WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected coastal regions

  1. Solar pond-based rural development programme for selected coastal regions - A concept

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    is expected to aid speedy development of selected coastal areas. The programme involves design and construction of a solar pond in which brine in the lower layer is heated to 85 degrees C by solar radiation and is used as the heat source for a closed cycle...

  2. NIMBUS-7 CZCS. Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery for Selected Coastal Regions. North America - Europe. South America - Africa - Antarctica. Level 2 Photographic Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) is the first spacecraft instrument devoted to the measurement of ocean color. Although instruments on other satellites have sensed ocean color, their spectral bands, spatial resolution, and dynamic range were optimized for geographical or meteorological use. In the CZCS, every parameter is optimized for use over water to the exclusion of any other type of sensing. The signal-to-noise ratios in the spectral channels sensing reflected solar radiance are higher than those required in the past. These ratios need to be high because the ocean is such a poor reflecting surface that the majority of the signal seen by the reflected energy channels at spacecraft altitudes is backscattered solar radiation from the atmosphere rather than reflected solar energy from the ocean. The CZCS is a conventional multichannel scanning radiometer utilizing a rotating plane mirror at a 45 deg angle to the optic axis of a Cassegrain telescope. The mirror scans 360 deg; however, only 80 deg of data centered on the spacecraft nadir is collected for ocean color measurements. Spatial resolution at spacecraft nadir is 825x825 m with some degradation at the edges of the scan swath. The useful swath width from a spacecraft altitude of 955 km is 1600 km.

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2016 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. Development of simulated groundwater-contributing areas to selected streams, ponds, coastal water bodies, and production wells in the Plymouth-Carver region and Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Carl S.; Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2017-12-21

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in support of the Massachusetts Estuaries Project (MEP), delineated groundwater-contributing areas to various hydrologic receptors including ponds, streams, and coastal water bodies throughout southeastern Massachusetts, including portions of the Plymouth-Carver aquifer system and all of Cape Cod. These contributing areas were delineated over a 6-year period from 2003 through 2008 by using previously published regional USGS groundwater-flow models for the Plymouth-Carver region (Masterson and others, 2009), the Sagamore (western) and Monomoy (eastern) flow lenses of Cape Cod (Walter and Whealan, 2005), and lower Cape Cod (Masterson, 2004). The original USGS groundwater-contributing areas were subsequently revised in some locations by the MEP to remove modeling artifacts or to make the contributing areas more consistent with site-specific hydrologic conditions without further USGS review. This report describes the process used to create the USGS groundwater-contributing areas and provides these model results in their original format in a single, publicly accessible publication.

  10. Egyptian coastal regions development through economic diversity for its coastal cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek AbdeL-Latif

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the structure of the coastal cities industry, the main types, the impacts (economic, environmental, and social of coastal cities, and the local trends in development in the Egyptian coastal cities and its regions. It will also analyze coastal and marine tourism in several key regions identified because of the diversity of life they support, and the potential destruction they could face. This paper confirms that economic diversification in coastal cities is more effective than developments in only one economic sector, even if this sector is prominent and important.

  11. Tracers vs. trajectories in a coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, A.; Döös, K.

    2008-12-01

    Two different methods of estimating the water exchange through a Baltic coastal region have been used, consisting of particle trajectories and passive tracers. Water is traced from and to a small discharge region near the coast. The discharge material in this region is treated as zero dimensional particles or tracers with neutral buoyancy. The real discharge material could be a leakage of radio-nuclides through the sea floor from an underground repository of nuclear waste. Water exchange rates between the discharge region and the model domain are estimated using both forward and backward trajectories as well as passive tracers. The Lagrangian trajectories can account for the time evolution of the water exchange while the tracers give one average age per model grid box. Water exchange times such as residence time, age and transient times have been calculated with trajectories but only the average age (AvA) for tracers. The trajectory calculations provide a more detailed time evolution than the tracers. On the other hand the tracers are integrated "on-line" simultaneously in the sea circulation model with the same time step while the Lagrangian trajectories are integrated "off-line" from the stored model velocities with its inherent temporal resolution, presently one hour. The sub-grid turbulence is parameterised as a Laplacian diffusion for the passive tracers and with an extra stochastic velocity for trajectories. The importance of the parameterised sub-grid turbulence for the trajectories is estimated to give an extra diffusion of the same order as the Laplacian diffusion by comparing the Lagrangian dispersions with and without parameterisation. The results of the different methods are similar but depend on the chosen diffusivity coefficient with a slightly higher correlation between trajectories and tracers when integrated with a lower diffusivity coefficient.

  12. International cooperation for integrated management of coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosc, E.; Houlbreque, F.; Boisson, F.; Scholten, J.; Betti, M.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal zones which comprise < 20% of the earth surface are one of the most dynamic areas of the world. Housing more than 50% of the earth's population, the coastal zones are affected by natural and anthropogenic induced pressures which challenge the sustainability of the coastal environment and its resources. Most of the environmental pressures originate from outside the coastal zones thus requiring an inter-regional approach for coastal environmental assessments. It is one of the missions of the Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist Member States in coastal zone management by applying nuclear and isotopic techniques. These techniques are used in many ways at MEL to enhance the understanding of marine ecosystems and to improve their management and protection. The article gives an overview of MEL's current marine coastal projects and research activities. (author)

  13. Characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyatmo, B.; Rustadi; Priyono, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study were to determine characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture. This study was conducted in 2015 by characterizing land and water dynamics, land use, and the suitability of coastal environments for aquaculture. Evaluation on the coastal environments suitability for aquaculture ponds was based on the landforms, soil properties, water quality and land. Selection of coastal locations for aquaculture development was based on the level of suitability of coastal environment. The results showed that the coastal in Kulon Progo and Bantul Regencies were characterized by sand dune and beach ridge with sandy soil texture, while in Gunungkidul Regency was characterized by limestone hill with rocky texture. Water sources of the coastal area were the sea, river, and ground water with the salinity of 31–37, 7–11, 7–31 ppt and pH of 7.4–8.4 7.0–8.2 and 7.4–9.9, respectively. The coastal lands were used for seasonal/annual planting, ponds, fish landing sites, tourism areas and conservation areas. The coastal carrying capacity was rather suitable for aquaculture, especially in the sandy soil area. Aquaculture in that area can be done intensively for shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), using biocrete (biological material) or plastic sheet.

  14. Boundary Layer Depth In Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porson, A.; Schayes, G.

    The results of earlier studies performed about sea breezes simulations have shown that this is a relevant feature of the Planetary Boundary Layer that still requires effort to be diagnosed properly by atmospheric models. Based on the observations made during the ESCOMPTE campaign, over the Mediterranean Sea, different CBL and SBL height estimation processes have been tested with a meso-scale model, TVM. The aim was to compare the critical points of the BL height determination computed using turbulent kinetic energy profile with some other standard evaluations. Moreover, these results have been analysed with different mixing length formulation. The sensitivity of formulation is also analysed with a simple coastal configuration.

  15. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. Regional biomass stores and dynamics in forests of coastal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaill A. Yatskov; Mark E. Harmon; Olga N. Krankina; Tara M. Barrett; Kevin R. Dobelbower; Andrew N. Gray; Becky Fasth; Lori Trummer; Toni L. Hoyman; Chana M. Dudoit

    2015-01-01

    Coastal Alaska is a vast forested region (6.2 million ha) with the potential to store large amounts of carbon in live and dead biomass thus influencing continental and global carbon dynamics. The main objectives of this study were to assess regional biomass stores, examine the biomass partitioning between live and dead pools, and evaluate the effect of disturbance on...

  7. Geomorphic Regionalization of Coastal Zone Using Geospatial Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The world coastal environment is made of diversified landforms and are also potentially vulnerable to climate variability, delta sinking, extreme events and anthropogenic interferences. Sustainable management of coastal resources and transforming quality ecosystem services to future generation are the goals of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Geographical homogenous unit are the basic implementation locus and back bone of these kinds of integrated management strategy and activities. However, coastal zone management projects in developing world using use arbitrary land-ward and sea-ward boundaries from physical reference as unit of management. The oversimplified fixed distance approaches are not able to map the spatial and temporal changes in coastal systems. The spatio-temporal variations of coastal systems are configured in geomorphic landforms and further that work on interaction between natural forces and anthropogenic inputs. The present research work is an attempt to present a simplified method of regionalization geomorphic landforms using geospatial platforms for delineating Orissa coast into smaller homogenous geographic unit as reference point for future management. Geomorphic landforms are reconstructed using Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ imagery, Survey of India topomaps, field survey and Digital Elevation Model data at geographic information system (GIS plat form. Seventy geomorphic features covering an area of 5033.64 km2 were identified and further, regionalized into five homogenous geographic units. The need of time is to recognize unsustainable coastal systems in these homogenous geographic units by fine tuning development parameters and also same time allowing coastal systems to adapt naturally to any kind of variability. Although, the methodology applied to Orissa for delineation homogenous geographic area but it can be replicated to any coast in world.

  8. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavieren, van H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants,

  9. Triassic volcanic units in coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, M.; Cortes, J.A.; Marinovic, N

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb geochronological evidence of a Middle to Late Triassic volcanic event was found in the coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile (23 o -23 o 30 ). Two new ages were obtained from rhyolitic tuffs and an associated dome, which have classically been attributed to the Jurassic La Negra Formation (au)

  10. Coastal vegetation: Patterns in a tourist region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Desai, K.; Rodrigues, R.

    , Ni and Co) by their incorporation and/or ad· sorption to authigenic mineral phases (ALTSCHCU;R, 19801. Earlier reports on geochemistry of sediments along Ihe C-SW coast of India are limited to MURTHY et ai" 1973; RAO et al., 1974 and RAJAMA."r, 1994... to about 2000 km 2 , also covering the nearest mud bank region. The samples were kept frozen prior to drying, grinding and analysis. Tex tural characteristics were determined following pipette anal ysis (KRUMBEIN and PETTIJOHN", 1938) and organic carbon...

  11. Nordic Regional Report; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper elaborates findings and discussions of 2013 Cluster Consultation Nordic Regional report. The countries have close economic and financial ties and face some common challenges and shared risks, such as large banking sectors and high household debt. The economic performance of the four continental Nordic economies (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden—Nordic-4) ranks among the advanced economic development circle. It is analyzed that the large Nordic banking systems su...

  12. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results show...

  13. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  14. Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, D.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for site characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in coastal regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the coastal atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models

  15. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date... commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform... large coastal shark fishery will open on July 15, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karyl Brewster...

  16. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Regional Land Cover Data and Change Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. Development of three dimensional ocean current model for coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya

    1999-12-01

    In order to study the migration behavior of radionuclides released into a coastal region around Japan, Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was introduced. This three-dimensional ocean current model was modified to be applied for oceanic simulations around Japan. This report describes the governing equations, numerical methods and model improvements. In addition, database system which is utilized for calculations and visualization system for graphical outputs are also described. Model simulation was carried out at off the area of Shimokita. Aomori-ken, Japan to investigate the effects of the boundary conditions on simulated results. (author)

  18. Selected Regional Judicial Officer Cases, 2005 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains selected cases involving EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) from 2005 to present. EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) perform...

  19. Environmental hazards for pipelines in coastal regions/shore approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinsi, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Often oil/gas and other hydrocarbons discovered and produced offshore are transported to onshore facilities via submarine pipelines. The route of such pipelines traverses through coastal/shore approach regions. For a rational/economic design, safe installation and subsequent operation it is of utmost importance to review, evaluate and finalize various environmental hazard such as winds, waves, currents, seabed topography, seabed and sub-bottom soils, seabed erosion and soil accretion. This paper addresses the above described environmental hazards, their assessment and techniques to prepare design parameters which must be used for stability analysis, installation methods, long term operation and maintenance for the shore approaches. Additionally, various proven pipeline installation and stabilization techniques for the shore approach region are detailed. As case histories, three approaches installed in the Dutch North Sea are described

  20. DEFORMATION EFFECTS OF DAMS ON COASTAL REGIONS USING SENTINEL-1 IW TOPS TIME SERIES: THE WEST LESVOS, GREECE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karamvasis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are vulnerable to erosion and loss by level sea rise. Subsidence caused by the reduction of fluvial sediments in coastal zones found close to dams, is another important deformation factor. Quantification of the deformation rate of coastal region is essential for natural and anthropogenic activities. The study utilizes Interferometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar techniques and exploits the archive of Sentinel-1 TOPS data for the period 2014–2016. The freely available, wide ground coverage (250 × 170 km and small temporal resolution Sentinel-1 TOPS datasets are promising for coastal applications. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI methodologies are considered state-of-the-art remote sensing approaches for land deformation monitoring. The selected PSI method is the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS multitemporal InSAR technique. The study area of this study is the coastal zone of west region of Lesvos Island, Greece. The main characteristic of the area is the reduction of the fluvial sediment supply from the coastal drainage basins due to construction of dams and the abstraction of riverine sediments. The study demonstrates the potentials of the SBAS method for measuring and mapping the dynamic changes in coastal topography in terms of subsidence rates and discusses its advantages and limitations. The results show that natural and rural environments appear to have diverse ground deformation patterns.

  1. Towards a regional coastal ocean observing system: An initial design for the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, H. E.; Fletcher, M.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Nelson, J. R.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2009-05-01

    A conceptual design for a southeast United States regional coastal ocean observing system (RCOOS) is built upon a partnership between institutions of the region and among elements of the academic, government and private sectors. This design envisions support of a broad range of applications (e.g., marine operations, natural hazards, and ecosystem-based management) through the routine operation of predictive models that utilize the system observations to ensure their validity. A distributed information management system enables information flow, and a centralized information hub serves to aggregate information regionally and distribute it as needed. A variety of observing assets are needed to satisfy model requirements. An initial distribution of assets is proposed that recognizes the physical structure and forcing in the southeast U.S. coastal ocean. In-situ data collection includes moorings, profilers and gliders to provide 3D, time-dependent sampling, HF radar and surface drifters for synoptic sampling of surface currents, and satellite remote sensing of surface ocean properties. Nested model systems are required to properly represent ocean conditions from the outer edge of the EEZ to the watersheds. An effective RCOOS will depend upon a vital "National Backbone" (federally supported) system of in situ and satellite observations, model products, and data management. This dependence highlights the needs for a clear definition of the National Backbone components and a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that defines the roles, functions and interactions of regional and federal components of the integrated system. A preliminary CONOPS is offered for the Southeast (SE) RCOOS. Thorough system testing is advocated using a combination of application-specific and process-oriented experiments. Estimates of costs and personnel required as initial components of the SE RCOOS are included. Initial thoughts on the Research and Development program required to support the RCOOS are

  2. Recent warming trend in the coastal region of Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Way Lee; Saleem, Ayman; Sadr, Reza

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze long-term temperature-related phenomena in the eastern portion of the Middle East, focusing on the coastal region of Qatar. Extreme temperature indices were examined, which were defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, for Doha, Qatar; these indices were then compared with those from neighboring countries. The trends were calculated for a 30-year period (1983-2012), using hourly data obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The results showed spatially consistent warming trends throughout the region. For Doha, 11 of the 12 indices studied showed significant warming trends. In particular, the warming trends were represented by an increase in the number of warm days and nights and a decrease in the number of cool nights and days. The high-temperature extremes during the night have risen at more than twice the rate of their corresponding daytime extremes. The intensity and frequency of hot days have increased, and the minimum temperature indices exhibited a higher rate of warming. The climatic changes in Doha are consistent with the region-wide heat-up in recent decades across the Middle East. However, the rapid economic expansion, increase of population since the 1990s, and urban effects in the region are thought to have intensified the rapidly warming climate pattern observed in Doha since the turn of the century.

  3. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-03-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  4. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-03-11

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  5. Modelization of highly nonlinear waves in coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Maïté; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Ferrant, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The proposed work deals with the development of a highly non-linear model for water wave propagation in coastal regions. The accurate modelization of surface gravity waves is of major interest in ocean engineering, especially in the field of marine renewable energy. These marine structures are intended to be settled in coastal regions where the effect of variable bathymetry may be significant on local wave conditions. This study presents a numerical model for the wave propagation with complex bathymetry. It is based on High-Order Spectral (HOS) method, initially limited to the propagation of non-linear wave fields over flat bottom. Such a model has been developed and validated at the LHEEA Lab. (Ecole Centrale Nantes) over the past few years and the current developments will enlarge its application range. This new numerical model will keep the interesting numerical properties of the original pseudo-spectral approach (convergence, efficiency with the use of FFTs, …) and enable the possibility to propagate highly non-linear wave fields over long time and large distance. Different validations will be provided in addition to the presentation of the method. At first, Bragg reflection will be studied with the proposed approach. If the Bragg condition is satisfied, the reflected wave generated by a sinusoidal bottom patch should be amplified as a result of resonant quadratic interactions between incident wave and bottom. Comparisons will be provided with experiments and reference solutions. Then, the method will be used to consider the transformation of a non-linear monochromatic wave as it propagates up and over a submerged bar. As the waves travel up the front slope of the bar, it steepens and high harmonics are generated due to non-linear interactions. Comparisons with experimental data will be provided. The different test cases will assess the accuracy and efficiency of the method proposed.

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States (NODC Accession 0121254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. Anthropogenic activities and coastal environmental quality: a regional quantitative analysis in southeast China with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Liu, Yan; Huang, Dongren; Ke, Hongwei; Chen, Huorong; Zhang, Songbin; Yang, Shengyun; Cai, Minggang

    2018-02-01

    Regional analysis of environmental issues has always been a hot topic in the field of sustainable development. Because the different levels of economic growth, urbanization, resource endowments, etc. in different regions generate apparently different ecological responses, a better description and comparison across different regions will provide more valuable implications for ecological improvement and policymaking. In this study, seven typical bays in southeast China that are a rapid developing area were selected to quantitatively analyze the relationship between socioeconomic development and coastal environmental quality. Based on the water quality data from 2007 to 2015, the multivariate statistical method was applied to analyze the potential environmental risks and to classify the seven bays based on their environmental quality status. The possible variation trends of environmental indices were predicted based on the cross-regional panel data by Environmental Kuznets Curve. The results showed that there were significant regional differences among the seven bays, especially Quanzhou, Xiamen, and Luoyuan Bays, suffered from severer artificial disturbances than other bays, despite their different development patterns. Socioeconomic development level was significantly associated with some water quality indices (pH, DIN, PO 4 -P); the association was roughly positive: the areas with higher GDP per capita have some worse water quality indices. In addition, the decreasing trend of pH values and the increasing trend of nutrient concentration in the seven bays will continue in the foreseeable future. In consideration of the variation trends, the limiting nutrient strategy should be implemented to mitigate the deterioration of the coastal environments.

  8. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  9. Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Greenwood, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

  10. Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee

    2017-06-01

    Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

  11. Ecological sensitivity of the Persian Gulf coastal region (Case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    geo-referencing photo mosaic Land Sat Satellite images (2003) and IRS' (2004) were taken and basic maps of two influential areas were evaluated within the above mentioned limits which included the coastal village boundaries. The coastal line of the area being evaluated (set back line) was 673.62 kms comprising an ...

  12. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity. However, the strains separated from beach habitats strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro, and fungi of mangrove forest habitats had the weakest activity of inhibiting tumor. Meanwhile, 195 fungal strains belonged to 46 families, 84 genera, 142 species and also showed 137 different types of activity combinations by analyzing the inhibitory activity of the metabolites fungi for 4 strains of pathogenic bacteria and B-16 cells. The study investigated the biological activity of marine fungi isolated from different habitats in Haikou coastal regions. The results help us to understand bioactive metabolites of marine fungi from different habitats, and how to selected biological activity fungi from various marine habitats effectively.

  13. An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le Cozannet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets, simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean, notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.

  14. Why is Coastal Community Resilience Important in the Gulf of Mexico Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program supports the regional collaborative approach and efforts of the Coastal Community Resilience Priority Issue Team of the Gulf of Mexico Governors’ Alliance and its broad spectrum of partners and stakeholders.

  15. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Zhan, Tong; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier

  16. Process for evaluating overweight truck corridors serving coastal port regions and border ports of entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Coastal and inland ports, regional mobility authorities, cities, and counties located near or along the Texas Gulf Coast, and along the border with Mexico, have been granted authority by the state legislature to establish permitted overweight truck c...

  17. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2005 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  1. The "shallow-waterness" of the wave climate in European coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkon Christensen, Kai; Carrasco, Ana; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Breivik, Øyvind

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from eight selected stations. There is a strong seasonal dependence and high values are typically associated with winter storms, indicating that shallow water wave effects can occasionally be important even in the deeper parts of the shelf seas otherwise dominated by deep water waves.

  2. The “shallow-waterness” of the wave climate in European coastal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Christensen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from eight selected stations. There is a strong seasonal dependence and high values are typically associated with winter storms, indicating that shallow water wave effects can occasionally be important even in the deeper parts of the shelf seas otherwise dominated by deep water waves.

  3. Levels and profiles of persistent organic pollutants in resident and migratory birds from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Ha, Sung Yong; Jang, Mi; Rani, Manviri; Hong, Sunwook; Yeo, Gwang Yeong

    2014-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels in resident and migratory birds collected from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea were investigated. As target species, resident birds that reside in different habitats-such as inland and coastal regions-were selected and their POP contamination status and accumulation features evaluated. Additionally, winter and summer migratory species were analysed for comparison with resident birds. Black-tailed gull and domestic pigeon were selected as the coastal and inland resident birds, respectively, and pacific loon and heron/egret were selected as the winter and summer migratory birds, respectively. The overall POP concentrations (unit: ng/g lipid) in resident birds were 14-131,000 (median: 13,400) for PCBs, 40-284,000 (11,200) for DDTs, urban resident bird such as pigeon, an intentional intake of dust or soils during feeding is likely to be an additional route of exposure to POPs. Resident birds generally accumulated higher POPs concentrations than migratory birds, the exceptions being relatively volatile compounds such as HCB, PeCB and HCHs. © 2013.

  4. Regional Hydrogeochemistry of a Modern Coastal Mixing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Carol M.; Herman, Janet S.

    1996-02-01

    In west central Florida, groundwater samples were collected along flow paths in the unconfined upper Floridan aquifer that cross the inland, freshwater recharge area and the coastal discharge area. A groundwater flow and solute transport model was used to evaluate groundwater flow and mixing of fresh and saline groundwater along a cross section of the unconfined upper Floridan aquifer. Results show that between 8% and 15% of the fresh and 30-31% of the saline groundwater penetrates to the depth in the flow system where contact with and dissolution of gypsum is likely. The deeply circulating fresh and saline groundwater returns to the near-surface environment discharging CaSO4-rich water to the coastal area where it mixes with fresh CaHCO3 groundwater, resulting in a prediction of calcite precipitation in the modern mixing zone.

  5. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  6. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, Camila de Toledo; Lortie, Christopher J; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or 'stressful' environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  7. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Toledo Castanho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or ‘stressful’ environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%. Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping

  8. Feature and Region Selection for Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ji; Wang, Liantao; Cabral, Ricardo; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Visual learning problems, such as object classification and action recognition, are typically approached using extensions of the popular bag-of-words (BoWs) model. Despite its great success, it is unclear what visual features the BoW model is learning. Which regions in the image or video are used to discriminate among classes? Which are the most discriminative visual words? Answering these questions is fundamental for understanding existing BoW models and inspiring better models for visual recognition. To answer these questions, this paper presents a method for feature selection and region selection in the visual BoW model. This allows for an intermediate visualization of the features and regions that are important for visual learning. The main idea is to assign latent weights to the features or regions, and jointly optimize these latent variables with the parameters of a classifier (e.g., support vector machine). There are four main benefits of our approach: 1) our approach accommodates non-linear additive kernels, such as the popular χ(2) and intersection kernel; 2) our approach is able to handle both regions in images and spatio-temporal regions in videos in a unified way; 3) the feature selection problem is convex, and both problems can be solved using a scalable reduced gradient method; and 4) we point out strong connections with multiple kernel learning and multiple instance learning approaches. Experimental results in the PASCAL VOC 2007, MSR Action Dataset II and YouTube illustrate the benefits of our approach.

  9. Preliminary survey of the coastal region between Peruibe and Iguape: plankton and hydrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, D.N.; Tommasi, L.R.; Sao Paulo Univ.

    1984-01-01

    In October 1980 a preliminary survey of the coastal region, between Peruibe and Iguape (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) was carried out in order to gather basic oceanographic data on the region where nuclear power plants are going to be built. Data on temperature, salinity, currents, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, phytoplankton, chlorophyll-a and zooplankton are presented and discussed. (Author) [pt

  10. Zonation and habitat selection on a reclaimed coastal foredune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three distinct zones, four habitats and six subhabitats were identified. Zonation and habitat selection appeared to be related to cover for two small mammal species. The arthropod orders were less susceptible to zonation and strict habitat selection, although some of the species showed selection. The normally unfavourable ...

  11. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachininskii Stanislav

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  12. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachninsky S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  13. Recent crustal movements and seismicity in the western coastal region of peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasam, L. N.

    1983-09-01

    Recent crustal movements, tectonics and seismicity of the western coastal region of peninsular India have been studied in detail in the very recent past. Prominent geomorphic features and large-scale manifestation of Holocene deformation and crustal movements have been noticed and studied over this coastal region from the Gulf of Cambay to the southernmost parts of Kerala, evidence for which is afforded in the form of Recent and sub-Recent raised beaches, sandbars, raised old terraces, pebble beds, etc. The sedimentary formations in this narrow coastal belt include Neogene and Quaternary sediments. The Bouguer gravity map of the western coastal tract shows some prominent gravity features extending into the offshore regions, suggestive of some significant tectonic and structural features. The seismic data in the offshore regions bring out some prominent roughly northwest-southeast as well as east-west faults and shears, in addition to prominent structural "highs" off the Bombay and Ratnagiri coast which have proved oil. The seismicity in this coastal tract as well as the faulted western margin of the western continental shelf in the Arabian Sea is generally of magnitude 3-6.

  14. Perturbations of modeling and forecast of karachi coastal region seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.A.; Abbas, S.; Ansari, M.R.K.; Zaffar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is now a stark reality affecting the humanity in many hazardous ways. Continuous floods in Pakistan in past two years are an eye opener in this regard. A great loss of property, agriculture and life as a result of these floods suggests for an intelligent monitoring of the future projections of climate change and global warming. This is necessary because the harmful impacts of natural hazards can be coped and alleviated with a good planning in advance. This monitoring demands for enhanced forecasting capabilities, use of better analytical techniques and a clear determination and study of the controlling factors. Karachi is a coastal city which is also the industrial hub of Pakistan. Moreover, it is among one of the largest metropolitans of the world. So expectedly is most suitable for the study of high level of complex natural and anthropogenic activities. It is peculiar in the sense that it has two summer seasons, a situation scarcely observable on the globe. Here, summer season seawater temperature fluctuations are studied with the help of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models and short- and long-term forecasts are made. Our short-term forecasts determine months for the summer wise temperature extremes. It appears that the months of May, June, July and August are the months of extreme temperature for the first summer and October is the month of extreme temperature for the second summer. The long-term forecasts predict that 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2019 will be the years of warm summers. The analysis appearing here would be useful for coastal-urban planners in emphasizing the impact of seawater extreme temperatures on urban industrial activities, etc. (author)

  15. Benefits of coastal recreation in Europe: identifying trade-offs and priority regions for sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermandi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the welfare dimension of the recreational services of coastal ecosystems through the application of a meta-analytical value transfer framework, which integrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the characterization of climate, biodiversity, accessibility, and anthropogenic pressure in each of 368 regions of the European coastal zone. The relative contribution of international, domestic, and local recreationists to aggregated regional values is examined. The implications of the analysis for prioritization of conservation areas and identification of good management practices are highlighted through the comparative assessment of estimated recreation values, current environmental pressures, and existing network of protected sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Coastal and Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    USGS Western Region Coastal and Ocean Science is interdisciplinary, collaborative, and integrates expertise from all USGS Disciplines, and ten of its major Science Centers, in Alaska, Hawai'i, California, Washington, and Oregon. The scientific talent, laboratories, and research vessels in the Western Region and across the Nation, strategically position the USGS to address broad geographic and oceanographic research topics. USGS information products inform resource managers and policy makers who must balance conservation mandates with increasing demands for resources that sustain the Nation's economy. This fact sheet describes but a few examples of the breadth of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore, and ocean environments along our Nation's West Coast and Pacific Islands.

  17. Coordinated Regional Benefit Studies of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Luger, Michael; Wieand, Ken; Pulsipher, Allan; Pendleton, Linwood; Wellman, Katherine; Pelsoci, Tom

    2003-01-01

    .... The authors will first produce regional "inventories" of ocean observation user sectors, including information about the physical and economic scale of their activities, how products from improved...

  18. SCREENING OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY BACILLUS SP ISOLATED FROM COASTAL REGION IN CUDDALORE TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvaneswari. M*and P. Sivagurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms produce extracellular or membrane associated surface-active compounds (bio surfactants). Biosurfactant are organic compounds belonging to various classes including glycolipids, lipopeptides, fatty acids, phospholipids that reduce the interfacial tension between immiscible liquids.This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from Bacillus sp. The efficiency of Bacillus spstrain isolated from a marine sediments soil sample from coastal region -Cud...

  19. Associations between accelerated glacier mass wastage and increased summer temperature in coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyurgerov, M.; McCabe, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Low-elevation glaciers in coastal regions of Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, individual ice caps around the Greenland ice sheet, and the Patagonia Ice Fields have an aggregate glacier area of about 332 ?? 103 km 2 and account for approximately 42% of all the glacier area outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. They have shown volume loss, especially since the end of the 1980s, increasing from about 45% in the 1960s to nearly 67% in 2003 of the total wastage from all glaciers on Earth outside those two largest ice sheets. Thus, a disproportionally large contribution of coastal glacier ablation to sea level rise is evident. We examine cumulative standardized departures (1961-2000 reference period) of glacier mass balances and air temperature data in these four coastal regions. Analyses indicate a strong association between increases in glacier volume losses and summer air temperature at regional and global scales. Increases in glacier volume losses in the coastal regions also coincide with an accelerated rate of ice discharge from outlet glaciers draining the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets. These processes imply further increases in sea level rise. ?? 2006 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  20. Perceptions of Village Dogs by Villagers and Tourists in the Coastal Region of Rural Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the village dog-keeping system, and of perceptions of dog-related problems by villagers and tourists, in the coastal region of Oaxaca, Mexico. We conducted a survey of the inhabitants of three villages (Mazunte, Puerto Angel, and Río Seco),

  1. Decision-support for climate change adaptation – applications for coastal regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    of a coastline, its hazard profile and possible management options, and can be used for screening purposes prior to more detailed feasibility studies. The project has applied the framework for multi-hazard-assessments for the state of Karnataka, India and for the state of Djibouti to showcase its application...... challenges, uncertainties and limitations. Based on the applications on Karnataka and Djibouti, feedback from coastal experts and a range of selected spot-assessments, a slightly revised version of the Coastal Hazard Wheel has been developed. This is presented in an overview paper together with general...

  2. Metallogenic events in the Coastal Cordillera of Copiapo region, northern Chile (26-28o S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.; Vivallo, W

    2001-01-01

    The metallogenic province of the Coastal Cordillera in the Copiapo region is characterized by Cu, Cu-Au,Cu-Fe-Au, Fe, Ag and Au deposits. The ore deposits are ranging in ages between Middle to Late Jurassic (1) and Early Cretaceous (2). Results of a geochronology program for ore deposits in this metallogenic province, in addition to existing geochronological control of the ore deposits host rocks (mainly intrusive) allowed to define four different Metallogenic Epochs which could be extended to other zones in the Coastal Cordillera (au)

  3. Coastal upwelling ecosystems are often identified as regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    ... are often identified as regions susceptible to seasonal blooms of harmful ... that the bay acts as a net importer of bottom water and net exporter of surface waters over a synoptic cycle. This ... waves or wind stress on the surface friction layer.

  4. Challenges of Tsunami Disaster and Extreme climate Events Along Coastal Region in Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, S.

    2017-12-01

    South Asia is more vulnerable to Geo disasters and impacts of climate changes in recent years. On 26 December 2004 massive waves triggered by an earthquake surged into coastal communities in Asia and East Africa with devastating force. Hitting Indonesia, Sri Lanka , Thailand and India hardest, the deadly waves swept more than 200 000 people to their deaths. Also in an another extreme climate change phenomenon during 2005 - 2006,causing heavy rains and flooding situation in the South Asia - Europe and Pacific region ,more than 100 million population in these regions are witnessing the social- economical and ecological risks and impacts due to climate changes and Geohazards. For mitigating geo-disasters, marine hazards and rehabilitation during post tsunami period, scientific knowledge is needed, requiring experienced research communities who can train the local population during tsunami rehabilitation. Several civil society institutions jointly started the initiatives on the problem identifications in management of risks in geo-disasters, tsunami rehabilitation ,Vulnerability and risk assessments for Geohazards etc., to investigate problems related to social-economic and ecological risks and management issues resulting from the December tsunami and Geo- disaster, to aid mitigation planning in affected areas and to educate scientists and local populations to form a basis for sustainable and economic solutions. The poster aims to assess the potential risk and hazard , technical issues, problems and damage arising from Tsunami in the Asia-pacific region in coastal geology, coastal ecosystems and coastal environmental systems . This poster deals with the status and issues of interactions between Human and Ocean Systems, Geo-risks, marine risks along coastal region of Asia- Pacific and also human influence on the earth system . The poster presentation focuses on capacity building of the local population, scientists and researchers for integration of human and ocean

  5. Development of a Florida Coastal Mapping Program Through Local and Regional Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C. J.; Kramer, P. A.; Fetherston-Resch, E.; Baumstark, R.

    2017-12-01

    The State of Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States (2,170 km). The coastal zone is heavily populated and contains 1,900 km of sandy beaches that support economically important recreation and tourism. Florida's waters also host important marine mineral resources, unique ecosystems, and the largest number of recreational boats and saltwater fishermen in the country. There is increasing need and demand for high resolution data of the coast and adjacent seafloor for resource and habitat mapping, understanding coastal vulnerability, evaluating performance of restoration projects, and many other coastal and marine spatial planning efforts. The Florida Coastal Mapping Program (FCMP), initiated in 2017 as a regional collaboration between four federal and three state agencies, has goals of establishing the priorities for high resolution seafloor mapping of Florida's coastal environment, and developing a strategy for leveraging funds to support mapping priorities set by stakeholders. We began by creating a comprehensive digital inventory of existing data (collected by government, the private sector, and academia) from 1 kilometer inland to the 200 meter isobath for a statewide geospatial database and gap analysis. Data types include coastal topography, bathymetry, and acoustic data such as sidescan sonar and subbottom profiles. Next, we will develop appropriate proposals and legislative budget requests in response to opportunities to collect priority data in high priority areas. Data collection will be undertaken by a combination of state and federal agencies. The FCMP effort will provide the critical baseline information that is required for characterizing changes to fragile ecosystems, assessing marine resources, and forecasting the impacts on coastal infrastructure and recreational beaches from future storms and sea-level rise.

  6. NODC Standard Product: C-CAP Coastal Change Analysis Project - St. Croix estuary region (1985 - 1992) (NODC Accession 0090142)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Change Analysis Project St. Croix Estuary Region CD-ROM data set uses Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery from 1985 to 1992 to provide a regional change...

  7. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Patrick; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry,...

