High rates of overweight (boys 26.28%, girls 24.24%) and obesity (boys 10.26%, girls 6.06%) were recorded. SES (parents' age, education and occupation; crowding index in the family; household food expenditure), participants' biological history and PA are related with height and BCC by age and sex. Adolescents with excess weight (overweight + obesity) reported being less physically active. SES and PA were strongly related to growth and body fatness in the studied adolescents.

  8. Fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos, ambientais e comportamentais associados ao excesso de peso em adolescentes: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Socioeconomic, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors associated with overweight in adolescents: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Oliveira Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    were consulted (Lilacs, Adolec, SciELO, Medline via Pubmed, ISI Web of Knowlwdge and Cochrane Library between January 3 and 13, 2008. The following key-words and respective MeSH terms were used: "overweight", "obesity", "adolescence", "adolescents", "risk factors", "associated factors". Articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese published between 1997 and 2007 were evaluated, and only observational studies with adolescents aged from 10 to 19 years, diagnosed with OW using international criteria were included. Studies based on convenience samples or that did not investigate social, environmental and psycho-behavioral factors as independent variables were excluded. RESULTS: 202 articles were selected by reading the titles and abstracts and applying initial eligibility criterion. The review of complete publications allowed including and analyzing 56 articles. Socioeconomic level was found to be inversely associated with OW in developed countries and directly associated in developing countries. The habit of going on weight loss diets, the number of hours per day watching TV/video, having an obese mother and/or father and the occurrence of OW in childhood were directly associated with OW. The habit of having breakfast and physical activity were observed to be protective factors. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic, behavioral, family, and childhood variables were associated with OW and should be considered in interventions directed toward the problem among adolescents.

  9. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  10. Exile and demographic population growth in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Radoslav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of the 2002 population census on refugee population are analyzed in this paper with a basic aim to determine the significance (contribution of refugee corpus in demographic development of the Republic of Serbia. By analyzing the data, it has been determined that the refugee corpus does not significantly differ from the domicile population in the basic, above all demographic and other qualitative characteristics. The differences which can be noticed with certain (primarily socio-economic characteristics, due to the proportionally small participation of refugee persons in relation to the total (domicile population, could not significantly influence the total demographic, socio-economic and other characteristics of the population of central Serbia and Vojvodina. The most significant contribution of refugee (classifying the refugee corpus in the country's total population is reflected in the mitigation of the depopulation trend, namely population growth, not only both micro-entities, but also lower administrative-territorial entities (districts depending on the enumerated refugee population in them. However, population projections indicate that by the middle of this century (2050 the positive effects of the basically larger number of inhabitants will be lost caused by the inflow of refugee population.

  11. Socio-economic and cultural determinants of human african trypanosomiasis at the Kenya - Uganda transboundary.

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    Jane Jemeli Rutto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r. infection in Teso and Busia Districts, Western Kenya and Tororo and Busia Districts, Southeast Uganda. A conceptual framework was postulated to explain interactions of various socio-economic, cultural and tsetse control factors that predispose individuals and populations to HAT. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between April and October 2008. Four administrative districts reporting T.b.r and lying adjacent to each other at the international boundary of Kenya and Uganda were purposely selected. Household data collection was carried out in two villages that had experienced HAT and one other village that had no reported HAT case from 1977 to 2008 in each district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 384 randomly selected household heads or their representatives in each country. The percent of respondents giving a specific answer was reported. Secondary data was also obtained on socio-economic and political issues in both countries. RESULTS: Inadequate knowledge on the disease cycle and intervention measures contributed considerable barriers to HAT, and more so in Uganda than in Kenya. Gender-associated socio-cultural practices greatly predisposed individuals to HAT. Pesticides-based crop husbandry in the 1970's reportedly reduced vector population while vegetation of coffee and banana's and livestock husbandry directly increased occurrence of HAT. Livestock husbandry practices in the villages were strong predictors of HAT incidence. The residents in Kenya (6.7% applied chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapeutic controls against trypanosomiasis to a

  12. The Significance of Race and Selected Socioeconomic and Academic Variables in Program Tracking among Curriculum Students in the North Carolina Community College System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Isaac A.; Shearon, Ronald W.

    In spring 1979, a study was conducted to identify differences in the type of program track enrolled in by students in the North Carolina Community College System according to selected ascriptive variables (i.e., race, sex, occupation of household head, parents' income, and father's occupation); achievement variables (i.e., high school grade point…

  13. Individual Differences in Neural Mechanisms of Selective Auditory Attention in Preschoolers from Lower Socioeconomic Status Backgrounds: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Elif; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Neville, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention, the ability to enhance the processing of particular input while suppressing the information from other concurrent sources, has been postulated to be a foundational skill for learning and academic achievement. The neural mechanisms of this foundational ability are both vulnerable and enhanceable in children from lower…

  14. Fatores associados à aptidão clínica para a doação de sangue: determinantes demográficos e socioeconômicos Factors associated to clinical aptness for blood donation: demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Brener

    2008-04-01

    technological advances and increasing demand for blood transfusions. However, despite investment to increase the number of blood donors, there is a chronic shortage of blood. The aim of this study was to compare demographic and social-economic characteristics comparing individuals that were considered eligible with temporarily and permanent non-eligible blood donors. A case-comparison study was carried out at the Blood Donation Center (Hemocentro of Belo Horizonte from a survey involving 3,527 candidates for blood donation. Comparisons stratified by gender were made for all characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to verify the association between the variables and eligibility for blood donation. Candidates for blood donation were similar according to the socio-economic level and dissimilar according to gender, age and type of donation. For both genders, the following characteristics were statistically associated in respect to eligibility for blood donation: to be young (18 to 29 years, to have a stable relationship and employment and not to own an automobile. For men, the presence of less than two people per bedroom of their residence was also statistically significant. Distinct demographic and social-economic profiles were identified in relation to gender and eligibility category. Similar profiles were found between temporarily non-eligible and eligible candidates, especially among women. Therefore, adopting multiple strategies in blood donor recruitment is justified in order to make contact with the different groups.

  15. Avaliação da qualidade das variáveis sócio-econômicas e demográficas dos óbitos de crianças menores de um ano registrados no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade do Brasil (1996/2001 Quality of socioeconomic and demographic data in relation to infant mortality in the Brazilian Mortality Information System (1996/2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia E. Romero

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da informação sócio-econômica e demográfica, por Unidade Federada (UF do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM. A finalidade é reconhecer sua potencialidade no monitoramento da desigualdade da mortalidade infantil no Brasil. Utilizaram-se como indicadores de qualidade a acessibilidade, oportunidade, claridade metodológica, incompletitude e consistência. Selecionaram-se as variáveis: raça da criança, peso ao nascer, semanas de gestação, assistência médica, parturição, escolaridade, idade e ocupação materna. Foram revisadas a documentação do SIM e a literatura sobre indicadores associados com a mortalidade infantil, estimaram-se proporções de incompletitude, por região e UF, e identificaram-se fatores que a influenciam a partir de regressões logísticas. Constatou-se que, apesar da acessibilidade da base de dados e da relevância de suas variáveis, o SIM possui sérios problemas de qualidade que incluem instruções confusas no manual para informação ignorada, má classificação da ocupação materna, ausência de identificação sobre a raça do informante e elevada proporção de incompletitude da informação. Conclui-se que o SIM não é uma fonte de dados adequada para monitorar, avaliar e planejar ações sobre desigualdade em saúde infantil.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of socioeconomic and demographic data in the Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM, in relation to infant mortality. The article assesses the system's potential for monitoring inequalities in infant mortality in various States in the country. Accessibility, timeliness, methodological clarity, incompleteness, and consistency were explored as quality indicators. Selected variables were: race, birth weight, gestational age, medical care, parity, and maternal schooling, age, and occupation. The study also reviewed the system's working documentation and the scientific

  16. Adolescent prostitution in south-western Nigeria: demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Adolescent prostitution, an interesting area of reproductive health focus, is of great socioeconomic and medical burden in Nigeria. Objective: This study aims to determine the demographic characteristics and risk factors for adolescent prostitution in Nigeria Method: This was a cross- sectional study using ...

  17. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  18. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  19. Socioeconomic status and stroke prevalence in Morocco: results from the Rabat-Casablanca study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Thomas; Baglione, Quentin; Audibert, Martine; Viallefont, Anne; Mourji, Fouzi; El Alaoui Faris, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural) and richest (mainly urban) households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89). We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population, which leads in turn to metabolic and physiological risk

  20. Socioeconomic status and stroke prevalence in Morocco: results from the Rabat-Casablanca study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Engels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. METHODS: Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. FINDINGS: Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural and richest (mainly urban households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89. CONCLUSION: We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population

  1. Demographic Transformations of the Russian Regional Space

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    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the transformations of the quantitative components of human capital, which is the main driver of economic growth in the material, institutional and mental space. According to the author’s concept of stratified space, the processes of self-reproduction and self-renewal of a system are carried out in the material space. This can be determined by the indicators of fertility, mortality and migration in the demographic subsystem. The process of self-regulation of a system on the basis of legislative acts and behavior patterns is carried out in the institutional space. Institutional transformations are also manifested in the implementation of federal target programs for socio-economic development, affecting the state of the demographic subsystem. The processes of self-reflection, self-determination and self-development are carried out in the mental space. Mental transformations in the demographic subsystem are manifested in the change of value orientations. In accordance with the system of values that are conceptualized in modern development strategies the authors define the following models of Man: Economic Man, Socio-Economic Man (who lives in agglomeration centers and at the periphery, Socio-Natural Man (Environmental Man and Householder Man and Innovative Man. Demographic shifts are investigated in 83 Russian regions on the determinants of birth rate and mortality. The analyzed period of transformation covers 2005 and 2012. Methods of matrix analysis are used to visualize the process of demographic shifts. The assessment of transformation of the stratified regional space spheres is given on the basis of the multifactor models of the population natural growth rate. The paper reveals the reduction in the level and variation of mortality rate, the increasing importance and differentiation of regions according to fertility rate, and the effectiveness of introducing the institution of maternity capital from a perspective of the

  2. SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INEQUALITIES AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the.

  3. Influência de variáveis socioeconômicas, clínicas e demográfica na experiência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares de Piracicaba, SP Influence of socioeconomic, clinical and demographic variables on caries experience of preschool children in Piracicaba, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Laura Cortellazzi

    2009-09-01

    prevenção e intervenção direcionadas a este público seria essencial para o controle da doença.AIM: To evaluate the influence of socioeconomic, clinical and demographic variables on caries experience in 5-year-old preschool children from Piracicaba. METHODS: The sample consisted of 728 children attending 22 public (n=428 and 18 private (n=300 preschools. Dental caries were measured using the dmft/dmfs indexes and by detecting initial caries lesion (IL. Gingivitis, crowding, spacing, fluorosis, and mouth breathing were also recorded. Socioeconomic variables (monthly family income, number of people living in the household, parents' schooling, home ownership, and car ownership were collected by means of a parental semi structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation values for dmft and dmfs indexes were 1.30 (2.47 and 3.08 (7.55 respectively; and 62.2% of the children were caries-free. The mean (standard deviation values for dmft+LI and dmfs+LI were 1.72 (3.36 and 3.45 (7.94, respectively and 59.7% were caries-free. By means of multiple logistic regression analyses, children with fluorosis (OR=0.40 or family income > 4 minimum wages (OR=0.49 were less likely to experience caries. Those with gingivitis (OR=1.87 were more prone to have the disease. Considering the diagnostic threshold including IL, the multiple logistic regression analyses showed that children with fluorosis (OR=0.39 or family income > 4 minimum wages (OR=0.52 were less likely to have caries. Those with gingivitis (OR=1.80, crowding (OR=2.63 e OR=1.01 or mouth breathing (OR=1.37 were more likely to have the disease. CONCLUSION: The preschool children who presented gingivitis, crowding, mouth breathing or monthly family income < 4 minimum wages were more likely to experience caries. In this way, planning preventive and operative actions targeted at these children would be essential for caries control.

  4. Changing Hispanic Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Emily Gantz

    This report provides a demographic overview of Hispanics in the United States. Information was drawn largely from recent census figures. The following highlights are reported: (1) Hispanic Americans are the youngest and fastest growing minority group, but they are also more likely than non-Hispanics to drop out of school, be unemployed or…

  5. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  6. [Israel: the demographic stake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, G

    1984-01-01

    A review of trends in Jewish migration to and from Israel from the late nineteenth century to the present day is provided. Consideration is also given to Arab migration and to the demographic implications of Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

  7. Changing demographics affecting sprawl

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; Susan I. Stewart

    1999-01-01

    Demographic changes including population growth, racial/ethnic diversity, aging, expansion of urban areas, and migration to rural areas can bring significant population increases in particular areas that may encourage sprawl. Areas where the pressures for sprawl are likely to be the greatest include the periphery of urban areas, popular retirement destinations, places...

  8. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status, health and working conditions of school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the associations of workplace neighbourhood socioeconomic status with health behaviours, health and working conditions among school teachers. The survey responses and employer records of 1862 teachers were linked to census data on school neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In the multilevel analysis, adjustments were made for demographics, work factors and the socioeconomic status of the teacher's own residential area. 226 public schools in Finland. Teachers working in schools from neighbourhoods with the lowest socioeconomic status reported heavy alcohol consumption (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.32 to 3.83) and higher probability of doctor-diagnosed mental disorders (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.12) more often than teachers working in schools located in the wealthiest neighbourhoods. After controlling for the socioeconomic status of the teacher's own residential area, only heavy alcohol consumption remained statistically significant. Teachers working in schools with lower socioeconomic status also reported lower frequency of workplace meetings, lower participation in occupational training, lower teaching efficacy and higher mental workload. School neighbourhood socioeconomic status is associated with working conditions and health of school teachers. The association with health is partially explained by the socioeconomic status of the teachers' own residential neighbourhoods. An independent association was found between low socioeconomic status of school neighbourhoods and heavy alcohol use among teachers.

  9. DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF MEDICAL-DEMOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Atambaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of demographic status assessment of the Kyrgyz Republic, discusses trends of the main medicaldemographic parameters characterizing the nation and shows that the socioeconomic changes that have been taking place in the recent decades continue having considerably effect on population health formation and change of demographic processes.

  10. Population Composition, Migration and Inequality: The Influence of Demographic Changes on Disaster Risk and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, William; Rodriguez, Havidan

    2008-01-01

    The changing demographic landscape of the United States calls for a reassessment of the societal impacts and consequences of so called "natural" and technological disasters. An increasing trend towards greater demographic and socio-economic diversity (in part due to high rates of international immigration), combined with mounting…

  11. [Peruvian demographic transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal Chirinos, C

    1988-06-01

    The demographic transition is conceptualized as the historic change from high to low fertility and mortality rates in a population. Peru's population was reduced by an estimated 80% as a result of new diseases, destruction of the economy, and the brutal regime of colonial exploitation after the Spanish conquest. From colonial times to the least the 1940s, Peru's principal population problem was the scarcity of manpower. The population grew at an annual rate of about .03% between 1650 and 1800, increasing to about 1.3% between 1876 and 1940. High fertility throughout the 19th century and a stabilization of mortality due to reduced incidence and deadliness of epidemics contributed to the increased growth rate. In the 1940s the process of demographic transition was initiated by abrupt declines in mortality. The crude death rate declined from 27/1000 in 1940 to 16/1000 in 1961 and 9/1000 in 1988, with the rate still declining. Fertility remained high and possibly increased slightly. The crude birth rate was estimated at 45/1000 in 1940 and 45.4/1000 in 1961. Improvements in infant and general mortality rates in developing countries like Peru result from diffusion of technological advances in prevention and control of diseases and improvement in health services rather than from changes in the economic and social structure. The 3rd phase of the demographic transition began with declines in fertility from 45.4/1000 in 1961 to 42.0/1000 in 1972 and 36.0/1000 in 1981. Despite declines, mortality and fertility continue to be elevated in Peru. The theory of demographic transition views the reduction of infant mortality, improvements in health and educational conditions and the condition of women, and more equitable income distribution as essential for a true decline in birth rates. In Peru, however, fertility has declined in a context of deteriorating living conditions and in the absence of effective family planning programs. The process of demographic transition must be

  12. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  13. Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the influence of the demographic attributes of wholesales yam marketers on their marketing cost, data were collected from 80 respondents randomly selected from 10 yam markets in two Local Government Areas of Delta State. Results of data analysis reveals that wholesale yam marketing in the study area ...

  14. Demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive influence of demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and personality on job performance among civil servants in Southwest Nigeria. The sample consists of 400 civil servants (males = 275, females = 125) randomly selected from Southwestern ...

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities of child malnutrition in Bangladesh during 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Pulok, Mohammad Habibullah; Sabah, Md Nasim-Us Sabah; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how socioeconomic status and demographic factors determine child malnutrition as well as how these factors account for socioeconomic inequality in child malnutrition over 2007-2011 in Bangladesh. The dataset of this study originates from two cross sectional rounds (2007 and 2011) of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). This study uses standard ordinary least square (OLS) models to estimate the determinants of child malnutrition. This study then employs...

  16. The influence of socio-economic and nutritional characteristics on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Child malnutrition remains a serious public health problem in Kwale District of Kenya. ... The relative importance of demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as prevailing child health and nutrition practices on the growth and survival of children in the ...

  17. Does home equipment contribute to socioeconomic gradients in Australian children's physical activity, sedentary time and screen time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumuid, Dot; Olds, Timothy S; Lewis, Lucy K; Maher, Carol

    2016-08-05

    Activity behaviours (physical activity, sedentary time and screen time) have been linked to health outcomes in childhood. Furthermore, socioeconomic disparities have been observed in both children's activity behaviours and health outcomes. Children's physical home environments may play a role in these relationships. This study aimed to examine the associations and interactions between children's physical home environment, socioeconomic status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and screen time. Australian children (n = 528) aged 9-11 years from randomly selected schools participated in the cross-sectional International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Children's physical home environment (access to equipment), socioeconomic status (household income and parental education) and demographic variables (gender and family structure) were determined by parental questionnaire. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively by 7-day 24-h accelerometry. Screen time was obtained from child survey. The associations between the physical home environment, socioeconomic status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and screen time were examined for 427 children, using analysis of covariance, and linear and logistic regression, with adjustment for gender and family structure. The presence of TVs (p video game consoles (p video games (p = 0.04), cell phones (p music devices (p = 0.04) was significantly and positively associated with screen time. Ownership of these devices (with the exception of music devices) was inversely related to socioeconomic status (parental education). Children's moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (p = 0.04) and possession of active play equipment (p = 0.04) were both positively associated with socioeconomic status (household income), but were not related to each other (with the exception of bicycle ownership

  18. Does home equipment contribute to socioeconomic gradients in Australian children’s physical activity, sedentary time and screen time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dot Dumuid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activity behaviours (physical activity, sedentary time and screen time have been linked to health outcomes in childhood. Furthermore, socioeconomic disparities have been observed in both children’s activity behaviours and health outcomes. Children’s physical home environments may play a role in these relationships. This study aimed to examine the associations and interactions between children’s physical home environment, socioeconomic status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and screen time. Methods Australian children (n = 528 aged 9–11 years from randomly selected schools participated in the cross-sectional International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Children’s physical home environment (access to equipment, socioeconomic status (household income and parental education and demographic variables (gender and family structure were determined by parental questionnaire. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively by 7-day 24-h accelerometry. Screen time was obtained from child survey. The associations between the physical home environment, socioeconomic status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and screen time were examined for 427 children, using analysis of covariance, and linear and logistic regression, with adjustment for gender and family structure. Results The presence of TVs (p < 0.01 and video game consoles (p < 0.01 in children’s bedrooms, and child possession of handheld video games (p = 0.04, cell phones (p < 0.01 and music devices (p = 0.04 was significantly and positively associated with screen time. Ownership of these devices (with the exception of music devices was inversely related to socioeconomic status (parental education. Children’s moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (p = 0.04 and possession of active play equipment (p = 0.04 were

  19. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  20. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  1. Alcohol Consumption in Family Budgets: Effects of Purchasing Power and Households Demographic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García Arancibia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems associated with family alcohol consumption is the effect on household resource distribution, with a larger incidence in those households that are socially more vulnerable. This study examines the influence that household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have on the share of alcoholic beverages in the household budget, using data from Santa Fe, Argentina for the period 2004-2005. Engel parametric curves are estimated using a sample selection model (Tobit type II. The sample is subdivided using the poverty line as the criterion. The results show that the most relevant characteristics differ depending on whether the household is poor or not. In non-poor households, variables such as the age of the household head, the share of women and the number of minors have a statistically significant effect on alcohol’s share of expenditures. In contrast, only characteristics related to purchasing power are relevant in poor households.

