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Sample records for selected anatomical terms

  1. Understanding anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, L A; Natrajan, M; Kothari, M L

    1996-01-01

    Words are our masters and words are our slaves, all depending on how we use them. The whole of medical science owes its origin to Greco-Roman culture and is replete with terms whose high sound is not necessarily accompanied by sound meaning. This is even more the case in the initial, pre-clinical years. Anatomical terminology seems bewildering to the initiate; and maybe that is a reason why love of anatomy as a subject does not always spill over through later years. Employing certain classifications of the origin of the anatomical terms, we have prepared an anthology that we hope will ease the student's task and also heighten the student's appreciation of the new terms. This centers on revealing the Kiplingian "how, why, when, where, what, and who" of a given term. This presentation should empower students to independently formulate a wide network of correlations once they understand a particular term. The article thus hopes to stimulate students' analytic and synthetic faculties as well. A small effort can reap large rewards in terms of enjoyment of the study of anatomy and the related subjects of histology, embryology, and genetics. It is helpful to teachers and students alike. This exercise in semantics and etymology does not demand of the student or his teacher any background in linguistics, grammar, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, anatomy, or medicine.

  2. The historical Latin and etymology of selected anatomical terms of the larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2010-03-01

    The etymological evolution of the anatomical terms larynx, cricoid, glottis, epiglottis, and thyroid (cartilage) dates to antiquity. Human dissection replaced animal in the 16th and 17th centuries and terms evolved. This evolution was recorded in the literature largely in Latin. We translated key studies of laryngeal anatomy from the 16th century to better understand this evolution. We present the Latin with our translations, and historical commentary as essential to this understanding. Vesalius favored the Latin scutiform (shield) for the thyroid cartilage, but recognized peltalis (shield). The Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA) chose the Greek thyroid (theta upsilon rho epsilon omicron epsilon iota delta eta) for modern convention. Vesalius used the name "innominate" for the cricoid cartilage, but described its resemblance to a ring, drawn in the margin of the Fabrica. Krikoid, the Greek for ring shaped, was adopted by the BNA. Although the term arytenoid was used for centuries, Vesalius argued the Greek name referred to the spout of a cup or ladle. He recognized the human arytenoids as two separate cartilages as opposed to single in certain animals. The glottis was defined by Vesalius as the vocal fold or rima glottidis of today, and he advanced its function by understanding the paired, mobile arytenoid cartilages. He defined the function of the epiglottis and first described the pre-epiglottic space. Vesalius' student at Padua, Italy, Columbo contributed to anatomical knowledge, but animosity between them clouded the record. Harvey, working 75 years later in England, offers an evolutionary window from Vesalius. Harvey's laryngeal studies preceded by a decade his groundbreaking studies on the circulation of blood.

  3. Lost and found anatomical terms: Crista choanalis vomeris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusić, Ana; Vinter, Ivan; Krmpotić-Nemanić, Jelena

    2006-05-01

    Pars cuneiformis vomeris and Crista choanalis are morphological structures on the vomer listed in the current official anatomical nomenclature, Terminologia anatomica, but are either not mentioned or incorrectly described in different anatomical books. The term Crista choanalis vomeris was originally proposed by Drago Perović in 1958 to describe the vertical crest beginning at the angle of the alae vomeris, running downwards to the posterior free margin of the vomer. Perović also described the part of the vomer behind this crest was shaped as a cone, and termed it Pars cuneiformis vomeris. Because of their important contributions to the function of the respiratory pathway, Crista choanalis vomeris and Pars cuneiformis vomeris deserve proper definitions in the anatomical terminology.

  4. Elimination of the apposition in Latin anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Paul E

    2017-03-01

    The anatomical nomenclature rules require that terms be as short and simple as possible. One common exception to that rule is Latin terms that contain two nouns in nominative case, for example, Musculus masseter and Os ischium. Although these may appear to speakers of other languages to be compound nouns, they are appositions, grammatical structures in which one noun renames, defines or describes the entity named by the other noun. More than 125 terms in Terminologia Anatomica can be simplified, without loss of clarity, by prohibiting use of more than one noun in nominative case in Latin anatomical terms (e.g., Masseter and Os ischii). Clin. Anat. 30:156-158, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effects of selected anatomical characteristics on physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of selected anatomical characteristics on physical properties of Ethiopian Highland Bamboo Arundinaria Alpina K. Schum. (Poaceae) ... In early maturing bamboo, fibers are relatively small in wall thickness. The results of statistical analyses revealed that bamboo portion has significant effects on all variables.

  6. Benign anatomical mistakes: the correct anatomical term for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2002-01-01

    The term recurrent laryngeal nerve has been adopted by Nomina Anatomica (1989) and Terminologia Anatomica (1998) to describe this vagus branch from its origin, its turn dorsally around the subclavian artery and the aortic arch, and its cranial pathway until it reaches its terminal organs in the neck. However, there is still much confusion, and either the terms inferior and recurrent laryngeal nerve are used interchangeably or inferior laryngeal nerve is considered the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We hereby feel that it is necessary to reassess the term and we propose the term inferior laryngeal nerve for the entire nerve under consideration, from its origin from the vagus nerve to its destinations, including tracheal, esophageal, and pharyngeal branches. If the term superior laryngeal nerve is a given, standard and accepted term in the anatomical terminology, then logically the term inferior laryngeal nerve should also be accepted, as opposed to it. Of course the upward travel of the inferior laryngeal nerve is "recurrent". When nonrecurrence is encountered together with an arteria lusoria, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery or a right aortic arch, we consider that the term nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve should be used to describe the deviation from the normal.

  7. Long-term survivorship of stemless anatomical shoulder replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sascha; Beck, Verena; Wegner, Alexander; Dudda, Marcel; Patsalis, Theodor; Jäger, Marcus

    2018-01-24

    Like in many other joints, current shoulder replacement designs aim at bone preservation. According to the literature available, stemless total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) compares favourably with stemmed designs in terms of function and survivorship of the implant. However, long-term results of stemless shoulder arthroplasty are still missing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate long-term results of stemless anatomical TSA. Between 2006 and 2009, 51 shoulders in 46 patients were resurfaced using the Biomet Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS). Thirty-one shoulders in 26 patients who were aged 66.7 ± 10.0 (range 34-82) years were available for review at a mean follow-up of 94.7 ± 11.3 (76-124) months. The implant survival rate was 93.5% at eight years. The overall revision rate of the TESS implant was 9.7%. Radiolucent lines were found on the glenoid side of the TESS arthroplasty in 90.9% of the cases. All stemless humeral corolla implants showed solid fixation at follow-up. Clinical scores significantly improved at long-term follow-up (VAS from 8.1 ± 0.9 to 1.0 ± 1.2, p < 0.001; Quick-DASH from 67.9 ± 13.5 to 18.7 ± 16.5, p < 0.001 and Constant score from 14.7 ± 6.1 to 68.8 ± 13.2, p < 0.001). Stemless TSA has stood the test of time at eight years in terms of clinical scores, radiographic loosening, complication rates and implant survivorship.

  8. Frequency in Usage of FCAT-Approved Anatomical Terms by North American Anatomists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bradford D.; Thorpe, Donna; Barnes, Richard; DeLeon, Michael; Hill, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    It has been 10 years since the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) published Terminologia Anatomica (TA), the current authority on anatomical nomenclature. There exists a perceived lack of unity among anatomists to adopt many FCAT recommended anatomical terms in TA. An e-mail survey was sent to members of the American Association…

  9. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): a tool to analyze enrichment of zebrafish anatomical terms in large gene sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Marsico, Annalisa; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2013-09-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene expression

  10. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): A Tool to Analyze Enrichment of Zebrafish Anatomical Terms in Large Gene Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene

  11. Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Ryusuke; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2018-01-01

    Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository ( https://github.com/ryusukemomota/nanatex ) so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.

  12. Anatomical Modularity of Verbal Working Memory? Functional Anatomical Evidence from a Famous Patient with Short-Term Memory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Paulesu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971, a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H215O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain

  13. Importance to include the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system in medical subject headings and in the international anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Lapin, Guilherme Abbud Franco; Hochman, Bernardo

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.

  14. [On the anatomical terms used for description of brain arteries and discrepancy between them and anatomical nomenclature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilov, V N; Kosourov, A K

    2004-01-01

    The following terms are used in Russian literature to designate arteries, which carry blood into the brain: brachiocephalic arteries, aortic arch branches, main cerebral arteries (arteries of the head), extra- and intracranial cerebral arteries, precerebral arteries. All terms either have substantial drawbacks or conflict with the adopted anatomical terminology. These discrepancies become far more significant in view of publication of "Terminologia Anatomica" (New York, 1998). We suggest to discuss the possibility to use universal terminology for the designation of the system of the arteries, supplying the brain. We propose to designate truncus brachiocephalicus, common carotid and subclavian arteries, internal carotid and vertebral arteries with their branches including arterial network on the brain surface by the term "the conducting arteries", whereas small branches, which pierce the brain matter are to be named "the penetrating arteries" (T.M. Sundt et al., 1976). Considering the Greek word "encephalon", which means "the brain", all the arteries of the brain could be designated as encephalic, while conducting arteries--as preencephalic, and intracerebral (penetrating) arteries--as intraencephalic.