  8. Phenolic Compounds from the Fermentation of Cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Berovič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fermentation of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian coastal region was performed in Bücher-Vaslin roto tank vinificators. Six different areas, Prade, Kortina, Škocijan, Ankaran, Labor and Hrvatini, were selected for this study to investigate total phenols, anthocyanins, tannins and colour density, as well as pH, titratable acidity, sugar content and ethanol. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds were found to be in generally higher concentrations (up to 4240 mg/L in Cabernet Sauvignon. Prolongation of the fermentation phase with Merlot gave even reduced concentrations of anthocyanins, a phenomenon which was not observed in Cabernet Sauvignon. The highest concentration of anthocyanins was found in Merlot from the Kortina location (735 mg/L, and in Cabernet Sauvignon from the Labor location (998 mg/L. The highest concentration of tannins (1828 mg/L was found in the grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon from the Ankaran location, while in Merlot 1280 mg/L was detected in a sample from the Prade area. The tone of colour and its intensity reached full maturity in Cabernet Sauvignon. Merlot from the Kortina location reached the highest colour density of 1.57, while in a sample of Cabernet Sauvignon from Hrvatini colour density was 2.89. Only small differences were detected in colour quality between Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  9. Historical bathymetry and bathymetric change in the Mississippi-Alabama coastal region, 1847-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, Noreen A.; Morton, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Land loss and seafloor change around the Mississippi and Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are of great concern to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies. The islands provide wildlife protected areas and recreational land, and they serve as a natural first line of defense for the mainland against storm activity (index map on poster). Principal physical conditions that drive morphological seafloor and coastal change in this area include decreased sediment supply, sea-level rise, storms, and human activities (Otvos, 1970; Byrnes and others, 1991; Morton and others, 2004; Morton, 2008). Seafloor responses to the same processes can also affect the entire coastal zone. Sediment eroded from the barrier islands is entrained in the littoral system, where it is redistributed by alongshore currents. Wave and current activity is partially controlled by the profile of the seafloor, and this interdependency along with natural and anthropogenic influences has significant effects on nearshore environments. When a coastal system is altered by human activity such as dredging, as is the case of the MS-AL coastal region, the natural state and processes are altered, and alongshore sediment transport can be disrupted. As a result of deeply dredged channels, adjacent island migration is blocked, nearshore environments downdrift in the littoral system become sediment starved, and sedimentation around the channels is modified. Sediment deposition and erosion are reflected through seafloor evolution. In a rapidly changing coastal environment, understanding historically where and why changes are occurring is essential. To better assess the comprehensive dynamics of the MS-AL coastal zone, a 160-year evaluation of the bathymetry and bathymetric change of the region was conducted.

  10. Causes and consequences of ecosystem service regionalization in a coastal suburban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Mark B. Green,; Pellerin, Brian A.; Morse, Nathaniel B.; Hopkinson, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for ecosystem services and the ability of natural ecosystems to provide those services evolve over time as population, land use, and management practices change. Regionalization of ecosystem service activity, or the expansion of the area providing ecosystem services to a population, is a common response in densely populated coastal regions, with important consequences for watershed water and nitrogen (N) fluxes to the coastal zone. We link biophysical and historical information to explore the causes and consequences of change in ecosystem service activity—focusing on water provisioning and N regulation—from 1850 to 2010 in a coastal suburban watershed, the Ipswich River watershed in northeastern Massachusetts, USA. Net interbasin water transfers started in the late 1800s due to regionalization of water supply for use by larger populations living outside the Ipswich watershed boundaries, reaching a peak in the mid-1980s. Over much of the twentieth century, about 20 % of river runoff was diverted from reaching the estuary, with greater proportions during drought years. Ongoing regionalization of water supply has contributed to recent declines in diversions, influenced by socioecological feedbacks resulting from the river drying and fish kills. Similarly, the N budget has been greatly perturbed since the suburban era began in the 1950s due to food and lawn fertilizer imports and human waste release. However, natural ecosystems are able to remove most of this anthropogenic N, mitigating impacts on the coastal zone. We propose a conceptual model whereby the amount and type of ecosystem services provided by coastal watersheds in urban regions expand and contract over time as regional population expands and ecosystem services are regionalized. We hypothesize that suburban watersheds can be hotspots of ecosystem service sources because they retain sufficient ecosystem function to still produce services that meet increasing demand from the local population

  11. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Patrick J.; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.

    2015-05-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry, coastline and divergence strong constraints. A weak constraint towards the minimum inter-island transports that are in accord with the first-guess velocities provides important velocity corrections in complex archipelagos. In the optimization weights, the minimum distance and vertical area between pairs of coasts are computed using a Fast Marching Method. Additional information on velocity and transports are included as strong or weak constraints. We apply our methodology around the Hawaiian islands of Kauai/Niihau, in the Taiwan/Kuroshio region and in the Philippines Archipelago. Comparisons with other common initialization strategies, among hindcasts from these initial conditions (ICs), and with independent in situ observations show that our optimization corrects transports, satisfies boundary conditions and redirects currents. Differences between the hindcasts from these different ICs are found to grow for at least 2-3 weeks. When compared to independent in situ observations, simulations from our optimized ICs are shown to have the smallest errors.

  12. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Erikson, Li H.; Harden, E. Lynne; Wallendorf, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay.

  13. Indoor radon concentrations in the coastal and central regions of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, Perko; Antovic, Nevenka; Svrkota, Ranko

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first systematic indoor radon survey in Montenegro, in 10 municipalities of its coastal and central regions. In rural areas one home was randomly selected in each 5 x 5 km square of a regular grid covering the territory of Montenegro, while in urban areas the basic grid was subdivided into 0.5 x 0.5 km squares, and in each of them one building was selected and one dwelling within the building. In each of these 434 homes, radon measurements were performed twice a year, using passive dosimeters placed in the living room or bedroom on the ground floor or the first floor. The CR-39 nuclear track detectors were exposed each time for about six months. The annual average radon concentrations in the surveyed homes are found to be log normally distributed (GM = 49.6 Bq m -3 , GSD 3.2) within the range 2-2,208 Bq m -3 . Their arithmetic mean is 105 Bq m -3 and median 41.4 Bq m -3 . Radon concentrations above the action level of 400 Bq m -3 are detected in 5.6% of the surveyed homes. Most of these 24 homes are detached single-family houses, and the majority are rural. Radon concentrations were generally higher in detached family houses than in apartment buildings, in older than in newer houses, and higher in rural than in urban homes. As to the domestic radon exposure, this survey indicates reinforced concrete as the most favorable and stones as the most unfavorable of the building materials commonly used in Montenegro. The lowest average effective dose is in urban homes on the Montenegrin Coast (0.80 mSv y -1 ), while the highest is in the rural area of the Niksic municipality (7.31 mSv y - 1 ) , which is abundant in bauxite deposits. (author)

  14. Fog in the coastal region of southern Brazil: seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, N.; Gomes, C.

    2009-05-01

    Fog forecasting, especially advection fog, is important because a large port is located at Rio Grande, 32° S and 52° W. Fogs discontinue the cargo transport and prevent entrance of ships in the port, causing great financial loss. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions associated to fog formation are been investigated, especially those that happen during advection fog. The result of this characterization will facilitate the forecast using mesoscale numerical models. The research started with a climatology of fog in the region, in two locations which are 2° of latitude apart, with an average temperature difference of 3°C. The observation of fog is a standard record at conventional meteorological stations. Data from this study was obtained from the Meteorological Station of Rio Grande, which belongs to the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia network, and from the Meteorological Station operated by the Division of Meteorology of Department of Airspace Control in Porto Alegre. The period of this study is from January 1990 to December 2005. The distribution of the monthly total of fog observations shows that they occur mainly between May and August, with maximum in June. In all seasons of the year the total number of fogs is greater than in Porto Alegre in Rio Grande. There was a decrease in the average annual number of fogs from the 90s to the last five years of research, which can be attributed to urbanization around the places of observation. It increases the temperature in the layers closer to the soil and decreases the available moisture, making the occurrence of radiation fog. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions, prevalent during these occurrences, will be examined next. The another goal is to compare the data of advection fog in Rio Grande, obtained from images of the type ARGUS in Cassino beach, with those recorded by Meteorological Station. This work is partially financed by FINEP and CAPES.

  15. Environmental monitoring and assessment of antibacterial metabolite producing actinobacteria screened from marine sediments in south coastal regions of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Garka, Shruthi; Puttaswamy, Sushmitha; Shanbhogue, Shobitha; Devaraju, Raksha; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria. The selected metabolites were partially characterized by proximate analysis, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR-spectroscopy. The antibiogram of the test clinical isolates revealed that they were emerged as multidrug-resistant strains (P ≤ 0.05). Among six actinobacteria (IS1-1S6) screened, 100 μl -1 metabolite from IS1 showed significant antibacterial activities against all the clinical isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IS2 demonstrated antimicrobial potential towards Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli. The metabolite from IS3 showed activity against Strep. pyogenes and E. coli. The metabolites from IS4, IS5, and IS6 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Ps. aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.05). The two metabolites that depicted highest antibacterial activities against the test strains were suggested to be antimicrobial peptides with low molecular weight. These isolates were characterized and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain mangaluru01 and Streptomyces sp. mangaloreK01 by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This study suggests that south coastal regions of Karnataka, India, are one of the richest sources of antibacterial metabolites producing actinobacteria and monitoring of these regions for therapeutic intervention plays profound role in healthcare management.

  16. Effect of urbanization in a coastal region on sea breeze and urban thermal environment

    OpenAIRE

    河原, 能久; 川又, 孝太郎; 玉井, 信行

    1994-01-01

    Effect of land use development in a coastal region on heat island phenomenon is studied numerically by an urban climate model that employs the k-e turbulence model and an eddy diffusivity model for the transport of momentum, temperature and moisture in the Eckman layer together with a heat balance model for the surface boundary layer and the soil layer. Numerical simulations are carried out for a simplified terrain which consists of sea and land. Changes in wind velocity, temperature and heat...

  17. Shifts between gelatinous and crustacean plankton in a coastal upwelling region

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Antonio; Álvarez-Ossorio, Maria Teresa; Miranda, Ana; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    proyectos RADIALES (IEO) y EURO-BASIN (Ref. 264933, 7FP) Variability in the dominance of copepods vs. gelatinous plankton was analysed using monthly time-series covering the last 55 years and related to changes in climatic, oceanographic, and fishery conditions in the upwelling region of Galicia (NW Spain). Seasonality was generally the main component of variability in all groups, both along the coast and in the nearby ocean, but no common long-term trend was found. Coastal copepo...

  18. Radon as an indicator of submarine groundwater discharge in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.; Suresh Babu, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the various available methodologies to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and demonstrates the utility of radon with a case study. An attempt has been made to identify the existence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and semi-quantitatively estimate its rate in the coastal area of Vizhinjam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Natural 222 Rn (half-life = 3.8 days) was used as a tracer of SGD because of its conservative nature, short half-life, easiness in measurement and high abundance in groundwater. As in situ radon ( 222 Rn) monitoring study conducted in this region indicated comparatively higher 222 Rn activities (average 14.1±1.7 Bq/m 3 ) in the coastal waters revealing significant submarine groundwater discharge. The SGD may be a combination of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater that is controlled by the hydraulic gradient in the adjacent aquifer and varying tidal conditions in the coastal waters. Using a transient 222 Rn mass balance model for the coastal waters, SGD rates were computed and the average value was found to be 10.9±6.1 cm/day. These estimates are comparable with those reported in the literature. In general, identification and estimation of submarine groundwater discharge is important in the Indian context because of the possibility of large amounts of groundwater loss through its long coastline, that can be judiciously exploited to cater to the present water requirements for drinking and irrigation purposes. (author)

  19. Analysis of systematic fracturing in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Vrabec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyse systematic fractures occurring in sandstone beds in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal area. Two nearly perpendicular fracture sets were identifid: fractures F1 are generally NW-SE oriented, wellexpressed and predominately planar, whereas fractures F2 are NE-SW-striking, shorter, more irregular in shape, and terminate against the F1 set. The average orientation of both sets does not change signifiantly in a coastal transect crossing all principal structural domains of the area. We analysed fracture spacing with respect to layer thickness and determined fracture spacing index for both fracture sets. We interpret both fracture sets as tensional (Mode I joints originating in two distinct extensional episodes. Set F1 is older and formed in NE-SW directed tension which we correlate with the well-documented regional post-Dinaric orogen-perpendicular extension of presumably mid-Miocene age. Set F2 formed in NW-SE oriented tension, which is compatible with previously documented NE-SW-striking normal faults occurring in the area, but was so far not documented elsewhere. We interpret that F1 fractures predate folding and thrusting in the coastal belt. Earlier, Eocene-Oligocene Dinaric thrusting therefore did not signifiantly affect the coastal area, whereas post-F1 shortening, associated with northward indentation and underthrusting of the Adria microplate, did not commence before late Miocene.

  20. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of microplastics at selected coastal sites along the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xubiao; Ladewig, Samantha; Bao, Shaowu; Toline, Catherine A; Whitmire, Stefanie; Chow, Alex T

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the southeastern coastal region of the United States, we quantified the amount of microplastics in sand samples from multiple coastal sites and developed a predictive model to understand the drift of plastics via ocean currents. Sand samples from eighteen National Park Service (NPS) beaches in the Southeastern Region were collected and microplastics were isolated from each sample. Microplastic counts were compared among sites and local geography was used to make inferences about sources and modes of distribution. Samples were analyzed to identify the composition of particles using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To predict the spatiotemporal distribution and movements of particles via coastal currents, a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was applied. Microplastics were detected in each of the sampled sites although abundance among sites was highly variable. Approximately half of the samples were dominated by thread-like and fibrous materials as opposed to beads and particles. Results of FTIR suggested that 24% consisted of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), while about 68% of the fibers tested were composed of man-made cellulosic materials such as rayon. Based on published studies examining sources of microplastics, the shape of the particles found here (mostly fibers) and the presence of PET, we infer the source of microplastics in coastal areas is mainly from urban areas, such as wastewater discharge, rather than breakdown of larger marine debris drifting in the ocean. Local geographic features, e.g., the nearness of sites to large rivers and urbanized areas, explain variance in amount of microplastics among sites. Additionally, the distribution of simulated particles is explained by ocean current patterns; computer simulations were correlated with field observations, reinforcing the idea that ocean currents can be a good predictor of the fate and distribution of microplastics

  2. Coastal flooding as a parameter in multi-criteria analysis for industrial site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, C.; Memos, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2014-12-01

    Natural hazards can trigger major industrial accidents, which apart from affecting industrial installations may cause a series of accidents with serious impacts on human health and the environment far beyond the site boundary. Such accidents, also called Na-Tech (natural - technical) accidents, deserve particular attention since they can cause release of hazardous substances possibly resulting in severe environmental pollution, explosions and/or fires. There are different kinds of natural events or, in general terms, of natural causes of industrial accidents, such as landslides, hurricanes, high winds, tsunamis, lightning, cold/hot temperature, floods, heavy rains etc that have caused accidents. The scope of this paper is to examine the coastal flooding as a parameter in causing an industrial accident, such as the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan, and the critical role of this parameter in industrial site selection. Land use planning is a complex procedure that requires multi-criteria decision analysis involving economic, environmental and social parameters. In this context the parameter of a natural hazard occurrence, such as coastal flooding, for industrial site selection should be set by the decision makers. In this paper it is evaluated the influence that has in the outcome of a multi-criteria decision analysis for industrial spatial planning the parameter of an accident risk triggered by coastal flooding. The latter is analyzed in the context of both sea-and-inland induced flooding.

  3. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia J; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K

    2004-07-01

    To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy.

  4. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  5. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-01-01

    As of the time of this writing, the San Francisco Bay region is home to about 6.8 million people, ranking fifth among population centers in the United States. Most of these people live on the coastal lands along San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento River delta, and the Pacific coast. The region straddles the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates and is crossed by several strands of the San Andreas Fault system. These faults, which are stressed by about 4 cm of relative plate motion each year, pose an obvious seismic hazard.

  6. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF PAPAGAYO, COSTA RICA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica dataset was created using an automated...

  7. Coastal flooding impact evaluation using an INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model for Varna region, Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nataliya; Eftimova, Petya; Valchev, Nikolay; Prodanov, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The study presents evaluation and comparative analysis of storm induced flooding impacts on different coastal receptors at a scale of Varna region using INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model. The model was developed within the FP7 RISC-KIT project, as a part of Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) consisting of two phases. CRAF Phase 1 is a screening process that evaluates coastal risk at a regional scale by means of coastal indices approach, which helps to identify potentially vulnerable coastal sectors: hot spots (HS). CRAF Phase 2 has the objective to assess and rank identified hotspots by detailed risk analysis done by jointly performing a hazard assessment and an impact evaluation on different categories (population, businesses, ecosystems, transport and utilities) using INDRA model at a regional level. Basically, the model assess the shock of events by estimating the impact on directly exposed to flooding hazard receptors of different vulnerability, as well as the potential ripple effects during an event in order to assess the "indirect" impacts, which occur outside the hazard area and/or continue after the event for all considered categories. The potential impacts are expressed in terms of uniform "Impact Indicators", which independently score the indirect impacts of these categories assessing disruption and recovery of the receptors. The ultimate hotspot ranking is obtained through the use of a Multi Criteria analysis (MCA) incorporated in the model, considering preferences of stakeholders. The case study area - Varna regional coast - is located on the western Black Sea, Bulgaria. The coastline, with a length of about 70 km, stretches from cape Ekrene to cape St. Atanas and includes Varna Bay. After application of CRAF Phase 1 three hotspots were selected for further analysis: Kabakum beach (HS1), Varna Central beach plus Port wall (HS2) and Artificial Island (HS3). For first two hotspots beaches and associated infrastructure are the assets

  8. Tsunami induced transportation of the coastal marine sediments to distant onshore regions: Some indications from foraminiferal and microbenthic studies of new Wandoor region (Andaman & Nicobar)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    regions near New Wandoor (Andaman and Nicobar) suggested the areal extent of marine transgression due to tsunami waves on December 26, 2004. There is a need to investigate coastal marine sediments with multi-disciplinary approach to understnd impact...

  9. Energy and resource basis of an Italian coastal resort region integrated using emergy synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Paolo; Paoli, Chiara; Tilley, David R; Fabiano, Mauro

    2009-10-01

    Sustainable development of coastal zones must balance economic development that encourages human visitation from a larger population with desires that differ from the local residents with the need to maintain opportunities for the local resident society and conserve ecological capital, which may serve as the basis for residents. We present a case study in which the sustainability level of a coastal zone (Riviera del Beigua), located along the Ligurian coast of north-western Italy, was assessed through the lens of systems ecology using emergy synthesis to integrate across economic, social and environmental sub-systems. Our purposes were (1) to quantify the environmental sustainability level of this coastal zone, (2) to evaluate the role of tourism in affecting the economy, society and environment, and (3) to compare emergy synthesis to Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle model (TALC). Results showed that 81% of the total emergy consumption in the coastal zone was derived from external sources, indicating that this tourist-heavy community was not sustainable. Tourism, as the dominant economic sub-system, consumed 42% of the total emergy budget, while local residents used the remaining 58%. The progressive stages of the TALC model were found to parallel the dynamic changes in the ratio of external emergy inputs to local emergy inputs, suggesting that emergy synthesis could be a useful tool for detecting a tourist region's TALC stage. Use of such a quantitative tool could expedite sustainability assessment to allow administrative managers to understand the complex relationship between a region's economy, environment and resident society so sound policies can be developed to improve overall sustainability.

  10. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Map, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal monitoring program with rigorous quality assurance protocols and standardized sampling...

  11. Twitter Analytics: Are the U.S. Coastal Regions Prepared for Climate Change in 2017?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, S. L.; Kumar, S.

    2017-12-01

    According to the U.S. National Climate Assessment, the Southeast Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States are particularly susceptible to sea level rise, heat waves, hurricanes and less accessibility to clean water due to climate change. This is because of the extreme variation of topography in these two regions. Preparation for climate change consequences can only occur with conversation, which is a method of bringing awareness to the issue. Over the past decade, social media has taken over the spectrum of information exchange in the United States. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a field that is emerging with the growth in popularity of social media. SNA is the practice of analyzing trends in volume and opinion of a population of social media users. Twitter, one popular social media platform, is one of the largest microblogging sites in the world, and it provides an abundance of data related to the trending topics such as climate change. Twitter analytics is a type of SNA performed on data from the tweets of Twitter users. In this work, Twitter analytics is performed on the data generated from the Twitter users in the United States, who were talking about climate change, global warming and/or CO2, over the course of one year (July 2016 - June 2017). Specifically, a regional comparative analysis on the coastal U.S. regions was conducted to recognize which region(s) is/are falling behind on the conversation about climate change. Sentiment analysis was also performed to understand the trends in opinion about climate change that vary over time. Experimental results determined that the southeast coast of the United States is deficient in their discussion about climate change compared to the other coastal regions. Igniting the conversation about this issue in these regions will mitigate the disasters due to climate change by increasing awareness in the people of these regions so they can properly prepare.

  12. Bangladesh’s dynamic coastal regions and sea-level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Brammer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical geography of Bangladesh’s coastal area is more diverse and dynamic than is generally recognised. Failure to recognise this has led to serious misconceptions about the potential impacts of a rising sea-level on Bangladesh with global warming. This situation has been aggravated by accounts giving incorrect information on current rates of coastal erosion and land subsidence. This paper describes physical conditions within individual physiographic regions in Bangladesh’s coastal area based on ground-surveyed information, and it reviews possible area-specific mitigation measures to counter predicted rates of sea-level rise in the 21st century. Two important conclusions are drawn: the adoption of appropriate measures based on knowledge of the physical geography of potentially-affected areas could significantly reduce the currently-predicted displacement of many millions of people; and the impacts of a slowly-rising sea-level are currently much less than those generated by rapidly increasing population pressure on Bangladesh’s available land and water resources and by exposure to existing environmental hazards, and the latter problems need priority attention.

  13. Evaluation of Tsunami Run-Up on Coastal Areas at Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez, O.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunami hazard assessment is tackled by means of numerical simulations, giving as a result, the areas flooded by tsunami wave inland. To get this, some input data is required, i.e., the high resolution topobathymetry of the study area, the earthquake focal mechanism parameters, etc. The computational cost of these kinds of simulations are still excessive. An important restriction for the elaboration of large scale maps at National or regional scale is the reconstruction of high resolution topobathymetry on the coastal zone. An alternative and traditional method consists of the application of empirical-analytical formulations to calculate run-up at several coastal profiles (i.e. Synolakis, 1987), combined with numerical simulations offshore without including coastal inundation. In this case, the numerical simulations are faster but some limitations are added as the coastal bathymetric profiles are very simply idealized. In this work, we present a complementary methodology based on a hybrid numerical model, formed by 2 models that were coupled ad hoc for this work: a non-linear shallow water equations model (NLSWE) for the offshore part of the propagation and a Volume of Fluid model (VOF) for the areas near the coast and inland, applying each numerical scheme where they better reproduce the tsunami wave. The run-up of a tsunami scenario is obtained by applying the coupled model to an ad-hoc numerical flume. To design this methodology, hundreds of worldwide topobathymetric profiles have been parameterized, using 5 parameters (2 depths and 3 slopes). In addition, tsunami waves have been also parameterized by their height and period. As an application of the numerical flume methodology, the coastal parameterized profiles and tsunami waves have been combined to build a populated database of run-up calculations. The combination was tackled by means of numerical simulations in the numerical flume The result is a tsunami run-up database that considers real profiles shape

  14. Calculations of hydrophysical fields in the coastal regions of the Black Sea with high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, N.

    2017-09-01

    Numerical experiments have been carried out using a hydrodynamical model with nonlinear equations of motion and heat and salt advection to reconstruct the fields of hydrophysical parameters in the coastal regions of the Black Sea taking into account the real atmospheric forcing and river discharges for the winter and summer seasons of 2006. A higher spatial resolution allowed to get a detailed meso- and submesoscale structure of hydrophysical fields in the upper and deep layers of the Southern Coast of Crimea and the north-western shelf and to obtain quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the eddies and jets more accurately in comparison with previous calculations.

  15. Marine environmental assessment in the Black Sea region- a case for the Turkish coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.

    2001-01-01

    'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' Technical Cooperation Project, implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Environmental problems of the Black Sea eco-system and the current international efforts with regard to prevention of pollution are discussed. General aspects of the project are presented. A joint monitoring program initiated according to the work plan of the project among six Black Sea countries is outlined with emphasis on the monitoring program for the Turkish coastal zone. Concluding remarks are on the vital importance of sharing the scientific responsibility on the trans-boundary environmental problems

  16. Iodine deficiency status of school going children in coastal region of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayedur Rahman Miah; Chowdhury Habibur Rasul; Ashoke Kumar Paul

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Bangladesh is an iodine deficient zone, affected mainly in the northern part i.e., in Himalayan belt along Brahmaputra and Jamuna River. Severity of' iodine deficiency can be assessed by prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine excretion. The latest nationwide survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders of' Bangladesh in 1993 showed prevalence of goitre 47.1% in all age and sex group and 69% of the population had urinary iodine excretion 100 mcg/L. Conclusion: On the basis of goitre prevalence and urinary iodine excretion, coastal region of Bangladesh is a mild iodine deficient zone. (authors)

  17. Inferring coastal processes from regional-scale mapping of 222Radon and salinity: examples from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas C.; Cook, Peter G.; Burnett, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The radon isotope 222 Rn and salinity in coastal surface water were mapped on regional scales, to improve the understanding of coastal processes and their spatial variability. Radon was measured with a surface-towed, continuously recording multi-detector setup on a moving vessel. Numerous processes and locations of land-ocean interaction along the Central Great Barrier Reef coastline were identified and interpreted based on the data collected. These included riverine fluxes, terrestrially-derived fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and the tidal pumping of seawater through mangrove forests. Based on variations in the relationship of the tracers radon and salinity, some aspects of regional freshwater inputs to the coastal zone and to estuaries could be assessed. Concurrent mapping of radon and salinity allowed an efficient qualitative assessment of land-ocean interaction on various spatial and temporal scales, indicating that such surveys on coastal scales can be a useful tool to obtain an overview of SGD locations and processes.

  18. Climate Change and Coastal Zones. An Overview of the State-of-the-Art on Regional and Local Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterr, H.; Klein, R.J.T.; Reese, S.

    2000-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in methodologies for assessing the vulnerability of coastal zones to climate change at regional and local scales. The focus of vulnerability assessment in coastal zones used to be on erosion and land loss due to sea-level rise. Methodologies now increasingly consider the wide range of climate and impact variables that play a part in determining coastal vulnerability, as well as non-climatic developments. The paper presents a conceptual framework for vulnerability assessment that identifies a number of system components that can be considered determinants of vulnerability. It then goes on to outline a number of steps that are required for the actual assessment of coastal vulnerability, such as scenario development, data collection and impact assessment. The approach is illustrated using a regional and local case study in Germany

  19. Occurrence and transport of 17 perfluoroalkyl acids in 12 coastal rivers in south Bohai coastal region of China with concentrated fluoropolymer facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Yaning; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Liu, Shijie; Xie, Shuangwei; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. While PFAAs manufacturing becomes regulated in developed countries, production has been partly shifted to China. Eight fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities located in the South Bohai coastal region, one of the most populated areas of China, have been used to manufacture PFAA-related substances since 2001. The environmental consequence of the intensive production of PFAAs in this region remains largely unknown. We analyzed 17 PFAAs in twelve coastal rivers of this region, and found staggeringly high concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) ranging from 0.96 to 4534.41 ng/L. The highest concentration was observed in the Xiaoqing River which received effluents from certain fluoropolymer facilities. Principal component analysis indicated similar sources of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in all rivers, which indicated that atmospheric transport, wastewater treatment and surface runoff also acted as important supplements to direct discharge to surface water. - Highlights: • PFAAs were detected in rapidly urbanized regions. • PFOA was found predominant followed by short chain PFCAs. • Fluoropolymer facilities were associated with PFAAs contamination. • Higher PFAAs levels were found near the PTFE production facilities. • Diffusion of PFAAs from rivers to the sea was influenced by tide and current. - High level of PFOA was detected in the river water due to the fluoropolymer industries in South Bohai coastal region

  20. Living with the Risks of Cyclone Disasters in the South-Western Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishawjit Mallick

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. Cyclone disasters that affect millions of people, destroy homesteads and livelihoods, and trigger migration are common in the coastal region of Bangladesh. The aim of this article is to understand how the coastal communities in Bangladesh deal with the continuous threats of cyclones. As a case study, this study investigates communities that were affected by the Cyclone Sidr in 2007 and Cyclone Aila in 2009, covering 1555 households from 45 coastal villages in the southwestern region of Bangladesh. The survey method incorporated household based questionnaire techniques and community based focus group discussions. The pre-event situation highlights that the affected communities were physically vulnerable due to the strategic locations of the cyclone shelters nearer to those with social supreme status and the location of their houses in relatively low-lying lands. The victims were also socio-economically vulnerable considering the high rate of illiteracy, larger family size, no ownership of land, and extreme poverty. They were mostly day labourers, farmers, and fishermen. Post-event situation reveals that the victims’ houses and livelihoods were severely damaged or destroyed. Most victims were forced to shift their occupations (e.g., from farmers to fishermen, and many became unemployed. They also became heavily dependent on micro-credits and other forms of loans. A significant number of people were displaced and migrated to large urban agglomerations in search of livelihoods to maintain their families back in the affected villages. Migration was primarily undertaken as an adaptation strategy.

  1. Impact of climate change on food security in southwest coastal region of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.; Rahman, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on food security of the population residing in the coastal area of Bangladesh. Based on multistage random sampling technique, a survey was conducted to collect socioeconomic and food datasets of the people affected by extreme climate events in the country. The study found that climate change caused food insecurity in the region; it led to greater dependence on pond and rain water for cooking food and water intake. Catastrophe due to extreme weather events adversely affected the livelihoods and level of income. The severe cyclonic storms, Sidr (November 2007) and Alia (May 2009) severely affected the vulnerable people of this region, especially the extremely poor. The study came out with several coping strategies to address adverse effects of climate change, including rehabilitation with income and employment generating activities and development training; alternative livelihood adaptation practices; access to subsidized inputs and credits; introduction of crop calendar; conservation of arable and fellow land; and innovation of saline-tolerant, heat-resistant, moderate water consuming and short-rotation crops for the coastal people. (author)

  2. Observed changes in relative humidity and dew point temperature in coastal regions of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.; Sabziparvar, A. A.; Tabari, Hossein

    2012-12-01

    The analysis of trends in hydroclimatic parameters and assessment of their statistical significance have recently received a great concern to clarify whether or not there is an obvious climate change. In the current study, parametric linear regression and nonparametric Mann-Kendall tests were applied for detecting annual and seasonal trends in the relative humidity (RH) and dew point temperature ( T dew) time series at ten coastal weather stations in Iran during 1966-2005. The serial structure of the data was considered, and the significant serial correlations were eliminated using the trend-free pre-whitening method. The results showed that annual RH increased by 1.03 and 0.28 %/decade at the northern and southern coastal regions of the country, respectively, while annual T dew increased by 0.29 and 0.15°C per decade at the northern and southern regions, respectively. The significant trends were frequent in the T dew series, but they were observed only at 2 out of the 50 RH series. The results showed that the difference between the results of the parametric and nonparametric tests was small, although the parametric test detected larger significant trends in the RH and T dew time series. Furthermore, the differences between the results of the trend tests were not related to the normality of the statistical distribution.

  3. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Zhan, Tong; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Amy, Gary

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on Cloud Formation in Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U. S.; Wu, Y.; Reid, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the tropics, shallow and deep convective cloud structures organize in hierarchy of spatial scales ranging from meso-gamma (2-20 km) to planetary scales (40,000km). At the lower end of the spectrum is shallow convection over the open ocean, whose upscale growth is dependent upon mesoscale convergence triggers. In this context, cloud systems associated with land breezes that propagate long distances into open ocean areas are important. We utilized numerical model simulations to examine the impact of biomass burning on such cloud systems in the maritime continent, specifically along the coastal regions of Sarawak. Numerical model simulations conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model show spatial patterns of smoke that show good agreement to satellite observations. Analysis of model simulations show that, during daytime the horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) that form over land play an important role in organizing transport of smoke in the coastal regions. Alternating patterns of low and high smoke concentrations that are well correlated to the wavelengths of HCRs are found in both the simulations and satellite observations. During night time, smoke transport is modulated by the land breeze circulation and a band of enhanced smoke concentration is found along the land breeze front. Biomass burning aerosols are ingested by the convective clouds that form along the land breeze and leads to changes in total water path, cloud structure and precipitation formation.

  6. Two Kilometer Coastal Ocean Current Predictions, Region 9, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data is derived from the NetCDF files that come from http://hfrnet.ucsd.edu/. EPA Region 9 has developed a series of python scripts to download the data hourly,...

  7. Six Kilometer Coastal Ocean Current Predictions, Region 9, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data is derived from the NetCDF files that come from http://hfrnet.ucsd.edu/. EPA Region 9 has developed a series of python scripts to download the data hourly,...

  8. Surface chemistry of selected lunar regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielefeld, M.J.; Reedy, R.C.; Metzger, A.E.; Trombka, J.I.; Arnold, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A completely new analysis has been carried out on the data from the Apollo 15 and 16 γ ray spectrometer experiments. The components of the continuum background have been estimated. The elements Th, K, Fe and Mg give useful results; results for Ti are significant only for a few high Ti regions. Errors are given, and the results are checked by other methods. Concentrations are reported for about sixty lunar regions; the ground track has been subdivided in various ways. The borders of the maria seem well-defined chemically, while the distribution of KREEP is broad. This wide distribution requires emplacement of KREEP before the era of mare formation. Its high concentration in western mare soils seems to require major vertical mixing

  9. Business and Entrepreneurship in South Coastal Zone of Attica Region, in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present paper is to investigate the evolution of the economic situation and particularly employment in Attica region in Greece. It focuses particularly on the southern coastal municipalities in the region and specifically in municipalities of Moshato, Kallithea, Paleo Faliro, Alimos, Elliniko, Voula and Vouliagmeni. Attica is an urbanized region which displays an excellence in the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. In addition, it is a center of advanced services with valuable human resources because of higher educational institutions hosted in the region. That means a dynamic development of high technology. The good economic situation of the study area changed in recent years, from 2009 onwards, due to the economic crisis in Greece. The poor fiscal policy resulted in swelling of the external debt of the country, has contributed not only to the economic downturn, but has also affected the welfare of residents. The economic effects are obvious in the private sector, thereby reducing business activities, revenues and lost jobs. All the above have additional effect of increasing intra-regional disparities, such as population disparities, rising unemployment, the population movements for job search and other. The paper elaborates on the economic situation and entrepreneurship in the region over the past 20 years or so including both periods of acne, and those of the last economic downturn. Using documents, tables and graphs, work draws conclusions.

  10. Regional Interdependence in Adaptation to Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, M. T.; Lubell, M.; Hummel, M.; Wang, R. Q.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Herdman, L.; Pozdnukhov, A.; Sheehan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Projections of sea level rise may differ in the pace of change, but there is clear consensus that coastal communities will be facing more frequent and severe flooding events in the coming century. As communities adapt to future conditions, infrastructure systems will be developed, modified and abandoned, with important consequences for services and resilience. Whether action or inaction is pursued, the decisions made by an individual community regarding a single infrastructure system have implications that extend spatially and temporally due to geographic and infrastructure system interactions. At the same time, there are a number of barriers to collective or coordinated action that inhibit regional solutions. This interplay between local actions and regional responses is one of the great challenges facing decision-makers grappling with both local and regional climate-change adaptation. In this talk, I present case studies of the San Francisco Bay Area that examine how shoreline infrastructure, transporation sytems and decision-making networks interact to define the regional response to local actions and the local response to regional actions. I will characterize the barriers that exist to regional solutions, and characterize three types of interdependence that may motivate decision-makers to overcome those barriers. Using these examples, I will discuss the importance of interdisciplinary analyses that integrate the natural sciences, engineering and the social science to climate change adaptation more generally.

  11. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  12. Optimal infrastructure selection to boost regional sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Utrillas, Manuel Guzmán; Juan-Garcia, F.; Cantó Perelló, Julián; Curiel Esparza, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The role of infrastructures in boosting the economic growth of the regions is widely recognized. In many cases, an infrastructure is selected by subjective reasons. Selection of the optimal infrastructure for sustainable economic development of a region should be based on objective and founded reasons, not only economical, but also environmental and social. In this paper is developed such selection through a hybrid method based on Delphi, analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and VIKOR (from Se...