  2. Economic study of socioeconomic characteristics and resource use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in 2008 in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Primary data which were obtained from randomly selected maize farmers were used for the study. Both socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers and production activities were studied. The socioeconomic characteristics were ...

  3. Determinants of Household Socio-economic Status in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to determine the contribution of asset ownership to household socio-economic or wealth status. The study adopted a quantitative research approach to investigate the socioeconomic status of households. A sample of 443 households was selected using a simple random sampling technique, and ...

  4. Adjudicating socioeconomic rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christo Heunis

    of an interconnected web. Indeed, it is not inappropriate to interpret the. Court's approach to .... the more inclusive understanding of human rights and constitutional adjudication of socio-economic rights must faithfully reflect this shift, even at semantic level.13. 3. GROOTBOOM. Grootboom, of course, represents a coming of ...

  5. Adjudicating socioeconomic rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christo Heunis

    interpretation and application of socio-economic rights in the Bill of Rights. The pivots for discussion are the decisions of the Constitutional Court in the .... learned judge can be (mis)construed as relegating the provision of health care to the private rather than the public domain and insufficiently vindicating access to health ...

  6. Socio-demographic determinants of anaemia and nutritional status in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Kandala, N. B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anaemia is a worldwide public health concern. Anaemia is multifactorial and its related factors are classified according to their position in the pathophysiological process. Socioeconomic and demographic factors such as poor education, cultural norms such as food taboos can predispose children and women to anaemia through immediate causes such as physiological, biological, diet and infections. However, socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with anaemia are not widely reported and i...

  7. Demographic studies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H

    1998-01-01

    Studies on population and migration have gained growing popularity in the federal government, in universities, and among historians, economists, sociologists, and research institutions in Germany. Research institutions were expanded, and some received special funding from the Federal Society of Scientific Research for studies on demography and migration. Achievements in these subjects include monographs on the history and/or present demographic situation, book series, academic research reports, and consultative reports on contemporary population issues. Information exchanges with the rest of the world also heightened considerably. This paper focuses on major research institutions in Germany that specifically work on demography and population issues. It discusses the characteristics of their research, as well as their research subjects. These institutions include: 1) the Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies at the University of Osnabruck, established after the German unification in 1991; 2) the Wiesbaden-based Federal Institute for Population Research, founded in 1973; and 3) the Institute for Population Research and Social Policy of the University of Bielefeld, founded in 1980. At present, Germany has two population research societies: the German Society for Population Research and the GDR Society for Population Research.

  8. The Intrinsic Demographics of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, C. Megan; Mao, Peiyuan; Brandt, Timothy D.

    2017-08-01

    Blazar surveys over the past three decades have revealed a range of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), with large systematic differences depending on survey wavelength. This means blazar samples suffer from strong selection effects. To date there has been no agreement on how to infer intrinsic population demographics from these samples, with a key issue being whether blazar jet power is related to the shape of the spectral energy distribution. We investigate this issue using Monte Carlo simulations of BL Lac and flat-spectrum radio quasar populations. We rule out the hypothesis that the SED shape is not linked to luminosity, as the simulated samples in that case disagree strongly with observed surveys. This means that the low-power blazars found primarily in X-ray surveys must be more common than the high-power blazars found primarily in radio surveys. Given an intrinsic correlation between luminosity and SED shape, our simulations predict distributions of flux, redshift, luminosity, and spectral index consistent with existing surveys. We also show that the observed evolution of X-ray-selected blazars, as measured through the average V/Vmax ratio, appears to be negative even when the underlying evolution is actually mildly positive. The apparent negative evolution of X-ray bright BL Lacs is a selection effect caused by redshifting a steeply falling UV-to-X-ray spectrum out of the X-ray band. As this conclusion would suggest, our simulations also show that the deeper the X-ray flux limit and/or the lower the frequency of the synchrotron peak in the SED, the less negative the apparent evolution.

  9. The Impact Of Demographic Factors On Organisational Commitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Study Investigated the Impact of demographic factors on organization commitment among workers in selected work organizations in Lagos State of Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relevance of demographic factors on workers' commitment to organizations goal achievement in Nigeria. The ex-post ...

  10. The Demographic Dividend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Anne-Marie; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although Latino enrollment in higher education has increased as the US Latino population has grown (Latinos now outnumber African Americans), more often than not Latinos begin their college education in community colleges or less selective four-year institutions--institutional types with lower persistence and completion rates in general. Moreover,…

  11. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  12. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

  14. Relação entre classe socioeconômica e fatores demográficos na ocorrência da disfunção temporomandibular The relation between socio-economic class and demographic factors in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Jefferson Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes fatores como estresse e oclusão podem diminuir a capacidade adaptativa do aparelho estomatognático e levar à ocorrência da disfunção temporomandibular (DTM. Objetivou-se neste estudo verificar a relação da classe econômica, escolaridade, sexo e idade na ocorrência da disfunção temporomandibular. A população deste estudo constituiu-se em uma amostra estatisticamente significativa de indivíduos de ambos os sexos pertencentes a diferentes classes econômicas da zona urbana do município de Piacatu, São Paulo, Brasil. Utilizou-se o Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil (CCEB para a estratificação econômica da população. Retirou-se uma amostra de cada estrato, na qual se aplicou o Questionário de Fonseca para verificar o grau de DTM. Os dados coletados foram analisados estatisticamente por meio do teste qui-quadrado, com nível de significância de 5%. No total, participaram da pesquisa 354 chefes de família. Não houve relação estatisticamente significativa entre classe econômica, escolaridade e faixa etária com a disfunção temporomandibular (DTM. Existiu relação entre sexo e DTM (pDifferent factors like stress and occlusion can decrease the adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system and lead to the occurrence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD. The objective of this study was to verify the relation of the variables socio-economic level, schooling, sex and age with the occurrence of temporomandibular dysfunction. The population of this study consisted of a statistically significant sample of subjects of both sexes belonging to different socio-economic classes living in the urban area of the city of Piacatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The Criterion of Economic Classification Brazil (CCEB was used for the economic stratification of the population. Fonseca's Questionnaire was applied to samples collected from each extract to verify the level of TMD. The data collected were statistically analyzed using

  15. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors affecting anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gogoi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child

  16. Evaluation of socioeconomic factors in injured children at Mousavi and Valiasr hospitals of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hasaniha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Injury is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality that deprives the injured individuals of a normal life but also imposes high emotional and financial costs for the patients and their family. This study was done in order to determine the socioeconomic factors in injured children at Mousavi and Valiasr hospitals of Zanjan.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 650 injured children under 15 who referred to Mousavi and Valiasr hospitals of zanjan were randomly selected. Using a questionnaire, information on demographic and socioeconomic factors including sex, age, and type of injury, parents' age, occupation and salary were gathered. Data was analyzed using measure of central tendency, frequency tables and Chi-Square Test.Results: From 650 injured children, %61.5 were boys and %38.5 were girls. The mean (SD age of these children was 7.8 (4.3. Three hundred eighty five of the children (%59.2 were urban and 265 (%40.8 were rural. Most of injured children had a father who was worker or a mother who was housewife. The level of education of parents was low in most cases. Furthermore, the frequency of injuries in children had a significant association with family income and socioeconomic factors.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that carrying out prevention programs for students and parents, especially families of low socioeconomic status has a major role in reducing injury risk factors from the children's living environment.  

  17. [Socio-demographic differentials in the functional decline among the elderly in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahyba, Maria Isabel; Veras, Renato

    2008-01-01

    There is a positive reversion in the expectations regarding the health condition of the elderly population, possibly due to the progresses in medical technology; behavioural changes; development of special programmes for the elderly; improvements in the socio-economic status; decrease of infectious diseases. This study aims analyzing differentials in the prevalence rates of mobility disability among elderly people in Brazil. The data used were from 'The 1998 and 2003 National Household Survey (PNAD)', conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geographic and Statistics (IBGE). The two samples were nationally representative, including approximately 30 thousand individuals aged 60 years or more respectively. "Difficulty to walk more than 100 meters" was the variable selected as the indicator of disability. Socio-demographic status measures were sex, age group, region of residence and family income per capita. Comparison of the PNAD results of 1998 and 2003 showed that over that period in Brazil the elderly disability rates decreased among all socio-demographic groups considered. Public policies directed to the elderly must focus on reducing mobility disability.

  18. Elderly care in daily living in rural Vietnam: Need and its socioeconomic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Le V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of older people is increasing rapidly in Vietnam. The majority of the elderly live in rural areas. Their health status is generally improving but this is less pronounced among the most vulnerable groups. The movement of young people for employment and the impact of other socioeconomic changes leave more elderly on their own and with less family support. This study aims to assess the daily care needs and their socioeconomic determinants among older people in a rural setting. Methods In 2007, people aged 60 years and older, living in 2,240 households, were randomly selected from the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance System (DSS. They were interviewed using structured questionnaires to assess needed support in activities of daily living (ADLs. Individuals were interviewed about the presence of chronic illnesses that had been diagnosed by a physician. Participant socioeconomic characteristics were extracted from the FilaBavi repeat census. The repeat census used a repeat of the same survey methods and questions as the original FilaBavi DSS. Distributions of study participants by socioeconomic group, supports needed, levels of support received, types of caregivers, and the ADL index were described. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify socioeconomic determinants of the ADL index. Results The majority of older people do not need of support for each specific ADL item. Dependence in instrumental or intellectual ADLs was more common than for basic ADLs. People who need total help were less common than those who need some help in most ADLs. Over three-fifths of those who need help receive enough support in all ADL dimensions. Children and grandchildren are the main caregivers. Age group, sex, educational level, marital status, household membership, working status, household size, living arrangement, residential area, household wealth, poverty status, and chronic illnesses were determinants of daily care needs

  19. Demographic factors, rearing and health history: its relation with nutrition and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Moreno, Assol; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México-FES Iztacala; Avilés Flores, Ana Laura; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México-FES Iztacala

    2010-01-01

    Effects of undernourishment on psychological development vary according psychosocial factors. This study assessed the impact of demographic, familiar, and rearing variables on nourishment and psychological development in children aged complementary feeding. A sample of 124 child-caregiver dyads from four different socioeconomic and nutritional index communities from México participated. Anthropometrics and child development were measured. Prediction power of demographics, rearing practices, a...

  20. Association of an adult obesity, blood pressure adulthood socio-economic position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dana Siadat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate an effect of childhood and adulthood socio-economic position on selected cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, blood pressure level and smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: This is a crosssectional study performed on 479 individuals, randomly selected by random clustered sampling from men and women aged 30-50 years, living in Esfahan. Their demographic characteristics, education, occupation and smoking behavior were questioned. Their weight, height and blood pressure were also measured, and their BMI (Body Mass Index was calculated. The data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Results: In men, the odds ratio for ever smoking to never smoking at higher levels of education in comparison with the lower levels was 6.08 (2.65-14.11. For manual occupation to non-manual occupation, it was 3.55 (1.88-6.68. The odds ratio for obesity and overweight vs no overweight, for manual occupation to non-manual occupation was 3.12 (1.81-5.40 in men and for father′s occupation it was 2.03 (1.10-3.74. In women, their education with the odds ratio of 2.11 (1.17-3.82 and father′s occupation with the odds ratio of 6.63 (3.50-12.58 altered their chance of being obese or overweight. Also, in women, the mean systolic blood pressure was significantly lower at higher educational levels and in those whose fathers′ occupation were manual but lower in manual workers. Conclusion: The current socio-economic position in individuals is associated with an obesity and smoking behavior, particularly in men. Childhood socio-economic position increases the chance of an obesity and higher blood pressure, particularly in women.

  1. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  2. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  3. SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE AND AUTISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAYUET LIU; NOAM ZERUBAVEL; PETER BEARMAN

    2010-01-01

    ...—is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association...

  4. [Demographic change and political representation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, S

    1990-06-01

    The political implications of demographic aging in Italy are reviewed. The main features identified are a shift in the balance of the electorate toward the south, and the increasing electoral importance of older voters.

  5. The Professoriate: A Demographic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shirley M.; Corcoran, Mary

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of college faculty demographics looks at faculty distribution over institution types, the relationships of career status, sex, age, and salary, and three emergent faculty subgroups: women, minorities, and part-time faculty. (MSE)

  6. Socio-demographic determinants of the severity of locomotor disability among adults in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study, December 2010-February 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ilias; Clarke, Lynda; Ploubidis, George B

    2017-01-01

    Socio-demographic variables are widely known to have an association with the presence of any disability. However, the association between the severity of locomotor disability and socio-demographic variables has never been investigated in Bangladesh. A cross sectional survey of adults with locomotor disabilities was conducted between December 2010 and February 2011 at the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP), Dhaka, Bangladesh. During the study period 328 adults with locomotor disabilities met our selection criteria, but 316 consented and participated in the study. The 55-item Locomotor Disability Scale was used to measure disability. This study investigated the socio-demographic determinants of the severity of locomotor disability: age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, occupation, income status, type of house, living in own/rented house, household monthly income, household population and area of residence. Participants' age was positively associated with the severity of their locomotor disability (β = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.004 to 0.02), adjusting for diagnosis and other socio-demographic variables studied. Individuals who had an income experienced 0.35 (95% CI: -0.63 to -0.07) points decrease in the severity of disability than those did not have an income, adjusting for diagnosis and rest of the socio-demographic variables studied. In comparison to the unemployed individuals, students, homemakers, and individuals in elementary occupation respectively experienced 0.75 (95% CI: -1.08 to -0.43), 0.51 (95% CI: -0.82 to -0.19) and 0.37 (95% CI: -0.66 to -0.08) points decrease in the severity of locomotor disability, adjusting for diagnosis and rest of the socio-demographic variables studied. The severity of locomotor disability has an association with individuals' age, income status and occupation of the adults with such disability in Bangladesh. No such association was evident with other socioeconomic position and demographic variables. This

  7. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  8. Demographic change and income distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Weizsacker, R K

    1989-03-01

    This paper examines the interactions between demographic change and income distribution, especially in the context of government. Starting from a simple, descriptive life-cycle model of individual income, this paper established an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, 2 income maintenance programs are introduced: a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system. The resulting government budget constraints entail interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of demographic trends. The superimposition of different age structures on populations of otherwise identical characteristics is non-neutral with respect to income distribution: disregarding state interventions, population aging increases income inequality. This result may no longer generally hold if redistribution policies are taken into account. The paper provides an example of how indirect demographic effects may lead to a reversal of sign. In the absence of any government program, a higher ratio of pensioners to active workers raises income inequality. In the presence of a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and pay-as-you-go financed state pension system, a higher dependency ratio decreases income dispersion. The restoration of government budget equilibrium induces unintended distributional effects which put the incidence of demographic shifts in a different light. Varying important aging indicator with realistic forecast bounds leads to inequality fluctuations up to 35%. This illustrates the quantitative scale and hence the political importance of demographically caused inequality distortions.

  9. Characterization of a Group B Streptococcus infection based on the demographics, serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility and genotypes of selected isolates from sterile and non-sterile isolation sites in three major hospitals in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Mohd E S; Desa, Mohd N M; Eskandarian, Narges; Pillay, Stella G; Ismail, Zalina; Neela, Vasantha K; Masri, Siti N; Nordin, Syafinaz A

    The purpose of this study is to characterize GBS isolates that were collected from three major hospitals in a densely populated area of Klang Valley for their demographics, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and genetic background. Sixty GBS isolates from sterile and non-sterile samples in three major hospitals in the Klang Valley area of Malaysia were collected by convenience sampling from 2012 until March 2014. These isolates were studied for their antimicrobial susceptibilities, serotypes and genotypes. Patients' demographic data and clinical information were collected from lab request forms. Diabetes mellitus was the only underlying condition (7 patients, 23.3%); the remaining samples were from patients who were immunocompromised due to medications. Fifty-nine (98%) isolates were sensitive to penicillin, while 78.3% and 88.3% of the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Serotype Ia was the most common serotype (n=27, 45%), followed by serotype III (n=10, 16.7%), V (n=9, 15%), VI (n=8, 13.3%), VIII (n=2, 3.3%) and VII (n=1, 1.7%). Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing showed a diverse genetic pedigree for all isolates, including four major groups that clustered according to geographical location. This preliminary study determines the prevalence of limited common serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in distinct GBS isolates. Nonetheless, the RAPD clustering pattern suggests a close genetic lineage of the GBS isolates based on their isolation sites and location of hospitals. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geothermal development in southwest Idaho: the socioeconomic data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer,S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This report inventories, analyzes, and appraises the existing socioeconomic data base for the ten counties in southwest Idaho that would be impacted by any significant geothermal development. The inventory describes key sociological demographic, and economic characteristics, and presents spatial boundaries, housing data, and projections of population and economic activity for the counties. The inventory identifies the significant gaps in the existing data base and makes recommendations for future research.

  11. Geothermal development in southwest Idaho: the socioeconomic data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.

    1979-09-01

    This report inventories, analyzes, and appraises the exiting socioeconomic data base for the ten counties in southwest Idaho that would be impacted by any significant geothermal development. The inventory describes key sociological demographic, and economic characteristics, and presents spatial boundaries, housing data, and projections of population and economic activity for the counties. The inventory identifies the significant gaps in the existing data base and makes recommendations for future research.

  12. Testicular microlithiasis is associated with ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a database of scrotal...... on the examination report and a representative image obtained and stored. A total of 1105 cases with TML were reviewed and random sample of 1105 controls from the same database was also reviewed. Demographics were recorded including ethnicity (white, black, and others) and socioeconomic groups (IMD Quintile......). RESULTS: Black men had increased prevalence of TML (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72-2.75) compared with white men. Among the 1105 TML cases, 423 (38.3%) were white, 273 (24.7%) black, 152 (13.8%) had other ethnicities, and 257 (23.2%) had no ethnicity recorded. In the control...

  13. Geo-Demographic Risks in the Apuseni Mountains. Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA MUREŞAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The territorial system of the Apuseni Mountains can be considered a critical region from a geo-demographic viewpoint. This is due to two major geo-demographic risks that affect it at present, namely the massive migration, mainly of the young and adult population, and the severe decrease in birth rate, also as a consequence of migration. These two processes determine the main two geo-demographic risks within the Apuseni Mountains: on the one hand, depopulation and the geo-demographic decline of the settlements and, on the other hand, population ageing. The present study aims to analyse the latter by focussing on the Land of the Moţi. Conclusions emphasise a rather severe process of demographic ageing. The rate of the old age group increased from 17.9% in 1992 to 25.2% in 2011. All the 16 administrative-territorial units under analysis recorded an increase in the rate of the old age group. In 2011, the ratio of the extreme age groups (young population/old age group is above the unit (1 both in the region as a whole and in the majority of its administrative units.