  15. Changes of wood anatomical characters of selected species of Araucaria- during artificial charring - implications for palaeontology

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    Isa Carla Osterkamp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Charcoal is widely accepted as evidence of the occurrence of palaeo-wildfire. Although fossil charcoal remains have been used in many studies, investigation into the anatomical changes occurring during charring are few. The present study analyses changes in selected anatomical characters during artificial charring of modern wood of three species of the genus Araucaria (i.e. Araucaria angustifolia, Araucaria bidwillii and Araucaria columnaris. Wood samples of the studied species was charred under controlled conditions at varying temperatures. Measurements of anatomical features of uncharred wood and artificial charcoal were statistically analysed. The anatomical changes were statistically correlated with charring temperatures and most of the parameters showed marked decreases with increasing charring temperature. Compared to the intrinsic variability in anatomical features, both within and between growth rings of an individual plant, the changes induced by temperature account only for a comparatively small percentage of the observed variability. Regarding Araucaria charcoal, it seems possible that at least general taxonomic and palaeoenvironmental implications can be drawn from such material. However, it is not clear so far whether these results and interpretations based on only three taxa, can be generalized for the entire family and anatomically similar fossil taxa or not.

  16. The innervation of extensor hallucis longus muscle: an anatomical study for selective neurotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria, Nazzi; Giuseppe, Messina; Ivano, Dones; Giovanni, Broggi

    2009-10-01

    This study is aimed to describe the observable anatomical variants of the innervation of extensor hallucis longus muscle (EHLM) in order to have the surgical coordinates to perform neurotomy on the targeted branches of its innervation and to give a valuable alternative to the commonly used technique of fascicular subepineurial neurotomy in patients affected by toe hyperextension dystonia. In 15 fresh cadavers of adults, 29 lower limbs (14 right and 15 left) were studied. Anatomical dissections to isolate the innervating branches of EHLM were performed. Each branch from EHLM was analyzed by microscopical opening of the epineurium to observe the number of nerve fascicles. Various measurements were made to obtain anatomical coordinates for surgery. The distance between the most prominent point of the head of the fibula and the origin of the nervous branches innervating the EHLM is not proportional to the length of the leg. In 72.4% of the studied legs, the distance between the origin of the first branch innervating the EHLM and the origin of the deep peroneal nerve is 7 +/- 2 cm. In 80% of legs, the distance between the origin of the second branch and the origin of the deep peroneal nerve is 10 +/- 1.1 cm. In only one limb with double innervation, two fascicles were found, while in six limbs (25%) only one fascicle was found. This anatomical study traced some valuable surgical coordinates useful for the execution of a selective peripheral neurotomy on the nerve branch innervating the EHLM.

  17. Total Mesorectal Excision, an erroneous anatomical term for the gold standard in rectal cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Luna, María Rita; Guarneros-Zárate, Joaquín E; Tueme-Izaguirre, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    In 1986 Professor R J Heald published in The Lancet his new technique which he called Total Mesorectal Excision; today this is the gold standard for the surgical management of rectal cancer. In Total Mesorectal Excision (TME), the mesorectum is the term used to describe all the peri-rectal connective tissue including the posterior sheath of the endopelvic fascia containing the peri-rectal neurovascular structures. However, the mesenterium is a defined structure composed of a double layer of peritoneum which does not include the endopelvic fascia and the lateral rectal stalks, so these should not be included in the term 'mesorectum'. In our globalized medical culture it is important to use anatomic terms approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, as contained in the Terminologia Anatomica produced by the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT). The term mesorectum is not listed in the Terminologia Anatomica. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomical Terms in J. Basanavičius’ Manuscript Anatomijos ir medicinos vardyno medžiaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Litevkienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical evolution of anatomical terms dates to antiquity, to the writings of Hippocrates. The historical development of Lithuanian anatomical terminology goes back to the seventeenth century. Anatomical terminology, as a comprehensive system of the names of human body parts is being compiled gradually. The originator of Lithuanian medical terminology was J. Basanavičius. The research paper aims to analyze anatomical terms used in J. Basanavičius’ manuscript Anatomijos ir medicinos vardyno medžiaga (further BM and to compare them with the terms in the Dictionary of Medical Terms ( Medicinos terminų žodynas 1980. The research focuses on the analysis of some aspects of differentiation and congruity of simple and multi-word anatomical terms of the manuscript and the dictionary. About 270 Lithuanian anatomical terms with Russian and Latin equivalents were collected by J. Basanavičius. The results show that the major part of the terms are different, the lesser part of the terms are identical.

  19. [Comparison of anatomical terms from Basle nomina anatomica to Terminologia anatomica--terms of general anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kunihiko

    2004-06-01

    This paper compared and considered terms of general anatomy from the Basle Nomina Anatomica (1895) to the Terminologia Anatomica (1998), together with the Jena Nomina Anatomica (1935). Some differences are found in ideas of the BNA-NA3, NA4-6 and TA. It was noticed after the NA4, that the "coronalis" was used for the site and the "frontalis" for the direction in head, that the term of line and plane was reasonably rearranged, and that some terms were omitted from the part of human body and moved to the systemic anatomy in head and trunk and to the region in limbs.

  20. Visual and anatomical success with short-term macular tamponade and autologous platelet concentrate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulhern, M G

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether, in eyes treated for macular hole by vitrectomy and autologous platelet injection, short-term tamponade with SF6 gas was as effective as longer tamponade with C3F8 gas. METHODS: Patients in group 1 (n=31) had vitrectomy, injection of platelet concentrate, and 16% C3F8 gas\\/air exchange. Patients in group 2 (n=31) were similarly treated, except that 23% SF6 gas was used. Group 1 patients were required to posture prone for 2-4 weeks, group 2 for 6 days. RESULTS: All patients had 3 months\\' follow-up. Postoperatively, visual acuity improved faster in group 2. However, the final mean improvement in logMAR acuity was similar in both groups. Intraocular pressure (IOP) spikes occurred in 12 patients in group 2 and in 17 patients in group 1. Posterior subcapsular cataract (PSCC) occurred in 55% of cases in group 1 and in just 37% in group 2. The rate of anatomical success in group 1 was 96.7%, and in group 2, 93.5% (P=1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of SF6 gas, platelet concentrate, and short-term prone posturing gave a degree of anatomical and visual success comparable to that of the group which had longer tamponade. Although no differences were statistically significant, several trends did emerge; in group 2, patients recovered visual acuity faster, had fewer IOP spikes, and there were fewer cases of PSCC formation.

  1. Anatomic Liver Resection of Segments 6, 7, and 8 by the Method of Selective Occlusion of Hepatic Inflow

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Changku; Wang, Haiyang; Chen, Youke; Fu, Yu; Liu, Honglei

    2012-01-01

    Anatomic liver resection not only enables enough tumor-free resection margin but also guarantees maximum preservation of remaining normal liver tissue. We report herein a hepatocellular carcinoma patient who underwent successful anatomic liver resection of segments 6, 7, and 8 by the method of selective occlusion of hepatic inflow. Multiple tumors were found in segments 6, 7, and 8 by computed tomographic (CT) scanning. CT volumetry analyzed that his left hemi-liver volume was less than the m...

  2. Transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy technique through the middle temporal gyrus revisited: An anatomical study laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Baran; da Silva Centeno, Ricardo; Chaddad-Neto, Feres; da Costa, Marcos Devanir Silva; Goiri, Marcelo Augusto Acosta; Karadag, Ali; Tugcu, Bekir; Ovalioglu, Talat Cem; Tanriover, Necmettin; Kaya, Serdar; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Grande, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been used for surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the comprehensive white matter tract anatomy of the temporal lobe to gain an insight into the trans-middle temporal gyrus, a lateral approach which has been commonly used. The transmiddle temporal gyrus approach was performed in a stepwise manner on cadaveric human heads to examine the traversing white matter pathways through it and the structures located in the temporal horn. We reviewed the literature to compare the trans-middle temporal gyrus approach with other SelAH techniques based on surgical outcomes. There does not appear to be a significant difference in seizure outcome between SelAH and ATL. However, the SelAH provides a better neuropsychological outcomes than the ATL in selected patients. Each SelAH approach has individual advantages and disadvantages. Based on our anatomical study, in the transcortical amygdalohippocampectomy technique through the middle temporal gyrus the white matter pathways to be encountered. In the temporal horn, the collateral eminence, hippocampus, lateral ventricular sulcus, choroidal fissure, inferior choroidal point, choroid plexus, fimbria of the fornix, and amygdala are exposed. The subpial dissection is performed along the lateral ventricular sulcus from the collateral eminence on lateral side and from the choroidal fissure on medial side by microdissector for en bloc resection of the hippocampus proper. The trans-middle temporal gyrus approach is commonly used in treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients. A better anatomical and functional understanding of the structures of the temporal lobe is crucial for safer and more accurate surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CT during selective arteriography: anatomical assessment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms before endovascular treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, M.; Kida, S.; Uchiyama, N.; Yamashima, T.; Yamashita, J.; Sanada, J.; Yoshikawa, J.; Matsui, O.