  13. Biogenic halocarbons from coastal oceanic upwelling regions as tropospheric halogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Kirstin; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Hepach, Helmke; Fiehn, Alina; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. Recently, oceanic upwelling regions in the tropical East Atlantic were identified as strong sources of brominated halocarbons to the troposphere. During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian Upwelling for the first time. This study presents novel observations of the three VSLS bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide together with high resolution meteorological measurements and Lagrangian transport modelling. Although relatively low oceanic emissions were observed, except for methyl iodide, surface atmospheric abundances were elevated. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting both as strong barriers for convection and trace gas transport in this region. Significant correlations between observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height were found. We used a simple source-loss estimate to identify the contribution of oceanic emissions to observed atmospheric concentrations which revealed that the observed marine VSLS abundances were dominated by horizontal advection below the trade inversion. The observed VSLS variations can be explained by the low emissions and their accumulation under different MABL and trade inversion conditions. Finally, observations from a second Peruvian Upwelling cruise with R/V SONNE during El Nino in October 2015 will be compared to highlight the role of different El Nino Southern Oscillation conditions. This study confirms the importance of coastal oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on creating effective transport barriers in the lowermost atmosphere controlling the distribution of VSLS abundances above coastal ocean upwelling

  14. Managing saltwater intrusion in coastal arid regions and its societal implications for agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grundmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal aquifers in arid and semiarid regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. Since groundwater is predominantly used in irrigated agriculture, its excessive pumping – above the natural rate of replenishment – strengthen the intrusion process. Using this increasingly saline water for irrigation, leads to a destruction of valuable agricultural resources and the economic basis of farmers and their communities. The limitation of resources (water and soil in these regions requires a societal adaptation and change in behaviour as well as the development of appropriate management strategies for a transition towards stable and sustainable future hydrosystem states. Besides a description of the system dynamics and the spatial consequences of adaptation on the resources availability, the contribution combines results of an empirical survey with stakeholders and physically based modelling of the groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem interactions. This includes an analysis of stakeholders' (farmers and decision makers behaviour and opinions regarding several management interventions aiming on water demand and water resources management as well as the thinking of decision makers how farmers will behave. In this context, the technical counter measures to manage the saltwater intrusion by simulating different groundwater pumping strategies and scenarios are evaluated from the economic and social point of view and if the spatial variability of the aquifer's hydrogeology is taken into consideration. The study is exemplarily investigated for the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture.

  15. Weed occurrence in Finnish coastal regions: a survey of organically cropped spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RIESINGER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Weed communities of organically cropped spring cereal stands in the southern and the northwestern coastal regions of Finland (= south and northwest, respectively were compared with respect to number of species, frequency of occurrence, density and dry weight. Regional specialization of agricultural production along with differences in climate and soil properties were expected to generate differences in weed communities between south and northwest. Total and average numbers of species were higher in the south than in the northwest (33 vs. 26 and 15.6 vs. 10.0, respectively. Some rare species (e.g. Papaver dubium were found in the south. Fumaria officinalis and Lamium spp. were found only in the south. The densities and dry weights of Lapsana communis, Myosotis arvensis, Polygonum aviculare, Tripleurospermum inodorum and Vicia spp. were higher in the south, while the densities and dry weights of Elymus repens, Persicaria spp. and Spergula arvensis were higher in the northwest. Total density of weeds did not differ between south and northwest (average = 565 vs. 570 shoots m-2, respectively. Total dry weight of weeds was higher in the northwest compared with the south (average = 1594 vs. 697 kg ha-1, respectively, mainly due to the high dry weight of E. repens. The only variable that was dependent on the duration of organic farming was weed density in the south. The abundance of nitrophilous in relation to non-nitrophilous weed species was higher while the abundance of perennial ruderal and grassland weed species was lower compared with previous weed surveys. This can be regarded as the result of increasing cropping intensity on organic farms in Finland. Different weed communities call for the application of specific target-oriented weed management in the respective coastal regions.;

  16. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  17. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Polygons, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a polygon feature dataset with areas along the shoreline of the Hawaiian islands. The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal...

  18. Field studies of hydrodynamic conditions and fine-sediment suspension in the Kapar coastal region, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2006-01-01

    Field studies to determine the hydrodynamics and fine-sediment transport were carried out at the Kapar coastal region, on the west coast of the Malaysian Peninsula. Several observation stations were established to measure near-bed tidal currents, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), water temperature, salinity and tidal elevation. It was found that resuspension (erosion) and deposition of fine sediment occurred during every tidal cycle, with greater transport occurred during the ebb than the flood. This become the major source of fine sediment that contribute to the siltation problem in this region. The high resuspension and entrainment of sediment into the flow column was due to a high near-bed current velocity which was at its peak at 1.3 m/s (during spring tides) and easily-eroded fine particles recently settled during previous tidal cycles. Significant erosion (and deposition) took place during the spring tides but little erosion was observed during the neap. The secondary source of fine sediment is from Sungai Kelang transported to the area by ebb currents in particular during spring tides. The measurement data also showed that the current flows around an industrial construction, the Kapar power station, had been modified and greatly reduced, which had resulted in a significant siltation problem in this region. This study contributes to a better understanding of the influence of hydrodynamics on the physical processes relating to the resuspension, transport and deposition of the fine-sediment in this region. (Author)

  19. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The supply of freshwater to fjord systems in Greenland is increasing as a result of climate change-induced acceleration in ice sheet melt. However, insight into the marine implications of the melt water is impaired by lack of observations demonstrating the fate of freshwater along the Greenland...... coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... observational evidence of a significant freshening on decadal scale of the waters surrounding the ice sheet and comes from a region where ice sheet melt has been less significant. It implies that ice sheet dynamics in Northeast Greenland could be of key importance as freshwater is retained in southward flowing...

  20. [Effects of biochar and PAM application on saline soil hydraulic properties of coastal reclamation region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu Tong; She, Dong Li

    2017-11-01

    Disc infiltration tests were carried out to study the soil infiltration characteristics under different rates of soil amendments application, and to investigate the effects of biochar and polyacrylamide (PAM) application on saline soil hydraulic properties, pore characteristics and contribution of each pore to soil water flow in coastal reclamation region. The results showed that soil satura-ted hydraulic conductivity increased by 46.4% when biochar was applied at 2% compared with the control, and decreased with increasing PAM application. The total effective soil porosity and r>100 μm pores were increased by 8.3% and 10.2% (PPAM application. Particularly, the total effective soil porosity decreased markedly when PAM was applied at 1‰ and the reduction was up to 88%. With the application of biochar and PAM, the contribution of r500 μm played a major role in determining water flows.

  1. Polonium-210 and Lead-210 in marine biota from a coastal region with high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafrul Kabir, M.; Deeba, Farah; Hossain, Sushmita; Fharim, Massoud; Md Moniruzzaman; Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, M.; Silva, L.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal sediments and marine fish from a region with high natural radioactivity in Cox Bazar Bangladesh, were analyzed in order to investigate the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. Sediment from the sea shore in high ambient radiation dose rate areas contained naturally occurring radionuclides at high concentrations. These sediments displayed 226 Ra, 232 Th and 235 U activity concentrations of 2184 ± 88 Bq kg -1 dry weight (d.w.), 3808 ± 200 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) and 123 ± 15 Bq kg -1 (d.w.), respectively. In contrast with these high values, radionuclide concentrations in sand from other areas of the Cox's Bazar coast were as low as 42 ± 3, 70 ± 4 and < 8 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) for the same radionuclides, respectively, which are comparable to concentrations determined in many coastal areas elsewhere. The presence of sand deposits with high concentration of uranium series radionuclides could potentially originate high accumulation of alpha emitting radionuclides such as 210 Po in marine biota, and food chain transfer to man. 210 Po is a major contributor to the radiation dose both in marine organisms and sea food consumers. Determination of 210 Po in marine fish and shrimp from the area lead to concentration values ranging from 4.5±0.3 to 124±3 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) in fish and 82.9±1.6 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) in shrimp. Similar concentrations are commonly reported in marine biota from several regions. Therefore, in spite of the deposits of heavy mineral sands containing high concentrations of radionuclides such as 210 Pb and 210 Po no significant raise in the accumulation of these radionuclides in biota seems to occur, which suggests that radionuclides are tightly bound in sediment grains and are not significantly bioavailable. (author)

  2. Analysis of Stakeholder's Behaviours for an Improved Management of an Agricultural Coastal Region in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Ayisha Al; Jens, Grundmann; der Weth Rüdiger, van; Niels, Schütze

    2015-04-01

    Al Batinah coastal area is the main agricultural region in Oman. Agriculture is concentrated in Al Batinah, because of more fertile soils and easier access to water in the form of groundwater compared to other administrative areas in the country. The region now is facing a problem as a result of over abstraction of fresh groundwater for irrigation from the main aquifer along the coast. This enforces the inflow of sea water into the coastal aquifer and causes salinization of the groundwater. As a consequence the groundwater becomes no longer suitable for irrigation which impacts the social and economical situation of farmers as well as the environment. Therefore, the existing situation generates conflicts between different stakeholders regarding water availability, sustainable aquifer management, and profitable agricultural production in Al Batinah region. Several management measures to maintain the groundwater aquifer in the region, were implemented by the government. However, these solutions showed only limited successes for the existing problem. The aim of this study now is to evaluate the implementation potential of several management interventions and their combinations by analysing opinions and responses of all relevant stakeholders in the region. This is done in order to identify potential conflicts among stakeholders to a participatory process within the frame of an integrated water resources management and to support decision makers in taking more informed decisions. Questionnaires were designed for collecting data from different groups of stakeholders e.g. water professionals, farmers from the study area and decision makers of different organizations and ministries. These data were analysed statistically for each group separately as well as regarding relations amongst groups by using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software package. Results show, that the need to improve the situation is supported by all groups. However, significant

  3. Modeling wave trains in coastal regions; Modelagem de trens de ondas em regioes costeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Ana M.S.; Nachbin, A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IMPA)

    2008-07-01

    Our goal is to present a model that captures how the sea bottom topography or submarine structures can influence the evolution of water wave trains over a varying topography at intermediate depth. To obtain such a model, we consider Euler equations for inviscid fluids and we perform the asymptotic simplification of the nonlinear potential theory equations together with the method of multiple scales to get a reduced model. Such a model is called reduced because it simplifies nonlinear potential theory from two spatial dimensions to one dimension along the free boundary. We consider a varying topography at the bottom and/or the presence of submarine structures together with a free boundary at the surface of the sea. For modeling such a geometry we transform our Cartesian system into curvilinear coordinates through a conformal mapping that maps the original physical domain into a simpler domain (a strip). This modeling strategy allows us to capture and understand the dynamics of water waves in regions where offshore exploration activity already exists or not. Through an efficient model we can get important information regarding the dynamics of waves in coastal regions and also questions on the viability of oil and gas recovery in these regions. (author)

  4. International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Partridge, P; Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics

    1992-01-01

    This book Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics is the second volume of the two volume proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics, held in Southampton, U.K., in April 1992. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is now fully established as an ac­ curate and successful technique for solving engineering problems in a wide range of fields. The success of the method is due to its advantages in data reduction, as only the boundary of the region is modelled. Thus moving boundaries may be more easily handled, which is not the case if domain methods are used. In addition, the method is easily able to model regions to extending to infinity. Fluid mechanics is traditionally one of the most challenging areas of engi­ neering, the simulation of fluid motion, particularly in three dimensions, is always a serious test for any numerical method, and is an area in which BEM analysis may be used taking full advantage of its special character...

  5. Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-Influenced Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal regions influenced by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal regions influenced by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine regions influenced by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly influenced by unusual flood events. Major river systems in regions with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.

  6. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Xin, Ruosai; Sun, Jian; Hou, Feng; Li, Changgui; Hu, Xinlin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yao; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Jia, Zhaotong

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong province. METHODS Seven SNPs within the susceptibility genes of T2DM, including rs10773971(G/C) and rs4766398(G/C) of WNT5B gene, rs10225163(G/C) of JAZF1 gene, rs2069590(T/A) of BDKRB2 gene, rs5745709(G/A) of HGF gene, rs1991914(C/A) of OTOP1 gene and rs2236479(G/A) of COL18A1 gene, were typed with a custom-made Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping assay in 480 male patients with gout and 480 male controls. Potential association was assessed with the chi-square test. RESULTS No significant difference was detected for the 7 selected SNPs in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies (P > 0.05). When age and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted, the 7 genetic variants still showed no significant association with gout. CONCLUSION The genotypes of the 7 selected SNPs are not associated with gout in ethnic Han Chinese male patients from the coastal region of Shandong province. However, the results need to be replicated in larger sets of patients collected from other regions and populations.

  7. Keauhou, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Atka, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. King Cove, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Lahaina, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Kawaihae, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Taholah, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Chignik, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Nikolski, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Garibaldi, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Hanalei, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Ocean City, Maryland Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Kachemak Bay, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. New Orleans, Louisiana Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  2. Virginia Beach, Virginia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Galveston, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Savannah, Georgia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Biloxi, Mississippi Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Santa Barbara, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Hilo, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Corpus Christi, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Craig, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Midway Atoll Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Guayama, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Fajardo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Montauk, New York Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Sand Point, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Shemya, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. La Push, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Portland, Maine Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Arena Cove, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Port Orford, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Adak, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Dutch Harbor, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Ponce, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Cordova, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Nantucket, Massachusetts Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Daytona Beach, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Oahu, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Central Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality around coastal regions, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important impact on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, regional air quality around coastal regions is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being impacted by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality impact near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the

  11. Survey on changes of breast cancer radiotherapy in four hospitals within southeast coastal region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Yongling; Liu Jingjie; Tian Ye; Li Xianming; Zhu Yaqun; Yu De; Du Xianghui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to explore the changes and the tendency of breast cancer radiotherapy in China within the past decade. Methods: A survey on breast cancer radiotherapy in 1999 and 2006 was conducted in 4 hospitals located within the southeast coastal region of China, including patients' clinical characteristics, the purpose of radiotherapy and its techniques. Results: The percentage of breast conservative treatment (BCT) increased from 3% in 1999 to 13% in 2006. For radiotherapy techniques in 2066 compared with 1999, the growth trend was found in use of breast immobilization devices (80% vs. 46%), treatment planning system (70% vs. 23%), and CT simulation (14% vs. 0). The frequency was increased in the chest wall irradiation after mastectomy (90% vs. 67%), but decreased in internal mammary region (30% vs. 76%) and axilla (37% vs. 69%) treatment. There were no differences in total dose and fractionation prescription. Conclusions: BCT was performed more frequently, but post-mastectomy radiotherapy was still essential option in China at present. Although some advanced techniques were applied frequently in clinical practice. Simulation, treatment planning, and irradiation target design were urgent for improvement and standardization. (authors)

  12. Numerical study of desirable solar-collector orientations for the coastal region of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.T.; Chan, A.L.S.

    2004-01-01

    The overall performance of any solar energy project depends very much on the availability of solar radiation and the orientations of solar collectors. Presented in this paper is a numerical analysis of the solar irradiation received at the coastal region of South China. This region, with latitudes from 20.5 deg. N to 24 deg. N, belongs to the subtropical monsoon climatic zone. The computations were based on the typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data of Macau, compiled as a result of the ASHRAE International Weather for Energy Calculations Project. The hourly data were applied to the ESP-r building simulation program with the adoption of the Perez solar model. The analyses estimated the solar irradiation received on inclined surfaces at different orientations and slopes, and for different periods of the year. It was found that a solar collector facing the south-west direction could be most desirable for a wide range of tilt angles, and for maximizing the annual yield. The trends of variations towards other directions, tilt angles, and shorter periods of the year are also explored

  13. Radiological maps in beach sands along some coastal regions of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B.; Karadeniz, A.; Damla, N.; Yesilkanat, C.M.; Cevik, U.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the gamma-emitting radionuclides in beach sands along the coastal regions of the Ordu, Giresun and Trabzon provinces, Turkey have been determined. The natural and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations of the samples have been measured employing a germanium (HPGe) detector with high resolution and purity. The activity for 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs of the samples were found to vary in the range from below detection limit (BDL) to 65 Bq·kg −1 , from BDL to 28 Bq·kg −1 , from 9 to 1936 Bq·kg −1 and from BDL to 22 Bq·kg −1 , respectively. The activity concentrations were compared with those in the literature. The associated radiological hazard indices were estimated, and were compared to the internationally recommended values. The radiological map of beach sand in the surveyed area was imaged. The data presented in the study are crucial since they constitute a baseline for the radiological mapping of the region in the future. - Highlights: • The natural and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in beach sands were analyzed. • The associated radiological hazard indices were estimated. • The results were evaluated to check the compatibility of national and international values. • The radiological maps of beach sand were produced. • The findings demonstrate that the obtained values were less than the internationally accepted recommended limits.

  14. The influence of education level on choosing coastal regions as tourist destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đeri Lukrecija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to investigate the influence of formal education level on decision-making process when choosing a tourist destination based on multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The survey was conducted on the sample of 252 respondents from Bačka region (Vojvodina/Serbia. Also, this study strives to examine the influence of education level on decision-making process including all five phases of decision-making process: need awareness, information search, alternatives estimation, purchase and purchase evaluation, applied to the process of choosing coastal regions as tourist destinations. The study shows that education level is related to four out of five phases of decision-making process (only in case of need awareness there is no statistically significant difference. This is especially important for creation of a marketing platform with promotional activities adjusted to different market segments differentiated by education level. Moreover, the study discusses differences in behaviour of different educational groups while choosing travel destinations.

  15. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  16. Selection of projects in the regional energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez P, R.; Navas M, F.

    1993-01-01

    The processes of regional energy planning have changed vastly in the last years and it will continue changing in the future for the new norm of the State. This work tries to show the use of systematic tools in the selection of regional energy projects. It discusses a methodology of selection of projects based on a multivariate technical. It is applied in the Southwestern region of Colombia and both selection and priority results are obtained. The designed methodology allows to make the selection of projects in an automatic way with a software designed for such an end. In the case of Southwestern it arrives to a briefcase of projects for an energy plan and made for other races

  17. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy

  18. Coarse-to-fine region selection and matching

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao

    2015-10-15

    We present a new approach to wide baseline matching. We propose to use a hierarchical decomposition of the image domain and coarse-to-fine selection of regions to match. In contrast to interest point matching methods, which sample salient regions to reduce the cost of comparing all regions in two images, our method eliminates regions systematically to achieve efficiency. One advantage of our approach is that it is not restricted to covariant salient regions, which is too restrictive under large viewpoint and leads to few corresponding regions. Affine invariant matching of regions in the hierarchy is achieved efficiently by a coarse-to-fine search of the affine space. Experiments on two benchmark datasets shows that our method finds more correct correspondence of the image (with fewer false alarms) than other wide baseline methods on large viewpoint change. © 2015 IEEE.

  19. Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Soils of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands play an important but complex role in the global carbon cycle, contributing to the ecosystem service of greenhouse gas regulation through carbon sequestration. Although coastal wetlands occupy a small percent of the total US land area, their potential for carbon...

  20. The framework of a UAS-aided flash flood modeling system for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Xu, H.

    2016-02-01

    Flash floods cause severe economic damage and are one of the leading causes of fatalities connected with natural disasters in the Gulf Coast region. Current flash flood modeling systems rely on empirical hydrological models driven by precipitation estimates only. Although precipitation is the driving factor for flash floods, soil moisture, urban drainage system and impervious surface have been recognized to have significant impacts on the development of flash floods. We propose a new flash flooding modeling system that integrates 3-D hydrological simulation with satellite and multi-UAS observations. It will have three advantages over existing modeling systems. First, it will incorporate 1-km soil moisture data through integrating satellite images from European SMOS mission and NASA's SMAP mission. The utilization of high-resolution satellite images will provide essential information to determine antecedent soil moisture condition, which is an essential control on flood generation. Second, this system is able to adjust flood forecasting based on real-time inundation information collected by multi-UAS. A group of UAS will be deployed during storm events to capture the changing extent of flooded areas and water depth at multiple critical locations simultaneously. Such information will be transmitted to a hydrological model to validate and improve flood simulation. Third, the backbone of this system is a state-of-the-art 3-D hydrological model that assimilates the hydrological information from satellites and multi-UAS. The model is able to address surface water-groundwater interactions and reflect the effects of various infrastructures. Using Web-GIS technologies, the modeling results will be available online as interactive flood maps accessible to the public. To support the development and verification of this modeling system, surface and subsurface hydrological observations will be conducted in a number of small watersheds in the Coastal Bend region. We envision this

  1. Automated selection of trabecular bone regions in knee radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podsiadlo, P.; Wolski, M.; Stachowiak, G. W.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoarthritic (OA) changes in knee joints can be assessed by analyzing the structure of trabecular bone (TB) in the tibia. This analysis is performed on TB regions selected manually by a human operator on x-ray images. Manual selection is time-consuming, tedious, and expensive. Even if a radiologist expert or highly trained person is available to select regions, high inter- and intraobserver variabilities are still possible. A fully automated image segmentation method was, therefore, developed to select the bone regions for numerical analyses of changes in bone structures. The newly developed method consists of image preprocessing, delineation of cortical bone plates (active shape model), and location of regions of interest (ROI). The method was trained on an independent set of 40 x-ray images. Automatically selected regions were compared to the ''gold standard'' that contains ROIs selected manually by a radiologist expert on 132 x-ray images. All images were acquired from subjects locked in a standardized standing position using a radiography rig. The size of each ROI is 12.8x12.8 mm. The automated method results showed a good agreement with the gold standard [similarity index (SI)=0.83 (medial) and 0.81 (lateral) and the offset=[-1.78, 1.27]x[-0.65,0.26] mm (medial) and [-2.15, 1.59]x[-0.58, 0.52] mm (lateral)]. Bland and Altman plots were constructed for fractal signatures, and changes of fractal dimensions (FD) to region offsets calculated between the gold standard and automatically selected regions were calculated. The plots showed a random scatter and the 95% confidence intervals were (-0.006, 0.008) and (-0.001, 0.011). The changes of FDs to region offsets were less than 0.035. Previous studies showed that differences in FDs between non-OA and OA bone regions were greater than 0.05. ROIs were also selected by a second radiologist and then evaluated. Results indicated that the newly developed method could replace a human operator and produces bone regions

  2. Study and mapping of natural hazards in the coastal zone of Murcia; Estudio y cartografia de los peligros naturales costeros de la region de Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seisdedos, J.; Mulas, J.; Gonzalez de Vallejo, L. I.; Rodriguez Franco, J. A.; Garcia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Garrote, J.

    2013-09-01

    Despite the importance and implications of coastal hazards, very few studies have been focused on their analysis and mapping on a regional scale in a systematic and integrated way. This article presents a methodology based on the detailed analysis of natural hazards affecting coastal zones: floods, erosion, sea level rise, tsunamis, landslides, etc., and the study and mapping of the factors involved (coastal geomorphology, coastal processes, historical events, human activities). These factors and hazards are evaluated and integrated to prepare maps which include the assessments of each individual hazard and the overall ones. A mapping system in strips parallel to the coast is used, allowing the recognition and interpretation of the characteristics of the coast and the associated hazards. This methodology is applied to the coastal zone of Murcia, showing its usefulness for studying and mapping coastal hazards and its applicability to other regions. (Author)

  3. Investigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization when Considering Global Warming for a Coastal Tropical Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonalez, Jorge E.; Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Smith, T.

    2010-01-01

    The overachieving goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of the climate impacts caused by the combined effects of land cover and land use (LCLU) changes and increasing global concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in tropical coastal areas, regions where global, regional and local climate phenomena converge, taking as the test case the densely populated northeast region of the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. The research uses an integrated approach of high-resolution remote sensing information linked to a high resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), which was employed to perform ensembles of climate simulations (combining 2-LCLU and 2-GHG concentration scenarios). Reconstructed agricultural maps are used to define past LCLU, and combined with reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SST) for the same period form the PAST climate scenario (1951-1956); while the PRESENT scenario (2000-2004) was additionally supported by high resolution remote sensing data (10-m-res). The climate reconstruction approach is validated with available observed climate data from surface weather stations for both periods of time simulated. The selection of the past and present climate scenarios considers large-scale biases (i.e. ENSO/NAO) as reflected in the region of interest. Direct and cross comparison of the results is allowing quantifying single, combined, and competitive effects. Results indicate that global GHG have dominant effects on minimum temperatures (following regional tendencies), while urban sprawl dominates maximum temperatures. To further investigate impacts of land use the Bowen Ratio and the thermal response number (TRN) are analyzed. The Bowen ratio indicates that forestation of past agricultural high areas have an overwhelmingly mitigation effect on increasing temperatures observed in different LCLU scenarios, but when abandoned agricultural lands are located in plains, the resulting shrub/grass lands produce higher surface

  4. Long-term nutrient reductions lead to the unprecedented recovery of a temperate coastal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Orth, Robert J; Dennison, William C; Wilcox, David J; Murphy, Rebecca R; Keisman, Jennifer; Gurbisz, Cassie; Hannam, Michael; Landry, J Brooke; Moore, Kenneth A; Patrick, Christopher J; Testa, Jeremy; Weller, Donald E; Batiuk, Richard A

    2018-04-03

    Humans strongly impact the dynamics of coastal systems, yet surprisingly few studies mechanistically link management of anthropogenic stressors and successful restoration of nearshore habitats over large spatial and temporal scales. Such examples are sorely needed to ensure the success of ecosystem restoration efforts worldwide. Here, we unite 30 consecutive years of watershed modeling, biogeochemical data, and comprehensive aerial surveys of Chesapeake Bay, United States to quantify the cascading effects of anthropogenic impacts on submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV), an ecologically and economically valuable habitat. We employ structural equation models to link land use change to higher nutrient loads, which in turn reduce SAV cover through multiple, independent pathways. We also show through our models that high biodiversity of SAV consistently promotes cover, an unexpected finding that corroborates emerging evidence from other terrestrial and marine systems. Due to sustained management actions that have reduced nitrogen concentrations in Chesapeake Bay by 23% since 1984, SAV has regained 17,000 ha to achieve its highest cover in almost half a century. Our study empirically demonstrates that nutrient reductions and biodiversity conservation are effective strategies to aid the successful recovery of degraded systems at regional scales, a finding which is highly relevant to the utility of environmental management programs worldwide.

  5. Heavy metals contamination in fish and shrimp from coastal regions of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    in the present study, the heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn) concentration was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) in 5 species of fish and 3 species of shrimp commonly taken by locals at the coastal regions of Karachi, Pakistan Concentrations of Cd and Pb studied in tissues of Mushka (Otolithes ruber; 0.120 and 1.018 micro g/ wet weight) and palaemon longirostris shrimp (2.457 and 0.480 micro g/g wet weight) were found near to safe level for human consumption. Mullet, Tarli, Surmai, Dohtar fishes and Blacktiger shrimp were found contaminated by Cd and Pb but still within the limits fit for and human consumption. the distribution of trace metals detected in all fish and shrimp species followed the order of Zn >Pb> Fe>Cu> Cd and Cd> Fe > Zn> Cu>Ph, respectively. Metal concentration exhibited significant species variation and followed the order In fishes as otolithes ruber> Liza vaigiensis>sardinella albella>Scomberomorus guttatus>pomadasys olivaecum and in shrimp as palaemon longirostris>penaeus monodon> penaeus penicillatu. (author)

  6. Measurement of radon concentration in drinking water in coastal regions of Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, S.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Srinivasa, E.

    2018-01-01

    Water is absolutely needed for most life on this earth. Quality of drinking water is the need of the hour for person's health and environmental studies rather it is consumed and transported pollutant in the environment. The most commonly occurring radionuclides in natural water Rn, that cause risk to human health are 222 Rn, 226 Ra and 228 Ra. They emit alpha particles and their inhalation and ingestion may results in high radioactive dose to sensitive cells of lungs, digestive tract and other organs of the human bodies. Radon enriched drinking water poses a potential health risk in two ways: first, transfer of radon from water to indoor air and its inhalation and secondly, through ingestion. Radon monitoring has been increasingly conducted worldwide because of the hazardous effects of radon on the health of human beings. The aim of the present study is to measure radon concentration and to estimate the annual effective dose in drinking water samples in coastal regions of Uttara Kannada district

  7. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  8. The Lower Chesapeake Bay LTAR: A coastal urban-agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, G.; Alfieri, J. G.; Cavigelli, M.; Cosh, M. H.; Hapeman, C. J.; Kustas, W. P.; Maul, J.; Mirsky, S.; Pooler, M.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Schomberg, H.; Timlin, D. J.; Rice, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, located in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S., is the largest estuary in North America. The watershed area includes six states from New York to Virginia and is nearly 167,000 km2 in size with more than 150 rivers and streams entering the 300-km Bay main stem. Forested and agricultural lands make up 58 and 22 percent of the land use, respectively. Nearly 9 percent is urban and suburban use, and the watershed is home to over 17 million people. However, the population is expected to reach 19 million by 2025, raising the potential for conflict between the agricultural and urban communities over land and water use and in protecting natural resources, especially in the lower portion of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The Lower Chesapeake Bay study area, part of the USDA-ARS Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network, will provide much-needed data to support decisions at this critical agriculture-urban interface. Current long-term projects seek to assess the economic, production, and environmental performance of conventional and organic cropping systems and to evaluate the resilience of these systems to climate change. Large-scale studies are being conducted to examine the effects of land-use and landscape characteristics on ecosystem services and on energy, water, nutrient, carbon, and pest dynamics within watersheds. New in-situ measurement and remote sensor technologies are being considered with the expectancy that the data streams will be available on-line and for use in modeling. Results and outcomes of these research efforts will greatly benefit the national LTAR network and will be applicable to other US coastal urban-agricultural regions.

  9. Wind distribution and capacity factor estimation for wind turbines in the coastal region of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayodele, T.R.; Jimoh, A.A.; Munda, J.L.; Agee, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate capacity factor of some commercially available wind turbines. ► Wind speed in the sites studied can best be modelled using Weibull distribution. ► Site WM05 has the highest wind power potential while site WM02 has the lowest. ► More wind power can be harnessed during the day period compared to the night. ► Turbine K seems to be the best turbine for the coastal region of South Africa. - Abstract: The operating curve parameters of a wind turbine should match the local wind regime optimally to ensure maximum exploitation of available energy in a mass of moving air. This paper provides estimates of the capacity factor of 20 commercially available wind turbines, based on the local wind characteristics of ten different sites located in the Western Cape region of South Africa. Ten-min average time series wind-speed data for a period of 1 year are used for the study. First, the wind distribution that best models the local wind regime of the sites is determined. This is based on root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R 2 ) which are used to test goodness of fit. First, annual, seasonal, diurnal and peak period-capacity factor are estimated analytically. Then, the influence of turbine power curve parameters on the capacity factor is investigated. Some of the key results show that the wind distribution of the entire site can best be modelled statistically using the Weibull distribution. Site WM05 (Napier) presents the highest capacity factor for all the turbines. This indicates that this site has the highest wind power potential of all the available sites. Site WM02 (Calvinia) has the lowest capacity factor i.e. lowest wind power potential. This paper can assist in the planning and development of large-scale wind power-generating sites in South Africa.

  10. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  11. Coastal currents and mass transport of surface sediments over the shelf regions of Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S.C.

    1970-01-01

    In Monterey Bay, the highest concentrations of medium and fine sands occur nearshore between ten and thirty fathoms. Silt and clay accumulate in greater depths. Contours of median diameter roughly parallel the isobaths. Fine-grained materials are supplied to the bay region from erosion of cliffs which partly surround Monterey Bay, from sediment laden river discharge, and from continual reworking of widespread Pleistocene and Recent sea floor sediments. These sediments in turn are picked up by coastal currents and distributed over the shelf regions by present day current regimes. Studies of bottom currents over the shelf regions and in Monterey Canyon have revealed patterns which vary with seasonal changes. Current patterns during August and September exhibit remarkable symmetry about the axis of Monterey Submarine Canyon. Central Shelf currents north and south of Monterey Canyon flowed northwest at an average rate of 0.2 knots and south at 0.3 knots respectively. On the North Shelf between January and March currents flowed east to southeast at 0.3-0.5 knots with mirror image patterns above the South Shelf during the same period. Irregular current flow in the canyon indicates a complex current structure with frequent shifts in counterclockwise and clockwise direction over very short periods of time. Bottom topography of the canyon complex often causes localization of canyon currents. One particular observation at a depth of 51 fathoms indicated up-canyon flow at a rate of 0.2 knots. Most of the observed currents are related to seasonal variations, upwelling, ocean swell patterns, and to changes in the California and Davidson currents. Changes in current regimes are reflected in the patterns of sediment distribution and transport. Sediment transport is chiefly parallel to the isobaths, particularly on the North and South Shelf regions. Complex dispersal patterns are observed near Monterey Canyon and Moss Landing Harbor jetties. Longshore currents move sediments

  12. Selection of site coolant intake and discharge of shore based power stations - coastal oceanographic considerations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Suryanarayana, A.; Krishnakumar, V.

    Many new nuclear power plants, reactors are proposed along coastal area of Indian coastline apart from the existing ones. All these, being ultimately a heat exchange process, necessitate enormous quantity of cooling water drawn from the sea...

  13. Establishing Design Storm Values from Climate Models in Coastal Regions: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic interactions of atmospheric and hydrological processes result in large spatiotemporal changes of precipitation and wind speed in coastal storm events under both current and future climates. This variability can impact the design and sustainability of water infrastructure ...

  14. Health status of the coastal waters of Mumbai and regions around

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Govindan, K.

    in the drainage zones also contribute to pollution loads. These inputs have affected the water quality, sediment quality and biological characteristics of receiving waters to varying degrees. BOD in coastal water is often high and water is enriched in dissolved...

  15. Bathymetry of Shallow Coastal Regions Derived from Space-Borne Hyperspectral Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, ZhongPing; Casey, Brandon; Parsons, Rost; Goode, Wesley; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert

    2005-01-01

    .... Though Hyperion was not designed for ocean studies, its unique spectral configuration makes it especially attractive to study the effectiveness of such kind of sensor for observing complex coastal waters...

  16. A multi-purpose rural development programme for coastal regions utilising solar energy and the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.; Sastry, J.S.

    A project primarily designed to meet the energy and fresh-water requirements of isolated coastal communities is presented. It will also help to increase the production of salts and marine chemical and fish (by aquaculture). The design involves...

  17. SEDIMENTATION IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS -- EVIDENCE FROM REGIONAL SURVEY OF BED SUBSTRATE SIZE AND STABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive erosion, transport and deposition of sediment are major problems in streams and rivers throughout the United States. We examined evidence of anthropogenic sedimentation in Oregon and Washington coastal streams using relatively rapid measurements taken from surveys duri...

  18. Organic and Inorganic Matter in Louisiana Coastal Waters: Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) spectral absorption, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and the particulate fraction of inorganic (PIM) and organic matter (POM) were measured in Louisiana coastal waters at Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and...

  19. A case study in atmospheric lead pollution of Northern-German coastal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitza, H.; Eppel, D.P. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik

    1998-12-31

    Transport and deposition of atmospheric lead over the coastal zone of Northern Germany are investigated. It is shown that marked differences in the impact of the ecologically valuable wadden sea areas can occur between summer and winter time. Due to the formation of sea breeze systems in summer the coastal zone is likely to be less stressed than in winter when the pollutant is confined to a shallow layer above ground. (orig.) 10 refs.