  14. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  15. Indicadores sócio-econômicos, demográficos e estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes residentes em um assentamento rural do Rio de Janeiro Socioeconomic and demographic indicators and nutritional status of children in a rural land settlement in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Valeria da Veiga

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se indicadores sócio-econômicos e perfil nutricional de 201 crianças e adolescentes do assentamento rural de São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Considerou-se déficit nutricional valores abaixo de -2 escore z da mediana da referência National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS para os índices peso para idade (P/I e estatura para idade (E/I para os menores de 5 anos e peso para estatura (P/E e E/I entre 5,0 a 9,9 anos. Para os adolescentes utilizou-se os cortes inferiores ao percentil 5 (magreza e superiores ao percentil 85 (sobrepeso da distribuição de índice de massa corporal (IMC da população brasileira. Encontrou-se: 53,8% dos domicílios com 4 a 6 moradores, 34,5% com fossa rudimentar, 31,2% sem água canalizada, 11,0% sem banheiro, 58,2% queimavam ou enterravam o lixo e 13,6% das mães eram analfabetas. A faixa de 0 a 4,9 anos não apresentou nenhum tipo de déficit nutricional e entre 5 a 9,9 anos apenas um apresentou baixo peso e três sobrepeso. Concluiu-se que a baixa prevalência de déficits nutricionais no grupo estudado, apesar da exposição a fatores de risco, pode relacionar-se com a presença de fatores de proteção como o acesso a serviços de saúde e que o sobrepeso em adolescentes (13,3% foi relevante.This study evaluated socioeconomic indicators and nutritional status in 201 children and adolescents in a rural land settlement in São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Nutritional deficit was defined as a value below -2 z score for the reference median from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS for weight-for-age (W/A and stature-for-age (S/A for children under five years of age and weight-for-stature (W/S and S/A for children from 5.0 to 9.9 years. For adolescents, the study used cut-off points at the 5th percentile (thin and 85th percentile (overweight from the distribution of body mass index (BMI in the Brazilian population. According to the study, 53.8% of the households had 4 to 6

  16. Distribution of Industrial Farms in the United States and Socioeconomic, Health, and Environmental Characteristics of Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Rafael Harun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of producing food animals has changed in the United States over the past century, moving from traditional burns to enclosed structures resembling industrial buildings, where animals are raised in high stocking density (commonly known as “Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations,” CAFOs. The objective to maximize profit has resulted in poor farm management; raised issues of environmental pollution, public health, animal rights, and environmental justice, and had socio-economic impacts. Studies concerning the issues are limited to specific regions and types of CAFOs. In addition, studies on the spatial distribution and temporal changes of CAFO at a country scale are lacking. This study bridges some of the gaps by analyzing the spatial distribution of industrial farms in the United States in 2002 and 2007 and their relationship with vulnerable population and exploring the relationships among the concentrations of farms, socio-economic, health, and environmental characteristics of the counties. A range of spatial statistics tools were applied in this study. The study revealed variations in spatial distribution depending on the type of the CAFOs. The issue of environmental justice was found prevalent depending on the types of industrial farms. Each type of industrial farm was found to interact uniquely with the selected demographic, health, and environmental parameters.

  17. Land Change Trends in the Great Plains: Linkages to Climate Variability and Socioeconomic Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Land use and land cover change have complex linkages to climate variability and change, socioeconomic driving forces, and land management challenges. To assess these land change dynamics and their driving forces in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary land conversion across seventeen ecoregions using Landsat remote sensing data and statistical analysis. Large area change analysis in agricultural regions is often hampered by the potential for substantial change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur in relatively small patches at the local level. To facilitate a regional scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10-km by 10-km blocks is used in order to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time periods between 1972 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Results show a range of rates and processes of land change that vary by ecoregion contingent on the prevailing interactions between socioeconomic and environmental factors such as climate variability, water availability, and land quality. Ecoregions have differential climate and biophysical advantages for agricultural production and other land use change. Human actions further strengthen or dampen the characteristics of change through farm policy, technological advances, economic opportunities, population and demographic shifts, and surface and groundwater irrigation.

  18. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  19. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examined the socioeconomic factors affecting the adoption of improved cassava varieties in Abia State. The study was carried out in Abia State. Five out of 17 LGAs in Abia State were purposely selected due to their popularity in cassava production. One hundred and fifty farmers were randomly selected and ...

  20. Distribution of Health-Related Physical Fitness in Texas Youth: A Demographic and Geographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Ihmels, Michelle; Seeger, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examined demographic and geographic variability in aggregated school-level data on the percentage of students achieving the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zones[TM] (HFZ). Three-way analyses of variance were used to examine differences in fitness achievement rates among schools that had distinct diversity and socioeconomic status…

  1. Influence of Family and Socio-Demographic Variables on Students with Low Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Pedro F.; Garcia-Linares, M. Cruz; de la Torre, Manuel J.; Carpio, M. de la Villa

    2005-01-01

    In this study we compare the distribution of parental educational styles and the scores reported both by parents and students for various family characteristics (acceptance, control, involvement, and expectations) and socio-demographic factors (socio-economic status, family structure, number of children, and order of birth of the children) in a…

  2. The social and demographic correlates of divorce in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, K

    1998-09-01

    "This article examines the rate of divorce by age, sex and duration of marital life at the time of divorce in rural Bangladesh for a period of 18 years from 1975 to 1992. An attempt has also been made to investigate the extent to which the incidence of divorce changes with the various socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The overall divorce rates per thousand married males and females declined from 16.1 to 11.5 and 11.8 to 8.4, respectively, during the study periods 1975-1979 and 1989-1992." excerpt

  3. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  4. Incidence and Demographics of Pediatric Intracranial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillson, Natalie; Jones, Charlotte; Reem, Rachel E; Rogers, David L; Zumberge, Nicholas; Aylward, Shawn C

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed the incidence and demographic features of pediatric intracranial hypertension. Inpatient and outpatient encounters of children aged 18 years or younger who were diagnosed with primary (idiopathic) or secondary intracranial hypertension between January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Data were collected from a subspecialty clinic devoted to intracranial hypertension and the sole children's hospital in a large Midwestern city of the United States. Estimated incidence rates were calculated based on the number of newly diagnosed patients in our hospital's primary service area, which includes seven central Ohio counties. Sex, race, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and geographic distribution were also noted. A total of 74 pediatric patients were diagnosed with intracranial hypertension (49 primary/idiopathic and 25 secondary) between January 2010 and December 2013. Using census data, we determined the pediatric population in our service area during the four-year period. The Ohio Hospital Association's database indicated that 92.3% of patients aged 0 to 17 years residing in the region sought care at our institution. By combining these data, we calculated an annual incidence of primary and secondary intracranial hypertension of 0.63 and 0.32 per 100,000 children, respectively. The estimated annual incidence of pediatric primary intracranial hypertension in our seven county service area in central Ohio is similar to previous pediatric reports from other countries and is 67% of that reported in the US adult population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities of tuberculosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyandi, M; Ramachandran, Rajeswari

    2008-07-01

    The association between poverty and tuberculosis (TB) is well established and widespread. To study the socioeconomic inequalities of TB in India. Information related to socioeconomic inequalities of TB in India was reviewed, including study of varying prevalence and infection, regional disparities and demographic disparities of disease of TB with a view to establish a link between TB and poverty, in terms of income, standard of living, house type and social class. The burden of TB for India for the year 2000 was estimated to be 8.5 million and the annual risk of TB infection varied from 1 to 2%. The TB prevalence was significantly higher among people living below the poverty line compared with those above the poverty line (242 versus 149/100,000 population). Among the marginalized people, TB was 1.5 times more prevalent. TB was disproportionately high among the poor. Poverty and inequality were very closely linked. Today's great health challenge is equity: accelerating health progress in poor and socially excluded groups.

  6. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  7. Social demographic change and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Parental age at child's birth--which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992-2000 birth cohorts--is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents' DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism.

  8. Using Twitter data for demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Yildiz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social media data is a promising source of social science data. However, deriving the demographic characteristics of users and dealing with the nonrandom, nonrepresentative populations from which they are drawn represent challenges for social scientists. Objective: Given the growing use of social media data in social science research, this paper asks two questions: 1 To what extent are findings obtained with social media data generalizable to broader populations, and 2 what is the best practice for estimating demographic information from Twitter data? Methods: Our analyses use information gathered from 979,992 geo-located Tweets sent by 22,356 unique users in South East England between 23 June and 4 July 2014. We estimate demographic characteristics of the Twitter users with the crowd-sourcing platform CrowdFlower and the image-recognition software Face++. To evaluate bias in the data, we run a series of log-linear models with offsets and calibrate the nonrepresentative sample of Twitter users with mid-year population estimates for South East England. Results: CrowdFlower proves to be more accurate than Face++ for the measurement of age, whereas both tools are highly reliable for measuring the sex of Twitter users. The calibration exercise allows bias correction in the age-, sex-, and location-specific population counts obtained from the Twitter population by augmenting Twitter data with mid-year population estimates. Contribution: The paper proposes best practices for estimating Twitter users' basic demographic characteristics and a calibration method to address the selection bias in the Twitter population, allowing researchers to generalize findings based on Twitter to the general population.

  9. Inappropriately ordered echocardiograms are related to socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Gabriel P; Vyse, Stuart; Silverman, David I

    2012-01-01

    Although the appropriateness of ordering tests is increasingly measured, the demographic characteristics of patients receiving inappropriate cardiac tests, such as echocardiograms, have seldom been studied. The authors hypothesized that particular patient characteristics might influence the frequency of inappropriate echocardiogram ordering. Demographics and appropriateness were examined in a consecutive series of 535 inpatients receiving echocardiograms at a metropolitan hospital; inappropriate tests were ordered in 9% of cases. Disabled patients received a significantly higher proportion of inappropriate echocardiograms compared to both retired and employed patients. Among patients receiving repeat echocardiograms, Medicaid patients were significantly more likely to receive inappropriately ordered echocardiograms than patients with either Medicare or private insurance. In conclusion, certain socioeconomic and demographic characteristics are associated with a higher incidence of inappropriate test ordering. Further research into the causal factors behind this association may be useful to reduce inappropriate test ordering.

  10. Motivations for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy as a function of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Dadrie F; MacGeorge, Erina L; Venetis, Maria K; Mouton, Ashton; Friley, L Brooke; Pastor, Rebekah; Hatten, Kristen; Lagoo, Janaka; Clare, Susan E; Bowling, Monet W

    2017-02-01

    Despite no demonstrated survival advantage for women at average risk of breast cancer, rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) continue to increase. Research reveals women with higher socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to select CPM. This study examines how indicators of SES, age, and disease severity affect CPM motivations. Patients (N = 113) who underwent CPM at four Indiana University affiliated hospitals completed telephone interviews in 2013. Participants answered questions about 11 CPM motivations and provided demographic information. Responses to motivation items were factor analyzed, resulting in 4 motivational factors: reducing long-term risk, symmetry, avoiding future medical visits, and avoiding treatments. Across demographic differences, reducing long-term risk was the strongest CPM motivation. Lower income predicted stronger motivation to reduce long-term risk and avoid treatment. Older participants were more motivated to avoid treatment; younger and more-educated patients were more concerned about symmetry. Greater severity of diagnosis predicted avoiding treatments. Reducing long-term risk is the primary motivation across groups, but there are also notable differences as a function of age, education, income, and disease severity. To stop the trend of increasing CPM, physicians must tailor patient counseling to address motivations that are consistent across patient populations and those that vary between populations.

  11. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Ebener, Stefan; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  12. [The demographic history of Majorca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, A; Suau, J

    1986-03-01

    Data from parochial records, censuses, and other sources are analyzed to study the demographic changes that occurred between 1590 and 1789 in the Spanish island of Majorca. Topics covered include population density, spatial distribution, urbanization, infant mortality, and fertility. A bibliography of 86 references is included.

  13. Socio-economic analysis in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    which is adaptable to all types of infrastructure related problems, and which can be used for decision support on both the administrative as well as the political level. In the administrative decision process the socio-economic analysis provides a foundation for a systematic examination of which project...... types or initiatives that are socio-economically most suitable for handling a specific infrastructure problem. Hence, the socio-economic appraisal can help undertaking a sound selection of the possible solutions that should be examined in further details. The socio-economic analysis is as well...... an important element in the political decision process. The analysis provides information about how the society’s resources – from an economic viewpoint – are used in the best possible way, and how costs and benefits are distributed between e.g. the state, the users and the environment. The society does...

  14. Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors related to instrumental activity of daily living dynamics: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Orsi, Eleonora; Xavier, Andre Junqueira; Steptoe, Andrew; de Oliveira, Cesar; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Orrell, Martin; Demakakos, Panayotes; Marmot, Michael Gideon

    2014-09-01

    To investigate socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors that predict incident instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) impairment and recovery. Data from English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a biennial prospective observational study. Individuals aged 50 and older living in England. A sample of 8,154 individuals without any difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs) or IADLs was selected from the initial 11,391 participants. The first outcome was impairment in at least one IADL, and the second was IADL recovery. Main predictor: baseline socioeconomic position measured according to wealth. Outcomes and predictors were measured at each of the five follow-up interviews. Unadjusted and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated through 2-year lagged Poisson regression in generalized estimating equation models, adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, quality-of-life, and health variables. Between any two consecutive waves, 1,656 (20.3%) participants developed some IADL impairment. Those with higher socioeconomic position, better quality of life, vigorous physical activity, paid work, digital literacy (use of Internet or e-mail), and cultural leisure activities had significantly lower risk of IADL impairment. There was a significant association between smoking, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, poor memory, diabetes mellitus, and depressive symptoms and IADL impairment. Better quality of life, good self-rated memory and vigorous physical activity were independent predictors of IADL recovery. Better quality of life, vigorous physical activity, not smoking, paid work, cultural leisure activities, and digital literacy are modifiable factors that can decrease the incidence of IADL impairment. Good quality of life and vigorous physical activity have a significant role in recovery. Low socioeconomic position was a predictor of incident impairment of IADLs but not recovery. © 2014, Copyright the Authors

  15. Bet Hedging against Demographic Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, BingKan; Leibler, Stanislas

    2017-09-01

    Biological organisms have to cope with stochastic variations in both the external environment and the internal population dynamics. Theoretical studies and laboratory experiments suggest that population diversification could be an effective bet-hedging strategy for adaptation to varying environments. Here we show that bet hedging can also be effective against demographic fluctuations that pose a trade-off between growth and survival for populations even in a constant environment. A species can maximize its overall abundance in the long term by diversifying into coexisting subpopulations of both "fast-growing" and "better-surviving" individuals. Our model generalizes statistical physics models of birth-death processes to incorporate dispersal, during which new populations are founded, and can further incorporate variations of local environments. In this way, we unify different bet-hedging strategies against demographic and environmental variations as a general means of adaptation to both types of uncertainties in population growth.

  16. Socio-demographic predictors of sleep complaints in indigenous Siberians with a mixed economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah J; Klimova, Tatiana M; Knuston, Kristen L; Fedorova, Valentina I; Fedorov, Afanasy; Yegorovna, Baltakhinova M; Leonard, William R

    2015-08-01

    Socio-demographic indicators closely relate to sleep in industrialized populations. However we know very little about how such factors impact sleep in populations undergoing industrialization. Within populations transitioning to the global economy, the preliminary evidence has found an inconsistent relationship between socio-demographics and sleep complaints across countries and social strata. Surveys were conducted on a sample of rural Sakha (Yakut) adults (n = 168) during the autumn of 2103 to assess variation in socio-demographics and sleep complaints, including trouble sleeping and daytime sleepiness. Socio-demographic variables included age, gender, socioeconomic measures, and markers of traditional/market-based lifestyle. We tested whether the socio-demographic variables predicted sleep complaints using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions. Trouble sleeping was reported by 18.5% of the participants and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) by 17.3%. Trouble sleeping was significantly predicted by older age, female gender, and mixing traditional and market-based lifestyles. EDS was not significantly predicted by any socio-demographic variable. These findings support the few large-scale studies that found inconsistent relationships between measures of socioeconomic status and sleep complaints in transitioning populations. Employing a mix of traditional and market-based lifestyles may leave Sakha in a space of vulnerability, leading to trouble sleeping. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Demographic changes and health management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2006-01-01

    Since our Constitution declaration in 1978 and General Law for Health in 1986, to date, the Spanish society has undergorne marked social changes. Socio-economic and health indicators in Spain have also improved as to an increased life expectancy, important reduction in infant mortality, and favourable changes reported in the national Health Survey. Risk factors influence the main causes of death, thus it is said that "man does not die but it kills himself". Healthy health practices are specified, and there is empirical evidence of greater disability-adjusted life years, a better adherence to Mediterranean diet, no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, enough time of sleeping, weight control, avoiding obsity and overweight, and increased physical activity, all the above practices achieving a healthier life. At a global scale in the world we live, famine has no frontiers, and fighting against this plague can not await longer. Overall, health and poverty are correlated and it must be overcome for reasons of human dignity, universal rights (even in ius gentium), and ethical dimension as normative of new socio-economic structures. Present must be transformed to recover hope in ou global world, still hungry, and in need of justice, enlightenment and solidarity.

  18. Factors associated with avoidable hospitalisation of children younger than 2 years old: the 2006 Brazilian National Demographic Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Tulio; Mais, Laís Amaral; Taddei, José A A C

    2015-08-21

    Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) are conditions for which hospitalisation is thought to be avoidable with the use of effective preventive care and early disease management. The objective of this study was to estimate the rate of avoidable hospitalisations in children younger than 24 months of age participating in a Brazilian national representative survey and to identify the risk factors for such hospitalisations. We analysed data from a cross-sectional study of 1901 children from the 2006 Brazilian National Demographic Health Survey of Women and Children (NDHS). The children's socioeconomic, biological and maternal characteristics, nutritional status, and access to healthcare were tested; variables with p < 0.20 were selected to fit a Poisson regression. The prevalence of avoidable hospitalisation was 11.8% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 9.0, 15.2); the prevalence was higher in the Southeast (40.1%) and Northwest (21.7%) macro-regions. The multivariate model identified five risk factors for avoidable hospitalisation: male gender (Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 1.48, p = 0.004), low socioeconomic level (PR = 1.51, p = 0.005), children from mothers younger than 20 years of age (PR = 1.41, p = 0.031), not breastfed within the first hour of life (PR = 1.29, p = 0.034), and neonatal hospitalisation (PR = 1.66, p = 0.043). To decrease the costs associated with avoidable hospitalisations, health managers and professionals should focus their efforts on providing effective primary healthcare to families of low socioeconomic levels, particularly prenatal and paediatric care, as well as encouraging breastfeeding and supporting young mothers. Strategies to improve children's health by controlling such hospitalisations in Brazil should consider all residence areas and geopolitical macro-regions.

  19. err aA spatial evaluation of socio demographics surrounding National Priorities List sites in Florida using a distance-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiros Gebre-Egziabher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, various spatial techniques have been demonstrated using geographical information systems (GIS to adequately estimate and characterize inequities of minority populations living near environmentally hazardous facilities. However, these methods have produced mixed results. In this study, we use recently developed variations of the "distance based" approach to spatially evaluate and compare demographic and socioeconomic disparities surrounding the worst hazardous waste sites in Florida. Methods We used data from the 2000 US Census Bureau and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to identify selected socio and economic variables within one (1 mile of 71 National Priorities List (NPL or Superfund sites in Florida. ArcMap (ESRI, v. 9.2 was used to map the centroid locations of each of the NPL sites as well as identify and estimate the number of host and non-host tracts. The unit of analysis in this study was at the census tract level. Logistic regression (SAS v9.1.3 was used to determine if race/ethnicity and socioeconomic indicators are significant predictors of the location of NPL sites. Results There were significant differences in race/ethnicity composition and socio-economic factors between NPL host census tracts and non-host census tracts in Florida. The percentages of Blacks (OR = 5.7, p Conclusion The recently developed distance-based method supports previous studies and suggests that race and ethnicity play substantial roles in where hazardous facilities are located in Florida. Recommendations include using distance-based methods to evaluate socio and demographic characteristics surrounding other less known environmental hazardous facilities, such as landfills, or Toxic Release Inventory (TRI sites.

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in the use of outpatient services in Brazil according to health care need: evidence from the World Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza-Júnior Paulo RB

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian health system is founded on the principle of equity, meaning provision of equal care for equal needs. However, little is known about the impact of health policies in narrowing socioeconomic health inequalities. Using data from the Brazilian World Health Survey, this paper addresses socioeconomic inequalities in the use of outpatient services according to intensity of need. Methods A three-stage cluster sampling was used to select 5000 adults (18 years and over. The non-response rate was 24.7% and calibration of the natural expansion factors was necessary to obtain the demographic structure of the Brazilian population. Utilization was established by use of outpatient services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Socioeconomic inequalities were analyzed by logistic regression models using years of schooling and private health insurance as independent variables, and controlling by age and sex. Effects of the socioeconomic variables on health services utilization were further analyzed according to self-rated health (good, fair and poor, considered as an indicator of intensity of health care need. Results Among the 5000 respondents, 63.4% used an outpatient service in the year preceding the survey. The association of health services utilization and self-rated health was significant (p Conclusions The analysis showed that the social gradient in outpatient services utilization decreases as the need is more intense. Among individuals with good self-rated health, possible explanations for the inequality are the lower use of preventive services and unequal supply of health services among the socially disadvantaged groups, or excessive use of health services by the wealthy. On the other hand, our results indicate an adequate performance of the Brazilian health system in narrowing socioeconomic inequalities in health in the most serious situations of need.