    2001-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the usefulness of helical CT during selective angiography (CT arteriography) in pretreatment assessment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We studied 47 unruptured aneurysms in 34 prospectively recruited patients for whom endovascular embolisation was initially considered. As pretreatment assessment, we performed rotational digital subtraction angiography (DSA) followed by CT arteriography. The findings on axial source images (axial images) and reconstructed three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) of CT arteriography were compared to those of rotational DSA, with particular attention to the neck of the aneurysm and arterial branches adjacent to it. Information provided by CT arteriography was more useful than that of rotational DSA as regards the neck in 25 (53 %) of 47 cases and as regards branches in 18 (49 %) of 37 aneurysms. On axial images, small arteries such as the anterior choroidal artery were seen in some cases. CT arteriography can provide valuable additional information about unruptured aneurysms, which cannot be obtained by rotational DSA alone. This technique is useful for obtaining anatomical information about aneurysm anatomy and for deciding the therapeutic strategy. (orig.)

  4. Short term evaluation of an anatomically shaped polycarbonate urethane total meniscus replacement in a goat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A.C.T.; Madej, W.; Hannink, G.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; van Tienen, T.G.; Buma, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Since the treatment options for symptomatic total meniscectomy patients are still limited, an anatomically shaped, polycarbonate urethane (PCU), total meniscus replacement was developed. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of the implant in a goat model, with a specific focus on

  5. Future Contract Selection by Term Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Grossmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In futures markets, a single asset is generally represented by several contracts with different maturities. The selection of specific contracts is an inevitable task that also creates new opportunities, especially in terms of speculative trading. Evaluating immediate and upcoming trading costs for all considered contracts might lead to a significantly improved performance. Among that, even possible market inefficiencies might be taken into consideration. This research introduces and evaluates a new algorithm for the contract selection. The results are benchmarked and compared with established methods using a Monte Carlo simulation on different commodity and index futures.

  6. AnatomicalTerms.info: heading for an online solution to the anatomical synonym problem hurdles in data-reuse from the Terminologia Anatomica and the foundational model of anatomy and potentials for future development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobée, O Paul; Jansma, Daniël; DeRuiter, Marco C

    2011-10-01

    The many synonyms for anatomical structures confuse medical students and complicate medical communication. Easily accessible translations would alleviate this problem. None of the presently available resources-Terminologia Anatomica (TA), digital terminologies such as the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA), and websites-are fully satisfactory to this aim. Internet technologies offer new possibilities to solve the problem. Several authors have called for an online TA. An online translation resource should be easily accessible, user-friendly, comprehensive, expandable, and its quality determinable. As first step towards this goal, we built a translation website that we named www.AnatomicalTerms.info, based on the database of the FMA. It translates between English, Latin, eponyms, and to a lesser extent other languages, and presently contains over 31,000 terms for 7,250 structures, covering 95% of TA. In addition, it automatically presents searches for images, documents and anatomical variations regarding the sought structure. Several terminological and conceptual issues were encountered in transferring data from TA and FMA into AnatomicalTerms.info, resultant from these resources' different set-ups (paper versus digital) and targets (machine versus human-user). To the best of our knowledge, AnatomicalTerms.info is unique in its combination of user-friendliness and comprehensiveness. As next step, wiki-like expandability will be added to enable open contribution of clinical synonyms and terms in different languages. Specific quality measures will be taken to strike a balance between open contribution and quality assurance. AnatomicalTerms.info's mechanism that "translates" terms to structures furthermore may enhance targeted searching by linking images, descriptions, and other anatomical resources to the structures. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Dynamics of long-term genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannink Jean-Luc

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation and empirical studies of genomic selection (GS show accuracies sufficient to generate rapid gains in early selection cycles. Beyond those cycles, allele frequency changes, recombination, and inbreeding make analytical prediction of gain impossible. The impacts of GS on long-term gain should be studied prior to its implementation. Methods A simulation case-study of this issue was done for barley, an inbred crop. On the basis of marker data on 192 breeding lines from an elite six-row spring barley program, stochastic simulation was used to explore the effects of large or small initial training populations with heritabilities of 0.2 or 0.5, applying GS before or after phenotyping, and applying additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles. Genomic predictions were from ridge regression or a Bayesian analysis. Results Assuming that applying GS prior to phenotyping shortened breeding cycle time by 50%, this practice strongly increased early selection gains but also caused the loss of many favorable QTL alleles, leading to loss of genetic variance, loss of GS accuracy, and a low selection plateau. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles, however, allowed GS to increase their frequency earlier on, causing an initial increase in genetic variance. This dynamic led to higher long-term gain while mitigating losses in short-term gain. Weighted GS also increased the maintenance of marker polymorphism, ensuring that QTL-marker linkage disequilibrium was higher than in unweighted GS. Conclusions Losing favorable alleles that are in weak linkage disequilibrium with markers is perhaps inevitable when using GS. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable alleles, however, may reduce the rate of loss of such alleles to below that of phenotypic selection. Applying such weights at the beginning of GS implementation is important.

  8. Sparse model selection via integral terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Hayden; McCalla, Scott G.

    2017-08-01

    Model selection and parameter estimation are important for the effective integration of experimental data, scientific theory, and precise simulations. In this work, we develop a learning approach for the selection and identification of a dynamical system directly from noisy data. The learning is performed by extracting a small subset of important features from an overdetermined set of possible features using a nonconvex sparse regression model. The sparse regression model is constructed to fit the noisy data to the trajectory of the dynamical system while using the smallest number of active terms. Computational experiments detail the model's stability, robustness to noise, and recovery accuracy. Examples include nonlinear equations, population dynamics, chaotic systems, and fast-slow systems.

  9. Short Term Evaluation of an Anatomically Shaped Polycarbonate Urethane Total Meniscus Replacement in a Goat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C T Vrancken

    Full Text Available Since the treatment options for symptomatic total meniscectomy patients are still limited, an anatomically shaped, polycarbonate urethane (PCU, total meniscus replacement was developed. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of the implant in a goat model, with a specific focus on the implant location in the joint, geometrical integrity of the implant and the effect of the implant on synovial membrane and articular cartilage histopathological condition.The right medial meniscus of seven Saanen goats was replaced by the implant. Sham surgery (transection of the MCL, arthrotomy and MCL suturing was performed in six animals. The contralateral knee joints of both groups served as control groups. After three months follow-up the following aspects of implant performance were evaluated: implant position, implant deformation and the histopathological condition of the synovium and cartilage.Implant geometry was well maintained during the three month implantation period. No signs of PCU wear were found and the implant did not induce an inflammatory response in the knee joint. In all animals, implant fixation was compromised due to suture breakage, wear or elongation, likely causing the increase in extrusion observed in the implant group. Both the femoral cartilage and tibial cartilage in direct contact with the implant showed increased damage compared to the sham and sham-control groups.This study demonstrates that the novel, anatomically shaped PCU total meniscal replacement is biocompatible and resistant to three months of physiological loading. Failure of the fixation sutures may have increased implant mobility, which probably induced implant extrusion and potentially stimulated cartilage degeneration. Evidently, redesigning the fixation method is necessary. Future animal studies should evaluate the improved fixation method and compare implant performance to current treatment standards, such as allografts.

  10. ROOT ANATOMICAL PLASTICITY IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS UNDER REAL AND FULL-SEASON FIELD CONDITIONS AND DETERMINATION OF NEW ANATOMIC SELECTION CHARACTERS FOR BREEDING SALT-RESISTANT RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific understanding of root anatomy plasticity under salt stress is lacking and requires creation of efficient screening techniques for stress condition s. To fill this gap, this study aimed to determine the anatomical plasticity in root chracteristics of 31 different rice cultivars (from ‘Best’ to ‘Low’ yielding grown under real field conditions (saline and non-saline from planting to harvesting and to reveal detailed root anatomical parameters that can be used to select and breed salt-tolerant rice. Anatomical and histochemical features of all cultivars and thin structures of the apoplastic barriers were investigated. The amount of silica (Si, 35 different anatomical characteristics, anatomical plasticity characteristics, plasticity rates, plasticity trends and changes and strategies of each group under saline and non-saline conditions were compared. The results showed that protective anatomical characters improved/remained equal to, and worsened/remained equal to those of the controls, in the ‘Best’ and other groups, respectively, from non-saline to saline conditions. Anatomical plasticity is essentially directly related to apoplastic barrier features. High genotypic variation was observed in root anatomy in all cultivars, but foremost traits were as follows: (1 cell size, (2 Si presence, (3 Si accumulation shape, (4 Si distribution towards root stele, (5 xylem arch features, (6 lignification-suberization properties in apoplastic barriers and their degrees, (7 presence/absence of idioblast cells filled with gummic and phenolic substances and (8 moderate anatomical plasticity. Cultivars with the most stabile anatomy under saline and non-saline conditions should be used to select and breed salt-resistant rice.

  11. 5 CFR 316.302 - Selection of term employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of term employees. 316.302... TEMPORARY AND TERM EMPLOYMENT Term Employment § 316.302 Selection of term employees. (a) Competitive term... or later; (5) Appointment under 31 U.S.C. 732(g) for current and former employees of the General...

  12. Familiarity with Latin and Greek Anatomical Terms and Course Performance in Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampush, James D.; Petto, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Commonly used technical anatomy and physiology (A&P) terms are predominantly rooted in Latin and Greek vocabulary, so it is commonly inferred that a solid grounding in Latin and Greek roots of medical terminology will improve student learning in anatomy and related disciplines. This study examines the association of etymological knowledge of…

  13. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L.xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keonhee Kim; Nicole Labbé; Jeffrey M. Warren; Thomas Elder; Timothy G. Rials

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO2(544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO2 exposure did not...