  20. Occurrence and distribution of steroids, hormones and selected pharmaceuticals in South Florida coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simrat P; Azua, Arlette; Chaudhary, Amit; Khan, Shabana; Willett, Kristine L; Gardinali, Piero R

    2010-02-01

    The common occurrence of human derived contaminants like pharmaceuticals, steroids and hormones in surface waters has raised the awareness of the role played by the release of treated or untreated sewage in the water quality along sensitive coastal ecosystems. South Florida is home of many important protected environments ranging from wetlands to coral reefs which are in close proximity to large metropolitan cities. Because, large portions of South Florida and most of the Florida Keys population are not served by modern sewage treatment plants and rely heavily on the use of septic systems, a comprehensive survey of selected human waste contamination markers was conducted in three areas to assess water quality with respect to non-traditional micro-constituents. This study documents the occurrence and distribution of fifteen hormones and steroids and five commonly detected pharmaceuticals in surface water samples collected from different near shore environments along South Florida between 2004 and 2006. The compounds most frequently detected were: cholesterol, caffeine, estrone, DEET, coprostanol, biphenol-A, beta-estradiol, and triclosan. The concentration detected for estrone and beta-estradiol were up to 5.2 and 1.8 ng/L, respectively. Concentrations of caffeine (5.5-68 ng/L) and DEET (4.8-49 ng/L) were generally higher and more prevalent than were the steroids. Distribution of microconstituents was site specific likely reflecting a diversity of sources. In addition to chemical analysis, the yeast estrogen screen assay was used to screen the samples for estrogen equivalency. Overall, the results show that water collected from inland canals and restricted circulation water bodies adjacent to heavily populated areas had high concentrations of multiple steroids, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products while open bay waters were largely devoid of the target analytes.

  1. Wind Energy Potential and Power Law Indexes Assessment for Selected Near-Coastal Sites in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliashim Albani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the wind energy potential by analysing a certain amount of gathered 10-min measured data at four stations located at coastal sites in Malaysia, i.e., Kudat, Mersing, Kijal, and Langkawi. The wind data are collected from a total of four new wind measurement masts with sensors mounted at various heights on the tower. The measured data have enabled the establishment of wind resource maps and the power law indexes (PLIs analysis. In addition, the dependence of PLI upon surface temperature and terrain types is studied, as they are associated to the form of exponential fits. Moreover, the accuracy of exponential fits is assessed by comparing the results with the 1/7 law via the capacity factor (CF discrepancies. In order to do so, the wind turbine with a hub-height similar to the maximum height of the measured data at each site is selected to simulate energy production. Accordingly, the discrepancy of CF based on the extrapolated data by employing 1/7 laws and exponential fits, in spite of being computed using measured data, is determined as well. Furthermore, the large discrepancy of the wind data and the CF, which has been determined with the application of 1/7, is compared to the exponential fits. This is because; discrepancy in estimation of vertical wind speed could lead to inaccurate CF computation. Meanwhile, from the energy potential analysis based on the computed CF, only Kudat and Mersing display a promising potential to develop a medium capacity of wind turbine power, while the other sites may be suitable for wind turbines at a small scale.

  2. In-roads to the spread of antibiotic resistance: regional patterns of microbial transmission in northern coastal Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.; Goldstick, Jason; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen; Scott, James; Percha, Bethany; Segovia, Rosana; Ponce, Karina; Hubbard, Alan; Marrs, Carl; Foxman, Betsy; Smith, David L.; Trostle, James

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance (AR) increases treatment cost and probability of failure, threatening human health worldwide. The relative importance of individual antibiotic use, environmental transmission and rates of introduction of resistant bacteria in explaining community AR patterns is poorly understood. Evaluating their relative importance requires studying a region where they vary. The construction of a new road in a previously roadless area of northern coastal Ecuador provide...

  3. Understanding Urban Communication in Information Era: Analyzing Development Progress of Coastal Territories in the Context of West Java’s Metropolitan Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutriadi, Ridwan; Indriyani Kurniasari, Meta

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores a consequence of metropolitan and development centers policy to the development progress of coastal territories by analyzing municipal website base on urban communication functions of communicative city concept. In terms of coastal territories as a part of development center, efforts have to be made in enhancing the role and function of municipal website to show their development progress. Perceptual analysis is taken as a method to measure their position, especially kabupaten/kota as coastal territories in regional context (West Java Province). The results indicate that the availability of public information in coastal territories cities lower than other cities in metropolitan area. Innovation in specifying coastal features has to be promoted in illustrating development progress of coastal territories as a part of development centers in West Java Province.

  4. Greenland coastal air temperatures linked to Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea ice conditions during autumn through regional blocking patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Thomas J.; Hanna, Edward; Hall, Richard J.; Miller, Jeffrey; Ribergaard, Mads H.; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2018-01-01

    Variations in sea ice freeze onset and regional sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea are linked to autumn surface air temperatures (SATs) around coastal Greenland through 500 hPa blocking patterns, 1979-2014. We find strong, statistically significant correlations between Baffin Bay freeze onset and SSTs and SATs across the western and southernmost coastal areas, while weaker and fewer significant correlations are found between eastern SATs, SSTs, and freeze periods observed in the neighboring Greenland Sea. Autumn Greenland Blocking Index values and the incidence of meridional circulation patterns have increased over the modern sea ice monitoring era. Increased anticyclonic blocking patterns promote poleward transport of warm air from lower latitudes and local warm air advection onshore from ocean-atmosphere sensible heat exchange through ice-free or thin ice-covered seas bordering the coastal stations. Temperature composites by years of extreme late freeze conditions, occurring since 2006 in Baffin Bay, reveal positive monthly SAT departures that often exceed 1 standard deviation from the 1981-2010 climate normal over coastal areas that exhibit a similar spatial pattern as the peak correlations.

  5. Hell and High Water: Diminished Septic System Performance in Coastal Regions Due to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Amador, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may affect the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to treat wastewater in coastal regions of the Northeastern United States. Higher temperatures and water tables can affect treatment by reducing the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment, which may result in greater transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to groundwater, jeopardizing public and aquatic ecosystem health. The soil treatment area (STA) of an OWTS removes contaminants as wastewater percolates through the soil. Conventional STAs receive wastewater from the septic tank, with infiltration occurring deeper in the soil profile. In contrast, shallow narrow STAs receive pre-treated wastewater that infiltrates higher in the soil profile, which may make them more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify the water quality functions of a conventional and two types of shallow narrow STAs under present climate (PC; 20°C) and climate change (CC; 25°C, 30 cm elevation in water table). Significantly greater removal of BOD5 was observed under CC for all STA types. Phosphorus removal decreased significantly from 75% (PC) to 66% (CC) in the conventional STA, and from 100% to 71-72% in shallow narrow STAs. No fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) were released under PC, whereas up to 17 and 20 CFU 100 mL-1 were released in conventional and shallow narrow STAs, respectively, under CC. Total N removal increased from 14% (PC) to 19% (CC) in the conventional STA, but decreased in shallow narrow STAs, from 6-7% to less than 3.0%. Differences in removal of FCB and total N were not significant. Leaching of N in excess of inputs was also observed in shallow narrow STAs under CC. Our results indicate that climate change can affect contaminant removal from wastewater, with effects dependent on the contaminant and STA type.

  6. Clusters of community exposure to coastal flooding hazards based on storm and sea level rise scenarios—implications for adaptation networks in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michelle; Wood, Nathan J.; Schweikert, Amy; Stacey, Mark T.; Jones, Jeanne; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.

    2018-01-01

    Sea level is projected to rise over the coming decades, further increasing the extent of flooding hazards in coastal communities. Efforts to address potential impacts from climate-driven coastal hazards have called for collaboration among communities to strengthen the application of best practices. However, communities currently lack practical tools for identifying potential partner communities based on similar hazard exposure characteristics. This study uses statistical cluster analysis to identify similarities in community exposure to flooding hazards for a suite of sea level rise and storm scenarios. We demonstrate this approach using 63 jurisdictions in the San Francisco Bay region of California (USA) and compare 21 distinct exposure variables related to residents, employees, and structures for six hazard scenario combinations of sea level rise and storms. Results indicate that cluster analysis can provide an effective mechanism for identifying community groupings. Cluster compositions changed based on the selected societal variables and sea level rise scenarios, suggesting that a community could participate in multiple networks to target specific issues or policy interventions. The proposed clustering approach can serve as a data-driven foundation to help communities identify other communities with similar adaptation challenges and to enhance regional efforts that aim to facilitate adaptation planning and investment prioritization.

  7. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Rajmohan, Natarajan; Al-Yaroubi, Saif

    2008-12-01

    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand the long-term changes in the vulnerability index. DRASTIC vulnerability maps were evaluated using groundwater quality data such as chemical and biological parameters. DRASTIC vulnerability maps of 1995 and 2004 indicate that the northern part of Barka is more vulnerable to pollution than southern part and the central part of Barka also shows high relative vulnerability which is mostly related to the high conductivity values. Moreover, the changes in water level due to high abstraction rate of groundwater reflect in the vulnerability maps and low vulnerability area is increased in the southern part during 2004 compared to 1995. Moreover, regional distribution maps of nitrate, chloride and total and fecal coliforms are well correlated with DRASTIC vulnerability maps. In contrast to this, even though DRASTIC method predicted the central part of the study region is highly vulnerable, both chemical and biological parameters show lower concentrations in this region compared to coastal belt, which is mainly due to agricultural and urban development. In Barka, urban development and agricultural activities are very high in coastal region compared to southern and central part of the study area. Hence, this study concluded that DRASTIC method is also applicable in coastal region having ubiquitous contamination sources.

  8. Transport of natural series radionuclides and light rare earth elements in a coastal lagoon of a monazite region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lauria, D. da

    2002-01-01

    It has been investigated the transport of radionuclides of natural radioactive series and the light rare earth elements in a coastal lagoon system, located in a monazite rich region, in whose water was found abnormal concentrations of radium isotopes and light rare earth elements (LREEs). Four sampling campaigns were carried out: two in rainy and two in dry seasons. Sediment and water samples were collected in seven sampling stations along of the lagoon's 5.4-km. The stations were localized in the map of the lagoon by global positioning system, GPS. Still at the field, it was determined the conductivity, alkalinity, Eh and pH in the water and the pH and Eh in the sediment samples. The determination of Ra-226, Ra-228, Pb-210 activity concentrations in the water samples were performed by gross alpha and beta counting. The Th, U, light rare earth elements (La-Sm), Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Al and Fe were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Perkin Elmer-Sciex, model Elan 5000 A) by the TotalQuant method. Argentometric (chloride), turbidimetric (sulfate), cadmium reduction (nitrate), ascorbic acid reduction (phosphate) and selective ion electrode (fluoride) methods determined anions (2). Organic and inorganic dissolved carbons were determined by combustion-infrared method using a carbon analyzer (2). The sediment samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry, to determine Ra-228 (Ac-228, 911 keV) and Ra-226 (Bi-214, 609 keV) (3), and after sample dissolution by ICP-MS aiming the determination of U, Th and LREE concentrations. (author)

  9. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchette Mathieu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements.

  10. Planning report for the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Hayes F.

    1984-01-01

    Large quantities of water for municipal, industrial and agriculture use are supplied from the aquifers in Tertiary and younger sediments over an area of about 225,000 square miles in the Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. Three regional aquifer systems, the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, and the Texas Coastal Uplands aquifer system have been developed to varying degrees throughout the area. A variety of problems has resulted from development such as movement of the saline-freshwater interface into parts of aquifers that were previously fresh, lowering of the potentiometric surface with resulting increases in pumping lift, and land-surface subsidence due to the compaction of clays within the aquifer. Increased demand for ground water is anticipated to meet the needs of urban growth, expanded energy development, and growth of irrigated agriculture. The U. S. Geological Survey initiated an eightyear study in 1981 to define the geohydrologic framework, describe the chemistry of the ground water, and to analyze the regional ground-water flow patterns. The objectives, plan, and organization of the study are described in this report and the major tasks to be undertaken are outlined.

  11. Environmental security of the coastal seafloor in the sea ports and waterways of the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, Ivica [Ministry of Defense, Croatian Navy, Dubrovacka 49, 21000 Split (Croatia); Kollar, Robert [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    The Mediterranean coastal seafloor is littered with man-made objects and materials, including a variety of ammunition in many areas. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas are contaminated with elevated concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. In order to reach a satisfactory level of environmental security of the coastal sea areas, fast neutron activation analysis with detection of associated alpha particles and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, both in laboratory and inside an autonomous underwater vehicle for in-situ measurements, has been used for the characterization of the objects on the seafloor. Measurements have shown that gamma ray spectra are able to distinguish threat material from the surrounding material. Analysis of more than 700 coastal sea sediment samples has resulted in concentration distribution maps indicating the locations of 'hot spots', which might interfere with threat material identification.

  12. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.

    2009-05-01

    The groundwater resource is of paramount importance to the lives and livelihoods of the millions of people in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, high levels of arsenic have been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh. Besides, the salinity in water systems in the coastal areas has increased as a consequence of the flow diversion from the upper reaches of Ganges River by the neighboring country India. Since hand- pumped groundwater (tube) wells are the only viable sources of drinking water, maintaining drinking water security for over 6 million people in the south-west (SW) region has been a major challenge for the Bangladesh Government. Due to rapid exploitation of groundwater resources in excess of recharge capacity, non-saline water sources in the SW region have already been depleted and the hand tube wells have mostly been abandoned. Meanwhile, shrimp farming has resulted in saline water infiltration into the perched aquifer system in many areas. A recent survey covering123 wells out of 184, extending to a depth of 330 m, showed high salinity in water. Combined factors of rapid exploitation of shallow groundwater, depletion of the deep aquifers and the subsequent saline water intrusion into these aquifers have put long-term sustainability of the remaining fresh groundwater resource into jeopardy. Very high concentrations of nitrite are found in this study in many tube wells in the area where samples have been drawn from aquifer systems up to 244 m deep. Nitrite concentrations in 35 wells randomly sampled in this study range from 16.98 to 43.11 mg/L, averaging 27.55 mg/L. This is much higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 mg/L set by the U.S. EPA for human consumption. Simultaneously, dissolved oxygen (DO) is found to be very low (0.1 to 2 mg/L). There are numerous reports and anecdotal evidences of "Blue Baby Syndrome" (methemoglobinemia) in the region, which is generally due to gradual suffocation caused by poor transport of oxygen from the

  13. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  14. Selective constraint on noncoding regions of hominid genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot C Bush

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for human evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic basis of human-chimpanzee differences. One influential idea holds that such differences depend, to a large extent, on adaptive changes in gene expression. An important step in assessing this hypothesis involves gaining a better understanding of selective constraint on noncoding regions of hominid genomes. In noncoding sequence, functional elements are frequently small and can be separated by large nonfunctional regions. For this reason, constraint in hominid genomes is likely to be patchy. Here we use conservation in more distantly related mammals and amniotes as a way of identifying small sequence windows that are likely to be functional. We find that putatively functional noncoding elements defined in this manner are subject to significant selective constraint in hominids.

  15. Selective Constraint on Noncoding Regions of Hominid Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for human evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic basis of human-chimpanzee differences. One influential idea holds that such differences depend, to a large extent, on adaptive changes in gene expression. An important step in assessing this hypothesis involves gaining a better understanding of selective constraint on noncoding regions of hominid genomes. In noncoding sequence, functional elements are frequently small and can be separated by large nonfunctional regions. For this reason, constraint in hominid genomes is likely to be patchy. Here we use conservation in more distantly related mammals and amniotes as a way of identifying small sequence windows that are likely to be functional. We find that putatively functional noncoding elements defined in this manner are subject to significant selective constraint in hominids.

  16. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... coastal currents thus reducing density of water masses influencing major deep water formation areas in the Subarctic Atlantic Ocean. Ultimately, the observed freshening could have implications for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation....

  17. Trophic dynamics of few selected nearshore coastal finfishes with emphasis on prawns as prey item

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velip, Dinesh T.; Rivonker, Chandrashekher U.

    2018-06-01

    A trophic dynamic study of marine finfishes was undertaken based on stomach content analysis of twenty four species (N = 1742) collected from the nearshore coastal waters off Goa, west coast of India (15°29‧07.6″ N to 15°34‧44.3″ N, and 73°38‧10.5″ E to 73°46‧03.1″ E) during November 2010 to May 2013. This study aimed to thoroughly understand the feeding attributes of finfishes, and comprehend the possible effects of bycatch-related loss of biomass on trophic ecology. The study assessed diet preferences of the finfishes, their feeding guilds, significance of prawns as prey items, and the influence of mouth parts in prey selection. Altogether 84 prey taxa were identified from the stomach contents. Percentage Index of Relative Importance (IRI) values revealed that zooplankton (34.74), prawns (21.71), phytoplankton (19.80), and teleosts (18.62) were the major prey categories, and, among prawns, Metapenaeus dobsoni (%IRI = 19.34) was the single-most important prey item. Cluster analysis revealed three major trophic guilds namely 'teleost feeders' (mean Trophic Level (TrL) = 4.06 ± 0.42; mean B = 0.46 ± 0.24), 'zooplankton feeders' (mean TrL = 3.43 ± 0.29; mean B = 0.23 ± 0.13), and 'prawn feeders' (mean TrL = 3.86 ± 0.25; mean B = 0.48 ± 0.32), with low diet overlap among them. Principal Component Analysis of prey categories and mouth parts of finfishes suggested that zooplanktivory is associated with gill raker density as well as number of gill arches bearing rakers, whereas gape height determined the size of large-sized prey (fish and invertebrates). The study identified M. dobsoni, mysis and teleosts as highly influential prey for predatory finfishes. The present results could be useful to resolve broader issues in fisheries management.

  18. Remote Sensing of Selected Water-Quality Indicators with the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) offers the coastal environmental monitoring community an unprecedented opportunity to observe changes in coastal and estuarine water quality across a range of spatial scales not feasible with traditional field-based monitoring...

  19. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    35 Figure 4. At the toe of a hill slope, the gradient is only slightly inclined or nearly level. ..................... 35...marshes, beach/ dune systems, and wet flats are typical of the outer coastal plain on recent or Holocene sediments, while mixed evergreen/hardwood...mangrove shrublands are also found along the Texas and Louisiana coasts (NatureServe 2006). Beach/ dune systems are typically associated with barrier

  20. Automated region selection for analysis of dynamic cardiac SPECT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, E. V. R.; Gullberg, G. T.; Barclay, A. B.; Eisner, R. L.

    1997-06-01

    Dynamic cardiac SPECT using Tc-99m labeled teboroxime can provide kinetic parameters (washin, washout) indicative of myocardial blood flow. A time-consuming and subjective step of the data analysis is drawing regions of interest to delineate blood pool and myocardial tissue regions. The time-activity curves of the regions are then used to estimate local kinetic parameters. In this work, the appropriate regions are found automatically, in a manner similar to that used for calculating maximum count circumferential profiles in conventional static cardiac studies. The drawbacks to applying standard static circumferential profile methods are the high noise level and high liver uptake common in dynamic teboroxime studies. Searching along each ray for maxima to locate the myocardium does not typically provide useful information. Here we propose an iterative scheme in which constraints are imposed on the radii searched along each ray. The constraints are based on the shape of the time-activity curves of the circumferential profile members and on an assumption that the short axis slices are approximately circular. The constraints eliminate outliers and help to reduce the effects of noise and liver activity. Kinetic parameter estimates from the automatically generated regions were comparable to estimates from manually selected regions in dynamic canine teboroxime studies.

  1. The origin of sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, through its trace constituents, can have a major impact on lower tropospheric chemistry, as evidenced by ozone depletion events (ODEs in oceanic polar areas. These ODEs are caused by the chemistry of bromine compounds that originate from sea salt bromide. Bromide may be supplied to the snow surface by upward migration from sea ice, by frost flowers being wind-blown to the snow surface, or by wind-transported aerosol generated by sea spray. We investigate here the relative importance of these processes by analyzing ions in snow near Alert and Ny-Ålesund (Canadian and European high Arctic in winter and spring. Vertical ionic profiles in the snowpack on sea ice are measured to test upward migration of sea salt ions and to seek evidence for ion fractionation processes. Time series of the ionic composition of surface snow layers are investigated to quantify wind-transported ions. Upward migration of unfractionated sea salt to heights of at least 17cm was observed in winter snow, leading to Cl- concentration of several hundred µM. Upward migration thus has the potential to supply ions to surface snow layers. Time series show that wind can deposit aerosols to the top few cm of the snow, leading also to Cl- concentrations of several hundred µM, so that both diffusion from sea ice and wind transport can significantly contribute ions to snow. At Ny-Ålesund, sea salt transported by wind was unfractionated, implying that it comes from sea spray rather than frost flowers. Estimations based on our results suggest that the marine snowpack contains about 10 times more Na+ than the frost flowers, so that both the marine snowpack and frost flowers need to be considered as sea salt sources. Our data suggest that ozone depletion chemistry can significantly enhance the Br- content of snow. We speculate that this can also take place in coastal regions and contribute to propagate ODEs inland. Finally, we stress the need to measure snow physical parameters

  2. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Randolph E.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  3. Arabian Sea upwelling - A comparison between coastal and open ocean regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The response of the eastern Arabian Sea to prevailing winds during an upwelling event, in the peak of southwest monsoon, was studied at both coastal and open ocean environment based on the data collected as a part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean...

  4. Response to selection under controlled environment versus natural selection in diverse regions across Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red clover is a widely adaptable and productive forage legume species found in most temperate regions of the world. To date, specific selection techniques for identifying genotypes with superior persistence have not been successful in improving the general adaptation and the long-term persistence o...

  5. Exploring the fate, transport and risk of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in a coastal region of China using a multimedia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Xie, Shuangwei; Wang, Tieyu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances have been widely applied in both industrial processes and domestic products in China. Exploring the environmental fate and transport of PFOS using modeling methods provides an important link between emission and multimedia diffusion which forms a vital part in the human health risk assessment and chemical management for these substances. In this study, the gridded fugacity based BETR model was modified to make it more suitable to model transfer processes of PFOS in a coastal region, including changes to PFOS partition coefficients to reflect the influence of water salinity on its sorption behavior. The fate and transport of PFOS in the Bohai coastal region of China were simulated under steady state with the modified version of the model. Spatially distributed emissions of PFOS and related substances in 2010 were estimated and used in these simulations. Four different emission scenarios were investigated, in which a range of half-lives for PFOS related substances were considered. Concentrations of PFOS in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water were derived from the model under the steady-state assumption. The median modeled PFOS concentrations in fresh water, fresh water sediment and soil were 7.20ng/L, 0.39ng/g and 0.21ng/g, respectively, under Emission Scenario 2 (which assumed all PFOS related substances immediately degrade to PFOS) for the whole region, while the maximum concentrations were 47.10ng/L, 4.98ng/g and 2.49ng/g, respectively. Measured concentration data for PFOS in the Bohai coastal region around the year of 2010 were collected from the literature. The reliability of the model results was evaluated by comparing the range of modeled concentrations with the measured data, which generally matched well for the main compartments. Fate and transfer fluxes were derived from the model based on the calculated inventory within the compartments, transfer fluxes between

  6. Microbiological quality of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) produced and commercialized in the coastal region of Florianópolis - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Murilo Anderson; Nunes,Márcia Menezes; Nuernberg,Leonardo; Schulz,Denys; Batista,Cleide Rosana Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Oysters are filter feeders able to ingest particles in suspension that may carry pathogenic microorganisms. In this respect, the consumption of raw oysters can cause foodborne diseases in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of Crassostrea gigas oysters cultivated and commercialized in the coastal region of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. The study comprised counts of coliforms at 35ºC and at 45ºC, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, a...

  7. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Jesbin, G.

    –885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34/871/2016/ doi:10.5194/angeo-34-871-2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea V. Sanil Kumar and Jesbin... of the period. The annual average value is ∼ 1.5 m (Anoop et al., 2015). During the non-monsoon period, the land and sea breeze has a signif- icant influence on the wave climate of eastern AS (Glejin Ann. Geophys., 34, 871–885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34...

  8. A Simple Technique for Sustaining Solar Energy Production in Active Convective Coastal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E. Emetere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. 3D simulations relating the surface temperature, sunshine hour, and solar irradiance were adopted to see the effect of minute changes of other meteorological parameters on solar irradiance. This enabled the day-to-day solar radiation monitoring with the primary objective to examine the best technique for maximum power generation via solar option in coastal locations. The month of January had the highest turbulent features, showing the influence of weather and the poorest solar radiance due to low sunshine hour. Twenty-year weather parameters in the research area were simulated to express the systematic influence of weather of PV performance. A theoretical solar farm was illustrated to generate stable power supply with emphasis on the longevity of the PV module proposed by introducing an electronic concentrator pillar (CP. The pictorial and operational model of the solar farm was adequately explained.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE COASTAL URBAN AREA OF KALLITHEA IN ATTICA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the majority of coastal urban areas facing issues concerning economic growth in combination with environmental protection. These challenges have led local authorities to take immediate measures as well as the European Union to formulate new policies. This study refers to the environmental problems of the coastal urban area of Kallithea and on the measures that have been taken in response. Specifically, it focuses on land uses, natural resources and business. To conduct this study a method of personal interviews with the local authorities and an in situ research took place. At the same time, the survey focuses on action and policies that have been implemented until now regarding growth and improving of the quality of life. The results showed despite the problems the research area presents, it has dynamics for growth developments and revitalization. The implementation of new measures and new policies under the frame of sustainable development, taking into account the directives of European Union, is required.

  10. Natural radioactivity in some drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Byrakdar, E.; Amin, Y.; Abu Baker, S.

    2003-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria have been determined. Samples were collected during the year of 2000 at two periods from the main water sources, from which water being transported for drinking or from houses. Results have shown that most concentrations of the measured naturally occurring radionuclides ( 222 Rn, 222 Ra, 210 Po, 234 U, 238 U) were within the natural levels and below the higher permissible limits of International Organizations. In addition, variations in concentrations from region to another have been observed; these variations may be due to differences in geological formations and water sources (well, spring, surface water). Moreover, the obtained data in this study and other published data for other regions can be used for establishing the radiation map for natural radioactivity in drinking water in Syria. (author)

  11. Ozone pollution around a coastal region of South China Sea: interaction between marine and continental air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Wang, Yu; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Xinming; Jiang, Fei; Zeren, Yangzong; Pan, Wenzhuo; Huang, Xiaobo; Shen, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Marine atmosphere is usually considered to be a clean environment, but this study indicates that the near-coast waters of the South China Sea (SCS) suffer from even worse air quality than coastal cities. The analyses were based on concurrent field measurements of target air pollutants and meteorological parameters conducted at a suburban site (Tung Chung, TC) and a nearby marine site (Wan Shan, WS) from August to November 2013. The observations showed that the levels of primary air pollutants were significantly lower at WS than those at TC, while the ozone (O3) value was greater at WS. Higher O3 levels at WS were attributed to the weaker NO titration and higher O3 production rate because of stronger oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, O3 episodes were concurrently observed at both sites under certain meteorological conditions, such as tropical cyclones, continental anticyclones and sea-land breezes (SLBs). Driven by these synoptic systems and mesoscale recirculations, the interaction between continental and marine air masses profoundly changed the atmospheric composition and subsequently influenced the formation and redistribution of O3 in the coastal areas. When continental air intruded into marine atmosphere, the O3 pollution was magnified over the SCS, and the elevated O3 ( > 100 ppbv) could overspread the sea boundary layer ˜ 8 times the area of Hong Kong. In some cases, the exaggerated O3 pollution over the SCS was recirculated to the coastal inshore by sea breeze, leading to aggravated O3 pollution in coastal cities. The findings are applicable to similar mesoscale environments around the world where the maritime atmosphere is potentially influenced by severe continental air pollution.

  12. Modeling Water Exchange and Contaminant Transport through a Baltic Coastal Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, Anders; Doeoes, Kristofer; Andrejev, Oleg

    2006-01-01

    The water exchange of the Baltic coastal zone is characterized by its seasonally varying regimes. In the safety assessment of a potential repository for spent nuclear fuel, it is important to assess the consequences of a hypothetical leak of radionuclides through the seabed into a waterborne transport phase. In particular, estimates of the associated residence times in the near-shore coastal zone are of interest. There are several methods to quantify such measures, of which three are presented here. Using the coastal location of Forsmark (Sweden) as an example, methods based on passive tracers, particle trajectories, and the average age distribution of exogenous water parcels are compared for a representative one-year cycle. Tracer-based methods can simulate diffusivity more realistically than the other methods. Trajectory-based methods can handle Lagrangian dispersion processes due to advection but neglect diffusion on the sub-grid scale. The method based on the concept of average age (AvA) of exogenous water can include all such sources simultaneously not only boundary water bodies but also various (fresh)water discharges. Due to the inclusion of sub-grid diffusion this method gives a smoother measure of the water renewal. It is shown that backward in time trajectories and AvA-times are basically equipollent methods, yielding correlated results within the limits set by the diffusivity

  13. Analysis of the possibilities of using aerial photographs to determine the bathymetry in shallow coastal zone of the selected section of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszynski, Lukasz; Furmanczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-04-01

    Bathymetry data for the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea are usually created in profiles based on echo sounding measurements. However, in the shallow coastal zone (up to 4 m depth), the quality and accuracy of data is insufficient because of the spatial variability of the seabed. The green laser - LIDAR - can comprise a solution for studies of such shallow areas. However, this method is still an expensive one and that is why we have decided to use the RGB digital aerial photographs to create a model for mapping the seabed of the shallow coastal zone. So far, in the 60's, researchers in the USA (Musgrove, 1969) and Russia (Zdanowicz, 1963) developed the first method of bathymetry determining from aerial panchromatic (black-white) photographs. This method was adapted for the polish conditions by Furmanczyk in 1975 and in 2014 we have returned to his concept using more advanced techniques of recording and image processing. In our study, we propose to determine the bathymetry in shallow coastal zone of the Baltic Sea by using the digital vertical aerial photographs (both single and multi-channel spectral). These photos are the high-resolution matrix (10 cm per pixel) containing values of the grey level in the individual spectral bands (RGB). This gives great possibilities to determine the bathymetry in order to analyze the changes in the marine coastal zone. Comparing the digital bathymetry maps - obtained by proposed method - in the following periods, you can develop differential maps, which reflect the movements of sea-bottom sediments. This can be used to indicate the most dynamic regions in the examined area. The model is based on the image pixel values and relative depths measured in situ (in selected checkpoints). As a result, the relation of the pixel brightness and sea depth (the algorithm) was defined. Using the algorithm, depth calculations for the whole scene were done and high resolution bathymetric map created. However, the algorithm requires numbers of

  14. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  15. Remote wind stress influence on mean sea level in a subtropical coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Calim Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relative influence of remote wind stress on mean sea level (MSL variations in the coastal region of Cananeia (Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil during the period from 1/1/1955 to 12/31/1993. An optimized low-pass Thompson filter for the study area, and spectral analysis (cross spectrum, coherence and phase lag of the relationship between the MSL and both parallel (T// and perpendicular (T| wind stress components were applied. These were extracted from four grid points of the NCEP/NCAR global model. The predominance of annual oscillations as those of greatest coherence and energy, of periods of approximately 341 days (frequency of 0.00293 cpd and 410 days (frequency of 0.00244 cpd, respectively, were observed. Offshore NCEP/NCAR grid points were those with the highest coherence and energy throughout the study in relation to the observed MSL. This may be linked to the restriction of the NCEP/NCAR model as regards the inland limit. It is also concluded that remote wind stress may play an important role in several MSL time scales, including the annual ones. Based on criteria such as coherence and energy peaks, the wind stress component of greatest effect on MSL was the parallel one.O presente estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a influência relativa de tensão do vento remoto na variação do nível médio do mar (NMM para a região costeira de Cananéia (SP durante o período de 1/1/1955 a 31/12/1993. Foram aplicados um filtro de passa-baixa de Thompson (1983, otimizado para a região de Cananéia, além de análise espectral (espectro cruzado, coerência e defasagem entre o NMM e as componentes paralela (T// e perpendicular (T| da tensão do vento. Estas foram extraídas de quatro pontos de grade do modelo global NCEP/NCAR. Observou-se a predominância das oscilações anuais como aquelas de maior coerência e energia, destacando-se os períodos de aproximadamente 341 dias (frequência de 0,00293 cpd e 410

  16. Inferring coastal processes from regional-scale mapping of {sup 222}Radon and salinity: examples from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, Thomas C., E-mail: thomas.stieglitz@jcu.edu.a [AIMS-JCU, Townsville (Australia); Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB NO 3, Townsville QLD 4810 (Australia); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia); Cook, Peter G., E-mail: peter.g.cook@csiro.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Burnett, William C., E-mail: wburnett@mailer.fsu.ed [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The radon isotope {sup 222}Rn and salinity in coastal surface water were mapped on regional scales, to improve the understanding of coastal processes and their spatial variability. Radon was measured with a surface-towed, continuously recording multi-detector setup on a moving vessel. Numerous processes and locations of land-ocean interaction along the Central Great Barrier Reef coastline were identified and interpreted based on the data collected. These included riverine fluxes, terrestrially-derived fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and the tidal pumping of seawater through mangrove forests. Based on variations in the relationship of the tracers radon and salinity, some aspects of regional freshwater inputs to the coastal zone and to estuaries could be assessed. Concurrent mapping of radon and salinity allowed an efficient qualitative assessment of land-ocean interaction on various spatial and temporal scales, indicating that such surveys on coastal scales can be a useful tool to obtain an overview of SGD locations and processes.

  17. San Juan Islands, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Rarotonga 1 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. San Juan, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Mobile, Alabama 1/3 MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  1. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Sand Point, Alaska MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Port San Luis, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Central Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model NAVD 88

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Atlantic City, New Jersey Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent; Cusack, Michael; Almahasheer, Hanan; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Krishnakumar, Periyadan Kadinjappalli; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Qurban, Mohammad Ali; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  8. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent

    2018-04-12

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  9. Determination of Ra natural isotopes in marine samples from Itamaraca coastal regions; Determinacao de isotopos naturais de Ra em amostras costeiras da regiao de Itamaraca (PE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Patricia B.; Valentim, Eliane; Lima, Ricardo A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: pbrandao@cnen.gov.br; Medeiros, Carmem [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia; Oliveira, Joselene [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in the transport of nutrients and pollutants to the coastal marine environment s and other surfaces water. Concentrations of {sup 223}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in marine water of the Itamaraca coastal region, PE, were measured during the winter of 2004, aiming to investigate the presence of radionuclides as a tracer of submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) in the environment studied. Measurements of temperature, salinity and nutrients were also carried out. (author)

  10. elative age effect in the selection process of handball players of the regional selection teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gómez López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of age on adolescent handball players of the regional selection teams. To do this, data of sex and date of birth of 84 youth players from different regional selection teams in the 2015-2016 season were analyzed, performing comparisons and differences being studied by χ2 and Z tests and the Bonferroni method. The analysis of results by quarter and half of birth revealed no statistically significant differences in gender and category. It seems to confirm that there is not relative age effect in the analyzed Teams. Whereupon, seems to confirm that in handball base, all young people participate, regardless of the degree of maturity submit.