  1. The socio-demographic and malocclusion characteristics of adolescents presenting for specialist orthodontic treatment in New Zealand practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, David L; Gauld, Robin D; Thomson, W Murray

    2015-05-01

    There are few reports of the socio-demographic and malocclusion characteristics of those undergoing clinical orthodontic treatment in private specialist practice. To describe the pretreatment characteristics of individuals presenting for orthodontic treatment. Individuals (N = 174) presenting for orthodontic treatment in 19 private specialist orthodontic practices in New Zealand were randomly selected and examined (at the beginning of a three-year prospective study) and their malocclusions compared using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The mean DAI score was 35.8 (SD 8.4). There were no statistically significant socio-demographic differences in DAI score other than by household-based socio-economic status (SES), whereby mean scores were considerably higher in those of low SES. The majority of patients attending for treatment had severe or very severe/handicapping malocclusions. Females had less severe malocclusions than males, on average, although the difference was not statistically significant. The malocclusion severity threshold for seeking orthodontic treatment appears to be higher in those of lower SES. The study findings highlight the need to improve access to orthodontic treatment for this group.

  2. Sleep in adolescents of different socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Pereira Gomes Felden

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population.

  3. Socioeconomic Disparities in Maternity Care among Indian Adolescents, 1990–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandan; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2013-01-01

    Background India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010); and adolescent (aged 15–19) mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)–5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15–19) in India during 1990–2006. Methods and Findings Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992–93, 1998–99, and 2005–06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990–2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. Conclusion Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive ‘adolescent scheme’ along the lines of ‘Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and

  4. Socioeconomic disparities in maternity care among Indian adolescents, 1990-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandan; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2013-01-01

    India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010); and adolescent (aged 15-19) mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)-5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15-19) in India during 1990-2006. Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990-2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive 'adolescent scheme' along the lines of 'Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and Child health Care' to address the unmet need of reproductive and

  5. Socioeconomic disparities in maternity care among Indian adolescents, 1990-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010; and adolescent (aged 15-19 mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG-5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15-19 in India during 1990-2006. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990-2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. CONCLUSION: Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive 'adolescent scheme' along the lines of 'Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and Child

  6. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that current economic status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years.

  7. Socioeconomic factors and low birth weight in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa-Barragán Juan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight (LBW is a public health problem linked to lack of equity in populations. Despite efforts to decrease the proportion of newborns with LBW, success has been quite limited. In recent years, studies focused on explaining how social factors influence this problem have shown that populations with greater inequities have a greater proportion of newborns with LBW. Methods The objective was to describe socioeconomic factors related to LBW adjusted by demographic, reproductive and health services variables in Mexico City. A case-control study was carried out in three hospitals with gynaecological and obstetrics services in Mexico City during the first half of 1996. During the recruiting period all children with LBW (cases, defined as newborns weighing Results We found that low socioeconomic level was the most important risk factor for LBW and was independent of other factors, including those related to reproduction and nutrition, smoking, morbidity during pregnancy, accessibility to health services and prenatal care (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.19, 6.03. Conclusion We found that socioeconomic factors are relevant to LBW. However further research should be done in different population groups as well as developing precise ways of measuring socioeconomic factors and their role in reproductive health.

  8. "Where People Like Me Don't Belong": Faculty Members from Low-Socioeconomic-Status Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines class as a potential source of stigma faculty members from low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) backgrounds. Based on 47 interviews with demographically diverse respondents at a wide range of institutions, the article examines respondents' narratives of direct and indirect stigmatization around class as well as respondents'…

  9. Associations between Children's Socioeconomic Status and Prefrontal Cortical Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gwendolyn M.; Duda, Jeffrey T.; Avants, Brian B.; Wu, Jue; Farah, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function performance and measures of prefrontal cortical function, but little is known about its anatomical correlates. Structural MRI and demographic data from a sample of 283 healthy children from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development were used to investigate the relationship…

  10. Dietary and socio-economic correlates of nutritional status in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a lack of data on trends in body composition among developing countries and the distribution of malnutrition among adults is poorly understood. Thus, the objective was to establish nutritional status, demographic make-up, dietary habits, and to determine if socioeconomic variables or dietary habits are associated ...

  11. Demographic consequences of defeating aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion of this study is that population changes are surprisingly slow in their response to a dramatic life extension. For example, we applied the cohort-component method of population projections to 2005 Swedish population for several scenarios of life extension and a fertility schedule observed in 2005. Even for very long 100-year projection horizon, with the most radical life extension scenario (assuming no aging at all after age 60), the total population increases by 22% only (from 9.1 to 11.0 million). Moreover, if some members of society reject to use new anti-aging technologies for some religious or any other reasons (inconvenience, non-compliance, fear of side effects, costs, etc.), then the total population size may even decrease over time. Thus, even in the case of the most radical life extension scenario, population growth could be relatively slow and may not necessarily lead to overpopulation. Therefore, the real concerns should be placed not on the threat of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation), but rather on such potential obstacles to a success of biomedical war on aging, as scientific, organizational, and financial limitations.

  12. Demographic, socioeconomic and educational aspects of obesity in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicarslan, Alpaslan; Isildak, Mehlika; Guven, Gulay Sain; Oz, S Gul; Tannover, Mine Durusu; Duman, A Erkan; Saracbasi, Osman; Sozen, Tumay

    2006-08-01

    Obesity as a disease is a yet-unidentified sum of genetic and environmental factors. Risky eating behavior and lifestyle may bring the disease. The aim of the study was to find out risk factors for obesity factors influencing definition of obesity. Participants (n = 1500) who filled out a questionnaire about eating habits are grouped according to their body mass indices as normal weight, overweight and obese (n = 500 in each group). According to our results, the prevalence of having obese first-degree relatives is significantly higher in obese individuals (p graduates, whereas this ratio was only 31% in the obese group (p higher in married participants when compared to the single or divorced/widowed persons (p graduate increases the risk about 1.5 times. Lower educational level, unemployment and lack of counseling seem to be risk factors associated with obesity. Diverging patterns of sociodemographic features, lifestyles and perception were evident even between overweight and obese populations.

  13. Socio-economic and demographic profile of traditional and functional food consumers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer quantitative survey was performed on general population 18+ in Serbia at the end of September - begging of October 2010. The instrument used in this survey was a structured questionnaire. The stratified three-staged random representative sample is applied (N=516. Based on reported frequency of consumption two groups of consumers were identified: (1 conservative consumers who reported high level of traditional food consumption and simultaneously lower level of functional food consumption (NT=196; (2 innovators represented by the heavy functional food consumers who reported lower level of traditional food consumption (NF=60. A descriptive statistical analysis (parametric and nonparametric was conducted with the aim to investigate all statistically significant differences between two consumers' group profiles. The so-called conservative consumers dominate over heavy functional food consumer group in our sample. The heavy traditional food consumers are older on average and more unemployed (as retired people are considered as unemployed and exposed to social influences. 'Traditional food' in Serbia is perceived as home-made, tasty and healthy, with long heritage. Differences in age and education between two compared consumers groups indicate possible transition of diet pattern toward more frequent functional food consumption.

  14. Socio-economic and demographic profile of traditional and functional food consumers in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Žaklina; Barjolle Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Consumer quantitative survey was performed on general population 18+ in Serbia at the end of September - begging of October 2010. The instrument used in this survey was a structured questionnaire. The stratified three-staged random representative sample is applied (N=516). Based on reported frequency of consumption two groups of consumers were identified: (1) conservative consumers who reported high level of traditional food consumption and simultaneously lower level of functional food consum...

  15. Influence of socioeconomic, clinical and demographic variables on caries experience of preschool children in Piracicaba, SP

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Laura Cortellazzi; Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro; Andrea Videira Assaf; Ana Paula Martins de Freitas Tafner; Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano; Telmo Oliveira Bittar; Marcelo de Castro Meneghim; Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de variáveis socioeconômicas, clínicas e demográfica na experiência de cárie em pré-escolares de 5 anos de idade da cidade de Piracicaba. METODOLOGIA: A amostra consistiu de 728 crianças matriculadas em 22 pré-escolas públicas (n = 428) e 18 pré-escolas privadas (n = 300). A cárie dentária foi avaliada pelos índices ceo-d e ceo-s e pela detecção de lesão inicial (LI). Outras variáveis clínicas como gengivite, apinhamento, espaçamento, fluorose e respiração bucal...

  16. International migration: demographic and socioeconomic consequences in the United Kingdom and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A

    1995-01-01

    "This article evaluates the consequences of international migration since World War II, with particular reference to Great Britain. It emphasizes the substantial differences between the origins and responses to immigration in the United Kingdom and that of the rest of Western Europe." It is found that "people of non-European origin from Commonwealth countries have predominated in postwar immigration to the United Kingdom. That migration neutralized the previously dominant pattern of emigration and increased U.K. population by about 3 million people through immigration and higher fertility, with only slight effects upon the age distribution." excerpt

  17. Demographic and Socio-economic Determinants of Birth Interval Dynamics in Manipur: A Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanajaoba Singh N,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The birth interval is a major determinant of levels of fertility in high fertility populations. A house-to-house survey of 1225 women in Manipur, a tiny state in North Eastern India was carried out to investigate birth interval patterns and its determinants. Using survival analysis, among the nine explanatory variables of interest, only three factors – infant mortality, Lactation and use of contraceptive devices have highly significant effect (P<0.01 on the duration of birth interval and only three factors – age at marriage of wife, parity and sex of child are found to be significant (P<0.05 on the duration variable.

  18. Socioeconomic and Demographic Disparities in Knowledge of Reproductive Healthcare among Female University Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nazrul Islam Mondal, PhD,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health (RH is a critical component of women’s health and overall well-being around the world, especially in developing countries. We examine the factors that determine knowledge of RH care among female university students in Bangladesh. Methods: Data on 300 female students were collected from Rajshahi University, Bangladesh through a structured questionnaire using purposive sampling technique. The data were used for univariate analysis, to carry out the description of the variables; bivariate analysis was used to examine the associations between the variables; and finally, multivariate analysis (binary logistic regression model was used to examine and fit the model and interpret the parameter estimates, especially in terms of odds ratios. Results: The results revealed that more than one-third (34.3% respondents do not have sufficient knowledge of RH care. The X2 -test identified the significant (p < 0.05 associations between respondents’ knowledge of RH care with respondents’ age, education, family type, watching television; and knowledge about pregnancy, family planning, and contraceptive use. Finally, the binary logistic regression model identified respondents’ age, education, family type; and knowledge about family planning, and contraceptive use as the significant (p < 0.05 predictors of RH care. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Knowledge of RH care among female university students was found unsatisfactory. Government and concerned organizations should promote and strengthen various health education programs to focus on RH care especially for the female university students in Bangladesh.

  19. Influence of demographic factors on knowledge sharing among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge sharing is an effective means to provide information for organizational growth. The study investigated the influence of demographic factors on knowledge sharing among researchers in selected research institutes in Oyo state, Nigeria. The study adopted survey research method. Total enumeration technique was ...

  20. Demographic Determinants of Locus of Control among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Levenson Multidimensional Locus of Control Inventory and a Socio - demographic data collection sheet were used to collect data from 262 (183 males and 79 females) students selected through convenience sampling. Data were th analyzed using the 16th version of the SPPS. Percentages, means, t-test and ANOVA ...

  1. A survey of demographics and information demands of dairy producers.

    OpenAIRE

    VanLeeuwen, J A; Keefe, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    Survey responses from 75 randomly selected dairy producers on Prince Edward Island were summarized to obtain a demographic picture of the dairy industry in this province and to determine information management practices and demands for the future. The results indicate a preparedness for dairy production in the future.

  2. Socio-demographic determinants and impact on academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants and impact on academic performance of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in school children in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted between February and August 2006 among 1473 public primary school pupils aged 6 to 12 years, selected randomly ...

  3. Economic Effects of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litra A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania goes through profound changes due to unprecedented demographic developments. As a result of declining birth rates and emigration after 1990, by the year 2060 is looming a possible doubling of the percentage of the population 65 years and over, from 15 to 30%, and the working age population to fall by about 30 percent. Deterioration of the relationship between labour force and inactive population leads to pressure on the public budget and tax system, strains on pension and social security systems, redefining consumer preferences, type and size of the saved or spent amounts, higher demand for healthcare services, increasing poverty risk for elderly households.

  4. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

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    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  5. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-13

    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  6. The Role of Socioeconomic Status in Medical School Admissions: Validation of a Socioeconomic Indicator for Use in Medical School Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbic, Douglas; Jones, David J; Case, Steven T

    2015-07-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts educational opportunities and outcomes which explains, in part, why the majority of medical students come from the upper two quintiles of family income. A two-factor SES indicator based on parental education (E) and occupation (O) has recently been established by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). This study validates this two-factor indicator as applicable to the national pool of medical school applicants. The AAMC SES EO indicator classifies applicants into five ordered groups (EO-1 through EO-5) based on four aggregated categories of parental education and two aggregated categories of occupation. The EO indicator was applied to the 2012 American Medical College Application Service applicant pool. The authors examined the associations that the EO category had with six additional and independent indicators of socioeconomic (dis)advantage, as well as with demographic and educational characteristics and life experiences. The EO indicator could be applied to 89% of the 2012 applicants. The lower the EO category, the stronger the association with each of the six indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage. Other notable, but weaker, associations with the EO indicator were differences by age, race/ethnicity, performance on the Medical College Admission Test, community college attendance, and certain self-reported life experiences. The EO indicator provides a simple, intuitive, widely applicable, and valid means for identifying applicants from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. This affords admissions committees an additional factor to consider during the holistic review of applicants in order to further diversify the medical school class.

  7. Analysis of socio-economic factors influencing farmers' adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to analyze the socio-economic determinants of adoption of improved maize production practices (IMPPs) in Ikara Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select 120 respondents for the study. The data were analyzed using frequency count, ...

  8. Socio-Economic Determinants of African Eggplant ( Solanum Gilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the socio-economic determinants of African eggplant in Abia State. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in selecting 120 respondents and a set of well-structured questionnaire was used in data collection. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that age, marital status, ...

  9. Socio-Economic Status as Predictor of Deviant Behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated socio-economic status as predictor of deviant behaviours among Nigeria secondary school students. The subject were sixty five students with an age range of 10 – 19 years drawn from Senior secondary school (SSS) 1 – III in four secondary schools in Oyo State. The subjects were selected from those ...

  10. Socio-Economic Characteristics Of Snail Farmers, Consumers And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic characteristic of snail farmers in Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) was evaluated in two out of the four zones that were available. The two zones selected were Ibadan/Ibarapa and Oyo zones, to determine the factors related to snail production, consumption and marketing in the ...

  11. Socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; Nigeria. Primary data was collected using a well structured questionnaire administered to 180 registered cocoa farmers selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ...

  12. Socio-Economic Characteristics of Registered Cocoa Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of registered cocoa farmers in Edo State; Nigeria. Primary data was collected using a well-structured questionnaire administered to 180 registered cocoa farmers selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive ...

  13. Socioeconomic Factors Influence Physical Activity and Sport in Quebec Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Lebel, Alexandre; Robitaille, Éric; Bisset, Sherri

    2016-01-01

    Background: School environments providing a wide selection of physical activities and sufficient facilities are both essential and formative to ensure young people adopt active lifestyles. We describe the association between school opportunities for physical activity and socioeconomic factors measured by low-income cutoff index, school size…

  14. Socio-economic characteristics and rural households'perception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the relationships between socioeconomic characteristics of rural households and theirperception about the consumption of grasscutter meat in some selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kogi State. In all, one hundred and fifty questionnaires were randomly administered but only one hundred ...

  15. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the socio-economic factors influencing the adoption of rice varieties with high yielding and weed suppressing abilities in Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 135 rice farmers for the study. Descriptive statistics, logit regression analysis and likert ...

  16. Socio-economic determinants of the quality of Irvingia gabonensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to assess the socio-economic determinants of the quantity of Irvingia gabonensis (ogbono) harvested by rural dwellers in Sagbama Local Government Areas of Bayelsa State. A total of sixty respondents were randomly selected from twelve rural communities of the study area. Data were collected ...

  17. Gender, socio-economic status and educational level as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive research approach was used to determine the joint and relative effects of gender, socio-economic status and educational level on career maturity of secondary school students.. The study was carried out in four randomly selected secondary schools in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.

  18. Socio-economic Determinants of Domestic Violence Suffered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by rural women crop farmers in Orlu agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 80 rural women crop farmers for the study. Data were collected using structured interview schedule and ...

  19. Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors of sense of coherence among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Tavel, Peter; Gajdosova, Beata; Orosova, Oega; Zezula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2008-01-01

    Study explores the influence of selected socioeconomic (education and unemployment of father/mother) and psychosocial factors (perceived social support from father, mother, friends, atmosphere and study conditions at school) on sense of coherence (13-item Antonovsky scale) among adolescents (n=1992,

  20. The Socio-Economic Impact of Stroke on Households in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Livingstone, Zambia, more than 30% of stroke victims indicate socio-economic problems. The study aimed at assessing the socio-economic impact of stroke in households in Livingstone district. A total of 50 households were conveniently selected from the Physiotherapy and Community Based Rehabilitation registers of ...

  1. The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Pearl Millet ( Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Pearl Millet ( Pennisetum glaucum l.) Production in ... Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... The study investigated farmers' socio-economic factor affecting pearl millet production in randomly selected villages in Magumeri Local Government Area of Borno State. A total of ...

  2. Demographic potential of the Nišava district

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    Đokić Mrđan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the demographic potential of the Nišava District at the administrative level of municipality. It is shown through the analysis of the selected indicators: numerical trends and age structure of the population. The main demographic processes that characterize the observed district are the overall depopulation (the decrease of the total population and the aging of the population. Due to this, the change in the population numbers according to previous censuses has been investigated in order to determine its intensity in different periods. Some population characteristics such as the age of the population, the aging index, the age coefficient, the young population contingent (0-19 and the old population continent (60 and over as well as the fertile and labor contingent have been used to represent the age structure. The changes in the educational structure are considered in interaction with the processes of depopulation and demographic aging. This has been an attempt to determine the degree of correlation between demographic processes and the education level of the population. The results of the analysis of the demographic potential point to spatial disparity of the Nišava District. Unfavorable demographic processes, extreme depopulation and aging of the population of this district have had a large influence on the weakening of the demographic basis and the decrease in the overall potential of the observed district. The mutual dependence of the process of depopulation and pronounced changes in the age structure towards ever increasing aging of the population has created a vicious cycle which leads to unfavorable and unstoppable demographic changes in this area.

  3. [Socioeconomic conditions of population reproduction in Equatorial Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidenova, P

    1985-01-01

    Current demographic trends in Sub-Saharan Africa are reviewed. The author notes that although the region is rich in natural resources, the population is still primarily rural, poor, and at an early stage in the socioeconomic development process. Differences in living standards among various social groups are analyzed using data from published sources, primarily concerning Zaire, Rwanda, Cameroon, and the Congo. It is noted that although levels of employment, income, and educational status have increased since independence, the impact of these changes on fertility has been slight; however, levels of mortality have declined significantly.

  4. Socio-economic and environmental determinants of children’s health in a big city (the case study of Lviv city, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Myroslava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the current economic and political instability in Ukraine, children's health is most certainly the best indicator of socioeconomic development within the country and its different regions. This article analyses the socio-economic and environmental determinants of a child’s health in a big city (using the example of Lviv, a city in Ukraine. The demographic indicators of the child population of the city of Lviv and the reasons for mortality were traced; the structure of children’s diseases was analyzed; the factors affecting children’s health potential (such as local budget expenditures on health care, the level of average nominal wages, the ecological situation in the region were studied. Published and non-published statistical data from the Main Statistical Department of Lviv Region, Lviv City Council were used. Specific consumer behavior among randomly selected Lviv households with children aged between 0-14 years was studied by using a special survey. Research results show the links between socio-economic and ecological factors (local budget expenditures on health care, the level of average nominal wages, the ecological indices in the region, and child mortality. The limited capacity of parents to satisfy the basic needs of households and complete lack, or limitation, of time that parents spend with their children undoubtedly influences the potential of children’s health in a destructive way.