  14. Long-Term Functional and Anatomical Outcome after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty: A Prospective Single-Center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen van Rooij

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the long-term anatomical and functional outcomes of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK. Methods. Prospective follow-up of 114 eyes (95 subjects after DSAEK for endothelial dysfunction. Measurements included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, straylight, endothelial cell density (ECD, and graft thickness. Results. The mean follow-up time was 5.1 ± 1.5 years. Four grafts ultimately failed (after 5 to 7 years. From baseline up to 1 year after DSAEK, mean BSCVA improved by 0.30 logMAR. This beneficial effect remained until the last follow-up (LFU. After DSAEK, straylight was reduced. ECD sharply dropped by 900 cells/mm2 (33% immediately after surgery and, thereafter, steadily decreased at a rate of 11 cells/mm2 per month. No significant correlation was observed between graft thickness at 3 years and BSCVA. Conclusions. We observed a low graft failure rate and a normalization of graft thickness. Postoperative straylight remained elevated relative to the normal population. The sharp initial and the subsequent more gradual ECD decline are consistent with other studies. A significant and prolonged functional gain can be achieved by posterior lamellar grafting for endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Passive vs. active virtual reality learning: the effects on short- and long-term memory of anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Andrew; Fritchle, Alicia; Hoffman, Helene

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study compares the differences in learning outcomes when students are presented with either an active (student-centered) or passive (teacher-centered) virtual reality-based anatomy lesson. The "active" lesson used UCSD's Anatomic VisualizeR and enabled students to interact with 3D models and control presentation of learning materials. The "passive" lesson used a digital recording of an anatomical expert's tour of the same VR lesson played back as a QuickTime movie. Subsequent examination of the recall and retention of the studied anatomic objects were comparable in both groups. Issues underlying these results are discussed.

  16. Below-the-ankle Angioplasty and Stenting for Limb Salvage: Anatomical Considerations and Long-term Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: katsanos@med.upatras.gr; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Siablis, Dimitris [School of Medicine, Patras University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Greece)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo report the long-term angiographic and clinical results in a series of below-the-ankle (BTA) angioplasty procedures and to present some biomechanical issues related to the unique anatomical geometry of the ankle.MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of BTA angioplasty procedures. Clinical end points included technical success, patient mortality, salvage of the treated foot, and repeat target lesion revascularization. Imaging end points included primary patency, binary restenosis of the target lesion at the 50 % threshold, and stent integrity (stent fracture, deformation, or collapse). Univariate subgroup analysis was performed.ResultsIn total, 40 limbs in 37 patients (age 73.5 {+-} 8.2 years) with critical limb ischemia were included and 42 inframalleolar lesions (4.2 {+-} 1.4 cm) were analyzed. Technical success was achieved in 95.2 % (40 of 42). Provisional stent placement was performed in 45.2 % (19 of 42). Two patients died, and two major amputations occurred up to 3 years. At 1 year, overall primary vessel patency was 50.4 {+-} 9.1 %, lesion binary restenosis rate was 64.1 {+-} 8.3 %, and repeat intervention-free survival was 93.6 {+-} 4.3 % according to life table analysis of all treated lesions. Pairwise subgroup analysis showed that BTA self-expanding stents were associated with significantly higher restenosis and poorer primary patency compared to plain balloon angioplasty or sirolimus-eluting balloon-expandable stents. Significant deformation and/or fracture of balloon-expandable stents placed BTA were identified in five of 11. Dynamic imaging showed that the dorsalis pedis artery is kinked during foot dorsiflexion, whereas the distal posterior tibial artery is kinked during plantar flexion of the foot.ConclusionBTA angioplasty for critical limb ischemia treatment is safe and feasible with satisfactory long-term results. BTA stent placement must be reserved for bailout indications.

  17. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keonhee; Labbé, Nicole; Warren, Jeffrey M; Elder, Thomas; Rials, Timothy G

    2015-03-01

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO2 (544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO2 exposure did not impact the structural components of the stem wood, but non-structural components were significantly affected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to detect differences between the CO2 treatments by considering numerous structural and chemical variables, as well as tree size, and data from previously published sources (i.e., root biomass, production and turnover). The PCA results indicated a clear separation between trees exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 conditions. Correlation loadings plots of the PCA revealed that stem structural components, ash, Ca, Mg, total phenolics, root biomass, production and turnover were the major responses that contribute to the separation between the elevated and ambient CO2 treated trees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multimethod Behavioral Treatment of Long-Term Selective Mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T. Steuart; Kramer, Jack J.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted single-subject, experimental research to examine efficacy of treating severe, long-term selective mutism in nine-year-old male using shaping, multiple reinforcers, natural consequences, stimulus fading, and mild aversives. Implemented different treatment regimens in home and school environments. Home intervention resulted in increase in…

  19. Sexual selection enables long-term coexistence despite ecological equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mazzucco, Rupert; Otto, Sarah P; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2012-04-26

    Empirical data indicate that sexual preferences are critical for maintaining species boundaries, yet theoretical work has suggested that, on their own, they can have only a minimal role in maintaining biodiversity. This is because long-term coexistence within overlapping ranges is thought to be unlikely in the absence of ecological differentiation. Here we challenge this widely held view by generalizing a standard model of sexual selection to include two ubiquitous features of populations with sexual selection: spatial variation in local carrying capacity, and mate-search costs in females. We show that, when these two features are combined, sexual preferences can single-handedly maintain coexistence, even when spatial variation in local carrying capacity is so slight that it might go unnoticed empirically. This theoretical study demonstrates that sexual selection alone can promote the long-term coexistence of ecologically equivalent species with overlapping ranges, and it thus provides a novel explanation for the maintenance of species diversity.

  20. Predictive models of long-term anatomic outcome in age-related macular degeneration treated with as-needed Ranibizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Buendia, Lucia; Delgado-Tirado, Santiago; Sanabria, M Rosa; Fernandez, Itziar; Coco, Rosa M

    2017-08-18

    To analyze predictors and develop predictive models of anatomic outcome in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with as-needed ranibizumab after 4 years of follow-up. A multicenter consecutive case series non-interventional study was performed. Clinical, funduscopic and OCT characteristics of 194 treatment-naïve patients with AMD treated with as-needed ranibizumab for at least 2 years and up to 4 years were analyzed at baseline, 3 months and each year until the end of the follow-up. Baseline demographic and angiographic characteristics were also evaluated. R Statistical Software was used for statistical analysis. Main outcome measure was final anatomic status. Factors associated with less probability of preserved macula were diagnosis in 2009, older age, worse vision, presence of atrophy/fibrosis, pigment epithelium detachment, and geographic atrophy/fibrotic scar/neovascular AMD in the fellow eye. Factors associated with higher probability of GA were presence of atrophy and greater number of injections, whereas male sex, worse vision, lesser change in central macular thickness and presence of fibrosis were associated with less probability of GA as final macular status. Predictive model of preserved macula vs. GA/fibrotic scar showed sensibility of 77.78% and specificity of 69.09%. Predictive model of GA vs. fibrotic scar showed sensibility of 68.89% and specificity of 72.22%. We identified predictors of final macular status, and developed two predictive models. Predictive models that we propose are based on easily harvested variables, and, if validated, could be a useful tool for individual patient management and clinical research studies.

  1. Selection of models to calculate the LLW source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.

    1991-10-01

    Performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the source term). The focus of this work is to develop a methodology for calculating the source term. In general, the source term is influenced by the radionuclide inventory, the wasteforms and containers used to dispose of the inventory, and the physical processes that lead to release from the facility (fluid flow, container degradation, wasteform leaching, and radionuclide transport). In turn, many of these physical processes are influenced by the design of the disposal facility (e.g., infiltration of water). The complexity of the problem and the absence of appropriate data prevent development of an entirely mechanistic representation of radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Typically, a number of assumptions, based on knowledge of the disposal system, are used to simplify the problem. This document provides a brief overview of disposal practices and reviews existing source term models as background for selecting appropriate models for estimating the source term. The selection rationale and the mathematical details of the models are presented. Finally, guidance is presented for combining the inventory data with appropriate mechanisms describing release from the disposal facility. 44 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Short-term outcome and complications of TPLO using anatomically contoured locking compression plates in small/medium-breed dogs with "excessive" tibial plateau angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D C; Trinterud, T; Owen, M R; Bush, M A

    2016-06-01

    To report short-term radiographic and clinical outcome and complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in dogs less than 18·1 kg with tibial plateau angle greater than 35° using anatomically contoured six-hole locking compression plates. Retrospective data were collected on: preoperative, postoperative and follow-up tibial plateau angles, plateau segment rotation, tibial tuberosity width and length of the cranial aspect of tibial tuberosity segment from the patellar tendon insertion and rotation of the tibial plateau below the level of the insertion of the patellar ligament. In 26 small dogs (29 stifles in total), mean preoperative, postoperative and follow-up tibial plateau angles were 38·2°, 4·8°, and 4·4°, respectively. Documented postoperative complications were limited to patellar tendinopathy in a single case (3·4%) and tibial tuberosity or fibula fracture were not observed. Short-term radiographic and clinical outcome of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy stabilised with anatomically contoured six-hole locking compression plates for the treatment of small dogs with large tibial plateau angle suggests a very low risk of complications. Rotation beyond the "safe point" is necessary to perform full rotation in some cases, but does not appear to incur an increased risk of tibial tuberosity fracture. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Recent Selection Changes in Human Genes under Long-Term Balancing Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filippo, Cesare; Key, Felix M; Ghirotto, Silvia; Benazzo, Andrea; Meneu, Juan R; Weihmann, Antje; Parra, Genís; Green, Eric D; Andrés, Aida M