  11. The age structure of selected countries in the ESCAP region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1982-01-01

    The study objective was to examine the age structure of selected countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, using available data and frequently applied indices such as the population pyramid, aged-child ratio, and median age. Based on the overall picture of the age structure thus obtained, age trends and their implication for the near future were arrived at. Countries are grouped into 4 types based on the fertility and mortality levels. Except for Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, the age structure in the 18 ESCAP region countries changed comparatively little over the 1950-80 period. The largest structural change occurred in Singapore, where the proportion of children under age 15 in the population declined significantly from 41-27%, while that of persons 65 years and older more than doubled. This was due primarily to the marked decline in fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 6.7-1.8 during the period. Hong Kong also had a similar major transformation during the same period: the proportion of the old age population increased 2 1/2 times, from 2.5-6.3%. The age structures of the 18 ESCAP countries varied greatly by country. 10 countries of the 2 high fertility and mortality types showed a similar young age structural pattern, i.e., they have higher dependency ratios, a higher proportion of children under 15 years, a lower proportion of population 65 years and older, lower aged-child ratios, and younger median ages than the average countries in the less developed regions of the world. With minimal changes over the 1950-80 period, the gap between these countries and the average of the less developed regions widened. Unlike these 10 (mostly South Asian) countries, moderately low fertility and mortality countries (China, Korea, and Sri Lanka) are located between the world average and the less developed region in most of the indices, particularly during the last decade. Although their rate of population aging is not

  12. Elemental and organic carbon in aerosols over urbanized coastal region (southern Baltic Sea, Gdynia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Anita; Falkowska, Lucyna; Murawiec, Dominika; Pryputniewicz, Dorota; Burska, Dorota; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2010-09-15

    Studies on PM 10, total particulate matter (TSP), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were carried out in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, in urbanized Gdynia. The interaction between the land, the air and the sea was clearly observed. The highest concentrations of PM 10, TSP and both carbon fractions were noted in the air masses moving from southern and western Poland and Europe. The EC was generally of primary origin and its contribution to TSP and PM 10 mass was on average 2.3% and 3.7% respectively. Under low wind speed conditions local sources (traffic and industry) influenced increases in elemental carbon and PM 10 concentrations in Gdynia. Elemental carbon demonstrated a pronounced weekly cycle, yielding minimum values at the weekend and maximum values on Thursdays. The role of harbors and ship yards in creating high EC concentrations was clearly observed. Concentration of organic carbon was ten times higher than that of elemental carbon, and the average OC contribution to PM 10 mass was very high (31.6%). An inverse situation was observed when air masses were transported from over the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These clean air masses were characterized by the lowest concentrations of all analysed compounds. Obtained results for organic and elemental carbon fluxes showed that atmospheric aerosols can be treated, along with water run-off, as a carbon source for the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The enrichment of surface water was more effective in the case of organic carbon (0.27+/-0.19 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Elemental carbon fluxes were one order of magnitude smaller, on average 0.03+/-0.04 mmol m(-2) d(-1). We suggest that in some situations atmospheric carbon input can explain up to 18% of total carbon fluxes into the Baltic coastal waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  14. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of selected sites of the Moroccan coastal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazza, R.; Ferrari, S.; Moret, I.; Gambaro, A. [Univ. Ca Foscari, Venezia (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Le Moumni, B. [Univ. Abdelmaleck Essaadi, Tangier (Morocco). Dept. of Earth Sciences and Oceanology; Bellucci, L.G.; Frignani, M. [ISMAR-CNR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy); Zangrando, R. [IDPA-CNR, Venezia (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    A good knowledge of sources of contaminants, distribution mechanisms, sites where chemicals tend to accumulate, potential risk and actual danger to the human and environmental health is fundamental to design a policy for the environment. In this respect, it is important to recognize that sediments can keep a record of the conditions of the environment at the time of their deposition and accumulation and hence can be used to reconstruct history and trends of contamination processes. Furthermore, actively accreting salt marshes, due to the lack of sediment reworking, may provide a relatively high resolution record of atmospheric fluxes. On the other hand, transition coastal environments are of particular importance because of their position between the inland sources and the sea, which is the final repository of all the materials mobilized from the continent. In order to assess the level of PCB contamination in key areas of coastal Morocco we chose to analyse sediments from the Nador (NAD) and the Moulay Bousselham (MB) lagoons, the terminal tract of the Martil River (MR), the port of Tangier (TG) and a soil taken close to the industrial town of Tetouan (TS). The first two were chosen because of their high environmental value, the others as representative of zones potentially contaminated.

  16. 32 CFR 1605.8 - Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.8 Staff of Region..., the staff of each region for Selective Service shall consist of as many officers, either military or...

  17. Potential of Agricultural Biomass: Comparative Review of Selected EU Regions and Region of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odavić Petrana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fact that the EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below 1990 levels by 2020, and having in mind their high dependence on import of oil and oil derivatives, which, in turn, causes instability of power supply, increasing attention is being paid to renewable energy sources. Given the ongoing pre-accession process of the Republic of Serbia in relation to the EU, in order to determine the capacity of the country to increase the share of energy use from renewable sources, in this paper clustering of selected regions in the EU-28 has been carried out, after which a comparative analysis of regions was performed in terms of potential of agricultural biomass, for the purpose of generating energy. The aim of this study is to determine the level of the region of Vojvodina in relation to ten selected EU regions, based on parameters that affect the potential for using renewable energy sources, primarily residues from agriculture. By applying the K-means method, Borda count method and comparative analysis, and based on empirical data, results show that the region of Vojvodina takes a significant fifth place. Its share of agricultural land ranks it as the first, whereas production of cereals and the total number of farms larger than 100 ha rank it as the second. It could be concluded that Vojvodina is an agricultural region with large quantities of plant remains, primarily those left over from harvest, which represents a significant potential for energy generation from agricultural biomass.

  18. Determination of strontium isotopic composition in natural waters: examples of application in subsurface waters of the coastal zone of Bragantina region, Para, BR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordalo, Adriana Oliveira; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso; Scheller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Analytical procedures used for determining the concentrations and isotope composition of strontium in subsurface waters, by mass spectrometry, are described. Sampling was performed in coastal plateaus, salt marsh and mangrove environments in the coastal region of Para. Coastal plateau waters have δ 87 Sr between 1.51 and 6.26 per mille and Sr concentration bellow 58 ppb. Salt marsh waters show δ 87 Sr between 0.55 and 0.90 per mille and Sr concentration between 93 and 114 ppm, while mangrove waters have δ 87 Sr per mille around zero and Sr concentration above 15 ppm. Differences in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio in these subsurface waters are detected, as well as seasonal variations in the coastal plateau waters. (author)

  19. Region of Interest Selection Interface for Wide-Angle Arthroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kyunghwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a new interface for an wide-angle endoscope for solo surgery. The wide-angle arthroscopic view and magnified region of interest (ROI within the wide view were shown simultaneously. With a camera affixed to surgical instruments, the position of the ROI could be determined by manipulating the surgical instrument. Image features acquired by the A-KAZE approach were used to estimate the change of position of the surgical instrument by tracking the features every time the camera moved. We examined the accuracy of ROI selection using three different images, which were different-sized square arrays and tested phantom experiments. When the number of ROIs was twelve, the success rate was best, and the rate diminished as the size of ROIs decreased. The experimental results showed that the method of using a camera without additional sensors satisfied the appropriate accuracy required for ROI selection, and this interface was helpful in performing surgery with fewer assistants.

  20. Regional patterns and controlling factors in plant species composition and diversity in Canadian lowland coastal bogs and laggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Howie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inventories of natural assemblages of plant species are critical when planning ecological restoration of bogs. However, little is known about the regional variation in plant communities at the margins (laggs of bogs, even though they are an integral element of raised bog ecosystems. Therefore, we investigated the regional patterns in the plant communities of bogs and laggs, and the factors that control them, for thirteen bogs in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Species richness was significantly higher in the bogs and laggs of the cooler, wetter Pacific Oceanic wetland region. Beta Diversity analyses showed that bogs in the Pacific Oceanic wetland region often shared species with their respective laggs, whereas half of the laggs in the warmer, drier Pacific Temperate wetland region had no species in common with the adjacent bogs and were thus more ecologically distinct from the bog. Primary climatic variables, such as mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature and latitude, as well as climate-influenced variables, such as pH, peat depth, and Na+ concentrations were the main correlates of plant species composition in the studied bogs. Site-specific factors, particularly depth to water table, and fraction of inorganic material in peat samples, were as strongly related to lagg plant communities as climate, while hydrochemistry appeared to have less influence.

  1. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  2. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ( 226 Ra), radium-228 ( 228 Ra) and potassium-40 ( 40 K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H in ), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption

  3. Prevalence and Density of Digenetic Trematode Metacercariae in Clams and Oysters from Western Coastal Regions of the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja

    2017-08-01

    A survey was performed to know the recent infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae in clams and oysters from 4 sites in western coastal regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea). Four species of clams (Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Cyclina sinensis, and Saxidomus purpuratus) were collected from Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do (Province), Buan-gun (County) and Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, and oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Himasthla alincia were detected in 3 species of clams, M. veneriformis, R. philippinarum, and C. sinensis from the 3 surveyed areas. The positive rate and the mean density per clam infected were 98.9% (30.8 metacercariae) in M. veneriformis, 60.0% (5.0) in R. philippinarum, and 96.0% (28.4) in C. sinensis. The positive rate (mean density) of Acanthoparyphium tyosenense metacercariae in M. veneriformis was 50.0% (2.1) from Taean-gun and 70.0% (2.8) from Gochang-gun. The metacercariae of Parvatrema spp. were detected in M. veneriformis and R. philippinarum from Taean-gun and Gochang-gun; the positive rate (mean density) was 63.3% (4,123) and 50.0% (19) in M. veneriformis, and 6.7% (126) and 100% (238) in R. philippinarum from the 2 regions, respectively. The metacercariae of Gymnophalloides seoi were detected in all 30 oysters from Shinan-gun, and their average density per oyster was 646. From the above results, it has been confirmed that more than 3 species of metacercariae are prevalent in clams from the western coastal regions, and G. seoi metacercariae are still prevalent in oysters from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea.

  4. Biological validation of physical coastal waters classification along the NE Atlantic region based on rocky macroalgae distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elvira; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José Antonio; Neto, João M.; Pedersen, Are; Bartsch, Inka; Scanlan, Clare; Wilkes, Robert; Van den Bergh, Erika; Ar Gall, Erwan; Melo, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    A methodology to classify rocky shores along the North East Atlantic (NEA) region was developed. Previously, biotypes and the variability of environmental conditions within these were recognized based on abiotic data. A biological validation was required in order to support the ecological meaning of the physical typologies obtained. A database of intertidal macroalgae species occurring in the coastal area between Norway and the South Iberian Peninsula was generated. Semi-quantitative abundance data of the most representative macroalgal taxa were collected in three levels: common, rare or absent. Ordination and classification multivariate analyses revealed a clear latitudinal gradient in the distribution of macroalgae species resulting in two distinct groups: one northern and one southern group, separated at the coast of Brittany (France). In general, the results based on biological data coincided with the results based on physical characteristics. The ecological meaning of the coastal waters classification at a broad scale shown in this work demonstrates that it can be valuable as a practical tool for conservation and management purposes.

  5. Including ecosystem dynamics in risk assessment of radioactive waste in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, L.; Kautsky, U.; Gilek, M.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation protection has mainly focused on assessing and minimising risks of negative effects on human health. Although some efforts have been made to estimate effects on non-human populations, modelling of radiation risks to other components of the ecosystem have often lead to more or less disappointing results. In this paper an ecosystem approach is suggested and exemplified with a preliminary 14 C model of a coastal Baltic ecosystem. Advantages with the proposed ecosystem approach are for example the possibility to detect important but previously neglected pathways to humans since the whole ecosystem is analysed. The results from the model indicate that a rather small share of hypothetical released 14 C would accumulate in biota due to large water exchange in the modelled area. However, modelled future scenarios imply opposite results, i.e. relatively high doses in biota, due to changes of the physical properties in the area that makes a larger accumulation possible. (author)

  6. Community structure of spiders in coastal habitats of a Mediterranean delta region (Nestos Delta, NE Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Buchholz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (pp 101-115Habitat zonation and ecology of spider assemblages have been poorly studied in Mediterranean ecosystems. A first analysis of spider assemblages in coastal habitats in the east Mediterranean area is presented. The study area is the 250 km² Nestos Delta, located in East Macedonia in the North-East of Greece. Spiders were caught in pitfall traps at 17 sites from the beginning of April to the end of June 2004. Nonparametric estimators were used to determine species richness and alpha diversity. Ordination analysis (redundancy analysis indicated four clearly separable spider species groups (salt meadows, dunes, mea-dows and floodplain forests, along a soil salinity and moisture gradient. Based on these results we discuss the habitat preferences of these spiders and include the first ecological data on several species.

  7. Seasonal variation in coastal marine habitat use by the European shag: Insights from fine scale habitat selection modeling and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Candice; Pinaud, David; Fortin, Matthieu; Maes, Philippe; Callard, Benjamin; Leicher, Marine; Barbraud, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Studies of habitat selection by higher trophic level species are necessary for using top predator species as indicators of ecosystem functioning. However, contrary to terrestrial ecosystems, few habitat selection studies have been conducted at a fine scale for coastal marine top predator species, and fewer have coupled diet data with habitat selection modeling to highlight a link between prey selection and habitat use. The aim of this study was to characterize spatially and oceanographically, at a fine scale, the habitats used by the European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis in the Special Protection Area (SPA) of Houat-Hœdic in the Mor Braz Bay during its foraging activity. Habitat selection models were built using in situ observation data of foraging shags (transect sampling) and spatially explicit environmental data to characterize marine benthic habitats. Observations were first adjusted for detectability biases and shag abundance was subsequently spatialized. The influence of habitat variables on shag abundance was tested using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). Diet data were finally confronted to habitat selection models. Results showed that European shags breeding in the Mor Braz Bay changed foraging habitats according to the season and to the different environmental and energetic constraints. The proportion of the main preys also varied seasonally. Rocky and coarse sand habitats were clearly preferred compared to fine or muddy sand habitats. Shags appeared to be more selective in their foraging habitats during the breeding period and the rearing of chicks, using essentially rocky areas close to the colony and consuming preferentially fish from the Labridae family and three other fish families in lower proportions. During the post-breeding period shags used a broader range of habitats and mainly consumed Gadidae. Thus, European shags seem to adjust their feeding strategy to minimize energetic costs, to avoid intra-specific competition and to maximize access

  8. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2016-02-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable individual vessel accident risk levels and shoreline contamination risk from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - the Portuguese continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time, or as an alternative, a correction factor based on vessel distance from coast. Shoreline risks can be computed in real time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns ("hot spots") or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real

  9. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area).

  10. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.; Corbett, D. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Kemp, A.; Lin, N.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Future inundation of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. Through ongoing, collaborative research we are employing new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea level rise along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic variability. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers, and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. We produced new, high-resolution proxy sea-level reconstructions to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset spans the alternation between the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' and 'Little Ice Age'. Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from four study areas (Connecticut, New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, future storm surges will be superimposed on background sea

  11. An optical water type framework for selecting and blending retrievals from bio-optical algorithms in lakes and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy S; Dowell, Mark D; Bradt, Shane; Verdu, Antonio Ruiz

    2014-03-05

    Bio-optical models are based on relationships between the spectral remote sensing reflectance and optical properties of in-water constituents. The wavelength range where this information can be exploited changes depending on the water characteristics. In low chlorophyll- a waters, the blue/green region of the spectrum is more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll- a concentration, whereas the red/NIR region becomes more important in turbid and/or eutrophic waters. In this work we present an approach to manage the shift from blue/green ratios to red/NIR-based chlorophyll- a algorithms for optically complex waters. Based on a combined in situ data set of coastal and inland waters, measures of overall algorithm uncertainty were roughly equal for two chlorophyll- a algorithms-the standard NASA OC4 algorithm based on blue/green bands and a MERIS 3-band algorithm based on red/NIR bands-with RMS error of 0.416 and 0.437 for each in log chlorophyll- a units, respectively. However, it is clear that each algorithm performs better at different chlorophyll- a ranges. When a blending approach is used based on an optical water type classification, the overall RMS error was reduced to 0.320. Bias and relative error were also reduced when evaluating the blended chlorophyll- a product compared to either of the single algorithm products. As a demonstration for ocean color applications, the algorithm blending approach was applied to MERIS imagery over Lake Erie. We also examined the use of this approach in several coastal marine environments, and examined the long-term frequency of the OWTs to MODIS-Aqua imagery over Lake Erie.

  12. Global warming hiatus contributed to the increased occurrence of intense tropical cyclones in the coastal regions along East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiuwei; Zhan, Ruifen; Wang, Yuqing

    2018-04-16

    The recent global warming hiatus (GWH) was characterized by a La Niña-like cooling in the tropical Eastern Pacific accompanied with the Indian Ocean and the tropical Atlantic Ocean warming. Here we show that the recent GWH contributed significantly to the increased occurrence of intense tropical cyclones in the coastal regions along East Asia since 1998. The GWH associated sea surface temperature anomalies triggered a pair of anomalous cyclonic and anticyclonic circulations and equatorial easterly anomalies over the Northwest Pacific, which favored TC genesis and intensification over the western Northwest Pacific but suppressed TC genesis and intensification over the southeastern Northwest Pacific due to increased vertical wind shear and anticyclonic circulation anomalies. Results from atmospheric general circulation model experiments demonstrate that the Pacific La Niña-like cooling dominated the Indian Ocean and the tropical Atlantic Ocean warming in contributing to the observed GWH-related anomalous atmospheric circulation over the Northwest Pacific.

  13. Coarse-to-fine region selection and matching

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao; Lu, Zhaojin; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    to reduce the cost of comparing all regions in two images, our method eliminates regions systematically to achieve efficiency. One advantage of our approach is that it is not restricted to covariant salient regions, which is too restrictive under large

  14. Detection of differentially methylated regions of irradiated fig tree selections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Fontanetti Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fig tree (Ficus carica L. breeding programs using conventional methods, such as directed crosses, to obtain new cultivars, are unworkable in many countries, including Brazil. Consequently, genetic breeding through mutagenesis has emerged as an important line of research that can improve this crop, and be a significant source of information about this species and assist in the implementation of propagation projects and appropriate management. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of epigenetic variability attributable to DNA methylation in irradiated fig selections when compared both to each other and to the main commercial cultivar, “Roxo-de-Valinhos”, which had previously used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and DNA sequencing to detect the position of polymorphic regions, analyzable by bioinformatic tools. The sequencing of DNA, isolated from the differentially methylated sites, makes it possible to observe different patterns of methylation by sequencing the treated DNA with sodium bisulfite in the coding regions of regulatory genes active in the development, and fruit ripening stages. Furthermore, they have been found in the mitochondrial DNA of treatments which regulate the supply of energy in Adenosine triphosphate (ATP form in plants. Closely related to their development, they justify the different phenotypes found in both fruit and plant growth that have suffered stress due to exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, future studies on gene expression in treatments have emerged as an extremely important strategy for understanding these complex regulatory systems, which may lead to the identification of genes of agricultural interest for the fig tree crop, and allow for manipulation and subsequent propagation of improved crops for commercial purposes.

  15. Detection of differentially methylated regions of irradiated fig tree selections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Maria Gabriela Fontanetti; Soares, Murilo Racy; Gimenez, Daniele Fernanda Jovino; Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Torrieri, Erico; Ramos, Ester Silveira; Giuliatti, Silvana; Universidade de Sao Paulo; Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho

    2017-01-01

    Fig tree (Ficus carica L.) breeding programs using conventional methods, such as directed crosses, to obtain new cultivars, are unworkable in many countries, including Brazil. Consequently, genetic breeding through mutagenesis has emerged as an important line of research that can improve this crop, and be a significant source of information about this species and assist in the implementation of propagation projects and appropriate management. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of epigenetic variability attributable to DNA methylation in irradiated fig selections when compared both to each other and to the main commercial cultivar, 'Roxo-de-Valinhos', which had previously used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and DNA sequencing to detect the position of polymorphic regions, analyzable by bioinformatic tools. The sequencing of DNA, isolated from the differentially methylated sites, makes it possible to observe different patterns of methylation by sequencing the treated DNA with sodium bisulfite in the coding regions of regulatory genes active in the development, and fruit ripening stages. Furthermore, they have been found in the mitochondrial DNA of treatments which regulate the supply of energy in Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) form in plants. Closely related to their development, they justify the different phenotypes found in both fruit and plant growth that have suffered stress due to exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, future studies on gene expression in treatments have emerged as an extremely important strategy for understanding these complex regulatory systems, which may lead to the identification of genes of agricultural interest for the fig tree crop, and allow for manipulation and subsequent propagation of improved crops for commercial purposes. (author)

  16. Detection of differentially methylated regions of irradiated fig tree selections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Maria Gabriela Fontanetti; Soares, Murilo Racy; Gimenez, Daniele Fernanda Jovino; Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Torrieri, Erico; Ramos, Ester Silveira; Giuliatti, Silvana, E-mail: mariagabriela@dracena.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Dracena, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Agricultura e Ciencias Tecnologicas; Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Agricultura e Ciencias Veterinarias

    2017-07-15

    Fig tree (Ficus carica L.) breeding programs using conventional methods, such as directed crosses, to obtain new cultivars, are unworkable in many countries, including Brazil. Consequently, genetic breeding through mutagenesis has emerged as an important line of research that can improve this crop, and be a significant source of information about this species and assist in the implementation of propagation projects and appropriate management. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of epigenetic variability attributable to DNA methylation in irradiated fig selections when compared both to each other and to the main commercial cultivar, 'Roxo-de-Valinhos', which had previously used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and DNA sequencing to detect the position of polymorphic regions, analyzable by bioinformatic tools. The sequencing of DNA, isolated from the differentially methylated sites, makes it possible to observe different patterns of methylation by sequencing the treated DNA with sodium bisulfite in the coding regions of regulatory genes active in the development, and fruit ripening stages. Furthermore, they have been found in the mitochondrial DNA of treatments which regulate the supply of energy in Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) form in plants. Closely related to their development, they justify the different phenotypes found in both fruit and plant growth that have suffered stress due to exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, future studies on gene expression in treatments have emerged as an extremely important strategy for understanding these complex regulatory systems, which may lead to the identification of genes of agricultural interest for the fig tree crop, and allow for manipulation and subsequent propagation of improved crops for commercial purposes. (author)

  17. Meteo-marine parameters for highly variable environment in coastal regions from satellite radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskachevsky, A. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.

    2016-09-01

    The German Bight of the North Sea is the area with highly variable sea state conditions, intensive ship traffic and with a high density of offshore installations, e.g. wind farms in use and under construction. Ship navigation and the docking on offshore constructions is impeded by significant wave heights HS > 1.3 m. For these reasons, improvements are required in recognition and forecasting of sea state HS in the range 0-3 m. Thus, this necessitates the development of new methods to determine the distribution of meteo-marine parameters from remote sensing data with an accuracy of decimetres for HS. The operationalization of these methods then allows the robust automatic processing in near real time (NRT) to support forecast agencies by providing validations for model results. A new empirical algorithm XWAVE_C (C = coastal) for estimation of significant wave height from X-band satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been developed, adopted for coastal applications using TerraSAR-X (TS-X) and Tandem-X (TD-X) satellites in the German Bight and implemented into the Sea Sate Processor (SSP) for fully automatic processing for NRT services. The algorithm is based on the spectral analysis of subscenes and the model function uses integrated image spectra parameters as well as local wind information from the analyzed subscene. The algorithm is able to recognize and remove the influence of non-sea state produced signals in the Wadden Sea areas such as dry sandbars as well as nonlinear SAR image distortions produced by e.g. short wind waves and breaking waves. Also parameters of very short waves, which are not visible in SAR images and produce only unsystematic clutter, can be accurately estimated. The SSP includes XWAVE_C, a pre-filtering procedure for removing artefacts such as ships, seamarks, buoys, offshore constructions and slicks, and an additional procedure performing a check of results based on the statistics of the whole scene. The SSP allows an

  18. How sea level change mediates genetic divergence in coastal species across regions with varying tectonic and sediment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, Greer A; Ellingson, Ryan A; Findley, Lloyd T; Jacobs, David K

    2018-02-01

    Plate tectonics and sediment processes control regional continental shelf topography. We examine the genetic consequences of how glacial-associated sea level change interacted with variable nearshore topography since the last glaciation. We reconstructed the size and distribution of areas suitable for tidal estuary formation from the last glacial maximum, ~20 thousand years ago, to present from San Francisco, California, USA (~38°N) to Reforma, Sinaloa, Mexico (~25°N). We assessed range-wide genetic structure and diversity of three codistributed tidal estuarine fishes (California Killifish, Shadow Goby, Longjaw Mudsucker) along ~4,600 km using mitochondrial control region and cytB sequence, and 16-20 microsatellite loci from a total of 524 individuals. Results show that glacial-associated sea level change limited estuarine habitat to few, widely separated refugia at glacial lowstand, and present-day genetic clades were sourced from specific refugia. Habitat increased during postglacial sea level rise and refugial populations admixed in newly formed habitats. Continental shelves with active tectonics and/or low sediment supply were steep and hosted fewer, smaller refugia with more genetically differentiated populations than on broader shelves. Approximate Bayesian computation favoured the refuge-recolonization scenarios from habitat models over isolation by distance and seaway alternatives, indicating isolation at lowstand is a major diversification mechanism among these estuarine (and perhaps other) coastal species. Because sea level change is a global phenomenon, we suggest this top-down physical control of extirpation-isolation-recolonization may be an important driver of genetic diversification in coastal taxa inhabiting other topographically complex coasts globally during the Mid- to Late Pleistocene and deeper timescales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Local and regional scale exchanges of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) between tidal wetlands and their adjacent coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, C. L.; Joshi, I.; Lebrasse, M. C.; Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Bianchi, T. S.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; D'Sa, E. J.; He, R.; Ko, D.; Arellano, A.; Ward, N. D.

    2017-12-01

    The contribution of blue carbon from tidal wetlands to the coastal ocean in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) represents a terrestrial-aquatic linkage of increasing importance. DOC flux results will be presented from local (tidal creek) and regional (bays) scale studies in which various combinations of field observations, ocean-color satellite observations, and the outputs of high-resolution hydrodynamic models were used to estimate DOC export. The first project was located in Bald Head Creek, a tributary to the Cape Fear River estuary in eastern North Carolina (NC). DOC fluxes were computed using a bathymetric data collected via unmanned surface vehicle (USV) and a numerical hydrodynamic model (SCHISM) based on the relationships between colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption, DOC concentration, and salinity taken from field observations. Model predictions estimated an annual net export of DOC at 54 g C m-2 yr-1 from the tidal creek to the adjacent estuary. Carbon stable isotope (δ13C) values were used to estimate the contribution of wetland carbon to this export. In the second project, DOC fluxes from the Apalachicola Bay, FL, Barataria Bay, LA, were based on the development of algorithms between DOC and CDOM absorption derived from the VIIRS ocean color sensor. The Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) was used to compute salt flux estimates from each bay to the Louisiana-Texas shelf. The relationship between salinity and CDOM was used to estimate net annual DOC exports of 8.35 x 106 g C m-2 y-1 (Apalachicola Bay) and 7.14 x 106 g C m-2 yr-1 (Barataria Bay). These values approximate 13% and 9% of the annual loads of DOC from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico, respectively. CDOM and lignin were used in a mixing model to estimate wetland-derived DOC were 2% for Apalachicola Bay and 13% for Barataria Bay, the latter having one of the highest rates of relative sea level rise in North America. Results from our project demonstrated the utility

  20. Selective constraints in experimentally defined primate regulatory regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gaffney

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in gene regulation may be important in evolution. However, the evolutionary properties of regulatory mutations are currently poorly understood. This is partly the result of an incomplete annotation of functional regulatory DNA in many species. For example, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, a major component of eukaryotic regulatory architecture, are typically short, degenerate, and therefore difficult to differentiate from randomly occurring, nonfunctional sequences. Furthermore, although sites such as TFBSs can be computationally predicted using evolutionary conservation as a criterion, estimates of the true level of selective constraint (defined as the fraction of strongly deleterious mutations occurring at a locus in regulatory regions will, by definition, be upwardly biased in datasets that are a priori evolutionarily conserved. Here we investigate the fitness effects of regulatory mutations using two complementary datasets of human TFBSs that are likely to be relatively free of ascertainment bias with respect to evolutionary conservation but, importantly, are supported by experimental data. The first is a collection of almost >2,100 human TFBSs drawn from the literature in the TRANSFAC database, and the second is derived from several recent high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with genomic microarray (ChIP-chip analyses. We also define a set of putative cis-regulatory modules (pCRMs by spatially clustering multiple TFBSs that regulate the same gene. We find that a relatively high proportion ( approximately 37% of mutations at TFBSs are strongly deleterious, similar to that at a 2-fold degenerate protein-coding site. However, constraint is significantly reduced in human and chimpanzee pCRMS and ChIP-chip sequences, relative to macaques. We estimate that the fraction of regulatory mutations that have been driven to fixation by positive selection in humans is not significantly different from zero. We also find

  1. Coastal Ecosystem Assessment, Development and Creation of a Policy Tool using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for: A Case Study of Western Puerto Rico Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Barreto, J.; Pillich, J.; Aponte Bermúdez, L. D.; Torres Pagan, G.

    2017-12-01

    This project utilizes low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based systems for different applications, such as low-altitude (high resolution) aerial photogrammetry for aerial analysis of vegetation, reconstruction of beach topography and mapping coastal erosion to understand, and estimated ecosystem values. As part of this work, five testbeds coastal sites, designated as the Caribbean Littoral Aerial Surveillance System (CLASS), were established. The sites are distributed along western Puerto Rico coastline where population and industry (tourism) are very much clustered and dense along the coast. Over the past year, rapid post-storm deployment of UAV surveying has been successfully integrated into the CLASS sites, specifically at Rincon (Puerto Rico), where coastal erosion has raised the public and government concern over the past decades. A case study is presented here where we collected aerial photos before and after the swells caused by Hurricane Mathew (October 2016). We merged the point cloud obtained from the UAV photogrammetric assessment with topo-bathymetric data, to get a complete beach topography. Using the rectified and georeferenced UAV orthophotos, we identified the maximum wave runup for the pre-swell and post-swell events. Also, we used numerical modeling (X-Beach) to simulate the rate-of-change dynamics of the coastal zones and compare the model results to observed values (including multiple historic shoreline positions). In summary, our project has accomplished the first milestone which is the Development and Implementation of an Effective Shoreline Monitoring Program using UAVs. The activities of the monitoring program have enabled the collection of crucial data for coastal mapping along Puerto Rico's shorelines with emphasis on coastal erosion hot spots zones and ecosystem values. Our results highlight the potential of the synergy between UAVs, photogrammetry, and Geographic Information Systems to provide faster and low-cost reliable

  2. The transforming perception of a regional geohazard between coastal defence and mediated discourse on global warming: Storm surges in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverla, I.; Lüthje, C.

    2010-03-01

    The term regional geohazard is used for a major geophysical risk which can lead to a natural disaster. The effects will be strictly located to a specific region. It is expected but still not proven that global warming will intensify weather extremes and thus the number of regional geohazards will increase. Regional geohazards are not dangerous per se, but from the perspective of human being certain weather and nature extremes are considered dangerous as they impose damage on human beings and their belongings. Therefore the media often call them ‘natural disaster’ and as a matter of fact it seems to be a ‘must’ - according to theory and practice of news selections - that media report on any natural disaster that occur in their region. Moreover, media even report on geohazards in any other region as soon as these events seem to have any general impact. The major geophysical risk along the coast of the North Sea is storm surges. A long list of historical disasters has deeply engraved the ubiquity of this hazard into the collective memory and habitus of the local population. Not only coastal region is concerned by this danger but also the megacity of Hamburg. Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany and the sixth-largest city in the European Union. The Hamburg Metropolitan Region has more than 4.3 million inhabitants. The estuary of the river Elbe extends from Cuxhaven (coast) to Hamburg a distance of about 130 km. Hamburg has often been subject to storm surges with significant damages. But after the storm flood in 1855 for more than 100 years until 1962 no severe storm surge happened. The Big Flood in the night from February 16 to February 17 1962 destroyed the homes of about 60.000 people. The death toll amounted to 315 in the city of Hamburg, where the storm surge had a traumatic impact and was followed by political decisions driven by the believe in technological solutions. After 1962 massive investments into the coastal defence were made and dikes

  3. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Surinam; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America

  4. ABRASION WAVE OBSTRUCTS TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN COASTAL REGIONS OF BINUANGEUN, LEBAK - BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geographically, the study area is located in the southern coast of Java and also exposed to the influence of wave energy from the southeast, south and southwest. The energy flux of waves generated by surface wind components that affect the coastline and the surrounding waters of Binuangeun. The impact of the wave coming from southeast direction caused a continuous abrasion process in Binuangeun coast and its adjacent areas, included the tourism area in the eastern part of Binuangeun coast towards the center of the study area. The current movement along the coast was accompanied by sediments deposition which tends to westward. The value of sediments supply (Vq in sample area point number 9 was bigger than the sample area number 4 about 33.703 m3/year within the same direction tendency of sediments deposition. Western part of Binuangeun coastal area would presumably become the sediment accumulation point throughout the year, while the erosion process in the central part of the study area were expanding and occured seasonally.

  5. Heavy metal concentrations in marine molluscs from the Moroccan coastal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maanan, Mohamed [Geolittomer, UMR 6554 LETG - CNRS, Universite de Nantes, BP 81227, 44312 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: mohamed.maanan@univ-nantes.fr

    2008-05-15

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), clams (Venerupis decussatus) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were sampled seasonally during 2004-2005, from different coastal environments of Morocco in order to measure their accumulated heavy metal concentrations. The concentrations of Hg and Pb were determined by AFS and ICP-MS methods, respectively, whilst the remaining metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn and Ni) were quantified by AAS. The soft tissue concentrations of the mussels were on average 7.2 mg kg{sup -1} (Cd), 9.6 mg kg{sup -1} (Pb), 0.6 mg kg{sup -1} (Hg), 26.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Cu), 8.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Cr), 292 mg kg{sup -1} (Zn), 20.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Mn) and 32.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Ni). The highest tissue heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the south from the industrial area of Jorf Lasfar. The relationships between metal concentration and season in each species showed very similar annual profiles with a peak observed around spring-summer. Statistical analysis indicated that different species showed different bioaccumulation of metals depending on study site and season. - The accumulated metal concentrations in bivalves from the clean stations may be considered as useful Atlantic coast reference background levels for future comparison.

  6. Mapping the Factors Affecting Household Food Security of Tuberculosis Patients in Coastal Region of Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningrum, D.; Ulama, B. S. S.; Lathifah, R.

    2018-04-01

    Food security is a condition of a person who has access to adequate, safe, and nutritious food to meet the needs of a healthy life. Affordability of food is determined by the aggregate purchasing power. It is also can be measured by the amount of poverty in Indonesia which reached 28,07 million in 2014. According to data from the health department, the largest TB cases in Indonesia were in East Java Province and Surabaya accounted for the largest number, there are 48379 cases in 2015. This study mapping the factors that affect household food security of TB patients in the coastal areas of Surabaya. This study used secondary data sources from 11 clinics i.e. TB patient's addres and primary data source to survey patients about food security. Variables used in this study are variables related to socioeconomic factors and sanitary factors. Those variables will be analyzed descriptively and mapping using biplot analysis. Biplot generated based on socio-economic factors, sanitary factors, and status of households in 11 districts Surabaya that near the beach geographically. The result shows that 64% of TB patient households are food insecure than the left are food secure. More than 50% of TB patient households have a good house physically. From the result of mapping between sub-districts and factors, formed five groups consisting of: 1) Benowo and Mulyorejo; 2) Asemrowo, Gunung Anyar, Sukolilo and Pabean Cantikan; 3) Semampir, Krembangan and Bulak; 4) Kenjeran; and 5) Rungkut.

  7. Transfer of some trace metals from water and soil to plants in coastal region of syria using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.; Sarhil, A.

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this research to identify the trace elements of the impact on soil samples, plants and water in the coastal basin. Select the racial focus of the basic elements and the elements of impact in each of the samples of soil, some plants and irrigation water (underground and surface) in different parts of the basin, including the Syrian coast between the Lebanese border in the south and Turkey in the north using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results showed that the concentrations of elements were high in some areas of the basin as a result ease of movement through surface and groundwater, due to nature of the geological cost area which is cracked and many faults and porous rock formations. The Large precipitation rain washed quickly the major agricultural soils, including fertilizers and sewage and municipal waste and some of them leak into the groundwater directly or moving from rivers and dams to these ground waters and agricultural soils to fall within the hydrological cycle and increase of this pollutant in the coastal strip, and adversely affect the marine environment through supplying them with many industrial contaminants: such as cement plants, oil and phosphate estuarine, thermal power plant, Baniyas's refinery and ports of ships. The method of neutron activation analysis considers as a reference method and is very effective in the study of environmental samples. 15 element concentrations were calculated using the relative method of INAA, data indicates that there is significant difference in the concentrations of study elements (As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, V, and Zn), depending on the nature of the site geography of irrigation water which used and the proximity of human events scattered along the study area. It is also a big difference in the concentration of these elements in the same soils and plants and the region between the closed systems of agriculture and open one, the increase of excessive

  8. Downscaling wind and wavefields for 21st century coastal flood hazard projections in a region of complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Andrea; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    While global climate models (GCMs) provide useful projections of near-surface wind vectors into the 21st century, resolution is not sufficient enough for use in regional wave modeling. Statistically downscaled GCM projections from Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogues provide daily averaged near-surface winds at an appropriate spatial resolution for wave modeling within the orographically complex region of San Francisco Bay, but greater resolution in time is needed to capture the peak of storm events. Short-duration high wind speeds, on the order of hours, are usually excluded in statistically downscaled climate models and are of key importance in wave and subsequent coastal flood modeling. Here we present a temporal downscaling approach, similar to constructed analogues, for near-surface winds suitable for use in local wave models and evaluate changes in wind and wave conditions for the 21st century. Reconstructed hindcast winds (1975–2004) recreate important extreme wind values within San Francisco Bay. A computationally efficient method for simulating wave heights over long time periods was used to screen for extreme events. Wave hindcasts show resultant maximum wave heights of 2.2 m possible within the Bay. Changes in extreme over-water wind speeds suggest contrasting trends within the different regions of San Francisco Bay, but 21th century projections show little change in the overall magnitude of extreme winds and locally generated waves.

