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Sample records for selected carbonate aquifers

  1. Factors affecting water quality in selected carbonate aquifers in the United States,1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonate aquifers are an important source of water in the United States; however, these aquifers can be particularly susceptible to contamination from the land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program collected samples from wells and springs in 12 carbonate aquifers across the country during 1993–2005; water-quality results for 1,042 samples were available to assess the factors affecting ground-water quality. These aquifers represent a wide range of climate, land-use types, degrees of confinement, and other characteristics that were compared and evaluated to assess the effect of those factors on water quality. Differences and similarities among the aquifers were also identified. Samples were analyzed for major ions, radon, nutrients, 47 pesticides, and 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs).Geochemical analysis helped to identify dominant processes that may contribute to the differences in aquifer susceptibility to anthropogenic contamination. Differences in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon and in ground-water age were directly related to the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Other geochemical indicators, such as mineral saturation indexes and calcium-magnesium molar ratio, were used to infer residence time, an indirect indicator of potential for anthropogenic contamination. Radon exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 300 picocuries per liter in 423 of 735 wells sampled, of which 309 were drinking-water wells.In general, land use, oxidation-reduction (redox) status, and degree of aquifer confinement were the most important factors affecting the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Although none of these factors individually accounts for all the variation in water quality among the aquifers, a combination of these characteristics accounts for the majority of the variation. Unconfined carbonate aquifers that had high

  2. Relations between sinkhole density and anthropogenic contaminants in selected carbonate aquifers in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Katz, Brian G.; Berndt, Marian P.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between sinkhole density and water quality was investigated in seven selected carbonate aquifers in the eastern United States. Sinkhole density for these aquifers was grouped into high (>25 sinkholes/100 km2), medium (1–25 sinkholes/100 km2), or low (2) categories using a geographical information system that included four independent databases covering parts of Alabama, Florida, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. Field measurements and concentrations of major ions, nitrate, and selected pesticides in samples from 451 wells and 70 springs were included in the water-quality database. Data were collected as a part of the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Areas with high and medium sinkhole density had the greatest well depths and depths to water, the lowest concentrations of total dissolved solids and bicarbonate, the highest concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and the lowest partial pressure of CO2 compared to areas with low sinkhole density. These chemical indicators are consistent conceptually with a conduit-flow-dominated system in areas with a high density of sinkholes and a diffuse-flow-dominated system in areas with a low density of sinkholes. Higher cave density and spring discharge in Pennsylvania also support the concept that the high sinkhole density areas are dominated by conduit-flow systems. Concentrations of nitrate-N were significantly higher (p sinkhole density than in low sinkhole-density areas; when accounting for the variations in land use near the sampling sites, the high sinkhole-density area still had higher concentrations of nitrate-N than the low sinkhole-density area. Detection frequencies of atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, prometon, and the atrazine degradate deethylatrazine indicated a pattern similar to nitrate; highest pesticide detections were associated with high sinkhole-density areas. These patterns generally persisted when analyzing the detection frequency by land

  3. Selected Basin Characterization Model Parameters for the Great Basin Carbonate and Alluvial Aquifer System of Nevada, Utah, and Parts of Adjacent States

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    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was created in support of a study focusing on ground-water resources in the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system (GBCAAS). The GBCAAS is a...

  4. Hydraulic conductivities of fractures and matrix in Slovenian carbonate aquifers

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    Timotej Verbovšek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivities and specific storage coefficients of fractures and matrix in Slovenian carbonate aquifers were determined by Barker’s method for pumping test analysis, based on fractional flow dimension. Values are presented for limestones and mainly for dolomites, and additionally for separate aquifers, divided by age andlithology in several groups. Data was obtained from hydrogeological reports for 397 water wells, and among these, 79 pumping tests were reinterpreted. Hydraulic conductivities of fractures are higher than the hydraulic conductivities of matrix, and the differences are highly statistically significant. Likewise, differences are significant for specific storage, and the values of these coefficients are higher in the matrix. Values of all coefficients vary in separate aquifers, and the differences can be explained by diagenetic effects, crystal size, degree of fracturing, andcarbonate purity. Comparison of the methods, used in the reports, and the Barker’s method (being more suitable for karstic and fractured aquifers, shows that the latter fits real data better.

  5. Modeling Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Basal Aquifer of Canada

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    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Rebscher, D.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere is a key challenge for society. Geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions to decrease carbon emissions. One such deep saline aquifer targeted for industrial-scale CO2 injection is the Basal Aquifer of Prairie Region in Canada and Northern Plains in the US. The aquifer stretches across three provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and three states (Montana, North and South Dakota), and covers approximately 1,320,000 km2 (Figure 1). A large number of stationary CO2 sources lie within the foot print of the aquifer, and several CO2 injection projects are in the planning stage. In order for CO2 sequestration to be successful, the injected CO2 needs to stay isolated from the atmosphere for many centuries. Mathematical models are useful tools to assess the fate of both the injected CO2 and the resident brine. These models vary in complexity from fully three-dimensional multi-phase numerical reservoir simulators to simple semi-analytical solutions. In this presentation we compare a cascade of models ranging from single-phase semi-analytic solutions to multi-phase numerical simulators to determine the ability of each of these approaches to predict the pressure response in the injection formation. The majority of the models in this study are based on vertically-integrated governing equations; such models are computationally efficient, allow for reduced data input, and are broadly consistent with the flow physics. The petro-physical parameters and geometries used in this study are based on the geology of the Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer. Approximately ten injection sites are included in the model, with locations and injection rates based on planned injection operations. The predicted areas of review of the injection operations are used as a comparison metric among the different simulation approaches. Areal extent of the Basal Aquifer (*Source

  6. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  7. Major geochemical processes in the evolution of carbonate-Aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, B.B.; Back, W.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of recent advances by carbonate petrologists and geochemists, hydrologists are provided with new insights into the origin and explanation of many aquifer characteristics and hydrologic phenomena. Some major advances include the recognition that: (1) most carbonate sediments are of biological origin; (2) they have a strong bimodal size-distribution; and (3) they originate in warm shallow seas. Although near-surface ocean water is oversaturated with respect to calcite, aragonite, dolomite and magnesite, the magnesium-hydration barrier effectively prevents either the organic or inorganic formation of dolomite and magnesite. Therefore, calcareous plants and animals produce only calcite and aragonite in hard parts of their bodies. Most carbonate aquifers that are composed of sand-size material have a high initial porosity; the sand grains that formed these aquifers originated primarily as small shells, broken shell fragments of larger invertebrates, or as chemically precipitated oolites. Carbonate rocks that originated as fine-grained muds were initially composed primarily of aragonite needles precipitated by algae and have extremely low permeability that requires fracturing and dissolution to develop into aquifers. Upon first emergence, most sand beds and reefs are good aquifers; on the other hand, the clay-sized carbonate material initially has high porosity but low permeability, a poor aquifer property. Without early fracture development in response to influences of tectonic activity these calcilutites would not begin to develop into aquifers. As a result of selective dissolution, inversion of the metastable aragonite to calcite, and recrystallization, the porosity is collected into larger void spaces, which may not change the overall porosity, but greatly increases permeability. Another major process which redistributes porosity and permeability in carbonates is dolomitization, which occurs in a variety of environments. These environments include back

  8. Potentially bioavailable natural organic carbon and hydrolyzable amino acids in aquifer sediments

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    Thomas, Lashun K.; Widdowson, Mark A.; Novak, John T.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Benner, Ronald; Kaiser, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between concentrations of operationally defined potentially bioavailable organic -carbon (PBOC) and hydrolyzable amino acids (HAAs) in sediments collected from a diverse range of chloroethene--contaminated sites. Concentrations of PBOC and HAA were measured using aquifer sediment samples collected at six selected study sites. Average concentrations of total HAA and PBOC ranged from 1.96 ± 1.53 to 20.1 ± 25.6 mg/kg and 4.72 ± 0.72 to 443 ± 65.4 mg/kg, respectively. Results demonstrated a statistically significant positive relationship between concentrations of PBOC and total HAA present in the aquifer sediment (p amino acids are known to be readily biodegradable carbon compounds, this relationship suggests that the sequential chemical extraction procedure used to measure PBOC is a useful indicator of bioavailable carbon in aquifer sediments. This, in turn, is consistent with the interpretation that PBOC measurements can be used for estimating the amount of natural organic carbon available for driving the reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes in groundwater systems.

  9. The AEM and regional carbonate aquifer modeling.

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    Johnson, Cady; Mifflin, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The analytic element method (AEM) has been applied to a 15,000-km2 area of the Paleozoic carbonate rock terrain of Nevada. The focus is the Muddy River springs area, which receives 1.44 m3/s (51 ft3/s) of regionally derived ground water, and forms the Muddy River. The study was undertaken early in 2000 to support the development of a cooling water supply for a gas-fired generation facility 20 km south of the Muddy River springs. The primary objectives of the AEM modeling were to establish a better understanding of regional fluxes and boundary conditions and to provide a framework for examination of more local transient effects using MODFLOW. Geochemical evidence available in 2000 suggested two separate flow fields, one in the north discharging at the springs, and a southern area of small hydraulic gradients. To be conservative, however, hydraulic continuity between the two areas was maintained in the 2000 AEM model. Using new monitoring well data collected in the south, and analyses confirming that seasonal pumping effects in the north are not propagated to the south, a later AEM model that included a barrier calibrated with relative ease. The analytic element model was well suited for simulating an area larger than the immediate area of interest, was easy to modify as more information became available, and facilitated the stepwise development of multiple conceptual models of the site.

  10. Geochemical detection of carbon dioxide in dilute aquifers

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    Aines Roger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO2 gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO2 storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO2 flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO2 flux ranges from 103 to 2 × 106 t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m2/yr to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure. Results For the scenarios we studied, our simulations show pH and carbonate chemistry are good indicators for leakage of stored CO2 into an overlying aquifer because elevated CO2 yields a more acid pH than the ambient groundwater. CO2 leakage into a dilute groundwater creates a slightly acid plume that can be detected at some distance from the leak source due to groundwater flow and CO2 buoyancy. pH breakthrough curves demonstrate that CO2 leaks can be easily detected for CO2 flux ≥ 104 t/yr within a 15-month time period at a monitoring well screened within a permeable layer 500 m downstream from the vertical gas trace. At lower flux rates, the CO2 dissolves in the aqueous phase

  11. Hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics of the Upper Carbonate aquifer, Southeast Minnesota

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    Ruhl, J.F.; Wolf, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Upper Carbonate aquifer is part of a sequence of sedimentary bedrock units deposited in Paleozoic seas that occupied a depression known as the Hollandale embayment. The aquifer is comprised of four formations, which, in ascending order, are the Galena Dolomite, Dubuque Formation, Maquoketa Shale, and Cedar Valley Limestone. Total thickness of the aquifer is as much as 650 feet. Yields from wells in the aquifer range from about 100 to 500 gallons per minute. Water flows mostly through fractures and solution channels toward the periphery of the aquifer and, locally, toward river and bedrock valleys.

  12. Carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon reflect utilization of different carbon sources by microbial communities in two limestone aquifer assemblages

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    M. E. Nowak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC are used to indicate both transit times and biogeochemical evolution of groundwaters. These signals can be complicated in carbonate aquifers, as both abiotic (i.e., carbonate equilibria and biotic factors influence the δ13C and 14C of DIC. We applied a novel graphical method for tracking changes in the δ13C and 14C of DIC in two distinct aquifer complexes identified in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE, a platform to study how water transport links surface and shallow groundwaters in limestone and marlstone rocks in central Germany. For more quantitative estimates of contributions of different biotic and abiotic carbon sources to the DIC pool, we used the NETPATH geochemical modeling program, which accounts for changes in dissolved ions in addition to C isotopes. Although water residence times in the Hainich CZE aquifers based on hydrogeology are relatively short (years or less, DIC isotopes in the shallow, mostly anoxic, aquifer assemblage (HTU were depleted in 14C compared to a deeper, oxic, aquifer complex (HTL. Carbon isotopes and chemical changes in the deeper HTL wells could be explained by interaction of recharge waters equilibrated with post-bomb 14C sources with carbonates. However, oxygen depletion and δ13C and 14C values of DIC below those expected from the processes of carbonate equilibrium alone indicate considerably different biogeochemical evolution of waters in the upper aquifer assemblage (HTU wells. Changes in 14C and 13C in the upper aquifer complexes result from a number of biotic and abiotic processes, including oxidation of 14C-depleted OM derived from recycled microbial carbon and sedimentary organic matter as well as water–rock interactions. The microbial pathways inferred from DIC isotope shifts and changes in water chemistry in the HTU wells were supported by comparison with in situ microbial community structure based on 16S rRNA analyses. Our findings

  13. Carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon reflect utilization of different carbon sources by microbial communities in two limestone aquifer assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin E.; Schwab, Valérie F.; Lazar, Cassandre S.; Behrendt, Thomas; Kohlhepp, Bernd; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten; Trumbore, Susan E.

    2017-08-01

    Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are used to indicate both transit times and biogeochemical evolution of groundwaters. These signals can be complicated in carbonate aquifers, as both abiotic (i.e., carbonate equilibria) and biotic factors influence the δ13C and 14C of DIC. We applied a novel graphical method for tracking changes in the δ13C and 14C of DIC in two distinct aquifer complexes identified in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE), a platform to study how water transport links surface and shallow groundwaters in limestone and marlstone rocks in central Germany. For more quantitative estimates of contributions of different biotic and abiotic carbon sources to the DIC pool, we used the NETPATH geochemical modeling program, which accounts for changes in dissolved ions in addition to C isotopes. Although water residence times in the Hainich CZE aquifers based on hydrogeology are relatively short (years or less), DIC isotopes in the shallow, mostly anoxic, aquifer assemblage (HTU) were depleted in 14C compared to a deeper, oxic, aquifer complex (HTL). Carbon isotopes and chemical changes in the deeper HTL wells could be explained by interaction of recharge waters equilibrated with post-bomb 14C sources with carbonates. However, oxygen depletion and δ13C and 14C values of DIC below those expected from the processes of carbonate equilibrium alone indicate considerably different biogeochemical evolution of waters in the upper aquifer assemblage (HTU wells). Changes in 14C and 13C in the upper aquifer complexes result from a number of biotic and abiotic processes, including oxidation of 14C-depleted OM derived from recycled microbial carbon and sedimentary organic matter as well as water-rock interactions. The microbial pathways inferred from DIC isotope shifts and changes in water chemistry in the HTU wells were supported by comparison with in situ microbial community structure based on 16S rRNA analyses. Our findings demonstrate the large

  14. Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer contains the shallowest principal aquifers of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, portrayed as polygons....

  15. Internal corrosion of carbon steel piping in hot aquifers service

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    Simičić Miloš V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal corrosion of carbon steel pipelines is a major problem encountered in water service. In terms of prediction of the remaining lifetime for water pipelines based on the corrosion allowance, the three main approaches are corrosion modelling, corrosion inhibitor availability, and corrosion monitoring. In this study we used two theoretical corrosion models, CASSANDRA and NORSOK M-506 of quite different origin in order to predict uniform corrosivity of hot aquifers in eight different pipelines. Because of the varying calculation criteria for the different models, these can give very different corrosion rate predictions for the same data input. This is especially true under conditions where the formation of protective films may occur, such as at elevated temperatures. The evaluation of models was conducted by comparison using weight-loss coupons and three corrosion inhibitors were obtained from commercial suppliers. The tests were performed during the 60-day period. Even though inhibitors’ efficiencies of 98% had been achieved in laboratory testing, inhibitors’ availabilities of 85% have been used due to logistics problems and other issues. The results, given in mmpy, i.e. millimeter per year, are very consistent with NORSOK M-506 prediction. This is presumably because the model considers the effect of the formation of a passive iron carbonate film at temperatures above 80 °C and significant reduction in corrosion rate. Corrosion inhibitor A showed a better performance than inhibitors B and C in all cases but the target corrosion rates of less than 0.1 mmpy were achieved for all inhibitors. The chemical type of corrosion inhibitor A is based on quaternary amines mixed with methanol, isopropyl alcohol, xylene and ethylbenzene. Based on the obtained results the carbon steel lifetime of 30 years, provided proper inhibitors are present and 3mm corrosion allowance, can be achieved for hot aquifers service with presented water compositions.

  16. Microbial diversity and impact on carbonate geochemistry across a changing geochemical gradient in a karst aquifer.

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    Gray, Cassie J; Engel, Annette S

    2013-02-01

    Although microbes are known to influence karst (carbonate) aquifer ecosystem-level processes, comparatively little information is available regarding the diversity of microbial activities that could influence water quality and geological modification. To assess microbial diversity in the context of aquifer geochemistry, we coupled 16S rRNA Sanger sequencing and 454 tag pyrosequencing to in situ microcosm experiments from wells that cross the transition from fresh to saline and sulfidic water in the Edwards Aquifer of central Texas, one of the largest karst aquifers in the United States. The distribution of microbial groups across the transition zone correlated with dissolved oxygen and sulfide concentration, and significant variations in community composition were explained by local carbonate geochemistry, specifically calcium concentration and alkalinity. The waters were supersaturated with respect to prevalent aquifer minerals, calcite and dolomite, but in situ microcosm experiments containing these minerals revealed significant mass loss from dissolution when colonized by microbes. Despite differences in cell density on the experimental surfaces, carbonate loss was greater from freshwater wells than saline, sulfidic wells. However, as cell density increased, which was correlated to and controlled by local geochemistry, dissolution rates decreased. Surface colonization by metabolically active cells promotes dissolution by creating local disequilibria between bulk aquifer fluids and mineral surfaces, but this also controls rates of karst aquifer modification. These results expand our understanding of microbial diversity in karst aquifers and emphasize the importance of evaluating active microbial processes that could affect carbonate weathering in the subsurface.

  17. Carbonate Chemistry and Isotope Characteristics of Groundwater of Ljubljansko Polje and Ljubljansko Barje Aquifers in Slovenia

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    Sonja Cerar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1 Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca2+ values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2 northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3 central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4 Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg2+ in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years.

  18. Sustainable yield of the Colle Quartara carbonate aquifer in the Southern Lepini Mountains (Central Italy

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    Giovanni Conte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed to contribute to the groundwater resource sustainable management of a carbonate aquifer in a test area of the Lepini Mountains (Central Italy. This aquifer constitutes a major exploited groundwater body of central Apennines. At regional scale, the hydrogeological features of the Lepini hydrostructure are well known. The present study focuses on a portion of the Lepini Mountains where important tapping-works for drinking water supply are in activity (about 1.2 m3/s. New investigations were carried out including: meteo-climatic analysis, spring discharge and hydrometric time series processing, pumping test result interpretation. In addition, a detailed lithostratigraphical and structural survey of a portion of the Lepini hydrostructure at 1:10,000 scale was performed also examining the dense network of discontinuities affecting the carbonate aquifer. Extensional Plio-Pleistocene tectonic activity displaced the carbonate rock sequence under the Pontina Plain, where the carbonate aquifer is confined. The investigation results have allowed the reconstruction of the hydrogeological conceptual model of the studied portion of carbonate massif. Given the scale of the study and the results of the investigation, the carbonate aquifer can be treated as an equivalent porous medium, and the simplified numerical model of the aquifer was constructed with the code MODFLOW-2005. The numerical model, still now under continuous implementation, produced first results on the current withdrawal sustainability, allowing evaluation of possible alternative exploitation scenarios of the carbonate aquifer also considering the probably not significant flow exchanges with the Pontina Plain aquifer.

  19. Laboratory Experiments to Evaluate Diffusion of 14C into Nevada Test Site Carbonate Aquifer Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Hershey; William Howcroft; Paul W. Reimus

    2003-03-01

    Determination of groundwater flow velocities at the Nevada Test Site is important since groundwater is the principal transport medium of underground radionuclides. However, 14C-based groundwater velocities in the carbonate aquifers of the Nevada Test Site are several orders of magnitude slower than velocities derived from the Underground Test Area regional numerical model. This discrepancy has been attributed to the loss or retardation of 14C from groundwater into the surrounding aquifer matrix making 14C-based groundwater ages appear much older. Laboratory experiments were used to investigate the retardation of 14C in the carbonate aquifers at the Nevada Test Site. Three sets of experiments were conducted evaluating the diffusion of 14C into the carbonate aquifer matrix, adsorption and/or isotopic exchange onto the pore surfaces of the carbonate matrix, and adsorption and/or isotopic exchange onto the fracture surfaces of the carbonate aquifer. Experimental results a nd published aquifer matrix and fracture porosities from the Lower Carbonate Aquifer were applied to a 14C retardation model. The model produced an extremely wide range of retardation factors because of the wide range of published aquifer matrix and fracture porosities (over three orders of magnitude). Large retardation factors suggest that groundwater with very little measured 14C activity may actually be very young if matrix porosity is large relative to the fracture porosity. Groundwater samples collected from highly fractured aquifers with large effective fracture porosities may have relatively small correction factors, while samples from aquifers with a few widely spaced fractures may have very large correction factors. These retardation factors were then used to calculate groundwater velocities from a proposed flow path at the Nevada Test Site. The upper end of the range of 14C correction factors estimated groundwater velocities that appear to be at least an order of magnitude too high compared

  20. Redox Conditions in Selected Principal Aquifers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Cowdery, T.K.; Chapelle, F.H.; Jurgens, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Reduction/oxidation (redox) processes affect the quality of groundwater in all aquifer systems. Redox processes can alternately mobilize or immobilize potentially toxic metals associated with naturally occurring aquifer materials, contribute to the degradation or preservation of anthropogenic contami-nants, and generate undesirable byproducts, such as dissolved manganese (Mn2+), ferrous iron (Fe2+), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Determining the kinds of redox processes that occur in an aquifer system, documenting their spatial distribution, and understanding how they affect concentrations of natural or anthropogenic contaminants are central to assessing and predicting the chemical quality of groundwater. This Fact Sheet extends the analysis of U.S. Geological Survey authors to additional principal aquifer systems by applying a framework developed by the USGS to a larger set of water-quality data from the USGS national water databases. For a detailed explanation, see the 'Introduction' in the Fact Sheet.

  1. Redox processes and water quality of selected principal aquifer systems

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    McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions in 15 principal aquifer (PA) systems of the United States, and their impact on several water quality issues, were assessed from a large data base collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the USGS. The logic of these assessments was based on the observed ecological succession of electron acceptors such as dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate and threshold concentrations of these substrates needed to support active microbial metabolism. Similarly, the utilization of solid-phase electron acceptors such as Mn(IV) and Fe(III) is indicated by the production of dissolved manganese and iron. An internally consistent set of threshold concentration criteria was developed and applied to a large data set of 1692 water samples from the PAs to assess ambient redox conditions. The indicated redox conditions then were related to the occurrence of selected natural (arsenic) and anthropogenic (nitrate and volatile organic compounds) contaminants in ground water. For the natural and anthropogenic contaminants assessed in this study, considering redox conditions as defined by this framework of redox indicator species and threshold concentrations explained many water quality trends observed at a regional scale. An important finding of this study was that samples indicating mixed redox processes provide information on redox heterogeneity that is useful for assessing common water quality issues. Given the interpretive power of the redox framework and given that it is relatively inexpensive and easy to measure the chemical parameters included in the framework, those parameters should be included in routine water quality monitoring programs whenever possible.

  2. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  3. Uranium isotopes in carbonate aquifers of arid region setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alshamsi, Dalal M.; Murad, Ahmed A.; Aldahan, Ala

    2013-01-01

    ) and 429–5,293 ng L-1 (average: 2,508 ng L-1) respectively. These uranium concentrations are below the higher permissible WHO limit for drinking water and also comparable to averages found in groundwater from similar aquifers in Florida and Tunisia. Negative correlation between rainfall and uranium...

  4. Sequestration of carbon in saline aquifers - mathematical and numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2004-01-01

    The work in this thesis focuses equally on two main topics. The set of these subjects deals with development of criteria for monotonicity of control volume methods. These methods are important and frequently used for solving the pressure equation arising in porous media flow. First we consider homogeneous parallelogram grids, and subsequently general logical Cartesian grids in heterogeneous media. This subject is concluded by the development of a new class of Multi Point Flux Approximation methods, motivated by the monotonicity results obtained. The second topic of this thesis is the development of analytical and semi- analytical solutions to the problem of leakage through abandoned wells. More specially, we look at a set of aquifers, separated by impermeable layers (aquicludes), where injection of water or CO{sub 2} takes place in some or all the aquifers. The aquifers and aquicludes are frequently penetrated by abandoned wells from oil exploration, and our problem consists of finding solutions to flow and leakage through these wells. The goal is to obtain expressions for leakage rates that may be evaluated quickly enough such that Monte Carlo realizations over statistical distributions of properties for abandoned wells can be performed. (author)

  5. Estimated Withdrawals from Stream-Valley Aquifers and Refined Estimated Withdrawals from Selected Aquifers in the United States, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, B. Pierre; Maupin, Molly A.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Information Program compiles estimates of fresh ground-water withdrawals in the United States on a 5-year interval. In the year-2000 compilation, withdrawals were reported from principal aquifers and aquifer systems including two general aquifers - Alluvial and Other aquifers. Withdrawals from a widespread aquifer group - stream-valley aquifers - were not specifically identified in the year-2000 compilation, but they are important sources of ground water. Stream-valley aquifers are alluvial aquifers located in the valley of major streams and rivers. Stream-valley aquifers are long but narrow aquifers that are in direct hydraulic connection with associated streams and limited in extent compared to most principal aquifers. Based in large part on information published in U.S. Geological Survey reports, preliminary analysis of withdrawal data and hydrogeologic and surface-water information indicated areas in the United States where possible stream-valley aquifers were located. Further assessment focused on 24 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Withdrawals reported from Alluvial aquifers in 16 states and withdrawals reported from Other aquifers in 6 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico were investigated. Two additional States - Arkansas and New Jersey - were investigated because withdrawals reported from other principal aquifers in these two States may be from stream-valley aquifers. Withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers were identified in 20 States and were about 1,560 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), a rate comparable to withdrawals from the 10 most productive principal aquifers in the United States. Of the 1,560 Mgal/d of withdrawals attributed to stream-valley aquifers, 1,240 Mgal/d were disaggregated from Alluvial aquifers, 150 Mgal/d from glacial sand and gravel aquifers, 116 Mgal/d from Other aquifers, 28.1 Mgal/d from Pennsylvanian aquifers, and 24.9 Mgal/d from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial

  6. Use of molecular approaches in hydrogeological studies: the case of carbonate aquifers in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Antonio; Petrella, Emma; Celico, Fulvio; Naclerio, Gino

    2017-06-01

    Waterborne pathogens represent a significant health risk in both developed and developing countries with sensitive sub-populations including children, the elderly, neonates, and immune-compromised people, who are particularly susceptible to enteric infections. Annually, approximately 1.8 billion people utilize a faecally contaminated water source, and waterborne diseases are resulting in up to 2.1 million human mortalities globally. Although groundwater has traditionally been considered less susceptible to contamination by enteric pathogens than surface water due to natural attenuation by overlying strata, the degree of microbial removal attributable to soils and aquifers can vary significantly depending on several factors. Thus, accurate assessment of the variable presence and concentration of microbial contaminants, and the relative importance of potentially causative factors affecting contaminant ingress, is critical in order to develop effective source (well) and resource (aquifer) protection strategies. "Traditional" and molecular microbiological study designs, when coupled with hydrogeological, hydrochemical, isotopic, and geophysical methods, have proven useful for analysis of numerous aspects of subsurface microbial dynamics. Accordingly, this overview paper presents the principal microbial techniques currently being employed (1) to predict and identify sources of faecal contamination in groundwater, (2) to elucidate the dynamics of contaminant migration, and (3) to refine knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics and behaviours of aquifer systems affected by microbial contamination with an emphasis on carbonate aquifers, which represent an important global water supply. Previous investigations carried out in carbonate aquifers in southern Italy are discussed.

  7. Purification of carbon nanotubes via selective heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John A.; Wilson, William L.; Jin, Sung Hun; Dunham, Simon N.; Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad; Du, Frank; Huang, Yonggang; Song, Jizhou

    2017-11-21

    The present invention provides methods for purifying a layer of carbon nanotubes comprising providing a precursor layer of substantially aligned carbon nanotubes supported by a substrate, wherein the precursor layer comprises a mixture of first carbon nanotubes and second carbon nanotubes; selectively heating the first carbon nanotubes; and separating the first carbon nanotubes from the second carbon nanotubes, thereby generating a purified layer of carbon nanotubes. Devices benefiting from enhanced electrical properties enabled by the purified layer of carbon nanotubes are also described.

  8. Inorganic carbon cycle in soil-rock-groundwater system in karst and fissured aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Koceli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematic analysis of the isotopic composition of carbon (δ13CCaCO3 in carbonate rocks in central Slovenia, representing karst and fissured aquifers, and share of carbon contributions from carbonate dissolution and degradation of organic matter in aquifers, calculated from the mass balance equation. 59 samples of rocks (mainly dolomites from Upper Permian to Upper Triassic age were analyzed. Samples of carbonate rocks were pulverized and ground to fraction of 45 μm and for determination of δ13CCaCO3 analyzed with mass spectrometer for analyses of stable isotopes of light elements-IRMS. The same method was used for determination of isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC in groundwater for 54 of 59 locations. Values of δ13CCaCO3 are in the range from -2.0 ‰ to +4.1 ‰, with an average δ13CCaCO3 value of +2.2 ‰. These values are typical for marine carbonates with δ13CCaCO3 around 0 ‰, although δ13CCaCO3 values differ between groups depending on the origin and age. Early diagenetic dolomites have relatively higher values of δ13CCaCO3 compared to other analyzed samples. The lowest values of δ13CCaCO3 were observed in Cordevolian and Bača dolomite, probably due to late diagenesis, during which meteoric water with lower isotopic carbon composition circulated in the process of sedimentation. Values of δ13CDIC range from -14.6 ‰ to -8.2 ‰. Higher δ13CDIC values (-8.2 ‰ indicate a low proportion of soil CO2 in the aquifer and rapid infiltration, while lower values (-14.6 ‰ indicate higher proportion of soil CO2 in the aquifer and slower infiltration. Calculated contributions of carbon from organic matter / dissolution of carbonates in the karstic and fissured aquifers s how a similar proportion (50 % : 50 %.

  9. Laboratory Experiments to Evaluate Matrix Diffusion of Dissolved Organic Carbon Carbon-14 in Southern Nevada Fractured-rock Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald L. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Fereday, Wyatt [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) carbon-14 (14C) is used to estimate groundwater ages by comparing the DIC 14C content in groundwater in the recharge area to the DIC 14C content in the downgradient sampling point. However, because of chemical reactions and physical processes between groundwater and aquifer rocks, the amount of DIC 14C in groundwater can change and result in 14C loss that is not because of radioactive decay. This loss of DIC 14C results in groundwater ages that are older than the actual groundwater ages. Alternatively, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 14C in groundwater does not react chemically with aquifer rocks, so DOC 14C ages are generally younger than DIC 14C ages. In addition to chemical reactions, 14C ages may also be altered by the physical process of matrix diffusion. The net effect of a continuous loss of 14C to the aquifer matrix by matrix diffusion and then radioactive decay is that groundwater appears to be older than it actually is. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure matrix diffusion coefficients for DOC 14C in volcanic and carbonate aquifer rocks from southern Nevada. Experiments were conducted using bromide (Br-) as a conservative tracer and 14C-labeled trimesic acid (TMA) as a surrogate for groundwater DOC. Outcrop samples from six volcanic aquifers and five carbonate aquifers in southern Nevada were used. The average DOC 14C matrix diffusion coefficient for volcanic rocks was 2.9 x 10-7 cm2/s, whereas the average for carbonate rocks was approximately the same at 1.7 x 10-7 cm2/s. The average Br- matrix diffusion coefficient for volcanic rocks was 10.4 x 10-7 cm2/s, whereas the average for carbonate rocks was less at 6.5 x 10-7 cm2/s. Carbonate rocks exhibited greater variability in

  10. The character of organic carbon in recharge water and arsenic mobilization in Bangladesh aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, L. E.; Fussell, A. H.; Polizzotto, M.; Badruzzaman, A. M.; Ali, M. A.; Neumann, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    In Bangladesh, arsenic-contaminated groundwater, used for both drinking and irrigation supplies, negatively affects the health of millions of people. Past work at our site in Munshiganj suggests that current patterns of arsenic concentration in the aquifer are related to groundwater flow and recharge chemistry. Constructed ponds and groundwater-irrigated rice fields serve as the primary aquifer recharge sources, with pond recharge evolving into high-arsenic groundwater and rice field recharge evolving into low-arsenic groundwater. The composition of these water types vary in concentrations and character of dissolved organic carbon, a presumed key component in the mechanism of arsenic release from sediments. Here we present results from an experiment-based laboratory study that directly tests the role of organic carbon character and bioavailability on arsenic mobilization. Incubation experiments using sediment samples collected from Bangladesh and waters with different carbon sources (e.g., pond and rice field recharge water and artificial water with model carbon compounds) were conducted to show the phase transformations carbon undergoes during arsenic mobilization processes, to isolate the carbon components and characteristics most responsible for mobilization reactions, and to investigate the importance of secondary chemical constituents for completion of these physiochemical reactions. Water, gas, and sediment samples collected from the incubations were analyzed for nutrient, metal, anion, and carbon concentrations, as well as carbon character. The results clarify the chemical components most critical in arsenic mobilization and provide insight into the in situ chemical reactions occurring in the aquifer. Moreover, this better chemical understanding helps elucidate the potential impact of altered recharge patterns and recharge chemistry on arsenic concentrations of Bangladeshi groundwater supplies.

  11. Plan of study for the Ohio-Indiana carbonate-bedrock and glacial- aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The major aquifers of 35,000 sq mi area in western Ohio and eastern Indiana consist of Silurian and Devonian carbonate bedrock and Quaternary glacial deposits. These bedrock units and glacial deposits have been designated for study as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Regional Aquifer System Analysis program, a nationwide program to assess the regional hydrology, geology and water quality of the Nation 's most important aquifers. The purpose of the study is to define the hydrology, geochemistry, and geologic framework of the aquifer system within the Silurian and Devonian rocks and glacial deposits, with emphasis on describing the groundwater flow patterns and characterizing the water quality. The study, which began in 1988 , is expected to be completed in 1993. In 1980, the aquifers in the study area supplied more than 280 million gallons of water/day to industry, agriculture, and a population of more than 6.3 million people. With a projected future population growth to 7.1 million in 1990, and with intensified agricultural and industrial uses, water withdrawals from these bedrock and glacial aquifers are expected to be increased. The most significant groundwater problems in the study area result from the pronounced areal differences in availability and quality of the groundwater. These differences are related to the lateral discontinuity of many of the glacial deposits and to variations in secondary permeability of the bedrock aquifers associated with patterns of fracturing. Planned activities of the study include compilation of available geohydrologic and water quality data, such as groundwater levels, geohydrologic properties of aquifers, chemical analyses, land use and water use data, and ancillary data such as digital satellite images. Additional geohydrologic and water quality data may be collected from existing wells or wells that may be drilled for this study. A computerized, geographic information system will be used as a data base management tool and

  12. Effects of karst and geologic structure on the circulation of water and permeability in carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfield, V.T.; Rapp, J.R.; Anders, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the natural processes caused by solution and leaching of limestone, dolomite, gypsum, salt and other soluble rocks, is known as karst. Development of karst is commonly known as karstification, which may have a pronounced effect on the topography, hydrology and environment, especially where such karst features as sinkholes and vertical solution shafts extend below the land surface and intersect lateral solution passages, cavities, caverns and other karst features in carbonate rocks. Karst features may be divided into two groups: (1) surficial features that do not extend far below the surface; and (2) karst features such as sinkholes that extend below the surface and affect the circulation of water below. The permeability of the most productive carbonate aquifers is due chiefly to enlargement of fractures and other openings by circulation of water. Important controlling factors responsible for the development of karst and permeability in carbonate aquifers include: (1) climate, topography, and presence of soluble rocks; (2) geologic structure; (3) nature of underground circulation; and (4) base level. Another important factor is the condition of the surface of the carbonate rocks at the time they are exposed to meteoric water. A carbonate rock surface, with soil or relatively permeable, less soluble cover, is more favorable for initiation of karstification and solution than bare rocks. Water percolates downward through the cover to the underlying carbonate rocks instead of running off on the surface. Also, the water becomes more corrosive as it percolates through the permeable cover to the underlying carbonate rocks. Where there is no cover or the cover has been removed, the carbonate rocks become case hardened and resistant to erosion. However, in regions underlain not only by carbonate rocks but also by beds of anhydrite, gypsum and salt, such as the Hueco Plateau in southeastern New Mexico, subsurface solution may occur where water without natural

  13. Assessing groundwater availability in a folded carbonate aquifer through the development of a numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Cristina; Romano, Emanuele; Guyennon, Nicolas; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    The study of aquifer systems from a quantitative point of view is fundamental for adopting water management plans aiming at preserving water resources and reducing environmental risks related to groundwater level and discharge changes. This is also what the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC) states, holding the development of numerical models as a key aspect for groundwater management. The objective of this research is to i) define a methodology for modeling a complex hydrogeological structure in a structurally folded carbonate area and ii) estimate the concurrent effects of exploitation and climate changes on groundwater availability through the implementation of a 3D groundwater flow model. This study concerns the Monte Coscerno karst aquifer located in the Apennine chain in Central Italy in the Nera River Valley.This aquifer, is planned to be exploited in the near future for water supply. Negative trends of precipitation in Central Italy have been reported in relation to global climate changes, which are expected to affect the availability of recharge to carbonate aquifers throughout the region . A great concern is the combined impact of climate change and groundwater exploitation, hence scenarios are needed taking into account the effect of possible temperature and precipitation trends on recharge rates. Following a previous experience with model conceptualization and long-term simulation of groundwater flow, an integrated three-dimensional groundwater model has been developed for the Monte Coscerno aquifer. In a previous paper (Preziosi et al 2014) the spatial distribution of recharge to this aquifer was estimated through the Thornthwaite Mather model at a daily time step using as inputs past precipitation and temperature values (1951-2013) as well as soil and landscape properties. In this paper the numerical model development is described. On the basis of well logs from private consulting companies and literature cross sections the

  14. Megaporosity and permeability of Thalassinoides-dominated ichnofabrics in the Cretaceous karst-carbonate Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Current research has demonstrated that trace fossils and their related ichnofabrics can have a critical impact on the fluid-flow properties of hydrocarbon reservoirs and groundwater aquifers. Most petroleum-associated research has used ichnofabrics to support the definition of depositional environments and reservoir quality, and has concentrated on siliciclastic reservoir characterization and, to a lesser degree, carbonate reservoir characterization (for example, Gerard and Bromley, 2008; Knaust, 2009). The use of ichnology in aquifer characterization has almost entirely been overlooked by the hydrologic community because the dynamic reservoir-characterization approach has not caught on with hydrologists and so hydrology is lagging behind reservoir engineering in this area (de Marsily and others, 2005). The objective of this research is to show that (1) ichnofabric analysis can offer a productive methodology for purposes of carbonate aquifer characterization, and (2) a clear relation can exist between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers.

  15. Mixing of water in a carbonate aquifer, southern Italy, analysed through stable isotope investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrella Emma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing of water was analysed in a carbonate aquifer, southern Italy, through stable isotope investigations (18O,δ2H. The input signal (rainwater was compared with the isotopic content of a 35-meter groundwater vertical prof ile, over a 1-year period. Within the studied aquifer, recharge and f low are diffuse in a well-connected f issure network.At the test site, the comparison between input and groundwater isotopic signals illustrates that no eff icient mixing takes place in the whole unsaturated zone, between the fresh inf iltration water and the stored water.When analysing the stable isotope composition of groundwater, signif icant variations were observed above the threshold elevation of 1062 m asl, while a nearly constant composition was observed below the same threshold. Thus, temporal variations in stable isotope composition of rainwater are completely attenuated just in the deeper phreatic zone.On the whole, taking into consideration also the results of previous studies in the same area, the investigations showed that physical characteristics of the carbonate bedrock, as well as aquifer heterogeneity, are factors of utmost importance in inf luencing the complete mixing of water. These f indings suggest a more complex scenario at catchment scale.

  16. Groundwater recharge of carbonate aquifers of the Silesian-Cracow Triassic (southern Poland) under human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

    2008-07-01

    A Triassic carbonate unit has been intensively drained by zinc and lead ore mines and numerous borehole fields since the nineteenth century. Its groundwater recharge has increased due to: pumping of water from boreholes, mining activity, and urbanization. An approach to determine the amounts of the recharge at a variety of spatial scales is presented in the paper. Different methods were used to identify and quantify recharge components on a regional and local scale: mathematical modelling was performed for four aquifers included in an aquifer system, an analytical estimation based on the assumption that an average recharge is equal to the average discharge of the hydrogeological system—for six man-made drainage centres, and the method of water level fluctuation (WLF) was applied in one observation borehole. Results of modelling have been supplemented by observation of environmental tracers (δ18O, δ2H, 3H), noble gases temperatures, and 4Heexc in groundwater. The regional aquifer’s current recharge according to estimations performed by means of modelling varies from 39 to 101 mm/year on average. Depending on the aquifer site the average precipitation ranges from 779 to 864 mm/year. In the confined part of the aquifer average recharge ranges from 26 to 61 mm/year. Within outcrops average recharge varies from 96 to 370 mm/year. Current recharge estimated by the analytical method for man-made drainage centres varies from 158 up to 440 mm/year. High values are caused by different recharge sources like precipitation, induced leakage from shallow aquifers, and water losses from streams, water mains and sewer systems. Pumping of water, mining and municipal activities constitute additional factors accounting for the intensified recharge.

  17. Groundwater salinization processes and reversibility of seawater intrusion in coastal carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Post, Vincent E. A.; Song, Xianfang

    2015-12-01

    Seawater intrusion (SWI) has led to salinization of fresh groundwater reserves in coastal areas worldwide and has forced the closure of water supply wells. There is a paucity of well-documented studies that report on the reversal of SWI after the closure of a well field. This study presents data from the coastal carbonate aquifer in northeast China, where large-scale extraction has ceased since 2001 after salinization of the main well field. The physical flow and concomitant hydrogeochemical processes were investigated by analyzing water level and geochemical data, including major ion chemistry and stable water isotope data. Seasonal water table and salinity fluctuations, as well as changes of δ2H-δ18O values of groundwater between the wet and dry season, suggest local meteoric recharge with a pronounced seasonal regime. Historical monitoring testifies of the reversibility of SWI in the carbonate aquifer, as evidenced by a decrease of the Cl- concentrations in groundwater following restrictions on groundwater abstraction. This is attributed to the rapid flushing in this system where flow occurs preferentially along karst conduits, fractures and fault zones. The partially positive correlation between δ18O values and TDS concentrations of groundwater, as well as high NO3- concentrations (>39 mg/L), suggest that irrigation return flow is a significant recharge component. Therefore, the present-day elevated salinities are more likely due to agricultural activities rather than SWI. Nevertheless, seawater mixing with fresh groundwater cannot be ruled out in particular where formerly intruded seawater may still reside in immobile zones of the carbonate aquifer. The massive expansion of fish farming in seawater ponds in the coastal zone poses a new risk of salinization. Cation exchange, carbonate dissolution, and fertilizer application are the dominant processes further modifying the groundwater composition, which is investigated quantitatively using hydrogeochemical

  18. Dissolved Organic Carbon Influences Microbial Community Composition and Diversity in Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, D.

    2012-07-13

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  19. Variations in hydraulic conductivity with scale of measurement during aquifer tests in heterogeneous, porous carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Cherkauer, Douglas S.

    Previous studies have shown that hydraulic conductivity of an aquifer seems to increase as the portion of the aquifer tested increases. To date, such studies have all relied on different methods to determine hydraulic conductivity at each scale of interest, which raises the possibility that the observed increase in hydraulic conductivity is due to the measurement method, not to the scale. This study analyzes hydraulic conductivity with respect to scale during individual aquifer tests in porous, heterogeneous carbonate rocks in southeastern Wisconsin, USA. Results from this study indicate that hydraulic conductivity generally increases during an individual test as the volume of aquifer impacted increases, and the rate of this increase is the same as the rate of increase determined by using different measurement methods. Thus, scale dependence of hydraulic conductivity during single tests does not depend on the method of measurement. This conclusion is supported by 22 of 26 aquifer tests conducted in porous-flow-dominated carbonate units within the aquifer. Instead, scale dependency is probably caused by heterogeneities within the aquifer, a conclusion supported by digital simulation. All of the observed types of hydraulic-conductivity variations with scale during individual aquifer tests can be explained by a conceptual model of a simple heterogeneous aquifer composed of high-conductivity zones within a low-conductivity matrix. Résumé Certaines études ont montré que la conductivité hydraulique d'un aquifère semble augmenter en même temps que la partie testée de l'aquifère s'étend. Jusqu'à présent, ces études ont toutes reposé sur des méthodes de détermination de la conductivité hydraulique différentes pour chaque niveau d'échelle, ce qui a conduit à penser que l'augmentation observée de la conductivité hydraulique pouvait être due aux méthodes de mesure et non à l'effet d'échelle. Cette étude analyse la conductivité hydraulique par

  20. Multitracer experiment to evaluate the attenuation of selected organic micropollutants in a karst aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias

    2015-02-15

    The increasing pressure on drinking water resources necessitates an efficient management of potential and actual drinking water resources. Karst aquifers play a key role in the supply of the world's population with drinking water. Around one quarter of all drinking water is produced from these types of aquifers. Unfortunately due to the aquifer characteristics with extremely high hydraulic conductivities and short residence times, these systems are vulnerable to contamination. For successful management, a fundamental understanding of mass transport and attenuation processes with respect to potential contaminants is vital. In this study, a multitracer experiment was performed in a karst aquifer in SW-Germany for determining the attenuation capacity of a karst environment by assessing the environmental fate of selected relevant micropollutants. Uranine, acesulfame and carbamazepine were injected into a sinkhole as reference tracers together with the reactive compounds atenolol, caffeine, cyclamate, ibuprofen and paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen). The breakthrough of the tracers was monitored at a karst spring at a distance of ca. 3 km. The breakthrough curves of the reactive compounds were interpreted relative to the reference substances. No significant retardation was found for any of the investigated micropollutants. The determined half-lives of the reactive compounds range from 38 to 1,400 h (i.e. persistent within the investigation period) in the following order (from high to no observed attenuation): paracetamol>atenolol≈ibuprofen>caffeine≫cyclamate. The attenuation rates are generally in agreement with studies from other environmental compartments. The occurrence of the biotransformation product atenolol acid served as evidence for in-situ biodegradation within the aquifer system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  2. Estimation of groundwater residence time using environmental radioisotopes (14C,T) in carbonate aquifers, southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska, Katarzyna; Różkowski, Andrzej; Małoszewski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Triassic carbonate aquifers in the Upper Silesia region, affected by intense withdrawal, have been investigated by means of isotopic analyses of (14)C, δ(13)C, δ(2)H, δ(18)O and (3)H. The isotopic examinations were carried out in the 1970s and in the early 1980s, and it was the first application of tracers to estimate age and vulnerability for the contamination of groundwater in this region. Similar isotopic analyses were conducted in 2007 and 2008 with the same Triassic carbonate formation. The isotopic examinations were performed within the confined part of the carbonate formation, wherein aquifers are covered by semi-permeable deposits. The direct recharge of the aquifer occurs in the outcrop areas, but it mainly takes place due to percolation of the water through aquitards and erosional windows. The Triassic aquifer has been intensively drained by wells and by lead-zinc mines. Nowadays, the declining water demand and closure of some mines have induced a significant increase in the water table level. The detailed analysis of the results, including the radiocarbon age corrections and the comparison of radioisotope activities, has made it possible to estimate the range of residence time within the carbonate Triassic aquifer. This range from several tens to several tens of thousands indicates that the recharge of aquifers might have occurred between modern times and the Pleistocene. The apparent age of the water estimated on the basis of (14)C activity was corrected considering the carbon isotope exchange and the diffusion between mobile water in fractures and stagnant water in micropores. The obtained corrected period of recharge corresponds to the result of investigations of noble gases, which were carried out in the 1990s. In almost half of the cases, groundwater is a mixture of young and old water. The mixing processes occur mainly in areas of heavy exploitation of the aquifer.

  3. Optimization of Geological Environments for Carbon Dioxide Disposan in Saline Aquifers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan

    1999-02-01

    Recent research and applications have demonstrated technologically feasible methods, defined costs, and modeled processes needed to sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline-water-bearing formations (aquifers). One of the simplifying assumptions used in previous modeling efforts is the effect of real stratigraphic complexity on transport and trapping in saline aquifers. In this study we have developed and applied criteria for characterizing saline aquifers for very long-term sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate a methodology for optimizing matches between CO{sub 2} sources and nearby saline formations that can be used for sequestration. This project identified 14 geologic properties used to prospect for optimal locations for CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline-water-bearing formations. For this demonstration, we digitized maps showing properties of saline formations and used analytical tools in a geographic information system (GIS) to extract areas that meet variably specified prototype criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Through geologic models, realistic aquifer properties such as discontinuous sand-body geometry are determined and can be used to add realistic hydrologic properties to future simulations. This approach facilitates refining the search for a best-fit saline host formation as our understanding of the most effective ways to implement sequestration proceeds. Formations where there has been significant drilling for oil and gas resources as well as extensive characterization of formations for deep-well injection and waste disposal sites can be described in detail. Information to describe formation properties can be inferred from poorly known saline formations using geologic models in a play approach. Resulting data sets are less detailed than in well-described examples but serve as an effective screening tool to identify prospects for more detailed work.

  4. The importance of some carbonate aquifers in the Guadalquivir river basin; Importancia de algunos acuiferos carbonatados representativos de la cuenca del Guadalquivir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido Boch, A.; Lopez Chicano, M.

    1995-07-01

    Carbonate aquifers play an important role in the Guadalquivir river basin, although, until present days, there are very few wells exploiting them. We can distinguish two kinds of carbonate aquifers: fissurated and karstic. In the first group, we consider the Alpujarride carbonates from the western Sierra Nevada- Alfaguara border; in the second, the most important are: Cazorla and Segura Sierras-source of the Guadalquivir river- and Sierra Gorda. The main hydrogeological characteristics of these aquifers are described and we make some reflexions about the role that the aquifers can play in the total resources of the basin. (Author)

  5. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common

  6. Microbially-mediated Destabilization Of Sedimentary Organic Carbon: Isotopic Tracking of Carbon Movement in Laboratory Incubations of Glucose-amended Aquifer Sediment to Determine Priming Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, L. E.; Polizzotto, M.; Neumann, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a worldwide concern; the result of both geogenic and anthropogenic sources. In naturally-contaminated systems, organic carbon fueling reductive dissolution is considered to be the primary mechanism of mobilization of arsenic off sediment into groundwater. Previous laboratory incubations of aquifer sediment and groundwater collected from a contaminated subsurface system in Bangladesh revealed a pool of biologically available organic carbon mobilized from the sandy sediment. Results indicated that sediments can contain chemically labile organic carbon that is physically protected or otherwise inaccessible to microbial communities. Disturbance of the aquifer matrix could destabilize this pool of sedimentary organic carbon and fuel microbial reactions that mobilize contaminants such as arsenic. Here we present results from laboratory incubations conducted to test the "priming" hypothesis, that an influx of bioavailable surface-derived organic carbon can fuel microbial reactions that target the solid phase and destabilize sedimentary organic carbon, fueling further reactions. Waters containing a range of glucose concentrations were mixed with sediment collected from a Cambodian aquifer, and concentrations and isotopic signatures of carbon were tracked over time in each material phase. The aquifer sediment contained arsenic-bearing oxide minerals, and thus, dissolved concentrations of arsenic, iron, and manganese concentrations were also measured. Results conceptually demonstrate how both surface and sedimentary derived organic carbon can interact to fuel microbial reactions that mobilize arsenic and impact groundwater quality.

  7. Implementation of a 3d numerical model of a folded multilayer carbonate aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Cristina; Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this research is to present a case study of the numerical model implementation of a complex carbonate, structurally folded aquifer, with a finite difference, porous equivalent model. The case study aquifer (which extends over 235 km2 in the Apennine chain, Central Italy) provides a long term average of 3.5 m3/s of good quality groundwater to the surface river network, sustaining the minimum vital flow, and it is planned to be exploited in the next years for public water supply. In the downstream part of the river in the study area, a "Site of Community Importance" include the Nera River for its valuable aquatic fauna. However, the possible negative effects of the foreseen exploitation on groundwater dependent ecosystems are a great concern and model grounded scenarios are needed. This multilayer aquifer was conceptualized as five hydrostratigraphic units: three main aquifers (the uppermost unconfined, the central and the deepest partly confined), are separated by two locally discontinuous aquitards. The Nera river cuts through the two upper aquifers and acts as the main natural sink for groundwater. An equivalent porous medium approach was chosen. The complex tectonic structure of the aquifer requires several steps in defining the conceptual model; the presence of strongly dipping layers with very heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity, results in different thicknesses of saturated portions. Aquifers can have both unconfined or confined zones; drying and rewetting must be allowed when considering recharge/discharge cycles. All these characteristics can be included in the conceptual and numerical model; however, being the number of flow and head target scarce, the over-parametrization of the model must be avoided. Following the principle of parsimony, three steady state numerical models were developed, starting from a simple model, and then adding complexity: 2D (single layer), QUASI -3D (with leackage term simulating flow through aquitards) and

  8. Lithological and hydrological influences on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous carbonate-clay aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, S.J.; Herman, J.S.; Jones, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of clay units on ground-water composition was investigated in a heterogeneous carbonate aquifer system of Miocene age in southwest Florida, known as the Intermediate aquifer system. Regionally, the ground water is recharged inland, flows laterally and to greater depths in the aquifer systems, and is discharged vertically upward at the saltwater interface along the coast. A depth profile of water composition was obtained by sampling ground water from discrete intervals within the permeable carbonate units during coring and by squeezing pore water from a core of the less-permeable clay layers. A normative salt analysis of solute compositions in the water indicated a marine origin for both types of water and an evolutionary pathway for the clay water that involves clay diagenesis. The chemical composition of the ground water in the carbonate bedrock is significantly different from that of the pore water in the clay layers. Dissolution of clays and opaline silica results in high silica concentrations relative to water in other parts of the Intermediate aquifer system. Water enriched in chloride relative to the overlying and underlying ground water recharges the aquifer inland where the confining clay layer is absent, and it dissolves carbonate and silicate minerals and reacts with clays along its flow path, eventually reaching this coastal site and resulting in the high chloride and silica concentrations observed in the middle part of the Intermediate aquifer system. Reaction-path modeling suggests that the recharging surficial water mixes with sulfate-rich water upwelling from the Upper Floridan aquifer, and carbonate mineral dissolution and precipitation, weathering and exchange reactions, clay mineral diagenesis, clay and silica dissolution, organic carbon oxidation, and iron and sulfate reduction result in the observed water compositions.A study was conducted to clarify the influence of clay units on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous

  9. Comparative estimate of resistance to drought fro selected karstic aquifers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orehova Tatiana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of water resources requires adequate knowledge of groundwater system including the influence of climate variability and climate change. The drought of 1982-1994 in Bulgaria has led to important decrease of springflow and lowering of water levels. Therefore, groundwater demonstrated its vulnerability to drought. The purpose of this paper is to determine relative resistance of selected aquifers in Bulgaria to a prolonged decrease of recharge to groundwater. The drought resistance indicator has been defined for some karstic aquifers based on the method proposed in report of BRGM. The data from National Hydrogeological Network located in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology were processed. For the aim of this study, time-series of discharge for karstic springs were used. Stations with significant impact of human activity on groundwater were eliminated. The results show that most of studied aquifers in Bulgaria have moderate and weak resistance to the drought. They are vulnerable to droughts and need good management for effective use of groundwater resources.