    2016-06-01

    Balancing selection is an important evolutionary force that maintains genetic and phenotypic diversity in populations. Most studies in humans have focused on long-standing balancing selection, which persists over long periods of time and is generally shared across populations. But balanced polymorphisms can also promote fast adaptation, especially when the environment changes. To better understand the role of previously balanced alleles in novel adaptations, we analyzed in detail four loci as case examples of this mechanism. These loci show hallmark signatures of long-term balancing selection in African populations, but not in Eurasian populations. The disparity between populations is due to changes in allele frequencies, with intermediate frequency alleles in Africans (likely due to balancing selection) segregating instead at low- or high-derived allele frequency in Eurasia. We explicitly tested the support for different evolutionary models with an approximate Bayesian computation approach and show that the patterns in PKDREJ, SDR39U1, and ZNF473 are best explained by recent changes in selective pressure in certain populations. Specifically, we infer that alleles previously under long-term balancing selection, or alleles linked to them, were recently targeted by positive selection in Eurasian populations. Balancing selection thus likely served as a source of functional alleles that mediated subsequent adaptations to novel environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The neural bases of the short-term storage of verbal information are anatomically variable across individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feredoes, Eva; Tononi, Giulio; Postle, Bradley R

    2007-10-10

    What are the precise brain regions supporting the short-term retention of verbal information? A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study suggested that they may be topographically variable across individuals, occurring, in most, in regions posterior to prefrontal cortex (PFC), and that detection of these regions may be best suited to a single-subject (SS) approach to fMRI analysis (Feredoes and Postle, 2007). In contrast, other studies using spatially normalized group-averaged (SNGA) analyses have localized storage-related activity to PFC. To evaluate the necessity of the regions identified by these two methods, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to SS- and SNGA-identified regions throughout the retention period of a delayed letter-recognition task. Results indicated that rTMS targeting SS analysis-identified regions of left perisylvian and sensorimotor cortex impaired performance, whereas rTMS targeting the SNGA-identified region of left caudal PFC had no effect on performance. Our results support the view that the short-term retention of verbal information can be supported by regions associated with acoustic, lexical, phonological, and speech-based representation of information. They also suggest that the brain bases of some cognitive functions may be better detected by SS than by SNGA approaches to fMRI data analysis.

  5. Exposure to early life stress regulates Bdnf expression in SERT mutant rats in an anatomically selective fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Francesca; van der Doelen, Rick H A; Guidotti, Gianluigi; Racagni, Giorgio; Kozicz, Tamas; Homberg, Judith R; Riva, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Although the causes of psychiatric disorders are not fully understood, it is well established that mental illness originates from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In this regard, compelling evidence demonstrates that depression can be the consequence of altered, and often maladaptive, response to adversities during pre- and early post-natal life. In this study, we investigated the impact of chronic maternal separation (MS) on the expression of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout rats in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus as well as the ventromedial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC). We found that both SERT deletion and the MS led to an overall reduction in Bdnf expression in the ventral hippocampus and the ventromedial PFC, whereas in the dorsal hippocampus and in the dorsomedial PFC, we observed a significant increase in the neurotrophin gene expression after MS exposure, specifically in the heterozygous SERT rats. In summary, we show that the modulation of Bdnf expression in SERT mutant rats exposed to MS reflects the complex functional consequences of this gene-environment interaction with a clear distinction between the ventral and the dorsal subfields of the hippocampus and of the PFC. Early life stress differently affects the expression of Bdnf in an anatomically distinct manner as a function of SERT genotype. Specifically, both SERT deletion and the maternal separation (MS) led to an overall reduction in Bdnf expression in the ventral hippocampus and in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, whereas in the dorsal hippocampus and in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, we observed a significant increase in the neurotrophin gene expression after MS exposure specifically in the heterozygous SERT rats. We think that these findings may provide novel cues for modulating neurotrophin function, which is dys-regulated in several psychiatric conditions. © 2014 International

  6. Anatomical study of the nerve regeneration after selective neurectomy in the rabbit: clinical application for esthetic calf reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Yoo, Ja-Young; Lee, Ju-Young; Gil, Young-Chun; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were therefore to characterize the degeneration and regeneration of nerves to the calf muscles after selective neurectomy, both macroscopically and microscopically, and to determine the incidence of such regeneration in a rabbit model. Seventy four New Zealand white rabbits were used. Selective neurectomy to the triceps surae muscles was performed, and the muscles were subsequently harvested and weighed 1-4 months postneurectomy. The gastrocnemius muscles were stain...

  7. Mid-term survival outcome of single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic anatomical lung resection: a two-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching Feng; Fernandez, Ricardo; Mercedes, de la Torre; Delgado, Maria; Fieira, Eva; Wu, Ching Yang; Hsieh, Ming Ju; Paradela, Marina; Liu, Yun-Hen; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego

    2018-03-03

    Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (SPVATS) anatomical resection has been shown to be a feasible technique for lung cancer patients. Whether SPVATS has equivalent or better oncological outcomes for lung cancer patients remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perioperative and mid-term survival outcomes of SPVATS in 2 different medical centres. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent SPVATS anatomical resections between January 2014 and February 2017 in Coruña University Hospital's Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery Unit (Spain) and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan). Survival outcomes were assessed by pathological stage according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7th and 8th classifications. In total, 307 patients were enrolled in this study. Mean drainage days and postoperative hospital stay were 3.90 ± 2.98 and 5.03 ± 3.34 days. The overall 30-day mortality, 90-day morbidity and mortality rate were 0.7%, 20.1% and 0.7%, respectively. The 2-year disease-free survival and 2-year overall survival of the cohort were 80.6% and 93.4% for 1A, 68.8% and 84.6% for 1B, 51.0% and 66.7% for 2A, 21.6% and 61.1% for 2B, 47.6% and 58.5% for 3A, respectively, following the AJCC 7th classification. By the AJCC 8th classification, these were 92.3% and 100% for 1A1, 73.7% and 91.4% for 1A2, 75.2% and 93.4% for 1A3, 62.1% and 85.9% for 1B, 55.6% and 72.7% for 2A, 47.1% and 64.2% for 2B and 42.1% and 60.3% for 3A. Our preliminary results revealed that SPVATS anatomical resection achieves acceptable 2-year survival outcomes for early-stage lung cancer and is consistent with AJCC 8th staging system 2-year survival data. For advanced stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients, further evaluation is warranted.

  8. Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagergren Jan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. Methods This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels III–V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5–6.6. They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI. Results The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p Conclusion SDR is a safe and effective method for reducing spasticity permanently without major negative side effects. In combination with physiotherapy, in a group of carefully selected and systematically followed young children with spastic diplegia, it provides lasting functional benefits over a period of at least five years postoperatively.

  9. Visual short-term memory load strengthens selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2014-04-01

    Perceptual load theory accounts for many attentional phenomena; however, its mechanism remains elusive because it invokes underspecified attentional resources. Recent dual-task evidence has revealed that a concurrent visual short-term memory (VSTM) load slows visual search and reduces contrast sensitivity, but it is unknown whether a VSTM load also constricts attention in a canonical perceptual load task. If attentional selection draws upon VSTM resources, then distraction effects-which measure attentional "spill-over"-will be reduced as competition for resources increases. Observers performed a low perceptual load flanker task during the delay period of a VSTM change detection task. We observed a reduction of the flanker effect in the perceptual load task as a function of increasing concurrent VSTM load. These findings were not due to perceptual-level interactions between the physical displays of the two tasks. Our findings suggest that perceptual representations of distractor stimuli compete with the maintenance of visual representations held in memory. We conclude that access to VSTM determines the degree of attentional selectivity; when VSTM is not completely taxed, it is more likely for task-irrelevant items to be consolidated and, consequently, affect responses. The "resources" hypothesized by load theory are at least partly mnemonic in nature, due to the strong correspondence they share with VSTM capacity.