  5. Socioeconomic conditions of elderly people in Kosovo: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerliu, Naim; Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Ramadani, Naser; Brand, Helmut

    2012-07-09

    Kosovo is the newest state in Europe facing a particularly difficult socioeconomic and political transition. The available evidence on socioeconomic conditions and quality of life of elderly people in Kosovo is scarce notwithstanding the ageing trend due to lowering of fertility rates and a higher life-expectancy. In this context, the aim of our study was to assess the socioeconomic conditions of elderly people in post-war Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in January-March 2011 including an age- sex-and residence (urban vs. rural)-stratified sample of 1,890 individuals (83.5% response) aged 65 years and over. A structured questionnaire included assessment of socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics including educational level and self-perceived poverty. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of self-perceived poverty with socio-demographic and socioeconomic factors. The educational level in this representative sample of elderly people in Kosovo was quite low, particularly among women. About 47% of respondents perceived themselves as poor, or extremely poor (41% of men and 52% of women). In multivariable-adjusted models, self-perceived poverty was higher among older women, low educated individuals, urban residents, and elderly individuals living alone. Findings from this study indicate that the socioeconomic situation of the elderly population in Kosovo is rather challenging. Demographic trends coupled with the economic and political transition raise serious concerns about increasing needs for socioeconomic support of elderly people in Kosovo. Specific policies and actions should be considered by a number of stakeholders, including government and civil society in transitional Kosovo.

  6. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... previous studies have limited value because they are based on recall or area-based measures of socioeconomic position, and might thus be subject to selective participation and misclassification. In this study we investigated differences in CRC screening participation using register-based individual...

  7. Socio-economic characteristics of patients with generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine socio-economic characteristics of patients with generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study with analysis of socio-economic characteristics including income, education, employment status and civil status in 2285 patients from...... the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry and 228,500 control subjects matched by age and gender. Demographic and socio-economic data were retrieved from Statistics Denmark. Differences between cases and controls were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: On 1 January 2012, 2285 patients......95, 0.33-0.45). More patients than controls were pensioners (OR, 6.04; CI95, 5.23-6.97). CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients with generalized retinal dystrophy differed significantly from a matched control group on several socio-economic characteristics. The differences were more pronounced...

  8. [Family planning and demographic regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Regales, M

    1979-06-01

    The problem of demographic explosion must be reexamined in the light of what has happened during the last 15-20 years in all industrialized countries, which have all experienced a sharp decrease in fertility rates due to the introduction of modern contraceptive technics, decreased mortality, and the possibility of easily obtaining induced legal abortion. Countries such as West Germany, England, Scotland, and Luxembourg have already reached zero population growth; countries such as Austria, Norway, Finland, Sweden have a growth rate of merely 0.2%. In most western countries average parity is 1.8 children per woman, when 2.18 children are needed to guarantee replacement. The sharpest decrease in fertility rates took place in West Germany and in France; should the tendency in those countries continue West Germany population would go from 60 million inhabitants to 39 million in 2030, and France would go from 53 million to 16 million. Demographic aging is another phenomenon related to fertility decrease; in 1977 in the United States 11% of the population was already over 65. Results of fertility decrease have been so sharp and so rapid that many Eastern European countries have already introduced incentives to reverse the trend, and/or to make abortion more difficult to obtain. This policy of incentives to encourage population growth has reached West Germany where since 1978 very young couples are given monetary help. Beside contraceptive availability population decrease has been fostered by the enormous increase in the rate of divorces and by the very liberal abortion laws. A large number of today's births are illegitimate, due mainly to the practice of trial marriages, without intention of real marriage, among adolescents.

  9. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of

  10. Assessment of the changes in the socio-economic structure of rural areas in 2000-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Dudek, Michał; Wrzochalska, Agnieszka; Zwoliński, Łukasz

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of the selected socio-demographic characteristics of the rural population in 2000-2005. Changes in the socio-demographic characteristics of the farm managers. Assessment of living conditions and health conditions of the rural population.

  11. India's demographic change: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K S

    2011-07-29

    This paper discusses emerging demographic patterns and its opportunities and challenges for India. It investigates the specificities in the demographic transition in terms of various demographic parameters and the lack of homogeneity in the transition across states in the country. It presents some opportunities that can arise from having demographic changes, particularly the demographic dividend and interstate migration to overcome labor shortage in some parts. At the same time, there are serious challenges in the form of enhancing human capital development, addressing the issue of skewed sex ratio, and the possible rise in social and political unrest and conflict.

  12. Socio-economic development of northern regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusif Alimovich Gadzhiev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the characteristics and trends of socio-economic development of northern regions. To assess the socio-economic differentiation, groups of 21 primary indicator were selected (five economic, three financial, eleven social and two spacial. With the help of the statistical characteristics, the degree of economic and social divergence and convergence of the territories is determined. On the basis of principal component factor analysis and Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis, four groups of regions in terms of socio-economic development were identified - highly developed, developed, underdeveloped and problematic. A meaningful characterization of these clusters, which allows differential regulation of the development in the northern regions, is given. With respect to each type is necessary to develop a focused state regional policy in order to soften the uneven development and improve social and economic development of northern regions.

  13. Demographic Research On the Socio Economic Background of Students of the Ecological University of Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Mihaela Mihăilă

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a socio demographic and economic research performed on the first year students at the Ecological University of Bucharest, where we are focusing on understanding and investigating the conditions inside the families and the social environment in the home towns of these students. This research is a key in understanding the correlations between the socio-economic conditions inside the family geographical area and the actual career options and decisions of the newly admitted students to our faculties.

  14. Socio-demographic, Epidemiological and Environmental Determinants of Acute Gastroenteritis in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Prafulbhai Rupani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Socio-demographic factors (higher socio-economic status, epidemiological correlates (change in taste of water, another family member been affected with acute gastroenteritis and eating outside food and environmental determinants (waste disposal in a common dump and waste accumulation around house significantly determines the occurrence of cases of acute gastroenteritis. Keywords: case-control studies;diarrhea; epidemiologic determinants; gastroenteritis; social determinants of health. | PubMed

  15. Forecasting societies' adaptive capacities through a demographic metabolism model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Muttarak, Raya

    2017-03-01

    In seeking to understand how future societies will be affected by climate change we cannot simply assume they will be identical to those of today, because climate and societies are both dynamic. Here we propose that the concept of demographic metabolism and the associated methods of multi-dimensional population projections provide an effective analytical toolbox to forecast important aspects of societal change that affect adaptive capacity. We present an example of how the changing educational composition of future populations can influence societies' adaptive capacity. Multi-dimensional population projections form the human core of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways scenarios, and knowledge and analytical tools from demography have great value in assessing the likely implications of climate change on future human well-being.

  16. Geriatric trauma: demographics, injuries, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Julie M; Sciadini, Marcus F; Sinclair, Elizabeth; O'Toole, Robert V

    2012-09-01

    To identify injuries that elderly sustain during high-energy trauma and determine which are associated with mortality. Retrospective review of prospectively collected database. Academic trauma center. Patients selected from database of all trauma admissions from January 2004 through June 2009. Study population consisted of patients directly admitted from scene of injury who sustained high-energy trauma with at least one orthopaedic injury and were 65 years or older (n = 597). Review of demographics, trauma markers, injuries, and disposition statuses. Statistical analysis using χ test, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis. The most common fractures were of the rib, distal radius, pelvic ring, facial bones, proximal humerus, clavicle, ankle, and sacrum. The injuries associated with the highest mortality rates were fractures of the cervical spine with neurological deficit (47%), at the C2 level (44%), and of the proximal femur (25%), pelvic ring (25%), clavicle (24%), and distal humerus (24%). The fractures significantly associated with mortality were fractures of the clavicle (P = 0.001), foot joints (P = 0.001), proximal humerus or shaft and head of the humerus (P = 0.002), sacroiliac joint (P = 0.004), and distal ulna (P = 0.002). Elderly patients present with significantly worse injuries, remain in the hospital longer, require greater use of resources after discharge, and die at 3 times the rate of the younger population. Although the high mortality rates associated with cervical spine, hip, and pelvic ring fractures were not unexpected, the injuries that were statistically associated with mortality were unexpected. Injuries such as clavicle fracture were statistically associated with mortality. As our population ages and becomes more active, the demographic may gain in clinical importance. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Adolescent sleep disturbance and school performance: the confounding variable of socioeconomics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pagel, James F; Forister, Natalie; Kwiatkowki, Carol

    2007-01-01

    To assess how selected socioeconomic variables known to affect school performance alter the association between reported sleep disturbance and poor school performance in a contiguous middle school/high school population...

  18. Regional socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity as predictors of regional infant mortality rate in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Kollarova, Jana; Rosic, Martin; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exploring the associations of regional differences in infant mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity could offer important clues for designing public health policy measures. Methods Data included perinatal and infant mortality in the 79 districts of the Slovak

  19. Health literacy, socioeconomic status and self-rated health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Yoko; Kondo, Naoki; Yamagata, Zentaro; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy (HL) is a key determinant of health in a contemporary society characterized by abundant information. Previous studies have suggested that basic or functional HL is positively associated with health, whereas evidences on the association between health and communicative/critical HL are scarce. Furthermore, confounding by socioeconomic status on HL-health association has been poorly tested. Using cross-sectional data from a nationally representative community-based survey in Japan, we investigated whether communicative/critical HL is associated with self-rated health independent of socioeconomic status. A total of 1237 subjects participated in this study; the response rate was 62%. To measure communicative/critical HL, we used three questions assessing the respondents' ability to select, to communicate to others and to evaluate specific health-related information. Potential confounders included demographic factors, household income, employment status, and educational attainment. A multivariate model revealed that good self-reported health was significantly associated with younger age [odds ratio (OR), 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-0.99], employment (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.06-7.88) and higher communicative/critical HL scores (OR 2.75; 95%CI, 1.93-3.90). Respondents with lower education were likely to have poorer communicative/critical HL. These results imply that to close the health gap, policy interventions should focus on the promotion of HL among deprived sociodemographic groups. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Role of Socio-economic Indicators in the Causation of Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tupil Kannan Anjur

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available South Asian countries have a high prevalence of coronary heart disease (CAD in line with their economic development. In these countries, we find nearly one quarter of the total world population in the process of nutritional transition, from poverty to affluence due to rapid economic development. India; in particular, with a population of over one billion has a high burden of CAD. To evaluate the role of socio-economic and demographic variables on the coronary artery disease. A hospital based case-control study was conducted to investigate the role of social related risk factors on coronary artery disease (CAD in an urban area of East Delhi from April 2002 to December 2004. To obtain more validate comparisons, a control group also was selected from community of East Delhi. The tools of enquiry were a pre-tested and pre-coded questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory testes. A confidence level of 95% and study power of 80% were considered for the interpretation of possible significant findings. Sexwise stratified analysis was separately done for male and female subjects. Comparison of male cases with their counterparts in both control groups indicated that the majority of them had significantly a college education, higher monthly income, semi or full professional occupations and were living in families with size of more than 9. The similar results was found for female cases as that majority of them as compare to females in both control groups were literate, employed and belonging to families with income levels of more than RS.8000. In addition, belonging to religion other than Hindus was another significant variable that was accounted for as risk for getting CAD. Our findings indicate that both male and female cases belonging to high socio-economic classes had higher chance for getting CAD as compare to their counterparte.

  1. Adolescent sleep disturbance and school performance: the confounding variable of socioeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, James F; Forister, Natalie; Kwiatkowki, Carol

    2007-02-15

    To assess how selected socioeconomic variables known to affect school performance alter the association between reported sleep disturbance and poor school performance in a contiguous middle school/high school population. A school district/college IRB approved questionnaire was distributed in science and health classes in middle school and high school. This questionnaire included a frequency scaled pediatric sleep disturbance questionnaire for completion by students and a permission and demographic questionnaire for completion by parents (completed questionnaires n = 238 with 69.3% including GPA). Sleep complaints occur at high frequency in this sample (sleep onset insomnia 60% > 1 x /wk.; 21.2% every night; sleepiness during the day (45.7% > 1 x /wk.; 15.2 % every night), and difficulty concentrating (54.6% > 1 x /wk.; 12.9% always). Students with lower grade point averages (GPAs) were more likely to have restless/aching legs when trying to fall asleep, difficulty concentrating during the day, snoring every night, difficulty waking in the morning, sleepiness during the day, and falling asleep in class. Lower reported GPAs were significantly associated with lower household incomes. After statistically controlling for income, restless legs, sleepiness during the day, and difficulty with concentration continued to significantly affect school performance. This study provides additional evidence indicating that sleep disturbances occur at high frequencies in adolescents and significantly affect daytime performance, as measured by GPA. The socioeconomic variable of household income also significantly affects GPA. After statistically controlling for age and household income, the number and type of sleep variables noted to significantly affect GPA are altered but persistent in demonstrating significant effects on school performance.

  2. Correlation between perception of quality of life and social/demographic/medical variables as well as anti-health behaviours among alcohol-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The level of life quality of people with alcohol dependence is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as: gender, marital status and having a family. Additionally promoting anti-health behaviors such as smoking or using psychoactive substances among those with alcohol dependence also reduces the quality of life in this population. Aim of the research: The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of selected psycho-social and medical factors on the quality of life in alcohol-dependent patients in relation to the duration of abstinence. Study data served to determine whether there is a correlation between the presence of selected psycho-social and medical factors and a patient’s subjective perception of his/her quality of life. Material and methods: The study involved alcohol-dependent patients undergoing treatment in the Residential Alcohol Addiction Therapy Department of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lublin. In the first stage of the study, the severity of the alcohol problem was assessed with the MAST and CAGE tests and quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. An Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. In the second stage of the study, the SF-36 scale was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. Results : The socio-economic factors that had a statistically significant impact on the quality of life of the alcohol-dependent individuals comprised sex, marital status and having a family. Marital status was shown to be one of the most important family-related factors significantly influencing the quality of life. Having a family was not a factor associated with subjective improvement of the quality of life during abstinence for alcohol-dependent individuals. Awareness of socio-economic and medical factors influencing quality of life in individuals addicted to alcohol and gambling is an important

  3. The socio-economical burden of hypersomnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, P; Kjellberg, J

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of socio-economical consequences of hypersomnia this study addresses the factual indirect and direct costs.......In the absence of socio-economical consequences of hypersomnia this study addresses the factual indirect and direct costs....

  4. Gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, C; Etches, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: There is uncertainty about whether position in a socioeconomic hierarchy confers different mortality risks on men and women. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in risk of death.

  5. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  6. Socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Poel, Ellen; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Ourti, Tom; Vega, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to report on socioeconomic inequality in childhood malnutrition in the developing world, to provide evidence for an association between socioeconomic inequality and the average level of malnutrition, and to draw attention to different patterns of socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition. METHODS: Both stunting and wasting were measured using new WHO child growth standards. Socioeconomic status was estimated by principal component analysis using a s...

  7. Evaluation of socio-demographic variables affecting the periodontal health of pregnant women in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jagjit Singh; Lehl, Gurvanit; Sodhi, Sachinjeet K; Sachdeva, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The literature is replete with reports that pregnant women have an increased level of periodontal disease as compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. There are many studies correlating the effect of periodontal disease on the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The development of periodontal diseases during pregnancy can be influenced by factors such as preexisting oral conditions, general health, and socio-cultural background. There is very little data studying the effect of socio-demographic factors on the periodontal health of pregnant women. This study evaluated the periodontal status of a sample of pregnant women of Chandigarh and adjoining areas. The study also investigated the relationship between these variables and a series of demographic and clinical variables. The participants were 190 pregnant women attending Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient department of Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. The participants were examined for their periodontal health and various socio-demographic variables were recorded on performas designed for the purpose of study. Statistical analysis was done. The results revealed that the mean bleeding index scores and probing depth increased with statistical significance when the socio-economic status was lower (P0.1). The plaque index was not significantly associated with the socio-economic status, profession, place of residence, and trimester of pregnancy (P>0.1). In the population of pregnant women investigated under this study, the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics showed non-significant correlation except socio-economic status which showed statistically significant correlation with bleeding on probing and pocket depth. Further studies may be required in Indian population to determine the association of periodontal diseases in pregnant women with socio-demographic variables.

  8. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  9. Factors Associated with Malnutrition among Under-Five Children: Illustration using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2014 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Talukder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children in Bangladesh by analyzing the data from a nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS in 2014. The ordinal dependent variable—child nutrition status (severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, and nourished—was developed by calculating weight-for-age Z score (WAZ. Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing gamma measure and chi-square test of independence to explore the association between child nutrition status and selected independent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular ordinal model—namely, the proportional odds (PO model—was considered. All the selected covariates were found highly significant (p < 0.01 in the bivariate setup. However, in the multivariate setup, father’s and mother’s education, wealth index, mother’s body mass index (BMI, and antenatal care service during pregnancy were found highly significant (p < 0.01 factors for child malnutrition. Among the divisions, only Dhaka had more control on child malnutrition, compared to the Sylhet division. Birth interval of children was also reported as a significant factor at a 5% level of significance. Finally, the results of this paper strongly highlighted the necessity of increasing parent’s education level, improving the mother’s nutritional status, and increasing facilities providing antenatal care service in order to achieve better nutrition status among under-five children in Bangladesh.

  10. Factors Associated with Malnutrition among Under-Five Children: Illustration using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2014 Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashis

    2017-10-19

    Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children in Bangladesh by analyzing the data from a nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) in 2014. The ordinal dependent variable-child nutrition status (severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, and nourished)-was developed by calculating weight-for-age Z score (WAZ). Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing gamma measure and chi-square test of independence to explore the association between child nutrition status and selected independent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular ordinal model-namely, the proportional odds (PO) model-was considered. All the selected covariates were found highly significant (p < 0.01) in the bivariate setup. However, in the multivariate setup, father's and mother's education, wealth index, mother's body mass index (BMI), and antenatal care service during pregnancy were found highly significant (p < 0.01) factors for child malnutrition. Among the divisions, only Dhaka had more control on child malnutrition, compared to the Sylhet division. Birth interval of children was also reported as a significant factor at a 5% level of significance. Finally, the results of this paper strongly highlighted the necessity of increasing parent's education level, improving the mother's nutritional status, and increasing facilities providing antenatal care service in order to achieve better nutrition status among under-five children in Bangladesh.

  11. A socioeconomic profile of vulnerable land to desertification in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes, soil vulnerability, loss in biodiversity, and growing human pressure are threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems which are increasingly considered as a desertification hotspot. In this region, land vulnerability to desertification strongly depends on the interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. The present study proposes a multivariate exploratory analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of land vulnerability to desertification and the socioeconomic contexts found in three geographical divisions of Italy (north, center and south) based on statistical indicators. A total of 111 indicators describing different themes (demography, human settlements, labor market and human capital, rural development, income and wealth) were used to discriminate vulnerable from non-vulnerable areas. The resulting socioeconomic profile of vulnerable areas in northern and southern Italy diverged significantly, the importance of demographic and economic indicators being higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy. On the contrary, human settlement indicators were found more important to discriminate vulnerable and non-vulnerable areas in northern Italy, suggesting a role for peri-urbanization in shaping the future vulnerable areas. An in-depth knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of vulnerable land may contribute to scenarios' modeling and the development of more effective policies to combat desertification. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between socioeconomic status and obesity in Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterico, Julio A; Stanojevic, Sanja; Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2012-11-01

    Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country's development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008), we investigated this relationship in women aged 15-49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multistage nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.3-14.8); 8.4% (95% CI: 7.5-9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95% CI: 15.2-17.2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru.

  13. Dietary patterns and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, P; Clarys, P; Hulens, M; Vansant, G

    2010-03-01

    To test a socioeconomic hypothesis on three dietary patterns and to describe the relation between three commonly used methods to determine dietary patterns, namely Healthy Eating Index, Mediterranean Diet Score and principal component analysis. Cross-sectional design in 1852 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the food consumption frequency was recorded. The correlation coefficients between the three dietary patterns varied between 0.43 and 0.62. The highest correlation was found between Healthy Eating Index and Healthy Dietary Pattern (principal components analysis). Cohen's kappa coefficient of agreement varied between 0.10 and 0.20. After age-adjustment, education and income remained associated with the most healthy dietary pattern. Even when both socioeconomic indicators were used together in one model, higher income and education were associated with higher scores for Healthy Eating Index, Mediterranean Diet Score and Healthy Dietary Pattern. The least healthy quintiles of dietary pattern as measured by the three methods were associated with a clustering of unhealthy behaviors, that is, smoking, low physical activity, highest intake of total fat and saturated fatty acids, and low intakes of fruits and vegetables. The three dietary patterns used indicated that the most healthy patterns were associated with a higher socioeconomic position, while lower patterns were associated with several unhealthy behaviors.