  9. Contributions of Pakistan in the IAEA/RCA/UNDP regional project on management of marine coastal environment and its pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Fazil, M.; Ahmad, E.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, H.A.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, launched a five years (duration: 1998 - 2002) Joint Project on 'Better Management of the Environment and Industrial Growth Through Isotope and Radiation Technology (RAS/97/030)' in co-operation with the RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement) office, Vienna, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Marine Sub-project entitled 'Management of Marine Coastal Environment and its Pollution (RAS/8/083)' is 'Output 1.2' of this joint project. Pakistan is very actively participating in activities of the IAEA/RCA/UNDP Marine Sub-Project that were planned in two Project Formulation Meetings (PFMs) held at Manila, Philippines, during 1998. In Pakistan, various activities of the national marine pollution project are being administered by the nuclear institute namely, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), in collaboration with national end user institutions. To-date, Pakistan has significantly contributed in this project, both at national level and at RCA regional level. This paper highlights the progress and some accomplishments of Pakistan, up to the year 2001, for marine pollution studies related to the IAEA/RCA regional marine sub project. (author)

  10. Occurrence and multivariate exploratory analysis of the natural radioactivity anomaly in the south coastal region of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniu, M. I.; Angeyo, K. H.; Darby, I. G.

    2018-05-01

    Characterized by a variety of rock formations, namely alkaline, igneous and sedimentary that contain significant deposits of monazite and pyrochlore ores, the south coastal region of Kenya may be regarded as highly heterogeneous with regard to its geochemistry, mineralogy as well as geological morphology. The region is one of the several alkaline carbonatite complexes of Kenya that are associated with high natural background radiation and therefore radioactivity anomaly. However, this high background radiation (HBR) anomaly has hardly been systematically assessed and delineated with regard to the spatial, geological, geochemical as well as anthropogenic variability and co-dependencies. We conducted wide-ranging in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements in this area. The goal of the study was to assess the radiation exposure as well as determine the underlying natural radioactivity levels in the region. In this paper we report the occurrence, exploratory analysis and modeling to assess the multivariate geo-dependence and spatial variability of the radioactivity and associated radiation exposure. Unsupervised principal component analysis and ternary plots were utilized in the study. It was observed that areas which exhibit HBR anomalies are located along the south coast paved road and in the Mrima-Kiruku complex. These areas showed a trend towards enhanced levels of 232Th and 238U and low 40K. The spatial variability of the radioactivity anomaly was found to be mainly constrained by anthropogenic activities, underlying geology and geochemical processes in the terrestrial environment.

  11. Mediterranean coastal dune vegetation: Are disturbance and stress the key selective forces that drive the psammophilous succession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    Plant communities of coastal dunes are distributed along a characteristic sea-inland gradient. Generally, there is a shift from annual and short height species with small leaves in the initial successional stages to perennial tall shrubs with tough leaves in later phases. Assessing the community-weighted mean (CWM) trait values is used in plant ecology to describe ecosystem properties especially during succession. In particular, CSR (Competitive, Stress-tolerant, and Ruderal strategy) classification allows us to explore community functional shifts in terms of disturbance, stress and competition selective forces. The functional basis of the psammophilous succession was studied based on the following questions: (1) Can we circumscribe different functional types among plant species of Mediterranean coastal dunes? (2) How do CWM trait values vary along the environmental sea-inland gradient? (3) What is the relative importance of competition, stress and disturbance in the processes of plant community assembling? (4) Can we postulate that along primary successions there is generally a shift from ruderality to stress-tolerance? An explorative analysis of functional groups was performed by Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysing nine morpho-functional traits measured for 45 taxa from 880 dune plots localised in Tuscany (central Italy, Europe). NMDS ordination showed a scattered distribution of psammophytes that could not be delimited in precise plant functional types. The first NMDS axis has been interpreted as a leaf economics axis because it was correlated to leaf area (LA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC), while the second one was a plant size axis because of its correlation with canopy height. Along the sea-inland gradient, pioneer plant communities of upper beach were dominated by ruderals (with the lowest values of LDMC and specific leaf area - SLA), well-adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of coastal dunes. More distant from the sea, where

  12. Development of a Regional Neural Network for Coastal Water Level Predictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Wenrui; Murray, Catherine; Kraus, Nicholas; Rosati, Julie

    2003-01-01

    .... Fortunately, the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has a national network of water level monitoring stations distributed in regional scale that has been operating for several decades...

  13. Multiscale habitat suitability index models for priority landbirds in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Tirpak; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Frank R., III Thompson; Daniel J. Twedt; William B., III Uihlein

    2009-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models were developed to assess habitat quality for 40 priority bird species in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions. The models incorporated both site and landscape environmental variables from one of six nationally consistent datasets. Potential habitat was first defined from unique...

  14. Biomass and nitrogen-use efficiency of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) with nitrogen and supplemental irrigation in Coastal Plain Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor rainfall distribution and soil conditions such as high soil strength, low water holding capacity of soils and poor soil fertility in the humid Coastal Plain region may affect production of grain crops. Nitrogen insufficiency and water stress can both reduce crop yield, but little information is...

  15. Biomagnification of some heavy and essential metals in sediments, fishes and crayfish from Ondo State coastal region, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaolu, S.S.; Olaofe, O.

    2005-01-01

    The bio magnifications levels of some essential (Fe, Zn, Cu) and toxic metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn) were determined in sediments, three kinds of fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Synodonthis sp., and Clarias gariepinus) and crayfish from the Ondo State coastal region. The metal bio magnification in the fish and crayfish was several times greater than in water, while that in the sediments was several thousand-folds greater than in both the organisms and water. Among the metals examined in water, Fe was the most abundant with average values of 146.7 and 74.3 mg/1, respectively, for wet and dry seasons, while Co was the least with average values of 2.4 and 1.6 mg/1. In the sediments, concentrations of Pb, Ni, Fe, Cr, Co and Mn in the wet season were relatively higher than those obtained for the dry season. Fe with an average of 50.9 mg/kg in C, gariepinus was the most abundant metal in the fish samples, while Cu with an average value of 0.3 mg/kg in O. niloticus was the least. The metal bio magnification for most of the metals for both seasons was found to vary widely from one location to the other. This was confirmed by the coefficient of variation that ranged from 31% to 144% and 29% to 130% in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The present study has shown that fish, crayfish and sediments can be used to monitor the pollution level of metals in the Nigerian coastal water. (author)

  16. Gill net selectivity and catch rates of pelagic fish in tropical coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fish species and size selectivity of gillnets design with monofilament nylon polyethylene netting materials were investigated in Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria between September and December 2005. The gillnets floats and sinkers were improvised from rubber slippers and lead metallic objects which were attached at intervals ...

  17. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Inghilesi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid, a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004–2009 were considered.

  18. Wind energy potential assessment of Cameroon's coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreyndip, Nkongho Ayuketang; Joseph, Ebobenow; David, Afungchui

    2016-11-01

    For the future installation of a wind farm in Cameroon, the wind energy potentials of three of Cameroon's coastal cities (Kribi, Douala and Limbe) are assessed using NASA average monthly wind data for 31 years (1983-2013) and compared through Weibull statistics. The Weibull parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood, the mean power densities, the maximum energy carrying wind speeds and the most probable wind speeds are also calculated and compared over these three cities. Finally, the cumulative wind speed distributions over the wet and dry seasons are also analyzed. The results show that the shape and scale parameters for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 2.9 and 2.8, 3.9 and 1.8 and 3.08 and 2.58, respectively. The mean power densities through Weibull analysis for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 33.7 W/m2, 8.0 W/m2 and 25.42 W/m2, respectively. Kribi's most probable wind speed and maximum energy carrying wind speed was found to be 2.42 m/s and 3.35 m/s, 2.27 m/s and 3.03 m/s for Limbe and 1.67 m/s and 2.0 m/s for Douala, respectively. Analysis of the wind speed and hence power distribution over the wet and dry seasons shows that in the wet season, August is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while September is the windiest month for Kribi while in the dry season, March is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while February is the windiest month for Kribi. In terms of mean power density, most probable wind speed and wind speed carrying maximum energy, Kribi shows to be the best site for the installation of a wind farm. Generally, the wind speeds at all three locations seem quite low, average wind speeds of all the three studied locations fall below 4.0m/s which is far below the cut-in wind speed of many modern wind turbines. However we recommend the use of low cut-in speed wind turbines like the Savonius for stand alone low energy needs.

  19. Genetic diversity of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810 in the coastal regions of Golstan province, using microsatellite marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ghodsi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Golden grey mullet (Liza aurata is a commercially valuable fish with great demand due to its delicious taste in southern coastal parts of the Caspian Sea. Genetic diversity of marine resources is of vital importance in their management and protection, as this is the first prerequisite for maintaining the consistency of populations in an inconsistent environmental conditions. In this study, we have used six microsatellite locations to investigate the level of genetic variation of Liza aurata in Gomishan and Miyankale regions in Golestan province. The results showed no conspicuous genetic variations in these two regions using Fst, Rst and AMOVA and accordingly a relatively high level of gene flow was found among the populations. Genetic variations in Gomishan (mean number of alleles per locus, Na=14.667, mean effective number of alleles, Ne=10.355, observed heterozygosity, Ho=0.905 and expected heterozygosity, He=0.894 and Miyankale (Na=15, Ne=10.223, Ho=0.863 and He=0.892 were not statistically different. There were evidences for genetic bottleneck in the populations. Protection and restoration of habitats can help to increase the population size and decrease risk of vulnerability of the species in the future.

  20. Distribution patterns of ferns and lycophytes in the Coastal Region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gonzatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A survey of ferns and lycophytes of the Coastal Region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (CRRS was performed based on field work and collections of the main regional herbaria. The following were evaluated for each species: preferential habits (terrestrial, epiphytic or aquatic, geographic distribution patterns and habitats (forest, grassland, and wetland. The occurrence of a latitudinal gradient in diversity was tested over five latitudinal ranges using the Sørensen Similarity Index. A total of 17 lycophyte and 206 fern species representing 28 families was found between the latitudes of 29° and 34°S. Exclusively terrestrial species were predominant (162, with the majority (113 exhibiting wide Neotropical distributions, followed by species that also occurred in the state of Paraná (44. The forest habitat harbored the greatest number of species (159, while grasslands had the fewest (26. Cluster analysis showed pronounced floristic differentiation among latitudinal Ranges III (31°01' to 32°S and IV (32°01' to 31°S, with a similarity index of only 0.41. Our results demonstrate a strong north-to-south reduction in species richness in the study area, which is related to environmental conditions along the latitudinal gradient and, especially, microclimatic differences in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Pampa biomes.

  1. Production of pulse in mono-cropped rice system in the coastal region of Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Nanda, P.; Chandra, Dinesh; Ghorai, A.K.; Behera, M.S.

    2001-04-01

    This experiment was undertaken with an objective to increase the yield of black-gram leguminous pulse crop through optimal doses of phosphatic fertilizer with supplemental irrigation in mono-cropped rice-fallow regions of India. Irrigation and phosphorus fertilizer application were introduced for enhancing productivity of black-gram to provide better returns to available water resources

  2. Regional landslide susceptibility assessment using multi-stage remote sensing data along the coastal range highway in northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Fang; Huang, Wei-Kai; Chang, Yu-Lin; Chi, Shu-Yeong; Liao, Wu-Chang

    2018-01-01

    Typhoons Megi (2010) and Saola (2012) brought torrential rainfall which triggered regional landslides and flooding hazards along Provincial Highway No. 9 in northeastern Taiwan. To reduce property loss and saving lives, this study combines multi-hazard susceptibility assessment with environmental geology map a rock mass rating system (RMR), remote sensing analysis, and micro-topography interpretation to develop an integrated landslide hazard assessment approach and reflect the intrinsic state of slopeland from the past toward the future. First, the degree of hazard as indicated by historical landslides was used to determine many landslide regions in the past. Secondly, geo-mechanical classification of rock outcroppings was performed by in-situ investigation along the vulnerable road sections. Finally, a high-resolution digital elevation model was extracted from airborne LiDAR and multi-temporal remote sensing images which was analyzed to discover possible catastrophic landslide hotspot shortly. The results of the analysis showed that 37% of the road sections in the study area were highly susceptible to landslide hazards. The spatial distribution of the road sections revealed that those characterized by high susceptibility were located near the boundaries of fault zones and in areas of lithologic dissimilarity. Headward erosion of gullies and concave-shaped topographic features had an adverse effect and was the dominant factor triggering landslides. Regional landslide reactivation on this coastal highway are almost related to the past landslide region based on hazard statistics. The final results of field validation demonstrated that an accuracy of 91% could be achieved for forecasting geohazard followed by intense rainfall events and typhoons.

  3. Black and Brown Bear Activity at Selected Coastal Sites in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Preliminary Assessment Using Noninvasive Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Steve; Smith, Tom; Lewis, Tania

    2009-01-01

    A number of efforts in recent years have sought to predict bear activity in various habitats to minimize human disturbance and bear/human conflicts. Alaskan coastal areas provide important foraging areas for bears (Ursus americanus and U. arctos), particularly following den emergence when there may be no snow-free foraging alternatives. Additionally, coastal areas provide important food items for bears throughout the year. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA) in southeastern Alaska has extensive coastal habitats, and the National Park Service (NPS) has been long interested in learning more about the use of these coastal habitats by bears because these same habitats receive extensive human use by park visitors, especially kayaking recreationists. This study provides insight regarding the nature and intensity of bear activity at selected coastal sites within GLBA. We achieved a clearer understanding of bear/habitat relationships within GLBA by analyzing bear activity data collected with remote cameras, bear sign mapping, scat collections, and genetic analysis of bear hair. Although we could not quantify actual levels of bear activity at study sites, agreement among measures of activity (for example, sign counts, DNA analysis, and video record) lends support to our qualitative site assessments. This work suggests that habitat evaluation, bear sign mapping, and periodic scat counts can provide a useful index of bear activity for sites of interest.

  4. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the authors’ Agencies. MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL CHANGE AND EXTREME WATER LEVELS FOR...COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT 2-20 contingent probabilities given their dependence on non-probabilistic emissions futures, have extended the ranges of...flood risk provides confidence in the associated projection as a true minimum value for risk management purposes. The contemporary rate observed by

  5. Assessing the Nation's Coastal Waters....Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has been assessing estuarine and coastal condition in the United States since 1999 via the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) and National Aquatic Resources Surveys (NARS) programs. Approximately 1500 randomly selected coastal sites were surveyed annually during summers ...

  6. Discrimination of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon region based on multi-polarized L-band airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir M.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Rodrigues, Suzan W. P.; Costa, Francisco R.; Mura, José C.; Gonçalves, Fabrício D.

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the use of multi-polarized L-band images for the identification of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon coast region of northern Brazil. Data were acquired with a SAR R99B sensor from the Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM) on board a Brazilian Air Force jet. Flights took place in the framework of the 2005 MAPSAR simulation campaign, a German-Brazilian feasibility study focusing on a L-band SAR satellite. Information retrieval was based on the recognition of the interaction between a radar signal and shallow-water morphology in intertidal areas, coastal dunes, mangroves, marshes and the coastal plateau. Regarding the performance of polarizations, VV was superior for recognizing intertidal area morphology under low spring tide conditions; HH for mapping coastal environments covered with forest and scrub vegetation such as mangrove and vegetated dunes, and HV was suitable for distinguishing transition zones between mangroves and coastal plateau. The statistical results for the classification maps expressed by kappa index and general accuracy were 83.3% and 0.734 for the multi-polarized color composition (R-HH, G-HV, B-VV), 80.7% and 0.694% for HH, 79.7% and 0.673% for VV, and 77.9% and 0.645% for HV amplitude image. The results indicate that use of multi-polarized L-band SAR is a valuable source of information aiming at the identification and discrimination of distinct geomorphic targets in tropical wetlands.

  7. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  8. Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons in land-uplift succession: The relative importance of local and regional environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snickars, Martin; Sandström, Alfred; Lappalainen, Antti; Mattila, Johanna; Rosqvist, Kajsa; Urho, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    The assemblages of young-of-the-year fish were studied in coastal lagoons in an archipelago with post-glacial land-uplift, which affects environmental gradients at local and regional scale, i.e. lagoon habitat isolation and archipelago position, respectively. The categorisation of 40 undisturbed lagoons into nine habitat types based on habitat isolation and archipelago position was supported by clear relationships with spring temperature and total fish abundance. Rutilus rutilus, breams ( Abramis/Blicca sp.) and Perca fluviatilis were the most abundant and frequently occurring species. The fish assemblage differed among the nine habitat types. Rutilus rutilus, P. fluviatilis and breams were discriminating species in the majority of habitat types with low physical harshness, whereas Alburnus alburnus and Gasterosteus aculeatus increased their contributions in habitat types with high physical harshness. Rutilus rutilus and breams were thus common in lagoons with high habitat isolation situated in the inner archipelago. These lagoons were characterised by warm water and high vegetation coverage. Gasterosteus aculeatus was restricted to lagoons with low habitat isolation and exposure and low vegetation coverage, situated in the outer archipelago. Perca fluviatilis had the widest distribution of all species. The coverage of two macrophytes, Potamogeton perfoliatus and Zannichellia palustris, and salinity matched best the distance among habitat types. These habitat characteristics, as well as the fish abundances and assemblages differed most across the habitat types in the outer and mid archipelago zones and in the lowest habitat isolation. These patterns suggest that the structuring effect of habitat isolation increases along the archipelago gradient as differences between local and regional conditions increase. In the inner archipelago, overall low physical harshness induces homogeneous conditions and the habitat isolation is less important here than in the other zones

  9. Spatio-temporal variability in accretion and erosion of coastal foredunes in the Netherlands: regional climate and local topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, J.G.S.; Poortinga, A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Maroulis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the amount of aeolian sediment input and dune erosion, dune size and morphology change over time. Since coastal foredunes play an important role in the Dutch coastal defence, it is important to have good insight in the main factors that control these changes. In this paper the temporal

  10. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  11. Hydrocarbon composition and distribution in a coastal region under influence of oil production in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Angela de L R; Carreira, Renato S; Hamacher, Claudia; Scofield, Arthur de L; Farias, Cassia O; Cordeiro, Lívia G M S; Luz, Letícia G; Baêta, Aída P; Kalas, Francine A

    2011-08-01

    Waters and sediments from the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazilian coast) were investigated for the presence and nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The region receives treated produced waters through a submarine outfall system serving the industrial district. The total dispersed/dissolved concentrations in the water column ranged from 10-50 ng L(-1) for ∑16PAH and 5-10 μg L(-1) for total aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the sediments, hydrocarbon concentrations were low (0.5-10 ng g(-1)for ∑16PAH and 0.01-5.0 μg g(-1) for total aliphatic hydrocarbons) and were consistent with the low organic carbon content of the local sandy sediments. These data indicate little and/or absence of anthropogenic influence on hydrocarbon distribution in water and sediment. Therefore, the measured values may be taken as background values for the region and can be used as future reference following new developments of the petroleum industry in the Potiguar Basin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. WATERSHED SPATIAL DISCRETIZATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LAND USE CHANGE IN COASTAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Terezinha Galvão Boulomytis

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a methodology to discretize a non-assessed basin based on terrain analysis using the SRTM digital elevation model (DEM and a high resolution surface model (DSM with a drainage network semi-automatic extraction process. The Juqueriquerê River Basin was used for the case study, which has the most representative non-urbanized plains of the northern coastline of São Paulo State, Brazil. The low-lying region is featured by elevations close to the sea level, mild slopes, and shallow water tables. It is also influenced by tidal variation and orographic rains. Therefore, frequent flooding occurs, even in vegetated areas. Two conflicting land use scenarios, proposed by the City Master Plan (CMP of Caraguatatuba and the Ecological-Economical Zoning (EEZ, were compared to analyze the flood vulnerability increase and geotechnical risk caused by the urbanization process. The drainage extraction techniques showed better results on high resolution DSM for low-lying regions than the SRTM DEM and determined with accuracy the locations of flood potentiality in the plains. The watershed spatial discretization allowed us to show the effects of the two different land use approaches, considering the flood vulnerability and geotechnical risk of each sub-basin

  13. The Impact of Urbanization on the Regional Aeolian Dynamics of an Arid Coastal Dunefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the geomorphology of many landscapes are inextricably connected but are often neglected due to the difficulty in making a direct link between the quasi natural and human processes that impact the environment. This research focuses on the Maspalomas dunefield, located on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, in the Canary Island Archipelago. The tourism industry in Maspalomas has led to intensive urbanization since the early 1960's over an elevated alluvial terrace that extends into the dunefield. Urbanization has had a substantial impact on both the regional airflow conditions and the geomorphological development of this transverse dune system. As a result airflow and sediment has been redirected in response to the large scale construction efforts. In situ data was collected during field campaigns using high resolution three-dimensional anemometry to identify the various modifications within the dunefield relative to incipient regional airflow conditions. The goal is to analyse the flow conditions near the urbanized terrace in relation to areas that are located away from the influence of the buildings and to verify numerical modelling results. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is used in order to expand the areal extent of analysis by providing an understanding of relevant flow dynamics (e.g. flow velocity, directionality, turbulence, shear stresses, etc.) at the mesoscale. An integrative three dimensional model for CFD simulations was created to address the impact of both the urban area (i.e. hotels, commercial centers, and residential communities) as well as the dune terrain on regional flow conditions. Early modelling results show that there is significant flow modification around the urban terrace with streamline compression, acceleration, and deflection of flow on the windward side of the development. Consequently downwind of the terrace there is an area of highly turbulent flow conditions and well developed separation and

  14. Compilation and testing of tools and methods for sustainable coastal management at local and regional scales : Deliverable D2.5.4, Thresholds project, 6th framework programme, EU, 108 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Håkanson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This work describes how general methods and models for sustainable coastal ecosystem management at local to regional scales may be used to address key questions in coastal management and threshold science. The general, process-based mass-balance model (CoastMab) for substances transported to, within and from for coastal areas may be used as a tool to: 1. Combat eutrophication, 2. Rank nutrient fluxes, 3. Estimate the system response related to nutrient reductions and 4. Estimate realistic val...

  15. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, A. D.; Williams, T. M.; Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Song, B.; Trettin, C. C.

    2014-03-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over 30 years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds - a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic change in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of evapotranspiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  16. Assessment of Selected Heavy Metals in Seawater and Sediment at Klang Coastal Area Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Aziatul Aini Hamzan; Farah Fardiana Mohamad Zaini; Mohd Ismail Ibrahim; Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin

    2015-01-01

    Sediments are capable of transporting loads of adsorbed nutrients, pesticides, heavy metals, and other toxins. In this study, the samples of sediment were collected from four sampling points (Kapar, Sungai Puloh, Sementa and North Port) using sediment core sampler. The cores then was sub-sampled by slicing into 1 cm slices and dried at 60 degree Celsius until mass become constant and the weight recorded. The samples were pulverized and sieved through 220 μm stainless steel sieves. Each sub-sample digested using aqua regia acids. For seawater, the samples were evaporated using the hotplate at 60 degree Celsius. The concentration of heavy metals was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The highest concentration of copper, zinc, iron and lead was observed from seawater samples obtained from Sementa while highest concentration of cadmium was found from Kapar samples). Most of the bottom seawater gives high concentration of the heavy metal compare to the surface. For sediment, the overall concentration of heavy metal in each layer was fluctuated. From the analysis, there is a significant correlation for overall selected heavy metals and the samples (seawater and sediment) that study in this area. (author)

  17. A European regional analysis of selected food consumption statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines different European regions of food culture. It does so by analyzing statements about food attitudes and food consumption from a general, commercial life style survey. The data were collected in 1989 through 20.000 interviews in European countries broken down into 80 regions. T...... for more advanced statistical analysis, this paper should definitely be regarded as a work progress paper, incomplete as it is....

  18. Crustacean communities in coastal ephemeral pools in the Araucanía region (38° S, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Ríos-Escalante, P; Acevedo, P

    2016-01-01

    The fauna communities of ephemeral pools in southern Chile are characterized by heterogeneity of crustacean taxa; nevertheless, no detailed studies exist of their community structure. The aim of the present study was to analyze the crustacean community structure in two groups of ephemeral pools (Puaucho and Nigue pools) in the coastal zone of the Araucanía region. A correlation matrix was made by species abundance against temperature, conductivity, pH and total dissolved solids. In a second step, a null model for species co-occurrence was applied to the total data and to each group. The results for total data revealed a significant direct relation between the abundance of H. costera, C. dubia and Mesocyclops. For the Puaucho pools, the same results were found together with direct associations with total dissolved solids, conductivity and pH. Finally, different results were found for the Nigue pools, with no clear significant associations, either direct or indirect, between the abundance of different crustacean taxa and abiotic parameters. These results were supported by the co-occurrence null model analysis, which revealed the presence of regulator factors for the total data, and for each of the two groups. Ecological topics are discussed with emphasis on meta-community dynamics.

  19. Microbiological quality of oysters (Crassostrea gigas produced and commercialized in the coastal region of Florianópolis - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Murilo Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oysters are filter feeders able to ingest particles in suspension that may carry pathogenic microorganisms. In this respect, the consumption of raw oysters can cause foodborne diseases in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of Crassostrea gigas oysters cultivated and commercialized in the coastal region of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. The study comprised counts of coliforms at 35ºC and at 45ºC, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, and detection of Salmonella sp, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Ninety samples were analyzed, 45 of them collected at seafood commercial establishments and the other 45 were collected in the cultivation area. All analyses were performed according to methods of the American Public Health Association. Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella sp. were not detected in any of the samples. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were observed in only one sample (80 CFU/g. The counts of coliforms at 35 and 45ºC indicated that samples obtained from both the cultivation area and place of sale were contaminated. E. coli was detected in 4 (9% samples collected in the cultivation area and in 16 (35.5% samples obtained from commercial establishments. These results indicate the need for monitoring the quality of raw oysters, including the implantation of programs for good mollusk manipulation and management practices.

  20. Species of Macrostomum (Macrostomorpha: Macrostomidae) from the coastal region of Lima, Peru, with comments on M. rostratum Papi, 1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jhoe; Brusa, Francisco

    2017-12-05

    Species of Macrostomum are present in almost all regions of the world. These flatworms occur in different kinds of environments, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. Although Peru is considered one of the megadiverse countries in South America, little is known about freshwater microturbellarians in this country. Here we report the presence of M. rostratum Papi, 1951 for the first time in Peru, in a coastal brackish water wetland, and that of M. quiritium Beklemischev, 1951 and M. tuba Graff, 1882 in an inland portion of a river near the city of Lima. All the species were studied alive. Comments on the habitat and associated fauna are given. Detailed information on the copulatory system is provided for M. rostratum; the male system has a bilobed seminal vesicle with thick walls and full of spindle-shaped sperm cells, and a stylet in the form of a solid curved inverted cone with a subterminal opening located on the concave side of the stylet. These findings led us to suggest that M. rostratum may exhibit a hypodermic mating syndrome. The three species of Macrostomum reported here are widespread and, although the diagnostic characters of the species are present, some morphological differences in the copulatory stylet suggest they are cryptic species.

  1. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility: selected Mexican regions, 1976-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, J B; Butler, E W; Pavgi, S

    1988-01-01

    Cumulative fertility is analyzed for 4 regions of Mexico, based on World Fertility Survey data of 1976-77; the state of Baja California, the Northwest region, the State of Jalisco, and the Northeast region. Based on stepwise regression methodology, the study compares results for 12 subsamples of married respondents, 3 age categories by 4 regions. The dependent variables are children ever born and children ever born in the last 5 years. Migration, urban, educational, and occupational variables are included as independent variables. Regression results reveal level of education is the major, and negative, influence on fertility. Other results include specific negative effects for prior occupation, size of place of residence, and childhood place of residence. Fertility effects appear different for migration origin and destination regions, but more similar for younger ages. Effects of migration on fertility are small. Mean fertility as measured by children ever born was 4.34 for the 1976-77 World Fertility Survey samples versus 3.69 for the Mexican census of 1980. Fertility varied somewhat by region with the highest and lowest values in Jalisco and the Northeast, respectively. Expected age-related changes in fertility were noted.

  2. [Incentive for Regional Risk Selection in the German Risk Structure Compensation Scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Danny

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of the new law GKV-FQWG strengthens the competition between statutory health insurance. If incentives for risk selection exist, they may force a battle for cheap customers. This study aims to document and discuss incentives for regional risk selection in the German risk structure compensation scheme. Identify regional autocorrelation with Moran's l on financial parameters of the risk structure compensation schema. Incentives for regional risk selection do indeed exist. The risk structure compensation schema reduces 91% of the effect and helps to reduce risk selection. Nevertheless, a connection between regional situation and competition could be shown (correlation: 69.5%). Only the integration of regional control variables into the risk compensation eliminates regional autocorrelation. The actual risk structure compensation is leading to regional inequalities and as a consequence to risk selection and distortion in competition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Relationships between Indian summer monsoon rainfall and ice cover over selected oceanic regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    The variations in oceanic ice cover at selected polar regions during 1973 to 1987 have been analysed in relation to the seasonal Indian summer monsoon rainfall. The ice cover over the Arctic regions in June has negative relationship (correlation...

  4. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization in a Developed Region of Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a practical methodology to monitor the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban expansion in response to rapid urbanization at the provincial scale by integrating remote sensing, urban built-up area boundaries, spatial metrics and spatial regression. Sixty-seven cities were investigated to examine the differences of urbanization intensity, urbanization patterns and urban land use efficiency in conjunction with the identification of socio-economic indicators and planning strategies. Planning proposals to allocate the urbanization intensity among different-sized cities by considering sustainable urban development were also explored. The results showed that the urban area of Zhejiang Province expanded from 31,380 ha in 1980 to 415,184 ha in 2010, indicating that the area of the urban region expanded to more than 13-times the initial urban area. The urban built-up area boundaries became more complex and irregular in shape as the urban area expanded throughout the entire study period. Rapid urban population growth and economic development were identified as significant in stimulating the urban expansion process. However, different-sized cities exhibited marked differences in urban development. Small cities experienced the rapidest urbanization before 2000. Large cities, which are estimated to have the highest urban land use efficiency, had the most dramatic sprawl in urban area at the beginning of the 21st century. Promoting the development of large cities to mega-cities is recommended in Zhejiang Province to ensure sustainable urban development with consideration of land resource preservation.

  5. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g. Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution.

  6. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410

  7. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  8. Stochastic Coastal/Regional Uncertainty Modelling: a Copernicus marine research project in the framework of Service Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervatis, Vassilios; De Mey, Pierre; Ayoub, Nadia; Kailas, Marios; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2017-04-01

    The project entitled Stochastic Coastal/Regional Uncertainty Modelling (SCRUM) aims at strengthening CMEMS in the areas of ocean uncertainty quantification, ensemble consistency verification and ensemble data assimilation. The project has been initiated by the University of Athens and LEGOS/CNRS research teams, in the framework of CMEMS Service Evolution. The work is based on stochastic modelling of ocean physics and biogeochemistry in the Bay of Biscay, on an identical sub-grid configuration of the IBI-MFC system in its latest CMEMS operational version V2. In a first step, we use a perturbed tendencies scheme to generate ensembles describing uncertainties in open ocean and on the shelf, focusing on upper ocean processes. In a second step, we introduce two methodologies (i.e. rank histograms and array modes) aimed at checking the consistency of the above ensembles with respect to TAC data and arrays. Preliminary results highlight that wind uncertainties dominate all other atmosphere-ocean sources of model errors. The ensemble spread in medium-range ensembles is approximately 0.01 m for SSH and 0.15 °C for SST, though these values vary depending on season and cross shelf regions. Ecosystem model uncertainties emerging from perturbations in physics appear to be moderately larger than those perturbing the concentration of the biogeochemical compartments, resulting in total chlorophyll spread at about 0.01 mg.m-3. First consistency results show that the model ensemble and the pseudo-ensemble of OSTIA (L4) observation SSTs appear to exhibit nonzero joint probabilities with each other since error vicinities overlap. Rank histograms show that the model ensemble is initially under-dispersive, though results improve in the context of seasonal-range ensembles.

  9. Spatial variation of PAHs and PCBs in coastal air, seawater, and sediments in a heavily industrialized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2017-05-01

    Concurrent coastal seawater (n = 22), sediment (n = 22), and atmospheric samples (n = 10) were collected in the Aliaga industrial region, Turkey, to explore the spatial variation, sources, and air-seawater exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Seawater Σ 16 PAH concentrations (particle + dissolved) ranged between 5107 and 294,624 pg L -1 , while Σ 41 PCB concentrations were in the range of 880-50,829 pg L -1 . Levels in sediments were highly variable ranging between 35.5-49,682 and 2.7-2450 μg kg -1 in dry weight for Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations varied between 1791-274,974 and 104-20,083 pg m -3 for Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs, respectively. Sediment organic matter (OM) content and levels of Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs correlated weakly (r 2  = 0.19-0.23, p seawater, and sediment and factor analysis on the sediment levels pointed out that the major sources in the region are steel plants, petroleum refinery, petrochemical complex, ship breaking, loading/unloading activities at the ports, vehicular emissions, and fossil fuel combustion emissions. The direction of the air-seawater exchange was also explored by estimating seawater fugacity fractions of PAHs and PCBs. For PAHs, the number of cases implying deposition (43.0%) and volatilization (39.5%) was similar, while for PCBs, the number of cases implying volatilization (60.4%) was much higher compared to deposition (21.6%). Fugacity fractions were generally seawater and sediment levels were measured, implying that atmospheric deposition is an important mechanism affecting seawater and sediment PAH and PCB levels.