  10. The addition of organic carbon and nitrate affects reactive transport of heavy metals in sandy aquifers

    KAUST Repository

    Satyawali, Yamini

    2011-04-01

    Organic carbon introduction in the soil to initiate remedial measures, nitrate infiltration due to agricultural practices or sulphate intrusion owing to industrial usage can influence the redox conditions and pH, thus affecting the mobility of heavy metals in soil and groundwater. This study reports the fate of Zn and Cd in sandy aquifers under a variety of plausible in-situ redox conditions that were induced by introduction of carbon and various electron acceptors in column experiments. Up to 100% Zn and Cd removal (from the liquid phase) was observed in all the four columns, however the mechanisms were different. Metal removal in column K1 (containing sulphate), was attributed to biological sulphate reduction and subsequent metal precipitation (as sulphides). In the presence of both nitrate and sulphate (K2), the former dominated the process, precipitating the heavy metals as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In the presence of sulphate, nitrate and supplemental iron (Fe(OH)3) (K3), metal removal was also due to precipitation as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In abiotic column, K4, (with supplemental iron (Fe(OH)3), but no nitrate), cation exchange with soil led to metal removal. The results obtained were modeled using the reactive transport model PHREEQC-2 to elucidate governing processes and to evaluate scenarios of organic carbon, sulphate and nitrate inputs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Sources and impact of sulphate on groundwaters of Triassic carbonate aquifers, Upper Silesia, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska, Katarzyna; Halas, Stanislaw; Bottrell, Simon H.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryGroundwater within the unconfined or semi-confined parts of Triassic carbonate aquifers in Upper Silesia (Poland) contains high concentrations of sulphate (up to 290 mg/L), sometimes in excess of drinking water limits (>250 mg/L). To assess the influence of different possible sulphate sources, isotopic analyses of S and O were performed on groundwater sulphate and potential sulphate sources and combined with literature data. Three dominant sources of sulphate were delineated, based on the geological and literature study and supported by the mixing relations between inverse concentration of sulphate and its isotopic compositions. These sources are: (i) sulphate from rainfall; (ii) weathering of sulphide minerals in ore deposits in the aquifer-forming carbonate rocks; (iii) dissolution of sulphate evaporites in the Triassic sequence. Fortunately these three sources have distinctive S and O isotope compositions and thus their contributions to the total dissolved sulphate could be estimated. The application of linear mixing models for three sources in the dual isotope system allowed the impact of the three different sulphate sources on particular parts of the aquifers to be calculated. The average isotopic composition of sulphate in abstracted groundwater indicates that the most important source of sulphate is sulphide weathering, contributing about 50% of total sulphate. The second most significant source of sulphate input is rainfall and it is characterised by a mean contribution of 30%. Application of Monte Carlo analysis that incorporates the full variability in distributions of isotopic compositions for the three sources and all mixing fractions between them gave the most probable ranges of the dissolved in groundwater sulphate. This analysis indicated that the proportion of sulphate derived by sulphide oxidation is comparable with the estimations based on linear models. This study has shown that the water quality of these important groundwater resources is

  12. Influence of soil on groundwater geochemistry in a carbonate aquifer, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Boschetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of soil compositions in influencing groundwater geochemistry in carbonate aquifers is still little known. Nothing is known regarding the influence of pyroclastic soils (andisol within the carbonate Apennines in central-southern Italy, despite their wide distribution. In this study we analyze some physical and chemical properties of pyroclastic soil at the Acqua dei Faggi experimental site (southern Italy, to assess its influence on groundwater geochemistry. Chemical analyses were carried out on saturated paste extracts and a physical analogue model was developed through two column experiments. Physico-chemical properties of rainwater and spring water, and some microbiological features of the soil medium were also taken into consideration. The studied soil has a great influence in modifying rainwater chemistry during percolation. About the 50% of HCO3- and Ca2+ in spring water is due to interaction between percolation water and soil medium, and equilibrium with calcite is reached at this stage. The Na+/K+ ratio is buffered by clay minerals in the soil by primary silicates in the pyroclastic cover and then buffered. Cl- and SO42- concentrations in spring water are very close to that of soil infiltration water during short-term interaction with soil, but a decline is showed during long-term cause to the anions adsorption effect in the andisol. Chemical and microbiological investigations show the existence of a soil microbial community that allows denitrification and nitrate reduction. Infiltration processes cause anoxic conditions within the soil medium, therefore the absence of NH4+ in spring water throughout the observation period should be due to anammox processes. These findings suggest that hydrochemistry and spring chemographs may be significantly influenced by several factors, such as relationships between soil and rainwater, vegetation, and microbial communities, which are not necessarily correlated with lithological and structural

  13. A methodology for extreme groundwater surge predetermination in carbonate aquifers: Groundwater flood frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, K.; Jourde, H.; Pistre, S.

    2008-04-01

    SummaryThe present paper introduces a methodology devoted to groundwater flooding hazard assessment. It focuses on groundwater floodings due to water table rises that are induced by heavy rainfall events. This special kind of flooding can cause devastating damages, particularly in fractured and karstified carbonate aquifers. Indeed, hydrodynamic conditions prevailing in these heterogeneous formations can involve strong groundwater surges. The developed methodology shows how flood frequency analysis methods can be applied in groundwater flood frequency analysis. Actually, it consists in estimating the T-year hydraulic head that characterizes the T-year groundwater surge, given a return period T. It also aims at defining the rainfall events likely to cause such extreme groundwater surges. This methodology was applied within the framework of a building construction project in a karstic Mediterranean aquifer located in Southern France. The present paper is designated to be a first contribution to groundwater flood frequency analysis. This new field of research has to be further developed in order to put forward consensus guidelines for hydrogeologists and decision-makers as in flood frequency analysis.

  14. Steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Buto, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the construction, calibration, evaluation, and results of a steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system that was developed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Census Initiative to evaluate the nation’s groundwater availability. The study area spans 110,000 square miles across five states. The numerical model uses MODFLOW-2005, and incorporates and tests complex hydrogeologic and hydrologic elements of a conceptual understanding of an interconnected groundwater system throughout the region, including mountains, basins, consolidated rocks, and basin fill. The level of discretization in this model has not been previously available throughout the study area.

  15. Geophysical and geochemical investigation of the saltwater intrusion into the coastal carbonate aquifer of Mallorca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garing, C.; Luquot, L.; Pezard, P.; Gouze, P.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal aquifers often display seawater intrusions resulting in the formation of a salty water wedge progressing inland. The mixing zone water has a chemical composition in disequilibrium with the rock forming carbonate minerals inducing significant mass transfers that may modify porosity and permeability irreversibly. Yet, these changes in the aquifer properties and the controlling mechanisms are poorly described due to the large variability of the (bio)chemical and hydrodynamic environment and the difficulty of monitoring both the fluid and the rock changes over pertinent durations. In this study we first characterize a saltwater intrusion into a coastal carbonate aquifer of Mallorca Island (Spain) and monitor its evolution with time, from 2003 to 2011, using repeated electrical conductivity logs of the formation and the saturating fluid, as well as regular pore-water sampling and permanent downhole multi-parameters monitoring of the water. Secondly, we investigate the geochemical processes occurring within the mixing zone by a coupled analysis of the sampled water composition and the characteristics of the rock, which are investigates with borehole images, thin sections and X-Ray tomography. The results show that the mixing zone groundwater is undersaturated with respect to calcite. The maximum calcite undersaturation is observed at the saltwater side of the mixing zone, which is not consistent with the prediction of the theoretical conservative mixing of the freshwater and seawater end-members. The observation of calcite dissolution features suggests that the undersaturated water in the mixing zone might lead to noticeable porosity development at these depths. Also, the localization of the dissolution features slightly deeper to the maximum undersaturation suggests an upward motion of the mixing zone. The data also highlight a pH anomaly (acidification) localized at the center of the freshwater-saltwater, which cannot be explained by conservative mixing, but

  16. Carbon Sequestration in Saline Aquifers: Modeling Diffusive and Convective Transport Of a Carbon-­Dioxide Cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    An increase in the earth’s surface temperature has been directly linked to the rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels In the atmosphere and an enhanced greenhouse effect. CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed mitigation Strategies in the effort to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Globally speaking, saline aquifers provide an adequate storage capacity for the world’s carbon emissions, and CO2 sequestration projects are currently underway in countries such as Norway, Germany, Japan, USA, and others. Numerical simulators serve as predictive tools for CO2 storage, yet must model fluid transport behavior while coupling different transport processes together accurately. With regards to CO2 sequestration, an extensive amount of research has been done on the diffusive-convective transport that occurs under a cap of CO2-saturated fluid, which results after CO2 is injected into an aquifer and spreads laterally under an area of low permeability. The diffusive-convective modeling reveals an enhanced storage capacity in saline aquifers, due to the density increase between pure fluid and CO2‐saturated fluid. This work presents the transport modeling equations that are used for diffusive- convective modeling. A cell-centered finite difference method is used, and simulations are run using MATLAB. Two cases are explored in order to compare the results from this work’s self-generated code with the results published in literature. Simulation results match relatively well, and the discrepancy for a delayed onset time of convective transport observed in this work is attributed to numerical artifacts. In fact, onset time in this work is directly attributed to the instability of the physical system: this instability arises from non-linear coupling of fluid flow, transport, and convection, but is triggered by numerical errors in these simulations. Results from this work enable the computation of a value for the numerical constant that appears in the onset time equation that

  17. Chloride mass balance to quantify the wastewater impact on karstified carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Nuseibeh, M.; Geyer, T.; Abdelghafour, D.; Al-Naji, G.; Bsharat, J.; Sawalhi, B.; Guttman, J.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater resources are vulnerable to anthropogenic influences, like i.e. wastewater disposal in the environment. This is especially critical in karstified carbonate aquifers, because of the partially high flow velocities, resulting in an insufficient attenuation potential against pollutants. To assess the health risk associated with the pollution of the groundwater and for remediation measures planning, the wastewater impact on groundwater resources needs to be quantified. For this purpose the analysis of conservative tracer substances, abundant in the wastewater, is considered a suitable technique. Among the substances considered as tracers, chloride exhibits superior characteristics, the only drawback being the usually high natural background concentration in groundwater. As the chloride ion is not removed by common wastewater treatment processes, it is indicative of both treated and untreated wastewater. In this study, an example for a semi-arid karstified carbonate aquifer system is presented. The study area is located on the western margin of the Lower Jordan Valley (West Bank). The upper aquifer is discharged via several springs. For the springs in the study area, time series of chloride concentration in spring water from 1967-98 were interpreted. The study area displays a high population growth, which results in a steadily increasing wastewater discharge amount. The wastewater is mostly infiltrating into the karst system. First, the long-term average groundwater recharge rate of the local aquifers that fed the springs was quantified with the chloride mass balance method from groundwater data that are little influenced by anthropogenic impacts. The chloride concentration in the local precipitation is 9-10 mg/l and the average value in groundwater is 31 mg/l. This yields a mean recharge rate of around 30 percent. Second, the fraction of groundwater recharge, resulting from the infiltration of wastewater from leaky sewer systems and from wastewater disposal

  18. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Polygon regions of the upper confining unit of the Floridan aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  19. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Geologic units forming base of the Floridan aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  20. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Polygon regions depicting saline areas within the Floridan aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  1. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Potentiometric surface contours for the top of the Floridan aquifer system - 50 foot interval

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  2. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Points for the top of the Lower Floridan aquifer below the LISAPCU

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  3. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Line showing approximate updip limit of the upper confining unit of the Floridan aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  4. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Polygon regions of low permeability units forming the base of the Upper Floridan aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  5. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Estimated transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  6. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Raster surface for transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  7. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Point features for the thickness of the Floridan aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  8. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Raster surface depicting top of the Lower Floridan aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  9. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Points for the top the Floridan aquifer system, constrained

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  10. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Points for the "freshwater" thickness of the Floridan aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  11. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Point features used for the base of the Floridan aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  12. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Contours for thickness of the Lower Floridan aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  13. Evapotranspiration units in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range Carbonate-rock Aquifer System (BARCAS) study...

  14. 1:1,000,000-scale potentiometric contours and control points for the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system of Nevada, Utah, and parts of adjacent states

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was created in support of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study focusing on groundwater resources in the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer...

  15. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework for the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system of Nevada, Utah, and parts of adjacent states

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was created in support of a study focusing on groundwater resources in the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system (GBCAAS). The GBCAAS is a...

  16. 1:1,000,000-scale hydrographic areas and flow systems for the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system of Nevada, Utah, and parts of adjacent states

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was created in support of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study focusing on groundwater resources in the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer...

  17. Correlation of Benzene, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, and Naphthalene Distribution Coefficients to the Characteristics of Aquifer Materials With Low Organic Carbon Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory batch experiments on benzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and naphthalene (concentration: 100–1600 μg/l) sorption onto 20 aquifer materials of low organic carbon content (0.006–0.21 %) showed that the equilibrium distribution between solute and aquifer material could be expressed...... by the distribution coefficient, Kd, since the isotherms were linear: Kd(benzene): 0.05–0.65, Kd(TCA): 0.04–0.55, and Kd(naphthalene): 0.1–15.7 ml/g. Correlating observed Kd values to the organic carbon content of the aquifer materials explained only 52–65 % of the variance in Kd. Introducing the specific surface...... be attributed to unknown differences in organic matter composition or to the presence of other sorbing components in the aquifer materials. Fair correlations between Kd values for the studied compounds were observed for the individual aquifer materials....

  18. Water-Level Conditions in Selected Confined Aquifers of the New Jersey and Delaware Coastal Plain, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Rosman, Robert; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2009-01-01

    The Coastal Plain aquifers of New Jersey provide an important source of water for more than 2 million people. Steadily increasing withdrawals from the late 1800s to the early 1990s resulted in declining water levels and the formation of regional cones of depression. In addition to decreasing water supplies, declining water levels in the confined aquifers have led to reversals in natural hydraulic gradients that have, in some areas, induced the flow of saline water from surface-water bodies and adjacent aquifers to freshwater aquifers. In 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began mapping the potentiometric surfaces of the major confined aquifers of New Jersey every 5 years in order to provide a regional assessment of ground-water conditions in multiple Coastal Plain aquifers concurrently. In 1988, mapping of selected potentiometric surfaces was extended into Delaware. During the fall of 2003, water levels measured in 967 wells in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, northeastern Delaware, and northwestern Maryland were used estimate the potentiometric surface of the principal confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey and five equivalent aquifers in Delaware. Potentiometric-surface maps and hydrogeologic sections were prepared for the confined Cohansey aquifer of Cape May County, the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, the Vincentown aquifer, and the Englishtown aquifer system in New Jersey, as well as for the Piney Point aquifer, the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer, and the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, the Middle and undifferentiated Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and the Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers in New Jersey and their equivalents in Delaware. From 1998 to 2003, water levels in many Coastal Plain aquifers in New Jersey remained stable or had recovered, but in some areas, water levels continued to decline as a result of pumping. In the Cohansey aquifer in Cape May County, water levels near the center of the cone of depression

  19. Disposal of carbon dioxide in aquifers in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, E.M.; Bergman, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Deep saline aquifers were investigated as potential disposal sites for CO{sub 2}. The capacity of deep aquifers for CO{sub 2} disposal in the U.S. is highly uncertain. A rough estimate, derived from global estimates, is 5,500 Gt of CO{sub 2}. Saline aquifers underlie the regions in the U.S. where most utility power plants are situated. Therefore, approximately 65 percent of CO{sub 2} from power plants could possibly be injected directly into deep saline aquifers below these plants, without the need for long pipelines.

  20. Heat Treated Carbon Fiber Material Selection Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, M.; Patel, B.; Koenig, J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibers are used in a variety high temperature applications and materials. However, one limiting factor in their transition into additional applications is an understanding of their functional properties during component processing and function. The requirements on the fibers are governed by the nature of the materials and the environments in which they will be used. The current carbon fiber vendor literature is geared toward the polymeric composite industry and not the ceramic composite industry. Thus, selection of carbon fibers is difficult, since their properties change as a function of heat treatment, processing or component operational temperature, which ever is greatest. To enable proper decisions to be made, a program was established wherein multiple fibers were selected and heat treated at different temperatures. The fibers were then examined for their physical and mechanical properties which are reported herein.

  1. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in carbonate aquifers of southern Latium region, central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spring and well water samples, from carbonate aquifers of Latium region, have been characterized to determine the hydrochemical processes governing the evolution of the groundwater. Most of the spring samples, issuing from Lepini, Ausoni and Aurunci Mts., are characterized as alkaline earth HCO3 waters, however, some samples show a composition of Cl--SO4 -- alkaline earth waters. Groundwater samples from Pontina Plain shows three different hydrochemical facies: alkaline earth HCO3 type, Cl-- SO4 -- alkaline earth type and Cl--SO4 -- alkaline type waters. Geochemical modeling and saturation index computation of the sampled waters show an interaction with calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic lithologies. Most of the springs and wells was kinetically saturated with respect to calcite and dolomite, and all the samples were below the equilibrium state with gypsum. This indicates that the groundwater has capacity to dissolve the gypsum along the flow paths. The electrical conductivity and Cl- concentrations of the sampled waters show a positive trend with the decrease in the distance from the coast, highlighting seawater intrusion in the coastal area. According to hydrochemistry results and geochemical modeling, the dominant factors in controlling the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater are: (i water rock interaction with calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic lithologies; (ii seawater intrusion in the coastal area; (iii dissolution and/or precipitation of carbonate and (i.e. dolomite and calcite evaporate minerals (gypsum determined by saturation indexes; (iv mineral weathering process; (the high Mg/Ca ratio due to the weathering of Mg-rich dolomite.

  2. Death Valley Lower Carbonate Aquifer Monitoring Program Wells Down gradient of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inyo County

    2006-07-26

    Inyo County has participated in oversight activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository since 1987. The overall goal of these studies are the evaluation of far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, or radionuclides into Inyo County, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. In addition to the potential of radionuclide transport through the LCA, Czarnecki (1997), with the US Geological Survey, research indicate potential radionuclide transport through the shallower Tertiary-age aquifer materials with ultimate discharge into the Franklin Lake Playa in Inyo County. The specific purpose of this Cooperative Agreement drilling program was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: (1) establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin; (2) characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and (3) Evaluation the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA.

  3. Characterization of Carbonate Hydrostratigraphy Using Ambient Seismic Noise: A Pilot Study in the Floridan Aquifer System, Ocala, FL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.; Screaton, E.; Russo, R. M.; Panning, M. P.; Bremner, P. M.; Stanciu, A. C.; Torpey, M. E.; Hongsresawat, S.; Farrell, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Defining zones of high and low hydraulic conductivity within aquifers is vital to hydrogeologic research and groundwater management. Carbonate aquifers are particularly difficult to characterize due to dissolution and dolomitization. We investigated a new imaging technique for aquifer characterization that uses cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise to determine seismic velocity structure. Differences in densities between confining units and high permeability flow zones can produce distinct seismic velocities in the correlated signals. We deployed an array of 9 short period geophones from 11/2013 to 3/2014 in Indian Lake State Forest, Florida, to determine if the high frequency diffusive seismic wavefield can be used for imaging hydrostratigraphy. Here, a thin surficial layer of siliciclastic deposits overlie a ~ 0.6 km sequence of Cenozoic limestone and dolomite units that comprise the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS). A low permeability dolomite unit vertically divides the FAS throughout most of Florida. Deep boreholes surrounding the site constrain hydrostratigraphy, however the horizontal continuity of the middle dolomite unit as well as its effectiveness as a confining unit in the study area are not well known. The stations were spaced at distances ranging from 0.18 to 2.6 km, and yielded 72 cross-correlation Green's functions for Rayleigh wave propagation at frequencies between 0.2 and 40 Hz, with dominant peaks around 0.8 Hz, 3 Hz and 13 Hz. Local vehicle traffic did interfere to a degree with the correlation of the diffuse waves, but was minimized by using only nighttime data. At the lowest frequencies (greatest depths) investigated, velocities increase with depth; however, correlations become less coherent at higher frequencies, perhaps due to shallow complex scattering. Comparison of cross-correlations for all station pairs also indicates spatial variations in velocity. Thus, the method shows promise for characterization of the heterogeneity of the

  4. Groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge and Piedmont and Blue Ridge carbonate-rock aquifers, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Valley and Ridge and Piedmont and Blue Ridge carbonate-rock aquifers constitute two of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 15 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 17 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 2 percent of the study area.

  5. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, “Southwest”) since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality.The synthesis consists of three major components:1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report).2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants.3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination.Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  6. Drinking Water Quality Criterion - Based site Selection of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Scheme in Chou-Shui River Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. E.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation is an urgent environmental problem in Choushui river alluvial fan in Taiwan. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), where excess surface water is injected into subsurface aquifers for later recovery, is one promising strategy for managing surplus water and may overcome water shortages. The performance of an ASR scheme is generally evaluated in terms of recovery efficiency, which is defined as percentage of water injected in to a system in an ASR site that fulfills the targeted water quality criterion. Site selection of an ASR scheme typically faces great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study proposes a novel method for the ASR site selection based on drinking quality criterion. Simplified groundwater flow and contaminant transport model spatial distributions of the recovery efficiency with the help of the groundwater quality, hydrological condition, ASR operation. The results of this study may provide government administrator for establishing reliable ASR scheme.

  7. Selected aquifer-test and specific-capacity data for wells in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point dataset contains estimates of aquifer transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity at selected well locations in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water...

  8. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Well cluster sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  9. Selective ion transport in functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylova, Olga N.; Calixte, Emvia I.; Shuford, Kevin L.

    2017-11-01

    Ion transport through functionalized carbon nanotubes in an external electric field is studied using all atom molecular dynamics simulations. The surface of carbon nanotubes has been functionalized with hydrogens and hydroxyl groups, and ionic current passing through the nanochannels has been examined with respect to the extent of surface modification. We are able to dramatically increase the ionic current passing through the nanotube via the appropriate surface modification. An analysis of the electrostatic potential within the tube shows higher ionic currents result from an increase in accessible pathways coupled with a global shift toward more direct ion passage. Moreover, through judicious choice of structure, the current can be modulated to a large degree with ion selectivity.

  10. Carbon isotope fractionation for cotton genotype selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Greigh de Brito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the carbon isotope fractionation as a phenomic facility for cotton selection in contrasting environments and to assess its relationship with yield components. The experiments were carried out in a randomized block design, with four replicates, in the municipalities of Santa Helena de Goiás (SHGO and Montividiu (MONT, in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The analysis of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ was performed in 15 breeding lines and three cultivars. Subsequently, the root growth kinetic and root system architecture from the selected genotypes were determined. In both locations, Δ analyses were suitable to discriminate cotton genotypes. There was a positive correlation between Δ and seed-cotton yield in SHGO, where water deficit was more severe. In this site, the negative correlations found between Δ and fiber percentage indicate an integrative effect of gas exchange on Δ and its association with yield components. As for root robustness and growth kinetic, the GO 05 809 genotype performance contributes to sustain the highest values of Δ found in MONT, where edaphoclimatic conditions were more suitable for cotton. The use of Δ analysis as a phenomic facility can help to select cotton genotypes, in order to obtain plants with higher efficiency for gas exchange and water use.

  11. Influence of initial heterogeneities and recharge limitations on the evolution of aperture distributions in carbonate aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hubinger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Karst aquifers evolve where the dissolution of soluble rocks causes the enlargement of discrete pathways along fractures or bedding planes, thus creating highly conductive solution conduits. To identify general interrelations between hydrogeological conditions and the properties of the evolving conduit systems the aperture-size frequency distributions resulting from generic models of conduit evolution are analysed. For this purpose, a process-based numerical model coupling flow and rock dissolution is employed. Initial protoconduits are represented by tubes with log-normally distributed aperture sizes with a mean μ0 = 0.5 mm for the logarithm of the diameters. Apertures are spatially uncorrelated and widen up to the metre range due to dissolution by chemically aggressive waters. Several examples of conduit development are examined focussing on influences of the initial heterogeneity and the available amount of recharge. If the available recharge is sufficiently high the evolving conduits compete for flow and those with large apertures and high hydraulic gradients attract more and more water. As a consequence, the positive feedback between increasing flow and dissolution causes the breakthrough of a conduit pathway connecting the recharge and discharge sides of the modelling domain. Under these competitive flow conditions dynamically stable bimodal aperture distributions are found to evolve, i.e. a certain percentage of tubes continues to be enlarged while the remaining tubes stay small-sized. The percentage of strongly widened tubes is found to be independent of the breakthrough time and decreases with increasing heterogeneity of the initial apertures and decreasing amount of available water. If the competition for flow is suppressed because the availability of water is strongly limited breakthrough of a conduit pathway is inhibited and the conduit pathways widen very slowly. The resulting aperture distributions are found to be

  12. Hydraulic characterisation of carbonate aquifers with pumping tests - comparison of analytical and numerical data evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baierl, M.; Kordilla, J.; Reimann, T.; Dörfliger, N.; Sauter, M.; Geyer, T.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the analysis of pumping tests in strongly heterogeneous media. Pumping tests were performed in the catchment area of the Lez spring (South of France), which is composed of carbonate rocks. Pumping rates for the different tests varied between 0.04 l/s - 0.7 l/s, i.e. the radius of influence of the cone of depression is small. The investigated boreholes are characterised by tight rocks, moderate fractures and karstified zones. The observed drawdown curves are clearly influenced by the rock characteristics. Single drawdown curves show S-shape character. Data evaluation was performed with the solution approaches of Theis (1935) and Gringarten-Ramey (1974), which are implemented in the employed software AQTESOLV (Pro 4.0). Parameters were varied in reliable data ranges with consideration of reported values in the literature. The Theis method analyses unsteady flow in homogeneous confined aquifers. The Gringarten-Ramey solution describes the drawdown in a well connected to a single horizontal fracture. The Theis curve fails to represent the characteristics for nearly all of the measured drawdown curves, while the Gringarten-Ramey method shows moderate graphical fits with a small residual sum of squares between fitted and observed drawdown curves. This highlights the importance of heterogeneities in the hydraulic parameter field at local scale. The determined hydraulic conductivities of the rock are in reasonable ranges varying between 1E-04 m/s and 1E-08 m/s. Wellbore skin effects need to be discussed further in detail. While the analytical solutions are only valid for specific geometrical and hydraulic configurations, numerical models can be applied to simulate pumping tests in complex heterogeneous media with different boundary conditions. For that reason, a two dimensional, axisymmetric numerical model, using COMSOL (Multiphysics 4.1), is set up. In a first step, the model is validated with the simulated curves from the analytical solutions under

  13. Identifying microbial carbon sources during ethanol and toluene biodegradation in a pilot-scale experimental aquifer system using isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, S.; McLeod, H.; Smith, J. E.; Roy, J. W.; Slater, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    Combining ethanol with gasoline has become increasingly common in order to create more environmentally conscience transportation fuels. These blended fuels are favourable alternatives since ethanol is a non-toxic and highly labile renewable biomass-based resource which is an effective fuel oxygenate that reduces air pollution. Recent research however, has indicated that upon accidental release into groundwater systems, the preferential microbial metabolism of ethanol can cause progressively reducing conditions leading to slower biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Therefore, the presence of ethanol can result in greater persistence of BTEX compounds and longer hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater systems. Microbial biodegradation and community carbon sources coupled to aqueous geochemistry were monitored in a pilot-scale laboratory tank (80cm x 525cm x 175cm) simulating an unconfined sand aquifer. Dissolved ethanol and toluene were continuously injected into the aquifer at a controlled rate over 330 days. Carbon isotope analyses were performed on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) samples collected from 4 different locations along the aquifer. Initial stable carbon isotope values measured over days 160-185 in the bacterial PLFA ranged from δ13C = -10 to -21‰, which is indicative of dominant ethanol incorporation by the micro-organisms based on the isotopic signature of ethanol derived from corn, a C4 plant. A negative shift to δ13C = -10 to -30‰ observed over days 185-200, suggests a change in microbial metabolisms associated with less ethanol incorporation. This generally corresponds to a decrease in ethanol concentrations from day 40 to full attenuation at approximately day 160, and the onset of toluene depletion observed on day 120 and continuing thereafter. In addition, aqueous methane concentrations first detected on day 115 continued to rise to 0.38-0.70 mmol/L at all monitoring locations, demonstrating a significant redox shift to low energy methanogenic

  14. The role of diagenisis in the hydrogeological stratification of carbonate aquifers: an example from the chalk at Fair Cross, Berkshire, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bloomfield

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate rocks form important aquifers in many parts of the world and in north-west Europe the Chalk is a primary source of potable water. When flushed with relatively fresh groundwaters, the Chalk may undergo significant diagenetic alteration at relatively shallow depths resulting in a physically and hydrogeochemically stratified aquifer. Diagenetic affects may have important implications for the effective exploitable thickness of the Chalk aquifer and for water quality. In order to assess the affects of diagenesis on the properties of carbonate aquifers, matrix porosity, permeability, pore water and rock chemistry profiles have been analysed for a 300 m deep borehole through the Chalk at the western end of the London Basin. An abrupt change in the matrix porosity profile at 155 mbgl indicates a change in dominant mode of historic diagenesis from mechanical compaction above 155 mbgl to predominantly pressure solution compaction below 155 mbgl. Pore water and rock chemistry profiles also change abruptly across this depth interval, suggesting that the present day hydrogeology is controlled by historic diagenetic trends. Below 155 mbgl, pore waters are relatively saline and there is no evidence for groundwater flow; above 155 mbgl pore waters are relatively fresh and geochemical evidence for incon-gruent carbonate dissolution indicates contemporary groundwater circulation. Possible physical and chemical evolution paths for the Chalk at Fair Cross are discussed. The results provide a hydrogeological context for other studies of the long-term response of carbonate aquifers to base-line changes in sea-level and pore water chemistry and also enable studies with relatively short time-frames or of localized phenomena to be placed in the broader context of the evolution of carbonate aquifers.

  15. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana H.

    2013-03-31

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) consists of 5 U.S DOE national laboratories collaborating to develop a framework for predicting the risks associated with carbon sequestration. The approach taken by NRAP is to divide the system into components, including injection target reservoirs, wellbores, natural pathways including faults and fractures, groundwater and the atmosphere. Next, develop a detailed, physics and chemistry-based model of each component. Using the results of the detailed models, develop efficient, simplified models, termed reduced order models (ROM) for each component. Finally, integrate the component ROMs into a system model that calculates risk profiles for the site. This report details the development of the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer at PNNL. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer uses a Wellbore Leakage ROM developed at LANL as input. The detailed model, using the STOMP simulator, covers a 5x8 km area of the Edwards Aquifer near San Antonio, Texas. The model includes heterogeneous hydraulic properties, and equilibrium, kinetic and sorption reactions between groundwater, leaked CO2 gas, brine, and the aquifer carbonate and clay minerals. Latin Hypercube sampling was used to generate 1024 samples of input parameters. For each of these input samples, the STOMP simulator was used to predict the flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, and the volume, length and width of the aquifer where pH was less than the MCL standard, and TDS, arsenic, cadmium and lead exceeded MCL standards. In order to decouple the Wellbore Leakage ROM from the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM, the response surface was transformed to replace Wellbore Leakage ROM input parameters with instantaneous and cumulative CO2 and brine leakage rates. The most sensitive parameters proved to be the CO2 and brine leakage rates from the well, with equilibrium coefficients for calcite and dolomite, as well as the number of illite and kaolinite

  16. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  17. Carbon, metals, and grain size correlate with bacterial community structure in sediments of a high arsenic aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Teresa M; Zheng, Yan; Simone, Bailey; Radloff, Kathleen A; Mladenov, Natalie; González, Antonio; Knights, Dan; Siu, Ho Chit; Rahman, M Moshiur; Ahmed, K Matin; McKnight, Diane M; Nemergut, Diana R

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial communities can exert significant influence on the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic (As). This has globally important implications since As in drinking water affects the health of over 100 million people worldwide, including in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta region of Bangladesh where geogenic arsenic in groundwater can reach concentrations of more than 10 times the World Health Organization's limit. Thus, the goal of this research was to investigate patterns in bacterial community composition across gradients in sediment texture and chemistry in an aquifer with elevated groundwater As concentrations in Araihazar, Bangladesh. We characterized the bacterial community by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes from aquifer sediment samples collected at three locations along a groundwater flow path at a range of depths between 1.5 and 15 m. We identified significant differences in bacterial community composition between locations in the aquifer. In addition, we found that bacterial community structure was significantly related to sediment grain size, and sediment carbon (C), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) concentrations. Deltaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi were found in higher proportions in silty sediments with higher concentrations of C, Fe, and Mn. By contrast, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were in higher proportions in sandy sediments with lower concentrations of C and metals. Based on the phylogenetic affiliations of these taxa, these results may indicate a shift to more Fe-, Mn-, and humic substance-reducers in the high C and metal sediments. It is well-documented that C, Mn, and Fe may influence the mobility of groundwater arsenic, and it is intriguing that these constituents may also structure the bacterial community.

  18. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the microbial community in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating the infiltration zone of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Parallel systems were supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment-associated microbial community structure were analyzed. Total microbial biomass associated with sediments was positively correlated with BDOC concentration where a significant decline in BDOC was observed along the column length. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated dominance by Bacteria with Archaea comprising less than 1 percent of the total community. Proteobacteria was found to be the major phylum in samples from all column depths with contributions from Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial community structure at all the phylum, class and genus levels differed significantly at 1 cm between columns receiving moderate and low BDOC concentrations; in contrast strong similarities were observed both between parallel column systems and across samples from 30 to 120 cm depths. Samples from 1 cm depth of the low BDOC columns exhibited higher microbial diversity (expressed as Shannon Index) than those at 1 cm of moderate BDOC columns, and both increased from 5.4 to 5.9 at 1 cm depth to 6.7-8.3 at 30-120 cm depths. The microbial community structure reached steady state after 3-4 months since the initiation of the experiment, which also resulted in an improved DOC removal during the same time period. This study suggested that BDOC could significantly influence microbial community structure regarding both composition and diversity of artificial MAR systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Nitrogen-isotope analysis of groundwater nitrate in carbonate aquifers: Natural sources versus human pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Charles W.; Browning, Lawrence A.

    1983-02-01

    Results of nitrogen-isotope analyses of nitrate in the waters of the Cretaceous Edwards aquifer in Texas, U.S.A., indicate that the source of the nitrate is naturally-occurring nitrogen compounds in the recharge streams. In contrast, nitrogen isotopes of nitrate in the fresh waters of the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation on Grand Cayman Island, West Indies, indicate that human wastes are the source of the nitrate. The Cretaceous Edwards Limestone is a prolific aquifer that produces principally from fracture porosity along the Balcones Fault Zone. Recharge is primarily by streams crossing the fault zone. Rainfall is ˜ 70 cm yr. -1, and the water table is generally deeper than 30 m below land surface. The δ15 N of 73 samples of nitrate from Edwards waters ranged from + 1.9 to + 10‰ with an average of + 6.2‰. This δ15 N range is within the range of nitrate in surface water in the recharge streams ( δ 15N range = + 1 to + 8.3‰ ) and within the range of nitrate in surface water from the Colorado River, Texas, ( δ 15N range = + 1 to + 11‰ ). No sample was found to be enriched in 15N, which would suggest the presence of nitrate from animal waste ( δ 15N range = + 10 to + 22‰ ). The Ironshore Formation contains a small freshwater lens that is recharged entirely by percolation through the soil. Average rainfall is 165 cm yr. -1, and the water table is within 3 m of land surface. The δ15 N of four nitrate samples from water samples of the Ironshore Formation ranged from + 18 to + 23.9‰, which indicates a cesspool/septictank source of the nitrate. Limestone aquifers in humid environments that are recharged by percolation through the soil appear to be more susceptible to contamination by septic tanks than are aquifers in subhumid environments that feature thick unsaturated sections and are recharged by streams.

  20. Understanding the carbon cycle in a Late Quaternary-age limestone aquifer system using radiocarbon of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Eliza; Meredith, Karina T.; Baker, Andy; Andersen, Martin S.; Post, Vincent E. A.

    2017-04-01

    Estimating groundwater residence time is critical for our understanding of hydrogeological systems, for groundwater resource assessments and for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. Due to its capacity to date groundwater up to 30 thousand years old, as well as the ubiquitous nature of dissolved carbon (as organic and inorganic forms) in groundwater, 14C is the most widely used radiogenic dating technique in regional aquifers. However, the geochemistry of carbon in groundwater systems includes interaction with the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere, which results in multiple sources and sinks of carbon that vary in time and space. Identifying these sources of carbon and processes relating to its release or removal is important for understanding the evolution of the groundwater and essential for residence time calculations. This study investigates both the inorganic and organic facets of the carbon cycle in groundwaters throughout a freshwater lens and mixing zone of a carbonate island aquifer and identifies the sources of carbon that contribute to the groundwater system. Groundwater samples were collected from shallow (5-20 m) groundwater wells on a small carbonate Island in Western Australia in September 2014 and analysed for major and minor ions, stable water isotopes (SWIs: δ18O, δ2H), 3H, 14C and 13C carbon isotope values of both DIC and DOC, and 3H. The composition of groundwater DOC was investigated by Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis. The presence of 3H (0.12 to 1.35 TU) in most samples indicates that groundwaters on the Island are modern, however the measured 14CDIC values (8.4 to 97.2 pmc) suggest that most samples are significantly older due to carbonate dissolution and recrystallisation reactions that are identified and quantified in this work. 14CDOC values (46.6 to 105.6 pMC) were higher than 14CDIC values and were well correlated with 3H values, however deeper groundwaters had lower 14CDOC values than

  1. A zonal evaluation of intrinsic susceptibility in selected principal aquifers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Kauffman, Leon; Clark, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to evaluate intrinsic groundwater susceptibility in 11 study areas across the United States. Calibrated groundwater-flow models and a variable-advection particle-tracking scheme that accounts for uncertainty were used to derive ranges of conservative solute concentration and groundwater age within spatially defined zones from solute loading to the water table. Aquifers were partitioned into six zones; four relative depth zones and two zones to represent pumping wells and surface water. Five years after solute was introduced in simulated recharge and stream leakage, normalized zone concentrations were detected at values above 10-4 in the shallowest aquifer zone, well zone, and surface-water zone for 10 of the 11 study areas. At the 125-year time scale, 9 out of the 11 study areas exhibited detectable concentrations in all zones and the majority of zones possess concentrations that are substantial relative to the source concentration (ClCo > 10-1). Thresholds defined by the time representing the earliest 1% of groundwater-transit times were used to identify fast transport pathways within the groundwater. The 1% thresholds occurred in a period of days to years for the shallow zone, days to decades for the well and surface-water zones, and years to millennia for the deeper zones. Thresholds defined by the 99th percentile of groundwater travel times were used to reflect late-time response and ranged considerably between study area (~102 to ~106 years), which highlights the potential for chemical constituents to persist in groundwater for long periods under a conservative state. The results of this investigation provide an instructive example of the intricate relations between climate and aquifer characteristics and their role on solute transport in groundwater. The proposed method accounts for dynamical processes in the aquifer and complements more traditional assessments of susceptibility using (apparent) mean water age.

  2. Identifying aquifer type in fractured rock aquifers using harmonic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Khayyun A; Halihan, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Determining aquifer type, unconfined, semi-confined, or confined, by drilling or performing pumping tests has inherent problems (i.e., cost and complex field issues) while sometimes yielding inconclusive results. An improved method to cost-effectively determine aquifer type would be beneficial for hydraulic mapping of complex aquifer systems like fractured rock aquifers. Earth tides are known to influence water levels in wells penetrating confined aquifers or unconfined thick, low-porosity aquifers. Water-level fluctuations in wells tapping confined and unconfined aquifers are also influenced by changes in barometric pressure. Harmonic analyses of water-level fluctuations of a thick (~1000 m) carbonate aquifer located in south-central Oklahoma (Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer) were utilized in nine wells to identify aquifer type by evaluating the influence of earth tides and barometric-pressure variations using signal identification. On the basis of the results, portions of the aquifer responded hydraulically as each type of aquifer even though there was no significant variation in lithostratigraphy. The aquifer type was depth dependent with confined conditions becoming more prevalent with depth. The results demonstrate that harmonic analysis is an accurate and low-cost method to determine aquifer type. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater from confined parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Niel; Sprinkle, Craig

    2001-03-01

    Geochemical reaction models were evaluated to improve radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in groundwater from confined parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer in central and northeastern Florida, USA. The predominant geochemical reactions affecting the 14C activity of DIC include (1) dissolution of dolomite and anhydrite with calcite precipitation (dedolomitization), (2) sulfate reduction accompanying microbial degradation of organic carbon, (3) recrystallization of calcite (isotopic exchange), and (4) mixing of fresh water with as much as 7% saline water in some coastal areas. The calculated cumulative net mineral transfers are negligibly small in upgradient parts of the aquifer and increase significantly in downgradient parts of the aquifer, reflecting, at least in part, upward leakage from the Lower Floridan aquifer and circulation that contacted middle confining units in the Floridan aquifer system. The adjusted radiocarbon ages are independent of flow path and represent travel times of water from the recharge area to the sample point in the aquifer. Downgradient from Polk City (adjusted age 1.7 ka) and Keystone Heights (adjusted age 0.4 ka), 14 of the 22 waters have adjusted 14C ages of 20-30 ka, indicating that most of the fresh-water resource in the Upper Floridan aquifer today was recharged during the last glacial period. All of the paleowaters are enriched in 18O and 2H relative to modern infiltration, with maximum enrichment in δ18O of approximately 2.0‰. Résumé. Les modèles de réactions géochimiques ont été évalués afin de tester la datation par le radiocarbone du carbone minéral dissous (CMD) des eaux souterraines dans les parties captives de la nappe supérieure de Floride, en Floride centrale et nord-orientale (États-Unis). Les réactions géochimiques prédominantes affectant l'activité en 14C du CMD comprennent (1) la dissolution de la dolomite et de l'anhydrite accompagnée de la précipitation de la calcite (d

  4. Effects of a reactive barrier and aquifer geology on metal distribution and mobility in a mine drainage impacted aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Nora A.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W.

    2005-06-01

    The Nickel Rim aquifer has been impacted for five decades by a metal-rich plume generated from the Nickel Rim mine tailings impoundment. Metals released by the oxidation of pyrrhotite in the unsaturated zone of the tailings migrate into the downgradient aquifer, affecting both the groundwater and the aquifer solids. A reactive barrier has been installed in the aquifer to remove sulfate and metals from the groundwater. The effect of the reactive barrier on metal concentrations in the aquifer solids has not previously been studied. In this study, a series of selective extraction procedures was applied to cores of aquifer sediment, to ascertain the distribution of metals among various solid phases present in the aquifer. Extraction results were combined with groundwater chemistry, geochemical modelling and solid-phase microanalyses, to assess the potential mobility of metals under changing geochemical conditions. Reactions within the reactive barrier caused an increase in the solid-phase carbonate content downgradient from the barrier. The concentrations of poorly crystalline, oxidized phases of Mn and Fe, as well as concentrations of Cr(III) associated with oxidized Fe, and poorly crystalline Zn, are lower downgradient from the barrier, whereas total solid-phase metal concentrations remain constant. Iron and Mn accumulate as oxidized, easily extractable forms in a peat layer overlying the aquifer. Although these oxides may buffer reducing plumes, they also have the potential to release metals to the groundwater, should a reduced condition be imposed on the aquifer by remedial actions.

  5. Geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water with emphasis on sources of sulfate in the upper Floridan Aquifer and intermediate aquifer system in southwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Laura A.; Tihansky, Ann B.

    1996-01-01

    In southwest Florida, sulfate concentrations in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer and overlying intermediate aquifer system are commonly above 250 milligrams per liter (the drinking water standard), particularly in coastal areas. Possible sources of sulfate include dissolution of gypsum from the deeper part of the Upper Floridan aquifer or the middle confining unit, saltwater in the aquifer, and saline waters from the middle confining unit and Lower Floridan aquifer. The sources of sulfate and geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated for the Peace and Myakka River Basins and adjacent coastal areas of southwest Florida. Samples were collected from 63 wells and a saline spring, including wells finished at different depth intervals of the Upper Floridan aquifer and intermediate aquifer system at about 25 locations. Sampling focused along three ground-water flow paths (selected based on a predevelopment potentiometric-surface map). Ground water was analyzed for major ions, selected trace constituents, dissolved organic carbon, and stable isotopes (delta deuterium, oxygen-18, carbon-13 of inorganic carbon, and sulfur-34 of sulfate and sulfide); the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 was analyzed for waters along one of the flow paths. Chemical and isotopic data indicate that dedolomitization reactions (gypsum and dolomite dissolution and calcite precipitation) control the chemical composition of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer in inland areas. This is confirmed by mass-balance modeling between wells in the shallowest interval in the aquifer along the flow paths. However, gypsum occurs deeper in the aquifer than these wells. Upwelling of sulfate-rich water that previously dissolved gypsum in deeper parts of the aquifer is a more likely source of sulfate than gypsum dissolution in shallow parts of the aquifer. This deep ground water moves to shallower zones in the aquifer discharge area. Saltwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer

  6. Origin of the groundwater salinity and geochemical processes in detrital and carbonate aquifers: Case of Chougafiya basin (Central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Intissar; Zouari, Kamel; Rigane, Adel; Beji, Ridha

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive investigations of groundwaters were performed in the detrital and carbonate aquifers of the Chougafiya basin, central Tunisia. In the present review, hydrochemistry and isotopic tools were combined to get an insight into the processes controlling mineralization, recharge conditions, flow pattern of groundwater and C chemistry in the investigated hydrological system. Analysis of the dissolved constituents revealed that several processes controlled the observed chemical composition: (i) the dissolution of evaporitic minerals, (ii) cation exchange reactions, (iii) sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions, (iv) incongruent dissolution of carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite) coupled with gypsum dissolution and calcite precipitation, and (v) silicates weathering. Data inferred from 18O and deuterium isotopes in groundwater samples indicated recharge with modern rainfall. Water characterized by lower δ18O and δ2H values is interpreted as recharged by non-evaporated rainfall originating from Mediterranean and Atlantic air masses. However, water with relatively enriched δ18O and δ2H contents is thought to reflect the occurrence of an evaporation process related to the long term practice of flood irrigation. The radiogenic (3H) isotope data provided insight into the presence of two recharge periods in the investigated groundwaters. Waters with 3H contents of 1 TU clearly suggested the occurrence of a contemporaneous recharge probably during the last two decades. Carbon isotopes provided some insights into the timescales of groundwater flow, but mainly revealed that main sources of C are active in the system. These are likely: dissolved biogenic CO2, carbonate dissolution and incongruent reaction of the carbonate matrix. Mean residence times were determined after correction of the initial activities for dead C from the rock matrix and suggest ages ranging from the present day to the Holocene in both Upper Cretaceous and Mio-pliocene groundwaters.

  7. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-07

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  8. Contrasting definitions for the term `karst aquifer'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Stephen R. H.; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; Alexander, E. Calvin; Davies, Gareth J.; Schindel, Geary M.

    2017-08-01

    It is generally considered that karst aquifers have distinctly different properties from other bedrock aquifers. A search of the literature found five definitions that have been proposed to differentiate karst aquifers from non-karstic aquifers. The five definitions are based upon the presence of solution channel networks, hydraulic conductivities >10-6 m/s, karst landscapes, channels with turbulent flow, and caves. The percentage of unconfined carbonate aquifers that would classify as `karst' ranges from 50%.

  9. Geological factors affecting the chemical characteristics of the thermal waters of the carbonate karstified aquifers of Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Drogue

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In northern Vietnam, exposed carbonate rock formations cover an area of more than 50,000 km2 .Their accumulated thickness from the Cambrian to the Triassic is in some places as much as 3000 m. Numerous thermal waters (springs and wells occur in these strongly karstified carbonate massifs. This is the result of significant ancient and present orogenic activity, as the region demonstrates by its strong seismic activity. These karstic formations are water-bearing and strongly recharged by rainfall of between 1600 mm and 2000 mm per year in 90% of the area concerned. In view of the average annual air temperatures (17°C-25°C according to the region, 23 sample springs or wells were chosen with water temperatures of between 29°C and 68°C. Hydrochemical characteristics of these thermal waters emerging in different carbonate-rock units were examined by chemical analyses of major ions. In this large region, thermal waters are divided into four hydrochemical types: the Na-Cl type resulting from the intrusion of sea water for distances of up to several kilometres inland and depths of 1000 m, the Ca-SO4 type, probably resulting from the leaching of deposits of metallic sulphides that are widely distributed in these carbonate-rock units, and finally the Ca-HCO3 and Mg-HCO3 types which are chemically similar to fresh karstic waters in limestones and dolostones. The occurrence of these thermal groundwaters as well as their chemical characteristics seem to indicate the existence of large-scale deepseated groundwater flow systems in the karstic aquifers. Keywords: Vietnam; thermal waters; karst; hydrochemistry

  10. 1:1,000,000-scale estimated outer extent of areas of groundwater discharge as evapotranspiration for the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system of Nevada, Utah, and parts of adjacent states

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was created in support of a study focusing on groundwater resources in the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system (GBCAAS). The GBCAAS is a...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN DEEP AQUIFER MEDIA - PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta; Bruce Sass; Jennifer Ickes

    2000-11-28

    In 1998 Battelle was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under a Novel Concepts project grant to continue Phase II research on the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep saline formations. The focus of this investigation is to conduct detailed laboratory experiments to examine factors that may affect chemical sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations. Reactions between sandstone and other geologic media from potential host reservoirs, brine solutions, and CO{sub 2} are being investigated under high-pressure conditions. Some experiments also include sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) gases to evaluate the potential for co-injection of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} related gases in the deep formations. In addition, an assessment of engineering and economic aspects is being conducted. This current Technical Progress Report describes the status of the project as of September 2000. The major activities undertaken during the quarter included several experiments conducted to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, time, and brine composition on rock samples from potential host reservoirs. Samples (both powder and slab) were taken from the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO{sub 2} host formation in the Ohio, the Eau Claire Shale, and Rome Dolomite samples that form the caprock for Mt. Simon Sandstone. Also, a sample with high calcium plagioclase content from Frio Formation in Texas was used. In addition, mineral samples for relatively pure Anorthite and glauconite were experimented on with and without the presence of additional clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. The experiments were run for one to two months at pressures similar to deep reservoirs and temperatures set at 50 C or 150 C. Several enhancements were made to the experimental equipment to allow for mixing of reactants and to improve sample collection methods. The resulting fluids (gases and liquids

  12. Selective Oxidation of Soft Grade Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecevic, N.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-furnace carbon black is produced by pyrolysis of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons or their mixtures. The oil feedstock for the production of oil-furnace carbon black is mainly composed of high-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons, which are residues of petroleum cracking, while the gaseous raw material is commonly natural gas. Most of the oil-furnace carbon black production (> 99 % is used as a reinforcing agent in rubber compounds. Occasionally, oil-furnace carbon blacks are used in contact with other rubber compounds and fillers that have different pigments, particularly with the color white. It has been observed that frequently a migrating rubber soluble colorant would enter the white or light colored rubber composition from the adjacent carbon black filled rubber, resulting in a highly undesirable staining effect. Methods for determining non-oxidized residue on the surface of the oil-furnace carbon black include extraction of carbon black with the appropriate organic solvent, and measuring the color of the organic solvent by means of a colorimeter on 425 nm (ASTM D 1618-99. Transmittance values of 85 % or more are indicative of a practically non-staining carbon black, while transmittance values below 50 % generally lead to a carbon black with pronounced staining characteristics. Many oil-furnace carbon blacks, particularly those with a larger particle size (dp > 50 nm which are produced by pyrolysis, have strongly adsorbed non-reacted oil on their surfaces. Upon incorporation in a rubber compound, the colored materials are gradually dissolved by the rubber matrix and migrate freely into adjacent light colored rubber compounds, causing a highly objectionable staining effect. Adjusting furnace parameters in the industrial process of producing specific soft grades of carbon black cannot obtain minimal values of toluene discoloration. The minimal value of toluene discoloration is very important in special applications. Therefore, after-treatment of

  13. Percolation pond as a method of managed aquifer recharge in a coastal saline aquifer: A case study on the criteria for site selection and its impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Raicy Mani; Lakshmanan, Elango

    2017-07-01

    Percolation ponds have become very popular methods of managed aquifer recharge due to their low cost, ease of construction and the participation and assistance of community. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of a percolation pond in a saline aquifer, north of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, to improve the storage and quality of groundwater. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods were used to understand the subsurface conditions of the area. From these investigations, a suitable location was chosen and a percolation pond was constructed. The quality and quantity of groundwater of the nearby area has improved due to the recharge from the pond. This study indicated that a simple excavation without providing support for the slope and paving of the bunds helped to improve the groundwater quality. This method can be easily adoptable by farmers who can have a small pond within their farm to collect and store the rainwater. The cost of water recharged from this pond works out to be about 0.225 Re/l. Cleaning the pond by scrapping the accumulated sediments needs to be done once a year. Due to the small dimension and high saline groundwater, considerable improvement in quality at greater depths could not be achieved. However, ponds of larger size with recharge shafts can directly recharge the aquifer and help to improve the quality of water at greater depths.

  14. Ground-water quality in the eastern part of the Silurian-Devonian and upper Carbonate aquifers in the eastern Iowa basins, Iowa and Minnesota, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Mark E.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Akers, Kymm K.B.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 33 domestic wells to assess the water quality of the eastern part of the Silurian-Devonian and Upper Carbonate aquifers in the Eastern Iowa Basins National Water-Quality Assessment Program study unit. Samples were collected during June and July 1996 and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, pesticides and pesticide metabolites, volatile organic compounds, tritium, radon222, and environmental isotopes.

  15. From oil field to geothermal reservoir: First assessment for geothermal utilization of two regionally extensive Devonian carbonate aquifers in Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Weydt, Leandra M.; Heldmann, Claus-Dieter J.; Machel, Hans G.; Sass, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    The Canadian Province of Alberta has the highest per capita CO2-equivalent emission of any jurisdiction in the world, predominantly due to industrial burning of coal for the generation of electricity and the mining operations in the oil sands deposits. Alberta’s geothermal potential could reduce CO2-emission by substituting at least some fossil fuels with geothermal energy. The Upper Devonian carbonate aquifer systems within the Alberta Basin are promising target formations for geothe...

  16. Low Carbon Supplier Selection in the Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a model for evaluating the carbon and energy management performance of suppliers by using multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM. By conducting a literature review and gathering expert opinions, 10 criteria on carbon and energy performance were identified to evaluate low carbon suppliers using the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM. Subsequently, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method was used to determine the importance of evaluation criteria in selecting suppliers and the causal relationships between them. The DEMATEL-based analytic network process (DANP and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR were adopted to evaluate the weights and performances of suppliers and to obtain a solution under each evaluation criterion. An illustrative example of a hotel company was presented to demonstrate how to select a low carbon supplier according to carbon and energy management. The proposed hybrid model can help firms become effective in facilitating low carbon supply chains in hotels.

  17. A multi-method approach for groundwater resource assessment in coastal carbonate (karst) aquifers: the case study of Sierra Almijara (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, B.; Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Marín, A. I.; García-Orellana, J.; Rodellas, V.; Pérez, I.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transference of water resources within hydrogeological systems, particularly in coastal aquifers, in which groundwater discharge may occur through multiple pathways (through springs, into rivers and streams, towards the sea, etc.), is crucial for sustainable groundwater use. This research aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the application of conventional recharge assessment methods coupled to isotopic techniques for accurately quantifying the hydrogeological balance and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from coastal carbonate aquifers. Sierra Almijara (Southern Spain), a carbonate aquifer formed of Triassic marbles, is considered as representative of Mediterranean coastal karst formations. The use of a multi-method approach has permitted the computation of a wide range of groundwater infiltration rates (17-60%) by means of direct application of hydrometeorological methods (Thornthwaite and Kessler) and spatially distributed information (modified APLIS method). A spatially weighted recharge rate of 42% results from the most coherent information on physiographic and hydrogeological characteristics of the studied system. Natural aquifer discharge and groundwater abstraction have been volumetrically quantified, based on flow and water-level data, while the relevance of SGD was estimated from the spatial analysis of salinity, 222Rn and the short-lived radium isotope 224Ra in coastal seawater. The total mean aquifer discharge (44.9-45.9 hm3 year-1) is in agreement with the average recharged groundwater (44.7 hm3 year-1), given that the system is volumetrically equilibrated during the study period. Besides the groundwater resources assessment, the methodological aspects of this research may be interesting for groundwater management and protection strategies in coastal areas, particularly karst environments.