  10. Control processes during selective long-term memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızılırmak, J M; Rösler, F; Khader, P H

    2012-01-16

    In our daily life, we often need to selectively remember information related to the same retrieval cue in a consecutive manner (e.g., ingredients from a recipe). To investigate such selection processes during cued long-term memory (LTM) retrieval, we used a paradigm in which the retrieval demands were systematically varied from trial to trial and analyzed, by means of behavior and slow cortical EEG potentials (SCPs), the retrieval processes in the current trial depending on those of the previous trial. We varied whether the retrieval cue, the type of to-be-retrieved association (feature), or retrieval load was repeated or changed from trial to trial. The behavioral data revealed a benefit of feature repetition, probably due to trial-by-trial feature priming. SCPs further showed an effect of cue change with a mid-frontal maximum, suggesting increased control demands when the cue was repeated, as well as a parietal effect of retrieval-load change, indicating increased activation of posterior neural resources when focusing on a single association after all learned associations had been activated previously, compared to staying with single associations across trials. These effects suggest the existence of two distinct types of dynamic (trial-by-trial) control processes during LTM retrieval: (1) medial frontal processes that monitor or regulate interference within a set of activated associations, and (2) posterior processes regulating attention to LTM representations. The present study demonstrates that processes mediating selective LTM retrieval can be successfully studied by manipulating the history of processing demands in trial sequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Greek language: analysis of the cardiologic anatomical etymology: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezas, Georges; Werneck, Alexandre Lins

    2012-01-01

    The Greek language, the root of most Latin anatomical terms, is deeply present in the Anatomical Terminology. Many studies seek to analyze etymologically the terms stemming from the Greek words. In most of these studies, the terms appear defined according to the etymological understanding of the respective authors at the time of its creation. Therefore, it is possible that the terms currently used are not consistent with its origin in ancient Greek words. We selected cardiologic anatomical terms derived from Greek words, which are included in the International Anatomical Terminology. We performed an etymological analysis using the Greek roots present in the earliest terms. We compared the cardiologic anatomical terms currently used in Greece and Brazil to the Greek roots originating from the ancient Greek language. We used morphological decomposition of Greek roots, prefixes, and suffixes. We also verified their use on the same lexicons and texts from the ancient Greek language. We provided a list comprising 30 cardiologic anatomical terms that have their origins in ancient Greek as well as their component parts in the International Anatomical Terminology. We included the terms in the way they were standardized in Portuguese, English, and Modern Greek as well as the roots of the ancient Greek words that originated them. Many works deal with the true origin of words (etymology) but most of them neither returns to the earliest roots nor relate them to their use in texts of ancient Greek language. By comparing the world's greatest studies on the etymology of Greek words, this paper tries to clarify the differences between the true origin of the Greek anatomical terms as well as the origins of the cardiologic anatomical terms more accepted today in Brazil by health professionals.

  12. Anatomical study of the motor branches of the median nerve to the forearm and guidelines for selective neurectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, Catalina; Leclercq, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    The median nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of most of the muscles usually involved in upper limb spasticity. Selective neurectomy is one of the treatments utilized to reduce spasticity. The purpose of this study was to describe the variations of the motor branches of the median nerve in the forearm and draw recommendations for an appropriate planning of selective neurectomy. The median nerve was dissected in the forearm of 20 fresh cadaver upper limbs. Measurements included number, origin, division, and entry point of each motor branch into the muscles. One branch for the pronator teres was the most common pattern. In 9/20 cases, it arose as a common trunk with other branches. A single trunk innervated the flexor carpi radialis with a common origin with other branches in 17/20 cases. Two, three or four branches innervated the flexor digitorum superficialis, the first one frequently through a common trunk with other branches. They were very difficult to identify unless insertions of pronator teres and flexor digitorum superficialis were detached. The flexor digitorum profundus received one to five branches and flexor pollicis longus one to two branches from the anterior interosseous nerve. There is no regular pattern of the motor branches of the median nerve in the forearm. Our findings differ in many points from the classical literature. Because of the frequency of common trunks for different muscles, we recommend the use of peroperative electrical stimulation. Selective neurotomy of flexor digitorum superficialis is technically difficult, because the entry point of some of their terminal branches occurs just below the arch and deep to the muscle belly.

  13. Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmark, Eva; Josenby, Annika Lundkvist; Lagergren, Jan; Andersson, Gert; Strömblad, Lars-Göran; Westbom, Lena

    2008-12-14

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III-V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5-6.6). They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM) was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI). The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p spasticity over the 5 years. For GMFCS-subgroups I-II, III and IV-V significant improvements during the five years were seen in PROM for hip abduction, popliteal angle and ankle dorsiflexion (p = 0.001), capacity of gross motor function (GMFM) (p = 0.001), performance of functional skills and independence in self-care and mobility (PEDI) (p = 0.001). SDR is a safe and effective method for reducing spasticity permanently without major negative side effects. In

  14. Motor branches of the ulnar nerve to the forearm: an anatomical study and guidelines for selective neurectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Renata; Leclercq, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Precise knowledge of motor nerve branches is critical to plan selective neurectomies for the treatment of spastic limbs. Our objective is to describe the muscular branching pattern of the ulnar nerve in the forearm and suggest an ideal surgical approach for selective neurectomy of the flexor carpi ulnaris. The ulnar nerve was dissected under loop magnification in 20 upper limbs of fresh frozen cadavers and its branches to the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU) and to the flexor digitorum profundus muscle (FDP) were quantified. We measured their diameter, length and distance between their origin and the medial epicondyle. The point where the ulnar artery joined the nerve was observed. The position in which the ulnar nerve gave off each branch was noted (ulnar, posterior or radial) and the Martin-Gruber connection, when present, had its origin observed and its diameter measured. The ulnar nerve gave off two to five muscular branches, among which, one to four to the FCU and one or two to the FDP. In all cases, the first branch was to the FCU. It arose on average 1.4 cm distal to the epicondyle, but in four specimens it arose above or at the level of the medial epicondyle (2.0 cm above in one case, 1.5 cm above in two cases, and at the level of the medial epicondyle in one). The first branch to the FDP arose on average 5.0 cm distal to the medial epicondyle. All the branches to FDP but one arose from the radial aspect of the ulnar nerve. A Martin-Gruber connection was present in nine cases. All motor branches arose in the proximal half of the forearm and the ulnar nerve did not give off branches distal to the point where it was joined by the ulnar artery. The number of motor branches of the ulnar nerve to the FCU varies from 2 to 4. An ideal approach for selective neurectomy of the FCU should start 4 cm above the medial epicondyle, and extend distally to 50% of the length of the forearm or just to the point where the ulnar artery joins the nerve.

  15. Short-term functional and oncological outcomes of partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in patients with an anatomically or functionally solitary kidney: single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehana, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Masumori, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2013-12-01

    We retrospectively investigated short-term functional and oncological outcomes of partial nephrectomy (PN) for the anatomically or functionally solitary kidney in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Between 1993 and 2011, 193 partial nephrectomies were performed and 16 (8.3 %) had an imperative indication in our institution. The patients' characteristics, peri- and postoperative complications, surgical margin status and postoperative changes in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were assessed. The median follow-up period was 31.2 months and median age was 69.5 years. Open and laparoscopic PN were performed for 13 and 2 patients, respectively. One patient received ex-vivo PN followed by autotransplantation. There was no case with a positive surgical margin. All patients survived at the final day of observation. Median preoperative eGFR was 48.67 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and the reduction rate of eGFR at 3 months after operation was 20.9 % (0-50.2). Three patients (18.8 %) required temporary hemodialysis after operation and all these patients had stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) before operation. Only one patient needed chronic hemodialysis at 8 months after operation. PN can be performed safely and provides feasible functional and oncological outcomes. Preoperative CKD stage 4 patients may have a risk of temporary hemodialysis in the perioperative period.

  16. Infrared thermography of the pig thorax: an assessment of selected regions of interest by computed tomographical and anatomical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, A; Siewert, C; Gasse, H; Seifert, H; Hoeltig, D; Hennig-Pauka, I

    2015-04-01

    Current methods of diagnosis of respiratory diseases in swine are invasive, time-consuming and expensive. Infrared thermography (IRT) of the thorax might provide a new method of high specificity to select swine affected with lung alterations for further diagnostics. In this study, layer thickness of different tissues was determined in frozen thorax slices (FTS) by computed tomography (CT) and then related to skin temperatures measured by IRT in healthy pigs. The aim was to determine appropriate regions of interest (ROI) for evaluation of IRT images. Organ layer thicknesses measured in CT images correspond to those measured in FTS. Temperature differences between lung ROIs and abdomen ROIs were positively correlated with lung layer thickness at certain localizations, and negatively correlated with the thickness of the thorax wall and of inner organ layers. Reference values of differences between skin temperatures were established for two ROIs on the thorax with potential practical use for lung health status determination. Respective ROIs were located on vertical lines crossing the 7th (right) and the 10th (left) thoracic vertebrae. The presence of ribs affected skin temperature significantly. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Single thrombopoietin dose alleviates hematopoietic stem cells intrinsic short- and long-term ionizing radiation damage. In vivo identification of anatomical cell expansion sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronik-Le Roux, Diana; Nicola, Marie-Anne; Vaigot, Pierre; Nurden, Paquita

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are essential for maintaining the integrity of complex and long-lived organisms. HSC, which are self-renewing, reconstitute the hematopoietic system through out life and facilitate long-term repopulation of myeloablated recipients. We have previously demonstrated that when mice are exposed to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation, subsets of the stem/progenitor compartment are affected. In this study we examine the role of thrombopoietin (TPO) on the regenerative capacities of HSC after irradiation and report the first demonstration of efficacy of a single injection of TPO shortly after in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation for reducing HSC injury and improving their functional outcome. Our results demonstrate that TPO treatment not only reduced the number of apoptotic cells but also induced a significant modification of their intrinsic characteristics. These findings were supported by transplantation assays with long-term HSC that were irradiated or unirradiated, TPO treated or untreated, in CD45.1/CD45.2 systems and by using luciferase-labeled HSC for direct bioluminescence imaging in living animals. Of particular importance, our data demonstrate the skull to be a highly favorable site for the TPO-induced emergence of hematopoietic cells after irradiation, suggesting a TPO-mediated relationship of primitive hematopoietic cells to an anatomical component. Together, the data presented here: provide novel findings about aspects of TPO action on stem cells, open new areas of investigation for therapeutic options in patients who are treated with radiation therapy, and show that early administration of a clinically suitable TPO-agonist counteracts the previously observed adverse effects.

  18. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  19. Genetic parameters and consequences of selection for short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Quail chicks in the control were reared intermingled with the population under selection throughout generations of selection to also minimize environmental variation. At six weeks of age, female quails were moved into individual laying cages for egg production study. During egg production, the birds were ...