  10. Anthropogenic impact on the sedimentation in coastal regions: an example in Saco do Bracui - Ribeira Bay, Angra dos Reis, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Alayde Alfaia

    2001-01-01

    The Saco do Bracui, located in the littoral zone of the Brazilian southeast, receives run off from the region of Angra dos Reis. Anthropological intervention in this area has modified local morphology during the last 40 years. These modifications include an intense deforestation of mangrove regions, construction of the Bracui Boat Yard, the dredging of part of the draining basin and development of the coastal plain. Results from seismic surveys identify three different stratigraphic units separated by two reflectors as well as Holocenic paleodeltas and paleochannels of the Bracui and Gratau rivers. Results from this study and previous work indicate an age of 6800 years for the top of the superior unit. Areal photographs from the years 1964, 1965, 1978 and 1991 reveal the principal modifications occurring during the last 40 years in the area. Field observations from this study as well as bathymetric profiles based on the nautical maps of 1980 and 1944 reveal shoaling and erosion areas in the Saco do Bracui. Sedimentation rates, using lead-210 profiles, are between 0,17 - 1,90 cm/year and lead-210 inventory values are between 16-6-dpm/cm 2 /year. The results for sedimentation rate and inventory show a high accumulation around Bracui, Gratau and Frade mouth rivers and agree with results from the bathymetric profiles with respect to the site of erosion and shoaling in the Saco do Bracui. The results for grain size and lead-210 analyses support the idea that the Saco do Bracui is suffering shoaling processes in specific sites and erosion in others. Comparison between long term sedimentation rates obtained by seismic results and short term rates obtained by lead-210 shows an increase of the sedimentary discharge in the 1960's, when the intense anthropological intervention in the area began. (author)

  11. Tackling the salinity-pollution nexus in coastal aquifers from arid regions using nitrate and boron isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, V; Sacchi, E

    2017-05-01

    Salinization and nitrate pollution are generally ascertained as the main issues affecting coastal aquifers worldwide. In arid zones, where agricultural activities also result in soil salinization, both phenomena tend to co-exist and synergically contribute to alter groundwater quality, with severe negative impacts on human populations and natural ecosystems' wellbeing. It becomes therefore necessary to understand if and to what extent integrated hydrogeochemical tools can help in distinguishing among possible different salinization and nitrate contamination origins, in order to provide adequate science-based support to local development and environmental protection. The alluvial plain of Bou-Areg (North Morocco) extends over about 190 km 2 and is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by the coastal Lagoon of Nador. Its surface is covered for more than 60% by agricultural activities, although the region has been recently concerned by urban population increase and tourism expansion. All these activities mainly rely on groundwater exploitation and at the same time are the main causes of both aquifer and lagoon water quality degradation. For this reason, it was chosen as a case study representative of the typical situation of coastal aquifers in arid zones worldwide, where a clear identification of salinization and pollution sources is fundamental for the implementation of locally oriented remedies and long-term management strategies. Results of a hydrogeochemical investigation performed between 2009 and 2011 show that the Bou-Areg aquifer presents high salinity (often exceeding 100 mg/L in TDS) due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The area is also impacted by nitrate contamination, with concentrations generally exceeding the WHO statutory limits for drinking water (50 mg/L) and reaching up to about 300 mg/L, in both the rural and urban/peri-urban areas. The isotopic composition of dissolved nitrates (δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO ) was used to constrain

  12. Biogeochemistry of uranium in plants associated to phosphatic rocks in the coastal region of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Rayes, A.; El-Sharabi, N.A.

    2000-07-01

    Investigation studies in general, demonstrate that background levels of U in plant ash are less than 2 ppm and plant materials which contain more in excess of this amount are indicative either of local uranium mineralization, or the presence of high background levels of uranium in the substrate. Uranium concentrations in different plant parts grown on decomposite phosphate rocks in the mountain coast region of Syria was investigated. Mean uranium concentrations in the soil ranged between 0.44 - 3.91 ppm in the reference area and 22 - 92 ppm in the area of outcrop in phosphate rocks. The results showed that low-order plant forms (Fuaria, Lycopodium, and Pteridium) readily accumulate uranium, whereas high-order forms accumulate uranium in certain parts only. The greatest amount of uranium in flowering parts is concentrated in the plant roots, followed by leaves, twigs and fruits. In addition, results showed that there is a good correlation between uranium in soil and uranium in plant roots. the study demonstrate that Galium Canum could be considered as a good uranium indicator plant for two reason: It was distributed on decomposite phosphate rocks only, and the high concentration of uranium in aerial part similar to the concentration in soil (89.9 ppm). Lagurus Ovatus may be considered as uranium indicator plant, because it was highly dense on the outcrop phosphate rocks, and has a high uranium concentration in its roots (up to 93 ppm) and aerial parts (up to 33 ppm) compared to concentrations in roots and aerial parts in the reference area (10.2 and 0.37 ppm) respectively. (Author)

  13. System for illuminating a region for isotopically selective photoexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaryshe, P.G.; Janes, G.S.; Levy, R.H.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described to improve laser beam utilization in isotope separation techniques (using laser induced isotopically selective photoexcitation) by increasing the probability of photon absorption without extreme beam propagation lengths. For this purpose an optical reflection system has been designed for illuminating substantially all of three-dimensional space of a transversely flowing vapor with multiple traversals of a beam of radiation. (UK)

  14. Quantitative Estimation of Coastal Changes along Selected Locations of Karnataka, India: A GIS and Remote Sensing Approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayaraj, P.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; SanilKumar, V.; Gowthaman, R.

    Qualitative and quantitative studies on changes of coastal geomorphology and shoreline of Karnataka, India have been carried out using toposheets of Survey of India and satellite imageries (IRS-P6 and IRS-1D). Changes during 30 years period...

  15. Do region and gender influence hardwood product selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Consumer preference is a fundamental focus of marketing research as it is used in developing marketing strategy and the positioning of products against competitors. This study evaluated consumer hardwood preferences of consumers from three United States geographical regions, which included six different metropolitan areas. Seven hardwood species and three laminate...

  16. Key West, Florida 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Santa Monica, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Miami 1/3 arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Midway Atoll 3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Cordova, Alaska 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Tutuila, American Samoa 1/3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Pago Pago, American Samoa 3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. San Diego, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Central Florida 1/3 arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Central Florida 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Crescent City, California 1/3 Arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Bar Harbor, Maine 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Palm Beach, Florida 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Barkley Sound, Canada 1 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Port Alberni, Canada 1/3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Midway Atoll 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Eureka, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina 1/ Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Eureka, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. New Orleans, Louisiana 1/3 Arc-second MLLW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  16. San Francisco Bay, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. South Padre Island, Texas 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Wake Island 3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Wake Island 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. San Juan, Puerto Rico 1/9 arc-second PRVD Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These...

  3. San Diego, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Panama City, Florida 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  5. Mobile, Alabama 1/3 NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  6. Panama City, Florida 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  7. Puget Sound 1/3 arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Tampa Bay 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Puget Sound 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Santa Monica, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Port Townsend, Washington 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 2006 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Pago Pago, American Samoa 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Port San Luis, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Astoria, Oregon 1/3 arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model Vers.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These...

  16. New Orleans, Louisiana 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  17. Port Townsend, Washington 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Fort Bragg, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Orange County, California 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These...

  20. Fort Bragg, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. South Padre Island, Texas 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Crescent City, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Miami 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Key West, Florida 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Central California 1 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Pensacola, Florida 1/3 arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These...

  8. Kodiak, Alaska 1/3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Central California 1 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Garibaldi, Oregon 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. San Francisco Bay, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Morehead City, North Carolina 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Garibaldi, Oregon 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 2007 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Morehead City, North Carolina 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Port San Luis, California 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Monterey, California 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Sitka, Alaska 3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Monterey, California 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Tampa Bay 1/3 arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Palm Beach, Florida 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Bar Harbor, Maine 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Sitka, Alaska 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Prevalence and Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Near-Neighbor Species in the Malabar Coastal Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V.; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H.; Batra, Harsh V.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported in the country. A major challenge in this case is the specific identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei from the growing list of species of Burkholderia genus. The objectives of this study included examining the prevalence of B. pseudomallei and near-neighbor species in coastal region of South India and development of a novel detection tool for specific identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species. Briefly, we analyzed soil and water samples collected from Malabar coastal region of Kerala, South India for prevalence of B. pseudomallei. The presumptive Burkholderia isolates were identified using recA PCR assay. The recA PCR assay identified 22 of the total 40 presumptive isolates as Burkholderia strains (22.72% and 77.27% B. pseudomallei and non-pseudomallei Burkholderia respectively). In order to identify each isolate screened, we performed recA and 16S rDNA sequencing. This two genes sequencing revealed that the presumptive isolates included B. pseudomallei, non-pseudomallei Burkholderia as well as non-Burkholderia strains. Furthermore, a gene termed D-beta hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (bdha) was studied both in silico and in vitro for accurate detection of Burkholderia genus. The optimized bdha

  6. Remote Sensing of Selected Water-Quality Indicators with the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the bands needed for atmospheric correction. Spectral definition files for AVIRIS, HYDICE, HYMAP, HYPERION, CASI, and AISA sensors are included as...Satellite Visible Imagery – A Review.” In Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies, edited by R. T. Barber, N. K. Mooers, M. J. Bowman, and B...In Proceedings of SPIE Coastal Ocean Remote Sensing, edited by Robert J. Frouin, ZhongPing Lee, Vol. 6680, 668013-1-668013-9. doi:10.1117/12.736845

  7. Environment control in selected industrial regions of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.; Kutschera, U.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental situation (air, water and soil) of fourteen Austrian regions (Arnoldstein-Gailitz, Brixlegg, Brueckl, Lend, Linz, Lenzing, Donawitz, Schwechat, Tanklager Lobau, Treibach-Althofen, Hallein, Poels, Ranshofen and St. Poelten) with industrial activities based on available data (1994-2002) is described. The connection and the temporal development of the emissions from industrial plants, the immissions and the environmental exposure as far as possible are shown, as well as actual information deficits and possible needs for action are worked out. For each region the following information is provided: location, description of present industrial plants, emissions (air, waste water and waste water treatment), wastes and residues, deposits of toxic waste, water immissions, air immissions and soil-vegetation-bioindication. (nevyjel)

  8. Influence of Green Tides in Coastal Nursery Grounds on the Habitat Selection and Individual Performance of Juvenile Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Luherne, Emilie; Le Pape, Olivier; Murillo, Laurence; Randon, Marine; Lebot, Clément; Réveillac, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems, which provide numerous essential ecological functions for fish, are threatened by the proliferation of green macroalgae that significantly modify habitat conditions in intertidal areas. Understanding the influence of green tides on the nursery function of these ecosystems is essential to determine their potential effects on fish recruitment success. In this study, the influence of green tides on juvenile fish was examined in an intertidal sandy beach area, the Bay of Saint-Brieuc (Northwestern France), during two annual cycles of green tides with varying levels of intensity. The responses of three nursery-dependent fish species, the pelagic Sprattus sprattus (L.), the demersal Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) and the benthic Pleuronectes platessa L., were analysed to determine the effects of green tides according to species-specific habitat niche and behaviour. The responses to this perturbation were investigated based on habitat selection and a comparison of individual performance between a control and an impacted site. Several indices on different integrative scales were examined to evaluate these responses (antioxidant defence capacity, muscle total lipid, morphometric condition and growth). Based on these analyses, green tides affect juvenile fish differently according to macroalgal density and species-specific tolerance, which is linked to their capacity to move and to their distribution in the water column. A decreasing gradient of sensitivity was observed from benthic to demersal and pelagic fish species. At low densities of green macroalgae, the three species stayed at the impacted site and the growth of plaice was reduced. At medium macroalgal densities, plaice disappeared from the impacted site and the growth of sea bass and the muscle total lipid content of sprat were reduced. Finally, when high macroalgal densities were reached, none of the studied species were captured at the impacted site. Hence, sites affected by green tides are less

  9. Impact of marine mercury cycling on coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations in the North- and Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cycling of mercury between ocean and atmosphere is an important part of the global Hg cycle. Here we study the regional contribution of the air-sea exchange in the North- and Baltic Sea region. We use a newly developed coupled regional chemistry transport modeling (CTM system to determine the flux between atmosphere and ocean based on the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, the ocean-ecosystem model ECOSMO, the atmospheric CTM CMAQ and a newly developed module for mercury partitioning and speciation in the ocean (MECOSMO. The model was evaluated using atmospheric observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, surface concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, and air-sea flux (ASF calculations based on observations made on seven cruises in the western and central Baltic Sea and three cruises in the North Sea performed between 1991 and 2006. It was shown that the model is in good agreement with observations: DGM (Normalized Mean Bias NMB=-0.27 N=413, ASF (NMB=-0.32, N=413, GEM (NMB=0.07, N=2359. Generally, the model was able to reproduce the seasonal DGM cycle with the best agreement during winter and autumn (NMBWinter=-0.26, NMBSpring=-0.41, NMBSummer=-0.29, NMBAutumn=-0.03. The modelled mercury evasion from the Baltic Sea ranged from 3400 to 4000 kg/a for the simulation period 1994–2007 which is on the lower end of previous estimates. Modelled atmospheric deposition, river inflow and air-sea exchange lead to an annual net Hg accumulation in the Baltic Sea of 500 to 1000 kg/a. For the North Sea the model calculates an annual mercury flux into the atmosphere between 5700 and 6000 kg/a. The mercury flux from the ocean influenced coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations. Running CMAQ coupled with the ocean model lead to better agreement with GEM observations. Directly at the coast GEM concentrations could be increased by up to 10% on annual average and observed peaks could be reproduced much better. At stations 100km downwind

  10. Regional variability in bed-sediment concentrations of wastewater compounds, hormones and PAHs for portions of coastal New York and New Jersey impacted by hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Gibson, Cathy A; Fisher, Shawn C.; Fisher, Irene; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Foreman, William T.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Focazio, Michael J.; Jones, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Bed sediment samples from 79 coastal New York and New Jersey, USA sites were analyzed for 75 compounds including wastewater associated contaminants, PAHs, and other organic compounds to assess the post-Hurricane Sandy distribution of organic contaminants among six regions. These results provide the first assessment of wastewater compounds, hormones, and PAHs in bed sediment for this region. Concentrations of most wastewater contaminants and PAHs were highest in the most developed region (Upper Harbor/Newark Bay, UHNB) and reflected the wastewater inputs to this area. Although the lack of pre-Hurricane Sandy data for most of these compounds make it impossible to assess the effect of the storm on wastewater contaminant concentrations, PAH concentrations in the UHNB region reflect pre-Hurricane Sandy conditions in this region. Lower hormone concentrations than predicted by the total organic carbon relation occurred in UHNB samples, suggesting that hormones are being degraded in the UHNB region.

  11. 76 FR 14284 - Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]), to introduce a new competitive shipping option, Parcel Select Regional Ground \\TM\\ service. DATES: Effective Date: April 17, 2011...

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cystoseira crinita Duby and Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus from the coastal region of Sinop, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Berber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and total phenol contents of Cystoseira crinita and Ulva intestinalis species collected from the coastal region of Sinop. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of each methanolic algae sample was screened by using disc diffusion method against to 15 bacteria and 3 yeasts. The antioxidant potential of the extracts on the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was determined. The total phenolic content of the 3 methanolic extracts of the seaweed samples were determined by the FolinCiocalteu method. Results: The results of antimicrobial assay showed that extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria rather than Gram-negative. In addition, while the algal extracts had antifungal efficacy against Candida krusei, the other yeast strains were not affected at all. According to the findings of antioxidant activity, all methanolic extracts displayed good free radical scavenging activity ranging from IC50 = (32.19 ± 0.08 mg/mL to the IC50 = (37.57 ± 0.11 mg/mL. The total phenols content of the macroalgal extracts were found as between (5.10 ± 0.16 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and (87.70 ± 1.03 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. In this sense, our findings confirmed that there was a positive linear correlations (r = 0.86 between total phenol contents and the IC50 values. Conclusions: The data gathered from this study suggested that the seaweeds can be used as a potential natural seafood sources owing to the antimicrobial efficiency and good antioxidant activity.

  13. Modification of growth medium of mixed-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern java coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibyo Hanifrahmawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there is growing interest in microalgae as production organisms. Microalgae contain lipids (oil, proteins and carbohydrates (sugars, and, especially marine algae have been used as food and feed for centuries. Recently, production cost reduction related to the supply of growth nutrients is necessary to make it profitable. Therefore, utilization of molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, as the natural carbon, macronutrients, and micronutrients sources can be helpful. The analysis showed that the content of sucrose, glucose, fructose, potassium, zinc, and magnesium was 68.4% w/w, 18.5% w/w, and 13.1% w/w, 5.5% w/w, 3.91 ppm, and 1,370 ppm respectively. This work aimed to determine the effect of molasses addition to the physio-chemical properties of multi-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern Java coastal region in Indonesia grown under mixotrophic culture. The cultivation in this work used medium which was self-formulated by the authors consisting of NaNO3 (5 mL/L, H3BO3 (1 mL/L, EDTA (1 mL/L, N2H2PO4 (5 mL/L, FeSO4 (1 mL/L, MgSO4 (1 mL/L, NaCl (1 mL/L, micronutrients (1 mL/L, vitamin B1 (1 mL/L, and vitamin B12 (1 mL/L in 500 mL of water. The medium will be treated to have molasses concentration of 0.05% v/v, 0.15% v/v, 0.25% v/v, 0.35% v/v, and 0.45% v/v.

  14. Patterns of Wastewater Infrastructure along a Gradient of Coastal Urbanization: A Study of the Puget Sound Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Spirandelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore patterns of wastewater infrastructures (sewers vs. septic tanks in urbanizing watersheds across a coastal metropolitan region. This research combines an urban-rural gradient with spatial metrics at the patch and watershed scale (proportion of parcels on a treatment system, septic density, lot size and percent imperviousness to analyze wastewater patterns in the Puget Sound, WA, USA. Results show that most urban residential parcels are hooked up to a sewer, although there remain urban residences on a septic tank with small lots. I find a complex arrangement of wastewater treatment in suburban watersheds representing a patchwork of parcels on sewers and septic tanks. Sewers dominate in total numbers, while the density of septic tanks is highest in this portion of the urban gradient. Lot size decreases from rural to urban; however, it varies depending on the type of wastewater treatment system. In urban watersheds, lots on septic tanks are significantly smaller than lots in suburban and rural watersheds and of a similar size compared to lots on sewers. I also find a significant difference in the amount of impervious surfaces in watersheds dominated by sewers vs. septic tanks. In the urban portion of the gradient, the amount of paved surfaces in parcels with septic tanks is also similar in level as parcels with sewers. I discuss how these patterns emerge from the interplay of biophysical, socio-economic and technological factors and how different regulatory regimes for septic tanks and sewers may further induce these patterns.

  15. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P. C.; Brito, A. G.; Rocha, J.; Alves, H.; Mamede, J.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, aquatic and coastal ecosystems are affected by point and diffuse source water pollution originating from rural, urban and industrial land uses in catchments, even though these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental and economic perspective. Integrated Catchment and Coastal Zone Management (ICCZM) specifically takes into account this inherent relationship between terrestrial land use, surface and ground water pollution, aquatic and coastal ecosystem state, and associated environmental values. To warrant sustainable regional economic development, we need to balance the marginal costs from terrestrial water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from aquatic and coastal resource appreciation. In doing so, however, we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across nations as benefits from water quality improvement generally accrue to one nation while the costs are paid by multiple nations. While approaches for water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems are fairly recent though existent, water quality management in trans-boundary catchments poses additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a deterministic optimal control approach that allows us to explore private and social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems. For a case study of the Minho region in the Iberian Peninsula, we estimate nation-specific water pollution abatement cost (based on management practice adoption) and benefit (based on aquatic and coastal environmental values) functions, to determine as well as compare private (national) and social (trans-national) welfare maximizing rates of water

  17. Selected carbonyl compounds in the air of Silesia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaplicka Marianna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein at a three sites in Silesian region (Poland in January and June 2015. Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres comes from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Average aldehyde concentration in summer period lies in range from 3.13 μg/m3 to 10.43 μg/m3, in winter period in range from 29.0 μg/m3 to 32.2 μg/m3. Acetaldehyde was dominant compound in winter period, in summer formaldehyde concentration was highest of all determined aldehydes.

  18. Selected carbonyl compounds in the air of Silesia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Chrobok, Michał

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a three sites in Silesian region (Poland) in January and June 2015. Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres comes from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Average aldehyde concentration in summer period lies in range from 3.13 μg/m3 to 10.43 μg/m3, in winter period in range from 29.0 μg/m3 to 32.2 μg/m3. Acetaldehyde was dominant compound in winter period, in summer formaldehyde concentration was highest of all determined aldehydes.

  19. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-09-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D-/sup 2/ala, D-/sup 5/leu leucine enkephalin (/sup 3/H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand /sup 3/H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex.

  20. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D- 2 ala, D- 5 leu leucine enkephalin ( 3 H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand 3 H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex

  1. Assessment of radioactivity and estimation of effective dose received by villagers residing at natural high background areas of coastal regions of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaiselvan, K.; Rajagopal, R.; Sreekumar, K.; Harikumar, M.; AllenGnanaraj, G.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received by villagers residing at seven villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Tamil Nadu were studied; five houses in each village were selected. The NHBRA villages were Chinnavilai, Periavilai, Kottilpadu, Puthoor Colachel, Kodimunai and Midalam. The houses were of similar construction pattern (brick wall-tiled roof, cement flooring). Measurements of radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn) and their progeny, produced by the decay of naturally occurring radioisotopes uranium and thorium in dwellings are the largest contributor to the average internal effective dose received by human beings. Internal doses due to radon/thoron and their progeny were estimated using, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD), LR-115, as the detector. External doses were estimated by gamma measurement using scintillometer and Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD). TLDs were exposed for one year, on a quarterly basis, inside the house at a height of 3 meters and about 1 meter away from the walls. The SSNTD cups were exposed adjacent to the TLDS, and the exposure was for a period of three months each. The SSNTDs were developed by standard procedures (10% NaOH, etching for 90 min at 60 deg C) and counted in a spark counter. Earlier the SSNTDs were calibrated using U and Th sources and calibration factors were obtained. Inhalation dose due to 232 Th and Th (B) in mWL were estimated by collecting air samples from each house, for one hour each, during the replacement time of TLD and SSNTD Cups. For inhalation dose estimation the occupancy factor was assumed to be 0.8. The soil samples were also collected from each sampling point. (author)

  2. Description and characteristics of 81 patients attending the Reference Center for Multiple Sclerosis of the coastal region of the state of São Paulo-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Fiore, Ana Patricia Perez

    2005-09-01

    To register multiple sclerosis (MS) patients residing in the coastal region of the State of São Paulo (CEREM Litoral Paulista). Individual interviews with identified cases of MS. 81 individuals with diagnosis of MS agreed to come for registration (62 females [76.5%], 19 males [23.5%]). 65% of all patients were residents of the city of Santos. The mean age of these patients was 43 years (14 to 74 years), and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was Litoral Paulista for prescription of immunomodulators. There is a clear need to identify other cases in the region and to allow other forms of treatment to be put into practice.

  3. The events associated with the great tsunami of 26 December, 2004 sea level variation and impact on coastal region of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Satish R. Shetye National Institute of Oceanography, Goa The events associated with the Great Tsunami of 26 December 2004 Sea Level Variation and Impact on Coastal Region of India Tsunamis are shallow... in the region. The Great Tsunami, though an event with a low probability of occurrence, was a high-impact event. One cannot but compare this event with what happened in 1755 along the east coast of the North Atlantic, another low-probability location...

  4. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  5. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  6. Monitoring habitat restoration projects: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Region Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and Coastal Program Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Hollar, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Pacific Region (Region 1) includes more than 158 million acres (almost 247,000 square miles) of land base in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Hawai`i, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Region 1 is ecologically diverse with landscapes that range from coral reefs, broadleaf tropical forests, and tropical savannahs in the Pacific Islands, to glacial streams and lakes, lush old-growth rainforests, inland fjords, and coastal shoreline in the Pacific Northwest, to the forested mountains, shrub-steppe desert, and native grasslands in the Inland Northwest. Similarly, the people of the different landscapes perceive, value, and manage their natural resources in ways unique to their respective regions and cultures. The Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program (Partners Program) and Coastal Program work with a variety of partners in Region 1 including individual landowners, watershed councils, land trusts, Soil and Water Conservation Districts, non-governmental organizations, Tribal governments, Native Hawaiian organizations, and local, State, and Federal agencies. The Partners Program is the FWS's vanguard for working with private landowners to voluntarily restore and conserve fish and wildlife habitat. Using non-regulatory incentives, the Partners Program engages willing partners to conserve and protect valuable fish and wildlife habitat on their property and in their communities. This is accomplished by providing the funding support and technical and planning tools needed to make on-the-ground conservation affordable, feasible, and effective. The primary goals of the Pacific Region Partners Program are to: Promote citizen and community-based stewardship efforts for fish and wildlife conservation Contribute to the recovery of at-risk species, Protect the environmental integrity of the National Wildlife

  7. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near

  8. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Jayakaran; T.M. Williams; H. Ssegane; D.M. Amatya; B. Song; C.C. Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after...

  9. Decentralized/stand-alone hybrid Wind-Diesel power systems to meet residential loads of hot coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    In view of rising costs, pollution and fears of exhaustion of oil and coal, governments around the world are encouraging to seek energy from renewable/sustainable energy sources such as wind. The utilization of energy from wind (since the oil embargo of the 1970s) is being widely disseminated for displacement of fossil fuel produced energy and to reduce atmospheric degradation. A system that consists of a wind turbine and Diesel genset is called a Wind-Diesel power system.The literature indicates that the commercial/residential buildings in Saudi Arabia consume an estimated 10-40% of the total electric energy generated. In the present study, the hourly mean wind-speed data of the period 1986-1997 recorded at the solar radiation and meteorological station, Dhahran (26 deg. 32'N, 50 deg. 13'E in the Eastern Coastal Region of Saudi Arabia), has been analyzed to investigate the potential of utilizing hybrid (Wind-Diesel) energy conversion systems to meet the load requirements of a hundred typical two bedroom residential buildings (with annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh). The long term monthly average wind speeds for Dhahran range from 4.2 to 6.4 m/s. The hybrid systems considered in the present case study consist of different combinations/clusters of 150 kW commercial wind machines supplemented with battery storage and Diesel back-up. The deficit energy generated by the Diesel generator (for different battery capacities) and the number of operational hours of the Diesel system to meet a specific annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh have also been presented. The evaluation of the hybrid system shows that with seven 150 kW wind energy conversion system (WECS) and one day of battery storage, the Diesel back-up system has to provide 21.6% of the load demand. Furthermore, with three days of battery storage, the Diesel back-up system has to provide 17.5% of the load demand. However, in the absence of battery storage, about 37% of the load needs to be

  10. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Merem

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel

  11. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  12. Development of a global river-coastal coupling model and its application to flood simulation in Asian mega-delta regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2017-04-01

    The world's mega-delta regions and estuaries are susceptible to various water-related disasters, such as river flooding and storm surge. Moreover, simultaneous occurrence of them would be more devastating than a situation where they occur in isolation. Therefore, it is important to provide information about compound risks of fluvial and coastal floods at a large scale, both their statistical dependency as well as their combined resulting flooding in delta regions. Here we report on a first attempt to address this issue globally by developing a method to couple a global river model (CaMa-Flood) and a global tide and surge reanalysis (GTSR) dataset. A state-of-the-art global river routing model, CaMa-Flood, was modified to represent varying sea levels due to tides and storm surges as downstream boundary condition, and the GTSR dataset was post-processed to serve as inputs to the CaMa-Flood river routing simulation and a long-term simulation was performed to incorporate the temporal dependency between coastal tide and surge on the one hand, and discharge on the other. The coupled model was validated against observations, showing better simulation results of water levels in deltaic regions than simulation without GTSR. For example in the Ganges Delta, correlation coefficients were increased by 0.06, and root mean square errors were reduced by 0.22 m. Global coupling simulations revealed that storm surges affected river water levels in coastal regions worldwide, especially in low-lying flat areas with increases in water level larger than 0.5 m. By employing enhanced storm surge simulation with tropical storm tracks, we also applied the model to examine impacts of past hurricane and cyclone storm events on river flood inundation.

  13. CpG islands undermethylation in human genomic regions under selective pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cocozza

    Full Text Available DNA methylation at CpG islands (CGIs is one of the most intensively studied epigenetic mechanisms. It is fundamental for cellular differentiation and control of transcriptional potential. DNA methylation is involved also in several processes that are central to evolutionary biology, including phenotypic plasticity and evolvability. In this study, we explored the relationship between CpG islands methylation and signatures of selective pressure in Homo Sapiens, using a computational biology approach. By analyzing methylation data of 25 cell lines from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE Consortium, we compared the DNA methylation of CpG islands in genomic regions under selective pressure with the methylation of CpG islands in the remaining part of the genome. To define genomic regions under selective pressure, we used three different methods, each oriented to provide distinct information about selective events. Independently of the method and of the cell type used, we found evidences of undermethylation of CGIs in human genomic regions under selective pressure. Additionally, by analyzing SNP frequency in CpG islands, we demonstrated that CpG islands in regions under selective pressure show lower genetic variation. Our findings suggest that the CpG islands in regions under selective pressure seem to be somehow more "protected" from methylation when compared with other regions of the genome.

  14. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  15. Spatio-temporal assessment and trend analysis of surface water salinity in the coastal region of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammi, Mashura; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Islam, Md Atikul; Bodrud-Doza, Md; Zahid, Anwar; Akter, Yeasmin; Quaiyum, Samia; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2017-06-01

    The study was designed to collect water samples over two seasons-wet-monsoon season (n = 96) (March-April) and dry-monsoon season (n = 44) (September-October)-to understand the seasonal variation in anion and cation hydrochemistry of the coastal rivers and estuaries contributing in the spatial trend in salinity. Hydrochemical examination of wet-monsoon season primarily revealed Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type (66%) and followed by Na-Cl type (17.70%) water. In the dry-monsoon season, the scenario reversed with primary water being Na-Cl type (52.27%) followed by Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type (31.81%). Analysis of Cl/Br molar ratio vs. Cl (mg/L) depicted sampling area affected by seawater intrusion (SWI). Spatial analysis by ordinary kriging method confirmed approximately 77% sample in the dry-monsoon, and 34% of the wet-monsoon season had shown SWI. The most saline-intruded areas in the wet-monsoon seasons were extreme south-west coastal zone of Bangladesh, lower Meghna River floodplain and Meghna estuarine floodplain and south-eastern part of Chittagong coastal plains containing the districts of Chittagong and Cox's Bazar adjacent to Bay of Bengal. In addition, mid-south zone is also affected slightly in the dry-monsoon season. From the analyses of data, this study could further help to comprehend seasonal trends in the hydrochemistry and water quality of the coastal and estuarine rivers. In addition, it can help policy makers to obligate some important implications for the future initiatives taken for the management of land, water, fishery, agriculture and environment of coastal rivers and estuaries of Bangladesh.

  16. Summer Roost Tree Selection by Eastern Red, Seminole, and Evening Bats in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Ozier, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotraction of six eastern red bats, six seminole bats and twenty-four evening bats to 55, 61, and 65 day roosts during 1996 to 1997 in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. For each species, testing was done for differences between used roost trees and randomly located trees. Also tested for differences between habitat characteristics surrounding roost trees and randomly located trees. Eastern Red and Seminole bats generally roosted in canopies of hardwood and pine while clinging to foilage and small branches. Evening bats roosted in cavities or under exfoliating bark in pines and dead snags. Forest management strategies named within the study should be beneficial for providing roosts in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

  17. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Jayakaran; T. M. Williams; H. Ssegane; D. M. Amatya; B. Song; C. C. Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a rev...

  18. Student Selection and Admission to Higher Education: Policies and Practices in the Asian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Grant

    1994-01-01

    This article describes higher education student selection and admission policies and practices in newly industrialized countries in the Asian region, with particular attention to access, selection, the admissions process, equity, and relationship with the labor market. Policies in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Singapore,…

  19. Identification of genomic regions associated with phenotypic variation between dog breeds using selection mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaysse, Amaury; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Derrien, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse br...

  20. Selection/extraction of spectral regions for autofluorescence spectra measured in the oral cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skurichina, M; Paclik, P; Duin, RPW; de Veld, D; Sterenborg, HJCM; Witjes, MJH; Roodenburg, JLN; Fred, A; Caelli, T; Duin, RPW; Campilho, A; DeRidder, D

    2004-01-01

    Recently a number of successful algorithms to select/extract discriminative spectral regions was introduced. These methods may be more beneficial than the standard feature selection/extraction methods for spectral classification. In this paper, on the example of autofluorescence spectra measured in

  1. Conservation of Sand Dune Vegetation in Coastal areas of the Valencian Region (Spain); Estado de conservacion de la vegetacion dunar en las costas de la comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertos, B.; San Miguel, E.; Draper, I.; Garilleti, R.; Lara, F.; Varela, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    The state of conservation of the coastal dune vegetation in Valencia region has been assessed within a survey of the vegetal communities present in these systems.The conservation status has been evaluated through a qualitative scale which integrates criteria such as dune extension, structure and diversity of the vegetal communities, level of ruderalization, presence of invasive species, and floristic rarity. Special attention has been paid to the usual aggressions to this type of ecosystem and the situation of the most aggressive invasive plants. (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  3. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 from a southern coastal city of China: applications of modeling and chemical tracers in demonstration of regional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiamao; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Junji; Zhao, Zhuzi; Zhao, Shuyu; Zhu, Chongshu; Wang, Qiyuan; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Youzhi; Wang, Ping; Tie, Xuexi

    2018-05-11

    An intensive sampling campaign of airborne fine particles (PM 2.5 ) was conducted at Sanya, a coastal city in Southern China, from January to February 2012. Chemical analyses and mass reconstruction were used identify potential pollution sources and investigate atmospheric reaction mechanisms. A thermodynamic model indicated that low ammonia and high relative humidity caused the aerosols be acidic and that drove heterogeneous reactions which led to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosol. Relationships among neutralization ratios, free acidity, and air-mass trajectories suggest that the atmosphere at Sanya was impacted by both local and regional emissions. Three major transport pathways were identified, and flow from the northeast (from South China) typically brought the most polluted air to Sanya. A case study confirmed strong impact from South China (e.g., Pearl River Delta region) (contributed 76.8% to EC, and then this result can be extended to primary pollutants) when the northeast winds were dominant. The Weather Research Forecasting Black carbon model and trace organic markers were used to apportion local pollution versus regional contributions. Results of the study offer new insights into the atmospheric conditions and air pollution at this coastal city.

  4. Climatic Atlas of the Outer Continental Shelf Waters and Coastal Regions of Alaska. Volume 2. Bering Sea. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Joe D. Elms , for their editorial evaluation of the vironmental Assessmant Program. Additional depends to a large extent on weather condi- isopleth...waves, icing rates are open waters and coastal sectionsofAlaska.The temperatures less than 8°C, winds of 25 knots lower. icing causes slippery decks...thereby bias the oceanic climatology towards fair weather. A recent study by Elms (1986), in which he compared the Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) data

  5. Coastal Flooding in Florida's Big Bend Region with Application to Sea Level Rise Based on Synthetic Storms Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Hagen Peter Bacopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is examined by comparing maximum envelopes of water against the 0.2% (= 1-in-500-year return-period flooding surface generated as part of revising the Federal Emergency Management Agency¡¦s flood insurance rate maps for Franklin, Wakulla, and Jefferson counties in Florida¡¦s Big Bend Region. The analysis condenses the number of storms to a small fraction of the original 159 used in production. The analysis is performed by assessing which synthetic storms contributed to inundation extent (the extent of inundation into the floodplain, coverage (the overall surface area of the inundated floodplain and the spatially variable 0.2% flooding surface. The results are interpreted in terms of storm attributes (pressure deficit, radius to maximum winds, translation speed, storm heading, and landfall location and the physical processes occurring within the natural system (storms surge and waves; both are contextualized against existing and new hurricane scales. The approach identifies what types of storms and storm attributes lead to what types of inundation, as measured in terms of extent and coverage, in Florida¡¦s Big Bend Region and provides a basis in the identification of a select subset of synthetic storms for studying the impact of sea level rise. The sea level rise application provides a clear contrast between a dynamic approach versus that of a static approach.

  6. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Yee Peng; Muhammad, Junaina; Amin Noordin, Bany Ariffin; Cheng, Fan Fah

    2017-01-01

    This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004–2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy,...

  7. Identification of genomic regions associated with phenotypic variation between dog breeds using selection mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Vaysse

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array consisting of >170,000 evenly spaced SNPs. We first identify 44 genomic regions exhibiting extreme differentiation across multiple breeds. Genetic variation in these regions correlates with variation in several phenotypic traits that vary between breeds, and we identify novel associations with both morphological and behavioral traits. We next scan the genome for signatures of selective sweeps in single breeds, characterized by long regions of reduced heterozygosity and fixation of extended haplotypes. These scans identify hundreds of regions, including 22 blocks of homozygosity longer than one megabase in certain breeds. Candidate selection loci are strongly enriched for developmental genes. We chose one highly differentiated region, associated with body size and ear morphology, and characterized it using high-throughput sequencing to provide a list of variants that may directly affect these traits. This study provides a catalogue of genomic regions showing extreme reduction in genetic variation or population differentiation in dogs, including many linked to phenotypic variation. The many blocks of reduced haplotype diversity observed across the genome in dog breeds are the result of both selection and genetic drift, but extended blocks of homozygosity on a megabase scale appear to be best explained by selection. Further elucidation of the variants under selection will help to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits and disease.