  18. A multi-method approach for groundwater resource assessment in coastal carbonate (karst) aquifers: the case study of Sierra Almijara (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, B.; Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Marín, A. I.; García-Orellana, J.; Rodellas, V.; Pérez, I.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the transference of water resources within hydrogeological systems, particularly in coastal aquifers, in which groundwater discharge may occur through multiple pathways (through springs, into rivers and streams, towards the sea, etc.), is crucial for sustainable groundwater use. This research aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the application of conventional recharge assessment methods coupled to isotopic techniques for accurately quantifying the hydrogeological balance and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from coastal carbonate aquifers. Sierra Almijara (Southern Spain), a carbonate aquifer formed of Triassic marbles, is considered as representative of Mediterranean coastal karst formations. The use of a multi-method approach has permitted the computation of a wide range of groundwater infiltration rates (17-60%) by means of direct application of hydrometeorological methods (Thornthwaite and Kessler) and spatially distributed information (modified APLIS method). A spatially weighted recharge rate of 42% results from the most coherent information on physiographic and hydrogeological characteristics of the studied system. Natural aquifer discharge and groundwater abstraction have been volumetrically quantified, based on flow and water-level data, while the relevance of SGD was estimated from the spatial analysis of salinity, 222Rn and the short-lived radium isotope 224Ra in coastal seawater. The total mean aquifer discharge (44.9-45.9 hm3 year-1) is in agreement with the average recharged groundwater (44.7 hm3 year-1), given that the system is volumetrically equilibrated during the study period. Besides the groundwater resources assessment, the methodological aspects of this research may be interesting for groundwater management and protection strategies in coastal areas, particularly karst environments.

  19. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Selective Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Khare, Bishun

    2010-01-01

    An alternative method of low-temperature plasma functionalization of carbon nanotubes provides for the simultaneous attachment of molecular groups of multiple (typically two or three) different species or different mixtures of species to carbon nanotubes at different locations within the same apparatus. This method is based on similar principles, and involves the use of mostly the same basic apparatus, as those of the methods described in "Low-Temperature Plasma Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes" (ARC-14661-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 45. The figure schematically depicts the basic apparatus used in the aforementioned method, with emphasis on features that distinguish the present alternative method from the other. In this method, one exploits the fact that the composition of the deposition plasma changes as the plasma flows from its source in the precursor chamber toward the nanotubes in the target chamber. As a result, carbon nanotubes mounted in the target chamber at different flow distances (d1, d2, d3 . . .) from the precursor chamber become functionalized with different species or different mixtures of species. In one series of experiments to demonstrate this method, N2 was used as the precursor gas. After the functionalization process, the carbon nanotubes from three different positions in the target chamber were examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the molecular groups that had become attached. On carbon nanotubes from d1 = 1 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-N and C=N. On carbon nanotubes from d2 = 2.5 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-(NH)2 and/or C=NH2. (The H2 was believed to originate as residual hydrogen present in the nanotubes.) On carbon nanotubes from d3 = 7 cm no functionalization could be detected - perhaps, it was conjectured, because this distance is downstream of the plasma source, all of the free ions and free radicals of

  1. Product selectivity in plasmonic photocatalysis for carbon dioxide hydrogenation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xueqian; Zhang, Du; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao; Everitt, Henry O; Liu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    ... and selectively producing a desired but kinetically unfavourable product for the important carbon dioxide hydrogenation reaction. Methane is almost exclusively produced when rhodium nanoparticles are mildly illuminated as hot electrons are injected into the anti-bonding orbital of a critical intermediate, while carbon monoxide and methane are equally produce...

  2. The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Preadaptation in the Biotransformation of Trace Organic Chemicals during Aquifer Recharge and Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly treatment technology which uses conventionally treated wastewater effluent for groundwater recharge and subsequent recovery for agricultural, industrial or drinking water uses. This study investigated the effect of different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition in wastewater effluent on the fate of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) during ARR. Four biologically active columns were setup receiving synthetic wastewater effluent with varying DOC compositions. The difference in DOC composition triggered variations in the microbial community’s diversity and hence its ability to degrade TOrCs. It was found that the presence of protein-like DOC enhances the removal of DOC in comparison with the presence of humic-like DOC. On the other hand, the presence of humic-like DOC, which is more difficult to degrade, improved the removal of several degradable TOrCs. Other column experiments were also carried out to investigate the role of previous and continuous exposure to TOrCs in their removal. The use of soil pre-exposed to low concentrations of TOrCs and DOC provided better removal of both DOC and TOrCs. The findings of this study suggest that the presence of more humic-like DOC in the effluent enhances the biotransformation of TOrCs during ARR. In addition, long exposure to both DOC and TOrCs increases the degree of their removal over time

  3. Alluvial Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This coverage shows the extents of the alluvial aquifers in Kansas. The alluvial aquifers consist of unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium and contiguous terrace...

  4. Methods for selective functionalization and separation of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Marek, legal representative, Irene Marie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  5. Influence of a compost layer on the attenuation of 28 selected organic micropollutants under realistic soil aquifer treatment conditions: insights from a large scale column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Mario; Kröger, Kerrin Franziska; Nödler, Karsten; Ayora, Carlos; Carrera, Jesús; Hernández, Marta; Licha, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Soil aquifer treatment is widely applied to improve the quality of treated wastewater in its reuse as alternative source of water. To gain a deeper understanding of the fate of thereby introduced organic micropollutants, the attenuation of 28 compounds was investigated in column experiments using two large scale column systems in duplicate. The influence of increasing proportions of solid organic matter (0.04% vs. 0.17%) and decreasing redox potentials (denitrification vs. iron reduction) was studied by introducing a layer of compost. Secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant was used as water matrix for simulating soil aquifer treatment. For neutral and anionic compounds, sorption generally increases with the compound hydrophobicity and the solid organic matter in the column system. Organic cations showed the highest attenuation. Among them, breakthroughs were only registered for the cationic beta-blockers atenolol and metoprolol. An enhanced degradation in the columns with organic infiltration layer was observed for the majority of the compounds, suggesting an improved degradation for higher levels of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon. Solely the degradation of sulfamethoxazole could clearly be attributed to redox effects (when reaching iron reducing conditions). The study provides valuable insights into the attenuation potential for a wide spectrum of organic micropollutants under realistic soil aquifer treatment conditions. Furthermore, the introduction of the compost layer generally showed positive effects on the removal of compounds preferentially degraded under reducing conditions and also increases the residence times in the soil aquifer treatment system via sorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Point features used for the top of the regional middle confining unit (base of Upper Floridan aquifer), constrained

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  7. Copper crystallite in carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Seshan, Panchalam K. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves modified by the incorporation of finely divided elemental copper useful for the selective sorption of oxygen at elevated temperatures. The carbon molecular sieves can be regenerated by reduction with hydrogen. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of a copper-containing material and polyfurfuryl alcohol to form a sorbent precursor. The sorbent precursors are then heated and reduced to produce copper modified carbon molecular sieves. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are useful for sorption of all concentrations of oxygen at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. They are also useful for removal of trace amount of oxygen from gases at temperatures up to about 600.degree. C.

  8. Copper modified carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Seshan, Panchalam K. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves modified by the incorporation of finely divided elemental copper useful for the selective sorption of oxygen at elevated temperatures. The carbon molecular sieves can be regenerated by reduction with hydrogen. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of a copper-containing material and polyfunctional alcohol to form a sorbent precursor. The sorbent precursors are then heated and reduced to produce copper modified carbon molecular sieves. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are useful for sorption of all concentrations of oxygen at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. They are also useful for removal of trace amount of oxygen from gases at temperatures up to about 600.degree. C.

  9. A new spatial multi-criteria decision support tool for site selection for implementation of managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rusteberg, Bernd; Gogu, R C; Lobo Ferreira, J P; Sauter, Martin

    2012-05-30

    This study reports the development of a new spatial multi-criteria decision analysis (SMCDA) software tool for selecting suitable sites for Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems. The new SMCDA software tool functions based on the combination of existing multi-criteria evaluation methods with modern decision analysis techniques. More specifically, non-compensatory screening, criteria standardization and weighting, and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) have been combined with Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA). This SMCDA tool may be implemented with a wide range of decision maker's preferences. The tool's user-friendly interface helps guide the decision maker through the sequential steps for site selection, those steps namely being constraint mapping, criteria hierarchy, criteria standardization and weighting, and criteria overlay. The tool offers some predetermined default criteria and standard methods to increase the trade-off between ease-of-use and efficiency. Integrated into ArcGIS, the tool has the advantage of using GIS tools for spatial analysis, and herein data may be processed and displayed. The tool is non-site specific, adaptive, and comprehensive, and may be applied to any type of site-selection problem. For demonstrating the robustness of the new tool, a case study was planned and executed at Algarve Region, Portugal. The efficiency of the SMCDA tool in the decision making process for selecting suitable sites for MAR was also demonstrated. Specific aspects of the tool such as built-in default criteria, explicit decision steps, and flexibility in choosing different options were key features, which benefited the study. The new SMCDA tool can be augmented by groundwater flow and transport modeling so as to achieve a more comprehensive approach to the selection process for the best locations of the MAR infiltration basins, as well as the locations of recovery wells and areas of groundwater protection. The new spatial

  10. Hydrogeologic factors that affect the flowpath of water in selected zones of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschen, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio region supplies drinking water for more than 1 million people. Proper development and protection of the aquifer is a high priority for local and State authorities. To better understand the flow of water in two major flowpaths in the Edwards aquifer, stratigraphic, structural, hydrologic, and geochemical data were analyzed. The western Medina flowpath is in parts of Uvalde, Medina, and Bexar Counties, and the eastern flowpath is in northern Bexar and central Comal Counties. A major hydrogeologic factor that affects the pattern of flow in the Edwards aquifer is the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. Other hydrogeologic factors that affect flowpaths include internal boundaries and the location and rate of spring discharge. The relative displacement of faults and the high permeability layers have substantial control on the discharge at springs and on the flowpaths in the Edwards aquifer. Analysis of the estimated recharge to the Edwards aquifer during 1982 89 indicated that during years of substantial precipitation, a large part of the net recharge probably is diffuse infiltration of precipitation over large parts of the recharge area. During years with below-normal precipitation, most recharge is leakage from rivers and streams that drain the catchment subbasins. In the western Medina flowpath, concentrations of major ions indicate saturation of calcite and undersaturation of dolomite the two minerals that constitute most of the Edwards aquifer matrix. Concentrations of dissolved calcium, alkalinity, and dissolved chloride in the eastern flowpath are greater than those in the western Medina flowpath. These upward trends in concentrations might result in part from: (1) increased development in the recharge area, (2) mineralized effluent from developed areas, or (3) increased dissolution of aquifer material. Tritium data from wells sampled in and near the western Medina flowpath indicate no vertical stratification of

  11. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Points where head differences were calculated across the OCAPLPZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  12. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina, Raster surface depicting the bottom of the Avon Park Formation upper dolostone unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  13. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Polygon regions of low-permeability units forming the LISAPCU

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  14. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Points for the thickness of the regional middle confining unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  15. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Thickness raster surface for surficial deposits, clipped

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  16. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Raster surface depicting the thickness of the Oldsmar permeable zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  17. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Points for the top of the Bucatunna clay confining unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  18. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Points for the top of the Oldsmar permeable zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  19. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Spring locations used in the transmissivity map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  20. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Polygon regions of the glauconite marker unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  1. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Contours for the top of the Oldsmar permeable zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  2. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Clipping boundary extent for the Bucatunna clay confining unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  3. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Contours for the top of the low-resistivity interval below the Oldsmar permeable zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  4. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Polygon regions depicting saline areas of the Oldsmar permeable zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  5. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Raster surface depicting the top of the Bucatunna clay confining unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  6. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Raster surface depicting the thickness of the Bucatunna clay confining unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  7. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina, Frequency of closed depressions in relation to major springs in study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  8. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Region of four states spanning the study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  9. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina, Extent of the Woodville Karst Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  10. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina - Positive structural features within the study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  11. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  12. Investigations on mobility of carbon colloid supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in a column experiment and a laboratory 2D-aquifer test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jan; Meißner, Tobias; Potthoff, Annegret; Oswald, Sascha E

    2014-09-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has recently gained great interest in the scientific community as in situ reagent for installation of permeable reactive barriers in aquifer systems, since nZVI is highly reactive with chlorinated compounds and may render them to harmless substances. However, nZVI has a high tendency to agglomerate and sediment; therefore it shows very limited transport ranges. One new approach to overcome the limited transport of nZVI in porous media is using a suited carrier colloid. In this study we tested mobility of a carbon colloid supported nZVI particle "Carbo-Iron Colloids" (CIC) with a mean size of 0.63 μm in a column experiment of 40 cm length and an experiment in a two-dimensional (2D) aquifer test system with dimensions of 110 × 40 × 5 cm. Results show a breakthrough maximum of 82 % of the input concentration in the column experiment and 58 % in the 2D-aquifer test system. Detected residuals in porous media suggest a strong particle deposition in the first centimeters and few depositions in the porous media in the further travel path. Overall, this suggests a high mobility in porous media which might be a significant enhancement compared to bare or polyanionic stabilized nZVI.

  13. A Review of Carbon Dioxide Selective Membranes: A Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dushyant Shekhawat; David R. Luebke; Henry W. Pennline

    2003-12-01

    Carbon dioxide selective membranes provide a viable energy-saving alternative for CO2 separation, since membranes do not require any phase transformation. This review examines various CO2 selective membranes for the separation of CO2 and N2, CO2 and CH4, and CO2 and H2 from flue or fuel gas. This review attempts to summarize recent significant advances reported in the literature about various CO2 selective membranes, their stability, the effect of different parameters on the performance of the membrane, the structure and permeation properties relationships, and the transport mechanism applied in different CO2 selective membranes.

  14. Estimates for self-supplied domestic withdrawals and population served for selected principal aquifers, calendar year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.; Arnold, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has groundwater studies that focus on water-quality conditions in principal aquifers of the United States. The Program specifically focuses on aquifers that are important to public supply, domestic, and other major uses. Estimates for self-supplied domestic withdrawals and the population served for 20 aquifers in the United States for calendar year 2005 are provided in this report. These estimates are based on county-level data for self-supplied domestic groundwater withdrawals and the population served by those withdrawals, as compiled by the National Water Use Information Program, for areas within the extent of the 20 aquifers. In 2005, the total groundwater withdrawals for self-supplied domestic use from the 20 aquifers represented about 63 percent of the total self-supplied domestic groundwater withdrawals in the United States; the population served by the withdrawals represented about 61 percent of the total self-supplied domestic population in the United States.

  15. Grafting of activated carbon cloths for selective adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gineys, M.; Benoit, R.; Cohaut, N.; Béguin, F.; Delpeux-Ouldriane, S., E-mail: delpeux@cnrs-orleans.fr

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A controlled grafting of carboxylic functions on activated carbon fibers. • The carbon material nanotextural properties preservation after grafting. • An identification of the grafting mechanism through ToF SIMS analysis. • A chemical mapping of the grafted surface using ToF SIMS technique and imaging. - Abstract: Chemical functionalization of an activated carbon cloth with 3-aminophthalic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid groups by the in situ formation of the corresponding diazonium salt in aqueous acidic solution is reported. The nature and amount of selected functions on an activated carbon surface, in particular the grafted density, were determined by potentiometric titration, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanotextural properties of the modified carbon were explored by gas adsorption. Functionalized activated carbon cloth was obtained at a discrete grafting level while preserving interesting textural properties and a large porous volume. Finally, the grafting homogeneity of the carbon surface and the nature of the chemical bonding were investigated using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) technique.

  16. Bioremediation of strontium (Sr) contaminated aquifer quartz sand based on carbonate precipitation induced by Sr resistant Halomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Daoyong

    2012-10-01

    Contamination of aquifers or sediments by radioactive strontium ((90)Sr) is a significant environmental problem. In the present study, microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) was evaluated for its potential to remediate strontium from aquifer quartz sand. A Sr resistant urease producing Halomonas sp. was characterized for its potential role in bioremediation. The bacterial strain removed 80% of Sr from soluble-exchangeable fraction of aquifer quartz sand. X-ray diffraction detected calcite, vaterite and aragonite along with calcite-strontianite (SrCO(3)) solid solution in bioremediated sample with indications that Sr was incorporated into the calcite. Scanning electron micrography coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray further confirmed MICP process in remediation. The study showed that MICP sequesters soluble strontium as biominerals and could play an important role in strontium bioremediation from both ecological and greener point of view. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An environmental tracers approach to characterize groundwater recharge within a carbonate coastal aquifer (Corse-du-Sud, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, Emilie; Huneau, Frederic; Khoumeri, Beatrice; Travi, Yves

    2013-04-01

    Bonifacio is a coastal city, highly touristic, located in the southest part of Corsica Island. One million people visit the city in July and August, whereas 3000 inhabitants live throughout the year. Bonifacio lies on a small limestone plateau with a potential aquifer poorly understood. Actually there is a strong need to characterize the hydrogeological behavior for the reason that the economic development of the region is highly dependent of the groundwater supply potential. The Miocene sedimentary basin of Bonifacio has an area of 25 km2 with a depth up to 250 m in the center. It is based and surrounded by a Hercynian granitic substratum. The basin is open to the Mediterranean Sea on its south and east sides. The formation is calcareous-sandstone and is divided in 3 sedimentary units. The upper unit is highly calcareous and sandstone with a pseudo-karstic morphology, the intermediary unit is more silty-sandstone than the last but less than the unit from below. To establish a conceptual model of the groundwater flows of the Bonifacio aquifer, a hydrochemical (major ions, δ18O, δ2H, 3H) and hydrodynamic investigation was carried out on 12 wells, 1 spring and 1 river since May 2011. Vertical recharge is dominant in the centre of the aquifer where unsaturated zone is thicker, while on the aquifer boundaries with the granitic area, lateral flow was significant. Environmental tracers approach had clearly showed the important role of the boundaries conditions for the groundwater flow behavior of the aquifer of Bonifacio and the necessity of an investigation larger than the aquifer itself due to its limited spatial extension.

  18. Application of carbonate cyclostratigraphy and borehole geophysics to delineate porosity and preferential flow in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer, SE Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K.J.; Renken, R.A.; Wacker, M.A.; Zygnerski, M.R.; Robinson, E.; Shapiro, A.M.; Wingard, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    platform carbonates. Clearly, a cyclostratigraphic approach that translates carbonate aquifer heterogeneity into a consistent framework of correlative units will improve simulation of karst groundwater flow. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  19. Hydrogeological properties of fault zones in a karstified carbonate aquifer and their impact on groundwater circulation (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Helene; Schröckenfuchs, Theresa Christina; Decker, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a comparative, field-based hydrogeological characterization of exhumed, inactive fault zones in low porosity Triassic dolostones and limestones of the Hochschwab massif, a carbonate unit of high economic importance supplying 60% of the drinking water of Austria`s capital Vienna. The hydrogeology (groundwater storage and flow) of the massif has been reported to be essentially governed by karstified, large-scale faults. Previous work has shown that faults that formed during the Oligocene to Miocene lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps act as groundwater pathways draining the karst massif preferably in E-W-direction. We present hydrogeological relevant data from these types of fault zones and a conceptual model, which supports the idea that fault-zone networks also have the potential to contribute significantly to the storage capacity of the aquifer. With respect to fault zone architecture and rock content, four types of faults are presented: (1) faults with single stranded, minor fault cores, (2) faults with single stranded, permeable fault cores, (3) faults with single stranded, impermeable fault cores, and (4) faults with multiple stranded, permeable fault cores. Within these faults cataclastic rocks and strongly cemented cataclastic breccias form low-permeability ( 3%) with respect to the country rock ( 3% and permeabilities > 1000 mD form high-permeability domains. Our data illustrates significant differences in the architectural build-up of fault zones in dolostone (multiple-stranded cataclastic fault cores of weak lateral continuity, high volumes of intensely fractured rock) and limestone (laterally distinct, single-stranded fault cores, Riedel-shear fractures dominating fracture patterns). Karstic carbonate dissolution occurs preferentially along faults cores in limestones and, to a lesser degree, dolostones creating superposed high-permeability conduits. All faults contain domains of brecciated and highly fractured rocks along their

  20. Aquifer configuration and geostructural links control the groundwater quality in thin-bedded carbonate-siliciclastic alternations of the Hainich CZE, central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhepp, Bernd; Lehmann, Robert; Seeber, Paul; Küsel, Kirsten; Trumbore, Susan E.; Totsche, Kai U.

    2017-12-01

    The quality of near-surface groundwater reservoirs is controlled, but also threatened, by manifold surface-subsurface interactions. Vulnerability studies typically evaluate the variable interplay of surface factors (land management, infiltration patterns) and subsurface factors (hydrostratigraphy, flow properties) in a thorough way, but disregard the resulting groundwater quality. Conversely, hydrogeochemical case studies that address the chemical evolution of groundwater often lack a comprehensive analysis of the structural buildup. In this study, we aim to reconstruct the actual spatial groundwater quality pattern from a synoptic analysis of the hydrostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, pedology and land use in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Hainich CZE). This CZE represents a widely distributed yet scarcely described setting of thin-bedded mixed carbonate-siliciclastic strata in hillslope terrains. At the eastern Hainich low-mountain hillslope, bedrock is mainly formed by alternated marine sedimentary rocks of the Upper Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) that partly host productive groundwater resources. Spatial patterns of the groundwater quality of a 5.4 km long well transect are derived by principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Aquifer stratigraphy and geostructural links were deduced from lithological drill core analysis, mineralogical analysis, geophysical borehole logs and mapping data. Maps of preferential recharge zones and recharge potential were deduced from digital (soil) mapping, soil survey data and field measurements of soil hydraulic conductivities (Ks). By attributing spatially variable surface and subsurface conditions, we were able to reconstruct groundwater quality clusters that reflect the type of land management in their preferential recharge areas, aquifer hydraulic conditions and cross-formational exchange via caprock sinkholes or ascending flow. Generally, the aquifer configuration (spatial arrangement of strata

  1. Product selectivity in plasmonic photocatalysis for carbon dioxide hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xueqian; Zhang, Du; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao; Everitt, Henry O.; Liu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Photocatalysis has not found widespread industrial adoption, in spite of decades of active research, because the challenges associated with catalyst illumination and turnover outweigh the touted advantages of replacing heat with light. A demonstration that light can control product selectivity in complex chemical reactions could prove to be transformative. Here, we show how the recently demonstrated plasmonic behaviour of rhodium nanoparticles profoundly improves their already excellent catalytic properties by simultaneously reducing the activation energy and selectively producing a desired but kinetically unfavourable product for the important carbon dioxide hydrogenation reaction. Methane is almost exclusively produced when rhodium nanoparticles are mildly illuminated as hot electrons are injected into the anti-bonding orbital of a critical intermediate, while carbon monoxide and methane are equally produced without illumination. The reduced activation energy and super-linear dependence on light intensity cause the unheated photocatalytic methane production rate to exceed the thermocatalytic rate at 350 °C. PMID:28230100

  2. Ozark Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — These digital maps contain information on the altitude of the base and top, the extent, and the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer in Kansas. The Ozark...

  3. Selective and Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Capture by Highly Polarizing Porous Carbon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youngtak; Le, Viet-Duc; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Hwang, Jin Ok; Park, Woo Jin; Lim, Joonwon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Bae, Youn-Sang; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-22

    Energy-efficient CO2 capture is a stringent demand for green and sustainable energy supply. Strong adsorption is desirable for high capacity and selective capture at ambient conditions but unfavorable for regeneration of adsorbents by a simple pressure control process. Here we present highly regenerative and selective CO2 capture by carbon nitride functionalized porous reduced graphene oxide aerogel surface. The resultant structure demonstrates large CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient conditions (0.43 mmol·g(-1)) and high CO2 selectivity against N2 yet retains regenerability to desorb 98% CO2 by simple pressure swing. First-principles thermodynamics calculations revealed that microporous edges of graphitic carbon nitride offer the optimal CO2 adsorption by induced dipole interaction and allows excellent CO2 selectivity as well as facile regenerability. This work identifies a customized route to reversible gas capture using metal-free, two-dimensional carbonaceous materials, which can be extended to other useful applications.

  4. Nitrogen Loss from Pristine Carbonate-Rock Aquifers of the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Germany Is Primarily Driven by Chemolithoautotrophic Anammox Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swatantar Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high relevance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox for nitrogen loss from marine systems, its relative importance compared to denitrification has less been studied in freshwater ecosystems, and our knowledge is especially scarce for groundwater. Surprisingly, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA-based studies identified zones with potentially active anammox bacteria within two superimposed pristine limestone aquifer assemblages of the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE; Germany. We found anammox to contribute an estimated 83% to total nitrogen loss in suboxic groundwaters of these aquifer assemblages at rates of 3.5–4.7 nmol L−1 d−1, presumably favored over denitrification by low organic carbon availability. Transcript abundances of hzsA genes encoding hydrazine synthase exceeded nirS and nirK transcript abundances encoding denitrifier nitrite reductase by up to two orders of magnitude, providing further support of a predominance of anammox. Anammox bacteria, dominated by groups closely related to Cand. Brocadia fulgida, constituted up to 10.6% of the groundwater microbial community and were ubiquitously present across the two aquifer assemblages with indication of active anammox bacteria even in the presence of 103 μmol L−1 oxygen. Co-occurrence of hzsA and amoA gene transcripts encoding ammonia mono-oxygenase suggested coupling between aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation under suboxic conditions. These results clearly demonstrate the relevance of anammox as a key process driving nitrogen loss from oligotrophic groundwater environments, which might further be enhanced through coupling with incomplete nitrification.

  5. The World Karst Aquifer Mapping project: concept, mapping procedure and map of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Auler, Augusto S.; Bakalowicz, Michel; Drew, David; Griger, Franziska; Hartmann, Jens; Jiang, Guanghui; Moosdorf, Nils; Richts, Andrea; Stevanovic, Zoran; Veni, George; Goldscheider, Nico

    2017-05-01

    Karst aquifers contribute substantially to freshwater supplies in many regions of the world, but are vulnerable to contamination and difficult to manage because of their unique hydrogeological characteristics. Many karst systems are hydraulically connected over wide areas and require transboundary exploration, protection and management. In order to obtain a better global overview of karst aquifers, to create a basis for sustainable international water-resources management, and to increase the awareness in the public and among decision makers, the World Karst Aquifer Mapping (WOKAM) project was established. The goal is to create a world map and database of karst aquifers, as a further development of earlier maps. This paper presents the basic concepts and the detailed mapping procedure, using France as an example to illustrate the step-by-step workflow, which includes generalization, differentiation of continuous and discontinuous carbonate and evaporite rock areas, and the identification of non-exposed karst aquifers. The map also shows selected caves and karst springs, which are collected in an associated global database. The draft karst aquifer map of Europe shows that 21.6% of the European land surface is characterized by the presence of (continuous or discontinuous) carbonate rocks; about 13.8% of the land surface is carbonate rock outcrop.

  6. Water-table and discharge changes associated with the 2016-2017 seismic sequence in central Italy: hydrogeological data and a conceptual model for fractured carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, Marco; Mastrorillo, Lucia; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Banzato, Francesca; Barberio, Marino Domenico; Billi, Andrea; Cambi, Costanza; De Luca, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Di Curzio, Diego; Di Salvo, Cristina; Nanni, Torquato; Palpacelli, Stefano; Rusi, Sergio; Saroli, Michele; Tallini, Marco; Tazioli, Alberto; Valigi, Daniela; Vivalda, Paola; Doglioni, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    A seismic sequence in central Italy from August 2016 to January 2017 affected groundwater dynamics in fractured carbonate aquifers. Changes in spring discharge, water-table position, and streamflow were recorded for several months following nine Mw 5.0-6.5 seismic events. Data from 22 measurement sites, located within 100 km of the epicentral zones, were analyzed. The intensity of the induced changes were correlated with seismic magnitude and distance to epicenters. The additional post-seismic discharge from rivers and springs was found to be higher than 9 m3/s, totaling more than 0.1 km3 of groundwater release over 6 months. This huge and unexpected contribution increased streamflow in narrow mountainous valleys to previously unmeasured peak values. Analogously to the L'Aquila 2009 post-earthquake phenomenon, these hydrogeological changes might reflect an increase of bulk hydraulic conductivity at the aquifer scale, which would increase hydraulic heads in the discharge zones and lower them in some recharge areas. The observed changes may also be partly due to other mechanisms, such as shaking and/or squeezing effects related to intense subsidence in the core of the affected area, where effects had maximum extent, or breaching of hydraulic barriers.

  7. Risks attributable to water quality changes in shallow potable aquifers from geological carbon sequestration leakage into sediments of variable carbonate content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahill, Aaron Graham; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Mathiesen, Tina Bay

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of CO2 leakage from geological sequestration into shallow aquifers must be fully understood before such geo-engineering technology can be implemented. A series of CO2 exposure batch reactor experiments were conducted utilizing 8 sediments of varying composition obtained from across...

  8. Estimated withdrawals from principal aquifers in the United States, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.; Barber, Nancy L.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh ground-water withdrawals from 66 principal aquifers in the United States were estimated for irrigation, public-supply, and self-supplied industrial water uses for the year 2000. Total ground-water withdrawals were 76,500 million gallons per day, or 85,800 thousand acre-feet per year for these three uses. Irrigation used the largest amount of ground water, 56,900 million gallons per day, followed by public supply with 16,000 million gallons per day, and self-supplied industrial with 3,570 million gallons per day. These three water uses represented 92 percent of the fresh groundwater withdrawals for all uses in the United States, the remaining 8 percent included self-supplied domestic, aquaculture, livestock, mining, and thermoelectric power uses. Aquifer withdrawals were categorized by five lithologic groups: unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers, carbonate-rock aquifers, igneous and metamorphic-rock aquifers, sandstone aquifers, and sandstone and carbonate-rock aquifers. Withdrawals from aquifers that were not included in one of the 66 principal aquifers were reported in an “Other” aquifers group. The largest withdrawals in the United States were from unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers, which accounted for 80 percent of total withdrawals from all aquifers. Carbonate-rock aquifers provided 8 percent of the withdrawals, and igneous and metamorphic-rock aquifers, 6 percent. Withdrawals from sandstone aquifers, from sandstone and carbonate-rock aquifers, and from the “Other” aquifers category each constituted about 2 percent of the total withdrawals reported.Fifty-five percent of the total withdrawals for irrigation, public-supply, and self-supplied industrial water uses were provided by the High Plains aquifer, California Central Valley aquifer system, the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, and the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers. These aquifers provided most of the withdrawals for irrigation

  9. Regional-scale analysis of karst underground flow deduced from tracing experiments: examples from carbonate aquifers in Malaga province, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Andreo, B.; De la Torre, B.

    2018-02-01

    Tracer concentration data from field experiments conducted in several carbonate aquifers (Malaga province, southern Spain) were analyzed following a dual approach based on the graphical evaluation method (GEM) and solute transport modeling to decipher flow mechanisms in karst systems at regional scale. The results show that conduit system geometry and flow conditions are the principal factors influencing tracer migration through the examined karst flow routes. Solute transport is mainly controlled by longitudinal advection and dispersion throughout the conduit length, but also by flow partitioning between mobile and immobile fluid phases, while the matrix diffusion process appears to be less relevant. The simulation of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) suggests that diffuse and concentrated flow through the unsaturated zone can have equivalent transport properties under extreme recharge, with high flow velocities and efficient mixing due to the high hydraulic gradients generated. Tracer mobilization within the saturated zone under low flow conditions mainly depends on the hydrodynamics (rather than on the karst conduit development), which promote a lower longitudinal advection and retardation in the tracer migration, resulting in a marked tailing effect of BTCs. The analytical advection-dispersion equation better approximates the effective flow velocity and longitudinal dispersion estimations provided by the GEM, while the non-equilibrium transport model achieves a better adjustment of most asymmetric and long-tailed BTCs. The assessment of karst underground flow properties from tracing tests at regional scale can aid design of groundwater management and protection strategies, particularly in large hydrogeological systems (i.e. transboundary carbonate aquifers) and/or in poorly investigated ones.

  10. Regional-scale analysis of karst underground flow deduced from tracing experiments: examples from carbonate aquifers in Malaga province, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Andreo, B.; De la Torre, B.

    2017-08-01

    Tracer concentration data from field experiments conducted in several carbonate aquifers (Malaga province, southern Spain) were analyzed following a dual approach based on the graphical evaluation method (GEM) and solute transport modeling to decipher flow mechanisms in karst systems at regional scale. The results show that conduit system geometry and flow conditions are the principal factors influencing tracer migration through the examined karst flow routes. Solute transport is mainly controlled by longitudinal advection and dispersion throughout the conduit length, but also by flow partitioning between mobile and immobile fluid phases, while the matrix diffusion process appears to be less relevant. The simulation of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) suggests that diffuse and concentrated flow through the unsaturated zone can have equivalent transport properties under extreme recharge, with high flow velocities and efficient mixing due to the high hydraulic gradients generated. Tracer mobilization within the saturated zone under low flow conditions mainly depends on the hydrodynamics (rather than on the karst conduit development), which promote a lower longitudinal advection and retardation in the tracer migration, resulting in a marked tailing effect of BTCs. The analytical advection-dispersion equation better approximates the effective flow velocity and longitudinal dispersion estimations provided by the GEM, while the non-equilibrium transport model achieves a better adjustment of most asymmetric and long-tailed BTCs. The assessment of karst underground flow properties from tracing tests at regional scale can aid design of groundwater management and protection strategies, particularly in large hydrogeological systems (i.e. transboundary carbonate aquifers) and/or in poorly investigated ones.

  11. Investigation of Chirality Selection Mechanism of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    ALD) followed by coating with a 1-nm-thick Fe thin film by e-beam evaporation. The substrates were cut into small pieces in the dimensions of about...60 keV at Korea Multi-Purpose Accelerator Complex. The dose of Fe+ ion was 1016/cm2. As a control sample, 1 nm- thin Fe film was deposited on a...research involved investigation of two fundamental mechanisms of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth: chirality selection of single-walled CNT (SWCNT) and

  12. Materials selection for carbon nanotube composites in power transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolov K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays designers and producers implement non-metallic gears in power transmissions because of their better mechanical properties, like high elastic modulus, tensile strength and high wear resistance. In order to examine these properties we need to get familiarized with the most common materials used to make composites, like POM, PEEK, PA 6, PA 6/6, UHMWPE and one of newest materials in this area – carbon nanotubes (CNTs. This paper describes how to select the best materials in order to create the composite we need for the necessary applications. The article also gives information about the polymers and a comparison between them and CNTs.

  13. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the Ogallala and White River aquifers, Cheyenne, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, K.M.; Hallberg, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Ogallala aquifer and the underlying White River aquifer are important ground-water resources of public and private drinking water in the Cheyenne, Wyoming area. In 1997, as part of a cooperative project between the Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities and the U.S. Geological Survey, a well was installed to develop information for those two aquifers. Information provided for the Ogallala aquifer included core descriptions, geophysical logs, water levels, aquifer transmissivity, water quality, isotopic analysis, and geochemical modeling. Information for the White River aquifer was limited to core descriptions and geophysical logs.Evaluation of the core obtained from the drill hole showed the sediments to be primarily sands, silts, and clays. The thickness of the Ogallala Formation at the well site was estimated to be 246 feet. Water levels and precipitation from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999 indicated that water levels responded to precipitation. During that time, water levels ranged from 6,002.41 feet to 6,004.27 feet above mean sea level. The transmissivity was estimated to be 1.1 feet squared/day. The temperature differences between the municipal water and the Ogallala aquifer water were examined in relation to selected hydraulic conductivities and it was found that the warmer municipal water would slightly increase the hydraulic conductivity if the water were injected into the Ogallala aquifer.The water quality of a sample from the Ogallala 1 well indicated the predominant major ions were calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Isotopic analyses of hydrogen-2, tritium, chlorine-36, carbon-14, and carbon-13 indicated the water was a mixture of pre- and post-1953 recharge. A simple geochemical mixing model indicated there was the potential for dissolution of anhydrite, calcite, gypsum, and dolomite and precipitation of goethite, hematite, pyrolusite, and amorphous ferric hydroxide if municipal and Ogallala aquifer waters were mixed.

  14. Identification and Selection of Major Carbon Dioxide Stream Compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Schmick, Mary T.

    2011-06-30

    A critical component in the assessment of long-term risk from geologic sequestration of CO2 is the ability to predict mineralogical and geochemical changes within storage reservoirs due to rock-brine-CO2 reactions. Impurities and/or other constituents selected for co-sequestration can affect both the chemical and physical (e.g. density, viscosity, interfacial tension) behavior of CO2 in the deep subsurface. These impurities and concentrations are a function of both the industrial source(s) of the CO2, as well as the carbon capture technology used to extract the CO2 and produce a concentrated stream for geologic sequestration. This report summarizes the relative concentrations of CO2 and other constituents in exhaust gases from major non-energy related industrial sources of CO2. Assuming that carbon-capture technology would remove most of the incondensable gases N2, O2, and Ar, leaving SO2 and NOx as the main impurities, we selected four test fluid compositions for use in geochemical experiments. These included: 1) a pure CO2 stream representative of food grade CO2 used in most enhanced oil recovery projects: 2) a test fluid composition containing low concentrations (0.5 mole %) SO2 and NOx (representative of that generated from cement production), 3) a test fluid composition with higher concentrations (2.5 mole %) of SO2, and 4) and test fluid composition containing 3 mole % H2S.

  15. Calcium-decorated carbon nanostructures for the selective capture of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jahyun; Bae, Hyeonhu; Kang, Lei; Huang, Bing; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-10-26

    The development of advanced materials for CO 2 capture is of great importance for mitigating climate change. In this paper, we outline our discovery that calcium-decorated carbon nanostructures, i.e., zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs), carbyne, and graphyne, have great potential for selective CO 2 capture, as demonstrated via first-principles calculations. Our findings show that Ca-decorated ZGNRs can bind up to three CO 2 molecules at each Ca atom site with an adsorption energy of ∼-0.8 eV per CO 2 , making them suitable for reversible CO 2 capture. They adsorb CO 2 molecules preferentially, compared with other gas molecules such as H 2 , N 2 , and CH 4 . Moreover, based on equilibrium thermodynamical simulations, we confirm that Ca-decorated ZGNRs can capture CO 2 selectively from a gas mixture with a capacity of ∼4.5 mmol g -1 under ambient conditions. Similar results have been found in other carbon nanomaterials, indicating the generality of carbon based nanostructures for selective CO 2 capture under ambient conditions.

  16. Polymorph-selective crystallization of calcium carbonate inspired by biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Won

    This dissertation primarily examines bioinspired mineralization, focusing on the polymorph-selective crystallization of calcium carbonate. (1) The effect of epitaxy on the polymorphic control of calcium carbonate was studied with aragonite-type inorganic substrates. The critical epitaxial mismatch for aragonite growth, when conditions disfavor aragonite, seems to be less than 7.1%. Larger epitaxial strain appeared to prohibit aragonite formation even though the substrates had the same crystal structure. The epitaxy required for aragonite nucleation seems to be more precise than that often suggested for biological systems. (2) Polymers of different aqueous-solution properties were tested to observe the effect on the crystallization of calcium carbonate. Near exclusive formation of aragonite was attained through the inhibition of more stable calcite with poly(vinyl alcohol). The contributing characteristics of poly(vinyl alcohol) seemed to be its ability to hydrogen bond and its tendency to adsorb non-specifically onto solid surfaces. Similar inhibition activity is suggested for various biomacromolecules involved in biogenic aragonite formation of mollusks, with the biomacromolecules acting in the same way as poly(vinyl alcohol). (3) Polymer surfaces imprinted by aragonite-type crystals (strontium carbonate) were studied as substrates for the crystallization of calcium carbonate. Only calcite formed under vaterite-, aragonite-, and calcite-favorable conditions. This result seemed to arise from the nature of functional groups, rather than from the molecular structure of the imprint. Interaction between the functional groups and calcium carbonate is suggested to have enhanced the crystallization rate, resulting in the rapid formation of the thermodynamically stable calcite irrespective of the bulk crystallization conditions. (4) A catechol-based monomer was synthesized in the course of developing a dental adhesive, which mimics the functionalities of mussel adhesive

  17. Carbon Nanotube-Based Ion Selective Sensors for Wearable Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumyendu; David-Pur, Moshe; Hanein, Yael

    2017-10-11

    Wearable electronics offer new opportunities in a wide range of applications, especially sweat analysis using skin sensors. A fundamental challenge in these applications is the formation of sensitive and stable electrodes. In this article we report the development of a wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode arrays for sweat sensing. Solid-state ion selective electrodes (ISEs), sensitive to Na(+) ions, were prepared by drop coating plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) doped with ionophore and ion exchanger on CNT electrodes. The ion selective membrane (ISM) filled the intertubular spaces of the highly porous CNT film and formed an attachment that was stronger than that achieved with flat Au, Pt, or carbon electrodes. Concentration of the ISM solution used influenced the attachment to the CNT film, the ISM surface morphology, and the overall performance of the sensor. Sensitivity of 56 ± 3 mV/decade to Na(+) ions was achieved. Optimized solid-state reference electrodes (REs), suitable for wearable applications, were prepared by coating CNT electrodes with colloidal dispersion of Ag/AgCl, agarose hydrogel with 0.5 M NaCl, and a passivation layer of PVC doped with NaCl. The CNT-based REs had low sensitivity (-1.7 ± 1.2 mV/decade) toward the NaCl solution and high repeatability and were superior to bare Ag/AgCl, metals, carbon, and CNT films, reported previously as REs. CNT-based ISEs were calibrated against CNT-based REs, and the short-term stability of the system was tested. We demonstrate that CNT-based devices implemented on a flexible support are a very attractive platform for future wearable technology devices.

  18. Selective carbon 13 enrichment of side chain carbons of ginkgo lignin traced by carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y. (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture); Robert, D.R. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee); Terashima, N. (Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States))

    Although carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([sup 13]C-NMR) is widely used in lignin structural studies, serious difficulties are encountered in the assignments of [sup 13]C signals because of their extensive overlaps resulting from the complex structure of lignin and of delicate detection of minor structures. To overcome these difficulties, specifically [sup 13]C-enriched precursors of lignin biosynthesis, coniferin-[side chain-[beta]-[sup 13]C] and coniferin-[side chain-[gamma]-[sup 13]C], were administered to growing stems of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba). The NMR analysis of the milled wood lignins isolated from the newly formed xylem showed that selective enrichment of specific carbons of protolignin in the cell wall was achieved without seriously disturbing the lignin biosynthesis. The presence of saturated methylene side chains in the protolignin was shown for the first time by this selective enrichment technique in combination with NMR analysis. (authors). 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Deposition, persistence and turnover of pollutants: first results from the EU project AquaTerra for selected river basins and aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, J.A.C.; Steidle, D.; Kuntz, D.

    2007-01-01

    Deposition, turnover and movement of persistent organic pollutants (POP) were investigated in the EU integrated project "AquaTerra", which is among the first funded environmental projects within the 6th Framework Program by the European Commission. Project work integrates across various disciplines...... that range from biogeochemistry, environmental engineering, computer modelling and chemistry to socio-economic sciences. Field study areas are the river basins of the Ebro, the Meuse, the Elbe and the Danube as well as the 3-km(2) French catchment of the Brevilles Spring. Within the first 2 years...... in laboratory studies with soils and aquifer material from selected sites. For sediment transport of contaminants, new flood sampling techniques revealed highest deposition rates of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) in river sediments at hotspot areas on the Mulde River in the Bitterfeld region (Elbe Basin...

  20. Selective etching of thin single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbác, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav; Dunsch, Lothar

    2009-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry were applied to study the selective etching of thin tubes by lithium vapor in doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A strong doping of SWCNTs after the reaction with Li vapor was confirmed by the vanishing of the radial breathing mode (RBM) and by a strong attenuation of the tangential displacement (TG) band in the Raman spectra. The Raman spectra of the Li-vapor-treated SWCNTs after subsequent reaction with water showed changes in the diameter distribution compared with that of a pristine sample (nanotubes with diameters of <1 nm disappeared from the Raman spectra). The samples were tested by the Raman pattern with five different laser lines, and a removal of narrower tubes was confirmed. The remaining wider tubes were not significantly damaged by the treatment with Li, as indicated by the D line in the Raman spectra. Furthermore, the small-diameter tubes are converted not into amorphous carbon but into lithium carbide, which could easily be removed by hydrolysis. The treated samples were further charged electrochemically. It was shown by spectroelectrochemistry that anodic charging may lead to removal of the residual chemical doping from the thicker nanotubes in the sample, but the thin nanotubes did not appear in the spectra. This is a further confirmation of the removal of the small-diameter tubes.

  1. Site selection for managed aquifer recharge using fuzzy rules: integrating geographical information system (GIS) tools and multi-criteria decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Ramezani Mehrian, Majid; Jafari, Hamid Reza

    2012-11-01

    One of the most important water-resources management strategies for arid lands is managed aquifer recharge (MAR). In establishing a MAR scheme, site selection is the prime prerequisite that can be assisted by geographic information system (GIS) tools. One of the most important uncertainties in the site-selection process using GIS is finite ranges or intervals resulting from data classification. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a novel method has been developed involving the integration of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), GIS, and a fuzzy inference system (FIS). The Shemil-Ashkara plain in the Hormozgan Province of Iran was selected as the case study; slope, geology, groundwater depth, potential for runoff, land use, and groundwater electrical conductivity have been considered as site-selection factors. By defining fuzzy membership functions for the input layers and the output layer, and by constructing fuzzy rules, a FIS has been developed. Comparison of the results produced by the proposed method and the traditional simple additive weighted (SAW) method shows that the proposed method yields more precise results. In conclusion, fuzzy-set theory can be an effective method to overcome associated uncertainties in classification of geographic information data.

  2. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  3. Estimating nitrate concentrations in groundwater at selected wells and springs in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer, Dougherty Plain and Marianna Lowlands, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama, 2002-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christy A.; Katz, Brian G.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater from the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Dougherty Plain and Marianna Lowlands in southwestern Georgia, northwestern Florida, and southeastern Alabama is affected by elevated nitrate concentrations as a result of the vulnerability of the aquifer, irrigation water-supply development, and intensive agricultural land use. The region relies primarily on groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer for drinking-water and irrigation supply. Elevated nitrate concentrations in drinking water are a concern because infants under 6 months of age who drink water containing nitrate concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen can become seriously ill with blue baby syndrome. In response to concerns about water quality in domestic wells and in springs in the lower Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection funded a study in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey to examine water quality in groundwater and springs that provide base flow to the Chipola River. A three-dimensional, steady-state, regional-scale groundwater-flow model and two local-scale models were used in conjunction with particle tracking to identify travel times and areas contributing recharge to six groundwater sites—three long-term monitor wells (CP-18A, CP-21A, and RF-41) and three springs (Jackson Blue Spring, Baltzell Springs Group, and Sandbag Spring) in the lower Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin. Estimated nitrate input to groundwater at land surface, based on previous studies of nitrogen fertilizer sales and atmospheric nitrate deposition data, were used in the advective transport models for the period 2002 to 2050. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater samples collected from the six sites during 1993 to 2007 and groundwater age tracer data were used to calibrate the transport aspect of the simulations

  4. Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in fuel processor gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasilp, Akkarat

    The trace amount of CO present in the hydrogen-rich stream coming from fuel reformers poisons the platinum anode electrode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and reduces the power output. Removal of low levels of CO present in the reformed gas must take place before the gas enters the fuel cell. The tolerable level of CO is around 10 ppm. We investigated the performance of single step sol-gel prepared Pt/alumina catalyst and Pt supported on sol gel made alumina. The effect of water vapor, carbon dioxide, CO and oxygen concentrations, temperature, and Pt loading on the activity and selectivity are presented. Our results showed that a 2%Pt/alumina sol-gel catalyst can selectively oxide CO down to a few ppm with constant selectivity and high space velocity. Water vapor in the feed increases the activity of catalysts dramatically and in the absence of water vapor, CO2 in the feed stream decreases the activity of the catalysts significantly. We also found that the presence of potassium as an electron donor did not improve the performance of Pt/alumina catalyst to the selective CO oxidation. For Pt supported on sol gel made alumina, we found that the combination of CO2 and H2O in the gas feed has a strong effect on selective CO oxidation over Pt/Al2O3. It could be a positive or negative effect depending upon Pt loading in the catalyst. With high Pt loading, the CO2 effect tends to dominate the H2O effect resulting in the decrease in CO conversion. Moreover, the presence of CeO2 as an oxygen storage compound promotes the performance of Pt supported on alumina at low temperature ˜90°C when Pt loading was 5%. Amongst the examined catalysts, the 5%Pt/15%CeO2/Al 2O3 catalyst showed the highest selectivity, with high CO conversion at a low temperature ˜90°C. The beneficial effect of the addition of CeO2 is most likely due to spillover of O2 from CeO2 to Pt at the Pt sites at the interface of Pt and CeO 2.

  5. Fate of selected pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds during artificial aquifer recharge using surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Rosell, Mònica; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2010-05-01

    The artificial recharge of aquifers has become a valuable tool to increase water resources for drinking water production in many countries. In this work a total of 41 organic pollutants belonging to the classes of pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been monitored in the water from two artificial recharge plants located in Sweden and Denmark. The results from two sampling campaigns performed in each plant indicate good chemical status of the source water, as the contaminants detected were present at very low levels, far from those established in the legislation as maximum admissible concentrations (when existing) and far from those considered as a risk. Thus, of the 17 pesticides investigated, BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzamide), desethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, terbuthylazine, diuron, metolachlor, and diazinon were the only compounds detected, and total pesticides levels were below 25ng L(-1), respectively. Estrone-3-sulfate was the only estrogen detected, at concentrations lower than 0.5ng L(-1). Progestogens were not found in any sample. Detected VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were below 0.04microg L(-1). The efficiency of elimination of these organic contaminants was poor as no significant decrease in their concentrations was observed through the recharge process.

  6. Methane and Dissolved Organic Carbon Sustain an Ecosystem within a Density Stratified Coastal Aquifer of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Evidence for a Subterranean Microbial Loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankovits, David; Pohlman, John W.; Niemann, Helge; Leigh, Mary Beth; Casso, Michael; Alvarez Noguera, Fernando; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2016-04-01

    In coastal karst terrains, anchialine caves that meander in density stratified aquifers provide an exceptional opportunity for scientists to study in situ biogeochemical processes within the groundwater. The Caribbean coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula contains over 1000 km of mapped cave passages, the densest known accumulation of anchialine caves in the world. A decades-old study based on the simple observation of 13C-depleted biomass in the cave-adapted fauna suggested biogeochemical processes related to methane-linked carbon cycling and/or other chemoautotrophic pathways as a source of energy and carbon. In this study, we utilized cave diving and a novel sampling device (the Octopipi) to obtain cm-scale water column profiles of methane, DOC and DIC concentrations and stable carbon isotope ratios to identify the energy sources and microbial processes that sustain life in these subterranean estuaries. High concentrations (up to 9522 nM) low-δ13C (as low as -67.5 permil) methane near the ceiling of the cave (in the fresh water section of the stratified water column) and evidence for methane oxidation in the brackish water portion of the water column suggest methane availability and consumption. Profiles obtained by the Octopipi demonstrate that virtually all of the methane (˜99%) is oxidized at the interface of anoxic freshwater and hypoxic brackish water masses. The high-methane water mass near the ceiling also contained elevated concentrations of DOC (851 μM) that displayed comparatively high δ13C (-27.8 to -28.2 permil), suggesting terrestrial organic matter input from the overlying soils. Low-methane brackish and saline water was characterized by lower DOC concentration (15 to 97 μM), yet with similar δ13C (-25.9 to -27.2 permil), suggesting significant terrestrial organic matter consumption or removal with increasing depth, from fresh to saline water, within the water column. The presence of 13C-depleted fatty acids (e.g., C16:1ω7c with δ13C

  7. Comparative analysis of the evaluation of the intrinsic vulnerability in carbonate aquifers (Canete Mountain Range, province of Malaga); Analisis comparativo de la evaluacion de la vulnerabilidad intrinseca de acuiferos carbonaticos (Sierra de Canete, provincia de Malaga)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Madrid, A.; Carrasco Cantos, F.; Martinez Navarrete, C.

    2009-07-01

    Groundwater of the carbonate aquifers of Canete Mountain Range constitute a basic source for water supply to different populations. Vulnerability intrinsic assesment is one of the most useful tools for the protection of the groundwater bodies, for this reason, this area has been chosen, to realize a comparative analysis, by means of the use of tools of spatial analysis and technical statistics of a Geographical Information System. In this work, Reduced DRASTIC, COP and RISK method have been applied, due to the fact that they are the methods used by Spain, both first ones, to evaluate the vulnerability of the groundwater bodies in the inter communal basins of the whole national territory, and for BRGM of France, the last one, to approach the carbonate aquifers protection. The obtained results show as the COP and RISK methods, specifics of carbonate aquifers, there show results more according to the characteristics of Canete Mountain Range that the obtained ones with Reduced DRASTIC, which unsaturated zone valuation causes an undervaluing the results of vulnerability obtained. (Author) 35 refs.

  8. Four phase equilibrium and partitioning calculations for sequestration of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in deep saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Allan M. M.

    A fully compositional numerical simulator for sequestration of CO 2 and H2S in deep saline aquifers requires a large number of flash equilibrium calculations at each time step. Therefore, a robust and efficient flash solver is needed in order to resolve the thermodynamic equilibrium of systems composed of brine, CO2, and H2S, i.e., determine the equilibrium phases that emerge in the system, resolve the partitioning of the species among them, and calculate the phase molar fractions. In this work, we develop two fast and accurate flash equilibrium methods, the GeometricFlash and the ProgressiveFlash, for Brine-CO2 and Brine-CO2-H 2S systems. The temperature and pressure ranges are 12-100°C and 1-600 bar for Brine-CO2 systems and 12-100°C and 1-200 bar for Brine-CO2-H2S systems. In this study brine is a solution of NaCl in water. A serial and GPU-based parallel implementations of the above-mentioned flash equilibrium methods are developed for the computation of hundreds of thousands of flash equilibrium calculations. A performance analysis of the computations shows that the progressive flash is faster than the geometric one when executed in serial (on CPUs), while the geometric flash is slightly faster when solved on GPUs. Average speedups of 180 and 300 were achieved with the use of GPUs for the progressive and geometric flash method, respectively.

  9. LDEO Carbon 14 Data from Selected Sea floor Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Carbon-14 data in this file were compiled by W.F. Ruddiman and staff at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. Data include 974 carbon-14 dates...

  10. Low Carbon Supplier Selection in the Hotel Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsu, Chia-Wei; Kuo, Tsai-Chi; Shyu, Guey-Shin; Chen, Pi-Shen

    2014-01-01

    ...). By conducting a literature review and gathering expert opinions, 10 criteria on carbon and energy performance were identified to evaluate low carbon suppliers using the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM...