  20. The prognostic value of functional and anatomical parameters for the selection of patients receiving yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoloras, Geraldine

    Yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere therapy is being utilized as a treatment option for patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer due to its ability to target tumors within the liver. The success of this treatment is dependent on many factors, including the extent and type of disease and the nature of prior treatments received. Metabolic activity, as determined by PET imaging, may correlate with the number of viable cancer cells and reflect changes in viable cancer cell volume. However, contouring of PET images by hand is labor intensive and introduces an element of irreproducibility into the determination of functional target/tumor volume (FTV). A computer-assisted method to aid in the automatic contouring of FTV has the potential to substantially improve treatment individualization and outcome assessment. Commercial software to determine FTV in FDG-avid primary and metastatic liver tumors has been evaluated and optimized. Volumes determined using the automated technique were compared to those from manually drawn contours identified using the same cutoff in the standard uptake value (SUV). The reproducibility of FTV is improved through the introduction of an optimal threshold value determined from phantom experiments. Application of the optimal threshold value from the phantom experiments to patient scans was in good agreement with hand-drawn determinations of the FTV. It is concluded that computer-assisted contouring of the FTV for primary and metastatic liver tumors improves reproducibility and increases accuracy, especially when combined with the selection of an optimal SUV threshold determined from phantom experiments. A method to link the pre-treatment assessment of functional (PET based) and anatomical (CT based) parameters to post-treatment survival and time to progression was evaluated in 22 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases treated using 90Y microspheres and chemotherapy. The values for pre-treatment parameters that were the best

  1. Genetic parameters and consequences of selection for short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    term (30 days) egg production trait in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) over three generations (Go, G1 and G2). Heritabilities were estimated using the mixed model least squares and maximum likelihood computer programme. Fertility ...

  2. Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mario Beffa

    replacement heifers were selected on weight at mating within sub-line. Data recorded over ... weaning for bulls and weight prior to mating (three years) for replacement heifers. In 1976 the number of ... either the regression of an individual's breeding value estimate on its CSD (Falconer & Mackay, 1996), where regressions ...

  3. Analysis of growth characteristics in short-term divergently selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weeks of age body weight in divergent lines of Japanese quail. Growth curves for both sexes within each selection group resembled the general sigmoid shape of a typical growth curve. Gompertz model curves and the observed growth curves were ...

  4. Use of a New Hybrid Heparin-Bonded Nitinol Ring Stent in the Popliteal Artery: Procedural and Mid-term Clinical and Anatomical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthipun, Aneeta; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Kitrou, Panagiotis [King’s Health Partners, Department of Interventional Radiology, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Padayachee, Soundrie [King’s Health Partners, Department of Ultrasonic Angiology, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Karunanithy, Narayan; Ahmed, Irfan [King’s Health Partners, Department of Interventional Radiology, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Zayed, Hany [King’s Health Partners, Department of Vascular Surgery, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Katsanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: konstantinos.katsanos@gstt.nhs.uk, E-mail: katsanos@med.upatras.gr [King’s Health Partners, Department of Interventional Radiology, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo report the immediate and mid-term clinical and anatomical outcomes of a novel, hybrid, heparin-bonded, nitinol ring stent (TIGRIS; Gore Medical) when used for the treatment of lesions located in the popliteal artery.Materials and MethodsThis was a prospective single-centre registry. Patients eligible for inclusion were individuals suffering from symptomatic popliteal arterial occlusive disease (Rutherford–Becker stage 3–6; P1–P3 segments) and treated with placement of the TIGRIS stent(s). Patients were prospectively scheduled for clinical review and duplex ultrasound follow-up after 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures included immediate technical success, primary vessel patency, in-stent binary restenosis (evaluable by Duplex at 50 % threshold; PSVR > 2.0), freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR) and amputation-free survival (AFS) estimated by Kaplan–Meier (K–M) survival analysis. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was also performed to adjust for confounders and search for independent predictors of outcomes.ResultsFrom August 2012 to March 2014, a total of 54 popliteal TIGRIS stents were implanted in 50 limbs of 48 patients (27 men and 21 women; mean age 76.0 ± 1.7 years). Median Rutherford–Becker stage was five at baseline and 37/50 (74.0 %) were chronic total occlusions. Technical success was achieved in all cases (100 %). Stented lesion length was 114.2 ± 36.9 mm (range 6–20 cm). Median follow-up was 11.8 ± 0.8 months. After 12 months, primary patency of the TIGRIS stent was 69.5 ± 10.2 % with an 86.1 ± 5.9 % freedom from TLR and 87 ± 5.0 % AFS (K–M estimates).ConclusionThe TIGRIS hybrid heparin-bonded nitinol ring stent is a safe and effective endovascular option for complex occlusive disease of the popliteal artery.

  5. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  6. Site selection for the long term storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kote, M.

    1981-01-01

    The choice of underground sites depends on safety-protection criteria (geology, seismicity, hydraulics, kind of rocks, permeability, absorption), social economic criteria (site of little economic, strategic or touristic interest and with a low population density) and last, technical economic criteria (geographical position, ease of construction and operation). The long term storage is tied to the types of waste, for those of low and medium activity it can be guaranteed in the sub-surface with present techniques at reasonable costs, the safety of the storage will be based on the quality of the barrier system linked to the depot. In the case of the alpha waste and even more so for the vitrified fission products stored in deep geological formations, the site barriers play an essential role. In practice it will be necessary to optimize the storage centre to unite the safety-protection imperatives with all the constraints [fr

  7. The effect of long-term selection for the parameters of the allometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long-term effbct of selection for the parameters of the allometric model on fltness is investigated to evaluate the allometric model for long-term selection purposes. Fitness is deflned as the number of mature animals / female mated /. 100-day period, where mature animals are defrned as animals at the age of joining ...

  8. Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning general anatomy and anatomical variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2016-09-01

    Nomenclature of the general and variant anatomy belongs to the most neglected parts of the Latin anatomical nomenclature in Terminologia Anatomica. Although many important small structures are included in Terminologia Anatomica, when describing and teaching particular anatomy of any part of the human body, the general terms are necessary, such as planes, lines and flexion grooves. Moreover, Terminologia Anatomica contains only 149 terms of variant structures, enlisted in the parentheses to differentiate them from constant ones. They are only a rather representative selection and some more should be added, both from the educational and clinical point of view. The authors present some terms, completed with their definitions or explanations concerning the general and variant anatomy to evoke broader discussion on this topic which should issue in incorporation of proposed terms (or their equivalents) into the Terminologia Anatomica.

  9. Historical evolution of anatomical terminology from ancient to modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2007-06-01

    The historical development of anatomical terminology from the ancient to the modern can be divided into five stages. The initial stage is represented by the oldest extant anatomical treatises by Galen of Pergamon in the Roman Empire. The anatomical descriptions by Galen utilized only a limited number of anatomical terms, which were essentially colloquial words in the Greek of this period. In the second stage, Vesalius in the early 16th century described the anatomical structures in his Fabrica with the help of detailed magnificent illustrations. He coined substantially no anatomical terms, but devised a system that distinguished anatomical structures with ordinal numbers. The third stage of development in the late 16th century was marked by innovation of a large number of specific anatomical terms especially for the muscles, vessels and nerves. The main figures at this stage were Sylvius in Paris and Bauhin in Basel. In the fourth stage between Bauhin and the international anatomical terminology, many anatomical textbooks were written mainly in Latin in the 17th century, and in modern languages in the 18th and 19th centuries. Anatomical terms for the same structure were differently expressed by different authors. The last stage began at the end of the 19th century, when the first international anatomical terminology in Latin was published as Nomina anatomica. The anatomical terminology was revised repeatedly until the current Terminologia anatomica both in Latin and English.

  10. A Feature Selection Approach Based on Interclass and Intraclass Relative Contributions of Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection plays a critical role in text categorization. During feature selecting, high-frequency terms and the interclass and intraclass relative contributions of terms all have significant effects on classification results. So we put forward a feature selection approach, IIRCT, based on interclass and intraclass relative contributions of terms in the paper. In our proposed algorithm, three critical factors, which are term frequency and the interclass relative contribution and the intraclass relative contribution of terms, are all considered synthetically. Finally, experiments are made with the help of kNN classifier. And the corresponding results on 20 NewsGroup and SougouCS corpora show that IIRCT algorithm achieves better performance than DF, t-Test, and CMFS algorithms.