  14. Socioeconomic Inequality in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.

  15. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2014-03-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives-classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the "second demographic transition," the spread of developmental idealism-that inform demographers' understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms.

  16. [Intersection between gender and socioeconomic status in medical sciences career choice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, Sandra; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth; Delgado-Sáncnchez, Guadalupe; Tamez-González, Silivia

    2006-01-01

    Analyze the relationship between gender identity and socioeconomic level associated with career choice among undergraduate students selecting the area of health sciences. Our sample was comprised of first year medical nutrition, dentistry and nursing students (n=637) admitted to the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Xochimilco. A self administered questionnaire was used. The dependent variable was career choice. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, gender norms in student's homes, and gender stereotype internalization. More female nursing students came from low socioeconomic strata, while medical students had a higher socioeconomic status. Among males, more nursing and medical students belonged to a higher socioeconomicstrata. Nutrition and dentistry students belonged to a medium strata. In comparison with males from high socioeconomic strata more male participants reported that household chores were divided among men and women. For women, as the socioeconomic level increased, the participation of men and women also increased. In the indicators of internalization of gender stereotypes, nursing students had the highest rates in the submission scale, but the lowest for masculinity and machismo. As the socioeconomic strata increased, the characteristics of masculinity and machismo also increased. The present results seem to indicate that among women of low socioeconomic strata more traditional gender stereotypes prevail which lead them to seek career choices considered femenine. Among men, there is a clear relationship between career choice, socioeconomic level and internalization of gender stereotypes.

  17. The welfare state and demographic dividends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Abío

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The demographic transition experienced by developed countries produces initial positive effects on economic growth ‒ the first demographic dividend ‒ which can be extended into a second demographic dividend if baby boomers' savings increase capital accumulation. Nevertheless, aging might reverse this process if dissaving of elderly baby boomers and the pressure on the pay-as-you-go financed welfare state reduce savings and capital. Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which demographic dividends in Spain provide an opportunity for the reform of the welfare state system for an aging population. Methods: We decompose demographic dividends using a general equilibrium overlapping generations model with realistic demography and public transfers from the National Transfer Accounts database. This allows us to capture the endogenous evolution of savings and capital accumulation and, hence, the second demographic dividend. Results: When baby boomers enter the labor market, the purely demographic support ratio increases and this positive effect is extended by composition changes in the age structure of workers. When they start saving, the second demographic dividend arises, while its total net effect depends both on the strength of the aging process and on transfer size. Conclusions: The derived decomposition shows that the second demographic dividend might also disappear. Sharp population aging in Spain implies that capital will shrink drastically after 2040. Before this, there seems to be margin for reforms; however, an extension of the welfare state toward the Nordic model would considerably reduce capital. Contribution: This paper contributes to the debate on the effects of demographics on economic growth by decomposing demographic dividends and investigating the impact of different welfare state transfer systems on the second demographic dividend.

  18. Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans’ health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners’ socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. Methods We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. Conclusions If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious – probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did

  19. Special Demographic Zone in Poland - in Search for the Gist of the Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Gerejczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The objective of this paper is to identify the gist of the Special Demographic Zone phenomenon by analyzing the changes in the demographic structure of the EU population at country and regional level. Design/methodology/approach - We have applied the Boolean keyword and subject term searches of scholarly articles published in EBSCO and EMERALD databases, as well as in Google Scholar, between 2006 and 2016, inclusive. The key words used in the analysis were: Special Demographic Zone and Special Demographic Zones. This systematic literature review enabled us to identify 15 scientific articles connected directly with the topic in question. Findings - We found that there are 3 strategies employed by the local and regional self-governments to tackle the demographic challenges. We present them as a 3A model, representing strategies: to acknowledge, to adapt and to (counter act. We perceive the Special Demographic Zone, defined as a policy tool, as a specific case of an act strategy. Research implications/limitations - The main implication of the research is that there are already tools and mechanism ready to be utilized by the self-governments in order to tackle demographic challenges, which contribute to the local and regional sustainable development. The recommendation for local authorities is to determine which policy direction (as presented in the 3A model should be embarked on in a given territory in order to maximize the sustainable effect of undertaken actions. Originality/value/contribution - The originality of this work lies in the development of a theoretical 3A model of self-government's policy reactions to the encountered demographic challenges and in the conceptualization of a Special Demographic Zone as a special case of an act policy strategy within the broad framework of regional socioeconomic policy. Furthermore, the article draws on up-to-date statistical data.

  20. Unobserved Heterogeneity of Frailty in the Analysis of Socioeconomic Differences in Health and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    -time observation of converging mortality risks in differential socioeconomic mortality research, the interest in the connection between frailty, selection, and health and mortality inequalities over a life course approach has increased only recently. This overview of the literature summarizes the main concepts...... inequalities in health and mortality in a life course approach is growing. The results, however, are contradictory, and whether selection plays a major role in shaping the observed socioeconomic mortality patterns at old ages is still controversial....... of unobserved frailty and socioeconomic differences in mortality and how frailty and selection relate to these differences at old ages. It then reviews the evidence coming from the existing studies. Although the number of studies is still limited, the body of research on unobserved frailty and socioeconomic...

  1. Growth of children living in the outskirts of Ankara: impact of low socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, Timur; Hauspie, Roland; Susanne, Charles; Güleç, Erksin

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of the growth of Turkish schoolchildren are limited to large cities and to subjects from high socio-economic background. Very little is known about growth and development of rural, suburban and low socio-economic children in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to compare height and weight of school-aged children of low socio-economic background with available growth data from high socio-economic strata, and to verify the possible influences of three socio-demographic parameters on their growth. The sample consisted of 1,052 girls and 1,223 boys, aged between 7-17 years, living in the outskirts of Ankara, a suburban area of poor socio-economic background. Centile distributions for height and weight were estimated by the LMS-method. ANOVA and Student's t-test were used to compare mean z-scores for height and weight among the various categories of the socio-demographic parameters. Children living in the outskirts of Ankara have lower mean values for height and weight when compared with growth data of upper socio-economic strata children. The differences were most pronounced during adolescence. Skinfolds were higher in girls than in boys at all ages (largest p = 0.007). There was no clear relationship between growth and the number of siblings, the number of rooms in the house, the mother's and father's education, and the father's professional status (p > 0.05), except for the height of girls (p growth status of children living in the outskirts of Ankara is attributable to the poor socio-economic status of this suburban population, which has not changed over the past decades. It is postulated that the growth impairment during adolescence might be due to a reduced tempo of growth in these children.

  2. Diffusion Approximations for Demographic Inference: DaDi

    OpenAIRE

    Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Williamson, Scott H.; Carlos D Bustamante

    2010-01-01

    Models of demographic history (population sizes, migration rates, and divergence times) inferred from genetic data complement archeology and serve as null models in genome scans for selection. Most current inference methods are computationally limited to considering simple models or non-recombining data. We introduce a method based on a diffusion approximation to the joint frequency spectrum of genetic variation between populations. Our implementation, DaDi, can model up to three interacting ...

  3. Socioeconomic Status, Psychosocial Resources and Risk, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Mexican-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Linda C.; Fortmann, Addie L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Elder, John P.; Espinosa de los Monteros, Karla; Shivpuri, Smriti; Mills, Paul J.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The current study examined the contributions of psychosocial resource and risk factors to the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) risk, in a randomly selected community cohort of 304 middle-aged (40–65 years old) Mexican-American women, a population at elevated cardiometabolic risk. Methods Participants underwent a clinical exam and completed measures of demographic factors and psychosocial resource (i.e., personal and social resources) and risk (i.e., negative emotions and cognitions) variables. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation models (SEMs) were performed in the total sample and in more and less US-acculturated women (defined by language preference) separately. Results CFAs revealed single latent constructs for SES (i.e., income, education) and psychosocial resources/risk. For the MetSyn, a 3-factor solution was identified, with blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), lipids (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides), and metabolic variables (glucose and waist circumference) forming separate factors. SEMs showed that an indirect effects model with SES relating to MetSyn factors through psychosocial resources/risk provided a reasonable descriptive and statistical fit in the full and more acculturated sample (RMSEA and SRMR psychosocial resources/higher psychosocial risk was identified in the overall and more acculturated samples (p psychosocial factors to SES-MetSyn associations were limited to the core underlying metabolic mechanisms, and to more US-acculturated women. PMID:22059620

  4. Urban mobility, socioeconomic and urban transport variables in metropolitan areas in three continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de; Nassi, C.D.

    2016-07-01

    Transportation is the soul of urban cities. Find sustainable ways to keep people moving in our cities is more important than ever. Historically, cities have developed in different ways. Each has its own personality and complexity. But in all cases, transport and mobility have played a key role in city life. Due to the relevance of mobility this article tries to establish the relationship between some variables. The method was developed by collecting, analyzing and comparing data on metropolitan regions in North America, South America, Europe and Oceania through a mathematical model. From each selected location the following data were gathered: population, area (km²), demographic density (inhab/km²), socio-economic aspects (annual GDP per capita), transport system (subway extension), number of trips per person per day and modal split (% non-motorized, % public transport and % private transport). In this study we analyze some variables that influence the number of trips per person per day. Understanding the associations between all the variables that influence the number of trips per person per day contributes the planners to determine whether changes are needed to improve in the transport system in the metropolitan region. (Author)

  5. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J

    2012-07-01

    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program.

  6. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  7. Socio-Economic Inequality of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Md. Saimul; Linton, Natalie; Rawal, Lal B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health challenge, and undermine social and economic development in much of the developing world, including Bangladesh. Epidemiologic evidence on the socioeconomic status (SES)-related pattern of NCDs remains limited in Bangladesh. This study assessed the relationship between three chronic NCDs and SES among the Bangladeshi population, paying particular attention to the differences between urban and rural areas. Materials and Method Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study. Using a concentration index (CI), we measured relative inequality across pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, hypertension, and BMI (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. A CI and its associated curve can be used to identify whether socioeconomic inequality exists for a given health variable. In addition, we estimated the health achievement index, integrating mean coverage and the distribution of coverage by rural and urban populations. Results Socioeconomic inequalities were observed across diseases and risk factors. Using CI, significant inequalities observed for pre-hypertension (CI = 0.09, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = 0.10, p = 0.001), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.01, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = 0.19, p<0.001), and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.45, p<0.001). In contrast to the high prevalence of the chronic health conditions among the urban richest, a significant difference in CI was observed for pre-hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.005), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.15, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = -0.26, p = 0.004) and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.25, p = 0.004) were observed more among the low wealth quintiles of rural population. In the same vein, the poorest rural households had more co-morbidities compared to the richest rural households (p = 0.003), and prevalence of co-morbidities was much higher

  8. Socio-Economic Inequality of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin Biswas

    Full Text Available Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are a major public health challenge, and undermine social and economic development in much of the developing world, including Bangladesh. Epidemiologic evidence on the socioeconomic status (SES-related pattern of NCDs remains limited in Bangladesh. This study assessed the relationship between three chronic NCDs and SES among the Bangladeshi population, paying particular attention to the differences between urban and rural areas.Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study. Using a concentration index (CI, we measured relative inequality across pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, hypertension, and BMI (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. A CI and its associated curve can be used to identify whether socioeconomic inequality exists for a given health variable. In addition, we estimated the health achievement index, integrating mean coverage and the distribution of coverage by rural and urban populations.Socioeconomic inequalities were observed across diseases and risk factors. Using CI, significant inequalities observed for pre-hypertension (CI = 0.09, p = 0.001, hypertension (CI = 0.10, p = 0.001, pre-diabetes (CI = -0.01, p = 0.005, diabetes (CI = 0.19, p<0.001, and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.45, p<0.001. In contrast to the high prevalence of the chronic health conditions among the urban richest, a significant difference in CI was observed for pre-hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.001, hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.005, pre-diabetes (CI = -0.15, p = 0.005, diabetes (CI = -0.26, p = 0.004 and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.25, p = 0.004 were observed more among the low wealth quintiles of rural population. In the same vein, the poorest rural households had more co-morbidities compared to the richest rural households (p = 0.003, and prevalence of co-morbidities was much higher for the richest urban households

  9. Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kéry, M.

    2004-06-01

    total of 620 marked ramets over 10 years, and for Cypripedium, two populations with 98 and 258 marked ramets over 11 years. We chose the ramet (= single stem or shoot as the demographic unit of our study since there was no way distinguishing among genets (genet = genetical individual, i.e., the “individual” that animal ecologists are mostly concerned with. This will introduce some non–independence into the data, which can nevertheless be dealt with easily by correcting variances for overdispersion. Using ramets instead of genets has the further advantage that individuals can be assigned to a state such as flowering or vegetative in an unambiguous manner. This is not possible when genets are the demographic units. In all three populations, auxiliary data was available to show that detection probability of aboveground plants was m 0.995 We fitted multistate models in program MARK by specifying three states (D, V, F, even though the dormant state D does not occur in the encounter histories. Detection probability is fixed at 1 for the vegetative (V and the flowering state (F and at zero for the dormant state (D. Rates of survival and of state transitions as well as slopes of covariate relationships can be estimated and LRT or the AIC machinery be used to select among models. To estimate the fraction of the population in the unobservable dormant state, the encounter histories are collapsed to 0 (plant not observed aboveground and 1 (plant observed aboveground. The Cormack–Jolly–Seber model without constraints on detection probability is used to estimate detection probability, the complement of which is the estimated fraction of the population in the dormant state. Parameter identifiability is an important issue in multi state models. We used the Catchpole–Morgan–Freeman approach to determine which parameters are estimable in principle in our multi state models. Most of 15 tested models were indeed estimable with the notable exception of the most general model

  10. Influence of Socio-Economic Characteristics of Yam Sellers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of demographic characteristics of yam wholesalers on the marketing margin of yam in Delta State. Data were collected from 80 randomly selected wholesale marketers of yam from 10 markets in 2 LGAs of the state. Findings show that wholesale market of yam is dominated by males ...

  11. influence of socio-economic characteristics of yam sellers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fff

    ABSTRACT. The study investigated the influence of demographic characteristics of yam wholesalers on the marketing margin of yam in Delta State. Data were collected from 80 randomly selected wholesale marketers of yam from 10 markets in 2 LGAs of the state. Findings show that wholesale market of yam is dominated ...

  12. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans

    The demographic transition is a universal phenomenon. All regions of the world experience a change from high levels of mortality and fertility to low levels. The onset and pace of the demographic transition vary between regions and countries because of differences in timing of events and conditions

  13. The Unaddressed Costs of Changing Student Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Leslie S.; Owings, William A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of changing student demographics on financing education and on our national wellbeing. We begin by examining the research of current student demographics and their relationship to learning and education costs. We then calculate a 1% cost factor from the average per-pupil expenditure based on the 2011 "Digest…

  14. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Matthijs, K.; Neels, K.; Timmerman, C.; Haers, J.; Mels, S.

    2016-01-01

    Willekens, F. (2015) Demographic transitions in Europe and the world. In: K. Matthijs, K. Neels, C. Timmerman. J. Haers and S. Mels eds. Population change at work in Europe, the Middle-East and North Africa. Beyond the demographic divide. Ashgate (International Population Studies Series) pp. 13-44.

  15. Bias and ignorance in demographic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, D; Guay, B; Marghetis, T

    2017-08-31

    When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty. In two publicly available datasets featuring demographic estimates from 14 countries, we found that proportion estimates of national demographics correspond closely to what is found in laboratory studies of quantitative estimates more generally. Biases in demographic estimation, therefore, are part of a very general pattern of human psychology-independent of the particular topic or demographic under consideration-that explains most of the error in estimates of the size of politically salient populations. By situating demographic estimates within a broader understanding of general quantity estimation, these results demand reevaluation of both topic-specific misinformation about demographic facts and topic-specific explanations of demographic ignorance, such as media bias and xenophobia.

  16. Demographic profile of patients diagnosed with intracranial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Meningiomas are common brain tumours and display gender, racial and ethnic differences in their demographic profile. The demographic profile of our patients diagnosed with intracranial meningiomas is presented and compared with the literature. Objectives: To determine the age, gender, racial and ethnic ...

  17. Is there a Demographic Time-bomb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2006-01-01

    The article discuss whether the demographic transition in Europe will have any impact on the future of the European welfare states......The article discuss whether the demographic transition in Europe will have any impact on the future of the European welfare states...

  18. Prevalence of major depressive disorder and socio-demographic correlates: Results of a representative household epidemiological survey in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Yan, Fang; Ma, Xin; Guo, Hong-Li; Tang, Yi-Lang; Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Zhu, Hong; Guo, Xiao-Bing; Yang, Yang; Li, Peng; Cao, Xin-Dong; Li, Hai-Ying; Li, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Ping; Xu, Qiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent mental disorder in the general population and has been associated with socioeconomic factors. Beijing has undergone significant socioeconomic changes in last decade, however no large-scale community epidemiological surveys of MDD have been conducted in Beijing since 2003. To determine the prevalence of MDD and its socio-demographic correlates in a representative household sample of the general population in Beijing, China. Data were collected from the 2010 representative household epidemiological survey of mental disorders in Beijing. The multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select qualified subjects in 18 districts and counties, and then face-to-face interviews were administered using the Chinese version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P) during November 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. 19,874 registered permanent residents were randomly identified and 16,032 (response rate=80.7%) completed face-to-face interviews. The time-point and life-time prevalence rates of MDD were estimated to be 1.10% (95% CI: 0.94-1.26%) and 3.56% (95% CI: 3.27-3.85%) respectively. Significant differences were found in sex, age, location of residence, marital status, education, employment status, personal/family monthly income, perception of family environment and relationship with others, when comparing residents with MDD to those without MDD. Those who were female, aged 45 or above, reported low family income, or reported an "average" or "poor" family environment were associated with a higher risk of MDD. The prevalence of MDD reported in this survey is relatively lower than that in other western countries. Female sex, age older than 45, low family income, and poor family environment appear to be independent risk factors for MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Final Report: Demographic Tools for Climate Change and Environmental Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Brian [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-24

    This report summarizes work over the course of a three-year project (2012-2015, with one year no-cost extension to 2016). The full proposal detailed six tasks: Task 1: Population projection model Task 2: Household model Task 3: Spatial population model Task 4: Integrated model development Task 5: Population projections for Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) Task 6: Population exposure to climate extremes We report on all six tasks, provide details on papers that have appeared or been submitted as a result of this project, and list selected key presentations that have been made within the university community and at professional meetings.

  20. Socio-economic database online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Tamisier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The SEDO project develops a flexible and reusable platform combining fast access, user freedom, and coherence of the results for presenting socio-economic data. Its first aim is to deliver on the Net the results of longitudinal surveys about the life in Luxemburg. Several search methods are available: hierarchical browsing, engine query, and top down navigation with minimal clicks for quick access to the main trends. Without the use of statistical tools nor expertise in the domain the user can perform advanced statistical calculations. Last, a modular architecture guarantees the portability of the application.

  1. [Contemplations on demographic theories (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W

    1979-03-01

    All demographic theories make statements on the relationship between population developments and economic developments. The demographic teachings of Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, and Karl Marx are embedded in their specific economic theories and contain ideologic statements which are not detrimental to demographic and economic sciences but a stimulus for research. The demographic theories which developed with the onset of the industrial revolution of the 19th century are all sceptical of too high populations independent of their analysis of the market mechanisms or of capitalistic production relationships. This has remained unchanged to date. The statistical evaluation of the 1980's underlines this problem. The reproductive behaviour and demographic theory of a highly industrialized economy can not be based on experience alone but must also be based on rational findings. The rejection of the prestige value of children on the reproductive behaviour which is independent of circumstances must be recognized.