  11. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  12. A structured approach for selecting carbon capture process models : A case study on monoethanolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Mijndert; Ramirez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is considered a promising option to mitigate CO2 emissions. This has resulted in many R&D efforts focusing at developing viable carbon capture technologies. During carbon capture technology development, process modeling plays an important role. Selecting an appropriate

  13. Selective detection and quantification of carbon nanotubes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Junhoe; Lee, Yong-ju; Hwang, Yu sik; Hong, In Seok

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely applied in many industrial fields. As world production of CNTs increases, the risk of environmental exposure to CNTs also increases. Therefore, to evaluate the impact on the environment, many cell and animal studies have reported on the toxicity of CNTs. It is important to determine the degree of contamination of CNTs in soil and to find the pollution pathways for assessment of the environmental toxicity of CNTs. However, selective detection methods for CNTs in soil or water have rarely been reported. In the present study, a novel technique was developed to quantify the amount of CNTs in soil mixtures using fluorescent SYBR Green I dye after isolation of the CNTs with specific DNA oligomers. As a result, a limit of detection of CNTs in soil was obtained in the range of 250 ppb. This limit can easily be extended to the level of 10 ppb using magnetic well plates with a greater capacity. This method also worked well in the presence of graphene oxide and could be applied to the detection of CNTs in a variety of surroundings (e.g., fish and other tissues). © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used

  15. Tuning Selectivity of Fluorescent Carbon Nanotube-Based Neurotransmitter Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Florian A; Herrmann, Niklas; Meyer, Daniel; Kruss, Sebastian

    2017-06-28

    Detection of neurotransmitters is an analytical challenge and essential to understand neuronal networks in the brain and associated diseases. However, most methods do not provide sufficient spatial, temporal, or chemical resolution. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as building blocks for sensors/probes that detect catecholamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine. This approach provides a high spatial and temporal resolution, but it is not understood if these sensors are able to distinguish dopamine from similar catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine or norepinephrine. In this work, the organic phase (DNA sequence) around SWCNTs was varied to create sensors with different selectivity and sensitivity for catecholamine neurotransmitters. Most DNA-functionalized SWCNTs responded to catecholamine neurotransmitters, but both dissociation constants ( K d ) and limits of detection were highly dependent on functionalization (sequence). K d values span a range of 2.3 nM (SWCNT-(GC) 15 + norepinephrine) to 9.4 μM (SWCNT-(AT) 15 + dopamine) and limits of detection are mostly in the single-digit nM regime. Additionally, sensors of different SWCNT chirality show different fluorescence increases. Moreover, certain sensors (e.g., SWCNT-(GT) 10 ) distinguish between different catecholamines, such as dopamine and norepinephrine at low concentrations (50 nM). These results show that SWCNTs functionalized with certain DNA sequences are able to discriminate between catecholamine neurotransmitters or to detect them in the presence of interfering substances of similar structure. Such sensors will be useful to measure and study neurotransmitter signaling in complex biological settings.

  16. Differential effects of dissolved organic carbon upon re-entrainment and surface properties of groundwater bacteria and bacteria-sized microspheres during transport through a contaminated, sandy aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Mohanram, A.; Gao, X.; Chorover, J.

    2011-01-01

    Injection-and-recovery studies involving a contaminated, sandy aquifer (Cape Cod, Massachusetts) were conducted to assess the relative susceptibility for in situ re-entrainment of attached groundwater bacteria (Pseudomonas stuzeri ML2, and uncultured, native bacteria) and carboxylate-modified microspheres (0.2 and 1.0 μm diameters). Different patterns of re-entrainment were evident for the two colloids in response to subsequent injections of groundwater (hydrodynamic perturbation), deionized water (ionic strength alteration), 77 μM linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS, anionic surfactant), and 76 μM Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, a very hydrophobic nonionic surfactant). An injection of deionized water was more effective in causing detachment of micrsopheres than were either of the surfactants, consistent with the more electrostatic nature of microsphere’s attachment, their extreme hydrophilicity (hydrophilicity index, HI, of 0.99), and negative charge (zeta potentials, ζ, of −44 to −49 mv). In contrast, Tween 80 was considerably more effective in re-entraining the more-hydrophobic native bacteria. Both the hydrophilicities and zeta potentials of the native bacteria were highly sensitive to and linearly correlated with levels of groundwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which varied modestly from 0.6 to 1.3 mg L−1. The most hydrophilic (0.52 HI) and negatively charged (ζ −38.1 mv) indigenous bacteria were associated with the lowest DOC. FTIR spectra indicated the latter community had the highest average density of surface carboxyl groups. In contrast, differences in groundwater (DOC) had no measurable effect on hydrophilicity of the bacteria-sized microspheres and only a minor effect on their ζ. These findings suggest that microspheres may not be very good surrogates for bacteria in field-scale transport studies and that adaptive (biological) changes in bacterial surface characteristics may need to be considered where there is longer

  17. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  18. Selected Well Data Used in Determining Ground-Water Availability in the North and South Carolina Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    lesser amounts of marine limestone that range in age from Jurassic to post-Miocene (Winner and Coble, 1996). The Fall Line marks the approximate...near Aiken; Cahill (1982) described the hydrology of the low-level radioactive solid-waste burial site near Barnwell; Park (1985) described the...aquifers in the Grand Strand; Dale and Park (1999) studied the irrigation-supply potential of the shallow aquifer beneath Hilton Head Island; and

  19. Membranes with functionalized carbon nanotube pores for selective transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakajin, Olgica; Noy, Aleksandr; Fornasiero, Francesco; Park, Hyung Gyu; Holt, Jason K; Kim, Sangil

    2015-01-27

    Provided herein composition and methods for nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, or multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material. Average pore size of the carbon nanotube can be 6 nm or less. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  20. Potassium Tethered Carbons with Unparalleled Adsorption Capacity and Selectivity for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Zhongzheng; Luo, Xiaona; Zhang, Lina; Shen, Qun; Li, Shenggang; Zhang, Haijiao; Sun, Nannan; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2018-01-31

    Carbons are considered less favorable for postcombustion CO 2 capture because of their low affinity toward CO 2 , and nitrogen doping was widely studied to enhance CO 2 adsorption, but the results are still unsatisfactory. Herein, we report a simple, scalable, and controllable strategy of tethering potassium to a carbon matrix, which can enhance carbon-CO 2 interaction effectively, and a remarkable working capacity of ca. 4.5 wt % under flue gas conditions was achieved, which is among the highest for carbon-based materials. More interestingly, a high CO 2 /N 2 selectivity of 404 was obtained. Density functional theory calculations evidenced that the introduced potassium carboxylate moieties are responsible for such excellent performances. We also show the effectiveness of this strategy to be universal, and thus, cheaper precursors can be used, holding great promise for low-cost carbon capture from flue gas.

  1. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Polygon regions depicting saline areas within low-permeability rocks near base of the Oldsmar permeable zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  2. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Points for the top of the 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  3. Stochastic Pricing and Order Model with Transportation Mode Selection for Low-Carbon Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more enterprises have begun to pay attention to their carbon footprint in the supply chain, of which transportation has become the second major source of carbon emissions. This paper aims to study both optimum pricing and order quantities, considering consumer demand and the selection of transportation modes by retailers, in terms of carbon emissions sensitivity and price sensitivity under the conditions of a cap-and-trade policy and uncertain market demand. Firstly, we analyze the effects of transportation mode (including transportation costs and transportation-induced carbon emissions, initial emissions allowances, carbon emissions trading price and consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions on the optimum decisions and profits of retailers. The results demonstrate that when consumers are less sensitive to price, the optimum retail price and the optimum order quantity of products are proportional to the transportation cost and transportation-induced carbon emissions of retailers per unit product, the carbon emissions trading price as well as consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions. However, when consumers are highly sensitive to price, the optimum order quantity of products is inversely proportional to the transportation costs and transportation-induced carbon emissions of retailers per unit product, the carbon emissions trading price and consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions. In addition, the optimum retail price of products is inversely proportional to consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions. We also find that retailers prefer a low-carbon transportation mode when the carbon emissions trading price is high. Meanwhile, the carbon emissions trading price influences the carbon emissions trading volume of retailers. These theoretical findings are further validated by some numerical analysis.

  4. Investigation of Chirality Selection Mechanism of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-17

    deposition of carbon nanotubes : a review on growth mechanism and mass production ,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 10, 3739 (2010). List of Publications...Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4047 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 14IOA058_144047 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F...of two significant mechanistic aspects of carbon nanotube (CNT) array growth under chemical vapor deposition conditions: chirality selectivity and

  5. Stochastic Pricing and Order Model with Transportation Mode Selection for Low-Carbon Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zheng; Huchang Liao; Xue Yang

    2016-01-01

    More and more enterprises have begun to pay attention to their carbon footprint in the supply chain, of which transportation has become the second major source of carbon emissions. This paper aims to study both optimum pricing and order quantities, considering consumer demand and the selection of transportation modes by retailers, in terms of carbon emissions sensitivity and price sensitivity under the conditions of a cap-and-trade policy and uncertain market demand. Firstly, we analyze the e...

  6. Selection and characterization of new absorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma' mun, Sholeh

    2005-09-01

    Removal of acidic gases, in particular CO2, is an important industrial operation. Carbon dioxide is produced in large quantities by fossil-fuel-fired power plants, steel production, the production of petrochemicals, cement production, and natural gas purification. The global climate change, where CO2 is found to be a major contributor, is one of the most important and challenging environmental issues facing the world community. This has motivated intensive research on CO2 capture and storage. Carbon dioxide capture by an absorption process is one of the most common industrial technologies today. Recent economic studies indicate that the process will also remain competitive in the future. One of the key improvements under development is new, faster and more energy-efficient absorbents. A chemical to be used as a commercial absorbent must have high net cyclic capacity, high absorption rate for CO2 and good chemical stability. Alkanolamines are the most commonly used chemical absorbents for the removal of acidic gases today. In the first part of this thesis, an experimental screening of new absorbents for CO2 capture was performed by absorption of CO2 into both single absorbents and absorbent mixtures for amine-based and non-amine-based systems at 40 deg. Celsius From testing of approx. 30 systems, it was found that an aqueous 30 mass % AEEA (2-(2-aminoethyl-amino)ethanol) solution seems to be a potentially good absorbent for capturing CO2 from atmospheric flue gases. It offers high absorption rate combined with high absorption capacity. In addition toAEEA, MMEA (2-(methylamino)ethanol) also needs to be considered. It could have a good potential when used in contactors where the two phases are separated, like in membrane contactors, whereas indications from the study showed foaming tendencies that will make it difficult to use in ordinary towers. AEEA as the selected absorbent obtained from the screening tests was further investigated to determine its vapor

  7. Estimates of live-tree carbon stores in the Pacific Northwest are sensitive to model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanna L. Melson; Mark E. Harmon; Jeremy S. Fried; James B. Domingo

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of live-tree carbon stores are influenced by numerous uncertainties. One of them is model-selection uncertainty: one has to choose among multiple empirical equations and conversion factors that can be plausibly justified as locally applicable to calculate the carbon store from inventory measurements such as tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)....

  8. Carbon nanotube/nickel oxide nanocomposite thin films for selective solar absorber

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Nickel oxide nanocomposites were prepared on aluminum substrates for selective solar absorber applications. MWCNTs are functionalized in order to disperse in water and ethanol. Results from the characterization...

  9. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  10. Groundwater model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system version 3.0: Incorporating revisions in southwestern Utah and east central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.

    2017-12-01

    The groundwater model described in this report is a new version of previously published steady-state numerical groundwater flow models of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system, and was developed in conjunction with U.S. Geological Survey studies in Parowan, Pine, and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah. This version of the model is GBCAAS v. 3.0 and supersedes previous versions. The objectives of the model for Parowan Valley were to simulate revised conceptual estimates of recharge and discharge, to estimate simulated aquifer storage properties and the amount of reduction in storage as a result of historical groundwater withdrawals, and to assess reduction in groundwater withdrawals necessary to mitigate groundwater-level declines in the basin. The objectives of the model for the area near Pine and Wah Wah Valleys were to recalibrate the model using new observations of groundwater levels and evapotranspiration of groundwater; to provide new estimates of simulated recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and interbasin flow; and to simulate the effects of proposed groundwater withdrawals on the regional flow system. Meeting these objectives required the addition of 15 transient calibration stress periods and 14 projection stress periods, aquifer storage properties, historical withdrawals in Parowan Valley, and observations of water-level changes in Parowan Valley. Recharge in Parowan Valley and withdrawal from wells in Parowan Valley and two nearby wells in Cedar City Valley vary for each calibration stress period representing conditions from March 1940 to November 2013. Stresses, including recharge, are the same in each stress period as in the steady-state stress period for all areas outside of Parowan Valley. The model was calibrated to transient conditions only in Parowan Valley. Simulated storage properties outside of Parowan Valley were set the same as the Parowan Valley properties and are not considered calibrated. Model observations in GBCAAS v. 3.0 are

  11. Estimates of live-tree carbon stores in the Pacific Northwest are sensitive to model selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fried Jeremy S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of live-tree carbon stores are influenced by numerous uncertainties. One of them is model-selection uncertainty: one has to choose among multiple empirical equations and conversion factors that can be plausibly justified as locally applicable to calculate the carbon store from inventory measurements such as tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH. Here we quantify the model-selection uncertainty for the five most numerous tree species in six counties of northwest Oregon, USA. Results The results of our study demonstrate that model-selection error may introduce 20 to 40% uncertainty into a live-tree carbon estimate, possibly making this form of error the largest source of uncertainty in estimation of live-tree carbon stores. The effect of model selection could be even greater if models are applied beyond the height and DBH ranges for which they were developed. Conclusions Model-selection uncertainty is potentially large enough that it could limit the ability to track forest carbon with the precision and accuracy required by carbon accounting protocols. Without local validation based on detailed measurements of usually destructively sampled trees, it is very difficult to choose the best model when there are several available. Our analysis suggests that considering tree form in equation selection may better match trees to existing equations and that substantial gaps exist, in terms of both species and diameter ranges, that are ripe for new model-building effort.

  12. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Wang, Guohui; Sullivan, E. C.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Harvey, Omar R.; Bowden, Mark

    2013-04-15

    Experimental research work has been conducted and is undergoing at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to address a variety of scientific issues related with the potential leaks of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from deep storage reservoirs. The main objectives of this work are as follows: • Develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and redox reactions) in the aquifer sediments. • Identify prevailing environmental conditions that would dictate one geochemical outcome over another. • Gather useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geological carbon sequestration. In this report, we present results from experiments conducted at PNNL to address research issues related to the main objectives of this effort. A series of batch and column experiments and solid phase characterization studies (quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions with a concentrated acid) were conducted with representative rocks and sediments from an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer, i.e., Edwards aquifer in Texas, and a confined aquifer, i.e., the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream simulating CO2 gas leaking scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in liquid and effluent samples collected at pre-determined experimental times. Additional research to be conducted during the current fiscal year will further validate these results and will address other important remaining issues. Results from these experimental efforts will provide valuable insights for the development of site-specific, generation III reduced order models. In addition, results will initially serve as input parameters during model calibration runs and, ultimately, will be used to test model predictive capability and

  13. Selective Removal of Nitrosamines from a Model Amine Carbon-Capture Waterwash Using Low-Cost Activated-Carbon Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widger, Leland R; Combs, Megan; Lohe, Amit R; Lippert, Cameron A; Thompson, Jesse G; Liu, Kunlei

    2017-09-19

    Nitrosamines generated in the amine solvent loop of postcombustion carbon capture systems are potent carcinogens, and their emission could pose a serious threat to the environment or human health. Nitrosamine emission control strategies are critical for the success of amine-based carbon capture as the technology approaches industrial-scale deployment. Waterwash systems have been used to control volatile and aerosol emissions, including nitrosamines, from carbon-capture plants, but it is still necessary to remove or destroy nitrosamines in the circulating waterwash to prevent their subsequent emission into the environment. In this study, a cost-effective method for selectively removing nitrosamines from the absorber waterwash effluent with activated-carbon sorbents was developed to reduce the environmental impact associated with amine-based carbon capture. The results show that the commercial activated-carbon sorbents tested have a high capacity and selectivity for nitrosamines over the parent solvent amines, with capacities up to 190 mg/g carbon, under simulated amine waterwash conditions. To further reduce costs, an aerobic thermal sorbent regeneration step was also examined due to the low thermal stability of nitrosamines. To model the effect of oxidation on the sorbent performance, thermal- and acid-oxidized sorbents were also prepared from the commercial sorbents and analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of nitrosamines, the parent amine, and the influence of the physical properties of the carbon sorbents on nitrosamine adsorption was examined. Key sorbent properties included the sorbent hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity, surface pK a of the sorbent, and chemical structure of the parent amine and nitrosamine.

  14. Platinum-Catalyzed Selective Tin-Carbon Bond Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoonen, Sander Hendrikus Lambertus

    2003-01-01

    In conclusion, two improved methods for the selective synthesis of monoorganotin trihalides were developed. The platinum-catalyzed Kocheshkov redistribution reaction of dialkyltin dichlorides with tin tetrachloride is the most interesting. Contrary to the other two methods described (the direct

  15. Region-selective self-assembly of functionalized carbon allotropes from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Mohammadzadeh, Saeideh; Schmaltz, Thomas; Kirschner, Johannes; Khassanov, Artoem; Eigler, Siegfried; Mundloch, Udo; Backes, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Georg; Magerl, Andreas; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas; Halik, Marcus

    2013-12-23

    Approaches for the selective self-assembly of functionalized carbon allotropes from solution are developed and validated for 0D-fullerenes, 1D-carbon nanotubes and 2D-graphene. By choosing the right molecular interaction of self-assembled monolayers (serving the surface) with the functionalization features of carbon materials, which provide the solubility but also serve the driving force for assembly, we demonstrate a region-selective and self-terminating assembly of the materials. Active layers of the carbon allotropes can be selectively deposited in the channel region of thin-film transistor (TFT) devices by this approach. As an example for a 0D system, molecules of C60 functionalized octadecylphosphonic acids are used to realize self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors (SAMFETs) based on a selective molecular exchange reaction of stearic acid in the channel region. For noncovalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) flakes, the electrostatic Coulomb interactions between the functional groups of the carbon allotropes and the charged head groups of a SAM dielectric layer are utilized to implement the selective deposition.

  16. Heterogeneous selective hydrogenation of ethylene carbonate to methanol and ethylene glycol over a copper chromite nanocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Chao; Ren, Fumin; Liu, Yuxi; Zhao, Guofeng; Ji, Yongjun; Rong, Hongpan; Jia, Wei; Ma, Lei; Lu, Haiyuan; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-25

    Heterogeneous selective hydrogenation of ethylene carbonate (EC), a key step in indirect conversion of CO2, was realized over a copper chromite nanocatalyst prepared via a hydrothermal method followed by calcination. The selectivities towards methanol (60%) and ethylene glycol (93%) were higher than those achieved over other usual hydrogenation catalysts.

  17. Occurrence and Distribution of Iron, Manganese, and Selected Trace Elements in Ground Water in the Glacial Aquifer System of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschen, George E.; Arnold, Terri L.; Morrow, William S.; Warner, Kelly L.

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved trace elements, including iron and manganese, are often an important factor in use of ground water for drinking-water supplies in the glacial aquifer system of the United States. The glacial aquifer system underlies most of New England, extends through the Midwest, and underlies portions of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements in ground water can vary over several orders of magnitude across local well networks as well as across regions of the United States. Characterization of this variability is a step toward a regional screening-level assessment of potential human-health implications. Ground-water sampling, from 1991 through 2003, of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey determined trace element concentrations in water from 847 wells in the glacial aquifer system. Dissolved iron and manganese concentrations were analyzed in those well samples and in water from an additional 743 NAWQA land-use and major-aquifer survey wells. The samples are from monitoring and water-supply wells. Concentrations of antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, thallium, uranium, and zinc vary as much within NAWQA study units (local scale; ranging in size from a few thousand to tens of thousands of square miles) as over the entire glacial aquifer system. Patterns of trace element concentrations in glacial aquifer system ground water were examined by using techniques suitable for a dataset with zero to 80 percent of analytical results reported as below detection. During the period of sampling, the analytical techniques changed, which generally improved the analytical sensitivity. Multiple reporting limits complicated the comparison of detections and concentrations. Regression on Order Statistics was used to model probability distributions and estimate the medians and other quantiles of the trace element

  18. Geochemistry of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Craig L.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical quality of the ground water in the Floridan aquifer system is determined primarily by mineral-water interaction. However, some changes in water quality have been imposed by development, particularly near coastal pumping centers. A total of 601 chemical analyses, all from different wells, most completed in the upper part of the aquifer system, were used to describe the variations in water chemistry and to study the processes responsible for observed changes. The Floridan aquifer system is a vertically continuous sequence of Tertiary carbonate rocks that are of generally high permeability and are hydraulically connected in varying degrees. The rocks are principally limestone and dolomite, but they grade into limy sands and clays near the aquifer system's updip limits. Major minerals in the aquifer system are calcite, dolomite, and, locally, gypsum or quartz; minor minerals include apatite, glauconite, and clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. Trace amounts of metallic oxides or sulfides are present in some areas. The aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, separated in most places by a less permeable confining unit that has highly variable hydraulic properties. Only the Upper Floridan aquifer is present throughout the study area. Freshwater enters the aquifer system in outcrop areas located primarily in central Georgia and north-central Florida. Discharge occurs chiefly to streams and springs and, to a lesser extent, directly into the sea. Most of the flow into and out of the system takes place where it is unconfined or where the upper confining unit is thin. Secondary permeability developed by dissolution of aquifer material is most prominent in these areas of dynamic flow. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer generally range from less than 25 milligrams per liter near outcrops to more than 25,000 milligrams per liter along the coasts. The dominant cations in the ground water

  19. Potential Risks of Freshwater Aquifer Contamination with Geosequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Robert

    2013-09-30

    Substantial leakage of CO{sub 2} from deep geological strata to shallow potable aquifers is likely to be rare, but chemical detection of potential leakage nonetheless remains an integral component of any safe carbon capture and storage system. CO{sub 2} that infiltrates an unconfined freshwater aquifer will have an immediate impact on water chemistry by lowering pH in most cases and by altering the concentration of total dissolved solids. Chemical signatures in affected waters provide an important opportunity for early detection of leaks. In the presence of CO{sub 2}, trace elements such as Mn, Fe, and Ca can increase by an order of magnitude or more above control concentrations within 100 days. Therefore, these and other elements should be monitored along with pH as geochemical markers of potential CO{sub 2} leaks. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity can also be rapidly responsive to CO{sub 2} and are stable indicators of a leak. Importantly, such changes may be detectable long before direct changes in CO{sub 2} are observed. The experimental results also suggest that the relative severity of the impact of leaks on overlying drinking-water aquifers should be considered in the selection of CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. One primary selection criteria should be metal and metalloid availability, such as uranium and arsenic abundance, to carefully monitor chemical species that could trigger changes above maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Overall, the risks of leakage from underground CO{sub 2} storage are real but appear to be manageable if systems are closely monitored.

  20. Petrophysical laboratory invertigations of carbon dioxide storage in a subsurface saline aquifer in Ketzin/Germany within the scope of CO2SINK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, K.; Kummmerow, J.; Wandrey, M.; Co2SINK Group

    2009-04-01

    Since June of 2008 carbon dioxide has been injected into a saline aquifer at the Ketzin test site [Würdemann et al., this volume]. The food grade CO2 is injected into a sandstone zone of the Stuttgart formation at ca. 650 m depth at 35°C reservoir temperature and 62 bar reservoir pressure. With the injection of CO2 into the geological formation, chemical and physical reservoir characteristics are changed depending on pressure, temperature, fluid chemistry and rock composition. Fluid-rock interaction could comprise dissolution of non-resistant minerals in CO2-bearing pore fluids, cementing of the pore space by precipitating substances from the pore fluid, drying and disintegration of clay minerals and thus influence of the composition and activities of the deep biosphere. To testing the injection behaviour of CO2 in water saturated rock and to evaluate the geophysical signature depending on the thermodynamic conditions, flow experiments with water and CO2 have been performed on cores of the Stuttgart formation from different locations including new wells of ketzin test site. The studied core material is an unconsolidated fine-grained sandstone with porosity values from 15 to 32 %. Permeability, electrical resistivity, and sonic wave velocities and their changes with pressure, saturation and time have been studied under simulated in situ conditions. The flow experiments conducted over several weeks with brine and CO2 showed no significant changes of resistivity and velocity and a slightly decreasing permeability. Pore fluid analysis showed mobilization of clay and some other components. A main objective of the CO2Sink laboratory program is the assessment of the effect of long-term CO2 exposure on reservoir rocks to predict the long-term behaviour of geological CO2 storage. For this CO2 exposure experiments reservoir rock samples were exposed to CO2 saturated reservoir fluid in corrosion-resistant high pressure vessels under in situ temperature and pressure

  1. Determination of nanogram per liter concentrations of volatile organic compounds in water by capillary gas chromatography and selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry and its use to define groundwater flow directions in Edwards Aquifer, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszka, P.M.; Rose, D.L.; Ozuna, G.B.; Groschen, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to measure nanogram per liter amounts of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and the isomers of dichlorobenzene in water. The method uses purge-and-trap techniques on a 100 mL sample, gas chromatography with a megabore capillary column, and electron impact, selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. Minimum detection levels for these compounds ranged from 1 to 4 ng/L in water. Recoveries from organic-free distilled water and natural groundwater ranged from 70.5% for dichlorodifluoromethane to 107.8% for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Precision was generally best for cis-1,2-dichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and the dichlorobenzene isomers and worst for dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane. Blank data indicated persistent, trace-level introduction of dichlorodifluoromethane, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroemene to samples during storage and shipment at concentrations less than the method reporting limits. The largest concentrations of the selected VOCs in 27 water samples from the Edwards aquifer near San Antonio, TX, were from confined-zone wells near an abandoned landfill. The results defined a zone of water with no detectable VOCs in nearly all of the aquifer west of San Antonio and from part of the confined zone beneath San Antonio.

  2. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palau, Jordi; Marchesi, Massimo; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The use of compound specific multi-isotope approach (C and Cl) in the characterization of a chlorinated ethenes contaminated fractured aquifer allows the identification of several sources and contaminant plumes, as well as the occurrence of biodegradation and mixing processes. The study site...... is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50 mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon......, showed a wide range in δ13C values from − 15.6 to − 40.5‰ for TCE and from − 18.5 to − 32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ37Cl values for TCE...

  3. A Multi-Model Approach Using Statistical Index and Information Criteria to Evaluate the Adequacy of the Model Geometry in a Fissured Carbonate Aquifer (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giacopetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model related to a mountain aquifer that is characterized by a lack of data of hydrogeological parameters and boundary conditions, which were based on a single available observational dataset used for calibration, was studied using numerical models. For the first time, a preliminary spatial-temporal analysis has been applied to the study area in order to evaluate the real extension of the aquifer studied. The analysis was based on four models that were characterized by an increasing degree of complexity using a minimum of two zones and a maximum of five zones, which consequently increased the number of adjustable parameters from a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 22, calibrated using the parameter estimation code PEST. Statistical index and information criteria were calculated for each model, which showed comparable results; the information criteria indicated that the model with the low number of adjustable parameters was the optimal model. A comparison of the simulated and observed spring hydrographs showed a good shape correspondence but a general overestimation of the discharge, which indicated a good fit with the rainfall time series and a probably incorrect extension of the aquifer structure: the recharge contributes more than half of the total outflow at the springs but is not able to completely feed the springs.

  4. Selective Sorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon Compounds by Temperate Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie A.; Phillips, Jana R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physico-chemical sorption onto soil minerals is one of the major processes of dissolved organic carbon (OC) stabilization in deeper soils. The interaction of DOC on soil solids is related to the reactivity of soil minerals, the chemistry of sorbate functional groups, and the stability of sorbate to microbial degradation. This study was conducted to examine the sorption of diverse OC compounds (D-glucose, L-alanine, oxalic acid, salicylic acid, and sinapyl alcohol) on temperate climate soil orders (Mollisols, Ultisols and Alfisols). Methodology Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted using 0–100 mg C L−1 at a solid-solution ratio of 1∶60 for 48 hrs on natural soils and on soils sterilized by γ-irradiation. The maximum sorption capacity, Qmax and binding coefficient, k were calculated by fitting to the Langmuir model. Results Ultisols appeared to sorb more glucose, alanine, and salicylic acid than did Alfisols or Mollisols and the isotherms followed a non-linear pattern (higher k). Sterile experiments revealed that glucose and alanine were both readily degraded and/or incorporated into microbial biomass because the observed Qmax under sterile conditions decreased by 22–46% for glucose and 17–77% for alanine as compared to non-sterile conditions. Mollisols, in contrast, more readily reacted with oxalic acid (Qmax of 886 mg kg−1) and sinapyl alcohol (Qmax of 2031 mg kg−1), and no degradation was observed. The reactivity of Alfisols to DOC was intermediate to that of Ultisols and Mollisols, and degradation followed similar patterns as for Ultisols. Conclusion This study demonstrated that three common temperate soil orders experienced differential sorption and degradation of simple OC compounds, indicating that sorbate chemistry plays a significant role in the sorptive stabilization of DOC. PMID:23209742

  5. Source and transport controls on the movement of nitrate to public supply wells in selected principal aquifers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Kauffman, L.J.; Kipp, K.L.; Landon, M.K.; Crandall, C.A.; Burow, K.R.; Brown, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003–2005, systematic studies in four contrasting hydrogeologic settings were undertaken to improve understanding of source and transport controls on nitrate movement to public supply wells (PSW) in principal aquifers of the United States. Chemical, isotopic, and age tracer data show that agricultural fertilizers and urban septic leachate were the primary sources of large nitrate concentrations in PSW capture zones at Modesto, California (Central Valley aquifer system) and York, Nebraska (High Plains aquifer). Urban septic leachate and fertilizer (possibly nonfarm) were the primary sources of large nitrate concentrations in PSW capture zones at Woodbury, Connecticut (glacial aquifer system), and Tampa, Florida (Floridan aquifer system), respectively. Nitrate fluxes to the water table were larger in agricultural settings than urban settings, indicating that it would be beneficial to reduce PSW capture zone areas in agricultural regions. Mixing calculations indicate that about 50 to 85% of the nitrate in water from the PSW could be from those modern anthropogenic sources, with the remainder coming from sources in old (>50 years) recharge or sources in young recharge in undisturbed settings such as forests. Excess N2 concentrations and age tracers showed that denitrification at Modesto occurred gradually (first-order rate constant of 0.02/a) in a thick reaction zone following a ~30-year lag time after recharge. Denitrification generally was not an important nitrate sink at Woodbury. At York and Tampa, denitrification occurred rapidly (0.5 to 6/a) in thin reaction zones in fine-grained sediments that separated the anoxic PSW producing zones from overlying oxic, high-nitrate ground water. Particle tracking showed that a major pathway by which anthropogenic nitrate reached the York and Tampa PSW was by movement through long well screens crossing multiple hydrogeologic units (York) and by movement through karst features (Tampa), processes which reduced ground water

  6. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  7. Functionalization and Area-Selective Deposition of Magnetic Carbon-Coated Iron Nanoparticles from Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Widenkvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A route to area-selective deposition of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles, involving chemical modification of the surface of the particles, is described. Partial oxidative etching of the coating introduces carboxylic groups, which then are esterified. The functionalized particles can be selectively deposited on the Si areas of Si/SiO2 substrates by a simple dipping procedure. Nanoparticles and nanoassemblies have been analyzed using SEM, TEM, and XPS.

  8. Cu and Boron Doped Carbon Nitride for Highly Selective Oxidation of Toluene to Benzaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongling; Ding, Guodong; Wu, Tianbin; Yang, Dexin; Jiang, Tao; Han, Buxing

    2015-07-13

    A novel Cu and boron doped graphitic carbon nitride catalyst (Cu-CNB) was synthesized using cheap precursors and systematically characterized. The selective oxidation of toluene proceeded very smoothly over the catalyst at 70 °C using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant to exclusively afford benzaldehyde. The catalyst can be used for at least five cycles without decrease in activity and selectivity.

  9. Cu and Boron Doped Carbon Nitride for Highly Selective Oxidation of Toluene to Benzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel Cu and boron doped graphitic carbon nitride catalyst (Cu-CNB was synthesized using cheap precursors and systematically characterized. The selective oxidation of toluene proceeded very smoothly over the catalyst at 70 °C using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP as the oxidant to exclusively afford benzaldehyde. The catalyst can be used for at least five cycles without decrease in activity and selectivity.

  10. Cu and Boron Doped Carbon Nitride for Highly Selective Oxidation of Toluene to Benzaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hongling; Ding, Guodong; Wu, Tianbin; Yang, Dexin; Jiang, Tao; Han, Buxing

    2015-01-01

    A novel Cu and boron doped graphitic carbon nitride catalyst (Cu-CNB) was synthesized using cheap precursors and systematically characterized. The selective oxidation of toluene proceeded very smoothly over the catalyst at 70 °C using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant to exclusively afford benzaldehyde. The catalyst can be used for at least five cycles without decrease in activity and selectivity.

  11. Ultraselective Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes with Tailored Synergistic Sorption Selective Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Koros, William J

    2017-09-01

    Membrane-based separations can reduce the energy consumption and the CO2 footprint of large-scale fluid separations, which are traditionally practiced by energy-intensive thermally driven processes. Here, a new type of membrane structure based on nanoporous carbon is reported, which, according to this study, is best referred to as carbon/carbon mixed-matrix (CCMM) membranes. The CCMM membranes are formed by high-temperature (up to 900 °C) pyrolysis of polyimide precursor hollow-fiber membranes. Unprecedentedly high permselectivities are seen in CCMM membranes for CO2 /CH4 , N2 /CH4 , He/CH4 , and H2 /CH4 separations. Analysis of permeation data suggests that the ultrahigh selectivities result from substantially increased sorption selectivities, which is hypothetically owing to the formation of ultraselective micropores that selectively exclude the bulkier CH4 molecules. With tunable sorption selectivities, the CCMM membranes outperform flexible polymer membranes and traditional rigid molecular-sieve membranes. The capability to increase sorption selectivities is a powerful tool to leverage diffusion selectivities, and has opened the door to many challenging and economically important fluid separations that require ultrafine differentiation of closely sized molecules. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Lignin-based microporous materials as selective adsorbents for carbon dioxide separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing Bo; Weber, Jens

    2014-12-01

    Suitable solid adsorbents are demanded for carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes. In this work, a novel microporous polymer is developed by hypercrosslinking of organosolv lignin, which is a renewable resource. Reaction with formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (FDA) via Friedel-Crafts reaction gives microporous networks, with moderate capacity of carbon dioxide but excellent selectivity towards CO2 /N2 mixture as predicted on the basis of ideal adsorption-solution theory (IAST). Pyrolysis of pure organosolv lignin results in microporous carbon powders, while pyrolysis of hypercrosslinked organosolv lignin yields shape-persistent materials with increased CO2 capacity while maintaining very good selectivity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Selective breakdown of metallic pathways in double-walled carbon nanotube networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Allen L; Sun, Yong; Powell, Lyndsey; Sun, Chuan-Fu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Lee, Cheng S; Wang, YuHuang

    2015-01-07

    Covalently functionalized, semiconducting double-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit remarkable properties and can outperform their single-walled carbon nanotube counterparts. In order to harness their potential for electronic applications, metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes must be separated from the semiconductors. However, the inner wall is inaccessible to current separation techniques which rely on the surface properties. Here, the first approach to address this challenge through electrical breakdown of metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes, both inner and outer walls, within networks of mixed electronic types is described. The intact semiconductors demonstrate a ∼62% retention of the ON-state conductance in thin film transistors in response to covalent functionalization. The selective elimination of the metallic pathways improves the ON/OFF ratio, by more than 360 times, to as high as 40 700, while simultaneously retaining high ON-state conductance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Landfill leachate effects on sorption of organic micropollutants onto aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Pfeffer, Fred M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of dissolved organic carbon as present in landfill leachate, on the sorption of organic micropollutants in aquifer materials was studied by laboratory batch and column experiments involving 15 non-polar organic chemicals, 5 landfill leachates and 4 aquifer materials of low organic carbon...... content. The experiments showed that hydrophobic organic micropollutants do partition into dissolved organic carbon found in landfill leachate potentially increasing their mobility. However, landfill leachate interacted with aquifer materials apparently increases the sorbent affinity for the hydrophobic......, the effect of landfill leachate on retardation of organic micropollutants in aquifer material seems limited....

  15. Selective carboxylate production by controlling hydrogen, carbon dioxide and substrate concentrations in mixed culture fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, D.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Diels, L.; Wever, de H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    This research demonstrated the selective production of n-butyrate from mixed culture by applying 2 bar carbon dioxide into the headspace of batch fermenters or by increasing the initial substrate concentration. The effect of increasing initial substrate concentration was investigated at 8, 13.5 and

  16. Carbon nanotube diameter selection by pretreatment of metal catalysts on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Xu, Ya-Qiong [Houston, TX; Shan, Hongwei [Houston, TX; Nicholas, Nolan Walker [South Charleston, WV; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Cypress, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2012-02-28

    A new and useful nanotube growth substrate conditioning processes is herein disclosed that allows the growth of vertical arrays of carbon nanotubes where the average diameter of the nanotubes can be selected and/or controlled as compared to the prior art.

  17. Evaluation and selection of sensing materials for carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor by molecular modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.P.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to evaluate and select conducting polymers (CPs) as the sensing materials of carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor. The interaction between polymer and gas and the adsorption of the gas molecules in the polymer matrix are investigated. Polymers considered for this work

  18. Evaluation and selection of sensing materials for carbon dioxide (CO 2) sensor by molecular modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.P.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to evaluate and select conducting polymers (CPs) as the sensing materials of carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor. The interaction between polymer and gas and the adsorption of the gas molecules in the polymer matrix are investigated. Polymers considered for this work

  19. Low-salinity flooding in a selected carbonate reservoir: experimental approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Attar, Hazim H; Mahmoud, Mohamed Y; Zekri, Abdulrazag Y; Almehaideb, Reyadh; Ghannam, Mamdouh

    2013-01-01

    ... formation, and clay migration. This work presents the results of flooding tests on selected carbonate core samples taken from Bu Hasa field in Abu Dhabi using sea water and two field injection waters, Um-Eradhuma (UER) at 197,357...

  20. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.palau@unine.ch [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marchesi, Massimo [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Chambon, Julie C.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Aravena, Ramon [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Canals, Àngels [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Binning, Philip J.; Bjerg, Poul L. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    The use of compound specific multi-isotope approach (C and Cl) in the characterization of a chlorinated ethenes contaminated fractured aquifer allows the identification of several sources and contaminant plumes, as well as the occurrence of biodegradation and mixing processes. The study site is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50 mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon, showed a wide range in δ{sup 13}C values from − 15.6 to − 40.5‰ for TCE and from − 18.5 to − 32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ{sup 37}Cl values for TCE in the contaminant sources, ranging from + 0.53 to + 0.66‰. Variations of δ{sup 37}Cl and δ{sup 13}C in the different contaminant plumes were used to investigate the role of biodegradation in groundwater. Moreover, the isotopic data were incorporated into a reactive transport model for determination of whether the isotope pattern observed downstream from the tank's source could be explained by the simultaneous effect of mixing and biodegradation. The results demonstrate that a multi-isotope approach is a valuable tool for characterization of complex sites such as fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by multiple sources, providing important information which can be used by consultants and site managers to prioritize and design more successful remediation strategies. - Highlights: • Origin and fate of CAHs in groundwater by means of multi CSIA ({sup 13}C,{sup 35}Cl) survey • Innovative/new approach tested in a fractured bedrock site • Differentiation of distinct CAH sources • Biodegradation and source mixing recognition in the aquifer.

  1. Origin and structures of groundwater humic substances from three Danish aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, C.; Wassenaar, L.; Krog, M.

    1996-01-01

    and halogens, hydrolyzable amino acids and carbohydrates, carbon isotopes) applied to aquatic humic and fulvic acids led to consistent structural interpretations for each of the three aquifers studied. For humic substances in two-aquifers, the analyses suggested source rocks in agreement with geological...... and hydrogeochemical information. In a third aquifer, source rock identification was inconclusive, and multiple fossil and recent organic carbon sources are suggested....

  2. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2009–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Rattray, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    groundwater at the ATR Complex during 2011 ranged from 4 to 54 mg/L. In 2011, sulfate concentrations in water samples from 11 aquifer wells in the south-central part of the INL equaled or exceeded the background concentration of sulfate and ranged from 40 to 167 mg/L. The greater-than-background concentrations in water from these wells probably resulted from sulfate disposal at the ATR Complex infiltration ponds or the old INTEC percolation ponds. In 2011, sulfate concentrations in water samples from two wells near the RWMC were greater than background levels and could have resulted from well construction techniques and (or) waste disposal at the RWMC. The vertical distribution of sulfate concentrations in three wells near the southern boundary of the INL was generally consistent with depth, and ranged between 19 and 25 mg/L. The maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in shallow perched groundwater near the ATR Complex was 400 mg/L in well CWP 1 in April 2011. During 2009–11, the maximum concentration of dissolved sulfate in deep perched groundwater at the ATR Complex was 1,550 mg/L in a well located west of the chemical-waste pond. In 2011, concentrations of nitrate in water from most wells at and near the INTEC exceeded the regional background concentrations of 1 mg/L and ranged from 1.6 to 5.95 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in wells south of INTEC and farther away from the influence of disposal areas and the Big Lost River show a general decrease in nitrate concentrations through time. During 2009–11, water samples from 30 wells were collected and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Six VOCs were detected. At least one and up to five VOCs were detected in water samples from 10 wells. The primary VOCs detected include carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene. In 2011, concentrations for all VOCs were less than their respective MCL for drinking water, except carbon tetrachloride in water from two

  3. Selection of pecan shell based activated carbons for removal of organic and inorganic impurities from simulated well-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated carbons are a byproduct from pyrolysis and have value as a purifying agent. The effectiveness of activated carbons is dependent on feedstock selection and pyrolysis conditions that modify its surface properties. Therefore, pecan shell-based activated carbons (PSACs) were prepared by soakin...

  4. Hydroquinone and quinone-grafted porous carbons for highly selective CO2 capture from flue gases and natural gas upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Krishna, R.; Yang, J.; Deng, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroquinone and quinone functional groups were grafted onto a hierarchical porous carbon framework via the Friedel-Crafts reaction to develop more efficient adsorbents for the selective capture and removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and natural gas. The oxygen-doped porous carbons were

  5. Zinc vs. magnesium: Orthogonal catalyst reactivity in selective polymerizations of epoxides, bio-derived anhydrides and carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C; Fiorani, G.; Saini, PJ; Mathers, RT

    2017-01-01

    Developing selective polymerizations from complex monomer mixtures is an important challenge. Here, dinuclear catalysts allow selective polymerization from mixtures of sterically hindered tricyclic anhydrides, carbon dioxide and epoxides to yield well-controlled co-poly(ester-carbonates). Surprisingly, two very similar homogeneous catalysts differing only in the central metal, zinc vs. magnesium, show very high but diametrically opposite monomer selectivity. The selectivity is attributed to d...

  6. Spatial multi-criteria analysis for selecting potential sites for aquifer recharge via harvesting and infiltration of surface runoff in north Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinel, Anke; Schelkes, Klaus; Subah, Ali; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    In (semi-)arid regions, available water resources are scarce and groundwater resources are often overused. Therefore, the option to increase available water resources by managed aquifer recharge (MAR) via infiltration of captured surface runoff was investigated for two basins in northern Jordan. This study evaluated the general suitability of catchments to generate sufficient runoff and tried to identify promising sites to harvest and infiltrate the runoff into the aquifer for later recovery. Large sets of available data were used to create regional thematic maps, which were then combined to constraint maps using Boolean logic and to create suitability maps using weighted linear combination. This approach might serve as a blueprint which could be adapted and applied to similar regions. The evaluation showed that non-committed source water availability is the most restricting factor for successful water harvesting in regions with scheme will decrease rapidly to the point where it results in an overall negative impact due to increased evaporation if maintenance is not undertaken. It is recommended to improve system operation and maintenance, as well as monitoring, in order to achieve a better and constant effectiveness of the infiltration activities.

  7. Experimental and modeling results on geochemical impacts of leaking CO2 from subsurface storage reservoirs to an unconfined oxidizing carbonate aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafoku, N. P.; Bacon, D. H.; Shao, H.; Lawter, A.; Wang, G.; Brown, C. F.

    2013-12-01

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding on how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Solid materials (rocks and slightly weathered rocks) from an unconfined aquifer, i.e., the Edwards Aquifer in Texas, were used in this investigation. The experimental part consisted of: 1) wet chemical acid extractions (8M HNO3 solution at 90 0C); 2) batch experiments conducted at low solid to solution ratios to study time-dependent releases of major, minor and trace elements during periodic or continuous exposure to CO2 gas; 3) hydraulically saturated column experiments conducted under continuous and stop-flow conditions using a CO2 gas saturated synthetic groundwater; 4) pre- and post-treatment solid phase characterization studies. Major variables tested included reaction time (0-336 hours), CO2 flow rate (50 to 350 ml/min), brine concentration (0.1 and 1 M NaCl), rock type and particle size fraction. We are currently investigating the solution composition effects (i.e., presence of contaminants in the initial solution) on the fate and behavior of potential contaminants (As, Pb and Cd) in these systems. Results from the solid phase characterization studies showed that the mineralogy of the Edwards aquifer materials was dominated by calcite. Quartz and montmorillonite were also present in some samples. Acid extractions confirmed that the solid phase had appreciable amounts of potential contaminants (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn). However, the results from the batch and column experiments demonstrated that these contaminants

  8. Imaging cross fault multiphase flow using time resolved high pressure-temperature synchrotron fluid tomography: implications for the geological storage of carbon dioxide within sandstone saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seers, Thomas; Andrew, Matthew; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin; Dobson, Kate; Hodgetts, David; Lee, Peter; Menke, Hannah; Singh, Kamaljit; Parsons, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Applied shear stresses within high porosity granular rocks result in characteristic deformation responses (rigid grain reorganisation, dilation, isovolumetric strain, grain fracturing and/or crushing) emanating from elevated stress concentrations at grain contacts. The strain localisation features produced by these processes are generically termed as microfaults (also shear bands), which occur as narrow tabular regions of disaggregated, rotated and/or crushed grains. Because the textural priors that favour microfault formation make their host rocks (esp. porous sandstones) conducive to the storage of geo-fluids, such structures are often abundant features within hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers and potential sites of CO2 storage (i.e. sandstone saline aquifers). The porosity collapse which accompanies microfault formation typically results in localised permeability reduction, often encompassing several orders of magnitude. Given that permeability is the key physical parameter that governs fluid circulation in the upper crust, this petrophysical degradation implicates microfaults as being flow impeding structures which may act as major baffles and/or barriers to fluid flow within the subsurface. Such features therefore have the potential to negatively impact upon hydrocarbon production or CO2 injection, making their petrophysical characterisation of considerable interest. Despite their significance, little is known about the pore-scale processes involved in fluid trapping and transfer within microfaults, particularly in the presence of multiphase flow analogous to oil accumulation, production and CO2 injection. With respect to the geological storage of CO2 within sandstone saline aquifers it has been proposed that even fault rocks with relatively low phyllosilicate content or minimal quartz cementation may act as major baffles or barriers to migrating CO2 plume. Alternatively, as ubiquitous intra-reservoir heterogeneities, micro-faults also have the potential to

  9. Effect of Carbon Supported Pt Catalysts on Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde (CAL to cinnamyl alcohol (COL is of both fundamental and industrial interest. It is of great significance to evaluate the possible differences between different supports arising from metal dispersion and electronic effects, in terms of activity and selectivity. Herein, Pt catalysts on different carbon supports including carbon nanotubes (CNTs and reduced graphene oxides (RGO were developed by a simple wet impregnation method. The resultant catalysts were well characterized by XRD, Raman, N2 physisorption, TEM, and XPS analysis. Applied in the hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde, 3.5 wt% Pt/CNT shows much higher selectivity towards cinnamyl alcohol (62% than 3.5 wt% Pt/RGO@SiO2 (48%. The enhanced activity can be ascribed to the high graphitization degree of CNTs and high density of dispersed Pt electron cloud.

  10. Carbon induced selective regulation of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts by ethylene treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Chen, Pei-Pei; Xie, Jinglin; Liu, Jin-Xun; Zhao, Huabo; Lin, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Su, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Wei-Xue; Ma, Ding

    2017-04-28

    Various carbonaceous species were controllably deposited on Co/Al2O3 catalysts using ethylene as carbon source during the activation process for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). Atomic, polymeric and graphitic carbon were distinguished by Raman spectroscopy, thermoanalysis and temperature programmed hydrogenation. Significant changes occurred in both the catalytic activity and selectivity toward hydrocarbon products after ethylene treatment. The activity decreased along with an increase in CH4 selectivity, at the expense of a remarkable decrease of heavy hydrocarbon production, resulting in enhanced selectivity for the gasoline fraction. In situ XPS experiments show the possible electron transfer from cobalt to carbon and the blockage of metallic cobalt sites, which is responsible for the deactivation of the catalyst. DFT calculations reveal that the activation barrier (Ea) of methane formation decreases by 0.61 eV on the carbon-absorbed Co(111) surface, whereas the Ea of the CH + CH coupling reaction changes unnoticeably. Hydrogenation of CHx to methane becomes the preferable route among the elementary reactions on the Co(111) surface, leading to dramatic changes in the product distribution. Detailed coke-induced deactivation mechanisms of Co-based catalysts during FTS are discussed.

  11. Phosphorylated mesoporous carbon as effective catalyst for the selective fructose dehydration to HMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Schiavoni, Marco [University of Milan and INFN, Milano, Italy; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated mesoporous carbons (PMCs) have been synthesized using an already reported one pot methodology. These materials have been applied as acidic catalysts in the dehydration of fructose to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). PMCs showed better selectivity to HMF compared to sulfonated carbon catalyst (SC) despite lower activity. The concentration of P-O groups correlates to the activity/selectivity of the catalysts; the higher the P-O concentration the higher the activity. However, the higher the P-O content the lower the selectivity to HMF. Indeed a lower concentration of the P-O groups (and even the acidic groups) minimized the degradation of HMF to levulinic acid and the formation of by-products, such as humines. Stability tests showed that these systems deactivate due to the formation of humines, water insoluble by-products derived from the dehydration of fructose, blocking the active site of the catalyst. Increasing the amount of P-O groups, higher amount of humines are formed; therefore carbons containing lower amount of phosphorylated groups, such as P/N-0.25, are less prone to deactivation. Keywords: Phosphorylated mesoporous carbons; fructose dehydration; HMF

  12. Adsorption characteristics of selected hydrophilic and hydrophobic micropollutants in water using activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seung-Woo; Choi, Dae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Her, Namguk; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2014-04-15

    In this study, we investigated adsorption characteristics of nine selected micropollutants (six pharmaceuticals, two pesticides, and one endocrine disruptor) in water using an activated carbon. The effects of carbon dosage, contact time, pH, DOM (dissolved organic matter), and temperature on the adsorption removal of micropollutants were examined. Increasing carbon dosage and contact time enhanced the removal of micropollutants. Sorption coefficients of hydrophilic compounds (caffeine, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethazine) fit a linear isotherm and hydrophobic compounds (naproxen, diclofenac, 2, 4-D, triclocarban, and atrazine) fit a Freundlich isotherm. The removal of hydrophobic pollutants and caffeine were independent of pH changes, but acetaminophen, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole were adsorbed by mainly electrostatic interaction with activated carbon and so were affected by pH. The decrease in adsorption removal in surface water samples was observed and this decrease was more significant for hydrophobic than hydrophilic compounds. The decline in the adsorption capacity in surface water samples is caused by the competitive inhibition of DOM with micropollutants onto activated carbon. Low temperature (5°C) also decreased the adsorption removal of micropollutants, and affected hydrophobic compounds more than hydrophilic compounds. The results obtained in this study can be applied to optimize the adsorption capacities of micropollutants using activated carbon in water treatment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A simplified method for selecting a carbon-fiber electrode in pulse voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, B Y; Lio, H P; Wang, C Y; Young, M S; Ho, M T; Lin, M T

    1993-12-01

    A method for selecting a usable carbon-fiber electrode using the equivalent resistance and capacitance is presented. This method uses an instrument with a PC-based look-up table for measuring the electrical characteristics of a carbon-fiber electrode in pulse voltammetry. Using this instrument, the equivalent resistance and capacitance of the carbon-fiber electrode in saturated sodium chloride solution can be obtained. This instrument includes a decade resistance box, a peak current detection and hold circuit, a half peak comparator and a decay duration counter. A look-up table is established by using RC circuits to emulate the electrochemical reaction of the carbon-fiber electrode in pulse voltammetry. The equivalent resistance is obtained from the decade resistance box according to Kirchhoff's law. Then the equivalent capacitance is determined from the decay duration counter reading and equivalent resistance with the look-up table via a PC interpolation program. After obtaining the equivalent resistance and capacitance of an electrode, the values are compared with the usable thresholds. This method provides an effective quality evaluation index of carbon-fiber electrode for the user in order to reduce electrode-induced experimental failure. The method is also available for other kinds of carbon-fiber electrodes as long as their look-up table and desired thresholds are established.

  14. Selective formation of diamond-like carbon coating by surface catalyst patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palnichenko, A.V.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The selective formation of diamond-like carbon coating by surface catalyst patterning was studied. DLC films was deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, filtered vacuum arc deposition, laser ablation, magnetron sputtering and ion-beam lithography methods. The DLC coatings were...... obtained by means of a single short and intensive carbon plasma deposition pulse. The deposited DLC coating was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements. The DLC coating process gave rise to wide potential possibilities in micro-devices manufacturing productions....

  15. Disposable Carbon Dots Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrode Electrochemical Sensor Strip for Selective Detection of Ferric Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Chien Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A disposable electrochemical sensor strip based on carbon nanodots (C-Dots modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE was fabricated for selective detection of ferric ions (Fe3+ in aqueous solution. C-Dots of mean diameters within the range of 1–7 nm were synthesized electrochemically from spent battery carbon rods. The analytical performance of this electrochemical sensor strip was characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The deposition of C-Dots had enhanced the electron-transfer kinetics and current intensity of the SPCE remarkably by 734% as compared to that of unmodified SPCE. Under optimized conditions, the electrochemical sensor strip exhibited a linear detection range of 0.5 to 25.0 ppm Fe3+ with a limit of detection (LOD of 0.44±0.04 ppm (at S/N ratio = 3. Validation of results by the electrochemical sensor strip was done by comparing analysis results obtained using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS.

  16. Comparative Study of Effects of CO 2 Concentration and pH on Microbial Communities from a Saline Aquifer, a Depleted Oil Reservoir, and a Freshwater Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, Djuna M.; Lowry, Gregory V.; Gregory, Kelvin B.

    2016-10-01

    Injected CO2 from geologic carbon storage is expected to impact the microbial communities of proposed storage sites, such as depleted oil reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, as well as overlying freshwater aquifers at risk of receiving leaking CO2. Microbial community change in these subsurface sites may affect injectivity of CO2, permanence of stored CO2, and shallow subsurface water quality. The effect of CO2 concentration on the microbial communities in fluid collected from a depleted oil reservoir and a freshwater aquifer was examined at subsurface pressures and temperatures. The community was exposed to 0%, 1%, 10%, and 100% pCO2 for 56 days. Bacterial community structure was analyzed through 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and total bacterial abundance was estimated through quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Changes in the microbial community observed in the depleted oil reservoir samples and freshwater samples were compared to previous results from CO2-exposed deep saline aquifer fluids. Overall, results suggest that CO2 exposure to microbial communities will result in pH-dependent population change, and the CO2-selected microbial communities will vary among sites. This is the first study to compare the response of multiple subsurface microbial communities at conditions expected during geologic carbon storage, increasing the understanding of environmental drivers for microbial community changes in CO2-exposed environments.