  8. Detection of selection signatures of population-specific genomic regions selected during domestication process in Jinhua pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengcao; Chen, Jiucheng; Wang, Zhen; Pan, Yuchun; Wang, Qishan; Xu, Ningying; Wang, Zhengguang

    2016-12-01

    Chinese pigs have been undergoing both natural and artificial selection for thousands of years. Jinhua pigs are of great importance, as they can be a valuable model for exploring the genetic mechanisms linked to meat quality and other traits such as disease resistance, reproduction and production. The purpose of this study was to identify distinctive footprints of selection between Jinhua pigs and other breeds utilizing genome-wide SNP data. Genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing was implemented in order to perform cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity to reveal strong signatures of selection for those economically important traits. This work was performed at a 2% genome level, which comprised 152 006 SNPs genotyped in a total of 517 individuals. Population-specific footprints of selective sweeps were searched for in the genome of Jinhua pigs using six native breeds and three European breeds as reference groups. Several candidate genes associated with meat quality, health and reproduction, such as GH1, CRHR2, TRAF4 and CCK, were found to be overlapping with the significantly positive outliers. Additionally, the results revealed that some genomic regions associated with meat quality, immune response and reproduction in Jinhua pigs have evolved directionally under domestication and subsequent selections. The identified genes and biological pathways in Jinhua pigs showed different selection patterns in comparison with the Chinese and European breeds. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Socio-ecological studies on marine fishing villages in the selective south coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M Jaya Kumar; Rao, P Brahmaji

    2016-12-01

    Coasts are an amazing gift of nature. Industrialization, infrastructure development, urbanisation, tourism, mechanized fishing, disposal of industrial and urban wastes and effluents, are all ringing the death-knell of the sensitive coastal ecosystems of recently separated State of Andhra Pradesh. These modern interventions have been violent, disregarding both nature's rejuvenating mechanisms, and the symbiotic relationship that exist between the coast and traditional marine fishing communities. Modern fishing tecnologies using mechanized trawlers and small meshed nets lead directly to overexploitation, which is not sustainable. It is evident that fish have to breed successfully and need to have time to grow if the yield has to be used sustainably. Multiple pressures and excessive technological invasion on these marine fishing villages had created an environment in which life has become physically and mentally unhealthy. The focus of this paper is to emphasize that investing in large-scale industrial fishing, building bigger boats, and giving subsidies for pursuing deep sea fishing would be a waste of resources as the fish hauls in these selelctive districts i.e. Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore coastal communities have dropped off alarmingly in recent years. It is essential and crucial to focus research and scientific analysis and establish awareness and education to provide a means of distinguishing responses between improvements in quality of ecosystem and those of damages. The study is to elaborate that long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed for short-term economic gains that unfortunately lead to environmental damage. Investigating coastal regulations, policies, and their implementation is an urgent social need for the sake of socio-ecological safety and security of coasts and host communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved selection criteria for H II regions, based on IRAS sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing-Zeng; Xu, Ye; Walsh, A. J.; Macquart, J. P.; MacLeod, G. C.; Zhang, Bo; Hancock, P. J.; Chen, Xi; Tang, Zheng-Hong

    2018-05-01

    We present new criteria for selecting H II regions from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalogue (PSC), based on an H II region catalogue derived manually from the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The criteria are used to augment the number of H II region candidates in the Milky Way. The criteria are defined by the linear decision boundary of two samples: IRAS point sources associated with known H II regions, which serve as the H II region sample, and IRAS point sources at high Galactic latitudes, which serve as the non-H II region sample. A machine learning classifier, specifically a support vector machine, is used to determine the decision boundary. We investigate all combinations of four IRAS bands and suggest that the optimal criterion is log(F_{60}/F_{12})≥ ( -0.19 × log(F_{100}/F_{25})+ 1.52), with detections at 60 and 100 {μ}m. This selects 3041 H II region candidates from the IRAS PSC. We find that IRAS H II region candidates show evidence of evolution on the two-colour diagram. Merging the WISE H II catalogue with IRAS H II region candidates, we estimate a lower limit of approximately 10 200 for the number of H II regions in the Milky Way.

  11. Occurrence of arsenic in selected marine macroalgae from two coastal areas of South Australia. [Rhodophyceae; phaeophyceae; Chlorophyceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, W.A.; Clarke, S.M.

    1984-03-01

    Total arsenic concentrations have been measured in macroalgae specimens from two coastal areas of South Australia. Phaeophyta in both areas were found to contain elevated arsenic concentrations (42.2-179 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 26.3-65.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/) relative to Rhodophyta (17.6-31.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 12.5-16.2 ..mu..g g/sup -1/) and Chlorophyta (6.3-16.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 9.9-10.8 ..mu..g g/sup -1/). 13 references, 3 tables.

  12. A holistic evaluation of risks in coastal regions under changing climatic, environmental and socioeconomic conditions: the Theseus Decision Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, I. J.; Garcia Alonso, E.; Mendez, F. J.; Zanuttigh, B.; Nicholls, R. J.; Thompson, R.; Vanderlinden, J. P.; Fernandez, F.; Ondiviela, B.; Diaz-Simal, P.; Bagli, S.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general acceptance that global changes associated with natural hazards and socioeconomic processes are occurring at a faster pace than ever, with deep implications in terms of risk exposure and environmental impact. The capacity of coastal areas to adapt and react to these changes will be a key factor in the future preservation of life standards and represents a great challenge for politicians, scientists and professionals at any level. Within the large scope of Theseus Project (EU 7th Framework Program), one of the main objectives is to design a tool to help decision makers in defining optimal strategies to minimize risks within a certain city or coastal area in a three-fold sense: economic losses, human damages and environmental impacts. The resulting software, the Theseus-DSS, links the most relevant physical processes (waves, sea-levels, hard and soft structures, coastal erosion and inland flooding) with the potential impact zones (marine and inland), considering their functions (ecosystems) and uses (economic units), and the dependence of this functions and uses upon the prevailing physical conditions. The new software tries to fill a gap among the existing tools, based on the following pillars: • Seamless integration of disciplines: physics, engineering, ecology, social sciences and economy. • Intermediate spatial scales (1- 10 km) and medium-to- long time spans (1-10 years). • Decision-making based on a balance between deterministic models and expert, discussion-based assumptions. The user of the Theseus-DSS will be able either to check the consequences of predefined scenarios at a particular study site, or to create user-defined scenarios, run them and compare the results with other scenarios. The results are expressed, locally and at an aggregate level, in the three aforementioned dimensions: economic losses (€/year), mean annual expected live losses (persons/year) and impact on habitats (null, low, medium and high).

  13. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  14. Particle backscattering variability in the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal: A case study along off Kakinada and Yanam Regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Latha, P.T.; Nagamani, P.V.; Rao, B.S.; Amarendra, P.; Rao, K.H.; Choudhury, S.B.; Dash, S.K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    to 82◦23.425′ E longitudes. The area is often called Kakinada–Godavari Basin (KG Basin) and very signif- icant for petroleum reserve. The geographical distribution of in-situ sampling locations are shown in Fig. 1. The in-situ data was collected in two... sensing reflectance at sampling locations of the study area. Fig. 3. Frequency distribution of Chl-a conc. (mg/m3) measured during the cruise in the Godavari basin, 02–09 March 2012. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In-situRrs spectra measured in the coastal...

  15. Identifying the effects of human pressure on groundwater quality to support water management strategies in coastal regions: A multi-tracer and statistical approach (Bou-Areg region, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, V., E-mail: re@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Calle Larga Santa Marta 2137, Dorsoduro, 40123 Venice (Italy); National Engineering School of Sfax (ENIS) - Laboratory of Radio-Analysis and Environment (LRAE) Sfax (Tunisia); Sacchi, E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mas-Pla, J. [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAIA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambientals (GEOCAMB), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), 17003 Girona (Spain); Menció, A. [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAIA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambientals (GEOCAMB), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); El Amrani, N. [Faculty of Sciences and techniques, University Hassan 1er, Settat (Morocco)

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several coastal aquifers worldwide. Increasing groundwater exploitation, coupled with point and non-point pollution sources, are the main anthropogenic impacts on coastal environments and are responsible for severe health and food security issues. Adequate management strategies to protect groundwater from contamination and overexploitation are of paramount importance, especially in arid prone regions, where coastal aquifers often represent the main freshwater resource to sustain human needs. The Bou-Areg Aquifer (Morocco) is a perfect example of a coastal aquifer constantly exposed to all the negative externalities associated with groundwater use for agricultural purposes, which lead to a general increase in aquifer salinization. In this study data on 61 water samples, collected in June and November 2010, were used to: (i) track groundwater composition changes related to the use of irrigation water from different sources, (ii) highlight seasonal variations to assess aquifer vulnerability, and (iii) present a reproducible example of multi-tracer approach for groundwater management in rural coastal areas. Hydrogeochemical results show that Bou-Areg groundwater is characterized by – high salinity, associated with a remarkable increase in bicarbonate content in the crop growing season, due to more intense biological activity in irrigated soils. The coupled multi-tracer and statistical analysis confirms the strong dependency on irrigation activities as well as a clear identification of the processes governing the aquifer’s hydrochemistry in the different seasons. Water Rock Interaction (WRI) dominates the composition of most of groundwater samples in the Low Irrigation season (L-IR) and Agricultural Return Flow (ARF) mainly affects groundwater salinization in the High Irrigation season (H-IR) in the same areas naturally affected by WRI. In the central part of the plain River Recharge (RR

  16. Identifying the effects of human pressure on groundwater quality to support water management strategies in coastal regions: A multi-tracer and statistical approach (Bou-Areg region, Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, V.; Sacchi, E.; Mas-Pla, J.; Menció, A.; El Amrani, N.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several coastal aquifers worldwide. Increasing groundwater exploitation, coupled with point and non-point pollution sources, are the main anthropogenic impacts on coastal environments and are responsible for severe health and food security issues. Adequate management strategies to protect groundwater from contamination and overexploitation are of paramount importance, especially in arid prone regions, where coastal aquifers often represent the main freshwater resource to sustain human needs. The Bou-Areg Aquifer (Morocco) is a perfect example of a coastal aquifer constantly exposed to all the negative externalities associated with groundwater use for agricultural purposes, which lead to a general increase in aquifer salinization. In this study data on 61 water samples, collected in June and November 2010, were used to: (i) track groundwater composition changes related to the use of irrigation water from different sources, (ii) highlight seasonal variations to assess aquifer vulnerability, and (iii) present a reproducible example of multi-tracer approach for groundwater management in rural coastal areas. Hydrogeochemical results show that Bou-Areg groundwater is characterized by – high salinity, associated with a remarkable increase in bicarbonate content in the crop growing season, due to more intense biological activity in irrigated soils. The coupled multi-tracer and statistical analysis confirms the strong dependency on irrigation activities as well as a clear identification of the processes governing the aquifer’s hydrochemistry in the different seasons. Water Rock Interaction (WRI) dominates the composition of most of groundwater samples in the Low Irrigation season (L-IR) and Agricultural Return Flow (ARF) mainly affects groundwater salinization in the High Irrigation season (H-IR) in the same areas naturally affected by WRI. In the central part of the plain River Recharge (RR

  17. Microbial and viral-like rhodopsins present in coastal marine sediments from four polar and subpolar regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, José L.; Golemba, Marcelo; Hernández, Edgardo; Lozada, Mariana; Dionisi, Hebe; Jansson, Janet K.; Carroll, Jolynn; Lundgren, Leif; Sjöling, Sara; Mac Cormack, Walter P.; Sobecky, Patricia

    2016-11-03

    Rhodopsins are broadly distributed. In this work, we analyzed 23 metagenomes corresponding to marine sediment samples from four regions that share cold climate conditions (Norway; Sweden; Argentina and Antarctica). In order to investigate the genes evolution of viral rhodopsins, an initial set of 6224 bacterial rhodopsin sequences according to COG5524 were retrieved from the 23 metagenomes. After selection by the presence of transmembrane domains and alignment, 123 viral (51) and non-viral (72) sequences (>50 amino acids) were finally included in further analysis. Viral rhodopsin genes were homologs of Phaeocystis globosa virus and Organic lake Phycodnavirus. Non-viral microbial rhodopsin genes were ascribed to Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus and Cryptophyta and Fungi. A rescreening using Blastp, using as queries the viral sequences previously described, retrieved 30 sequences (>100 amino acids). Phylogeographic analysis revealed a geographical clustering of the sequences affiliated to the viral group. This clustering was not observed for the microbial non-viral sequences. The phylogenetic reconstruction allowed us to propose the existence of a putative ancestor of viral rhodopsin genes related to Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. This is the first report about the existence of a phylogeographic association of the viral rhodopsin sequences from marine sediments.

  18. Determination of the Anthropogenic Carbon Signal to the Total Change in Dissolved Carbon in the Coastal Upwelling Region Along the Washington-Oregon-California Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf region off the Washington-Oregon-California coast is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canthro) contribution to the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we use an adaptation of the linear regression approach described in Feely et al (2008) along with the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data sets from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canthro and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program west coast cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canthro in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canthro in surface waters along the coast with the lowest surface values (40-45 µmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions of off northern California and southern Oregon and higher values (50-70 µmol kg-1) to the north and south. Canthro contributes an average of about 70% of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upwelled waters at the surface. In contrast, at 50 m the Canthro contribution is approximately 31% and at 100 m it averages about 16%. The remaining contributions are primarily due to respiration processes in the water that was upwelled and transported to coastal regions or underwent respiration processes that occurred locally during the course of the upwelling season. The uptake of Canthro has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since preindustrial period so that the undersaturated waters are well within the regions that affect the biological communities on the continental shelf.

  19. Assessment of the present and future implications of radioactive contamination of the Irish Sea coastal region of Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Simmonds, J.R.; Cooper, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    An assessment has been made of the doses that could be received by people who make use of the Cumbrian coastal area. Current doses have been estimated for residents and visitors to different parts of the area. By making assumptions about changes in waste management practices at the BNFL Sellafield plant and in the geography of the coastal area, the development of doses over the next 200 years has been assessed. The study was confined to exposure pathways in the terrestrial environment, although the influence of liquid discharges on terrestrial pathways was taken into account. Consumption of marine foodstuffs was outside the scope of the study. As expected, the highest doses would be received by those people who live closest to Sellafield. However, in all cases doses to average individuals were well below the present limit for members of the public specified by ICRP. The general future trend was for doses to decline. Doses were also estimated for particular population groups such as those who spend more time on beaches. While the resultant values were higher than those for average individuals, they were still well within the ICRP limit in all cases. (author)

  20. Spatio-temporal variability in accretion and erosion of coastal foredunes in the Netherlands: regional climate and local topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Joep G S; Poortinga, Ate; Riksen, Michel J P M; Maroulis, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the amount of aeolian sediment input and dune erosion, dune size and morphology change over time. Since coastal foredunes play an important role in the Dutch coastal defence, it is important to have good insight in the main factors that control these changes. In this paper the temporal variations in foredune erosion and accretion were studied in relation to proxies for aeolian transport potential and storminess using yearly elevation measurements from 1965 to 2012 for six sections of the Dutch coast. Longshore differences in the relative impacts of erosion and accretion were examined in relation to local beach width. The results show that temporal variability in foredune accretion and erosion is highest in narrow beach sections. Here, dune erosion alternates with accretion, with variability displaying strong correlations with yearly values of storminess (maximum sea levels). In wider beach sections, dune erosion is less frequent, with lower temporal variability and stronger correlations with time series of transport potential. In erosion dominated years, eroded volumes decrease from narrow to wider beaches. When accretion dominates, dune-volume changes are relatively constant alongshore. Dune erosion is therefore suggested to control spatial variability in dune-volume changes. On a scale of decades, the volume of foredunes tends to increase more on wider beaches. However, where widths exceed 200 to 300 m, this trend is no longer observed.

  1. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Griffith, Kereen T; Larriviere, Jack C; Feher, Laura C; Cahoon, Donald R; Enwright, Nicholas M; Oster, David A; Tirpak, John M; Woodrey, Mark S; Collini, Renee C; Baustian, Joseph J; Breithaupt, Joshua L; Cherry, Julia A; Conrad, Jeremy R; Cormier, Nicole; Coronado-Molina, Carlos A; Donoghue, Joseph F; Graham, Sean A; Harper, Jennifer W; Hester, Mark W; Howard, Rebecca J; Krauss, Ken W; Kroes, Daniel E; Lane, Robert R; McKee, Karen L; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Middleton, Beth A; Moon, Jena A; Piazza, Sarai C; Rankin, Nicole M; Sklar, Fred H; Steyer, Greg D; Swanson, Kathleen M; Swarzenski, Christopher M; Vervaeke, William C; Willis, Jonathan M; Wilson, K Van

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH) approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) across political boundaries (states), wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise). Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our analyses can be used

  3. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Osland

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA across political boundaries (states, wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise. Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our

  4. Widespread detection of a brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane, in expanded polystyrene marine debris and microplastics from South Korea and the Asia-Pacific coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    The role of marine plastic debris and microplastics as a carrier of hazardous chemicals in the marine environment is an emerging issue. This study investigated expanded polystyrene (EPS, commonly known as styrofoam) debris, which is a common marine debris item worldwide, and its additive chemical, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). To obtain a better understanding of chemical dispersion via EPS pollution in the marine environment, intensive monitoring of HBCD levels in EPS debris and microplastics was conducted in South Korea, where EPS is the predominant marine debris originate mainly from fishing and aquaculture buoys. At the same time, EPS debris were collected from 12 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and HBCD concentrations were measured. HBCD was detected extensively in EPS buoy debris and EPS microplastics stranded along the Korean coasts, which might be related to the detection of a quantity of HBCD in non-flame-retardant EPS bead (raw material). The wide detection of the flame retardant in sea-floating buoys, and the recycling of high-HBCD-containing EPS waste inside large buoys highlight the need for proper guidelines for the production and use of EPS raw materials, and the recycling of EPS waste. HBCD was also abundantly detected in EPS debris collected from the Asia-Pacific coastal region, indicating that HBCD contamination via EPS debris is a common environmental issue worldwide. Suspected tsunami debris from Alaskan beaches indicated that EPS debris has the potential for long-range transport in the ocean, accompanying the movement of hazardous chemicals. The results of this study indicate that EPS debris can be a source of HBCD in marine environments and marine food web. - Highlights: • A brominated flame retardant, HBCD, was assessed in EPS debris and microplastics. • HBCD was widely detected in EPS debris from the Asia-Pacific coastal region. • Additive HBCD are dispersed via EPS pollution in marine environments. • EPS debris can be a

  5. Wastewater sludge treatment at selected wastewater treatment plants of the region Banska Bystrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Mitterpach, J.; Martinkova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of sewage sludges in water treatment plants of Banska Bystrica region. The paper deals with the problems of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants, its origin and possibilities how to use it in accordance with the current legislation of the Slovak Republic. We described radioactive pollution of sewage sludges. The paper consists of review of sludge production and its usage in the Slovak Republic and in selected states of the European Union. The paper deals with the sludge treatment in selected wastewater treatment plants in Banska Bystrica region in the context of biogas production and its usage by the help of the electricity and heat production. (authors)

  6. A numerical investigation of the atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast over the coastal upwelling region of Cabo Frio, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, M. [Departamento de Meteorologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcelo_dourado@ufpel.edu.br; Pereira de Oliveira, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Atmosfericas, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    An one-dimensional atmospheric second order closure model, coupled to an oceanic mixed layer model, is used to investigate the short term variation of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers in the coastal upwelling area of Cabo Frio, Brazil (23 degrees Celsius S, 42 degrees Celsius 08' W). The numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the impact caused by the thermal contrast between atmosphere and ocean on the vertical extent and other properties of both atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. The numerical simulations were designed taking as reference the observations carried out during the passage of a cold front that disrupted the upwelling regime in Cabo Frio in July of 1992. The simulations indicated that in 10 hours the mechanical mixing, sustained by a constant background flow of 10 m s-1, increases the atmospheric boundary layer in 214 m when the atmosphere is initially 2 K warmer than the ocean (positive thermal contrast observed during upwelling regime). For an atmosphere initially -2 K colder than the ocean (negative thermal contrast observed during passage of the cold front), the incipient thermal convection intensifies the mechanical mixing increasing the vertical extent of the atmospheric boundary layer in 360 m. The vertical evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer is consistent with the observations carried out in Cabo Frio during upwelling condition. When the upwelling is disrupted, the discrepancy between the simulated and observed atmospheric boundary layer heights in Cabo Frio during July of 1992 increases considerably. During the period of 10 hours, the simulated oceanic mixed layer deepens 2 m and 5.4 m for positive and negative thermal contrasts of 2 K and -2 K, respectively. In the latter case, the larger vertical extent of the oceanic mixed layer is due to the presence of thermal convection in the atmospheric boundary layer, which in turn is associated to the absence of upwelling caused by the passage of cold fronts

  7. Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapan Potipat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from 24 stations in coastal area of Chanthaburi Province were collected during March 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed for heavy metal contents (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn, pH, organic matters and grain sizes. The correlation analyses showed that heavy metal concentrations were affected by the content of organic matter and the size of clay particles. The evaluation of the quality of sediment was carried out using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo and the enrichment factor (EF as well as the comparison with those in the Thailand's sediment quality guideline (SQG values. The results of the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values of the heavy metals content in the sediments revealed that the study area was unpolluted and not enriched, respectively. The relationship between the heavy metals concentration and the organic matter, and the clay particle was proposed by using the multiple regression equations.

  8. Detection of genomic variation by selection of a 9 mb DNA region and high throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I Nikolaev

    Full Text Available Detection of the rare polymorphisms and causative mutations of genetic diseases in a targeted genomic area has become a major goal in order to understand genomic and phenotypic variability. We have interrogated repeat-masked regions of 8.9 Mb on human chromosomes 21 (7.8 Mb and 7 (1.1 Mb from an individual from the International HapMap Project (NA12872. We have optimized a method of genomic selection for high throughput sequencing. Microarray-based selection and sequencing resulted in 260-fold enrichment, with 41% of reads mapping to the target region. 83% of SNPs in the targeted region had at least 4-fold sequence coverage and 54% at least 15-fold. When assaying HapMap SNPs in NA12872, our sequence genotypes are 91.3% concordant in regions with coverage > or = 4-fold, and 97.9% concordant in regions with coverage > or = 15-fold. About 81% of the SNPs recovered with both thresholds are listed in dbSNP. We observed that regions with low sequence coverage occur in close proximity to low-complexity DNA. Validation experiments using Sanger sequencing were performed for 46 SNPs with 15-20 fold coverage, with a confirmation rate of 96%, suggesting that DNA selection provides an accurate and cost-effective method for identifying rare genomic variants.

  9. Accumulation of Mercury (Hg) and Methyl Mercury (Me Hg) Concentrations In Selected Marine Biota From Manjung Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisa Abdullah; Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat; Abd Khalik Wood; Masitah Alias

    2015-01-01

    Level of mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (Me Hg) in marine ecosystem has been intensively studied as these toxic substances could be accumulated in the marine biota. This study is focusing on the Hg and Me Hg content in marine biota in Manjung coastal area. This area has high potential being affected by rapid socio-economic development of Manjung area such as heavy industrial activities (coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories), agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge, quarries, housing constructions. It may has a potential risk when released into the atmosphere and dispersed on the surface of water and continue deposited at the bottom of the water and sediment and being absorbed by marine biota. The concentrations of Hg and Me Hg in marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. In this study, five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. The Hg concentrations for dry and rainy season are in the range 65.13-102.12 μg/ kg and 75.75-106.10 μg/ kg respectively, while for MeHg concentrations for dry and rainy seasons are in the range 4.35-6.26 μg/ kg and 5.42-6.46 μg/ kg, respectively. These results are below the limit set by Malaysia Food Act (1983). Generally, marine biota from the Manjung coastal area is safe to consume due to low value of ingestion dose rate and health risk index (HRI) for human health. (author)

  10. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds: Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Faulkner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes.

  11. Collection and analysis of existing information on applicability of investigation methods for characterizing natural events/processes in a coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Akio; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Doke, Ryosuke; Shigehiro, Michiko; Tanaka, Takenobu; Aoki, Michinori; Sekiya, Ayako

    2011-02-01

    The investigation methods for characterizing natural events and processes in a coastal field have been extracted on the basis of analysis of previous research. Collected information is classified into three groups according to the characteristics of natural events/processes and investigation methods. First group is the methods for evaluation of uplift, subsidence and sedimentation rates. Second group is the methods for evaluation of denudation rates. The third group is the methods for reconstruction of the climatic and sea-level changes. Study area, timeframe of the investigation, work sequences, techniques for age-determination, index and objects for characterizing natural events/processes, etc. in each research example were arranged in an 'information spread sheet'. Information on applicability of the each investigation method was extracted from information spread sheet, and was arranged in tabular form. Based on an analysis of the above information, investigation method that can be applied to a coastal region was extracted. The methods and indices are as follows: Uplift rate: the heights of marine terraces are the most important index in an upheaval region. Subsidence and sedimentation rate: the depths of strata underlying an alluvial plain are main indices in a subsidence region. Denudation rate: the features of marine terrace are main indices and the inspection of denudation processes by the use of a numerical simulation is necessary. Climate change: lacustrine deposits are main object for investigation. Sea-level change: reconstruction of relative sea-level change curve including uplift/subsidence factor and paleogeography based on acoustic exploration and the investigation of marine terraces. (author)

  12. Abundance and distribution of Portunidae larval phases (Crustacea: Brachyura in the estuarine and coastal region of the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Roberto Ramos Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The abundance and distribution of larval phases of the Portunidae found in the estuary of the Patos Lagoon and the coastal region were studied during two years (1995 and 1999. A conical net (165 cm long, 60 cm mouth, and 330 µm mesh equipped with a flowmeter was towed for three minutes at 2 knots at six stations within the estuary and four stations in the coastal region. Samplings were carried out on the surface and near the bottom. At each sampling location, the salinity and temperature were also recorded. In 1995, the zoeae of Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 and Achelous spinicarpus Stimpson, 1871 were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 121.98 ind.100 m-3 (90.95 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 31.03 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. A total of 452.27 ind.100 m-3 were caught in the megalopa phase (13.49 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 438.78 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. In 1999, only zoeae of C. sapidus were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 419.78 ind.100 m-3 (386.98 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 32.8 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. Megalopae of these three species were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 179.91 ind.100 m-3 (25.38 ind.100 m-3 on surface and 154.53 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. Summer was the season with the highest abundance of larvae in both years. During spring and summer, spawning was observed in the estuarine region of the Patos Lagoon.

  13. Comparative performance of PV panels of different technologies over one year of exposure: Application to a coastal Mediterranean region of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenounou, A.; Malek, A.; Aillerie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances of four PV panels of various technologies are compared during one year of exposure under natural outdoor conditions. • An original platform and methodology of test allow a real-time scan of several PV panel parameters. • The technologies compared are micromorph silicon, monocrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon. • The performance ratio point out a difference of behavior between the four technologies over one year. • Results are directly exploitable in costal regions of Mediterranean countries. - Abstract: The aim of this contribution is to compare the performance of four PV panels of different technologies for one year of exposure under natural outdoor conditions of a coastal region in the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. An original platform of test, especially dedicated for this study is presented describing operations and techniques used for measurements of the pertinent experimental data and for their exploitation. The four panel technologies studied are micromorph silicon (μ-Si), monocrystalline silicon (M-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polycrystalline silicon (Poli-Si). Two types of results are analyzed and presented. The first type is straight forwardly linked to the PV panels standard data calculated experimentally from measurements recorded during one year of exposure and compared with the values provided by the manufacturers in their datasheets. The second type is related to the energy yield in which the corresponding monthly and annual performance ratios of the four PV panels is calculated in two ways, using 1 – the datasheet’s value of Power Max, and 2 – the data providing from experimental campaign. In addition to the general conclusions concerning the fundamental role of the experimental study at a natural site for a good sizing of a renewable energy production system, we extend the analysis and discussion for the specific localization case of southern coastal region of

  14. Reverse trends of TEX86 temperature in coastal areas of the East China Sea over the last 100 years: implication for global warming and regional circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y.; Xing, L.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    To reconstruct and compare the SST changes in different regions of the ECS over the last 100 years, in this study, we analyzed iGDGTs compounds and TEX86 index in two sediment cores (DH5-1 and DH6-2) from the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS). GDGT-0 and GDGT-5 in the two cores account for 80% of iGDGTs, significantly more abundant than the other iGDGTs compounds. It is also found that iGDGTs are mainly derived from marine Thaumarchaeota. TEXH86 temperatures varied from 17 °C to 22 °C (average 19.4 °C), showing a gradual increase in Core DH5-1 near the Changjiang River Estuary, corresponding to global warming and temperature rise in the ECS over the last 100 years. However, in Core DH6-2 further away from the Changjiang River Estuary, TEXH86 temperatures gradually decreased over the last 80 years with a range of 15.3 °C-18.3 °C, which is attributed to the strengthened near-shore Kuroshio Branch Current transporting more subsurface cold water to the ECS coastal area. In future, more sites should be investigated to confirm the range of the coastal area where the decrease in SST is caused by upwelling subsurface water.

  15. Absence of domestic triatomine colonies in an area of the coastal region of Ecuador where Chagas disease is endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J Grijalva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is considered the second most important vector of Chagas disease in Ecuador. It is distributed across six of the 24 provinces and occupies intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and sylvatic habitats. This study was conducted in six communities within the coastal province of Guayas. Triatomine searches were conducted in domestic and peridomestic habitats and bird nests using manual searches, live-bait traps and sensor boxes. Synantrhopic mammals were captured in the domestic and peridomestic habitats. Household searches (n = 429 and randomly placed sensor boxes (n = 360 produced no live triatomine adults or nymphs. In contrast, eight nymphs were found in two out of six searched Campylorhynchus fasciatus (Troglodytidae nests. Finally, Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was amplified from the blood of 10% of the 115 examined mammals. Environmental changes in land use (intensive rice farming, mosquito control interventions and lack of intradomestic adaptation are suggested among the possible reasons for the lack of domestic triatomine colonies.

  16. GIS-based multi-criteria site selection for zebra mussel cultivation: Addressing end-of-pipe remediation of a eutrophic coastal lagoon ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdanavičiūtė, Ingrida; Umgiesser, Georg; Vaičiūtė, Diana; Bresciani, Mariano; Kozlov, Igor; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2018-04-11

    Farming of shellfish and seaweeds is a tested tool for mitigating eutrophication consequences in coastal environments, however as many other marine economic activities it should be a subject of marine spatial planning for designating suitable sites. The present study proposes site selection framework for provisional zebra mussel farming in a eutrophic lagoon ecosystem, aimed primarily at remediation purposes. GIS-based multi-criteria approach was applied, combining data from empirical maps, numerical models and remote sensing to estimate suitability parameters. Site selection and prioritisation of suitable areas considered 15 environmental and socio-economic criteria, which contributed to 4 optimisation models (settlement, growth and survival of mussels, environmental and socio-economic) and 3 predefined scenarios representing provisional goals of mussel cultivation: spat production, biomass production and bioremediation. The relative importance of each criterion was assessed utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Site suitability index was calculated and the final result of the site selection analysis was summarized for 3 scenarios and overall suitability map. Four suitability classes (unsuitable, least, moderately and most suitable) were applied, and 3 most suitable zones for provisional zebra mussel cultivation with 12 candidate sites were selected accordingly. The integrated approach presented in this study can be adjusted for designating zebra mussel farming sites in other estuarine lagoon ecosystems, or cultivation of other mussel species for bioremediation purposes. The analytical framework and the workflow designed in this study are also adoptable for addressing other aquaculture-related spatial planning issues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Sustainable Use of Coastal Resources of Regional Waters Conservation Area Biak Numfor Regency, Papua Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaman Sutaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to exploit fish resources optimally, continuous and sustainable is an urgent demand for the greatest prosperity of the people, especially to improve the welfare of fishermen and fish farmers. The level of sustainable use of coastal resources in water conservation is very important, so that the utilization does not exceed the carrying capacity of the environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of sustainable use of coastal resources Biak Numfor, associated with the utilization of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism. The study was conducted in June to December 2015 and October to November 2016. The primary data obtained by interview and direct discussion through Focus Group Disscution (FGD with fishermen community, tourist and tourist entrepreneurs as well as related officials in the Office of Fisheries and Marine Affairs, and Tourism Office of Biak Numfor Regency. Methods of data analysis approach sustainability analysis conducted by the method of MDS (Multi-Dimensional Scaling with the help of software Rapfish. Based on the survey results revealed that the value of fisheries ordinated to achieve 57.66%, 44.80% aquaculture, and tourism 46.25%. With these achievements ordinated value, it can be concluded that the use of sustainable capture fisheries are still classified by the lever sustainability attributes include; the type of fishing gear, vessel types used and the catch per unit effort (CPUE. Meanwhile the relatively less sustainable aquaculture with the sustainability lever attributes include; cultivation technology, the number of business units with different types and species of fish. For tourism utilization is still considered less sustainable with levers sustainability attributes include the number of tourists, the type and number of amenities and facilities and infrastructure   Keywords: Sustainability, utilization, waters conservation area (KKPD, MDS-Rapfish

  18. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in g urea m"− "2): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg"− "1. Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0–10 cm than 10–20 cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. - Highlights: • Dry matter accumulation increased under nitrogen fertilization application. • Carbon density in Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg"− "1. • Soil carbon storage increased under nitrogen fertilizer application. • Nitrogen application is effective in increasing carbon sequestration.

  19. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xiaohua, Long, E-mail: longxiaohua@njau.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hongbo, Shao, E-mail: shaohongbochu@126.com [Institute of Agro-biotechnology, Jiangsu Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Zhaopu, Liu [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zed, Rengel [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in g urea m{sup −} {sup 2}): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg{sup −} {sup 1}. Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0–10 cm than 10–20 cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. - Highlights: • Dry matter accumulation increased under nitrogen fertilization application. • Carbon density in Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg{sup −} {sup 1}. • Soil carbon storage increased under nitrogen fertilizer application. • Nitrogen application is effective in increasing carbon sequestration.

  20. A new approach to evaluate factors controlling elemental sediment–seawater distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) in coastal regions, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Hyoe, E-mail: takata@kaiseiken.or.jp [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Central Laboratory, Onjuku, Chiba (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba City, Chiba (Japan); Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba City, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In numerical models to simulate the dispersion of anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment, the sediment–seawater distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) for various elements is an important parameter. In coastal regions, K{sub d} values are largely dependent on hydrographic conditions and physicochemical characteristics of sediment. Here we report K{sub d} values for 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, I, Cs, rare earth elements, Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) in seawater and sediment samples from 19 Japanese coastal regions, and we examine the factors controlling the variability of these K{sub d} values by investigating their relationships to hydrographic conditions and sediment characteristics. There was large variability in K{sub d} values for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se, Cd, I, Pb and Th. Variations of K{sub d} for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Pb and Th appear to be controlled by hydrographic conditions. Although K{sub d} values for Ni, Cu, Se, Cd and I depend mainly on grain size, organic matter content, and the concentrations of hydrous oxides/oxides of Fe and Mn in sediments, heterogeneity in the surface characteristics of sediment particles appears to hamper evaluation of the relative importance of these factors. Thus, we report a new approach to evaluate the factors contributing to variability in K{sub d} for an element. By this approach, we concluded that the K{sub d} values for Cu, Se, Cd and I are controlled by grain size and organic matter in sediments, and the K{sub d} value for Ni is dependent on grain size and on hydrous oxides/oxides of Fe and Mn. - Highlights: • K{sub d}s for 36 elements were determined in 19 Japanese coastal regions. • K{sub d}s for several elements appeared to be controlled by multiple factors in sediments. • We evaluated these factors based on physico-chemical characteristics of sediments.