  2. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental idealism—that inform demographers’ understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms. PMID:26078785

  3. Socioeconomic Characteristics and Motivations for Entering a Medical College--Differences between Graduate and Undergraduate Saudi Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Jahdali, Hamdan; Alqarni, Turki; AL-Jahdali, Sarah; Baharoon, Salim A.; AL-Harbi, Abdullah S.; Binsalih, Salih A.; Alshimemeri, Abdulah; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the reasons for and the factors associated with deciding to enter a medical school in our graduate and undergraduate medical students and whether differ between the two groups. Method: This is a cross-sectional study. The survey we developed to investigate demographic and socioeconomic data and…

  4. Socioeconomic and Gender Group Differences in Early Literacy Skills: A Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…

  5. Note about socio-economic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang

    2006-01-01

    This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines...... for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure...... projects are common and can be made at different levels of detail depending on the type of project and the decision making phase. A common feature of the different levels of detail of the socio-economic analysis is that the planned project(s) is compared with a basic; the basic alternative or a null...

  6. Socio-economic status and feeding habits of students in lower secondary schools in Bytom

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Wypych-Ślusarska; Elżbieta Czech; Joanna Kasznia-Kocot; Jerzy Słowiński; Małgorzata Kowalska; Ewa Niewiadomska; Michał Skrzypek; Jolanta Malinowska-Borowska

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Eating habits are formed in childhood and adolescence.. Economic issues including social and demographic factors influence the choice and quality of products consumed. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on eating habits of students in lower secondary schools. Material and methods: At the turn of 2011 and 2012, an epidemiological cross-sectional study on 1,099 students in lower secondary schools from Bytom was ...

  7. Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Knowledge on Tuberculosis among Adults in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sifrash Meseret Gelaw

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia is among highly tuberculosis affected countries. This might be related to low level of awareness on the disease in the population. The objective of the study was to determine the level of tuberculosis knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with it. Methods. The 2011 Ethiopia health and demographic survey data were used. Overall tuberculosis knowledge score was computed to evaluate the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify ind...

  8. Measuring socio-economic inequality: From dwellers' perspective within Bangalore urban agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.

  9. Demographics and cell types of bronchial carcinoma of a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, T K; Shahidullah, M; Debnath, C R; Hasan, I; Alam, N A; Paul, G K; Pandit, H

    2013-01-01

    Geographical and socio-economic factors such as climate, culture, ethnic origin, diet and life style such as smoking have been noted to influence the occurrence of bronchial carcinoma. We conducted this study to document the frequency of various histological types of bronchial carcinoma and correlated it with their demographic characteristics. This descriptive study was carried out among admitted patient with the suspicion of Bronchial carcinoma from January 2010 to January 2011 in medicine units of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh. Among those only 30 consecutive histopathologically &/or cytological confirmed cases of Bronchial carcinoma were included in the study. No age, gender, environmental or occupational limits were applied for the selection of patients. Patients already diagnosed by some other hospital presenting to our unit with complications were not included in the study. Age rang were 26-70 years. Majority of patients i.e. 63.33% (n=19) were found to be in their fourth and sixth decade of life. Males were 86.66% (n=26) as compared to females 13.44% (n=4) and male to female ratio were 6.5:1. The majority of the patients were belonged to urban areas 63.34% (n=19), while 36.66% (n=11) came from the Rural population. In this study smokers were 86.66% (n=26) and nonsmokers were 13.33% (n=4). In Occupational distribution farmers were 33.33% (n=10), service holders were 20% (n=6), businessman were 16.66% (n=5), all the female were house wife 13.33% (n=4). Specimens for histopathological study were collected by trans-thoracic needle aspiration under CT or ultrasono-guided. The results of cell types in histopathologically proven 30 Bronchial carcinoma patients were; 10(33.36%) adenocarcinoma, 7(23.33%) squamous cell carcinoma, 6(20%) small cell carcinoma, 4(13.33%) large cell carcinoma and 3(10%) non-small cell carcinoma.

  10. Prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetuga, Bolanle M; Njokama, Fidelis O; Olowu, Adebiyi O

    2005-03-02

    BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional interview study of 1675 randomly selected public primary and secondary school pupils aged 5 to less than 18 years was conducted in the Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria from October 1998 to September 1999. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of child labour was 64.5%: 68.6% among primary and 50.3% among secondary school pupils. Major economic activities included street trading (43.6%), selling in kiosks and shops (25.4%) and farming (23.6%). No child was involved in bonded labour or prostitution. Girls were more often involved in labour activities than boys (66.8% versus 62.1%, p = 0.048): this difference was most obvious with street trading (p = 0.0004). Most of the children (82.2%) involved in labour activities did so on the instruction of one or both parents in order to contribute to family income. Children of parents with low socio-economic status or of poorly educated parents were significantly involved in labour activities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001 respectively). Child labour was also significantly associated with increasing number of children in the family size (p = 0.002). A higher prevalence rate of child labour was observed among children living with parents and relations than among those living with unrelated guardians. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that smaller family size, parental education and family economic enhancement would reduce the pressure on parents to engage their children in labour activities.

  11. Prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njokama Fidelis O

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional interview study of 1675 randomly selected public primary and secondary school pupils aged 5 to less than 18 years was conducted in the Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria from October 1998 to September 1999. Results The overall prevalence of child labour was 64.5%: 68.6% among primary and 50.3% among secondary school pupils. Major economic activities included street trading (43.6%, selling in kiosks and shops (25.4% and farming (23.6%. No child was involved in bonded labour or prostitution. Girls were more often involved in labour activities than boys (66.8% versus 62.1%, p = 0.048: this difference was most obvious with street trading (p = 0.0004. Most of the children (82.2% involved in labour activities did so on the instruction of one or both parents in order to contribute to family income. Children of parents with low socio-economic status or of poorly educated parents were significantly involved in labour activities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001 respectively. Child labour was also significantly associated with increasing number of children in the family size (p = 0.002. A higher prevalence rate of child labour was observed among children living with parents and relations than among those living with unrelated guardians. Conclusion It is concluded that smaller family size, parental education and family economic enhancement would reduce the pressure on parents to engage their children in labour activities.

  12. Burnout syndrome in physical therapists - demographic and organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustułka-Piwnik, Urszula; Ryn, Zdzisław Jan; Krzywoszański, Łukasz; Stożek, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Professional burnout results from prolonged exposure to chronic, job-related stressors. According to Christina Maslach, professional burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Literature includes a number of reports on burnout syndrome within health service, but hardly ever do they make any references to physiotherapists. The purpose of this study is assessment of the level of professional burnout in a group of physiotherapists and investigating relationships between the indices of burnout syndrome and selected demographic as well as organizational variables. The study group consisted of 151 physiotherapists with at least 3 years of experience, employed in various health service outposts in Krakow, Poland. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. A questionnaire for the description of socio-demographic and work characteristics was used as well. Job burnout among the physiotherapists was manifested by an increased emotional exhaustion and decreased sense of personal achievement. Emotional exhaustion was significantly higher among physi cal therapists working with adults and employed in hospitals, depersonalization was higher among men, hospital workers and employees with seniority from 15 to 19 years, personal accomplishment was decreased among men and less-educated therapists. The study confirmed that indicators of burnout in physiotherapists are significantly associated with selected demographic and organizational variables. It is necessary to undertake a more exhaustive study of burnout in this group of employees, and implement elements of prevention.

  13. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  14. Socio-economic evaluation of selected biogas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F.; Martinsen, L.

    2013-05-15

    Financial and welfare economic analyses are conducted of 15 different biogas production scenarios that vary in terms of plant size and type of input. All considered scenarios lead to welfare economic losses. Overall welfare economic GHG reduction costs seem to increase with increasing crop/crop material share of input, and although the costs vary significantly across scenarios they are quite high for all scenarios. The financial analyses suggest that biogas production generally will be financially profitable for the agricultural sector and local CHP facilities but unprofitable for the biogas plants and the State. Seen from a policy perspective the results highlights the importance of designing regulatory instruments in a way that create incentives for private actors to engage in welfare economically desirable biogas production activities while discouraging the expansion of welfare economically undesirable activities. (Author)

  15. IPCC Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset consists of population, human development, economic, water resources, land...

  16. CONSANGUINITY BY RANDOM ISONYMY AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ARGENTINA: A POPULATION STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipierri, José Edgardo; Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Barrai, Italo; Redomero, Esperanza Gutiérrez; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción; Alfaro, Emma Laura

    2017-05-01

    In human populations various flexible, labile and interdependent structures (genetic, demographic, socioeconomic) co-exist, each of which can be organized in an hierarchical order corresponding to administrative entities. The relationship between consanguinity, as estimated by random isonymy (F ST), and socioeconomic conditions was analysed at different levels of political and administrative organization in Argentina. From the surnames of 22,666,139 voters from the 2001 electoral roll, F ST was estimated for 510 Argentinian departments. Using a principal component analysis, a Socio-Demographic and Economic Indicator (SDEI), summarizing the effect of 22 socioeconomic and demographic variables at the departmental level, was computed. The relationship between departmental F ST and SDEI values was analysed for the whole nation and within regions using multiple regression analysis. The F ST presented a clinal distribution with the highest values in the north and west of the country, while SDEI expressed the opposite behaviour. A negative and significant correlation was observed between F ST and SDEI, accounting for 46% of the variation in consanguinity in Argentina. The strongest correlations of F ST with SDEI were observed in the Central, Patagonia and Cuyo regions, i.e. those with the highest values of SDEI and lowest values of F ST.

  17. Differences in the socio-economic distribution of inflammatory bowel disease and microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Turner, K O; Genta, R M

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and microscopic colitis are characterized by different geographical distributions across the USA. In this cross-sectional study we utilized demographic and socio-economic information associated with individual ZIP codes to further delineate the epidemiological characteristics of the two diseases. A total of 813 057 patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2008 and 2014 were extracted from an electronic database of histopathology reports. The prevalence of patients with IBD or microscopic colitis was expressed as percentage of the population associated with specific demographic (age, sex, ethnicity) and socio-economic characteristics (population size, housing value, annual income, tertiary education). Both diseases were more common among subjects from ZIP codes with predominantly White residents and less common among subjects from ZIP codes with predominantly non-White residents such as Black, Hispanic and Asian. These ethnic variations were more pronounced in microscopic colitis than IBD. Markers of affluence, such as average residential house value and annual income, were positively associated with IBD and negatively with microscopic colitis. The prevalence of both diseases was positively correlated with tertiary education. The occurrence of both IBD and microscopic colitis is influenced by environmental risk factors. The differences in the demographic, ethnic and socio-economic distributions of the two diseases suggest that different sets of risk factors affect the two diseases and that their aetiology is unrelated. Published [2016]. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Takehito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65 at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361 across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000 than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

  19. The prevalence and associated demographic factors of dementia from a cross-sectional community survey in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neita, Susanne M; Abel, Wendel D; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; James, Kenneth; Gibson, Roger C

    2014-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional community survey, the authors aimed to estimate the prevalence of dementia among a sample of older Jamaicans and to identify associated demographic factors. From February to July 2010, persons of age ≥60 years were randomly selected from two communities in Kingston, Jamaica and screened with the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE). All MMSE-positive participants and an equal number of matched MMSE-negative participants underwent definitive diagnostic evaluation for dementia using the Clinical and Diagnostic Assessment Procedure for Dementia. Subsequently derived MMSE sensitivity and specificity measures from the subsample were used to estimate the overall prevalence of dementia (primary outcome). Chi square, Fisher's Exact, Exact, Spearman's correlation and t-tests were used to explore associations of dementia with age, gender, educational level and socioeconomic status. Statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Two hundred participants were recruited. Age-standardized prevalence rates of dementia were 5.07% (standardized to the Jamaican population) and 5.32% (standardized to the West Europe population). Dementia was more prevalent among older persons (Spearman's rho = 0.31; p < 0.001); no other significant associations were found. Dementia prevalence found in this study is lower than figures from previous Caribbean reports. The older persons are disproportionately affected. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cigarette Smoking Experience and its related Socio-demographic and Environmental Risk Factors in High School Boy Students, Shiraz- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Karimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several environmental and psychosocial risk factors are known for adolescent smoking as the single cause of preventable diseases and premature death. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking, socio-demographic factors associated with cigarette smoking (age, education level, parents’ job, and family’s socioeconomic statues, and the role of family and friends in cigarette smoking by high school students.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was conducted in Shiraz, Iran, 900 high school boy students (grades 9-11 were selected through multistage random cluster sampling. They responded a researcher designed anonymous questionnaire about smoking experiences of themselves- and their friends and family members. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test and Binary logistic regression analysis were used to analysis of the data, using the SPSS version 17.0.Results: The mean age of the participants was 16.11 (1.16 years and 19.7% of the students were ever smokers. Students’ higher educational grade (P=0.001, fathers’ lower education level (P=0.03, live with one parent or people other than parents (P=0.024, father’s, siblings’, and friends’ smoking, and family members’ cigarette smoking at home (P

  1. Drinking Patterns and the Association between Socio-Demographic Factors and Adolescents’ Alcohol Use in Three Metropolises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Lu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the drinking patterns and association between socio-demographic factors and adolescents’ alcohol use among high school students from China’s three metropolises, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 13,811 high school students from 136 schools between May and June 2013. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used for subject selection. The prevalence of lifetime drinking was 52.5%; in addition, 38.5% of the students were past-year drinkers, while 20.1% of them had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. During the past year, 29.7% of the students reported that they drank once per month or less, and 22.0% of the students drank less than one standard drink (SD per occasion. For the students who were not living with their mothers, as well as the students in higher socioeconomic status (SES, the adjusted odds of past and current drinking were significantly higher, compared with those who lived with both parents and low SES. Due to the high prevalence of alcohol consumption among junior and senior high school students in metropolises, attention should be paid by parents, school administrators, educational and public health agencies for making efforts collectively to reduce alcohol availability and drinking among adolescents.

  2. Drinking patterns and the association between socio-demographic factors and adolescents' alcohol use in three metropolises in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shijun; Du, Songming; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zou, Shurong; Liu, Weijia; Ba, Lei; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-02-12

    The current study was designed to investigate the drinking patterns and association between socio-demographic factors and adolescents' alcohol use among high school students from China's three metropolises, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 13,811 high school students from 136 schools between May and June 2013. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used for subject selection. The prevalence of lifetime drinking was 52.5%; in addition, 38.5% of the students were past-year drinkers, while 20.1% of them had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. During the past year, 29.7% of the students reported that they drank once per month or less, and 22.0% of the students drank less than one standard drink (SD) per occasion. For the students who were not living with their mothers, as well as the students in higher socioeconomic status (SES), the adjusted odds of past and current drinking were significantly higher, compared with those who lived with both parents and low SES. Due to the high prevalence of alcohol consumption among junior and senior high school students in metropolises, attention should be paid by parents, school administrators, educational and public health agencies for making efforts collectively to reduce alcohol availability and drinking among adolescents.

  3. SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF FOOD EXPENDITURE PATTERNS AMONG RACIALLY DIFFERENT LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Carlton George; Moussie, M.; Dinning, J.S.; Christakis, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of selected socioeconomic characteristics on aggregate and group food expenditure patterns of racially different low-income households. A double logarithmic functional form was used to explain responses in household food expenditures to socioeconomic factors. Household income, family size, and Food Stamp Program participation were found to exert a strong positive impact on food expenditures. The general educational level of the homemaker registered no significan...

  4. Socioeconomic related inequalities in students' mathematics achievement in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Lurdes Martins; Paula Veiga

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the degree of socioeconomic related inequalities in mathematics achievement for students from the European Union and presents some possible sources for the exhibited differences between countries. We applied a methodology which has been used in health economics literature namely by Wagstaff et al. (1991) and Kakwani et al. (1997). We selected parental highest level of education as a proxy for students’ socioeconomic background. Results confirm a significant inequality in a...

  5. High school physics and socioeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2015-11-01

    In our September column, we noted that Hispanic and African-American seniors were less likely to have taken a high school physics course than their peers, and we suggested that socioeconomic status (SES) played a role in the lower participation. In the figure, we display the proportion of seniors, of physics teachers, and of physics enrollments at schools by SES. While the number of seniors is roughly one-third in each group, physics enrollments differ dramatically by SES. Furthermore, the disparity in enrollments is greater than the disparity in physics teachers; this means that the teachers teaching physics at "better off" schools teach more physics than the physics teachers at "worse off" schools. Thus, a physics teacher at a "better off" school is more likely to teach a majority of their classes in physics.

  6. Demographic and dispositional characteristics as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic and dispositional characteristics as predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour. ... as important predictors of OCB. The study identified some future directions for personality research in industrial, work, and organizational psychology and concludes with some caveats and directions for future research.

  7. Statistical methods and applications from a historical perspective selected issues

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The book showcases a selection of peer-reviewed papers, the preliminary versions of which were presented at a conference held 11-13 June 2011 in Bologna and organized jointly by the Italian Statistical Society (SIS), the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and the Bank of Italy. The theme of the conference was "Statistics in the 150 years of the Unification of Italy." The celebration of the anniversary of Italian unification provided the opportunity to examine and discuss the methodological aspects and applications from a historical perspective and both from a national and international point of view. The critical discussion on the issues of the past has made it possible to focus on recent advances, considering the studies of socio-economic and demographic changes in European countries.

  8. Exile and demographic population growth in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Radoslav

    2005-01-01

    The data of the 2002 population census on refugee population are analyzed in this paper with a basic aim to determine the significance (contribution) of refugee corpus in demographic development of the Republic of Serbia. By analyzing the data, it has been determined that the refugee corpus does not significantly differ from the domicile population in the basic, above all demographic and other qualitative characteristics. The differences which can be noticed with certain (primarily socio-econ...

  9. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  10. The impact of socio-economic factors on the performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of selected socio-economic factors including the work ethic and the level of participation in rural development performance via community development projects among the Nandi people of western Kenya. Data was sourced from a social survey of 27 randomly selected community ...

  11. Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Sunday Paul; Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated access to internet and socio-economic background as correlates of students' achievement in Agricultural Science among selected Senior Secondary Schools Two Students in Ogbomoso South and North Local Government Areas. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 students from…

  12. The Changing Demographics of the Hispanic Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Emily Gantz

    Hispanics will become the largest United States minority population sometime early in the next century. A problem that arises with attempts to provide Hispanic people with better opportunities is the lack of adequate data on Hispanic socioeconomic status. Those data which do exist focus on problems of the individual, yet one of the greatest…

  13. Educational and Demographic Profile: San Mateo County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for San Mateo County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  14. Socio-demographic profile of pregnant women using mishri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganganahalli, Praveen; Pratinidhi, Asha; Kakade, Satish V

    2011-12-01

    "Mishri" is one among the various smokeless tobacco products used in the central and southern part of India. The use of newer tobacco products is increasing not only among men, but also among children, teenagers, and women of the reproductive age-group. To study socio-demographic profile of mishri users among pregnant women admitted for delivery into Krishna Hospital, Karad - Satara, Maharashtra. All the consecutive pregnant women admitted for delivery in Krishna Hospital, Karad over a period of 6 months were enrolled and a detailed history of use of tobacco was obtained from them. A representative sample of mishri used by them for each application was collected and weighed on an electronic weighing machine. The socio-demographic information was collected among all mishri users and age-, parity-matched controls of non-mishri users during pregnancy. A total of 258, i.e., (12%) of the women delivering in Krishna Hospital were using mishri. The mean duration of mishri use was 2 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 1.09 years, frequency of daily application being 1.4 times with an SD of 0.55, dwell time in mouth being 10 min with an SD of 2.9 min, and the quantity of each application being 236 mg with an SD of 66.2 mg. 29% of the teenagers and 68% of the primiparas were found to be using mishri, and a majority of them were housewives, having minimum education and belonging to the middle and lower socio-economic class. It was also found that the family members played a role in influencing the habit of mishri use. A small but significant number of women who deliver in the hospital used mishri during pregnancy and were in need of de-addiction counseling.

  15. A socio-economic comparison of green and conventional products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinikka Dall, Ole; Wenzel, Henrik; Grüttner, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental and socio-economic comparison of functionally equivalent product pairs: a product (or service) complying with eco-labeling criteria towards a conventional product (or service) within the same product/service group. The comparison comprises product pairs within...... the categories of TV-sets, washing machines, textile services, bookshelves and copy paper. The study included development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison as well as the application of the methodology on the selected product groups. The study was funded and published...... by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2009-2011 [1]. The definition of product pairs took offset in criteria for environmental labeling schemes as The EU Ecolabel and The Nordic Swan – label. The “green product” meets as a minimum requirement the standards for ecolabeling. The similar “conventional...