  17. Distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marie; Guertal, William R.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001, to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site. This report provides a summary assessment of the distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether and a preliminary screening of selected constituents that may affect natural attenuation and remediation demonstrations at the Dover National Test Site. The information gathered during this study is designed to assist potential remedial investigators who are considering conducting a methyl tert-butyl ether remedial demonstration at the test site. In addition, the study supported a planned enhanced bioremediation demonstration and assisted the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. A direct-push drill rig was used to collect a total of 147 ground-water samples (115 VOC samples and 32 quality-assurance samples) at varying depths. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloro-ethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloro-ethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloro-ethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether were detected in the surficial aquifer from ?4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level; however, methyl tert

  18. Biscayne aquifer, southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Howard; Hull, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Peak daily pumpage from the highly permeable, unconfined Biscayne aquifer for public water-supply systems in southeast Florida in 1975 was about 500 million gallons. Another 165 million gallons was withdrawn daily for irrigation. Recharge to the aquifer is primarily by local rainfall. Discharge is by evapotranspiration, canal drainage, coastal seepage, and pumping. Pollutants can enter the aquifer by direct infiltration from land surface or controlled canals, septic-tank and other drainfields, drainage wells, and solid-waste dumps. Most of the pollutants are concentrated in the upper 20 to 30 feet of the aquifer; public supply wells generally range in depth from about 75 to 150 feet. Dilution, dispersion, and adsorption tend to reduce the concentrations. Seasonal heavy rainfall and canal discharge accelerate ground-water circulation, thereby tending to dilute and flush upper zones of the aquifer. The ultimate fate of pollutants in the aquifer is the ocean, although some may be adsorbed by the aquifer materials en route to the ocean, and some are diverted to pumping wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Groundwater vulnerability mapping of Qatar aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa

    2016-12-01

    Qatar is one of the most arid countries in the world with limited water resources. With little rainfall and no surface water, groundwater is the only natural source of fresh water in the country. Whilst the country relies mainly on desalination of seawater to secure water supply, groundwater has extensively been used for irrigation over the last three decades, which caused adverse environmental impact. Vulnerability assessment is a widely used tool for groundwater protection and land-use management. Aquifers in Qatar are carbonate with lots of fractures, depressions and cavities. Karst aquifers are generally more vulnerable to contamination than other aquifers as any anthropogenic-sourced contaminant, especially above a highly fractured zone, can infiltrate quickly into the aquifer and spread over a wide area. The vulnerability assessment method presented in this study is based on two approaches: DRASTIC and EPIK, within the framework of Geographical Information System (GIS). Results of this study show that DRASTIC vulnerability method suits Qatar hydrogeological settings more than EPIK. The produced vulnerability map using DRASTIC shows coastal and karst areas have the highest vulnerability class. The southern part of the country is located in the low vulnerability class due to occurrence of shale formation within aquifer media, which averts downward movement of contaminants.

  20. Subsurface recharge to the Tesuque aquifer system from selected drainage basins along the western side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains near Santa Fe, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiolek, Maryann

    1995-01-01

    Water budgets developed for basins of five streams draining the western side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico indicate that subsurface inflow along the mountain front is recharging the Tesuque aquifer system of the Espanola Basin. Approximately 14,700 acre-feet of water per year, or 12.7 percent of average annual precipitation over the mountains, is calculated to leave the mountain block and enter the basin as subsurface recharge from the drainage basins of the Rio Nambe, Rio en Medio, Tesuque Creek, Little Tesuque Creek, and Santa Fe River. About 5,520 acre- feet per year, or about 12 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Rio Nambe drainage basin; about 1,710 acre- feet per year, or about 15 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Rio en Medio drainage basin; about 1,530 acre- feet, or about 10 percent of average annual precipi- tation, is calculated to enter from the Tesuque Creek drainage basin; about 1,790 acre-feet, or about 19 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Little Tesuque Creek drainage basin; and about 4,170 acre-feet per year, or about 12 percent average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Santa Fe River drainage basin. Calculated subsurface recharge values were used to define maximum fluxes permitted along the specified-flux boundary defining the mountain front of the Sangre De Cristo Mountains in a numerical computer model of the Tesuque aquifer system near Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  1. Selective consumption and metabolic allocation of terrestrial and algal carbon determine allochthony in lake bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, François; Leigh McCallister, S; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    Here we explore strategies of resource utilization and allocation of algal versus terrestrially derived carbon (C) by lake bacterioplankton. We quantified the consumption of terrestrial and algal dissolved organic carbon, and the subsequent allocation of these pools to bacterial growth and respiration, based on the δ(13)C isotopic signatures of bacterial biomass and respiratory carbon dioxide (CO2). Our results confirm that bacterial communities preferentially remove algal C from the terrestrially dominated organic C pool of lakes, but contrary to current assumptions, selectively allocate this autochthonous substrate to respiration, whereas terrestrial C was preferentially allocated to biosynthesis. The results provide further evidence of a mechanism whereby inputs of labile, algal-derived organic C may stimulate the incorporation of a more recalcitrant, terrestrial C pool. This mechanism resulted in a counterintuitive pattern of high and relatively constant levels of allochthony (~76%) in bacterial biomass across lakes that otherwise differ greatly in productivity and external inputs.

  2. Universal Selective Dispersion of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes from Commercial Sources Using a Supramolecular Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Pochorovski, Igor; Lin, Pei; Pitner, Gregory; Yan, Xuzhou; Gao, Theodore Z; To, John W F; Lei, Ting; Will, John W; Wong, H-S Philip; Bao, Zhenan

    2017-06-27

    Selective extraction of semiconducting carbon nanotubes is a key step in the production of high-performance, solution-processed electronics. Here, we describe the ability of a supramolecular sorting polymer to selectively disperse semiconducting carbon nanotubes from five commercial sources with diameters ranging from 0.7 to 2.2 nm. The sorting purity of the largest-diameter nanotubes (1.4 to 2.2 nm; from Tuball) was confirmed by short channel measurements to be 97.5%. Removing the sorting polymer by acid-induced disassembly increased the transistor mobility by 94 and 24% for medium-diameter and large-diameter carbon nanotubes, respectively. Among the tested single-walled nanotube sources, the highest transistor performance of 61 cm2/V·s and on/off ratio >104 were realized with arc discharge carbon nanotubes with a diameter range from 1.2 to 1.7 nm. The length and quality of nanotubes sorted from different sources is compared using measurements from atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The transistor mobility is found to correlate with the G/D ratio extracted from the Raman spectra.

  3. Novel porous carbon materials with ultrahigh nitrogen contents for selective CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials were prepared by a nanocasting route using tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 as a hard template. Rationally choosing carbon precursors and carefully controlling activation conditions result in an optimized material denoted as IBN9-NC1-A, which possesses a very high nitrogen doping concentration (∼13 wt%) and a large surface area of 890 m 2 g -1 arising from micropores (<1 nm). It exhibits an excellent performance for CO 2 adsorption over a wide range of CO 2 pressures. Specifically, its equilibrium CO 2 adsorption capacity at 25 °C reaches up to 4.50 mmol g -1 at 1 bar and 10.53 mmol g -1 at 8 bar. In particular, it shows a much higher CO 2 uptake at low pressure (e.g. 1.75 mmol g -1 at 25 °C and 0.2 bar) than any reported carbon-based materials, owing to its unprecedented nitrogen doping level. The high nitrogen contents also give rise to significantly enhanced CO 2/N 2 selectivities (up to 42), which combined with the high adsorption capacities, make these new carbon materials promising sorbents for selective CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas and other relevant applications. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. EPA Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information on sole source aquifers (SSAs) is widely used in assessments under the National Environmental Policy Act and at the state and local level. A national...

  5. Main Feedbacks Between Oxidizable Carbon Content and Selected Soil Characteristic of Chernozem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítězslav Vlček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pressure on our agricultural land is culminating last hundred years, especially after 1948, not only because of only massive application of mineral fertilizers but also because of land consolidation and subsequent accelerated water and wind erosion and use of mechanization. This article focuses on main demonstration of feedbacks especially with oxidizable carbon which can negatively affect soil as a homeostatic system. Oxidizable carbon, as the basis of soil humus, is crucial for maintaining soil fertility and for its resistance to further degradation factors affecting the soil. 35 chernozem sites were selected in South Moravia region. These soils had been probably used for their fertility and availability before the turn of the AD. Unfortunately, their long-term agricultural use has resulted in adverse impact on their quality.This way, shallower forms of erosion were often formed. These erosion forms are omitted for the purposes of our study there. For this work, locations with preserved chernic (i.e. diagnostic horizon, as the horizon with less anthropogenic influence, were selected. Relations between a grain size (clay, silt and sand particles, exchange reaction in soil, sorption capacity, oxidizable carbon content, total nitrogen content and content of selected potentially acceptable elements (Ca, Mg were monitored.

  6. One-pot carbonization synthesis of europium-doped carbon quantum dots for highly selective detection of tetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Liu, Meng; Chen, Bin Bin; Yang, Tong; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xi Dong; Zhi Huang, Cheng

    2017-03-01

    The detection of tetracycline is of great significance because of its damaging effects on human health, such as renal toxicity and hemolytic anemia. Any release of tetracycline into the surrounding environment can produce bacterial drug resistance. We develop a new sensitive and selective detection approach for tetracycline in complex water samples by preparing europium-doped carbon quantum dots (Eu-CQDs) through a simple and rapid carbonization method operating at 200 °C for 5 min. The Eu-CQDs are characterized by blue photoluminescence, excitation-wavelength-dependent emission and excellent stability. Importantly, the fluorescence of the Eu-CQDs can be quenched efficiently by tetracycline, based on the strong inner filter effect mechanism between Eu-CQDs and tetracycline, making the fluorescence intensity ratio (I 0/I) of the Eu-CQDs at 465 nm correlate linearly with the concentration of tetracycline in the range of 0.5-200 μM, with a limit of detection of 0.3 μM. This shows the broad applicability of the Eu-CQDs in pursuing the concepts of simplicity and specificity for analytical purposes.

  7. Aquifer susceptibility in Virginia, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George E.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Health, sampled water from 171 wells and springs across the Commonwealth of Virginia between 1998 and 2000 as part of the Virginia Aquifer Susceptibility study. Most of the sites sampled are public water supplies that are part of the comprehensive Source Water Assessment Program for the Commonwealth. The fundamental premise of the study was that the identification of young waters (less than 50 years) by multiple environmental tracers could be used as a guide for classifying aquifers in terms of susceptibility to contamination from near-surface sources. Environmental tracers, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He), and carbon isotopes (14C and d13C) were used to determine the age of water discharging from wells and springs. Concentrations of CFCs greater than 5 picograms per kilogram and 3H concentrations greater than 0.6 tritium unit were used as thresholds to indicate that parts of the aquifer sampled have a component of young water and are, therefore, susceptible to near-surface contamination. Concentrations of CFCs exceeded the susceptibility threshold in 22 percent of the wells and in one spring sampled in the Coastal Plain regional aquifer systems. About 74 percent of the samples from wells with the top of the first water zone less than 100 feet below land surface exceeded the threshold values, and water supplies developed in the upper 100 feet of the Coastal Plain are considered to be susceptible to contamination from near-surface sources. The maximum depth to the top of the screened interval for wells that contained CFCs was less than 150 feet. Wells completed in the deep confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain generally contain water older than 1,000 years, as indicated by carbon-14 dating, and are not considered to be susceptible to contamination under natural conditions. All of the water samples from wells

  8. Near-infrared light controlled photocatalytic activity of carbon quantum dots for highly selective oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-03-01

    Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize the transformation from benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with high selectivity (100%) and conversion (92%) under NIR light irradiation. HO&z.rad; is the main active oxygen specie in benzyl alcohol selective oxidative reaction confirmed by terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing assay (TA-PL), selecting toluene as the substrate. Such metal-free photocatalytic system also selectively converts other alcohol substrates to their corresponding aldehydes with high conversion, demonstrating a potential application of accessing traditional alcohol oxidation chemistry.Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize

  9. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng

    2012-03-06

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.; Crandall, Christy A.; Lindgren, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management.

  11. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, James W.; Leighton, David A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Fields, Latoya; Galloway, Devin L.; Michel, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The East Bay Plain, on the densely populated eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, contains an upper aquifer system to depths of 250 feet below land surface and an underlying lower aquifer system to depths of more than 650 feet. Injection and recovery of imported water has been proposed for deep aquifers at two sites within the lower aquifer system. Successful operation requires that the injected water be isolated from surface sources of poor-quality water during storage and recovery. Hydraulic, geochemical, and isotopic data were used to evaluate the isolation of deeper aquifers. Ground-water responses to tidal changes in the Bay suggest that thick clay layers present within these deposits effectively isolate the deeper aquifers in the northern part of the study area from overlying surficial deposits. These data also suggest that the areal extent of the shallow and deep aquifers beneath the Bay may be limited in the northern part of the study area. Despite its apparent hydraulic isolation, the lower aquifer system may be connected to the overlying upper aquifer system through the corroded and failed casings of abandoned wells. Water-level measurements in observation wells and downward flow measured in selected wells during nonpumped conditions suggest that water may flow through wells from the upper aquifer system into the lower aquifer system during nonpumped conditions. The chemistry of water from wells in the East Bay Plain ranges from fresh to saline; salinity is greater than seawater in shallow estuarine deposits near the Bay. Water from wells completed in the lower aquifer system has higher pH, higher sodium, chloride, and manganese concentrations, and lower calcium concentrations and alkalinity than does water from wells completed in the overlying upper aquifer system. Ground-water recharge temperatures derived from noble-gas data indicate that highly focused recharge processes from infiltration of winter streamflow and more diffuse recharge processes from

  12. Potentiometric sensors based on fluorous membranes doped with highly selective ionophores for carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li D; Mandal, Debaprasad; Pozzi, Gianluca; Gladysz, John A; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2011-12-28

    Manganese(III) complexes of three fluorophilic salen derivatives were used to prepare ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) with ionophore-doped fluorous sensing membranes. Because of their extremely low polarity and polarizability, fluorous media are not only chemically very inert but also solvate potentially interfering ions poorly, resulting in a much improved discrimination of such ions. Indeed, the new ISEs exhibited selectivities for CO(3)(2-) that exceed those of previously reported ISEs based on nonfluorous membranes by several orders of magnitude. In particular, the interference from chloride and salicylate was reduced by 2 and 6 orders of magnitude, respectively. To achieve this, the selectivities of these ISEs were fine-tuned by addition of noncoordinating hydrophobic ions (i.e., ionic sites) into the sensing membranes. Stability constants of the anion-ionophore complexes were determined from the dependence of the potentiometric selectivities on the charge sign of the ionic sites and the molar ratio of ionic sites and the ionophore. For this purpose, a previously introduced fluorophilic tetraphenylborate and a novel fluorophilic cation with a bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium group, (R(f6)(CH(2))(3))(3)PN(+)P(R(f6)(CH(2))(3))(3), were utilized (where R(f6) is C(6)F(13)). The optimum CO(3)(2-) selectivities were found for sensing membranes composed of anionic sites and ionophore in a 1:4 molar ratio, which results in the formation of 2:1 complexes with CO(3)(2-) with stability constants up to 4.1 × 10(15). As predicted by established theory, the site-to-ionophore ratios that provide optimum potentiometric selectivity depend on the stoichiometries of the complexes of both the primary and the interfering ions. However, the ionophores used in this study give examples of charges and stoichiometries previously neither explicitly predicted by theory nor shown by experiment. The exceptional selectivity of fluorous membranes doped with these carbonate ionophores

  13. Anomalous electron transport in metal/carbon multijunction devices by engineering of the carbon thickness and selecting metal layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Dhand, Chetna; Rawal, Ishpal; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K.; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani

    2017-06-01

    A longstanding concern in the research of amorphous carbon films is their poor electrical conductivity at room temperature which constitutes a major barrier for the development of cost effective electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we propose metal/carbon hybrid multijunction devices as a promising facile way to overcome room temperature electron transport issues in amorphous carbon films. By the tuning of carbon thickness and swapping metal layers, we observe giant (upto ˜7 orders) reduction of electrical resistance in metal/carbon multijunction devices with respect to monolithic amorphous carbon device. We engineer the maximum current (electrical resistance) from about 10-7 to 10-3 A (˜107 to 103 Ω) in metal (Cu or Ti)/carbon hybrid multijunction devices with a total number of 10 junctions. The introduction of thin metal layers breaks the continuity of relatively higher resistance carbon layer as well as promotes the nanostructuring of carbon. These contribute to low electrical resistance of metal/carbon hybrid multijunction devices, with respect to monolithic carbon device, which is further reduced by decreasing the thickness of carbon layers. We also propose and discuss equivalent circuit model to explain electrical resistance in monolithic carbon and metal/carbon multijunction devices. Cu/carbon multijunction devices display relatively better electrical transport than Ti/carbon devices owing to low affinity of Cu with carbon that restricts carbide formation. We also observe that in metal/carbon multijunction devices, the transport mechanism changes from Poole-Frenkel/Schottky model to the hopping model with a decrease in carbon thickness. Our approach opens a new route to develop carbon-based inexpensive electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  14. Selective enhancement and verification of woody biomass digestibility as a denitrification carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongting; Zheng, Xilai; Xin, Jia; Sun, Zhaoyue; Zheng, Tianyuan

    2017-11-01

    The denitrification efficiency of woody biomass as carbon source is low because of its poor carbon availability. In this study, representative poplar sawdust was pretreated with lime and peracetic acid to enhance the biomass digestibility to different degrees; sawdust was then mixed with soil to investigate its denitrification efficiency. Under controllable conditions (25-95°C, 12-24h, varying dosages), sawdust digestibility (characterized by reducing sugar yield) was selectively enhanced 1.0-21.8 times over that of the raw sawdust (28.8mgeq.glucoseg-1 dry biomass). This increase was mainly attributed to the removal of lignin from the biomass. As a carbon source, the sawdust (digestibility enhanced by 5.4 times) increased the nitrate removal rate by 4.7 times, without N2O emission. However, the sawdust with high digestibility (12.6 or 18.0 times), despite releasing more dissolved organic carbon (DOC), did not exhibit further increase in denitrification efficiency, and emitted N2O. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective laser melting of carbon/AlSi10Mg composites: Microstructure, mechanical and electronical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiao; Song, Bo, E-mail: bosong@hust.edu.cn; Fan, Wenrui; Zhang, Yuanjie; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-04-25

    Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg composites has drawn lots of attention in structural engineering and functional device applications due to its extraordinary high elastic modulus and mechanical strength as well as excellent electrical and thermal conductivities. In this study, the CNTs/AlSi10Mg composites was firstly prepared and then processed by selective laser melting. The powder preparation, SLM process, and microstructure evolution, properties were clarified. The results showed that CNTs were decomposed due to the direct interaction with the laser beam. The SLMed composites displayed a similar microstructure to that of SLMed AlSi10Mg. The common brittleness phase Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} didn't form, and the carbon dispersion strengthening was observed. The electrical resistivity of the composites was reduced significantly and the hardness was improved. - Highlights: • Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg powder were prepared by slurry ball milling process. • Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg composites were firstly prepared by SLM. • The electrical resistivity of the composites was significantly reduced and hardness was improved.

  16. Designed synthesis of MOF-derived magnetic nanoporous carbon materials for selective enrichment of glycans for glycomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nianrong; Zhang, Xiangmin; Deng, Chunhui

    2015-04-21

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon (NPC) materials were synthesized by choosing a MOF as a sacrificial template and a carbon precursor. The obtained Co-ZIF-67 materials showed strong magnetic response, high surface area, a uniform size of mesopores and high carbon content. The Co-ZIF-67 materials were successfully applied to glycomics analysis by enriching N-linked glycans in bio-samples with high selectivity and efficiency.

  17. Relationships Between Aquifer Properties and Microbial Populations in the Borden Aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbaro, Susan Elizabeth; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Jensen, Bjorn K.

    1994-01-01

    , electron transport system (ETS) activity, dissolved oxygen (DO), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), weight fraction of organic carbon (FOC), and hydraulic conductivity (K) were determined for contiguous samples of aquifer material removed at 10.0-cm intervals from the 9 cores. Viable cell counts (0-10-4 cfu...... and activities were found to be predominantly correlated with depth and dissolved oxygen. Evaluation of these results revealed an oxygen threshold level, occurring at approximately 3.0 mg/L, below which bacterial populations isolated in this study were less able to proliferate. Further evaluation...... of the microbiological and geologic data collected in this study suggests that, in conjunction with low dissolved oxygen, the naturally occurring carbon may be unsuitable to support large numbers of microorganisms. Similarly, an increase in the production of INT-for when aquifer material was amended with nitrogen...

  18. Arsenic and radionuclide occurrence and relation to geochemistry in groundwater of the Gulf Coast Aquifer System in Houston, Texas, 2007–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2016-03-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, began a study in 2007 to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring trace elements and radionuclides in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Houston, Texas. Water samples were collected from 91 municipal supply wells completed in the Evangeline and Chicot aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern Houston; hereinafter referred to as northeast, northwest and southwest Houston areas. Wells were sampled in three phases: (1) 28 municipal supply wells were sampled during 2007–8, (2) 60 municipal supply wells during 2010, and (3) 3 municipal supply wells during December 2011. During each phase of sampling, samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, and radionuclides. At a subset of wells, concentrations of arsenic species and other radionuclides (carbon-14, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, and tritium) also were analyzed. Selected physicochemical properties were measured in the field at the time each sample was collected, and oxidation-reduction potential and unfiltered sulfides also were measured at selected wells. The source-water (the raw, ambient water withdrawn from municipal supply wells prior to water treatment) samples were collected for assessment of aquifer conditions in order to provide community water-system operators information that could be important when they make decisions about which treatment processes to apply before distributing finished drinking water.

  19. Borehole deviation and correction factor data for selected wells in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.

    2016-11-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, has maintained a water-level monitoring program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) since 1949. The purpose of the program is to systematically measure and report water-level data to assess the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and long term changes in groundwater recharge, discharge, movement, and storage. Water-level data are commonly used to generate potentiometric maps and used to infer increases and (or) decreases in the regional groundwater system. Well deviation is one component of water-level data that is often overlooked and is the result of the well construction and the well not being plumb. Depending on measured slant angle, where well deviation generally increases linearly with increasing slant angle, well deviation can suggest artificial anomalies in the water table. To remove the effects of well deviation, the USGS INL Project Office applies a correction factor to water-level data when a well deviation survey indicates a change in the reference elevation of greater than or equal to 0.2 ft.Borehole well deviation survey data were considered for 177 wells completed within the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, but not all wells had deviation survey data available. As of 2016, USGS INL Project Office database includes: 57 wells with gyroscopic survey data; 100 wells with magnetic deviation survey data; 11 wells with erroneous gyroscopic data that were excluded; and, 68 wells with no deviation survey data available. Of the 57 wells with gyroscopic deviation surveys, correction factors for 16 wells ranged from 0.20 to 6.07 ft and inclination angles (SANG) ranged from 1.6 to 16.0 degrees. Of the 100 wells with magnetic deviation surveys, a correction factor for 21 wells ranged from 0.20 to 5.78 ft and SANG ranged from 1.0 to 13.8 degrees, not including the wells that did not meet the correction factor criteria of greater than or equal to 0.20 ft.Forty-seven wells had

  20. Selection Maintains Apparently Degenerate Metabolic Pathways due to Tradeoffs in Using Methylamine for Carbon versus Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Dipti D; Agashe, Deepa; Lee, Ming-Chun; Marx, Christopher J

    2016-06-06

    Microorganisms often encode multiple non-orthologous metabolic modules that catalyze the same reaction. However, little experimental evidence actually demonstrates a selective basis for metabolic degeneracy. Many methylotrophs-microorganisms that grow on reduced single-carbon compounds-like Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 encode two routes for methylamine oxidation: the periplasmic methylamine dehydrogenase (MaDH) and the cytoplasmic N-methylglutamate (NMG) pathway. In Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, MaDH is essential for methylamine growth, but the NMG pathway has no known physiological role. Here, we use experimental evolution of two isolates lacking (or incapable of using) MaDH to uncover the physiological challenges that need to be overcome in order to use the NMG pathway for growth on methylamine as a carbon and energy source. Physiological characterization of the evolved isolates revealed regulatory rewiring to increase expression of the NMG pathway and novel mechanisms to mitigate cytoplasmic ammonia buildup. These adaptations led us to infer and validate environmental conditions under which the NMG pathway is advantageous compared to MaDH. The highly expressed MaDH enables rapid growth on high concentrations of methylamine as the primary carbon and energy substrate, whereas the energetically expensive NMG pathway plays a pivotal role during growth with methylamine as the sole nitrogen source, which we demonstrate is especially true under limiting concentrations (Tradeoffs between cellular localization and ammonium toxicity lead to selection for this apparent degeneracy as it is beneficial to facultative methylotrophs that have to switch between using methylamine as a carbon and energy source or just a nitrogen source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of atmospheric pollution inputs and climate change on dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes in karst aquifers: evidences from a 36 years past monitoring of karstic watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, Stephane; Probst, Jean-Luc; Batiot-Guilhe, Christelle; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Emblanch, Christophe; Peyraube, Nicolas; Mangin, Alain; Bakalowicz, Michel; Probst, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric pollution is known to modify the soil CO2 consumption associated with carbonate bedrock weathering. To evidence the long term feedbacks of atmospheric pollution and climate change on this chemical reaction, we investigated the inorganic carbon fluxes monitored weekly from 1979 to 2006 in a small forested karstic watershed in the Pyrénées Mountains, characterized by a large precipitation variability, a 0.025 °C air temperature increase per year and a low agricultural pressure. The yearly average concentrations of [Ca + Mg] and dissolved inorganic carbon increases of about 0.057 meq.L-1.yr-1 and the 0.1 meq.L-1.yr-1, respectively. The gap relative to the 1:2 relationship between [Ca + Mg] and HCO3 (in mmole. L-1), noted Delta-HCO3, was founded to be driven by the atmospheric pollution inputs, producing strong acids that inhibit the consumption of carbon from soil during the carbonate dissolution processes. In addition, atmospheric temperature increase is correlated with the [Ca +Mg] change, whereas the decrease of the atmospheric acid inputs observed since the seventies, is linked with a + 0.0022 meq.L-1.yr-1 increase in Delta-HCO3. Similar trends in Delta-HCO3 change were found over other karstic watersheds monitored more recently in the framework of the SNO KARST, one the observatory networks from the OZCAR Research Infrastructure, highlighting that Delta-HCO3 changes over time were partially controlled by atmospheric pollution inputs. The re-interpretation of hydrochemical databases using this Delta-HCO3 indicator enables to evaluate better the impact of atmospheric pollution load and climate change on surface waters. In an indirect way, the dephasing between atmospheric loads recorded in precipitation and Delta-HCO3 observed in groundwater could be a new tracer method to estimate groundwater residence times.

  2. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) with controllable properties are highly desirable to improve battery performance. In this paper, we use a combined experimental and simulation approach to study the SEI formation on hard carbon in Li and Na-ion batteries. We show that with proper additives, stable SEI can be formed on hard carbon by pre-cycling the electrode materials in Li or Na-ion electrolyte. Detailed mechanistic studies suggest that the ion transport in the SEI layer is kinetically controlled and can be tuned by the applied voltage. Selective Na and Li-ion SEI membranes are produced using the Na or Li-ion based electrolytes respectively. The large Na ion SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the small Li ion SEI shuts off the Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI with film-forming electrolyte additives or preforming a SEI on the electrodes’ surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to <25 mAh/g, ~1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh/g). Unusual selective/preferential transport of Li-ion is demonstrated by preforming a SEI on the electrode’s surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion selective conductors using electrochemical approaches in the future.

  3. Recent developments in the selective dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes using conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Darryl; Adronov, Alex

    2017-11-01

    A significant barrier that impedes the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotube-related applications is that all known synthetic methods produce a complicated mixture of semiconducting and metallic species. For device applications, pure semiconducting or pure metallic samples are desirable. Thus far, the purification methods that have been identified are capable of separating individual carbon nanotube species on a microgram scale, but purification on a large scale has remained elusive. The use of conjugated polymers to selectively disperse specific nanotube species is a promising approach to resolve the scalability issue, but a comprehensive understanding of the selectivity mechanism has not yet been achieved. Here, several of the trends reported in the literature are outlined to further the rational design of conjugated polymers for nanotube sorting. Numerous variables influence dispersion selectivity, including polymer structure and molecular weight, nanotube type used, sonication temperature, amount of polymer relative to nanotube, and solvent. We have organized these seemingly disparate parameters into two simple categories: conjugated polymer structure, and dispersion preparation conditions. Most importantly, we consider the mechanistic arguments that have been proposed, and provide additional insights based on the observations in the literature.

  4. From an equilibrium based MOF adsorbent to a kinetic selective carbon molecular sieve for paraffin/iso-paraffin separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baiyan; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Zhang, Yiming; Bhatt, Prashant M; He, Hongming; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Perman, Jason A; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-11-24

    We unveil a unique kinetic driven separation material for selectively removing linear paraffins from iso-paraffins via a molecular sieving mechanism. Subsequent carbonization and thermal treatment of CD-MOF-2, the cyclodextrin metal-organic framework, afforded a carbon molecular sieve with a uniform and reduced pore size of ca. 5.0 Å, and it exhibited highly selective kinetic separation of n-butane and n-pentane from iso-butane and iso-pentane, respectively.

  5. Zinc versus Magnesium: Orthogonal Catalyst Reactivity in Selective Polymerizations of Epoxides, Bio-derived Anhydrides and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Prabhjot K; Fiorani, Giulia; Mathers, Robert T; Williams, Charlotte K

    2017-03-28

    Developing selective polymerizations from complex monomer mixtures is an important challenge. Here, dinuclear catalysts allow selective polymerization from mixtures of sterically hindered tricyclic anhydrides, carbon dioxide and epoxides to yield well-controlled copoly(ester-carbonates). Surprisingly, two very similar homogeneous catalysts differing only in the central metal, zinc versus magnesium, show very high but diametrically opposite monomer selectivity. The selectivity is attributed to different polymerization kinetics and to steric factors associated with the anhydrides. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hydrologic Properties of Aquifers in the Central Savannah River Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snipes, D.S.; Benson, S.M.; Price Jr., Van; Temples, T.J.

    1996-01-02

    The hydrologic properties of selected aquifer systems underlying the Milhaven and Girard sites in Georgia were determined through a series of aquifer performance tests performed from October, 1994 to January, 1995. At the Milhaven site, the systems under investigation consisted of the upper, middle and lower components of the Upper Floridan, the lower Dublin, and the lower Midville aquifers. At the Dublin site, only the lower Dublin and lower Midville aquifers were tested. In addition, the hydrologic properties of the lower Midville aquifer underlying the P, B and D Areas at the Savannah River Site were determined by a series of aquifer tests conducted in 1993 and 1994. The tests generally consisted of collecting water level and atmospheric data for 24 hours followed by a 72 hour pump test and a subsequent 72 hour recovery period. These tests were designed to determine the aquifer properties over a large area, to determine whether any hydrologic boundaries existed in the area, and to find out if leakance could be induced through the confining units which separated the aquifer units.

  7. Managing environmental problems in Cuban karstic aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Leslie Molerio; Parise, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The Cuban archipelago hosts some of the most typical karst features in the Caribbean, and has very important and high-quality resources of karst water. Carbonate rocks cover about 70% of the country area, with a great variety of karst features, and outstanding exokarstic landforms such as the cone karst; in addition, many caves are regarded as cultural and historical sites. Protection of the karst hydric resources is therefore essential. In karst, the intrinsic vulnerability of the environment makes it highly susceptible to pollution, which may result in dramatic consequences for both the quality of karst water and the amount of water available. Many anthropogenic activities produce negative changes in the karst aquifers, in some cases with unrecoverable effects. In Cuba, five main sources of pollution to karst aquifers have been identified: sea water intrusion, agricultural practices, waste disposal, industrial activity, and mining and oil production. Due to the narrow and elongated configuration of the main island, wide portions of the territory are mostly affected by seawater intrusion problems, exacerbated by the concentration of both population and human activities in the largest towns located along, or very close to, the coasts. Seawater intrusion, however, is not the only source of pollution for Cuban karst aquifers. The other aforementioned sources are important, and may locally prevail (e.g. pollution resulting from sugar cane factories). Considerations on the management of karst aquifers and a brief description of the water quality monitoring system of Cuban inland waters are also provided.

  8. Selective Cutting Impact on Carbon Storage in Fremont-Winema National Forest, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, C.; Cleve, C. T.

    2004-12-01

    Management personnel of the Fremont-Winema National Forest in southern Oregon were interested in investigating how selective cutting or fuel load reduction treatments affect forest carbon sinks and as an ancillary product, fire risk. This study was constructed with the objective of providing this information to the forest administrators, as well as to satisfy a directive to study carbon management, a component of the 2004 NASA's Application Division Program Plan. During the summer of 2004, a request for decision support tools by the forest management was addressed by a NASA sponsored student-led, student-run internship group called DEVELOP. This full-time10-week program was designed to be an introduction to work done by earth scientists, professional business / client relationships and the facilities available at NASA Ames. Four college and graduate students from varying educational backgrounds designed the study and implementation plan. The team collected data for five consecutive days in Oregon throughout the Fremont-Winema forest and the surrounding terrain, consisting of soil sampling for underground carbon dynamics, fire model and vegetation map validation. The goal of the carbon management component of the project was to model current carbon levels, then to gauge the effect of fuel load reduction treatments. To study carbon dynamics, MODIS derived fraction photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) maps, regional climate data, and Landsat 5 generated dominant vegetation species and land cover maps were used in conjunction with the NASA - Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) model. To address fire risk the dominant vegetation species map was used to estimate fuel load based on species biomass in conjunction with a mosaic of digital elevation models (DEMs) as components to the creation of an Anderson-inspired fuel map, a rate of spread in meters/minute map and a flame length map using ArcMap 9 and FlamMap. Fire risk results are to be viewed qualitatively as

  9. Geohydrologic Framework of the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, South-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Charles D.; Faith, Jason R.; Ozuna, George B.

    2007-01-01

    This five-year USGS project, funded by the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program, is using multidisciplinary approaches to reveal the surface and subsurface geologic architecture of two important Texas aquifers: (1) the Edwards aquifer that extends from south of Austin to west of San Antonio and (2) the southern part of the Trinity aquifer in the Texas Hill Country west and south of Austin. The project's principal areas of research include: Geologic Mapping, Geophysical Surveys, Geochronology, Three-dimensional Modeling, and Noble Gas Geochemistry. The Edwards aquifer is one of the most productive carbonate aquifers in the United States. It also has been designated a sole source aquifer by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and is the primary source of water for San Antonio, America's eighth largest city. The Trinity aquifer forms the catchment area for the Edwards aquifer and it intercepts some surface flow above the Edwards recharge zone. The Trinity may also contribute to the Edwards water budget by subsurface flow across formation boundaries at considerable depths. Dissolution, karst development, and faulting and fracturing in both aquifers directly control aquifer geometry by compartmentalizing the aquifer and creating unique ground-water flow paths.

  10. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    advanced and costly treatments. Nevertheless, a number of studies are demonstrating that physical, chemical and biochemical processes associated with water movement within the subsoil represent a natural alternative way to reduce the presence of these contaminants. This processes are called Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). Aquifer recharge will become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes as long as the presence of pathogens and organic and inorganic pollutants is avoided. To this end, understanding the biogeochemical degradation processes occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. 2. Laboratory batch experiments A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. The setup of the experiments consists of glass bottles containing 120 g of soil and 240 ml of synthetic water spiked with the mix of micropollutants. A source of easily degradable organic carbon and, depending on the type of test, electron acceptors are added in order to yield aerobic respiration and nitrate/iron/manganese/sulphate reduction conditions. The evolution of the processes is monitored by sacrificing duplicate bottles according to a defined schedule and analysing water for major and minor components as well as for micropollutants. Results from biotic tests are compared with abiotic ones in order to discern biodegradation from other chemical processes. The soil, the synthetic water and the micropollutants selected for the experiments are representative of a test site in the nearby of Barcelona (Spain) where artificial recharge of groundwater through ponds is going to be performed using river water or tertiary effluent from a waste water treatment plant. The results of the experiments improve the knowledge on the behaviour of the selected micropollutants under different redox conditions and provide with useful information

  11. Bismuth Modified Carbon-Based Electrodes for the Determination of Selected Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Rodić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of bismuth modified electrodes, a bismuth-film modified glassy carbon (BiF-GCE and a bismuth bulk modified carbon paste, were applied for the determination of selected nitroguanidine neonicotinoid insecticides. The method based on an ex situ prepared BiF-GCE operated in the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV mode was applied to determine clothianidin in the concentration range from 2.5 to 23 μg cm−3 with a relative standard deviation (RSD not exceeding 1.5%. The tricresyl phosphate-based carbon paste electrodes (TCP-CPEs, bulk modified with 5 and 20 w/w% of bismuth, showed a different analytical performance in the determination of imidacloprid, regarding the peak shape, potential window, and noise level. The TCP-CPE with 5% Bi was advantageous, and the developed DPV method based on it allowed the determination in the concentration range from 1.7 to 60 μg cm−3 with an RSD of 2.4%. To get a deeper insight into the morphology of the bismuth-based sensor surfaces, scanning electron microscopic measurements were performed of both the surface film and the bulk modified electrodes.

  12. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  13. High-surface-area carbon molecular sieves for selective CO(2) adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahby, Anass; Ramos-Fernández, José M; Martínez-Escandell, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2010-08-23

    A series of carbon molecular sieves (CMSs) has been prepared, either as powders or monoliths, from petroleum pitch using potassium hydroxide as the activating agent. The CMS monoliths are prepared without the use of a binder based on the self-sintering ability of the mesophase pitch. Characterization results show that these CMSs combine a large apparent surface area (up to ca. 3100 m(2) g(-1)) together with a well-developed narrow microporosity (V(n) up to ca. 1.4 cm(3) g(-1)). The materials exhibit high adsorption capacities for CO(2) at 1 bar and 273 K (up to ca. 380 mg CO(2) g sorbent(-1)). To our knowledge, this is the best result obtained for CO(2) adsorption using carbon-based materials. Furthermore, although the CO(2) adsorption capacity for activated carbons has usually been considered lower than that of zeolites, the reported values exceed the total amount adsorbed on traditional 13X and 5A zeolites (ca. 230 mg and 180 mg CO(2) g sorbent(-1), respectively), under identical experimental conditions. Additionally, the narrow pore openings found in the CMS samples (ca. 0.4 nm) allows for the selective adsorption of CO(2) from molecules of similar dimensions (e.g., CH(4) and N(2)).

  14. Potential areas of ground-water discharge in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent potential areas of ground-water discharge for selected hydrographic areas in eastern Nevada and western Utah. The data are based on phreatophyte...

  15. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason; Swarzenski, Peter; Odigie, Kingsley; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 x 105 m3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 x 104 m3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a seven-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land-use/land-cover change and

  16. Highly efficient cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymers for solvent-free selective oxidation of cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons with molecular oxygen has been of great interest in catalysis, and the development of highly efficient catalysts for this process is a crucial challenge. A new kind of heterogeneous catalyst, cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymer (g-C3N4, was harnessed for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope revealed that Co species were highly dispersed in g-C3N4 matrix and the characteristic structure of polymeric g-C3N4 can be retained after Co-doping, although Co-doping caused the incomplete polymerization to some extent. Ultraviolet–visible, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further proved the successful Co doping in g-C3N4 matrix as the form of Co(IIN bonds. For the selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Co-doping can markedly promote the catalytic performance of g-C3N4 catalyst due to the synergistic effect of Co species and g-C3N4 hybrid. Furthermore, the content of Co largely affected the activity of Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts, among which the catalyst with 9.0 wt% Co content exhibited the highest yield (9.0% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol, as well as a high stability. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism over Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts was elaborated. Keywords: Selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Oxygen oxidant, Carbon nitride, Co-doping

  17. Laser-induced selective metallization of polypropylene doped with multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratautas, Karolis; Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Stankevičiene, Ina; Jagminienė, Aldona; Norkus, Eugenijus; Pira, Nello Li; Sinopoli, Stefano; Račiukaitis, Gediminas

    2017-08-01

    Moulded interconnect devices (MID) offer the material, weight and cost saving by integration electronic circuits directly into polymeric components used in automotive and other consumer products. Lasers are used to write circuits directly by modifying the surface of polymers followed by an electroless metal plating. A new composite material - the polypropylene doped with multiwall carbon nanotubes was developed for the laser-induced selective metallization. Mechanism of surface activation by laser irradiation was investigated in details utilising pico- and nanoseconds lasers. Deposition of copper was performed in the autocatalytic electroless plating bath. The laser-activated polymer surfaces have been studied using the Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Microscopic images revealed that surface becomes active only after its melting by a laser. Alterations in the Raman spectra of the D and G bands indicated the clustering of carbon additives in the composite material. Optimal laser parameters for the surface activation were found by measuring a sheet resistance of the finally metal-plated samples. A spatially selective copper plating was achieved with the smallest conductor line width of 22 μm at the laser scanning speed of 3 m/s and the pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz. Finally, the technique was validated by making functional electronic circuits by this MID approach.

  18. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF CALCIUM CARBONATE PARTICLE SIZE SELECTION FOR DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The technological development in horizontal, re-entry and multilateral wells require drilling and completion the reservoir sections of a well including as little damage as possible. The trends towards open hole completion places additional emphasis on formation damage avoidance. One of critical factors in avoiding formation damage during drilling is obtaining surface bridging on the formation face with minimum indepth solids penetration. In case of overbalanced drilling, this can be donme by optimizing the particle size distribution of calcium carbonate used as bridging agent. The paper presents laboratory data frpm tests carried out on selected fluids which show the extent of the changes that occur in fluid filtration properties (spurt loss, PPT value and static filtration when calcium carbonate with different PDS is used. The Permeability Plugging Tester was used to evaluate the filtration and spurt loss of selected fluids. The ceramic disks with permeabilities 0,09 μm2 (90 mD, 0,13 μm2 (130 mD and 0,4 μm2 (400 mD were used as filter medium.

  19. Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters in live zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozel, Rifat Emrah [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, 8 Clarkson Ave, Potsdam, NY 136995810 (United States); Wallace, Kenneth N. [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 136995810 (United States); Andreescu, Silvana, E-mail: eandrees@clarkson.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, 8 Clarkson Ave, Potsdam, NY 136995810 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Graphical abstract: Chitosan coated fiber electrodes are sensitive to serotonin detection while rejecting physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences. - Abstract: We report the development of a chitosan modified carbon fiber microelectrode for in vivo detection of serotonin. We find that chitosan has the ability to reject physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences and facilitate selective and sensitive detection of in vivo levels of serotonin, a common catecholamine neurotransmitter. Presence of chitosan on the microelectrode surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrode was characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A detection limit of 1.6 nM serotonin with a sensitivity of 5.12 nA/{mu}M, a linear range from 2 to 100 nM and a reproducibility of 6.5% for n = 6 electrodes were obtained. Chitosan modified microelectrodes selectively measure serotonin in presence of physiological levels of ascorbic acid. In vivo measurements were performed to measure concentration of serotonin in the live embryonic zebrafish intestine. The sensor quantifies in vivo intestinal levels of serotonin while successfully rejecting ascorbic acid interferences. We demonstrate that chitosan can be used as an effective coating to reject ascorbic acid interferences at carbon fiber microelectrodes, as an alternative to Nafion, and that chitosan modified microelectrodes are reliable tools for in vivo monitoring of changes in neurotransmitter levels.

  20. Single cobalt sites in mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix for selective catalytic hydrogenation of nitroarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui

    2017-11-20

    A supported cobalt catalyst with atomically dispersed Co-Nx sites (3.5 wt% Co) in a mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix (named Co@mesoNC) is synthesized by hydrolysis of tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) in a Zn/Co bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate framework (BIMZIF(Co,Zn)), followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and SiO2 leaching. A combination of TEM, XRD XPS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies confirm the absence of cobalt nanoparticles and indicate that these highly dispersed cobalt species are present in the form of Co-Nx. The exclusive formation of Co-Nx sites in the carbon matrix is attributed to the presence of a large amount of Zn and N in the BIMZIF precursor together with the presence of SiO2 in the pore space of this framework, extending the initial spatial distance between cobalt atoms and thereby impeding their agglomeration. The presence of SiO2 during high-temperature pyrolysis is proven crucial to create mesoporosity and a high BET area and pore volume in the N-doped carbon support (1780 m2 g−1, 1.54 cm3 g−1). This heterogeneous Co@mesoNC catalyst displays high activity and selectivity (>99%) for the selective hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline at mild conditions (0.5–3 MPa, 343–383 K). When more challenging substrates (functionalized nitroarenes) are hydrogenated, the catalyst Co@mesoNC displays an excellent chemoselectivity to the corresponding substituted anilines.The presence of mesoporosity improves mass transport of reactants and/or products and the accessibility of the active Co-Nx sites, and greatly reduces deactivation due to fouling.

  1. Selective oxidation of cyclohexane in supercritical carbon dioxide over CoAPO-5 molecular sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruizhen; Qin, Zhangfeng; Dong, Mei; Wang, Guofu; Wang, Jianguo [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 165, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China)

    2005-12-30

    A series of cobalt-incorporated aluminophosphates (CoAPO-5) with different Co contents were hydrothermally synthesized. The tetrahedral Co{sup 2+} in the lattice framework was evidenced by various spectroscopic characterizations, which could be partially oxidized to Co{sup 3+} to form redox centers upon calcination. Over CoAPO-5, the selective oxidation of cyclohexane was carried out with CO{sub 2} as an additional solvent under supercritical conditions, where the different phase regions were categorized by the critical properties of the nominal reacting mixture (cyclohexane+nitrogen+carbon dioxide+cyclohexanol+cyclohexanone+water) that varies with the reaction extent. The results indicated that CoAPO-5 is an effective catalyst for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone; in the compressed CO{sub 2}, the total selectivity of objective products increased and the by-products were suppressed considerably. The conversion of cyclohexane decreased, while the selectivity to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone increased with the increase of the apparent density.

  2. Optimal Electrode Selection for Electrical Resistance Tomography in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona Galvis, Luis Waldo; Diaz-Montiel, Paulina; Venkataraman, Satchi

    2017-01-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) offers a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that takes advantage of the inherent electrical properties in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites for internal damage characterization. This paper investigates a method of optimum selection of sensing configurations for delamination detection in thick cross-ply laminates using ERT. Reduction in the number of sensing locations and measurements is necessary to minimize hardware and computational effort. The present work explores the use of an effective independence (EI) measure originally proposed for sensor location optimization in experimental vibration modal analysis. The EI measure is used for selecting the minimum set of resistance measurements among all possible combinations resulting from selecting sensing electrode pairs. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to obtain a spectral representation of the resistance measurements in the laminate for subsequent EI based reduction to take place. The electrical potential field in a CFRP laminate is calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) applied on models for two different laminate layouts considering a set of specified delamination sizes and locations with two different sensing arrangements. The effectiveness of the EI measure in eliminating redundant electrode pairs is demonstrated by performing inverse identification of damage using the full set and the reduced set of resistance measurements. This investigation shows that the EI measure is effective for optimally selecting the electrode pairs needed for resistance measurements in ERT based damage detection. PMID:28772485

  3. Optimizing selective cutting strategies for maximum carbon stocks and yield of Moso bamboo forest using BIOME-BGC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Pingheng; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2017-04-15

    The selective cutting method currently used in Moso bamboo forests has resulted in a reduction of stand productivity and carbon sequestration capacity. Given the time and labor expense involved in addressing this problem manually, simulation using an ecosystem model is the most suitable approach. The BIOME-BGC model was improved to suit managed Moso bamboo forests, which was adapted to include age structure, specific ecological processes and management measures of Moso bamboo forest. A field selective cutting experiment was done in nine plots with three cutting intensities (high-intensity, moderate-intensity and low-intensity) during 2010-2013, and biomass of these plots was measured for model validation. Then four selective cutting scenarios were simulated by the improved BIOME-BGC model to optimize the selective cutting timings, intervals, retained ages and intensities. The improved model matched the observed aboveground carbon density and yield of different plots, with a range of relative error from 9.83% to 15.74%. The results of different selective cutting scenarios suggested that the optimal selective cutting measure should be cutting 30% culms of age 6, 80% culms of age 7, and all culms thereafter (above age 8) in winter every other year. The vegetation carbon density and harvested carbon density of this selective cutting method can increase by 74.63% and 21.5%, respectively, compared with the current selective cutting measure. The optimized selective cutting measure developed in this study can significantly promote carbon density, yield, and carbon sink capacity in Moso bamboo forests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective detection of SO2 at room temperature based on organoplatinum functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cid, C.C.; Jimenez-Cadena, G.; Riu, J.; Maroto, A.; Rius, F.X.; Batema, G.D.; van Koten, G.

    2009-01-01

    We report a field effect transistor (FET) based on a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that for the first time can selectively detect a single gaseous molecule in air by chemically functionalizing the SWCNTs with a selective molecular receptor. As a target model we used SO2. The

  5. Investigating groundwater flow between Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C I; Kromann, J S; Hunt, B B; Smith, B A; Banner, J L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of communication between aquifers can be challenging when using traditional physical and geochemical groundwater sampling approaches. This study uses two multiport wells completed within Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas to determine the degree of groundwater inter-flow between adjacent aquifers. Potentiometric surfaces, hydraulic conductivities, and groundwater major ion concentrations and Sr isotope values were measured from multiple zones within three hydrostratigraphic units (Edwards and Upper and Middle Trinity aquifers). Physical and geochemical data from the multiport wells were combined with historical measurements of groundwater levels and geochemical compositions from the region to characterize groundwater flow and identify controls on the geochemical compositions of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Our results suggest that vertical groundwater flow between Edwards and Middle Trinity aquifers is likely limited by low permeability, evaporite-rich units within the Upper and Middle Trinity. Potentiometric surface levels in both aquifers vary with changes in wet vs. dry conditions, indicating that recharge to both aquifers occurs through distinct recharge areas. Geochemical compositions in the Edwards, Upper, and Middle Trinity aquifers are distinct and likely reflect groundwater interaction with different lithologies (e.g., carbonates, evaporites, and siliceous sediments) as opposed to mixing of groundwater between the aquifers. These results have implications for the management of these aquifers as they indicate that, under current conditions, pumping of either aquifer will likely not induce vertical cross-formational flow between the aquifers. Inter-flow between the Trinity and the Edwards aquifers, however, should be reevaluated as pumping patterns and hydrogeologic conditions change. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Management of aquifer recharge in Lebanon by removing seawater intrusion from coastal aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciopinto, Costantino

    2013-11-30

    This study investigates the feasibility of management of aquifer recharge (MAR) in Lebanon by designing well barriers to remove seawater intrusion from the fractured carbonate aquifers. Groundwater flow and saltwater/freshwater 50% sharp interface have been modeled along the coastal area using the Ghyben-Herzberg theory. The groundwater flow simulations have been supported by field transmissivity estimations and depth measurements carried out on 44 wells during 2003. Results have shown the seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers at Jieh and Damour regions. Three well-injection barriers have been proposed. The water volumes for recharge and the barrier positions have been defined by means of groundwater flow simulations. MAR can provide a valuable contribution to colloid (even pathogen) removal from injectant water, although during water infiltration in subsoil the reduction of aquifer permeability causes clogging. A simple new model for estimating the soil-rock permeability reduction due to the well clogging has been presented. The MAR, including the soil aquifer treatment at Damour and Jieh regions, has been studied by considering aquifer transmissivity (and soil porosity) reduction caused by clogging. Furthermore, the appropriate mixing of the injectant water by using reclaimed water, groundwater and surface water can be simulated using the proposed models. The time required to achieve 5% of rock permeability reduction at the proposed well barriers ranged from 71 to 935 d, by changing water quality and flow rate for recharge. This study can assist regional governments with water management in areas affected by scarcity of freshwater by implementing appropriate well-barrier projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanism of selective corrosion in electrical resistance seam welded carbon steel pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Fajardo, Pedro; Godinez Salcedo, Jesus; Gonzalez Velasquez, Jorge L. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F., (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas. Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    In this investigation the studies of the mechanism of selective corrosion in electrical resistance welded (ERW) carbon steel pipe was started. Metallographic characterizations and evaluations for inclusions were performed. The susceptibility of ERW pipe to selective corrosion in sea water (NACE 1D182, with O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}S) was studied by the stepped potential Potentiostatic electrochemical test method in samples of 1 cm{sup 3} (ASTM G5) internal surface of the pipe (metal base-weld). The tests were looking for means for predicting the susceptibility of ERW pipe to selective corrosion, prior to placing the pipeline in service. Manganese sulfide inclusions are observed deformed by the welding process and they are close to the weld centerline. A slight decarburization at the weld line is observed, and a distinct out bent fiber pattern remains despite the post-weld seam annealing. The microstructure of the weld region consists of primarily polygonal ferrite grains mixed with small islands of pearlite. It is possible to observe the differences of sizes of grain of the present phases in the different zones. Finally, scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the corrosion initiates with the dissolution of MnS inclusions and with small crack between the base metal and ZAC. (author)

  8. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films with controllable properties are highly desirable for improving battery performance. In this paper, a combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study SEI films formed on hard carbon in Li- and Na-ion batteries. It is shown that a stable SEI layer can be designed by precycling an electrode in a desired Li- or Na-based electrolyte, and that ionic transport can be kinetically controlled. Selective Li- and Na-based SEI membranes are produced using Li- or Na-based electrolytes, respectively. The Na-based SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the Li-based SEI shuts off Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI layer with film-forming electrolyte additives, or by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to < 25 mAh g(-1); approximate to 1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh g(-1)). Unusual selective/ preferential transport of Li ions is demonstrated by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion-selective conductors using electrochemical approaches.

  9. Application of graphene oxide/lanthanum-modified carbon paste electrode for the selective determination of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Fengying; Feng, Chenqi; Fu, Ning; Wu, Huihui; Jiang, Jibo, E-mail: jibojiang0506@163.com; Han, Sheng, E-mail: hansheng654321@sina.com

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The effective surface area of the modified CPE has been expanded after self-assembly. • The GO–La composite exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward DA. • The GO–La/CPE presented high selectivity, sensitivity, excellent stability and repeatability. - Abstract: A home-made carbon paste electrode (CPE) was reformed by graphene oxide (GO)/lanthanum (La) complexes, and a modified electrode, called GO–La/CPE, was fabricated for the selective determination of dopamine (DA) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several factors affecting the electrocatalytic performance of the modified sensor were investigated. Owning to the combination of GO and La ions, the GO–La/CPE sensor exhibited large surface area, well selectivity, good repeatability and stability in the oxidation reaction of DA. At optimal conditions, the response of the GO–La/CPE electrode for determining DA was linear in the region of 0.01–0.1 μM and 0.1–400.0 μM. The limit of detection was down to 0.32 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, this modified electrode was successfully applied to the detection of DA in real urine and serum samples by using standard adding method, showing its promising application in the electroanalysis of real samples.

  10. A perspective on tritium versus carbon-14: ensuring optimal label selection in pharmaceutical research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauser, Joel A

    2013-01-01

    Tritium ((3) H) and carbon-14 ((14) C) labels applied in pharmaceutical research and development each offer their own distinctive advantages and disadvantages coupled with benefits and risks. The advantages of (3) H have a higher specific activity, shorter half-life that allows more manageable waste remediation, lower material costs, and often more direct synthetic routes. The advantages of (14) C offer certain analytical benefits and less potential for label loss. Although (3) H labels offer several advantages, they might be overlooked as a viable option because of the concerns about its drawbacks. A main drawback often challenged is metabolic liability. These drawbacks, in some cases, might be overstated leading to underutilization of a perfectly viable option. As a consequence, label selection may automatically default to (14) C, which is a more conservative approach. To challenge this '(14) C-by-default' approach, pharmaceutical agents with strategically selected (3) H-labeling positions based on non-labeled metabolism data have been successfully implemented and evaluated for (3) H loss. From in-house results, the long term success of projects clearly would benefit from a thorough, objective, and balanced assessment regarding label selection ((3) H or (14) C). This assessment should be based on available project information and scientific knowledge. Important considerations are project applicability (preclinical and clinical phases), synthetic feasibility, costs, and timelines. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Expanded porous MOF-505 analogue exhibiting large hydrogen storage capacity and selective carbon dioxide adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baishu; Yun, Ruirui; Bai, Junfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Du, Liting; Li, Yizhi

    2013-03-18

    An expanded 4,4-paddlewheel-connected porous MOF-505-type metal-organic framework (MOF), [Cu2(PDEB)(H2O)2]·xS (NJU-Bai12; NJU-Bai represents the Nanjing University Bai group and S represents noncoordinated solvent molecules) has been designed from a nanosized rectangular diisophthalate linker containing alkyne groups 5,5'-(1,4-phenylenedi-2,1-ethynediyl)bis(1,3-benzenecarboxylic acid). This MOF material possesses permanent microporosity with the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 3038 m(2)·g(-1) and the largest unsaturated total hydrogen storage capacity of 62.7 mg·g(-1) at 77 K and 20 bar among reported MOF-505 analogues. Additionally, NJU-Bai12 also exhibits excellent carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake capacity (23.83 and 19.85 mmol·g(-1) at 20 bar for 273 and 298 K, respectively) and selective gas adsorption properties with CO2/CH4 selectivity of 5.0 and CO2/N2 selectivity of 24.6 at room temperature.

  12. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2012-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Maimer, Neil V.; Rattray, Gordon W.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2017-04-10

    Since 1952, wastewater discharged to in ltration ponds (also called percolation ponds) and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater-monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the ESRP aquifer, multilevel monitoring system (MLMS) wells in the ESRP aquifer, and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2012-15.

  13. Biomarker-indicated extent of oxidation of plant-derived organic carbon (OC) in relation to geomorphology in an arsenic contaminated Holocene aquifer, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Daniel; Richards, Laura A; Polya, David A; Bryant, Charlotte; Jones, Merren; van Dongen, Bart E

    2017-10-12

    The poisoning of rural populations in South and Southeast Asia due to high groundwater arsenic concentrations is one of the world's largest ongoing natural disasters. It is important to consider environmental processes related to the release of geogenic arsenic, including geomorphological and organic geochemical processes. Arsenic is released from sediments when iron-oxide minerals, onto which arsenic is adsorbed or incorporated, react with organic carbon (OC) and the OC is oxidised. In this study we build a new geomorphological framework for Kandal Province, a highly studied arsenic affected region of Cambodia, and tie this into wider regional environmental change throughout the Holocene. Analyses shows that the concentration of OC in the sediments is strongly inversely correlated to grainsize. Furthermore, the type of OC is also related to grain size with the clay containing mostly (immature) plant derived OC and sand containing mostly thermally mature derived OC. Finally, analyses indicate that within the plant derived OC relative oxidation is strongly grouped by stratigraphy with the older bound OC more oxidised than younger OC.

  14. Microbiology of shallow subsurface aquifer and carbonate rocks studied by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Preliminary results on an underground laboratory, the LSBB, Rustrel, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galès Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the microbiology of a shallow subsurface site, the LSBB, located near Avignon. This site lies in carbonate rocks, belonging to the Urgonian facies. Rock, concrete and water samples were collected and directly transferred to the laboratory. Studies of microorganisms as pure cultures are the only way to get their real physiological properties. Nevertheless, microbiologists cannot cultivate and isolate the majority of microorganisms for several reasons, one being our lack of understanding of their minimal needs. Molecular studies, e.g. extraction and sequencing of the total nucleic acids present in an environment provide phylogenetic and metabolic information on uncultivated microorganisms. We performed aerobic and anaerobic culture with various electron acceptors and donors, searching for heterotrophic, methanogenic, sulphate- nitrate- and FeIII- reducing Prokaryotes. We also performed DNA extractions and PCR amplification of ribosomal RNA genes, to test if our protocols were adapted to this environment. Our results show that the LSBB galleries are colonized by a low diversity microbiote, with a strong influence of anthropogenic activities. Further studies will link the microorganisms biodiversity and the petrophysic properties of rocks.

  15. Anion-Regulated Selective Generation of Cobalt Sites in Carbon: Toward Superior Bifunctional Electrocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Gang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Yang, Ce [Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhao, Wanpeng [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Li, Qianru [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Wang, Ning [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Li, Tao [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhou, Hua [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Chen, Hangrong [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; Shi, Jianlin [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China

    2017-11-06

    The introduction of active transition metal sites (TMSs) in carbon enables the synthesis of noble-metal-free electrocatalysts for clean energy conversion applications, however, there are often multiple existing forms of TMSs, which are of different natures and catalytic models. Regulating the evolution of distinctive TMSs is highly desirable but remains challenging to date. Anions, as essential elements involved in the synthesis, have been totally neglected previously in the construction of TMSs. Herein, the effects of anions on the creation of different types of TMSs is investigated for the first time. It is found that the active cobalt-nitrogen sites tend to be selectively constructed on the surface of N-doped carbon by using chloride, while metallic cobalt nanoparticles encased in protective graphite layers are the dominant forms of cobalt species with nitrate ions. The obtained catalysts demonstrate cobalt-sites-dependent activity for ORR and HER in acidic media. And the remarkably enhanced catalytic activities approaching that of benchmark Pt/C in acidic medium has been obtained on the catalyst dominated with cobalt-nitrogen sites, confirmed by the advanced spectroscopic . Our finding demonstrates a general paradigm of anion-regulated evolution of distinctive TMSs, providing a new pathway for enhancing performances of various targeted reactions related with TMSs.

  16. Decorating multi-walled carbon nanotubes with nickel nanoparticles for selective hydrogenation of citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuechao; Yang, Dong; Qin, Feng; Hu, Jianhua; Wang, Changchun; Xu, Hualong

    2009-08-01

    The nanocomposites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) decorated with nickel nanoparticles were conveniently prepared by a chemical reduction of nickel salt in the present of poly(acrylic acid) grafted MWNTs (PAA- g-MWNTs). Due to the strong interaction between Ni 2+ and -COOH, PAA- g-MWNTs became an excellent supporting material for Ni nanoparticles. The morphology and distribution of Ni nanoparticles on the surface of MWNTs were greatly influenced by the reduction temperatures, the experimental results also showed that the distribution of Ni nanoparticles was greatly improved while the MWNTs were modified by poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The hydrogenation activity and selectivity of MWNTs decorated with Ni nanoparticles (Ni-MWNTs) for α, β-unsaturated aldehyde (citral) were also studied, and the experimental results showed that the citronellal, an important raw material for flavoring and perfumery industries, is the favorable product with a percentage as high as 86.9%, which is 7 times higher than that of catalyst by Ni-supported active carbon (Ni-AC).

  17. Carbonate interlayered hydrotalcites-enhanced peroxynitrous acid chemiluminescence for high selectivity sensing of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihua; Teng, Xu; Lu, Chao

    2012-04-21

    In this study, Mg-Al-carbonate layered double hydroxides (denoted as Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs) were found to catalyze the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH). The enhanced CL signals resulted from the concentration of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) onto the LDHs surface by electrostatic attraction, meaning that ONOO(-) can interact with the intercalated carbonate easily and effectively. Moreover, ascorbic acid can react with ONOO(-), or its decomposition products (e.g., ˙OH and ˙NO(2)), resulting in a decrease in the CL intensity from the Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH reaction. Based on these findings, a sensitive, selective and rapid CL method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid using Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH as a novel CL system. The CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of ascorbic acid in the range from 5.0 to 5000 nM. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.5 nM and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for nine repeated measurements of 0.1 μM ascorbic acid was 2.6%. This method has been successfully applied to determine ascorbic acid in commercial liquid fruit juices with recoveries of 97-107%. This work is not only of importance for a better understanding of the unique properties of LDHs-catalyzed CL but also of great potential for extensive applications in many fields, such as luminescence devices, bioanalysis, and labeling probes.

  18. Selective synthesis of double helices of carbon nanotube bundles grown on treated metallic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Sodi, Felipe; Iniguez-Rabago, Agustin; Rosas-Melendez, Samuel; Ballesteros-Villarreal, Monica [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe (Mexico); Vilatela, Juan J. [IMDEA Materials Institute, E.T.S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Madrid (Spain); Reyes-Gutierrez, Lucio G.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, Jose A. [Ingenieria Industrial, Grupo JUMEX, Ecatepec de Morelos, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Palacios, Eduardo [Lab. de Microscopia Electronica de Ultra Alta Resolucion, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, San Bartolo Atepehuacan (Mexico); Terrones, Mauricio [Department of Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Research Center for Exotic Nanocarbons (JST), Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Double-helix microstructures consisting of two parallel strands of hundreds of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized by chemical vapour deposition of ferrocene/toluene vapours on metal substrates. Growth of coiled carbon nanostructures with site selectivity is achieved by varying the duration of thermochemical pretreatment to deposit a layer of SiO{sub x} on the metallic substrate. Production of multibranched structures of MWCNTs converging in SiO{sub x} microstructure is also reported. In the abstract figure, panel (a) shows a coloured micrograph of a typical double-helix coiled microstructure of MWCNTs grown on SiO{sub x} covered steel substrate. Green and blue show each of the two individual strands of MWCNTs. Panel (b) is an amplification of a SiO{sub x} microparticle (white) on the tip of the double-stranded coil (green and blue). The microparticle guides the collective growth of hundreds of MWCNTs to form the coiled structure. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Quick and selective extraction of Z-ligustilide from Angelica sinensis using magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiong; Jia, Yan-Wei; Xu, Pei-Li; Xiao, Meng-Wei; Liu, Yi-Ming; Peng, Shu-Lin; Liao, Xun

    2015-12-01

    A facile and highly efficient magnetic solid-phase extraction method has been developed for Z-ligustilide, the major therapeutic agent in Angelica sinensis. The solid-phase adsorbent material used was prepared by conjugating carbon nanotubes with magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles via a hydrothermal reaction. The magnetic material showed a high affinity toward Z-ligustilide due to the π-π stacking interaction between the carbon nanotubes and Z-ligustilide, allowing a quick and selective exaction of Z-ligustilide from complex sample matrices. Factors influencing the magnetic solid-phase extraction such as the amount of the added adsorbent, adsorption and desorption time, and desorption solvent, were investigated. Due to its high extraction efficiency, this method was proved highly useful for sample cleanup/enrichment in quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The proposed method had a linear calibration curve (R(2) = 0.9983) over the concentration between 4 ng/mL and 200 μg/mL Z-ligustilide. The accuracy of the method was determined by the recovery, which was from 92.07 to 104.02%, with the relative standard deviations >4.51%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Carbon dioxide selective adsorption within a highly stable mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Lin

    2014-08-01

    A new mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Zn4(2-mbIm) 3(bIm)5·4H2O (named JUC-160, 2-mbIm = 2-methylbenzimidazole, bIm = benzimidazole and JUC = Jilin University China) was synthesized with a solvothermal reaction of Zn(NO3) 2·6H2O, bIm and 2-mbIm in DMF solution at 180 °C. Topological analysis indicated that JUC-160 has a zeolite GIS (gismondine) topology. Study of the gas adsorption and thermal and chemical stability of JUC-160 demonstrated its selective adsorption property for carbon dioxide, high thermal stability, and remarkable chemical resistance to boiling alkaline water and organic solvent for up to one week. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Novel Sulfamide-Containing Compounds as Selective Carbonic Anhydrase I Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Berrino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of isoform selective inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1 enzymes represents the key approach for the successful development of druggable small molecules. Herein we report a series of new benzenesulfamide derivatives (-NH-SO2NH2 bearing the 1-benzhydrylpiperazine tail and connected by means of a β-alanyl or nipecotyl spacer. All compounds 6a–l were investigated in vitro for their ability to inhibit the physiological relevant human (h CA isoforms such as I, II, IV and IX. Molecular modeling provided further structural support to enzyme inhibition data and structure-activity relationship. In conclusion the hCA I resulted the most inhibited isoform, whereas all the remaining ones showed different inhibition profiles.

  2. Selective self-excitation of higher vibrational modes of graphene nano-ribbons and carbon nanotubes through magnetomotive instability

    OpenAIRE

    Nordenfelt, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically the feasibility of selective self-excitation of higher-mode flexural vibrations of graphene nano-ribbons and carbon nanotubes by the means of magnetomotive instability. Apart from the mechanical resonator, the device consists only of a constant voltage source, an inductor, a capacitor, a gate electrode and a constant magnetic field. Numerical simluations were performed on both graphene and carbon nanotubes displaying an overall similar behaviour, but with some dif...

  3. Metabolic interdependencies between phylogenetically novel fermenters and respiratory organisms in an unconfined aquifer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wrighton, Kelly C; Castelle, Cindy J; Wilkins, Michael J; Hug, Laura A; Sharon, Itai; Thomas, Brian C; Handley, Kim M; Mullin, Sean W; Nicora, Carrie D; Singh, Andrea; Lipton, Mary S; Long, Philip E; Williams, Kenneth H; Banfield, Jillian F

    2014-01-01

    .... The diversity of microorganisms and pathways involved in carbon and hydrogen cycling in sediments and aquifers and the impacts of these processes on other biogeochemical cycles remain poorly understood...

  4. Laser-induced selective metallization of polypropylene doped with multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratautas, Karolis, E-mail: karolis.ratautas@ftmc.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, Vilnius LT-02300 (Lithuania); Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Stankevičiene, Ina; Jagminienė, Aldona; Norkus, Eugenijus [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, Vilnius LT-02300 (Lithuania); Pira, Nello Li [Centro Ricerche Fiat, Strada Torino 50, Orbassano 10043 (Italy); Sinopoli, Stefano [BioAge Srl, Via Dei Glicini 25, Lamezia Terme 88046 (Italy); Račiukaitis, Gediminas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, Vilnius LT-02300 (Lithuania)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • PP doped with multiwall CNT can be activated with ns laser for electroless plating. • Developed material is cheap decision for MID applications. • Activation mechanism was preliminary proposed. • Demo for automotive application has been manufactured. - Abstract: Moulded interconnect devices (MID) offer the material, weight and cost saving by integration electronic circuits directly into polymeric components used in automotive and other consumer products. Lasers are used to write circuits directly by modifying the surface of polymers followed by an electroless metal plating. A new composite material – the polypropylene doped with multiwall carbon nanotubes was developed for the laser-induced selective metallization. Mechanism of surface activation by laser irradiation was investigated in details utilising pico- and nanoseconds lasers. Deposition of copper was performed in the autocatalytic electroless plating bath. The laser-activated polymer surfaces have been studied using the Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Microscopic images revealed that surface becomes active only after its melting by a laser. Alterations in the Raman spectra of the D and G bands indicated the clustering of carbon additives in the composite material. Optimal laser parameters for the surface activation were found by measuring a sheet resistance of the finally metal-plated samples. A spatially selective copper plating was achieved with the smallest conductor line width of 22 μm at the laser scanning speed of 3 m/s and the pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz. Finally, the technique was validated by making functional electronic circuits by this MID approach.

  5. Inverse Modeling of Water-Rock-CO2 Batch Experiments: Potential Impacts on Groundwater Resources at Carbon Sequestration Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Dai, Zhenxue; Romanak, Katherine D; Hovorka, Susan D; Treviño, Ramón H

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a multicomponent geochemical model to interpret responses of water chemistry to introduction of CO2 into six water-rock batches with sedimentary samples collected from representative potable aquifers in the Gulf Coast area. The model simulated CO2 dissolution in groundwater, aqueous complexation, mineral reactions (dissolution/precipitation), and surface complexation on clay mineral surfaces. An inverse method was used to estimate mineral surface area, the key parameter for describing kinetic mineral reactions. Modeling results suggested that reductions in groundwater pH were more significant in the carbonate-poor aquifers than in the carbonate-rich aquifers, resulting in potential groundwater acidification. Modeled concentrations of major ions showed overall increasing trends, depending on mineralogy of the sediments, especially carbonate content. The geochemical model confirmed that mobilization of trace metals was caused likely by mineral dissolution and surface complexation on clay mineral surfaces. Although dissolved inorganic carbon and pH may be used as indicative parameters in potable aquifers, selection of geochemical parameters for CO2 leakage detection is site-specific and a stepwise procedure may be followed. A combined study of the geochemical models with the laboratory batch experiments improves our understanding of the mechanisms that dominate responses of water chemistry to CO2 leakage and also provides a frame of reference for designing monitoring strategy in potable aquifers.

  6. Selected constituents in the smokes of U. S. commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    One hundred twenty-one brands of United States commercial cigarettes were analyzed for their deliveries of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. The sample included both filter and nonfilter cigarettes. Comparisons of carbon monoxide deliveries over the range of observed tar deliveries indicated a very high correlation between CO and tar for filter cigarettes, but nonfilter cigarettes tended to produce much less CO than would have been predicted from their tar deliveries. Comparison of ORNL nicotine values for specific brands with those determined by the Federal Trade Commission yield no statistically significant differences between laboratories. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Reactivity of Organic Matter and other Reductants in Aquifer Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, N.

    2003-01-01

    The molecular composition and the carbon isotope signature of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) and indicate that SOM is predominantly derived from higher land plants in sediments of both terrestrial as marine origins. The reactivity of SOM in the aquifer sediments studied is determined by the extent

  8. From an equilibrium based MOF adsorbent to a kinetic selective carbon molecular sieve for paraffin/iso-paraffin separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan

    2016-11-04

    We unveil a unique kinetic driven separation material for selectively removing linear paraffins from iso-paraffins via a molecular sieving mechanism. Subsequent carbonization and thermal treatment of CD-MOF-2, the cyclodextrin metal-organic framework, afforded a carbon molecular sieve with a uniform and reduced pore size of ca. 5.0 Å, and it exhibited highly selective kinetic separation of n-butane and n-pentane from iso-butane and iso-pentane, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Hydrochemical variations in selected geothermal groundwater and carbonated springs in Korea: a baseline study for early detection of CO2 leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hanna; Piao, Jize; Woo, Nam C; Cho, Heuynam

    2017-02-01

    A baseline hydrochemistry of the above zone aquifer was examined for the potential of CO2 early detection monitoring. Among the major ionic components and stable isotope ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon, components with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of geothermal groundwater from well depths of 400-700 m below the ground surface (bgs) and carbonated springs with a high CO2 content in Korea. Under the natural conditions of inland geothermal groundwater, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), bicarbonate (HCO3), δ18O, δ2H, and δ13C were relatively stable as well as sensitive to the introduction of CO2 (g), thus showing good potential as monitoring parameters for early detection of CO2 leakage. In carbonated springs, the parameters identified were pH, δ18O, and δ2H. Baseline hydrochemistry monitoring could provide information on parameters useful for detecting anomalies caused by CO2 leakage as measures for early warning.

  10. Water levels of the Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Tony P.

    2015-07-13

    The Ozark aquifer is the largest aquifer, both in area of outcrop and thickness, and the most important source of freshwater in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province, supplying water to northern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. The study area includes 16 Arkansas counties lying completely or partially within the Ozark Plateaus of the Interior Highlands major physiographic division. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, conducted a study of water levels in the Ozark aquifer within Arkansas. This report presents a potentiometric-surface map of the Ozark aquifer within the Ozark Plateaus of northern Arkansas, representing water-level conditions for the early spring of 2013 and selected water-level hydrographs.

  11. Carbon molecular sieve membranes: a promising alternative for selected industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägg, May-Britt; Lie, Jon A; Lindbråthen, Arne

    2003-03-01

    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes (hollow fibers) have been studied for application as possible separation units for selected industrial gas streams. Gas streams at petrochemical plants (polypropene and polyethene) and upgrading of biogas to fuel specifications have been in focus. Gases present in biogas (N(2), CO(2), H(2)O(vap), and CH(4)) and gas streams at polyolefin plants (C(2)H(4), C(3)H(6), and C(3)H(8)) have been measured; both as pure gases and in mixtures. Aging of the CMS-membranes as a function of humidity and pore blocking is discussed; likewise, possible regeneration methods when flux decrease is experienced. Transport mechanisms depending on pore size and molecular properties are also discussed. Excellent separation properties were documented for these applications, but also the need for frequent regeneration of the membrane in order to maintain permeability flux. The mixed gas experiments documented clearly the need for careful pore tailoring in order to optimize selectivity when the membranes were used for alkane-alkene separation.

  12. MOF-Derived Cobalt Phosphide/Carbon Nanocubes for Selective Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes to Anilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuliang; Peng, Li; Oveisi, Emad; Bulut, Safak; Sun, Daniel T; Asgari, Mehrdad; Trukhina, Olga; Queen, Wendy L

    2017-12-19

    Transition-metal phosphides have received tremendous attention during the past few years because they are earth-abundant, cost-effective, and show outstanding catalytic performance in several electrochemically driven conversions including hydrogen evolution, oxygen evolution, and water splitting. As one member of the transition-metal phosphides, Co x P-based materials have been widely explored as electrocatalyts; however, their application in the traditional thermal catalysis are rarely reported. In this work, cobalt phosphide/carbon nanocubes are designed and their catalytic activity for the selective hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines is studied. A high surface area metal-organic framework (MOF), ZIF-67, is infused with red phosphorous, and then pyrolysis promotes the facile production of the phosphide-based catalysts. The resulting composite, consisting of Co 2 P/CN x nanocubes, is shown to exhibit excellent catalytic performance in the selective hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing catalytic activity of a cobalt phosphide in nitroarenes hydrogenation. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Selective removal of demineralization using near infrared cross polarization reflectance and a carbon dioxide laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Lasers can ablate/remove tissue in a non-contact mode of operation and a pulsed laser beam does not interfere with the ability to image the tooth surface, therefore lasers are ideally suited for integration with imaging devices for image-guided ablation. Laser energy can be rapidly and efficiently delivered to tooth surfaces using a digitally controlled laser beam scanning system for precise and selective laser ablation with minimal loss of healthy tissues. Under the appropriate irradiation conditions such laser energy can induce beneficial chemical and morphological changes in the walls of the drilled cavity that can increase resistance to further dental decay and produce surfaces with enhanced adhesive properties to restorative materials. Previous studies have shown that images acquired using near-IR transillumination, optical coherence tomography and fluorescence can be used to guide the laser for selective removal of demineralized enamel. Recent studies have shown that NIR reflectance measurements at 1470-nm can be used to obtain images of enamel demineralization with very high contrast. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that image guided ablation of occlusal lesions can be successfully carried out using a NIR reflectance imaging system coupled with a carbon dioxide laser operating at 9.3-μm with high pulse repetition rates.

  14. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Quantum Dots as Fluorescent Probes for Sensitive and Selective Detection of Nitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibiao Feng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrites are the upstream precursors of the carcinogenic nitrosamines, which are widely found in the natural environment and many food products. It is important to develop a simple and sensitive sensor for detecting nitrites. In this work, a fluorescence probe based on nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs was developed for the sensitive and selective determination of nitrites. At pH 2, the fluorescence of N-CQDs can be selectively quenched by nitrite due to the fact N-nitroso compounds can be formed in the reaction of amide groups with nitrous acid, which results in fluorescence static quenching. Under optimal conditions, fluorescence intensity quenching upon addition of nitrite gives a satisfactory linear relationship covering the linear range of 0.2–20 μM, and the limit of detection (LOD is 40 nM. Moreover, this method has been successfully applied to the determination of nitrites in tap water, which indicates its great potential for monitoring of nitrites in environmental samples.

  15. PEGylation of magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for enhanced selectivity of dispersive solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiong; Liu, Yi-Ming; Jia, Yan-Wei; Wan, Li-Hong; Liao, Xun

    2017-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess large potential as extraction absorbents in solid phase extraction. They have been widely applied in biomedicine research, while very rare application in natural product chemistry has been reported. In this work, methoxypolyethylene glycol amine (mPEG-NH2) is covalently coupled to CNTs-magnetic nanoparticles (CNTs-MNP) to prepare a novel magnetic nanocomposite (PEG-CNTs-MNP) for use as dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) absorbent. The average particle size was 86nm, and the saturation magnetization was 52.30emu/g. This nanocomposite exhibits excellent dispersibility in aqueous systems, high selectivity and fast binding kinetics when used for extraction of Z-ligustilide, the characteristic bioactive compound from two popular Asian herbal plants, R. chuanxiong and R. ligusticum. HPLC quantification of Z-ligustilide extracted from the standard sample solution showed a high recovery of 98.9%, and the extraction rate from the extracts of the above two herbs are both around 70.0%. To our knowledge, this is the first report on using PEG-CNTs-MNP as DSPE nanosorbents for selective extraction of natural products. This nano-material has promising application in isolation and enrichment of targeted components from complex matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon Nanodots as Dual-Mode Nanosensors for Selective Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng-Long; Su, Li-Xia; Zang, Jin-Hao; Li, Xin-Jian; Lou, Qing; Shan, Chong-Xin

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important product of oxidase-based enzymatic reactions, such as glucose/glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction. Therefore, the probing of generated H2O2 for achieving the detection of various carbohydrates and their oxidases is very significative. Herein, we report one kind of dual-emission carbon nanodots (CDs) that can serve as novel dual-mode nanosensors with both fluorometric and colorimetric output for the selective detection of H2O2. The dual-model nanosensors are established only by the undecorated dual-emission CDs, where significant fluorometric and colorimetric changes are observed with the addition of different concentrations of H2O2 in the CD solution, which benefit to the achievement of the naked-eye detection for H2O2. The mechanism of the nanosensors can be attributed to the fact that the external chemical stimuli like hydroxyl radicals from H2O2 bring about the change of surface properties and the aggregation of CDs, which dominate the emission and absorption of CDs. The constructed dual-mode nanosensors exhibit good biocompatibility and high selectivity toward H2O2 with a linear detection range spanning from 0.05 to 0.5 M and allow the detection of H2O2 as low as 14 mM.

  17. Achieving Highly Efficient, Selective, and Stable CO2 Reduction on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Yadav, Ram Manohar; Liu, Mingjie; Sharma, Pranav P; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ma, Lulu; Zou, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yakobson, Boris I; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-05-26

    The challenge in the electrosynthesis of fuels from CO2 is to achieve durable and active performance with cost-effective catalysts. Here, we report that carbon nanotubes (CNTs), doped with nitrogen to form resident electron-rich defects, can act as highly efficient and, more importantly, stable catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to CO. The unprecedented overpotential (-0.18 V) and selectivity (80%) observed on nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) are attributed to their unique features to facilitate the reaction, including (i) high electrical conductivity, (ii) preferable catalytic sites (pyridinic N defects), and (iii) low free energy for CO2 activation and high barrier for hydrogen evolution. Indeed, DFT calculations show a low free energy barrier for the potential-limiting step to form key intermediate COOH as well as strong binding energy of adsorbed COOH and weak binding energy for the adsorbed CO. The highest selective site toward CO production is pyridinic N, and the NCNT-based electrodes exhibit no degradation over 10 h of continuous operation, suggesting the structural stability of the electrode.

  18. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Le

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/butadiene rubber (BR/natural rubber (NR blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phospholipids, which are linked to the α-terminal of NR can interact with the CNT surface through cation-π interactions forming strong bonding between NR and CNTs. Using the corrected surface tension value of NR, which involves the effect of phospholipids found in our previous work the selective wetting of CNTs in ternary rubber blends can be well predicted using the Z-model for a thermodynamic equilibrium state. By replacing the non-polar BR by a polar rubber like nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR as a blend component CNTs are wetted by NBR slightly more than by NR thanks to the strong interaction between CNTs and nitrile groups of NBR. SBR remains unbound to CNTs in both blends.

  19. Selective localization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/polylactide blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Defeng; Zhang, Yisheng; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Wei

    2009-02-09

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/polylactide blend (PCL/PLA) is an interesting biomaterial because PCL and PLA present good complementarity in their physical properties and biodegradability. However, the thermodynamic incompatibility between two component polymers restricts further applications of their blend. In this work, we used functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) to control the morphology of immiscible PCL/PLA blend. The ternary PCL/PLA/MWCNTs composites were hence prepared by melt mixing for the morphology and the properties investigation. It is interesting to find that the functionalized MWCNTs are selectively dispersed in the matrix PCL phase and on the interface between two polymer phases, leading to simultaneous occurrence of thermodynamically and kinetically driven compatibility. Those interface-localized MWCNTs prevent coalescence of the discrete domains and enhance the phase interfacial adhesion as well. As a result, the phase morphology of the ternary composites is improved remarkably in contrast to that of the blank PCL/PLA blend. Owing to that unique selective interface-localization and improved phase morphology, the ternary composites present far lower rheological and conductive percolation thresholds than those of the binary composites, and also present extraordinary mechanical properties even at very low loading levels of the MWCNTs. Therefore, the amphiphilic MWCNTs are believed to act as the reinforcements as well as the compatibilizer in the immiscible PCL/PLA blend.

  20. Selective Removal of Demineralization Using Near Infrared Cross Polarization Reflectance and a Carbon Dioxide Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H; Fried, Daniel

    2012-02-09

    Lasers can ablate/remove tissue in a non-contact mode of operation and a pulsed laser beam does not interfere with the ability to image the tooth surface, therefore lasers are ideally suited for integration with imaging devices for image-guided ablation. Laser energy can be rapidly and efficiently delivered to tooth surfaces using a digitally controlled laser beam scanning system for precise and selective laser ablation with minimal loss of healthy tissues. Under the appropriate irradiation conditions such laser energy can induce beneficial chemical and morphological changes in the walls of the drilled cavity that can increase resistance to further dental decay and produce surfaces with enhanced adhesive properties to restorative materials. Previous studies have shown that images acquired using near-IR transillumination, optical coherence tomography and fluorescence can be used to guide the laser for selective removal of demineralized enamel. Recent studies have shown that NIR reflectance measurements at 1470-nm can be used to obtain images of enamel demineralization with very high contrast. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that image guided ablation of occlusal lesions can be successfully carried out using a NIR reflectance imaging system coupled with a carbon dioxide laser operating at 9.3-μm with high pulse repetition rates.

  1. High resolution profiling of ammonium and carbonate with solid contact ion selective electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athavale, R.; Wehrli, B.; Dinkel, C.; Crespo, G.; Bakker, E.; Brand, A.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical processes involved in the carbon and nitrogen cycle are often confined to very narrow zones in aquatic systems. To study such processes, highly resolved measurements are required, which are not possible by conventional sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. Potentiometric solid contact ion selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) are promising tools for high resolution in-situ profiling owing to their robustness to pressure changes, their improved detection limits ( 10-6 M) and selectivity and the fast response (t95 ≤ 10s). Conventional SC-ISEs work well under controlled laboratory conditions but can fail to meet the challenges of natural water matrices. In-situ application requires SC-ISEs which are insensitive to changes in redox conditions, pH, and light and to reactive solutes such as high sulfide concentrations. To meet these criteria, we adapted a double layer design by using different combinations of transducing materials and membrane matrices for fabrication of SC-ISEs. We applied these sensors in an custom built profiling set up and demonstrated the potential of this system for high resolution in-situ measurements.

  2. Selective Growth of Metal-Free Metallic and Semiconducting Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Sun, Dong-Ming; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Liu, Chang; Liu, Tianyuan; Wen, Jianfeng; Tang, Nujiang; Luan, Jian; Shi, Chao; Li, Jin-Cheng; Cong, Hong-Tao; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2017-08-01

    A major obstacle for the use of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in electronic devices is their mixture of different types of electrical conductivity that strongly depends on their helical structure. The existence of metal impurities as a residue of a metallic growth catalyst may also lower the performance of SWCNT-based devices. Here, it is shown that by using silicon oxide (SiO x ) nanoparticles as a catalyst, metal-free semiconducting and metallic SWCNTs can be selectively synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition of ethanol. It is found that control over the nanoparticle size and the content of oxygen in the SiO x catalyst plays a key role in the selective growth of SWCNTs. Furthermore, by using the as-grown semiconducting and metallic SWCNTs as the channel material and source/drain electrodes, respectively, all-SWCNT thin-film transistors are fabricated to demonstrate the remarkable potential of these SWCNTs for electronic devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. [Buffer capacity of aquifer media polluted by landfill leachate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Zhao, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Ying-Ying

    2009-02-15

    A column filled with fine sand was constructed to investigate pH buffering capacity and redox buffering capacity of aquifer media. Experimental results indicated that calcium carbonate played a significant role in pH buffering; with the aggravating of landfill leachate pollution, the pH buffering capacity of calcium carbonate was increased; it increased from background value, which was 1.62 x pH(-1) mmol/kg, to 41.3 x pH(-1) mmol/kg. With the aggravating of landfill leachate pollution, the oxidation capacity (OXC) of aquifer media was decreased, and the reduction capacity (RDC) was increased. In unpolluted aquifer media, Fe3+ was the main component of OXC, and accounted for about 70.5% of OXC; TOC was the main component of RDC, and accounted for about 98.7% of RDC. Species of the minerals was related to the degree of pollution; large fraction of amorphous Fe3+ and part of crystalline Fe3+ were reduced near the pollution source, and the reduced product was mainly precipitated as FeCO3 and FeS. Deposit of produced Fe2+ led to ion-exchangeable Fe2+ content increased from 0.5% of uncontaminated aquifer media to 3%. Therefore, Fe3+ may act as a very significant redox buffer in aquifer.

  4. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...

  5. Quenching of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Fluorescence by Dissolved Oxygen Reveals Selective Single-Stranded DNA Affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Bachilo, Sergei M; Weisman, R Bruce

    2017-05-04

    The selective interactions between short oligomers of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and specific structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes have been exploited in powerful methods for nanotube sorting. We report here that nanotubes coated with ssDNA also display selective interactions through the selective quenching of nanotube fluorescence by dissolved oxygen. In aqueous solutions equilibrated under 1 atm of O 2 , emission intensity from semiconducting nanotubes is reduced by between 9 and 40%, varying with the combination of ssDNA sequence and nanotube structure. This quenching reverses promptly and completely on the removal of dissolved O 2 and may be due to physisorption on nanotube surfaces. Fluorescence quenching offers a simple, nondestructive approach for studying the structure-selective interactions of ssDNA with single-walled carbon nanotubes and identifying recognition sequences.

  6. Highly selective and active CO2 reduction electrocatalysts based on cobalt phthalocyanine/carbon nanotube hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Wu, Zishan; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Liewu; Li, Yanyan; Xu, Haomin; Li, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zisheng; Liang, Yongye; Wang, Hailiang

    2017-03-01

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide with renewable energy is a sustainable way of producing carbon-neutral fuels. However, developing active, selective and stable electrocatalysts is challenging and entails material structure design and tailoring across a range of length scales. Here we report a cobalt-phthalocyanine-based high-performance carbon dioxide reduction electrocatalyst material developed with a combined nanoscale and molecular approach. On the nanoscale, cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) molecules are uniformly anchored on carbon nanotubes to afford substantially increased current density, improved selectivity for carbon monoxide, and enhanced durability. On the molecular level, the catalytic performance is further enhanced by introducing cyano groups to the CoPc molecule. The resulting hybrid catalyst exhibits >95% Faradaic efficiency for carbon monoxide production in a wide potential range and extraordinary catalytic activity with a current density of 15.0 mA cm-2 and a turnover frequency of 4.1 s-1 at the overpotential of 0.52 V in a near-neutral aqueous solution.

  7. Selection and Characterization of Geological Sites able to Host a Pilot-Scale CO2 Storage in the Paris Basin (GéoCarbone-PICOREF Choix et caractérisation de sites géologiques propices à l’installation d’un pilote pour le stockage de CO2 dans le bassin de Paris (GéoCarbone-PICOREF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosse É.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the GéoCarbone-PICOREF project was to select and characterize geological sites where CO2 storage in permeable reservoir could be tested at the pilot scale. Both options of storage in deep saline aquifer and in depleted hydrocarbon field were considered. The typical size envisioned for the pilot was 100 kt CO2 per year. GéoCarbone-PICOREF initially focused on a “Regional Domain”, ca. 200 × 150 km, in the Paris Basin. It was attractive for the following reasons: detailed geological data is available, due to 50 years of petroleum exploration; basin-scale deep saline aquifers are present, with a preliminary estimate of storage capacity which is at the Gt CO2 level, namely the carbonate Oolithe Blanche Formation, of Middle Jurassic age, generally located between 1500 and 1800 m depths in the studied area, and several sandstone formations of Triassic age, located between 2000 and 3000 m; several depleted oil fields exist: although offering storage capacities at a much lower level, they do represent very well constrained geological environments, with proven sealing properties; several sources of pure CO2 were identified in the area, at a flow rate compatible with the pilot size, that would avoid capture costs. 750 km of seismic lines were reprocessed and organized in six sections fitted on well logs. This first dataset provided improved representations of: the gross features of the considered aquifers in the Regional Domain; the structural scheme; lateral continuity of the sealing cap rocks. An inventory of the environmental characteristics was also made, including human occupancy, protected areas, water resource, natural hazards, potential conflicts of use with other resources of the subsurface, etc. From all these criteria, a more restricted geographical domain named the “Sector”, ca. 70 × 70 km, was chosen, the most appropriate for further selection of storage site(s. The geological characterization of the Sector has

  8. Geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water with emphasis on sources of sulfate in the upper Floridan Aquifer in parts of Marion, Sumter, and Citrus counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Laura A.

    1996-01-01

    In inland areas of northwest central Florida, sulfate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer are extremely variable and sometimes exceed drinking water standards (250 milligrams per liter). This is unusual because the aquifer is unconfined and near the surface, allowing for active recharge. The sources of sulfate and geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated in this area. Water was sampled from thirty-three wells in parts of Marion, Sumter, and Citrus Counties, within the Southwest Florida Water Management District; these included at least a shallow and a deep well at fifteen separate locations. Ground water was analyzed for major ions, selected trace constituents, dissolved organic carbon, and stable isotopes (sulfur-34 of sulfate and sulfide, carbon-13 of inorganic carbon, deuterium, and oxygen-18). Sulfate concentrations ranged from less than 0.2 to 1,400 milligrams per liter, with higher sulfate concentrations usually in water from deeper wells. The samples can be categorized into a low sulfate group (less than 30 milligrams per liter) and a high sulfate group (greater than 30 milligrams per liter). For the high sulfate water, concentrations of calcium and magnesium increased concurrently with sulfate. Chemical and isotopic data and mass-balance modeling indicate that the composition of high sulfate waters is controlled by dedolomitization reactions (dolomite dissolution and calcite precipitation, driven by dissolution of gypsum). Gypsum occurs deeper in the aquifer than open intervals of sampled wells. Upward flow has been documented in deeper parts of the aquifer in the study area, which may be driven by localized discharge areas or rapid flow in shallow parts of the aquifer. Mixing between shallow ground water and sulfate-rich water that dissolved gypsum at the base of the aquifer is probably responsible for the range of concentrations observed in the study area. Other solutes that increased with sulfate apparently

  9. Co-deposition of carbon dots and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets on carbon-fiber microelectrode surface for selective detection of dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jian; Xie, Zhigang; Wallace, Gordon; Wang, Xungai

    2017-08-01

    In this work, carbon dots (CD) decorated graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were electrochemically reduced and deposited onto carbon fiber (CF) to fabricate microelectrodes for highly sensitive and selective dopamine (DA) detection, in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The results have shown that surface modification considerably increases the electrocatalytic activity of the carbon fiber microelectrode. Due to possible aggregation of the rGO sheets during deposition, modifying the microelectrode surface with rGO sheets alone cannot achieve the selectivity required for simultaneous detection of DA, AA and UA. Through attaching CD onto GO sheets, the rGO + CD/CF microelectrode performance was significantly improved. The existence of CD on GO sheets can effectively avoid inter-layer stacking of the rGO sheets and provide increased surface area for neurotransmitter-electrode interaction enhancement. The CD can also increase the charge storage capacity of GO sheets. This is the first report on applying both CD and rGO for surface modification of carbon fiber microelectrode. The rGO + CD/CF microelectrode has achieved a linear DA detection concentration range of 0.1-100 μM, with a detection limit of 0.02 μM. The sensitivity of the microelectrode towards DA was as high as 6.5 nA/μM, which is significantly higher than previously reported carbon fiber microelectrodes. The highly sensitive all-carbon based microelectrodes should find use in a number of biomedical applications, such as neurotransmitter detection, neural signal recording and cell physiology studies.

  10. Understanding activity and selectivity of metal-nitrogen-doped carbon catalysts for electrochemical reduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Wen; Bagger, Alexander; Hao, Guang-Ping; Varela, Ana Sofia; Sinev, Ilya; Bon, Volodymyr; Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Kaskel, Stefan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Strasser, Peter

    2017-10-16

    Direct electrochemical reduction of CO 2 to fuels and chemicals using renewable electricity has attracted significant attention partly due to the fundamental challenges related to reactivity and selectivity, and partly due to its importance for industrial CO 2 -consuming gas diffusion cathodes. Here, we present advances in the understanding of trends in the CO 2 to CO electrocatalysis of metal- and nitrogen-doped porous carbons containing catalytically active M-N x moieties (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu). We investigate their intrinsic catalytic reactivity, CO turnover frequencies, CO faradaic efficiencies and demonstrate that Fe-N-C and especially Ni-N-C catalysts rival Au- and Ag-based catalysts. We model the catalytically active M-N x moieties using density functional theory and correlate the theoretical binding energies with the experiments to give reactivity-selectivity descriptors. This gives an atomic-scale mechanistic understanding of potential-dependent CO and hydrocarbon selectivity from the M-N x moieties and it provides predictive guidelines for the rational design of selective carbon-based CO 2 reduction catalysts.Inexpensive and selective electrocatalysts for CO 2 reduction hold promise for sustainable fuel production. Here, the authors report N-coordinated, non-noble metal-doped porous carbons as efficient and selective electrocatalysts for CO 2 to CO conversion.

  11. Polymorph selection and nanocrystallite rearrangement of calcium carbonate in carboxymethyl chitosan aqueous solution: Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Donghui [Key Lab For Special Functional Materials Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhu, Yingchun, E-mail: yzhu@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li, Fang; Ruan, Qichao [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Shengmao [Key Lab For Special Functional Materials Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Fangfang [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2010-01-15

    In this article, the polymorph selection of calcium carbonate has been successfully achieved in water-soluble carboxymethyl chitosan aqueous solution at different temperatures (25-95 {sup o}C). Vaterite is formed in carboxymethyl chitosan solution 25 {sup o}C accompanied with trace of calcite, whereas pure aragonite is obtained at 95 {sup o}C. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses show that the products are formed from the recrystallization of nanometer crystallites. Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses reveal that the polymorph of calcium carbonate is controlled and selected by kinetics in various temperatures. As a heterogeneous nucleator and stabilizing agent, carboxymethyl chitosan changes the nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate from thermodynamic into kinetic control. Under kinetic limitation, the reaction rate of aragonite increases along with the elevating of temperature and surpasses the rate of vaterite above 327 K.

  12. Defection-selective solubilization and chemically-responsive solubility switching of single-walled carbon nanotubes with cucurbit[7]uril

    OpenAIRE

    Ogoshi, Tomoki; Inagaki, Ayumi; Yamagishi, Tada-aki; Nakamoto, Yoshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were suspended in aqueous media with cucurbit[7]uril (CB7), while SWCNTs were insoluble with cucurbit[5]uril (CB5). Moreover, defection-selective solubilization of SWCNTs with CB7 was demonstrated. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Effect of temperature on the selection of semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes using Poly(3-dodecylthiophene-2,5-diyl)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomulya, Widianta; Salazar Rios, Jorge; Derenskyi, Vladimir; Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Jung, Stefan; Fritsch, Martin; Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ullrich; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    We report on the investigation of the temperature effect on the selective dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by Poly(3-dodecylthiophene-2,5-diy1) wrapping. The interaction mechanism between polymer chains and SWNTs is studied by controlling the polymer aggregation via variation of

  14. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  15. Estimated rates of groundwater recharge to the Chicot, Evangeline and Jasper aquifers by using environmental tracers in Montgomery and adjacent counties, Texas, 2008 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Timothy D.; Truini, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Montgomery County is in the northern part of the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the United States. As populations have increased since the 1980s, groundwater has become an important resource for public-water supply and industry in the rapidly growing area of Montgomery County. Groundwater availability from the Gulf Coast aquifer system is a primary concern for water managers and community planners in Montgomery County and requires a better understanding of the rate of recharge to the system. The Gulf Coast aquifer system in Montgomery County consists of the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, the Burkeville confining unit, and underlying Catahoula confining system. The individual sand and clay sequences of the aquifers composing the Gulf Coast aquifer system are not laterally or vertically continuous on a regional scale; however, on a local scale, individual sand and clay lenses can extend over several miles. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, collected groundwater-quality samples from selected wells within or near Montgomery County in 2008 and analyzed these samples for concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), helium-3/tritium (3He/3H), helium-4 (4He), and dissolved gases (DG) that include argon, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen and oxygen. Groundwater ages, or apparent age, representing residence times since time of recharge, were determined by using the assumption of a piston-flow transport model. Most of the environmental tracer data indicated the groundwater was recharged prior to the 1950s, limiting the usefulness of CFCs, SF6, and 3H concentrations as tracers. In many cases, no tracer was usable at a well for the purpose of estimating an apparent age. Wells not usable for estimating an apparent age were resampled in 2011 and analyzed for concentrations of major ions and carbon-14 (14C). At six of

  16. Estimating 14C groundwater ages in a methanogenic aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Ramon; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Plummer, L. Niel

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of 14C age dating of groundwaters in a confined regional aquifer affected by methanogenesis. Increasing CH4 concentrations along the groundwater flow system and 13C and 14C isotopic data for dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and CH4 clearly show the effect of methanogenesis on groundwater chemistry. Inverse reaction path modeling using NETPATH indicates the predominant geochemical reactions controlling the chemical evolution of groundwater in the aquifer are incongruent dissolution of dolomite, ion exchange, methanogenesis, and oxidation of sedimentary organic matter. Modeling of groundwater 14C ages using NETPATH indicates that a significant part of groundwater in the Alliston aquifer is less than 13,000 years old; however, older groundwater in the range of 15,000–23,000 years is also present in the aquifer. This paper demonstrates that 14C ages calculated using NETPATH, incorporating the effects of methanogenesis on the carbon pools, provide reasonable groundwater ages that were not possible by other isotopic methods.

  17. Selective Electrochemical Detection of Ciprofloxacin with a Porous Nafion/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composite Film Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Pralay; Chaplin, Brian P

    2016-01-27

    This study focuses on the development of electrochemical sensors for the detection of Ciprofloxacin (CFX) in natural waters and wastewater effluents. The sensors are prepared by depositing a layer of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in a porous Nafion film on to a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode substrate. The porous-Nafion-MWCNT/BDD electrode enhanced detection of CFX due to selective adsorption, which was accomplished by a combination of electrostatic attraction at -SO3(-) sites in the porous Nafion film and the formation of charge assisted hydrogen bonding between CFX and -COOH MWCNT surface functional groups. By contrast, the bare BDD electrode did not show any activity for CFX oxidation. The sensors were selective for CFX detection in the presence of other antibiotics (i.e., amoxicillin) and other nontarget water constituents (i.e., Cl(-), Ca(2+), humic acid, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, salicylic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid). A limit of detection of 5 nM (S/N = 5.04 ± 0.26) in a 0.1 M KH2PO4 supporting electrolyte (pH = 4.5) was obtained using differential pulse voltammetry. The linear dynamic ranges with respect to CFX concentration were 0.005-0.05 μM and 0.05-10 μM, and the sensitivities were 41 ± 5.2 μA μM(-1) and 2.1 ± 0.22 μA μM(-1), respectively. Sensor fouling was observed at high concentrations of some organic compounds such as 1 mM 4-aminobenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. However, a short cathodic treatment fully restores sensor response. The results indicate that these sensors have application in detecting CFX in natural waters and wastewater effluents.

  18. AC conductivity of selectively located carbon nanotubes in poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/polylactide blend nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredo, E; Grimau, M; Bello, A; Wu, D F; Zhang, Y S; Lin, D P

    2010-05-10

    DC and AC electrical conductivity of bionanocomposites based on the immiscible polymer blend poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/polylactide (PCL/PLA, w/w 70/30), loaded with multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT), were studied in a wide frequency range, 10(-3) < or = f < or = 10(7) Hz from 143 to 313 K. The nanofiller concentration ranged from 0 to 4 wt % and it was shown to be selectively located in the PCL phase. The PCL crystallinity degree was not affected by the presence of CNT. The variation of the DC conductivity allowed the determination of the percolation threshold, p(c) = 0.98 wt %, and the critical exponent t = 2.2 of the scaling law. The linear dependence of log (sigma(DC)) versus p(-1/3) showed the existence of tunneling conduction among CNT not yet in physical contact. The temperature independent results indicated a conventional tunnel effect. The AC conductivity of the nanocomposites followed the predictions of the universal dynamic response and the s exponents were determined at low concentrations. Master curves are presented showing the length and temperature-time superpositions.

  19. Highly selective and sensitive detection of neurotransmitters using receptor-modified single-walled carbon nanotube sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongju; Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Park, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Byung Yang; Park, Tai Hyun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-07-01

    We present receptor-modified carbon nanotube sensors for the highly selective and sensitive detection of acetylcholine (ACh), one kind of neurotransmitter. Here, we successfully expressed the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR), a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in E. coli and coated single-walled carbon nanotube (swCNT)-field effect transistors (FETs) with lipid membrane including the receptor, enabling highly selective and sensitive ACh detection. Using this sensor, we could detect ACh at 100 pM concentration. Moreover, we showed that this sensor could selectively detect ACh among other neurotransmitters. This is the first demonstration of the real-time detection of ACh using specific binding between ACh and M1 mAChR, and it may lead to breakthroughs for various applications such as disease diagnosis and drug screening.

  20. Tracing aquifer-surface water and aquifer-aquifer interactions using a multi-tracer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Myriam; Stumpp, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Conserving a good groundwater quality is a major challenge because of its importance as a reservoir for drinking water. Influxes from surface water, especially input of nitrate, can deteriorate groundwater quality. The objective of our project was to i) investigate aquifer-surface water interactions and ii) trace aquifer-aquifer interactions concerning the separation between three porous aquifers. The investigation area is located in Bavaria, Southern Germany and contains three aquifers A-C (quaternary sediment) that were described as three separated flow systems to date. Two rivers 1 -2 drain the investigation area. The sampling campaign (Apr-Oct 2012) included three sampling locations along the streams, six wells in aquifer A and three wells each in aquifers B and C. The water samples were analyzed for concentration of anions (Cl-, SO42-, NO3-), cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+), electrical conductivity, water temperature, pH, oxygen and stable isotopes of water (^18O, ^2H), which were used as environmental tracers. Our results showed that only one out of three groundwater wells close to river 1 indicated river water infiltration into the groundwater due to elevated concentration of sulfate and depleted concentration of calcium and magnesium compared to the rest of the aquifer. The water chemistry of all other groundwater wells at river 1 and all sites at river 2 did not show any similarity with river water. By that, we assume that no river water infiltrated into groundwater but we cannot exclude groundwater infiltration into the rivers. Contrary to prior knowledge assumptions, aquifer-aquifer interaction took place in all three monitored aquifers. The results of stable isotopes of water and ions indicated that aquifers B and C are constantly connected to aquifer A at certain sites. The monitoring of groundwater and river water sites in the investigation area points to a heterogeneous groundwater flow regime particularly in aquifer A. Regarding the conservation of a

  1. Properties and chemical constituents in ground water from the lower Wilcox Aquifer, Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Busby, John F.; Beckman, Jeffery D.

    1993-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis is a study of regional aquifers composed of sediments of mostly Cenozoic age that underlie about 230,000 sq mi of the Gulf Coastal Plain. These regional aquifers are part of three aquifer systems: (1) the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System, (2) the Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System, and (3) the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System. The water chemistry of the Lower Wilcox Aquifer, which is part of the Mississippi Embayment Aquifer System is presented by a series of maps. These maps show the areal distribution of (1) the concentration of dissolved solids and temperature, (2) the primary water types and pH, (3) the concentration of major ions and silica, and (4) the milliequivalent ratios of selected ions. Dissolved constituents, pH, temperature, and ratios are based on the median values of all samples in each 100-sq-mi area. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer ranges from 18 mg/L near the outcrop in western Tennessee to 122,000 mg/L in a down-dip area in southern Mississippi. The primary water type is calcium bicarbonate in the outcrop area and sodium bicarbonate in all other areas of the aquifer within the limits of available data. The concentrations of major ions generally increase from the outcrop area to the down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio maps of selected ions in water from the Lower Wilcox Aquifer indicate some trends. The milliequivalent ratio of magnesium plus calcium to bicarbonate ranges from less than 0.1 to 40.4 and generally decreases from outcrop to down-dip limit of the data in the southern part of the aquifer area east of the Mississippi River. The milliequivalent ratio of bicarbonate to chloride ranges from 0.01 in southern Mississippi to 52.3 in northwestern Mississippi. This ratio increases from the outcrop toward the Mississippi River and from north to south in the

  2. CO{sub 2} storage in saline aquifers : design of a demonstration project to dispose CO{sub 2} associated with natural gas fields in South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Ren, S.R. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Mi, H.G.; Ma, Y.X. [China National Offshore Oil Co., Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    The South China Sea has many gas fields with high carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration. The China National Offshore Oil Company (CNOOC) has examined many options to dispose of the CO{sub 2} from the DF1-1 gas field. This study investigated the feasibility of geological storage of CO{sub 2} into offshore saline aquifers near the gas separation plant on the Hainan Island. A demonstration project was proposed and designed, considering aquifer selection and assessment, CO{sub 2} transportation and injection schemes, and economic viability of the project. Many aquifer structures around the gas field were evaluated in terms of geological structure, reservoir features, fluid properties, storage capacity and location. The LT13-1 saline aquifer located 60 km offshore in the Yingghehai Basin was selected as the site to sequester the CO{sub 2} discharged from the DF1-1 gas terminal. A high-pressure subsea pipeline will transport the CO{sub 2}, which will be injected into the aquifer via a subsea wellhead and through a horizontal well. The study required reservoir simulation and injectivity analysis in order to determine the injection rate and pressure, and to predict the migration of CO{sub 2} after injection. The CO{sub 2} storage capacity was calculated to be 95.20 Mt. About 4 million tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored after 20 years of injection, most of which will be dissolved in formation water and the CO{sub 2} plume will be within 0.8 km around the injector wellbore. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Photoactuators and motors based on carbon nanotubes with selective chirality distributions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Chuan; Zarrouk, David; Seo, Jung-Woo Ted; Cheng, Jim C; Buchan, Austin D; Takei, Kuniharu; Zhao, Yang; Ager, Joel W; Zhang, Junjun; Hettick, Mark; Hersam, Mark C; Pisano, Albert P; Fearing, Ronald S; Javey, Ali

    2014-01-01

    ... fabrication and large deflection. Here, we demonstrate highly versatile photoactuators, oscillators and motors based on polymer/single-walled carbon nanotube bilayers that meet all the above requirements...

  4. Chitosan-ZnO/polyanilne nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode for selective detection of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiselvi, K; Thambidurai, S

    2014-06-01

    In this study, inorganic-organic redox mediators of CS-ZnO/PANI nanocomposite were synthesized by simple precipitation and chemical polymerization approach in the presence of chitosan (CS), ZnCl2, polyaniline (PANI) and ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) as an initiator. The formation of ZnO nanoparticles onto CS-PANI matrix was confirmed by SEM, TEM, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the CS-ZnO/PANI. The obtained CS0.12-ZC2.5/PANI nanocomposite modified electrode has been successfully developed for selective determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AsA) in 0.2M phosphate buffer solution pH 7.0. The electrochemical oxidation signals of AsA and DA are well separated into two distinct peak potential separation of 303mV in DPV studies, which is large enough to allow the determination of one in the presence of the other. A linear response for DA concentrations range from 20×10(-5) to 180×10(-5), in the presence of 140×10(-5) AsA, with sensitivity of 0.013μAμM(-1) and a detection limit of 0.21μM, have been obtained. Moreover, CS0.12-ZC2.5/PANI modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) had good stability and antifouling properties. The proposed biosensor offers promise for simple and cost-effective analysis of bio-molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective oxidation of serotonin and norepinephrine over eriochrome cyanine R film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Hong; Li Shaoguang [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China); Tang Yuhai [Institute of Analytical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen Yan [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China); Chen Yuanzhong [Fujian Institute of Hematology, The Affiliated Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001 (China)], E-Mail: chenyz@pub3.fz.fj.cn; Lin Xinhua [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China)], E-mail: xhlin1963@sin.com

    2009-08-01

    A novel ECR-modified electrode is fabricated by electrodeposition of Eriochrome Cyanine R (ECR) at a glassy carbon (GC) electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in double-distilled water. The characterization of the ECR film modified electrode is carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectra (IR), spectroelectrochemistry and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that a slightly heterogeneous film formed on the surface of the modified electrode, and the calculated surface concentration of ECR is 2 x 10{sup -10} mol/cm{sup -2}. The ECR film modified GC electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, the modified electrode can separately detect 5-HT and NE, even in the presence of 200-fold concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and 25-fold concentration of uric acid (UA). Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the peak currents of 5-HT and NE recorded in pH 7 solution are linearly dependent on their concentrations in the range of 0.05-5 {mu}M and 2-50 {mu}M, respectively. The limits of detection are 0.05 and 1.5 {mu}M for 5-HT and NE, respectively. The ECR film modified electrode can be stored stable for at least 1 week in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7) at 4 {sup o}C in a refrigerator. Owing to its excellent selectivity and sensitivity, the modified electrode could provide a promising tool for the simultaneous determination of 5-HT and NE in complex biosamples.