  16. Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America, Canada, and Spain. Couverture du livre Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America. Directeur(s) : Gary McMahon et Felix Remy. Maison(s) d'édition : Banque mondiale, CRDI.

  17. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  18. Socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A.R. Hosseinpoor (Ahmad); N. Speybroeck (Niko); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); J. Vega (Jeanette)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The objectives of this study were to report on socioeconomic inequality in childhood malnutrition in the developing world, to provide evidence for an association between socioeconomic inequality and the average level of malnutrition, and to draw attention to different patterns

  19. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  20. Socioeconomic differences in health related behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Droomers (Mariël)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractHealth related behaviours are an important determinant of health and part of the causal explanation for socioeconomic differences in morbidity and mortality. The fact is that a lower socioeconomic status is generally associated with higher rates of health damaging behaviour, such as

  1. Gendered socioeconomic conditions and HIV risk behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... investigates how socioeconomic disadvantage has influenced the sexual behaviour and experiences of 4 000 young women and men aged 14–24 years in KwaZulu-Natal province — an area characterised by high HIV prevalence and high rates of poverty and inequality. Socioeconomic disadvantage, measured here as ...

  2. Market structures, socioeconomics, and tobacco usage patterns in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C; Chaussard, Martine; Fedewa, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The isolated island nation of Madagascar has substantial prevalence of both smoking and smokeless tobacco use, although not of dual use. Madagascar's tobacco market, much like its historical and cultural underpinnings, appears to have both Asian and African influences. Additionally, it has a unique market structure that plays an important role in influencing patterns of tobacco use. This study analyzes the determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use in Madagascar. We used the 2008 Madagascar Demographic and Health Survey to analyze both smoking tobacco and smokeless tobacco use, stratified by gender. Multivariate log binomial models were used to evaluate the relationship between tobacco use and age, residence (urban/rural), province, marital status, and education. Our analysis indicates that two distinctly different groups of people use two distinctly different tobacco products. Smoking is almost exclusively used by men and does not appear to be related to socioeconomic status. Conversely, smokeless tobacco is consumed by large proportions of both men and women, who are less educated and live in rural areas of the country. This disparate pattern in consumption is a reflection of the different market structures for smokeless tobacco (a cottage industry) and smoking tobacco (a near monopoly). Distinct market-based, geographic, and socioeconomic disparities in tobacco use are explored in order to begin the classification of Madagascar's tobacco epidemic as more African, more Asian, or as a distinctly different environment.

  3. Socioeconomic and cultural features of consensual unions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Consensual unions are a well-known practice among the lower social strata in Latin America. However, this type of union is increasing in the region, among higher educated groups and in countries where they were never widespread, such as in Brazil. This study uses couples' data from the demographic census available at IPUMS (N=193,689 to identify the socioeconomic and cultural features of consensual unions in Brazil. The effects of women's education, couples' income, children, and religion on nuptial behavior are analyzed. Utilizing logistic multilevel analysis, special attention is paid to the effect of differences in the cultural environment of states in the five major regions in which these unions occur. Results indicate that socioeconomic factors affect the incidence of consensual unions in Brazil. Consensual unions are more common among lower income couples and less educated women, but are also found among the upper classes. Cultural diversity between Brazilian states is also reflected in nuptial behavior. Significant variance at the state level is partially explained by the ethnic composition of each state.

  4. Clinical and socioeconomic determinants of congenital syphilis in Posadas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lucy Anne; Deschutter, Enrique Jorge; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Silva, Gustavo; Piragine, Rosa Del Carmen; Lumbreras, Blanca

    2012-04-01

    To explore clinical and socioeconomic factors related to congenital syphilis in Posadas, Argentina. Data were collected from 102 mothers who had given birth to an infant with congenital syphilis at Dr. Ramón Madariaga Central Hospital (2005-2007) and 306 control mothers. Clinical and demographic information were collected from clinical records, and socioeconomic details were obtained by interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the relationships between congenital syphilis and clinical and socioeconomic factors. Receiving the recommended number of prenatal health checks had a clear protective effect on congenital syphilis in the univariate analysis (odds ratio (OR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.86), as did being in a stable relationship (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.14-0.38). Furthermore, women with secondary education or above were over four-times less likely to have a child with congenital syphilis compared to women who had not completed primary school education, even after controlling for the number of prenatal health checks and other factors (adjusted OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0.72). In addition, women with previous stillborn births were over three-times more likely to have a baby with congenital syphilis after controlling for education and prenatal care (adjusted OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.24-9.16). There is a clear opportunity for reducing the burden of congenital syphilis by promoting syphilis screening and treatment in women with previous stillborn births. In addition, the potential impact of more general policies addressing social determinants of health, such as those improving education, must not be overlooked. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Familial and socio-economic correlates of somatisation disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obimakinde, Abimbola M; Ladipo, Modupe M; Irabor, Achiaka E

    2015-05-11

    Somatisation disorder can result from an interplay between suboptimal family environment and socio-economic deprivation, which enhances the underlying cognitive tendency for this disorder. There are pertinent familial and socio-economic factors associated with this disorder, but research addressing this is sparse. AIM AND SETTING: The study aims to evaluate family and socio-economic factors that are associated with somatisation disorder amongst patients presenting to the Family Medicine clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. This is an observational case-control study of 120 participants who presented to the clinic between May and August 2009. Data collection was by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire using the World Health Organization Screener for Somatoform Disorder and Somatoform Disorder Schedule to ascertain somatisation in 60 patients who were then matched with 60 controls. The respondents' demographic and family data were also collected and their interpersonal relationships were assessed with the Family Relationship Index. The somatising patients were mostly females (70%), with a female to male ratio of 2.3:1 and mean age of 43.65 ± 13.04 years.Living in a polygamous family (as any member of the family) was significantly related to somatisation (p = 0.04). Somatisation was also more common in people who were separated, divorced or widowed (p = 0.039). Somatisers from a lower social class or those earning below a dollar a day experienced poorer cohesion (p = 0.042) and more conflicts (p = 0.019) in their interpersonal relationship. This study was able to demonstrate that a polygamous family setting, disrupted marriage, low social status and financial constraints are correlates of somatisation. It is of essence to identify these factors in holistic management of somatising patients.

  6. Socioeconomic differences in perinatal health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish Medical Birth Register has been used extensively in conjunction with other national registers to examine different aspects of socioeconomic differences in perinatal health outcomes. Here, we review some recent findings. RESEARCH TOPICS: Socioeconomic differences were...... observed in stillbirth, preterm birth, birthweight, congenital anomalies, and infant death. The patterns varied according to the health outcome and measure of socioeconomic position, but also according to the time period and the country under study. Our review also shows how many different strategies have...... been used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors on perinatal health. CONCLUSION: Danish register data is an invaluable source of information on socioeconomic differences in perinatal health. Danish registers continue to provide excellent opportunities for research and surveillance...

  7. Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi...... not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross...

  8. A comparison of demographic behaviour between the CR regions using multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of separate CR regions show varying demographic behaviour that presents itself in the demographic measures´ values. The paper offers a comparison of the development of selected measures of size and movement of the population in the regions of CR in 1993 and 2006 years. Attention is paid to the changes in measures of economic and biological structure, life expectancy and some of the measures of human reproduction, patterns of growth and migration. Multivariate analysis methods have been employed for the solution. Selection of variables has been carried out in each year using factor analysis and similarity of the regions has been described by the hierarchic agglomerative clustering method. During the thirteen years, changes occurred in demographic behaviour of the regions. Currently the Capital Prague and the Středočeský Region differ significantly. All the regions remaining have been stabilized as concerns the demographic measures and they show homogeneity.

  9. Do Demographic Characteristics Make Differences? Demographic Characteristics as Moderators in the Associations between Only Child Status and Cognitive/Non-cognitive Outcomes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Chen, Yiting; Yang, Xiangdong; Hu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Different family compositions and sizes may affect child development through the different modes of interaction between family members. Previous studies have compared only children with non-only children in cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. However, relatively little research has systematically investigated the potential moderators among them. Using a large and representative sample of Chinese students (Grades 7-8; N = 5,752), this study examines the roles of demographic characteristics, such as gender, region, parental educational level, parental expectations, family socio-economic status and family structure, in the associations between only child status and cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. For the cognitive outcomes, only child status exerts an influence on the students' academic performance in Chinese and mathematics in the sample of three districts' students. The examined associations between only child status and cognitive outcomes are different in region, parental education, parental expectations and family structure, while gender and family socio-economic status did not. For the non-cognitive outcomes, only child status exerts an influence on the students' school well-being, academic self-efficacy, academic self-concept, and internal academic motivation in the full sample of students, but not on external academic motivation. Further, the examined associations between only child status and non-cognitive outcomes are different in region, parental education, family socio-economic status and family structure, while gender and parental expectations did not. These findings suggest that the associations between only child status and cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes are heterogeneous in terms of some of the demographic characteristics. Possible explanations are proposed in some concepts of region and family environment in China.

  10. Do Demographic Characteristics Make Differences? Demographic Characteristics as Moderators in the Associations between Only Child Status and Cognitive/Non-cognitive Outcomes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Chen, Yiting; Yang, Xiangdong; Hu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Different family compositions and sizes may affect child development through the different modes of interaction between family members. Previous studies have compared only children with non-only children in cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. However, relatively little research has systematically investigated the potential moderators among them. Using a large and representative sample of Chinese students (Grades 7–8; N = 5,752), this study examines the roles of demographic characteristics, such as gender, region, parental educational level, parental expectations, family socio-economic status and family structure, in the associations between only child status and cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. For the cognitive outcomes, only child status exerts an influence on the students' academic performance in Chinese and mathematics in the sample of three districts' students. The examined associations between only child status and cognitive outcomes are different in region, parental education, parental expectations and family structure, while gender and family socio-economic status did not. For the non-cognitive outcomes, only child status exerts an influence on the students' school well-being, academic self-efficacy, academic self-concept, and internal academic motivation in the full sample of students, but not on external academic motivation. Further, the examined associations between only child status and non-cognitive outcomes are different in region, parental education, family socio-economic status and family structure, while gender and parental expectations did not. These findings suggest that the associations between only child status and cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes are heterogeneous in terms of some of the demographic characteristics. Possible explanations are proposed in some concepts of region and family environment in China. PMID:28421006

  11. Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A; Sallam, Atiya A; Ariffin, W A; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Amran, Adel A; Surin, Johari

    2011-10-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren aged 7-12 years living in remote areas in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia to investigate the potential determinants influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function was measured by intelligence quotient (IQ), while examination scores of selected school subjects were used in assessing educational achievement. Blood samples were collected to assess serum Fe status. All children were screened for soil-transmitted helminthes. Demographic and socio-economic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Almost two-thirds (67·6 %) of the subjects had poor IQ and most of them (72·6 %) had insufficient educational achievement. Output of the stepwise multiple regression model showed that poor IQ was significantly associated with low household income which contributed the most to the regression variance (r2 0·059; P = 0·020). Low maternal education was also identified as a significant predictor of low IQ scores (r2 0·042; P = 0·043). With educational achievement, Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) was the only variable to show significant association (r2 0·025; P = 0·015). In conclusion, the cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren are poor and influenced by household income, maternal education and IDA. Thus, effective and integrated measures to improve the nutritional and socio-economic status of rural children would have a pronounced positive effect on their education.

  12. Socioeconomic gradients in early childhood health: evidence from Bangladesh and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta

    2016-05-16

    A large literature has developed researching the origins of socioeconomic gradients in child health in developed countries. Particularly, this research examines the age at which these gradient effects emerge and how they change across different stages of childhood. However, similar research on developing countries is limited. This paper examines the socioeconomic gradients in early childhood health in two developing countries, Bangladesh and Nepal using the 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys. The paper separately studies two measures of household socioeconomic status: household wealth and maternal educational attainment. Two anthropometric measures of early childhood health, height-for-age and weight-for-age Z scores for 0-59 months of children, are used for our empirical exercise. The paper uses both non-parametric and multivariate ordinary least squares approaches to examine at what age socioeconomic disparities in health emerge, and investigates if these disparities increase with age in early childhood. The paper provides significant evidence of age-specific socioeconomic gradients in early childhood health in both countries. Health disparities in household wealth exist in both countries. This disparity emerges in the first 11 months of life, and is particularly severe for children from the poorest quintile. On the other hand, while the emergence of maternal education gradients during the first 11 months is sensitive to the choice of childhood health measure, the study finds the children of mothers with higher education to enjoy significantly higher health outcomes in comparison to those with lower education. However, controlling for father's education weakens the effects of maternal education on child health in both countries. Further, the paper does not find statistically significant evidence where socioeconomic gradients in health increase with age in early childhood. Our study concludes that socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes exist even in very

  13. Socio-demographic predictors and average annual rates of caesarean section in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nuruzzaman Khan

    Full Text Available Globally the rates of caesarean section (CS have steadily increased in recent decades. This rise is not fully accounted for by increases in clinical factors which indicate the need for CS. We investigated the socio-demographic predictors of CS and the average annual rates of CS in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014.Data were derived from four waves of nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS conducted between 2004 and 2014. Rate of change analysis was used to calculate the average annual rate of increase in CS from 2004 to 2014, by socio-demographic categories. Multi-level logistic regression was used to identify the socio-demographic predictors of CS in a cross-sectional analysis of the 2014 BDHS data.CS rates increased from 3.5% in 2004 to 23% in 2014. The average annual rate of increase in CS was higher among women of advanced maternal age (≥35 years, urban areas, and relatively high socio-economic status; with higher education, and who regularly accessed antenatal services. The multi-level logistic regression model indicated that lower (≤19 and advanced maternal age (≥35, urban location, relatively high socio-economic status, higher education, birth of few children (≤2, antenatal healthcare visits, overweight or obese were the key factors associated with increased utilization of CS. Underweight was a protective factor for CS.The use of CS has increased considerably in Bangladesh over the survey years. This rising trend and the risk of having CS vary significantly across regions and socio-economic status. Very high use of CS among women of relatively high socio-economic status and substantial urban-rural difference call for public awareness and practice guideline enforcement aimed at optimizing the use of CS.

  14. Demographics, phenotypic health characteristics and genetic analysis of centenarians in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Gu, Danan

    2017-01-01

    -old aged 65-79. Based on the CLHLS data and other relevant studies, we summarize demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as self-reported and objectively-tested health indicators of centenarians in China, with an emphasis on gender differences and rural/urban disparities. We then compare five......After a brief introduction to the background, significance and unique features of the centenarian population in China, we describe the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS), which is the world's largest study of centenarians, nonagenarians, octogenarians, and compatible young...... discuss limitations inherent in our studies of centenarians in China and further research perspectives....

  15. Comparison of the Five Danish Regions Regarding Demographic Characteristics, Healthcare Utilization, and Medication Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Rasmussen, Lotte; Hansen, Morten Rix

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers: The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, The Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and The Danish National Health Service Register for Primary Care. We compared the Danish regions regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics......, health care utilization, and use of medication. For each characteristic, one-year prevalence was obtained and analyses were performed for 2013 and 2008 to account for possible change over time. RESULTS: In 2013, 5,602,628 persons were living in Denmark. The mean age was 40.7 years in the entire Danish...

  16. Socioeconomic implications of donation distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yajing; Guo, Jinzhong; Chen, Qinghua; Wang, Yougui

    2011-11-01

    Individual donation depends on personal wealth and individual willingness to donate. On the basis of a donation model proposed in our previous study, a simplified version of an individual donation model is derived by relaxing the restrictions of the maximum wealth in the economy. Thus, the whole distribution is determined by only two parameters. One of them relates to the exponent of the distribution of society wealth and the other refers to the donation amount of the kindest poorest person. The parameters reflect the degree of wealth inequality and the charitable enthusiasm of society, respectively. Using actual donation data, we develop a specific parameter estimation method combining linear regression and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic to get the value of two socioeconomic indicators. Applications to Chinese individual donations in response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake indicate a rising inequality in social wealth distribution in China. Also, more charitable enthusiasm is observed in the response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

  17. ron Intake in Adults from Medellin According to Demographics, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Yulieth Mantilla Gutiérrez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the iron intake in healthy adults of Medellín according to demographics, and to determine the association between the consumption of iron and hemoglobin in this popula¬tion. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study in 109 subjects. We applied a semiquantitative survey of food consumption frequency source of iron given the frequency of consumption and portion. Summary measures, frequencies, Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis ANOVA and Spearman correlation were calculated. We used SPSS version 20.0, considering a significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean age subjects was 32, 64.2 % were female, 81.6 % with technical or university studies, 29.3 % students and 43.9 % of low socioeconomic status. We found a daily intake of 12.3 mg/day on average, 61 % from non-heme iron. The total iron consumed was statistically higher in unemployed subjects than in workers, students and housewives. The heme iron intake was statistically higher in individuals with graduate. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing iron consumption by sex, age group and hemoglobin. Conclusions: The low intake of iron is not influenced by sex or age group, but by occupation and education, and is a factor that cannot reduce the prevalence of iron and other micronutrients deficiencies. It requires to implement more and better strategies for nutrition education and increased avail¬ability, production and consumption of safe food

  18. Determinants of Socioeconomic Inequalities in Traumatic Dental Injuries among Urban Indian Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Raj Mathur

    Full Text Available To assess socioeconomic inequalities in traumatic dental injuries (TDIs in adolescents in New Delhi and examine the role of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in explaining these inequalities.We conducted a cross sectional study of 1386 adolescents aged between 12-15 years residing in three diverse areas of New Delhi. A non-invasive clinical examination was used to estimate the prevalence of TDIs, and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather relevant behavioural and socio-demographic data. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the association between area based socioeconomic position and TDIs.The overall prevalence of TDIs was 10.9%. Social inequalities in the prevalence of TDIs were observed across the adolescent population according to their area of residence. Socio-economic group differences in the prevalence of TDIs remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic factors, material resources, social capital, social support and health affecting behaviours (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.75-6.46 and OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.86-8.56 for adolescents from resettlement areas and urban slums respectively in comparison to middle class adolescents. Different psychosocial, material and socio-demographic variables did not attenuate the estimates for the relationship between area socioeconomic position and TDIs.Area of residence was a strong predictor of TDIs in adolescents with a higher prevalence in more deprived areas. Social inequalities in TDIs were not explained by psychosocial and behavioural variables. Health promoting policies aimed at improving the physical environment in which adolescents reside might be instrumental in reducing the prevalence of TDIs and associated inequalities.

  19. Determinants of Socioeconomic Inequalities in Traumatic Dental Injuries among Urban Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manu Raj; Watt, Richard G; Millett, Christopher J; Parmar, Priyanka; Tsakos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    To assess socioeconomic inequalities in traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in adolescents in New Delhi and examine the role of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in explaining these inequalities. We conducted a cross sectional study of 1386 adolescents aged between 12-15 years residing in three diverse areas of New Delhi. A non-invasive clinical examination was used to estimate the prevalence of TDIs, and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather relevant behavioural and socio-demographic data. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the association between area based socioeconomic position and TDIs. The overall prevalence of TDIs was 10.9%. Social inequalities in the prevalence of TDIs were observed across the adolescent population according to their area of residence. Socio-economic group differences in the prevalence of TDIs remained statistically significant after adjusting for demographic factors, material resources, social capital, social support and health affecting behaviours (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.75-6.46 and OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.86-8.56 for adolescents from resettlement areas and urban slums respectively in comparison to middle class adolescents). Different psychosocial, material and socio-demographic variables did not attenuate the estimates for the relationship between area socioeconomic position and TDIs. Area of residence was a strong predictor of TDIs in adolescents with a higher prevalence in more deprived areas. Social inequalities in TDIs were not explained by psychosocial and behavioural variables. Health promoting policies aimed at improving the physical environment in which adolescents reside might be instrumental in reducing the prevalence of TDIs and associated inequalities.

  20. A unified framework of demographic time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life, total length of life, or time of death, whose use in demographic research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe an identity between these six demographic time measures and describe the sub-identities and diagrams that pertain to this identity. We provide an application of this framework to the measurement of late-life morbidity prevalence. We generalize these relationships to higher order identities derived from an arbitrary number of events in calendar time. Our examples are based on classic human demography, but the concepts we present can reveal patterns and relationships in any event history data, and contribute to the study of human or non-human population dynamics measured on any scale of calendar time.