  6. Barriers to Mitigate Carbon Footprint in a Selected Academic Institution in Bacoor City, Cavite, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanza, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon footprint is an environmental menace that needs to be addressed at once. Various mitigating measures were proposed and yet manifestations of its proliferation are very much observable. This study seeks to determine primarily the barriers of non-adherence to identified measures to mitigate carbon footprint in the environment. Using the mixed…

  7. Selective extraction methods for aluminium, iron and organic carbon from montane volcanic ash soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.; Tonneijck, F.H.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Montane volcanic ash soils contain disproportionate amounts of soil organic carbon and thereby play an often underestimated role in the global carbon cycle. Given the central role of Al and Fe in stabilizing organic matter in volcanic ash soils, we assessed various extraction methods of Al, Fe, and

  8. Selective and Scalable Chemical Removal of Thin Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from their Mixtures with Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komínková, Zuzana; Valeš, Václav; Kalbáč, Martin

    2015-11-02

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are materials in high demand due to their superior properties. However, it is very challenging to prepare DWCNTs samples of high purity. In particular, the removal of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) contaminants is a major problem. Here, a procedure for a selective removal of thin-diameter SWCNTs from their mixtures with DWCNTs by lithium vapor treatment is investigated. The results are evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry. It is shown that the amount of SWCNTs was reduced by about 35 % after lithium vapor treatment of the studied SWCNTs-DWCNTs mixture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Estimation of the groundwater resources of the bedrock aquifers at the Kettle Moraine Springs State Fish Hatchery, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Charles; Feinstein, Daniel T.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Hunt, Randall J.; Haserodt, Megan

    2017-10-12

    Groundwater resources information was needed to understand regional aquifer systems and water available to wells and springs for rearing important Lake Michigan fish species at the Kettle Moraine Springs State Fish Hatchery in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin. As a basis for estimating the groundwater resources available, an existing groundwater-flow model was refined, and new groundwater-flow models were developed for the Kettle Moraine Springs State Fish Hatchery area using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) finite-difference code MODFLOW. This report describes the origin and construction of these groundwater-flow models and their use in testing conceptual models and simulating the hydrogeologic system.The study area is in the Eastern Ridges and Lowlands geographical province of Wisconsin, and the hatchery property is situated on the southeastern edge of the Kettle Moraine, a north-south trending topographic high of glacial origin. The bedrock units underlying the study area consist of Cambrian, Ordovician, and Silurian units of carbonate and siliciclastic lithology. In the Sheboygan County area, the sedimentary bedrock sequence reaches a thickness of as much as about 1,600 feet (ft).Two aquifer systems are present at the Kettle Moraine Springs State Fish Hatchery. A shallow system is made up of Silurian bedrock, consisting chiefly of dolomite, overlain by unconsolidated Quaternary-age glacial deposits. The glacial deposits of this aquifer system are the typical source of water to local springs, including the springs that have historically supplied the hatchery. The shallow aquifer system, therefore, consists of the unconsolidated glacial aquifer and the underlying bedrock Silurian aquifer. Most residential wells in the area draw from the Silurian aquifer. A deeper confined aquifer system is made up of Cambrian- and Ordovician-age bedrock units including sandstone formations. Because of its depth, very few wells are completed in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system

  10. Development of a new chemically modified carbon paste electrode for selective determination of urinary and serum oxalate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanpour, Ahmad; Shafaatian, Bita; Mirfakhraei, Homeira Sadat; Rezaeifard, Abdolreza

    2013-11-15

    The construction and evaluation of a novel modified carbon paste electrode with high selectivity toward oxalate ion are described. The constructed carbon paste potentiometric sensor for oxalate ion is based on the use of a zirconium salan complex as a good ionophore in the carbon paste matrix. The electrode exhibits a Nernstian slope of 29.1 mV/decade to oxalate ion over a wide concentration range from 1.5×10(-6) to 3.9 ×10(-2) mol L(-1) with a low detection limit of 7.0×10(-7) mol L(-1). The electrode possesses fast response time, satisfactory reproducibility, appropriate lifetime, and most importantly, good selectivity toward C2O4(2-) relative to a variety of common anions. The potentiometric response of the electrode is independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 2.5-8.0. The modified carbon paste electrode was successfully applied as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration and potentiometric determination of oxalate ion in mineral water, blood serum and urine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-09-17

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice.

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid-carbon paste electrode as a super selectivity sensor: application to potentiometric monitoring of mercury ion(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Hadi; Rofouei, Mohammad Kazem; Arab, Pezhman; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Vafaei, Zahra

    2010-11-15

    In this article a super selectivity potentiometric methodology, using an ion-selective electrode, for determination of mercury ion(II) in aqueous solution was investigated. For modification of the electrode a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM·BF(4)), was applied as a super conductive binder, and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was used in the composition of the carbon paste to improve conductivity and transduction of chemical signal to electrical signal. Moreover, incorporation of 1-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-3-(3-nitrophenyl)triazene (ENTZ) as an ionophore to this composition caused to significantly enhanced selectivity toward Hg(II) ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0×10(-4) to 5.0×10(-9) M with a lower detection limit of 2.5×10(-9) M (0.5 ppb) and a Nernstian slope of 29.3±(0.2) mV decade(-1) of Hg(II) activity. The electrode has a short response time (∼5s) and can be used for at least 55 days without any considerable divergence in potentials, and the working pH range was 2.0-4.3. Finally, the proposed electrode was successfully used as an indicator for potentiometric determination of Hg(II) in dental amalgam and water samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. New amide derivatives of Probenecid as selective inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase IX and XII: biological evaluation and molecular modelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradori, Simone; Mollica, Adriano; Ceruso, Mariangela; D'Ascenzio, Melissa; De Monte, Celeste; Chimenti, Paola; Sabia, Rocchina; Akdemir, Atilla; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-07-01

    Novel amide derivatives of Probenecid were synthesized and discovered to act as potent and selective inhibitors of the human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) transmembrane isoforms hCA IX and XII. The proposed chemical transformation of the carboxylic acid into an amide group led to a complete loss of hCA I and II inhibition (Kis >10,000nM) and enhanced the inhibitory activity against hCA IX and XII, with respect to the parent compound (incorporating a COOH function). These promising biological results have been corroborated by molecular modelling studies within the active sites of the four studied human carbonic anhydrases, which enabled us to rationalize both the isoform selectivity and high activity against the tumor-associated isoforms hCA IX/XII. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Carbonate Species and Solid Carbonate Phases of Selected Trace Elements pertinent to Drinking Water Standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, John A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilkin, Richard T. [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report contains a series of tables summarizing the thermodynamic properties of aqueous carbonate complexes and solid carbonate phases of the following elements: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) thallium (Tl), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn). Most of these elements are potentially hazardous as defined by extant primary drinking water standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The remainder are not considered hazardous, but are either listed by EPA under secondary standards, or because they can adversely affect drinking water quality. Additional tables are included giving the thermodynamic properties for carbonates of the alkali metal and alkali earth elements, sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and strontium (Sr), because of their value in developing correlative models to estimate the thermodynamic properties of carbonate minerals for which no such data currently exist. The purpose in creating the tables in this report is to provide future investigators with a convenient source for selecting and tracing the sources of thermodynamic data of the above listed elements for use in modeling their geochemical behavior in “underground sources of drinking water” (USDW). The incentive for doing so lies with a heightened concern over the potential consequences of the proposed capture and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by fossil fuel fired power plants in deep subsurface reservoirs. If CO2 were to leak from such reservoirs, it could migrate upward and contaminate USDWs with undesirable, but undetermined, consequences to water quality. The EPA, Office of Research and Development, through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, funded the preparation of this report.

  15. Nucleophile-directed selectivity towards linear carbonates in the niobium pentaethoxide-catalysed cycloaddition of CO2 and propylene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Barnali

    2014-01-01

    Homoleptic Nb-complexes combined with selected organic nucleophiles generate very active catalytic systems for the cycloaddition of propylene oxide and CO2 under ambient conditions. An unprecedented reaction pathway towards an acyclic organic carbonate is observed when extending the study to [Nb(OEt)5] in combination with 4-dimethylamino-pyridine (DMAP) or tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB). Mechanistic insights of the reaction are provided based on experimental and spectroscopic evidences. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  16. Highly selective dry etching of polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer by gas pulsing carbon monoxide-based plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Jagtiani, Ashish V.; Tsai, Hsin-Yu; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a very selective PMMA removal method from poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) copolymer using gas pulsing cyclic etching. Flow ratio of hydrogen (H2) added to carbon monoxide (CO) plasma was periodically changed to control etch and deposition processes on PS. By controlling the process time of each etch and deposition step, full PMMA removal including etching of the neutral layer was demonstrated at 28 nm pitch, while PS thickness remained intact. This is more than 10 times higher etch selectivity than conventional continuous plasma etch processes using standard oxygen (O2), CO-H2 and CO-O2-based chemistries.

  17. Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or

  18. Unravelling aquifer-wetland interaction using CSAMT and gravity methods: the Mollina-Camorra aquifer and the Fuente de Piedra playa-lake, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrera, A.; Martos-Rosillo, S.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M.; Benavente, J.; Martín-Rodríguez, J. F.; Zúñiga-López, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    The hydrological regime of Fuente de Piedra playa-lake (Málaga, southern Spain) has been significantly affected by the intensive exploitation of groundwater in the area. The playa-lake is situated above clays, marls, and gypsum, and under unaltered conditions received surface-subsurface runoff within the watershed as well as groundwater discharge from two carbonate aquifers. We have analyzed the structure of the main one, the Mollina-Camorra carbonate aquifer, by combining controlled source audio magnetotellurics (CSAMT), gravity prospecting, and time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings. This geophysical information, together with new structural and hydrogeological data, was gathered to develop a new conceptual hydrogeological model. This model allows the hydrological linkage of the carbonate aquifer with the playa-lake system to be established. Moreover, the intensive exploitation in the carbonate aquifer, even outside the watershed of the playa-lake, has affected the hydrological regime of the system. This multidisciplinary work demonstrates the potential of geophysical methods for understanding wetland-aquifer interaction, having important groundwater management implications.

  19. Urban Distribution Mode Selection under Low Carbon Economy—A Case Study of Guangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the transformation of urban distribution industry, the problem of enterprises generally retaining a self-distribution mode is highlighted, and it is not conducive for enterprises to develop core business. Around the hot issue of climate change, but also the target of energy conservation and emission reduction, this paper puts forward the method of urban distribution mode to reduce carbon emission intensity, introduces four kinds of typical urban distribution mode, analyzes the core influencing factors of urban distribution mode, studies the carbon accounting method of urban distribution, put forwards the method of low carbon urban distribution mode, analyzes the current situation of the distribution of Guangzhou City, determines the main research types of goods, and applies the method proposed in this paper to the specific enterprises. Urban distribution mode integration and carbon emissions intensity reduction are both considered in this work. The specific application result of 11.28% reduction on carbon emission intensity shows that this method can effectively guide enterprises to develop low carbon urban distribution mode and reduce carbon emission intensity of urban distribution.

  20. Green supplier selection and order allocation in a low-carbon paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Sivakumar, R.

    2016-01-01

    The low-carbon supply chain is one of the predominant topics towards a green economy and it establishes the opportunity to reduce carbon emissions across the product value chain. This paper focuses on recycling and optimized sourcing in the paper industry as a case company. The main objective...... manufacturing industry is presented to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results demonstrate a 26.2 % reduction of carbon emission by using recycle products in the production process. The firm benefits by forming a systematic methodology for green supplier evaluation and order allocation...

  1. Surface geoeletric sounding for the determination of aquifer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geoeletric sounding by direct current, employing the vertical electrical sounding (VES) was used by adopting the Schlumberger array. This was to determine aquifer formations in the area. The survey was carried out at selected points The interpretation of the data made it possible to determine the geologic units. The top ...

  2. Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique historical data from large-scale dewatering by deep level mining – a case study from South Africa. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  3. Carbon dioxide capture from exhaust gases by selective adsorption on porous solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, M.; Ernst, S. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The metal-organic frameworks Cu{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}, MIL-53 and MIL-96 were synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogenphysisorption. The adsorption isotherms for carbon dioxide at temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 C and pressures up to 1000 mbar on this new type of microporous solids were measured by a static volumetric method. For comparison, experiments with zeolite NaX (13X) were also included. High adsorption capacities for carbon dioxide were found for the adsorbents investigated in this study. The breakthrough curves for the adsorption of a mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on Cu{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2} reveal a high affinity of this material for the adsorption of carbon dioxide in the presence of nitrogen. (orig.)

  4. Responses of selected species of marine phytoplankton to increasing carbon dioxide and light

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelos e Ramos, Joana

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have been increasing since the industrial revolution and are expected to almost triple from pre-industrial values by the year 2100. CO2 enters the ocean by atmosphere-surface ocean gas exchange, decreasing carbonate ion (CO32-) concentrations and pH (ocean acidification). Additionally, the rise of CO2 concentrations and other green-house gases in the atmosphere, increase global average temperatures in the air and, consequently, in the surface oc...

  5. Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon electrode material for highly selective determination of nitrite in physiological and environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shenghai; Wu, Hongmin; Wu, Ying; Shi, Hongyan; Feng, Xun; Jiang, Shang; Chen, Jian; Song, Wenbo, E-mail: wbsong@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon (HONC) was obtained from a mesoporous silica template through a nano-replication method using furfuryl alcohol as the carbon source. The structure and morphology of HONC were characterized and analyzed in detail by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2}-sorption, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. HONC was then demonstrated as active electrode material for selective determination of nitrite in either physiological or environmental system. Well separated oxidation peaks of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and nitrite were observed in physiological system, and simultaneous discrimination of catechol, hydroquinone, resorcinol and nitrite in environmental system was also accomplished. Distinctly improved performances for selective determination of nitrite (such as significantly fast and sensitive current response with especially high selectivity) coexisted with ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid in the physiological system, as well as with catechol, hydroquinone and resorcinol in the environmental system were achieved at HONC electrode material. The excellent discriminating ability and high selectivity for NO{sub 2}{sup −} determination were ascribed to the good electronic conductivity, unique hemi-ordered porous structure, large surface area and large number of edge plane defect sites contained on the surface of nanopore walls of HONC. Results in this work demonstrated that HONC is one of the promising catalytic electrode materials for nitrite sensor fabrication. - Highlights: • Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon as an active electrode material • Good discriminating ability towards NO{sub 2}{sup −} from physiological or environmental system • Highly selective determination of nitrite with fast and sensitive current response.

  6. A Numerical Study of Gas Injection and Caprock Leakage from Yort-e-Shah Aquifer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Rad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate the adverse effects of global warming due to anthropogenic CO2 emission into the atmosphere, geological sequestration of CO2 into subsurface formations has been investigated by many studies over the last decade. However, selection of formations and sites for any field application is still open to debate. The most important properties of a formation suitable for carbon sequestration are those which impact the fluid flow processes. The injection or extraction of gas can change the pore pressure within the reservoir, which in turn results in redistribution of the stress field. These events may cause considerably leakage of the fluid into the surrounding geological formations or ground surface. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Yort-e-Shah aquifer for CO2 storage, through a series of analyses with a simplified numerical model. The numerical results suggest that the optimum injection pressure in Yort-e-Shah aquifer is about 15.51 MPa with a safety factor of about 1.7. The results of the fluid pressure and gas plume expansion are presented. Also, an analysis was carried out for a case with leak through cap rock. When there is no leak, the pressure within the aquifer is stable, while on the other hand, the pressure in case of leakage is slightly smaller. In case of leakage, the pressure is lowest in the middle of the reservoir, mainly because the nodes at the middle of the aquifer are influenced by all the leakage points, while around the wellbore or near the end of gas plume, are affected less due to their longer distance to leakage points.

  7. Geochemical evolution of waters within the north coast limestone aquifers of Puerto Rico; a conceptualization based on a flow path in the Barceloneta area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Mas, A. J.; Lee, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water samples along a groundwater flow path in the Barceloneta area, Puerto Rico, were collected from wells screened in the Montebello Limestone Member of the Cibao Formation (artesian aquifer) and in the overlying Aguada and Aymamon Limestones (water table aquifer). The groundwater chemistry changes as water migrates from recharge areas to downgradient zones in the aquifers. Dissolved magnesium, dissolved sulfate, pH, and carbon-13 isotope generally increase down-gradient. Total inorganic carbon and calcium decrease within the freshwater parts of the aquifer. Mass transfer calculations show that the likely reaction model is carbon dioxide incorporation as water infiltrates through the soil zone, followed by calcite dissolution as water recharges the aquifer. As water moves downgradient within the artesian aquifer, carbon dioxide may degas as a result of calcite precipitation while gypsum and dolomite are dissolved. Within the water table aquifer, continuous recharge of waters rich in carbonic acid maintains the dissolution of the carbonate minerals. Near the coast the mixing of fresh groundwater with saltwater is the primary process affecting water chemistry within the water table aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Synthesis of light-selective poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) nanofilms in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, William (Zhiming)

    Due to the increased requirements of environmental protection, significant effort has been made to develop new "green" chemistry and engineering methods. Two effective approaches for "green" processes are: (1) to employ routes with fewer synthetic and separation steps, and (2) to replace volatile organic solvents with environmentally friendly solvents. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) has emerged as such a viable "green" alternative to organic solvents for several applications including extraction, polymerization, and nanotechnology, etc. In addition, it is an enabling solvent, allowing new types of chemistry and materials to be formed. In order to effectively utilize scCO2, it is required to study its effect on the relevant chemical process. This thesis focuses on the copolymerization of ethylene and vinyl acetate in scCO2, and the application of scCO2 in the synthesis of novel poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA) nanocomposites. Firstly, the kinetics of the process was investigated. The thermal decomposition of the free-radical initiator diethyl peroxydicarbonate (DEPDC) was monitored by in situ attenuate total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) in heptane, and in scCO2. The rate constant and activation energy of the thermal decomposition of DEPDC in scCO2 were determined, and a decomposition mechanism was proposed. Further, with a knowledge of the initiator kinetics, in situ ATR-FTIR was employed to monitor the initial formation of copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate during polymerization in scCO2. The reactivity ratios for the copolymerization of ethylene and vinyl acetate in scCO2 were determined using both the Kelen-Tudos and the non-linear least-squares methods. The potential of scCO2 was further examined to synthesize advanced and novel nanomaterials based on an understanding of the polymerization mechanism. A novel one-step synthesis route was developed for making silica

  9. Limited occurrence of denitrification in four shallow aquifers in agricultural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.T.; Puckett, L.J.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bekins, B.A.; Phillips, S.P.; Kauffman, L.J.; Denver, J.M.; Johnson, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of natural attenuation to mitigate agricultural nitrate contamination in recharging aquifers was investigated in four important agricultural settings in the United States. The study used laboratory analyses, field measurements, and flow and transport modeling for monitoring well transects (0.5 to 2.5 km in length) in the San Joaquin watershed, California, the Elkhorn watershed, Nebraska, the Yakima watershed, Washington, and the Chester watershed, Maryland. Ground water analyses included major ion chemistry, dissolved gases, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes, and estimates of recharge date. Sediment analyses included potential electron donors and stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes. Within each site and among aquifer-based medians, dissolved oxygen decreases with ground water age, and excess N2 from denitrification increases with age. Stable isotopes and excess N2 imply minimal denitrifying activity at the Maryland and Washington sites, partial denitrification at the California site, and total denitrification across portions of the Nebraska site. At all sites, recharging electron donor concentrations are not sufficient to account for the losses of dissolved oxygen and nitrate, implying that relict, solid phase electron donors drive redox reactions. Zero-order rates of denitrification range from 0 to 0.14 μmol N L−1d−1, comparable to observations of other studies using the same methods. Many values reported in the literature are, however, orders of magnitude higher, which is attributed to a combination of method limitations and bias for selection of sites with rapid denitrification. In the shallow aquifers below these agricultural fields, denitrification is limited in extent and will require residence times of decades or longer to mitigate modern nitrate contamination.

  10. Heterogeneity and Stream-Aquifer Interaction in an Unconsolidated Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwee, C. D.; Healey, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    In north central Kansas the Republican River and its associated alluvial sediments are important regional surface and groundwater supplies. A test site, adjacent to the Republican River, has been established within the porous alluvial sediments to study stream-aquifer interaction and aquifer heterogeneity. This is potentially important research for understanding how to maintain a desired stream flow in the presence of withdrawals from the stream and the aquifer. The site installation consists of seven observation wells located along a line perpendicular to the river channel and centered about a productive irrigation well. In addition to water level data, several geophysical techniques (direct push electrical conductivity, ground penetrating radar, and shallow seismic methods) have been used at this site to characterize the aquifer. The results of the geophysical methods are reported in another paper at this meeting. Water level data collected over a two-week period shows two consecutive irrigation cycles. Each cycle consists of two days of intensive pumping followed by five days of recovery. Several significant elements of stream-aquifer systems can be seen in the data. The water level data demonstrates a regional water level decline in the alluvium that mimics stream gage data located up and down stream from the site, thereby confirming stream-aquifer interaction. Most of the observation wells located symmetrically around the irrigation well show the normal asymmetry expected for a river acting as a specified head boundary. However, heterogeneity causes one pair of symmetric wells to behave differently. Hydraulic data analysis with an automated program (SuprPumpII) demonstrates a degree of heterogeneity within the alluvial sediments not evident from descriptive geologic drilling logs or geophysical logs. A time-drawdown plot of a symmetric pair of observation wells, 310W and 310E, shows an atypical response of the aquifer during early pumping times due to

  11. Estimating Groundwater Mounding in Sloping Aquifers for Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Kacimov, Anvar; Al-Maktoumi, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Design of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) for augmentation of groundwater resources often lacks detailed data, and simple diagnostic tools for evaluation of the water table in a broad range of parameters are needed. In many large-scale MAR projects, the effect of a regional aquifer base dip cannot be ignored due to the scale of recharge sources (e.g., wadis, streams, reservoirs). However, Hantush's (1967) solution for a horizontal aquifer base is commonly used. To address sloping aquifers, a new closed-form analytical solution for water table mound accounts for the geometry and orientation of recharge sources at the land surface with respect to the aquifer base dip. The solution, based on the Dupiuit-Forchheimer approximation, Green's function method, and coordinate transformations is convenient for computing. This solution reveals important MAR traits in variance with Hantush's solution: mounding is limited in time and space; elevation of the mound is strongly affected by the dip angle; and the peak of the mound moves over time. These findings have important practical implications for assessment of various MAR scenarios, including waterlogging potential and determining proper rates of recharge. Computations are illustrated for several characteristic MAR settings. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Construction and performance characteristics of new ion selective electrodes based on carbon nanotubes for determination of meclofenoxate hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nashar, Rasha M; Abdel Ghani, Nour T; Hassan, Sherif M

    2012-06-12

    This work offers construction and comparative evaluation the performance characteristics of conventional polymer (I), carbon paste (II) and carbon nanotubes chemically modified carbon paste ion selective electrodes (III) for meclofenoxate hydrochloride are described. These electrodes depend mainly on the incorporation of the ion pair of meclofenoxate hydrochloride with phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) or phosphotungestic acid (PTA). They showed near Nernestian responses over usable concentration range 1.0 × 10(-5) to 1.0 × 10(-2)M with slopes in the range 55.15-59.74 mV(concentrationdecade)(-1). These developed electrodes were fully characterized in terms of their composition, response time, working concentration range, life span, usable pH and temperature range. The electrodes showed a very good selectivity for Meclo with respect to a large number of inorganic cations, sugars and in the presence of the degradation product of the drug (p-chloro phenoxy acetic acid). The standard additions method was applied to the determination of MecloCl in pure solution, pharmaceutical preparations and biological samples. Dissolution testing was also applied using the proposed sensors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bausch, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. Unfortunately, several classes of reactions that lead to carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are not well understood. Planned in ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` are reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected to different conditions of temperature, solvent mixtures and radiation. Summarized in this quarterly report are results of our investigations of the following topics: (a) the reactions of coal model compounds, namely, benzyl phenyl sulfide (BPS), diphenyl sulfide (hereafter referred to as phenylsulfide, PS) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) with various reagents (Lewis acid catalysts, radical initiators, electron acceptors) using different solvents and temperature in an attempt to maximize the degree of carbon-sulfur (C-S) bond cleavage; and (b) the results of photooxidation of coal model compounds under controlled conditions. Quantitative product analyses are presented in this report.

  14. Imine-Linked Polymer Based Nitrogen-Doped Porous Activated Carbon for Efficient and Selective CO2 Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabadi, Akram; Abbood, Hayder A.; Li, Qingyin; Jing, Ni; Tan, Bien

    2016-12-01

    The preparation of nitrogen-doped activated carbon (NACs) has received significant attention because of their applications in CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) owing to abundant nitrogen atoms on their surface and controllable pore structures by carefully controlled carbonization. We report high-surface-area porous N-doped activated carbons (NAC) by using soft-template-assisted self-assembly followed by thermal decomposition and KOH activation. The activation process was carried out under different temperature conditions (600-800 °C) using polyimine as precursor. The NAC-800 was found to have a high specific surface area (1900 m2 g-1), a desirable micropore size below 1 nm and, more importantly, a large micropore volume (0.98 cm3 g-1). NAC-800 also exhibits a significant capacity of CO2 capture i.e., over 6. 25 and 4.87 mmol g-1 at 273 K and 298 K respectively at 1.13 bar, which is one of among the highest values reported for porous carbons so far. Moreover, NAC also shows an excellent separation selectivity for CO2 over N2.

  15. Optical measurements of selected properties of nanocomposite layers with graphene and carbon nanotubes fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Zofia; Salbut, Leszek; Pakula, Anna; Sloma, Marcin; Wroblewski, Grzegorz; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2014-05-01

    Polymer substrates which are covered with a thin layer of graphene nanoplatelets or carbon nanotubes have a big potential for modern engineering, especially in organic electronics. The main advantage of those materials is transparency in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This property creates a possibility of using these materials to produce electrodes in flexible screens and light sources. It is necessary to know the transmission characteristics of these materials to assess their usefulness in optoelectronics. In the article authors present the results of the conducted research on the transmittance characteristics of different samples. The samples contained different deposited substances. They had various diameters of the graphene nanoplatelets, one group contained carbon nanotubes. Samples had 50 or 100 layers. The authors examine the influence of these parameters on ink transmittance and ink transmittance uniformity. These analyses are a base for future research on flexible carbon electrodes, especially for applying them in production of flexible organic displays and light sources.

  16. Removal of selected metals from drinking water using modified powdered block carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, V.; Sayeg, I. J.; Buchler, P. M.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents the possible alternative removal options for the development of safe drinking water supply in the trace elements affected areas. Arsenic and chromium are two of the most toxic pollutants, introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources and causes various adverse effects on living bodies. Performance of three filter bed method was evaluated in the laboratory. Experiments have been conducted to investigate the sorption of arsenic and chromium on carbon steel and removal of trace elements from drinking water with a household filtration process. The affinity of the arsenic and chromium species for Fe/Fe3C (iron/iron carbide) sites is the key factor controlling the removal of the elements. The method is based on the use of powdered block carbon (PBC), powder carbon steel and ball ceramic in the ion-sorption columns as a cleaning process. The PBC modified is a satisfactory and practical sorbent for trace elements (arsenite and chromate) dissolved in water.

  17. Preparation of carbon-11 labelled prazosin, a potent and selective. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenoreceptor antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrin, E.; Crouzel, C.; Luthra, S.K.; Pike, V.W.

    1988-02-01

    The ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoreceptor antagonist, Prazosin : 2-(4-(2-furoyl) piperazin-1-yl)-4-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, has been labelled with carbon-11 for in vivo studies of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoreceptors using positron emission tomography. The preparation of (2-/sup 11/C) furoyl chloride, from cyclotron-produced (/sup 11/C) carbon dioxide, and its reaction with the secondary amine, 2-(piperazin-1-yl)-4-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, provides a fast (35 min) route to carbon-11 labelled prazosin in high radiochemical yield (30-40%, decay-corrected) with high specific activity (26-37 GBq..mu..mol, 0.7-1.0 Ci..mu..mol).

  18. Hydrologic and Geochemical Evaluation of Aquifer Storage Recovery in the Santee Limestone/Black Mingo Aquifer, Charleston, South Carolina, 1998-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Parkhurst, David L.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Campbell, Bruce G.; Mirecki, June E.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrologic and geochemical effects of aquifer storage recovery were evaluated to determine the potential for supplying the city of Charleston, South Carolina, with large quantities of potable water during emergencies, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or hard freezes. An aquifer storage recovery system, including a production well and three observation wells, was installed at a site located on the Charleston peninsula. The focus of this study was the 23.2-meter thick Tertiary-age carbonate and sand aquifer of the Santee Limestone and the Black Mingo Group, the northernmost equivalent of the Floridan aquifer system. Four cycles of injection, storage, and recovery were conducted between October 1999 and February 2002. Each cycle consisted of injecting between 6.90 and 7.19 million liters of water for storage periods of 1, 3, or 6 months. The volume of recovered water that did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standard for chloride (250 milligrams per liter) varied from 1.48 to 2.46 million liters, which is equivalent to 21 and 34 percent of the total volume injected for the individual tests. Aquifer storage recovery testing occurred within two productive zones of the brackish Santee Limestone/Black Mingo aquifer. The individual productive zones were determined to be approximately 2 to 4 meters thick, based on borehole geophysical logs, electromagnetic flow-meter testing, and specific-conductance profiles collected within the observation wells. A transmissivity and storage coefficient of 37 meters squared per day and 3 x 10-5, respectively, were determined for the Santee Limestone/Black Mingo aquifer. Water-quality and sediment samples collected during this investigation documented baseline aquifer and injected water quality, aquifer matrix composition, and changes in injected/aquifer water quality during injection, storage, and recovery. A total of 193 water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for physical properties, major and

  19. Selective detection of acetone vapor using hydrophobized pillared carbon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yoshiaki; Araki, Masanobu

    2017-06-01

    Pillared carbon thin films were prepared from the thermal reduction of graphite oxide silylated with octyltrichlorosilane and then dimethyldichlorosilane. The interlayer spacing of the resulting pillared carbon thin film was 1.29 nm and it contained hydrophobic Si-CH3 groups, excluding Si-OH ones. The resistance of it increased during the exposure to acetone vapor, while it was unchanged when it was exposed to the water vapor. Moreover, in the presence of water vapor the resistance changed in a similar manner.

  20. Engineering Carbon-Based Porous Materials from Selected Precursors for High-Capacity CO2 Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, B

    2015-01-01

    The mitigation of climate change is one of the major global challenges in the 21st Century. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a promising technology to effectively reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the Earth’s atmosphere. There are various candidate materials for CO2 capture but each has its own advatanges and disadvantages. Carbon-based materials are of low-cost and have relatively high cyclicity for CO2 and its porous structure and surface functional groups can be tailored to improv...

  1. Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher

    2013-06-07

    The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

  2. Visible-light photoredox catalysis: selective reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by a nickel N-heterocyclic carbene-isoquinoline complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoi, V Sara; Kornienko, Nikolay; Margarit, Charles G; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher J

    2013-09-25

    The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene-amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni((Pr)bimiq1)](2+) (1c, where (Pr)bimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (E(cat) = -1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s(-1), respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

  3. The groundwater budget: A tool for preliminary estimation of the hydraulic connection between neighboring aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaroli, Stefano; Mastrorillo, Lucia; Lotti, Francesca; Paolucci, Vittorio; Mazza, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater management authorities usually use groundwater budget calculations to evaluate the sustainability of withdrawals for different purposes. The groundwater budget calculation does not always provide reliable information, and it must often be supported by further aquifer monitoring in the case of hydraulic connections between neighboring aquifers. The Riardo Plain aquifer is a strategic drinking resource for more than 100,000 people, water storage for 60 km2 of irrigated land, and the source of a mineral water bottling plant. Over a long period, the comparison between the direct recharge and the estimated natural outflow and withdrawals highlights a severe water deficit of approximately 40% of the total groundwater outflow. A groundwater budget deficit should be a clue to the aquifer depletion, but the results of long-term water level monitoring allowed the observation of the good condition of this aquifer. In fact, in the Riardo Plain, the calculated deficit is not comparable to the aquifer monitoring data acquired in the same period (1992-2014). The small oscillations of the groundwater level and the almost stable streambed spring discharge allows the presumption of an additional aquifer recharge source. The confined carbonate aquifer locally mixes with the above volcanic aquifer, providing an externally stable recharge that reduces the effects of the local rainfall variability. The combined approach of the groundwater budget results and long-term aquifer monitoring (spring discharge and/or hydraulic head oscillation) provides information about significant external groundwater exchanges, even if unidentified by field measurements, and supports the stakeholders in groundwater resource management.

  4. One-pot electrochemical synthesis of functionalized fluorescent carbon dots and their selective sensing for mercury ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuxin; Lu, Qiujun; Deng, Jianhui; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu

    2015-03-25

    We propose a simple, economical, and one-pot method to synthesize water-soluble functionalized fluorescent carbon dots (C-Dots) through electrochemical carbonization of sodium citrate and urea. The as-prepared C-Dots have good photostability and exhibit a high quantum yield of 11.9%. The sizes of the C-Dots are mainly distributed in the range of 1.0-3.5 nm with an average size of 2.4 nm. It has been further used as a novel label-free sensing probe for selective detection of Hg(2+) ions with detection limit as low as 3.3 nM. The detection linear range is 0.01-10 μM. The as-prepared C-Dots are also successfully applied for the determination of Hg(2+) in real water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluid phase equilibria of the reaction mixture during the selective hydrogenation of 2-butenal in dense carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musko, Nikolai; Jensen, Anker Degn; Baiker, Alfons

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the phase behaviour and composition is of paramount importance for understanding multiphase reactions. We have investigated the effect of the phase behaviour in the palladium-catalysed selective hydrogenation of 2-butenal to saturated butanal in dense carbon dioxide. The reactions were...... cell. The results of the catalytic experiments showed that small amounts of carbon dioxide added to the system significantly decrease the conversion, whereas at higher loadings of CO2 the reaction rate gradually increases reaching a maximum. The CPA calculations revealed that this maximum is achieved...... in the so-called “expanded liquid” region, which is located near the critical point of the reacting mixture. It was also found that in this point the hydrogen concentration achieved its maximum in the CO2-expanded phase. Furthermore, the pressure – temperature regions where the multicomponent reaction...

  6. High resolution X-ray absorption on metallicity selected C{sub 60} peapods, single-, and double walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramberger, Christian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ayala, Paola; Simon, Ferenc; Friedrich, Alexander; Liu, Xianjie; Pichler, Thomas [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Shiozawa, Hidetsugu [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Ruemmeli, Mark [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Miyata, Yasumitsu; Kataura, Hiromichi [Nanotechnology Research Institute, AIST, Tsukuba 305-8562 (Japan); Hoffmann, Patrick [BESSY, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12481 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    We have investigated the C1s core level X-ray absorption of bulk samples of C{sub 60}-peapods and double wall carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) derived from either metallic or semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The clear cut separation of the different species unveils their distinct electronic van Hove singularities (VHS). The core level spectra of peapods are a quantitative superpositon of the conduction band of nanotubes and unoccupied molecular orbitals of C{sub 60}. The outer shell metallicity selected DWNTs reveal changes in the {pi}* resonance due to the inner shell VHS. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Selective n,n-dimethylation of primary aromatic amines with methyl alkyl carbonates in the presence of phosphonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Maurizio; Perosa, Alvise; Tundo, Pietro; Brunelli, Davide

    2006-07-21

    In the presence of onium salts, at 140-170 degrees C, methyl alkyl carbonates [1a-c, ROCO2Me, R = MeO(CH2)2[O(CH2)2]n; n = 2-0, respectively] react with primary aromatic amines (XC6H4NH2, X= p-OMe, p-Me, H, p-Cl, p-CO2Me, o-Et, and 2,3-Me2C6H3NH2) to yield the corresponding N,N-dimethyl derivatives (ArNMe2) with high selectivity (up to 96%) and good isolated yields (78-95%). Phosphonium salts (e.g., Ph3PEtI and n-Bu4PBr) are particularly efficient catalysts. Overall, a solvent-free reaction is coupled with safe methylating agents (1a-c) made from nontoxic dimethyl carbonate.

  8. Correction: A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

    2016-12-22

    Correction for 'A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide' by Chee Koon Ng et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 11842-11845.

  9. Heavy metal retention and partitioning in a large-scale soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) system used for wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunye; Shacahr, Yiftach; Banin, Amos

    2004-12-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of wastewater relies on extensive biogeochemical processes in the soil and aquifer to achieve large-scale and economic reclamation of municipal effluents. Removal of trace metals from the wastewater is a prime objective in the operation, but the long-term sustainability of the adsorptive filtration capacity of the soils is an open question. Solid/solution partitioning (measured by the distribution coefficient, K(d)) and solid/solid partitioning (measured by selective sequential dissolution, SSD) of heavy metals were measured in soils sampled from active recharge basins in a wastewater reclamation plant and were compared to the adjacent pristine dune. K(d) values for the adsorption of Cu, Ni and Zn, measured in short-term adsorption experiments positively and significantly correlated with solution pH. Quantitative estimation of Cu, Ni and Zn adsorption on multi-sorbents indicated that surface adsorption and precipitation on Fe oxides and/or carbonate may be the major mechanisms of metal retention in these soils. SSD analyses of metal partitioning in soils exposed to approximately 20yr of effluent recharge showed that all solid-phase components, including the most stable 'residual' component, competed for and retained added Cu and Zn. Copper preferentially partitioned into the oxide component (32.0% of the soil-accumulated metal) while Zn preferentially partitioned into the carbonate component (51.6% of the soil-accumulated metal).

  10. Selective Wrapping and Supramolecular Structures of Polyfluorene-Carbon Nanotube Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Jia; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Figueiredo de Carvalho, Elton Jose; dos Santos, Maria Cristina

    We report on the photophysical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) suspensions In toluene solutions of poly[9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl](PFO). Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy in the near-infrared and visible spectral regions are used to study the

  11. Carbon storage and sequestration potential of selected tree species in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaul, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic growth model (CO2FIX) was used for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. f.), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Tereticornis Sm.), poplar (Populus Deltoides Marsh), and teak (Tectona Grandis Linn. f.) forests in India. The results indicate that long-term total

  12. Selecting Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Narrow Bandgap Naphthalene Diimide-Based Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Rios, Jorge Mario; Gomulya, Widianta; Derenskyi, Vladimir; Yang, Jie; Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    Noncovalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes by wrapping them using pi-conjugated polymers is one of the most promising techniques to sort, separate, and purify semiconducting nanotube species for applications in optoelectronic devices. However, wide energy bandgap polymers commonly used in

  13. Selective Uptake of Alkaline Earth Metals by Cyanobacteria Forming Intracellular Carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Nithavong; Benzerara, Karim; Georgelin, Thomas; Jaber, Maguy; Lambert, Jean-François; Poinsot, Mélanie; Skouri-Panet, Fériel; Cordier, Laure

    2016-11-01

    The uptakes of calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) by two cyanobacterial strains, Cyanothece sp. PCC7425 and Gloeomargarita lithophora, both forming intracellular carbonates, were investigated in laboratory cultures. In the culture medium BG-11 amended with 250 μM Ca and 50 or 250 μM Sr and Ba, G. lithophora accumulated first Ba, then Sr, and finally Ca. Sr and Ba were completely accumulated by G. lithophora cells at rates between 0.02 and 0.10 fmol h-1 cell-1 and down to extracellular concentrations below the detection limits of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Accumulation of Sr and Ba did not affect the growth rate of the strain. This sequential accumulation occurred mostly intracellularly within polyphosphate and carbonate granules and resulted in the formation of core-shell structures in carbonates. In contrast, Cyanothece sp. PCC7425 showed neither a preferential accumulation of heavier alkaline earth metals nor core-shell structures in the carbonates. This indicated that fractionation between alkaline earth metals was not inherent to intracellularly calcifying cyanobacteria but was likely a genetically based trait of G. lithophora. Overall, the capability of G. lithophora to sequester preferentially Sr and Ba at high rates may be of considerable interest for designing new remediation strategies and better understanding the geochemical cycles of these elements.

  14. Edge-functionalized nanoporous carbons for high adsorption capacity and selectivity of CO2 over N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sainan; Guo, Chen; Wu, Zhonghua; Wang, Maohuai; Wang, Zhaojie; Wei, Shuxian; Li, Shaoren; Lu, Xiaoqing

    2017-07-01

    Single-component adsorption and competitive behavior of binary CO2/N2 mixture in the edge-functionalized nanoporous carbons (NPCs) were investigated by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. Results demonstrated that edge-functionalization effectively improved the pore topology and morphological characteristics of NPCs. Evaluation of adsorption capacity and analyses of the isosteric heat and radial distribution functions confirmed that edge-functionalization can evidently enhance the single-component adsorption of CO2/N2. Temperature had a negative effect on the single-component adsorption of CO2/N2 whereas pressure had a positive effect before adsorption reaches a stable equilibrium state. Edge-functionalization can significantly increase the selectivity of CO2 over N2 in NPCs, which demonstrate the following sequence according to selectivity: NH2sbnd NPC > COOHsbnd NPC > OHsbnd NPC > Hsbnd NPC > NPC. The increased CO2 molar fraction in the binary CO2/N2 mixture decreased the selectivity and saturation pressure to reach a stable equilibrium state. Overall, this work highlighted the effects of edge-functionalization on the adsorption and separation of CO2/N2 in NPCs, and provided an effective strategy for designing and screening adsorbent materials for carbon capture and separation.

  15. Facile synthesis of titania nanoparticles coated carbon nanotubes for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides for mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yinghua; Lu, Jin; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2013-03-30

    In this work, titania nanoparticles coated carbon nanotubes (denoted as CNTs/TiO2 composites) were synthesized through a facile but effective solvothermal reaction using titanium isopropoxide as the titania source, isopropyl alcohol as the solvent and as the basic catalyst in the presence of hydrophilic carbon nanotubes. Characterizations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the CNTs/TiO2 composites consist of CNT core and a rough outer layer formed by titania nanoparticles (5-10nm). Measurements using wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD), zeta potential and N2 sorption reveal that the titania shell is formed by anatase titania nanoparticles, and the composites have a high specific surface area of about 104 m(2)/g. By using their high surface area and affinity to phosphopeptides, the CNTs/TiO2 composites were applied to selectively enrich phosphopeptides for mass spectrometry analysis. The high selectivity and capacity of the CNTs/TiO2 composites have been demonstrated by effective enrichment of phosphopeptides from digests of phosphoprotein, protein mixtures of β-casein and bovine serum albumin, human serum and rat brain samples. These results foresee a promising application of the novel CNTs/TiO2 composites in the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selectivity and limitations of carbon sorption tubes for capturing siloxanes in biogas during field sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Surita, Sharon C

    2016-06-01

    Siloxane levels in biogas can jeopardize the warranties of the engines used at the biogas to energy facilities. The chemical structure of siloxanes consists of silicon and oxygen atoms, alternating in position, with hydrocarbon groups attached to the silicon side chain. Siloxanes can be either in cyclic (D) or linear (L) configuration and referred with a letter corresponding to their structure followed by a number corresponding to the number of silicon atoms present. When siloxanes are burned, the hydrocarbon fraction is lost and silicon is converted to silicates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of activated carbon gas samplers for quantitative analysis of siloxanes in biogas samples. Biogas samples were collected from a landfill and an anaerobic digester using multiple carbon sorbent tubes assembled in series. One set of samples was collected for 30min (sampling 6-L gas), and the second set was collected for 60min (sampling 12-L gas). Carbon particles were thermally desorbed and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that biogas sampling using a single tube would not adequately capture octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). Even with 4 tubes were used in series, D5 was not captured effectively. The single sorbent tube sampling method was adequate only for capturing trimethylsilanol (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (L2). Affinity of siloxanes for activated carbon decreased with increasing molecular weight. Using multiple carbon sorbent tubes in series can be an appropriate method for developing a standard procedure for determining siloxane levels for low molecular weight siloxanes (up to D3). Appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures should be developed for adequately quantifying the levels of the higher molecular weight siloxanes in biogas with sorbent tubes

  17. Saturated thickness, High Plains aquifer, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer of the United States, 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  18. Efficiency of joint use of MRS and VES to characterize coastal aquifer in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J. M.; Chatenoux, B.; Mathieu, F.; Baltassat, J. M.; Legchenko, A.

    2007-02-01

    The productivity and the water quality of coastal aquifers can be highly heterogeneous in a complex environment. The characterization of these aquifers can be improved by hydrogeological and complementary geophysical surveys. Such an integrated approach is developed in a non-consolidated coastal aquifer in Myanmar (previously named Burma). A preliminary hydrogeological survey is conducted to know better the targeted aquifers. Then, 25 sites are selected to characterize aquifers through borehole drillings and pumping tests implementation. In the same sites, magnetic resonance soundings (MRS) and vertical electrical soundings (VES) are carried out. Geophysical results are compared to hydrogeological data, and geophysical parameters are used to characterize aquifers using conversion equations. Finally, combining the analysis of technical and economical impacts of geophysics, a methodology is proposed to characterize non-consolidated coastal aquifers. Depth and thickness of saturated zone is determined by means of MRS in 68% of the sites (evaluated with 34 soundings). The average accuracy of confined storativity estimated with MRS is ± 6% (evaluated over 7 pumping tests) whereas the average accuracy of transmissivity estimation with MRS is ± 45% (evaluated using 15 pumping tests). To reduce uncertainty in VES interpretation, the aquifer geometry estimated with MRS is used as a fixed parameter in VES inversion. The accuracy of groundwater electrical conductivity evaluation from 15 VES is enough to estimate the risk of water salinity. In addition, the maximum depth of penetration of the MRS depends on the rocks' electrical resistivity and is between 20 and 80 m at the study area.

  19. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  20. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    some monitoring wells, which have been related to anthropogenic activity. Vulnerability maps were produced using different parametric methods (e.g.: DRASTIC, GOD, DISCO, AVI), then the results are compared and assessed. Since each one of these methods use different number of parameters and weights, relatively different results were obtained, although the results have been evaluated with common cartographic inputs. The comparison between selected methods shows that the GOD method results are more correlated with the other methods and produces vulnerability maps comparable with them. Even though groundwater vulnerability is a critical issue around the world, no protection zones have been delineated in Guadalajara city, one of the biggest in Latin America. The groundwater contamination in the study area poses a serious risk for a large population and the environment. This work aims to propose an approach for groundwater protection cartography, based on the application and the comparison of results from different contamination vulnerability methods. These outcomes may assist water authorities to identify the higher vulnerable zones of the aquifers, in order to improving and adapting the land planning and management according to the protection of the own water resources.

  1. Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide. Capacity standards and site selection criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; Meer, B. van der; Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Vosgerau, H.; Willscher, B.; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Le Nindre, Y.M.; Kirk, K.; Dalwigk, I. von; Anthonsen, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    This document is deliverable D26 the work package of WP4 Capacity standards and site selection criteria in the EU GeoCapacity project and provide a summary of the work carried out in WP4.1 Site selection criteria and WP4.2 Storage Capacity Standards. The objective of WP4.1 is to produce a set of

  2. Carbon nano-fiber based membrane reactor for selective nitrite hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunet Espinosa, Roger; Rafieian, D.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of nitrite in drinking water demands control over the selectivity towards nitrogen, minimizing the formation of ammonia. This selectivity is strongly influenced by the H/N ratio of reaction intermediates at the catalyst surface. Therefore, we fabricated a membrane reactor

  3. Distribution of terminal electron-accepting processes in an aquifer having multiple contaminant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Bruce, B.W.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of electron acceptors, electron donors, and H2 in groundwater were measured to determine the distribution of terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) in an alluvial aquifer having multiple contaminant sources. Upgradient contaminant sources included two separate hydrocarbon point sources, one of which contained the fuel oxygenate methyl tertbutyl ether (MTBE). Infiltrating river water was a source of dissolved NO31 SO4 and organic carbon (DOC) to the downgradient part of the aquifer. Groundwater downgradient from the MTBE source had larger concentrations of electron acceptors (dissolved O2 and SO4) and smaller concentrations of TEAP end products (dissolved inorganic C, Fe2+ and CH4) than groundwater downgradient from the other hydrocarbon source, suggesting that MTBE was not as suitable for supporting TEAPs as the other hydrocarbons. Measurements of dissolved H2 indicated that SO4 reduction predominated in the aquifer during a period of high water levels in the aquifer and river. The predominant TEAP shifted to Fe3+ reduction in upgradient areas after water levels receded but remained SO4 reducing downgradient near the river. This distribution of TEAPs is the opposite of what is commonly observed in aquifers having a single contaminant point source and probably reflects the input of Dec and SO4 to the aquifer from the river. Results of this study indicate that the distribution of TEAPs in aquifers having multiple contaminant sources depends on the composition and location of the contaminants and on the availability of electron acceptors.

  4. Soil organic carbon loss and selective transportation under field simulated rainfall events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Nie

    Full Text Available The study on the lateral movement of soil organic carbon (SOC during soil erosion can improve the understanding of global carbon budget. Simulated rainfall experiments on small field plots were conducted to investigate the SOC lateral movement under different rainfall intensities and tillage practices. Two rainfall intensities (High intensity (HI and Low intensity (LI and two tillage practices (No tillage (NT and Conventional tillage (CT were maintained on three plots (2 m width × 5 m length: HI-NT, LI-NT and LI-CT. The rainfall lasted 60 minutes after the runoff generated, the sediment yield and runoff volume were measured and sampled at 6-min intervals. SOC concentration of sediment and runoff as well as the sediment particle size distribution were measured. The results showed that most of the eroded organic carbon (OC was lost in form of sediment-bound organic carbon in all events. The amount of lost SOC in LI-NT event was 12.76 times greater than that in LI-CT event, whereas this measure in HI-NT event was 3.25 times greater than that in LI-NT event. These results suggest that conventional tillage as well as lower rainfall intensity can reduce the amount of lost SOC during short-term soil erosion. Meanwhile, the eroded sediment in all events was enriched in OC, and higher enrichment ratio of OC (ERoc in sediment was observed in LI events than that in HI event, whereas similar ERoc curves were found in LI-CT and LI-NT events. Furthermore, significant correlations between ERoc and different size sediment particles were only observed in HI-NT event. This indicates that the enrichment of OC is dependent on the erosion process, and the specific enrichment mechanisms with respect to different erosion processes should be studied in future.

  5. Carbon Paste Macrocycle Doped Composite Electrodes for the Selective Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Gnahore, Gama Theophile

    2014-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) has shown to play a very important role in the functioning of the central nervous system. Thus, the determination of DA is of great importance in the fields of neurochemistry and biomedical chemistry. In this thesis, a number of carbon paste electrodes modified with macrocycles for the electrochemical detection of DA is reported. The different macrocycles employed were based on cyclodextrin derivatives and consist of sulfated β-CD (S-β-CD), carboxymethyl β-C...

  6. SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTION OF SURFACTANT FORMULATIONS FOR IOR FROM FRACTURED CARBONATE RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu; Seung Soon Jang

    2005-07-01

    This topical report presents details of the laboratory work performed to complete Task 1 of this project; developing rapid screening methods to assess surfactant performance for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The desired outcome is to identify surfactant formulations that increase the rate and amount of aqueous phase imbibition into oil-rich, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. Changing the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet is one key to enhancing this water-phase imbibition process that in turn recovers additional oil from the matrix portion of a carbonate reservoir. The common laboratory test to evaluate candidate surfactant formulations is to measure directly the aqueous imbibition rate and oil recovery from small outcrop or reservoir cores, but this procedure typically requires several weeks. Two methods are presented here for the rapid screening of candidate surfactant formulations for their potential IOR performance in carbonate reservoirs. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant performance reported in the literature.

  7. Oxidation resistance of selected mechanical carbons at 650 deg C in dry flowing air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. P.; Wisander, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Oxidation experiments were conducted with several experimental mechanical carbons at 650 C in air flowing at 28 cu cm/sec (STP). Experiments indicate that boron carbide addition and zinc phosphate treatment definitely improved oxidation resistance. Impregnation with coal tar pitch before final graphitization had some beneficial effect on oxidation resistance and it markedly improved flexure strength and hardness. Graphitization temperature alone did not affect oxidation resistance, but with enough added boron carbide the oxidation resistance was increased although the hardness greatly decreased.

  8. Decomposition and carbon storage of selected paper products in laboratory-scale landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: wangxiaoming_cqu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, National Center for International Research of Low-Carbon and Green Buildings, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); De la Cruz, Florentino B. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Ximenes, Fabiano [Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales (Australia); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the anaerobic biodegradation of different types of paper products in laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The study included (a) measurement of the loss of cellulose, hemicellulose, organic carbon, and (b) measurement of the methane yields for each paper product. The test materials included two samples each of newsprint (NP), copy paper (CP), and magazine paper (MG), and one sample of diaper (DP). The methane yields, carbon storage factors and the extent of cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition all consistently show that papers made from mechanical pulps (e.g., NPs) are less degradable than those made from chemical pulps where essentially all lignin was chemically removed (e.g., CPs). The diaper, which is not only made from chemical pulp but also contains some gel and plastic, exhibited limited biodegradability. The extent of biogenic carbon conversion varied from 21 to 96% among papers, which contrasts with the uniform assumption of 50% by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for all degradable materials discarded in landfills. Biochemical methane potential tests also showed that the solids to liquid ratio used in the test can influence the results. - Highlights: • Decomposition of major paper products measured under simulated landfill conditions • Varied decomposition behaviors across paper types governed by pulp types • A copy paper made from eucalyptus exhibited inhibited decomposition.

  9. Green Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots for Selective Detection of Tartrazine in Food Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Yang, Xiupei; Li, Gu; Zhao, Chuan; Liao, Xiangjun

    2015-08-05

    A simple, economical, and green method for the preparation of water-soluble, high-fluorescent carbon quantum dots (C-dots) has been developed via hydrothermal process using aloe as a carbon source. The synthesized C-dots were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence spectrophotometer, UV-vis absorption spectra as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results reveal that the as-prepared C-dots were spherical shape with an average diameter of 5 nm and emit bright yellow photoluminescence (PL) with a quantum yield of approximately 10.37%. The surface of the C-dots was rich in hydroxyl groups and presented various merits including high fluorescent quantum yield, excellent photostability, low toxicity and satisfactory solubility. Additionally, we found that one of the widely used synthetic food colorants, tartrazine, could result in a strong fluorescence quenching of the C-dots through a static quenching process. The decrease of fluorescence intensity made it possible to determine tartrazine in the linear range extending from 0.25 to 32.50 μM, This observation was further successfully applied for the determination of tartrazine in food samples collected from local markets, suggesting its great potential toward food routine analysis. Results from our study may shed light on the production of fluorescent and biocompatible nanocarbons due to our simple and environmental benign strategy to synthesize C-dots in which aloe was used as a carbon source.

  10. Adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound by granular activated carbon. 2. Model prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z.; Peldszus, S.; Huck, P.M. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). NSERC Chair in Water Treatment

    2009-03-01

    The adsorption of two representative pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) naproxen and carbamazepine and one endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) nonylphenol was studied in pilot-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorbers using post-sedimentation (PS) water from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. The GAC adsorbents were coal-based Calgon Filtrasorb 400 and coconut shell-based PICA CTIF TE. Acidic naproxen broke through fastest while nonylphenol was removed best, which was consistent with the degree to which fouling affected compound removals. Model predictions and experimental data were generally in good agreement for all three compounds, which demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of the pore and surface diffusion model (PSDM) used in combination with the time-variable parameter approach for predicting removals at environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., ng/L range). Sensitivity analyses suggested that accurate determination of film diffusion coefficients was critical for predicting breakthrough for naproxen and carbamazepine, in particular when high removals are targeted. Model simulations demonstrated that GAC carbon usage rates (CURs) for naproxen were substantially influenced by the empty bed contact time (EBCT) at the investigated conditions. Model-based comparisons between GAC CURs and minimum CURs for powdered activated carbon (PAC) applications suggested that PAC would be most appropriate for achieving 90% removal of naproxen, whereas GAC would be more suitable for nonylphenol. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Nitrogen doped carbon nanodots as fluorescent probes for selective detection and quantification of Ferric(III) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Suk-Fun; Tan, Shao-Chien; Pang, Suh-Cem; Ng, Sing-Muk

    2017-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) doped carbon dots (N-CDs) that showed blue fluorescence with quantum yield (QY) of 12.25% were synthesized by one step microwave irradiation of lysine in ortho-phosphoric acid at 1000 W for 5 min. The as-synthesized N-CDs were successfully explored as fluorescent probes for selective detection of ferric (Fe3+) ions in aqueous condition with a linear range from 0.2 to 5.0 mM and a detection limit of 0.074 mM ± 0.081 (S/N = 3). The N-CDs exhibited high selectivity towards the detection of Fe3+ ions even in the presence of interfering ions. The N-CDs also demonstrated the potential of practical application for determining of Fe3+ ions concentration in real samples with high recovery rate and low relative standard deviation error.

  12. One-step synthesis of photoluminescent carbon dots with excitation-independent emission for selective bioimaging and gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; Wang, Yang; Shen, Xiran; Su, Chunyan; Yang, Jinghua; Piao, Mingjun; Jia, Fei; Gao, Guanghui; Zhang, Long; Lin, Quan

    2017-04-15

    Photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots), as new members of the quantum sized carbon analogues have attracted significant attention due to their unique size, less toxicity, good compatibility and relatively easy surface modification. In this work, we report a simple, low-cost and one-step hydrothermal carbonization approach to synthesize the positively charged C-dots using PEI and FA. From the photoluminescence (PL) measurements, the as-prepared C-dots exhibit good stability and intense PL with the high quantum yield (QY) at Ca. 42%. Significantly, The as-prepared C-dots integrate the advantages of C-dots and PEI: the presence of C-dots can effectively decrease the cytotoxicity of PEI, the C-dots can be applied in biological system for selective imaging of folate receptor (FR)-positive cancerous cells from normal cells, while the cationic PEI with positive charges can make them link to plasmid DNA and efficiently transfect the therapeutic plasmid into cells. Therefore, the as-prepared with the facile synthesis method can be a promising photoluminescent probe for cancer diagnosis and gene therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of the possibility of using data mining methods to predict sorption isotherms of selected organic compounds on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbek, Lidia; Szeląg, Bartosz; Picheta-Oleś, Anna

    2017-11-01

    The paper analyses the use of four data mining methods (Support Vector Machines. Cascade Neural Networks. Random Forests and Boosted Trees) to predict sorption on activated carbons. The input data for statistical models included the activated carbon parameters, organic substances and equilibrium concentrations in the solution. The assessment of the predictive abilities of the developed models was made with the use of mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and root mean squared error (RMSE). The computations proved that methods of data mining considered in the study can be applied to predict sorption of selected organic compounds 011 activated carbon. The lowest values of sorption prediction errors were obtained with the Cascade Neural Networks method (MAE = 1.23 g/g; MAPE = 7.90% and RMSE = 1.81 g/g), while the highest error values were produced by the Boosted Trees method (MAE=14.31 g/g; MAPE = 39.43% and RMSE = 27.76 g/g).

  14. Monitoring technologies for the evaluation of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment system in coastal aquifer environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioras, Andreas; Tsertou, Athanasia; Foglia, Laura; Bumberger, Jan; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Schüth, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse. Treated sewage effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for recharge of aquifers. As the effluent water moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. Recharge systems for SAT can be designed as infiltration-recovery systems, where all effluent water is recovered as such from the aquifer, or after blending with native groundwater. SAT typically removes essentially all suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminthic eggs). Concentrations of synthetic organic carbon, phosphorous, and heavy metals are greatly reduced. The pilot site of LTCP will involve the employment of infiltration basins, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. T he LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved through the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensors, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors will be developed, in order to achieve

  15. Estimating aquifer properties from the water level response to Earth tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillo, Paula A; Bredehoeft, John D

    2011-01-01

    Water level fluctuations induced by tidal strains can be analyzed to estimate the elastic properties, porosity, and transmissivity of the surrounding aquifer material. We review underutilized methods for estimating aquifer properties from the confined response to earth tides. The earth tide analyses are applied to an open well penetrating a confined carbonate aquifer. The resulting range of elastic and hydraulic aquifer properties are in general agreement with that determined by other investigators for the area of the well. The analyses indicate that passive monitoring data from wells completed in sufficiently stiff, low porosity formations can provide useful information on the properties of the surrounding formation. Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  16. Synthesis and application of ion imprinting polymer coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for selective adsorption of nickel ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junnan; Shang, Hongzhou; Zhang, Xing; Sun, Xiaoran

    2018-01-01

    A novel nickel ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized inverse emulsion system, using chitosan(CS) and acrylic acid as the functional monomers, Ni (II) as the template, and N' N-methylene bis-acrylamide as the cross-linker. The chemical structure and morphological feature of the IIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The studies indicated that the gel layer was well grafted on the surface of MWCNTs. Studies on the adsorption ability of the IIPs, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, demonstrated that IIPs possessed excellent adsorption and selective ability towards Ni (II), fitting to pseudo second-order kinetic isotherms and with a maximum capacity of 19.86 mg/g, and selectivity factor of 13.09 and 4.42. The electrochemical performance of ion imprinting carbon paste electrode (CPE/IIPs) was characterized by Cyclic voltammetry (CV). Studies have shown that CPE/IIPs showed excellent electrochemical performance.

  17. Highly sensitive and selective sensor for sunset yellow based on molecularly imprinted polydopamine-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zheng-Zhi; Cheng, Shu-Wen; Xu, Li-Bin; Liu, Hong-Ying; Huang, Kai; Li, Lei; Zhai, Yun-Yun; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Hai-Qing; Shao, Yong; Zhang, Zu-Lei; Lu, Yi-Xia

    2018-02-15

    Polydopamine (PDA) can be formed by monomeric self-polymerization in water. This convenient behavior was exploited to prepare a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layer on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with sunset yellow (SY) as a template molecule. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized, and their electrochemical behavior towards SY was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a glassy carbon electrode modified with the imprinted nanocomposite showed a highly selective and ultrasensitive electrochemical response to SY compared with the performance of control electrodes and previously reported electrochemical sensors for SY. The improved behavior of the developed sensor can be attributed to its superficial highly matched imprinted cavities on the excellent electrocatalytic matrix of MWCNTs and the electronic barrier of the non-imprinted PDA to outside molecules. The fabricated sensor expressed a linear relationship to SY concentrations from 2.2nM to 4.64μM with a detection limit of 1.4nM (S/N = 3). The sensor also exhibited excellent selectivity for SY over its structural analogs, good stability, and adequate reproducibility. The prepared sensor was successfully used to detect SY in real spiked samples. This methodology has potential application value and may be readily adapted to design other PDA-based MIP sensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Oden, Timothy D.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    In the summers of 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, completed an initial reconnaissance-level survey of naturally occurring contaminants (arsenic, other selected trace elements, and radionuclides) in water from municipal supply wells in the Houston area. The purpose of this reconnaissance-level survey was to characterize source-water quality prior to drinking water treatment. Water-quality samples were collected from 28 municipal supply wells in the Houston area completed in the Evangeline aquifer, Chicot aquifer, or both. This initial survey is part of ongoing research to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of these constituents in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. Samples were analyzed for major ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bromide, chloride, fluoride, silica, and sulfate), selected chemically related properties (residue on evaporation [dissolved solids] and chemical oxygen demand), dissolved organic carbon, arsenic species (arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsinate [DMA], and monomethylarsonate [MMA]), other trace elements (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc), and selected radionuclides (gross alpha- and beta-particle activity [at 72 hours and 30 days], carbon-14, radium isotopes [radium-226 and radium-228], radon-222, tritium, and uranium). Field measurements were made of selected physicochemical (relating to both physical and chemical) properties (oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, specific conductance, water temperature, and alkalinity) and unfiltered sulfides. Dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand are presented but not discussed in the

  19. Selective Degradation of Organic Pollutants Using an Efficient Metal-Free Catalyst Derived from Carbonized Polypyrrole via Peroxymonosulfate Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peidong; Su, Hanrui; Chen, Zhenyu; Yu, Chunyang; Li, Qilin; Zhou, Baoxue; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Long, Mingce

    2017-10-03

    Metal-free carbonaceous materials, including nitrogen-doped graphene and carbon nanotubes, are emerging as alternative catalysts for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation to avoid drawbacks of conventional transition metal-containing catalysts, such as the leaching of toxic metal ions. However, these novel carbocatalysts face relatively high cost and complex syntheses, and their activation mechanisms have not been well-understood. Herein, we developed a novel nitrogen-doped carbonaceous nanosphere catalyst by carbonization of polypyrrole, which was prepared through a scalable chemical oxidative polymerization. The defective degree of carbon substrate and amount of nitrogen dopants (i.e., graphitic nitrogen) were modulated by the calcination temperature. The product carbonized at 800 °C (CPPy-F-8) exhibited the best catalytic performance for PMS activation, with 97% phenol degradation efficiency in 120 min. The catalytic system was efficient over a wide pH range (2-9), and the reaction of phenol degradation had a relatively low activation energy (18.4 ± 2.7 kJ mol(-1)). The nitrogen-doped carbocatalyst activated PMS through a nonradical pathway. A two-step catalytic mechanism was extrapolated: the catalyst transfers electrons to PMS through active nitrogen species and becomes a metastable state of the catalyst (State I); next, organic substrates are oxidized and degraded by serving as electron donors to reduce State I. The catalytic process was selective toward degradation of various aromatic compounds with different substituents, probably depending on the oxidation state of State I and the ionization potential (IP) of the organics; that is, only those organics with an IP value lower than ca. 9.0 eV can be oxidized in the CPPy-F-8/PMS system.

  20. The leaky aquifer function revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis papers discusses the leaky aquifer function considered in a recent paper by Frank Harris in the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics (2008). We describe properties of an integral representing this function and give details on how to compute this function with a single

  1. Hydrogeologic framework and geochemistry of the Edwards aquifer saline-water zone, south-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschen, George E.; Buszka, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer supplies drinking water for more than 1 million people in south-central Texas. The saline-water zone of the Edwards aquifer extends from the downdip limit of freshwater to the southern and eastern edge of the Stuart City Formation. Water samples from 16 wells in the Edwards aquifer saline-water zone were collected during July–September 1990 and analyzed for major and minor dissolved constituents, selected stable isotopes, and radioisotopes. These data, supplemental data from an extensive water-quality data base, and data from other previous studies were interpreted to clarify the understanding of the saline-waterzone geochemistry.

  2. Degradation of herbicides in shallow Danish aquifers - an integrated laboratory and field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Mills, M.; Aamand, J.

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of pesticides in aquifers has been evaluated based on a number of co-ordinated field and laboratory studies carried out in Danish aquifers. These studies included investigations of vertical and horizontal variability in degradation rates from the vadose zone to an aquifer, the effects...... of aerobic versus anaerobic conditions, and the importance of concentration on degradation kinetics for a selected range of herbicides. The studies were based on different experimental approaches ranging from simple batch experiments to column studies to field injection experiments and, where appropriate...

  3. Selective optical switching of interface-coupled relaxation dynamics in carbon nanotube-Si heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Ponzoni, Stefano

    2014-10-16

    By properly tuning the photon energy of a femtosecond laser pump, we disentangle, in carbon nanotube-Si (CNT/Si) heterojunctions, the fast relaxation dynamics occurring in CNT from the slow repopulation dynamics due to hole charge transfer at the junction. In this way we are able to track the transfer of the photogenerated holes from the Si depletion layer to the CNT layer, under the action of the built-in heterojunction potential. This also clarifies that CNT play an active role in the junction and do not act only as channels for charge collection and transport.

  4. Transient bacterial contamination of the dual-porosity aquifer at Walkerton, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Stephen R. H.; Smart, C. Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer at Walkerton (Ontario, Canada) by pathogenic bacteria following heavy rain in May 2000 resulted in 2,300 illnesses and seven deaths. Subsequent tracer testing showed that there was rapid groundwater flow in the aquifer, and also rapid exchange between the aquifer and the ground surface. Electrical conductivity (EC) profiling during a 3-day pumping test showed that most flow was through bedding-plane fractures spaced about 10 m apart, that there were substantial contrasts in EC in the major fracture flows, and that there were rapid changes over time. Total coliform sampling revealed transient groundwater contamination, particularly after heavy rain and lasting up to a few days. These characteristics can be understood in terms of the dual-porosity nature of the aquifer. Most of the storage is in the matrix, but this can be considered to be static in the short term. Almost all transport is through the fracture network, which has rapid groundwater flow (˜100 m/day) and rapid transmission of pressure pulses due to the high hydraulic diffusivity. Rapid recharge can occur through thin and/or fractured overburden and at spring sites where flow is reversed by pumping during episodes of surface flooding. These characteristics facilitated the ingress of surface-derived bacteria into the aquifer, and their rapid transport within the aquifer to pumping wells. Bacterial presence is common in carbonate aquifers, and this can be explained by the well-connected, large-aperture fracture networks in these dual-porosity aquifers, even though many, such as at Walkerton, lack karst landforms.

  5. Metabolic Engineering to Develop a Pathway for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Nitrogen Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a biochemical pathway for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. Specifically a novel biochemical pathway will be developed for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in carbazole. The cleavage of the first C-N bond in carbazole is accomplished by the enzyme carbazole dioxygenase, that catalyzes the conversion of carbazole to 2-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol. The genes encoding carbazole dioxygenase were cloned from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 and from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10. The selective cleavage of the second C-N bond has been challenging, and efforts to overcome that challenge have been the focus of recent research in this project. Enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating bacterial cultures that can metabolize 2-aminobiphenyl, but no enzyme capable of selectively cleaving the C-N bond in 2-aminobiphenyl has been identified. Aniline is very similar to the structure of 2-aminobiphenyl and aniline dioxygenase catalyzes the conversion of aniline to catechol and ammonia. For the remainder of the project the emphasis of research will be to simultaneously express the genes for carbazole dioxygenase and for aniline dioxygenase in the same bacterial host and then to select for derivative cultures capable of using carbazole as the sole source of nitrogen.

  6. Quantification of the reactions in heat storage systems in the Malm aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Baumann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Combined heat and power plants (CHP) are efficient and environmentally friendly because excess heat produced during power generation is used for heating purposes. While the power demand remains rather constant throughout the year, the heat demand shows seasonal variations. In a worst-case scenario, the heat production in winter is not sufficient, and the power production in summer has to be ramped down because the excess heat cannot be released to the environment. Therefore, storage of excess heat of CHP is highly beneficial from an economic and an ecological point of view. Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is considered as a promising technology for energy storage. In a typical setting, water from an aquifer is produced, heated up by excess heat from the CHP and injected through a second borehole back into the aquifer. The carbonate rocks of the upper Jurrasic in the Molasse Basin seem to be promising sites for aquifer heat storage because of their high transmissivity combined with a typical geological setting with tight caprock. However, reactions in the aquifer cannot be neglected and may become the limiting process of the whole operation. While there have been several studies performed in clastic aquifers and for temperatures below 100°C, the knowledge about high injection temperatures and storage into a carbonatic aquifer matrix is still limited. Within a research project funded by the Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs and the BMW Group, the storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the Bavarian Malm aquifer with flow rates of 15 L/s and temperatures of up to 110°C was investigated. The addition of {CO_2} was used to prevent precipitations. Data from the field site was backed up by autoclave experiments and used to verify a conceptional hydrogeochemical model with PhreeqC for the heat storage operation. The model allows to parametrize the operation and to predict possible reactions in the aquifer.

  7. Development of Prototype Laboratory Setup for Selective Detection of Ethylene Based on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kathirvelan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a prototype laboratory setup for detecting ethylene (C2H4 in ppm level employing a sensor made of multiwalled carbon nanotubes of 40 nm average tube diameter. The proposed reversible chemoresistive ethylene sensor is fabricated using Kapton as the substrate onto which carbon nanotubes are coated using thick film technology. IDT silver electrodes are printed using piezo head based ink-jet printing technology. The increases in electrical resistance of the sensor element are measured on exposure to ethylene for different ethylene concentrations using a potentiostat and data acquisition system. The increase in resistance of the calibrated sensor element on exposure to ethylene (analyte is about 18.4% at room temperature for 50 ppm ethylene concentration. This change is reversible. Our sensor element exhibits a better performance than those reported earlier (1.8% and it has got the rise and fall time of 10 s and 60 s, respectively. It could be used for testing the ripening of fruits.

  8. Colloidal stability and ecotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Influence of select organic matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Uranga, Nerea; Mendoza, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the release of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into the environment has raised serious concerns regarding their fate and potential impacts. Aquatic organisms constitute an important pathway for their entrance and transfer throughout the food web, and the current demand for standardization of methodologies to analyze the interactions of MWCNTs with them requires aquatic media that represent natural systems. However, the inherent hydrophobicity of MWCNTs and the substances present in natural waters may greatly affect their stability and bioavailability. The present study analyzes the influence of the most referenced synthetic and natural organic matters (Sigma-Aldrich humic acid and Suwannee River natural organic matter) in the agglomeration kinetics and ecotoxicity of MWCNTs, with the aim of determining their suitability to fulfill the current standardization requirements. Natural organic matter provides increased colloidal stability to the MWCNTs' dispersions, which results in higher adverse effects on the key invertebrate organism Daphnia magna. Furthermore, the results obtained with this type of organic matter allow for observation of the important role of the outer diameter and content impurities of MWCNTs in their stability and ecotoxicity on daphnids. Sigma-Aldrich humic acid appeared to alter the response of the organisms to carbon nanotubes compared with that observed in the presence of natural organic matter. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Synthesis of novel nitrogen-doped carbon dots for highly selective detection of iron ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pengfei; Yao, Yixin; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Jin; Pang, Zengyuan; Ao, Kelong; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu

    2017-04-01

    Herein, we report an eco-friendly and simple fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dot (N-CQD) biosensor which was synthesized via a hydrothermal method using erhanediamine (EDA) and citric acid (CA) as precursors. The surface functionalization of N-CQDs exhibited a bright blue emission under the excitation wavelength of 350 nm. The obtained N-CQDs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the surface of the CQDs was successfully functionalized. After that, as-prepared N-CQDs were further applied in Fe(III) detection. Spectroscopic data indicated that fluorescent carbon-based nanomaterials displayed a sensitive response to Fe3+ in the range of 0.5-1000 μM as a fluorescence sensor in real environmental samples. Furthermore, the results also showed that a novel N-CQD nanomaterial could be employed as an ideal fluorescent Fe(III) probe.

  10. Corrigenda: Epigean and hypogean Palaemonetes sp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Edwards Aquifer: An examination of trophic structure and metabolism. Subterranean Biology 14: 79–102.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Bishop

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the causes of the metabolic depression observed when examining the metabolism of hypogean versus epigean organisms. We examined the two current hypotheses regarding the cause of metabolic cave adaptation, a paucity of food and low oxygen availability, both necessary for ATP production, by first determining if the hypogean environment examined, Edwards Aquifer, was resource limited. Stable isotope analyses indicate that there is extensive microbial chemolithoautotrophic production providing resources for the hypogean organisms. δ13C values ( ≤30‰ were well below that of terrestrial biome indicating that C in the aquifer originates from chemolithoautotrophic inorganic carbon fixation, not photosynthetically derived material resulting from terrigenous sources. Data suggest the artesian system is a complex geochemical ecosystem providing inorganic energy sources from both methane and sulfates. Metabolism, examined via key aerobic and anaerobic proxies, and organismal proximate composition indicated there was no difference between metabolic rates and energy storage of Palaemonetes antrorum (stygobitic and Palaemonetes kadiakensis (epigean. This indicates that resources within the oxic aquifer are not limited. We demonstrate that it is necessary for one, or both, of these selective pressures to be present for metabolic cave adaptation to occur.

  11. Biological transformation of phenols in a sandstone aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, M.; Arvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Ammonia liquor with very high concentrations of phenols is known to have leaked into the subsurface at a former coal carbonization plant in the UK. High concentrations of ammonium has been encountered in the groundwater reservoir at the site. In spite of this no significant concentrations...... of phenols are found in the groundwater. In this study the potential for transformation of the phenols in the sandstone aquifer at the site under aerobic, nitrate enriched and ''unaltered'' (limited nitrate available, ironoxides and sulphate available) is investigated in laboratory microcosms. Preliminary...... results reveal complete transformation of phenol, cresols and 3,4-xylenol under all 3 conditions and of 2,5-xylenol under aerobic conditions and 3,5-xylenol under anoxic conditions. The potential for natural attenuation of the phenols in this aquifer appear very promising....

  12. Selective removal of dibenzothiophene from commercial diesel using manganese dioxide-modified activated carbon: a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieh, Kayed A Abu; Al-Degs, Yahya S; Sunjuk, Mahmoud S; Saleh, Abdullah I; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    With a total concentration of 7055 mgS/kgfuel, the content of organosulphur compounds (OSCs) in local diesel is 20 times higher than the regulated value. Analysis revealed that 30% of OSC is originated from dibenzothiophene (DBT). It is known that DBT is a hardly removable compound and selective adsorbents are often needed for its removal with low affinity for other diesel components. In this work, a selective adsorbent based on surface modification of activated carbon (AC) by MnO2 is prepared for DBT removal from diesel. The porous nature of AC enabled carrying large amounts of MnO2 particles to end up with a selective adsorber for DBT. The best performance was observed at a surface loading of 26.8% of Mn and DBT is favourably removed over mono- and diaromatics hydrocarbons in diesel. Adsorption kinetics of DBT is studied under a high initial concentration of 835-11,890 mg/kg and at a ratio of 11 cm3/g (diesel:carbon). The results indicated a fast removal process after surface modification where 96% of the surface is occupied within 30 min of interaction. Kinetic data were best presented by reaction-based models with low prediction error sum of squares values 0.5-47.0, while, diffusion-based models showed limited application for modelling DBT adsorption. Accordingly, adsorption process is controlled by surface reactions and pore diffusion has a minor role in the overall process. The modified adsorbent is satisfactorily regenerated using n-hexane at 65°C.

  13. A new mechanism for selective adsorption of rubber on carbon black surface caused by nano-confinement in SBR/NBR solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Masayuki

    A novel mechanism of selective adsorption of rubber molecules onto carbon black surface in a binary immiscible rubber blend solution has been proposed in this dissertation. The phenomenon leads to uneven distribution of carbon black to the specific polymer in the blend and the obtained electrically conductive composite showed drastic reduction of percolation threshold concentration (PTC). The mechanism and the feature of conductive network formation have much potential concerning both fundamental understanding and industrial application to improve conductive polymer composites. In chapter I, carbon black filled conductive polymer composites are briefly reviewed. Then, in chapter II, a mechanism of rubber molecular confinement into carbon black aggregate structure is introduced to explain the selective adsorption of a specific rubber onto carbon black surface in an immiscible rubber solution blend (styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) with toluene or chloroform). Next, in chapters III and IV, polymers with various radius of gyration (Rg) and carbon blacks with various aggregate structure are examined to verify the selective adsorption mechanism. Finally, in chapter V, the novel mechanism was applied to create unique meso-/micro-unit conductive network in carbon black dispersed SBR/NBR composites.

  14. 3-D growth patterns of tress: effects of carbon economy, meristem activity, and selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterck, F.J.; Schieving, F.

    2007-01-01

    A functional¿structural plant growth model was used to explore how selection might influence the ontogenetic patterns in three-dimensional (3-D) growth of trees. The 3-D plant structure is defined by the orientation of metamers. The dynamics in the 3-D plant structure depend on the production of

  15. Phosphate tuned copper electrodeposition and promoted formic acid selectivity for carbon dioxide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jian; Sun, Libo; Canepa, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    (II) concentration and the electrodeposition current at identical applied potentials. We also found that the electrodeposition of Cu in the presence of phosphate generates Cu-oxyo/hydroxyo-phosphate species on the deposited copper surface. The modified electrodes with phosphate species exhibit higher selectivity...

  16. A Selective Metasurface Absorber with An Amorphous Carbon Interlayer for Solar Thermal Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Chenglong; Nunez-Sanchez, S; Chen, Lifeng; Lopez-Garcia, M; Pugh, J; Zhu, Bofeng; Selvaraj, P; Mallick, T; Senthilarasu, S; Cryan, M J

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents fabrication, measurement and modelling results for a metal-dielectric-metal metasurface absorber for solar thermal applications. The structure uses amorphous carbon as an inter-layer between thin gold films with the upper film patterned with a 2D periodic array using focused ion beam etching. The patterned has been optimised to give high absorptance from 400-1200nm and low absorptance above this wavelength range to minimise thermal radiation and hence obtain higher temperature performance. Wide angle absorptance results are shown and detailed modelling of a realistic nanostructured upper layer results in excellent agreement between measured and modelled results. The use of gold in this paper is a first step towards a high temperature metasurface where gold can be replaced by other refractory metals such as tungsten or chrome.

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymer/graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode for selective detection of sulfanilamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensitive electrochemical sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP and grapheme oxide (GO was developed. The MIP/GO material was prepared by precipitation polymerization in the presence of sulfanilamide as template molecule. The MIP/GO based electrochemical sensor was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and square wave voltammetry (SWV. The results indicated that the sensor exhibited good affinity and excellent electrochemical response for sulfanilamide. Under optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current intensity of sulfanilamide showed two linear dynamic ranges from 10 to 1000 ng mL−1, and the standard deviation was less than 5% using SWV method. The sensor displays good stability, reproducibility, and high sensitivity. It can be further applied to quantify sulfanilamide in milk.

  18. Selective sensing of ethylene and glucose using carbon-nanotube-based sensors: An ab initio investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes have great potential for nanoscale sensing applications, yet many aspects of their sensing mechanisms are not understood. We investigate two paradigmatic sensor configurations for detection of biologically important molecules through ab initio calculations: a non-covalently functionalized nanotube for glucose detection and a covalently functionalized nanotube for ethylene detection. Despite of their structural and chemical simplicities, glucose and ethylene control key life processes of humans and plants, respectively. We evaluate the sensors' electrical conductance and transmission coefficients at the full density-functional theory level via the non-equilibrium Green's function method. A clear atomistic picture emerges about the mechanisms involved in glucose and ethylene sensing. While functionalized semiconducting nanotubes exhibit good sensitivities in both cases, the current through metallic nanotubes is only weakly affected by analyte attachment. We also investigate the effects of band gaps of the nanotubes and changes to the receptors on the detection sensitivities. These quantitative results can guide the design of improved sensors.

  19. Suitability of selected free-gas and dissolved-gas sampling containers for carbon isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, P; Gibson, J J; Yi, Y

    2015-07-15

    Storage trials were conducted for 2 to 3 months using a hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide gas mixture with known carbon isotopic composition to simulate typical hold times for gas samples prior to isotopic analysis. A range of containers (both pierced and unpierced) was periodically sampled to test for δ(13)C isotopic fractionation. Seventeen containers were tested for free-gas storage (20°C, 1 atm pressure) and 7 containers were tested for dissolved-gas storage, the latter prepared by bubbling free gas through tap water until saturated (20°C, 1 atm) and then preserved to avoid biological activity by acidifying to pH 2 with phosphoric acid and stored in the dark at 5°C. Samples were extracted using valves or by piercing septa, and then introduced into an isotope ratio mass spectrometer for compound-specific δ(13)C measurements. For free gas, stainless steel canisters and crimp-top glass serum bottles with butyl septa were most effective at preventing isotopic fractionation (pierced and unpierced), whereas silicone and PTFE-butyl septa allowed significant isotopic fractionation. FlexFoil and Tedlar bags were found to be effective only for storage of up to 1 month. For dissolved gas, crimp-top glass serum bottles with butyl septa were again effective, whereas silicone and PTFE-butyl were not. FlexFoil bags were reliable for up to 2 months. Our results suggest a range of preferred containers as well as several that did not perform very well for isotopic analysis. Overall, the results help establish better QA/QC procedures to avoid isotopic fractionation when storing environmental gas samples. Recommended containers for air transportation include steel canisters and glass serum bottles with butyl septa (pierced and unpierced). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Combustion characteristics of water-insoluble elemental and organic carbon in size selected ambient aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wittmaack

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC contained in ambient aerosol matter was explored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM in combination with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. To ease identification of the particles of interest and to avoid or at least reduce interaction with simultaneously sampled inorganic oxides and salts, the approach used in this work differed in two ways from commonly applied procedures. First, rather than using a mixture of particles of vastly different sizes, as in PM10 or PM2.5, aerosol matter was collected in a 5-stage impactor. Second, the water soluble fraction of the collected matter was removed prior to analysis. Diesel soot particles, which appeared in the well-known form of chain-type aggregates, constituted the major fraction of EC. In contrast, OC containing particles were observed in a variety of shapes, including a sizable amount of bioaerosol matter appearing mostly in the size range above about 1 µm. During heating in ambient air for 1h, diesel soot particles were found to be stable up to 470°C, but complete combustion occurred in a narrow temperature interval between about 480 and 510°C. After diesel soot combustion, minute quantities of 'ash' were observed in the form of aggregated tiny particles with sizes less than 10 nm. These particles could be due to elemental or oxidic contaminants of diesel soot. Combustion of OC was observed over a wide range of temperatures, from well below 200°C to at least 500°C. Incompletely burnt bioaerosol matter was still found after heating to 600°C. The results imply that the EC fraction in aerosol matter can be overestimated significantly if the contribution of OC to a thermogram is not well separated.

  1. Classification of aquifer vulnerability using K-means cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, S.; Hashemy, S. M.; Mohammadi, K.; Howard, K. W. F.; Neshat, A.

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking and agricultural water in arid and semi-arid regions but is becoming increasingly threatened by contamination. Vulnerability mapping has been used for many years as an effective tool for assessing the potential for aquifer pollution and the most common method of intrinsic vulnerability assessment is DRASTIC (Depth to water table, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone and hydraulic Conductivity). An underlying problem with the DRASTIC approach relates to the subjectivity involved in selecting relative weightings for each of the DRASTIC factors and assigning rating values to ranges or media types within each factor. In this study, a clustering technique is introduced that removes some of the subjectivity associated with the indexing method. It creates a vulnerability map that does not rely on fixed weights and ratings and, thereby provides a more objective representation of the system's physical characteristics. This methodology was applied to an aquifer in Iran and compared with the standard DRASTIC approach using the water quality parameters nitrate, chloride and total dissolved solids (TDS) as surrogate indicators of aquifer vulnerability. The proposed method required only four of DRASTIC's seven factors - depth to groundwater, hydraulic conductivity, recharge value and the nature of the vadose zone, to produce a superior result. For nitrate, chloride, and TDS, respectively, the clustering approach delivered Pearson correlation coefficients that were 15, 22 and 5 percentage points higher than those obtained for the DRASTIC method.

  2. Scalable and effective enrichment of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes by a dual selective naphthalene-based azo dispersant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundramoorthy, Ashok Kumar; Mesgari, Sara; Wang, Jing; Kumar, Raj; Sk, Mahasin Alam; Yeap, Siew Hooi; Zhang, Qing; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lim, Kok Hwa; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2013-04-17

    Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) have emerged as a promising class of electronic materials, but the metallic (m)-SWNTs present in all as-synthesized nanotube samples must be removed for many applications. A high selectivity and high yield separation method has remained elusive. A separation process based on selective chemistry appears to be an attractive route since it is usually relatively simple, but more effective chemicals are needed. Here we demonstrate the first example of a new class of dual selective compounds based on polycyclic aromatic azo compounds, specifically Direct Blue 71 (I), for high-purity separation of s-SWNTs at high yield. Highly enriched (~93% purity) s-SWNTs are produced through the simple process of standing arc-discharge SWNTs with I followed by centrifugation. The s-SWNTs total yield is up to 41%, the highest yet reported for a solution-based separation technique that demonstrates applicability in actual transistors. 91% of transistor devices fabricated with these s-SWNTs exhibited on/off ratios of 10(3) to 10(5) with the best devices showing mobility as high as 21.8 cm(2)/V s with on/off ratio of 10(4). Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic shifts and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) show that I preferentially complexes with s-SWNTs and preferentially suspends them. Preferential reaction of naphthyl radicals (generated from I with ultrasonication) with m-SWNTs is confirmed by changes in the D-band in the Raman spectroscopy, matrix-assisted desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and molecular simulation results. The high selectivity of I stems from its unique dual action as both a selective dispersion agent and the generator of radicals which preferentially attack unwanted metallic species.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Methanol over Size-Selected Cu4 Clusters at Low Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Bing; Tyo, Eric; Seifert, Soenke; DeBartolo, Janae; von Issendorff, Bernd; Zapol, Peter; Vajda, Stefan; Curtiss, Larry A

    2015-07-15

    The activation of CO2 and its hydrogenation to methanol are of much interest as a way to utilize captured CO2. Here, we investigate the use of size-selected Cu4 clusters supported on Al2O3 thin films for CO2 reduction in the presence of hydrogen. The catalytic activity was measured under near-atmospheric reaction conditions with a low CO2 partial pressure, and the oxidation state of the clusters was investigated by in situ grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results indicate that size-selected Cu4 clusters are the most active low-pressure catalyst for catalytic CO2 conversion to CH3OH. Density functional theory calculations reveal that Cu4 clusters have a low activation barrier for conversion of CO2 to CH3OH. This study suggests that small Cu clusters may be excellent and efficient catalysts for the recycling of released CO2.

  4. Selective D2 adsorption enhanced by the quantum sieving effect on entangled single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Hideki; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Kagita, Hirotoshi; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroaki; Urita, Koki; Utsumi, Shigenori; Wang, Zheng-Ming; Ohba, Tomonori; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Hata, Kenji; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2010-08-25

    The quantum sieving effect of D(2) over H(2) is examined at 40 and 77 K by means of experiments and GCMC simulations, for two types of single-wall carbon nanotubes that are distinguishable by their unique entangled structures; (1) a well-bundled SWCNT and (2) loosely-assembled SWCNT produced by the super growth method (SG-SWCNT). Oxidized SWCNT samples of which the so-called internal sites are accessible for H(2) and D(2), are also studied. Experimental H(2) and D(2) adsorption properties on the well-bundled SWCNTs are compared with the simulated ones, revealing that pore-blocking and restricted diffusion of the molecules suppress the high selectivity of D(2) over H(2). The non-oxidized SG-SWCNT assembly shows the highest selectivity among the SWCNT samples, both at 40 and 77 K. The high selectivity of the SG-SWCNT assembly, which is pronounced even at 77 K, is ascribed to their unique assembly structure.

  5. Tuning of Silver Catalyst Mesostructure Promotes Selective Carbon Dioxide Conversion into Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Youngmin; Hall, Anthony Shoji; Surendranath, Yogesh

    2016-12-05

    An electrode's performance for catalytic CO2 conversion to fuels is a complex convolution of surface structure and transport effects. Using well-defined mesostructured silver inverse opal (Ag-IO) electrodes, it is demonstrated that mesostructure-induced transport limitations alone serve to increase the turnover frequency for CO2 activation per unit area, while simultaneously improving reaction selectivity. The specific activity for catalyzed CO evolution systematically rises by three-fold and the specific activity for catalyzed H2 evolution systematically declines by ten-fold with increasing mesostructural roughness of Ag-IOs. By exploiting the compounding influence of both of these effects, we demonstrate that mesostructure, rather than surface structure, can be used to tune CO evolution selectivity from less than 5 % to more than 80 %. These results establish electrode mesostructuring as a powerful complementary tool for tuning both catalyst selectivity and efficiency for CO2 conversion into fuels. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane III

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project will focus on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate amidase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative CN bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. The project is on schedule and no major difficulties have been encountered. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments have resulted in the isolation of promising cultures that may be capable of cleaving C-N bonds in aromatic amides, several amidase genes have been cloned and are currently undergoing directed evolution to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. Future research will address expression of these genes in Rhodococcus erythropolis. Enrichment culture experiments and directed evolution experiments continue to be a main focus of research activity and further work is required to obtain an appropriate amidase that will selectively cleave C-N bonds in aromatic substrates. Once an appropriate amidase gene is obtained it must be combined with genes encoding an enzyme capable of converting carbazole to 2'aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol: specifically carA genes. The carA genes from two sources have been cloned and are ready for construction of C-N bond cleavage

  7. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project was focused on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate deaminase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative C-N bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments resulted in the isolation of microbial cultures that utilize aromatic amides as sole nitrogen sources, several amidase genes were cloned and were included in directed evolution experiments to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. During the second year of the project (October, 2003-September, 2004) enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating a mixed bacterial culture that can utilize 2-aminobiphenyl as a sole nitrogen source, directed evolution experiments were focused on the aniline dioxygenase enzyme that is capable of deaminating aniline, and expression vectors were constructed to enable the expression of genes encoding C-N bond cleaving enzymes in Rhodococcus hosts. The construction of a new metabolic pathway to selectively remove nitrogen from carbazole and other molecules typically found in petroleum should lead to the development of a process to improve oil refinery efficiency by reducing the

  8. Diffusive leakage of brine from aquifers during CO2 geological storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejam, Morteza; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    The area of investigation in this study is designed around an improved understanding of fundamentals of the diffusive leakage of brine from a storage aquifer into overlying and underlying low permeability layers during geosequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) through development of a theoretical model. Here, we consider a two-dimensional domain in cylindrical coordinates, comprised of an aquifer and an overburden, where the interaction between the two media is handled by imposing the continuities of pressures and fluid fluxes at the aquifer-overburden interface. This coupled problem is solved by successive implementation of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. The developed solutions can be used to analyze diffusive leakage of brine from the aquifer into overburden and generate type curves for average pressures in the aquifer and overburden during injection and post injection periods. The results show that the leakage rate at early times is scaled with t1/2 while it remains constant at late times. It is also shown that the average pressure in the aquifer is scaled with t for short and long times. Moreover, the average pressure in the overburden is scaled with t at late times while it is scaled with t3/2 at early times. In addition, the results reveal that factors affecting diffusive leakage rate through intact overburden during CO2 storage are, in decreasing order of significance, thickness of overburden, thickness of aquifer, aquifer to overburden permeability ratio, and aquifer to overburden porosity ratio. However, thickness of aquifer has minimal effect on diffusive leakage of brine within post injection period. To evaluate the theoretical model, case studies for two potential sites in United Kingdom, one in Lincolnshire and the other one in the Firth of Forth, are conducted. The field studies show that the diffusive leakage from the aquifer into the overburden diminishes ∼40 years after the injection has ceased for Lincolnshire while it stops after

  9. Adsorption of Selected Pharmaceutical Compounds onto Activated Carbon in Dilute Aqueous Solutions Exemplified by Acetaminophen, Diclofenac, and Sulfamethoxazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E.-E.; Wan, Jan-Chi; Liang, Chung-Huei; Dai, Yung-Dun; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of three pharmaceuticals, namely, acetaminophen, diclofenac, and sulfamethoxazole onto granular activated carbon (GAC), was investigated. To study competitive adsorption, both dynamic and steady-state adsorption experiments were conducted by careful selection of pharmaceuticals with various affinities and molecular size. The effective diffusion coefficient of the adsorbate was increased with decease in particle size of GAC. The adsorption affinity represented as Langmuir was consistent with the ranking of the octanol-water partition coefficient, K ow. The adsorption behavior in binary or tertiary systems could be described by competition adsorption. In the binary system adsorption replacement occurred, under which the adsorbate with the smaller K ow was replaced by the one with larger K ow. Results also indicated that portion of the micropores could be occupied only by the small target compound, but not the larger adsorbates. In multiple-component systems the competition adsorption might significantly be affected by the macropores and less by the meso- or micropores. PMID:26078989

  10. Thin-film transistors using DNA-wrapped semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes with selected chiralities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Yuki; Nihey, Fumiyuki; Ohmori, Shigekazu; Saito, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    Selected semiconducting chiralities, (7,5), (7,6), and (8,4), of DNA-wrapped single-wall carbon nanotubes (DNA-SWCNTs) were used for thin-film transistors (TFTs). Chirality separation was carried out by ion exchange chromatography (IEX) with the ssDNA of the (TAT)4 sequence. An on/off ratio of 3.8 × 106 with a carrier mobility of 11 cm2/(V·s) was successfully achieved in the fabricated SWCNT-TFTs. The comparison between the on/off ratios obtained before (101-102) and after IEX (104-107) indicated that the IEX separation process sufficiently improves the performance of SWCNT-TFTs because of the reducing metallic SWCNT pathways in the TFT channel.

  11. Green preparation of carbon dots with mangosteen pulp for the selective detection of Fe3+ ions and cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Guo, Xiangfeng; Jia, Lihua; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Zhenlong; Lonshakov, Fedor

    2017-11-01

    A simple method was developed in the synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots (referred to as M-CDs), calcined treatment of mangosteen pulp in air, without the assistance of any chemical reagent. The M-CDs possess good-solubility, satisfactory chemical stability and can be applied as the fluorescent temperature probe. More strikingly, the fluorescence of M-CDs can be fleetly and selectively quenched by Fe3+ ions. The phenomenon was used to develop a fluorescent method for facile detection of Fe3+ with a linear range of 0-0.18 mM and a detection limit of 52 nM. Eventually, the M-CDs were applied for cell imaging, demonstrating their potential toward diverse applications.

  12. Selective laser sintered versus carbon fiber passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthoses: a comparison of patient walking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nicole G; Russell, Elizabeth M; Wilken, Jason M; Neptune, Richard R

    2014-09-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a well-suited additive manufacturing technique for generating subject-specific passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthoses (PD-AFOs). However, the mechanical properties of SLS PD-AFOs may differ from those of commonly prescribed carbon fiber (CF) PD-AFOs. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if biomechanical measures during gait differ between CF and stiffness-matched SLS PD-AFOs. Subject-specific SLS PD-AFOs were manufactured for ten subjects with unilateral lower-limb impairments. Minimal differences in gait performance occurred when subjects used the SLS versus CF PD-AFOs. These results support the use of SLS PD-AFOs to study the effects of altering design characteristics on gait performance.

  13. Selective inhibition of human carbonic anhydrases by novel amide derivatives of probenecid: synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzio, Melissa; Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; Vullo, Daniela; Ceruso, Mariangela; Akdemir, Atilla; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-08-01

    Novel amide derivatives of probenecid, a well-known uricosuric agent, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrases (hCAs, EC 4.2.1.1). The transmembrane isoforms (hCA IX and XII) were potently and selectively inhibited by some of them. The proposed chemical modification led to a complete loss of hCA II inhibition (K(i)s>10,000 nM) and enhanced the inhibitory activity against the tumour-associated hCA XII (compound 4 showed a K(i) value of 15.3 nM). The enzyme inhibitory data have also been validated by docking studies of the compounds within the active site of hCA XII. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of Nitrogen and Sulfur Co-doped Carbon Dots from Garlic for Selective Detection of Fe3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Peng; Yang, Yue; Wang, Yu; Xu, Jian; Wang, Yiding; Yu, William W.

    2016-02-01

    Garlic was used as a green source to synthesize carbon dots (CDs) with a systematic study of the optical and structure properties. Ethylenediamine was added into the synthesis to improve the photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of the CDs. Detailed structural and composition studies demonstrated that the content of N and the formation of C-N and C=N were critical to improve the PL QY. The as-synthesized CDs exhibited excellent stability in a wide pH range and high NaCl concentrations, rendering them applicable in complicated and harsh conditions. Quenching the fluorescence of the CDs in the presence of Fe3+ ion made these CDs a luminescent probe for selective detection of Fe3+ ion.

  15. Selective landing of semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes onto tetrathiafulvalene moiety self-assembled on ITO substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Sun Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were selecively interacted with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF moiety self-assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO substrate by charge-transfer interaction. The charge-transfer phenomena between two molecules were elucidated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and Raman spectroscopy. CV measurement of TTF-modified ITO substrate as a working electrode presented the difference between heat-treated system and untreated one. The two redox potentials, which are typically related to redox behavior of TTF, were shown in the unheated system during both oxidation and reduction cycles, while the two oxidation peaks were disappeared in the heated system. Raman spectra indicated that the intensities of RBM originated from metallic SWCNTs were much reduced in the heat-treated system, while there were little change in the unheated one. These results revealed that only semiconducting SWNTs were selectively adsorbed on the TTF moiety self-assembled on ITO when the system with heat treatment.

  16. Tomato Seed Coat Permeability to Selected Carbon Nanomaterials and Enhancement of Germination and Seedling Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M; Taylor, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Seed coat permeability was examined using a model that tested the effects of soaking tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) seeds in combination with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNMs) and ultrasonic irradiation (US). Penetration of seed coats to the embryo by CBNMs, as well as CBNMs effects on seed germination and seedling growth, was examined. Two CBNMs, C60(OH)20 (fullerol) and multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), were applied at 50 mg/L, and treatment exposure ranged from 0 to 60 minutes. Bright field, fluorescence, and electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy provided corroborating evidence that neither CBNM was able to penetrate the seed coat. The restriction of nanomaterial (NM) uptake was attributed to the semipermeable layer located at the innermost layer of the seed coat adjacent to the endosperm. Seed treatments using US at 30 or 60 minutes in the presence of MWNTs physically disrupted the seed coat; however, the integrity of the semipermeable layer was not impaired. The germination percentage and seedling length and weight were enhanced in the presence of MWNTs but were not altered by C60(OH)20. The combined exposure of seeds to NMs and US provided insight into the nanoparticle-seed interaction and may serve as a delivery system for enhancing seed germination and early seedling growth.

  17. Selected durability studies of geopolymer concrete with respect to carbonation, elevated temperature, and microbial induced corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badar, Mohammad Sufian

    This thesis reports a comprehensive study related to the experimental evaluation of carbonation in reinforced geopolymer concrete, the evaluation of geopolymer concretes at elevated temperature, and the resistance of geopolymer concrete to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Carbonation: Reinforced concretes, made of geopolymer, prepared from two class F fly ashes and one class C fly ash, were subjected to accelerated carbonation treatment for a period of 450 days. Electrochemical, microstructure and pore structure examinations were performed to evaluate the effect of corrosion caused due to carbonation. GPC specimens prepared from class F fly ash exhibited lower corrosion rates by a factor of 21, and higher pH values (pH>12) when compared with concrete specimens prepared from class C Fly ash (GPCMN). Microstructure and pore characterization of GPC prepared using class F fly ash revealed lower porosity by a factor of 2.5 as compared with thier counterparts made using GPC-MN. The superior performace of GPC prepared with the class F fly ash could be attributed to the dense pore structure and formation of the protective layer of calcium and sodium alumino silicate hydrates (C/N-A-S-H) geopolymeric gels around the steel reinforcement. Elevated Temperature: Geopolymers are an emerging class of cementitious binders which possess a potential for high temperature resistance that could possibly be utilized in applications such as nozzles, aspirators and refractory linings. This study reports on the results of an investigation into the performance of a fly ash based geopolymer binder in high temperature environments. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) was prepared using eleven types of fly ashes obtained from four countries. High content alumina and silica sand was used in the mix for preparing GPC. GPC was subjected to thermal shock tests following ASTM C 1100-88. The GPC samples prepared with tabular alumina were kept at 1093° C and immediately quenched in water. GPC specimens

  18. Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine for Selective Sulfur Detection in Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shih

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc films were deposited on the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode using a simple drop coating method. The cyclic voltammogram of the resulting CoPc modified screen-printed electrode (CoPc/SPE prepared under optimum conditions shows a well-behaved redox couple due to the (CoI/CoII system. The CoPc/SPE surface demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of sulfur in a 0.01 mol·L−1 NaOH. A linear calibration curve with the detection limit (DL, S/N = 3 of 0.325 mg·L−1 was achieved by CoPc/SPE coupled with flow injection analysis of the sulfur concentration ranging from 4 to 1120 mg·L−1. The precision of the system response was evaluated (3.60% and 3.52% RSD for 12 repeated injections, in the range of 64 and 480 mg·L−1 sulfur. The applicability of the method was successfully demonstrated in a real sample analysis of sulfur in anti-acne creams, and good recovery was obtained. The CoPc/SPE displayed several advantages in sulfur determination including easy fabrication, high stability, and low cost.

  19. Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine for Selective Sulfur Detection in Cosmetic Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Luo, Chin-Hsiang; Chen, Mei-Chin; Tsai, Feng-Jie; Chang, Nai-Fang; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) films were deposited on the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode using a simple drop coating method. The cyclic voltammogram of the resulting CoPc modified screen-printed electrode (CoPc/SPE) prepared under optimum conditions shows a well-behaved redox couple due to the (CoI/CoII) system. The CoPc/SPE surface demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of sulfur in a 0.01 mol·L−1 NaOH. A linear calibration curve with the detection limit (DL, S/N = 3) of 0.325 mg·L−1 was achieved by CoPc/SPE coupled with flow injection analysis of the sulfur concentration ranging from 4 to 1120 mg·L−1. The precision of the system response was evaluated (3.60% and 3.52% RSD for 12 repeated injections), in the range of 64 and 480 mg·L−1 sulfur. The applicability of the method was successfully demonstrated in a real sample analysis of sulfur in anti-acne creams, and good recovery was obtained. The CoPc/SPE displayed several advantages in sulfur determination including easy fabrication, high stability, and low cost. PMID:21747708

  20. Development of a sensitive and selective Riboflavin sensor based on carbon ionic liquid electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safavi, Afsaneh, E-mail: safavi@chem.susc.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maleki, Norouz; Ershadifar, Hamid; Tajabadi, Fariba [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-08-03

    The electrochemical properties of Riboflavin adsorbed on carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) were studied by cyclic voltammetry. A film with a surface coverage of up to 3.3 x 10{sup -9} mol cm{sup -2} was formed after 10 min exposure time. Electron transfer coefficient and rate constant of electron transfer across the modified electrode were found to be 0.43 and 3.03 s{sup -1}, respectively. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for the determination of Riboflavin. Two linear working ranges of 0.8-110 nM and 0.11-1.0 {mu}M were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.998 and 0.996, respectively. The experimental detection limit was obtained as 0.1 nM. The relative standard deviation for five replicate analyses was 4.7%. Other soluble vitamins had no significant interferences and the electrode was used for the determination of Riboflavin in pharmaceutical products, nutrition and beverages.

  1. Selective parallel integration of individual metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes from heterogeneous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Brian R; Schneider, Julian; Bianco, Vincenzo; Schirmer, Niklas C; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2010-07-06

    The dielectrophoretic separation of individual metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from heterogeneous solutions and their simultaneous deposition between electrodes is achieved and confirmed by direct electric transport measurements. Out-of-solution guided parallel assembly of individual SWNTs was investigated for electric field frequencies between 1 and 200 MHz. At 200 MHz, 19 of the 22 deposited SWNTs (86%) displayed metallic behavior, whereas at lower frequencies the expected random growth distribution of 1/3 metallic SWNTs prevailed. A threshold separation frequency of 188 MHz is extracted from a surface-conductivity model, and a conductivity weighting factor is introduced to elucidate the separation frequency dependence. Low-frequency experiments and numerical simulations show that long-range nanotube transport is governed by hydrodynamic effects whereas local trapping is dominated by dielectrophoretic forces. The electrokinetic framework of dielectrophoresis in low-concentration solutions is thus provided and allows a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms in dielectrophoretic deposition processes for long and large-diameter SWNT-based low-resistance device integration.

  2. A simple turn on fluorescent sensor for the selective detection of thiamine using coconut water derived luminescent carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2016-05-15

    In this study microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to prepare highly luminescent carbon dots (1-6 nm size) within a minute from tender coconut (Cocos nucifera) water. The synthesized carbon dots (C-dots) exhibit emission of blue and green lights while excited at 390 and 450 nm wavelengths, respectively. As an application, these C-dots were tested for a simple "turn on" fluorescent sensor for rapid detection of thiamine (vitamin B1). The detection of thiamine in human body is very important to prevent various diseases such as beriberi, neurological disorders, optic neuropathy, etc. The fluorescence emission intensity of C-dots quenches after addition of Cu(2+) ion and then again increases selectively (turn on) after the addition of thiamine. The fluorescence emission intensity enhancement of Cu(2+) ion modified C-dots in the presence of thiamine exhibits a linear relationship within the thiamine concentration range of 10-50 μM. The limit of detection was found to be 280 nM from this study. The selectivity of the detection was also tested in the presence of different organic molecules and inorganic ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NO3(-)) which are present in blood serum and urine and found to be almost no interference in the detection. Finally, to see the applicability in real samples a commercial vitamin capsule was tested and found less than 3% error in the detected concentration. The C-dots were also used for bioimaging of fungus and the results show they are also suitable for this application too. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selectivity of Chemoresistive Sensors Made of Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Random Networks for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different grades of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT have been processed by spraying layer-by-layer (sLbL to obtain an array of chemoresistive transducers for volatile organic compound (VOC detection. The sLbL process led to random networks of CNT less conductive, but more sensitive to vapors than filtration under vacuum (bucky papers. Shorter CNT were also found to be more sensitive due to the less entangled and more easily disconnectable conducting networks they are making. Chemical functionalization of the CNT’ surface is changing their selectivity towards VOC, which makes it possible to easily discriminate methanol, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF from toluene vapors after the assembly of CNT transducers into an array to make an e-nose. Interestingly, the amplitude of the CNT transducers’ responses can be enhanced by a factor of five (methanol to 100 (chloroform by dispersing them into a polymer matrix, such as poly(styrene (PS, poly(carbonate (PC or poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. COOH functionalization of CNT was found to penalize their dispersion in polymers and to decrease the sensors’ sensitivity. The resulting conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPCs not only allow for a more easy tuning of the sensors’ selectivity by changing the chemical nature of the matrix, but they also allow them to adjust their sensitivity by changing the average gap between CNT (acting on quantum tunneling in the CNT network. Quantum resistive sensors (QRSs appear promising for environmental monitoring and anticipated disease diagnostics that are both based on VOC analysis.

  4. Carbon dioxide selective mixed matrix composite membrane containing ZIF-7 nano-fillers

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Mixed matrix materials made from selective inorganic fillers and polymers are very attractive for the manufacturing of gas separation membranes. But only few of these materials could be manufactured into high-performance asymmetric or composite membranes. We report here the first mixed matrix composite membrane made of commercially available poly (amide-b-ethylene oxide) (Pebax®1657, Arkema) mixed with the nano-sized zeolitic imidazole framework ZIF-7. This hybrid material has been successfully deposited as a thin layer (less than 1μm) on a porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support. An intermediate gutter layer of PTMSP was applied to serve as a flat and smooth surface for coating to avoid polymer penetration into the porous support. Key features of this work are the preparation and use of ultra-small ZIF-7 nano-particles (around 30-35nm) and the membrane processability of Pebax®1657. SEM pictures show that excellent adhesion and almost ideal morphology between the two phases has been obtained simply by mixing the as-synthesized ZIF-7 suspension into the Pebax®1657 dope, and no voids or clusters can be observed. The performance of the composite membrane is characterized by single gas permeation measurement of CO2, N2 and CH4. Both, permeability (PCO2 up to 145barrer) and gas selectivity (CO2/N2 up to 97 and CO2/CH4 up to 30) can be increased at low ZIF- loading. The CO2/CH4