  11. Non-anatomical or direct anatomical repair of chronic lateral instability of the ankle: A systematic review of the literature after at least 10 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noailles, Thibaut; Lopes, Ronny; Padiolleau, Giovanni; Gouin, François; Brilhault, Jean

    2018-04-01

    A lateral ankle sprain is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation at the emergency trauma unit. Numerous surgical procedures have been described with long-term outcomes that differ. The long-term results of anatomical repair of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and the calcaneofibular (CFL) ligament are better, with less secondary radiological osteoarthritis than non-anatomical repair. A review of the literature after a minimum follow-up of 10 years was performed to analyze the clinical and radiological results of direct anatomical repair (Broström, Duquennoy) and non-anatomical repair (Watson Jones, Evans, Castaing). Thirteen articles were selected. Eight hundred and one ankles were evaluated after a mean follow-up of 15.3 years. The functional outcome was better after anatomical repair but with recurrent instability. Loss of range of motion and secondary osteoarthritis was more frequent after non-anatomical repair. Anatomical repair of the lateral collateral ligament of the ankle resulted in a better functional outcome and less secondary osteoarthritis than non-anatomical repair. Review of the literature; level of proof IV. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of selective attention in short-term memory and goal-directed behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention enables the prioritization of goal-relevant aspects of our sensory environment in order to guide our actions, or to store goal-relevant information in short-term memory. Yet, it remains largely unclear how attention prioritizes goal-relevant information. For example, selective

  13. ADJUSTABLE MACULAR BUCKLING FOR FULL-THICKNESS MACULAR HOLE WITH FOVEOSCHISIS IN HIGHLY MYOPIC EYES: Long-Term Anatomical and Functional Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciamani, Andrea; Lazzeri, Stefano; Rossi, Tommaso; Scarinci, Fabio; Parravano, Mariacristina; Ripandelli, Guido; Pileri, Marco A G; Nardi, Marco; Stirpe, Mario

    2016-04-01

    To assess functional and structural outcome after adjustable macular buckling for the treatment of foveoschisis (FS), associated with full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) in highly myopic eyes. Eighteen consecutive patients who underwent adjustable macular buckling for FS associated with FTMH were included in this prospective study. Three cases were not included in the analysis due to short follow-up period (less than 3 months). Outcome measures included anatomical success rate with FS resolution and FTMH closure, best-corrected visual acuity, mean retinal sensitivity, central retinal thickness, and fixation site and stability. Foveoschisis resolution and FTMH closure were observed in all cases between 1 month to 3 months after surgery. At 24 months of follow-up visit visual acuity improved in 13/15 eyes (86.7%) and remained stable in 2 (13.3%). Mean retinal sensitivity showed significant improvement from baseline 5.69 ± 3.52 dB to final 8.35 ± 3.86 dB; P buckling exoplant may represent an effective surgical option for the treatment of FS associated with FTMH in highly myopic eyes. Adjustable macular buckling showed high closure rate and virtually no tendency to recur. Functional results and safety are also interesting because vision improved and retinal thickness did not reduce significantly at 24 months of follow-up.

  14. Unification of Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voegels, Richard Louis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of endoscopy and computed tomography at the beginning of the 1980s brought to rhinology a revival of anatomy and physiology study. In 1994, the International Conference of Sinus Disease was conceived because the official “Terminologia Anatomica”[1] had little information on the detailed sinonasal anatomy. In addition, there was a lack of uniformity of terminology and definitions. After 20 years, a new conference has been held. The need to use the same terminology led to the publication by the European Society of Rhinology of the “European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses,” that can be accessed freely at www.rhinologyjournal.com. Professor Valerie Lund et al[2] wrote this document reviewing the anatomical terms, comparing to the “Terminology Anatomica” official order to define the structures without eponyms, while respecting the embryological development and especially universalizing and simplifying the terms. A must-read! The text's purpose lies beyond the review of anatomical terminology to universalize the language used to refer to structures of the nasal and paranasal cavities. Information about the anatomy, based on extensive review of the current literature, is arranged in just over 50 pages, which are direct and to the point. The publication may be pleasant reading for learners and teachers of rhinology. This text can be a starting point and enables searching the universal terminology used in Brazil, seeking to converge with this new European proposal for a nomenclature to help us communicate with our peers in Brazil and the rest of the world. The original text of the European Society of Rhinology provides English terms that avoided the use of Latin, and thus fall beyond several national personal translations. It would be admirable if we created our own cross-cultural adaptation of this new suggested anatomical terminology.

  15. Moving Beyond Managing Realized Genomic Relationship in Long-Term Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Badke, Yvonne; Fack, Veerle; De Meyer, Geert

    2017-06-01

    Long-term genomic selection (GS) requires strategies that balance genetic gain with population diversity, to sustain progress for traits under selection, and to keep diversity for future breeding. In a simulation model for a recurrent selection scheme, we provide the first head-to-head comparison of two such existing strategies: genomic optimal contributions selection (GOCS), which limits realized genomic relationship among selection candidates, and weighted genomic selection (WGS), which upscales rare allele effects in GS. Compared to GS, both methods provide the same higher long-term genetic gain and a similar lower inbreeding rate, despite some inherent limitations. GOCS does not control the inbreeding rate component linked to trait selection, and, therefore, does not strike the optimal balance between genetic gain and inbreeding. This makes it less effective throughout the breeding scheme, and particularly so at the beginning, where genetic gain and diversity may not be competing. For WGS, truncation selection proved suboptimal to manage rare allele frequencies among the selection candidates. To overcome these limitations, we introduce two new set selection methods that maximize a weighted index balancing genetic gain with controlling expected heterozygosity (IND-HE) or maintaining rare alleles (IND-RA), and show that these outperform GOCS and WGS in a nearly identical way. While requiring further testing, we believe that the inherent benefits of the IND-HE and IND-RA methods will transfer from our simulation framework to many practical breeding settings, and are therefore a major step forward toward efficient long-term genomic selection. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Beyond the complications: medium-term anatomical, sexual and functional outcomes following removal of trocar-guided transvaginal mesh. A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Stephen T; Nieuwoudt, Andri

    2012-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the anatomical, sexual and functional outcomes of women undergoing surgical intervention for complications of the trocar-guided transvaginal mesh (TVM) procedure. This was a retrospective analysis of a clinical database of women who had developed a complication following a TVM procedure. This included dyspareunia, mesh erosion, urinary symptoms, mesh contraction and prolapse recurrence. Pre- and post-operatively, we assessed the women for prolapse, stress incontinence, urgency, defecatory difficulty, digitation, pain, dyspareunia and apareunia. We also recorded the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) score. The TVM was removed and a Biodesign graft was used in the majority of cases to prevent further prolapse. Follow-up was at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 and 2 years. In our cohort of 21 women, 18 required surgery for pain and/or dyspareunia; 20 women had reached the 6-week follow-up at the time of analysis. At 6 weeks, two women still had pain and required a second intervention. Fifteen women had reached a 6-month follow-up and only one woman had persistent pain requiring repeat surgery. Of the 15 women, 7 were sexually active and in 6 cases the dyspareunia had resolved completely with 1 woman retaining an element of pain at intercourse. Six women had been seen at 12 months and all four of the sexually active women had no dyspareunia. There were no symptoms relating to prolapse in any of the women at 6 weeks, 6, 12 or 24 months. We report satisfactory outcomes following removal of a complicated TVM kit.

  17. Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning lower limb anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2017-09-18

    The aim of this article is to extend and revise the sections of Terminologia Anatomica (TA) dealing with the lower limb structures and to justify the use of newly proposed anatomical terms in clinical medicine, education, and research. Anatomical terms were gathered during our educational experience from anatomical textbooks and journals and compared with the four previous editions of the official Latin anatomical nomenclature. The authors summarise 270 terms with their definitions and explanations for both constant and variable morphological structures (bones, joints, muscles, vessels, nerves and superficial structures) of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot completed with several grammatical remarks and some general anatomical terms. The proposed terms should be discussed in wider anatomical community and potentially added to next edition of the TA.

  18. Trait-specific long-term consequences of genomic selection in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende Neves, Haroldo Henrique; Carvalheiro, Roberto; de Queiroz, Sandra Aidar

    2018-02-01

    Simulation studies allow addressing consequences of selection schemes, helping to identify effective strategies to enable genetic gain and maintain genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of genomic selection (GS) in genetic progress and genetic diversity of beef cattle. Forward-in-time simulation generated a population with pattern of linkage disequilibrium close to that previously reported for real beef cattle populations. Different scenarios of GS and traditional pedigree-based BLUP (PBLUP) selection were simulated for 15 generations, mimicking selection for female reproduction and meat quality. For GS scenarios, an alternative selection criterion was simulated (wGBLUP), intended to enhance long-term gains by attributing more weight to favorable alleles with low frequency. GS allowed genetic progress up to 40% greater than PBLUP, for female reproduction and meat quality. The alternative criterion wGBLUP did not increase long-term response, although allowed reducing inbreeding rates and loss of favorable alleles. The results suggest that GS outperforms PBLUP when the selected trait is under less polygenic background and that attributing more weight to low-frequency favorable alleles can reduce inbreeding rates and loss of favorable alleles in GS.

  19. The long term outcome of feminizing genital surgery for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: anatomical, functional and cosmetic outcomes, psychosexual development, and satisfaction in adult female patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Schreuders-Bais, C.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Rieu, P.N.M.A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are only a few reports analyzing the long term outcome of feminizing surgery in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Such analysis is crucial to evaluate the treatment and to make necessary adjustments. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the adult outcome after feminizing

  20. Principal Stratification in sample selection problems with non normal error terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocci, Roberto; Mellace, Giovanni

    The aim of the paper is to relax distributional assumptions on the error terms, often imposed in parametric sample selection models to estimate causal effects, when plausible exclusion restrictions are not available. Within the principal stratification framework, we approximate the true distribut...... an application to the Job Corps training program....

  1. Review of short-term demand forecasting methods and selection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of short-term demand forecasting methods and selection of the appropriate model for softwood sawmills in Tanzania. ... Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Journal Home ... This paper reviewed and tested forecasting methods for use-appropriateness in forecasting lumber demands in the sawmill

  2. Short-term responses to selection for parameters of the allometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    model also seems to be of value in genetic studies and some of its parameters ... day without withholding food and water prior to measure- ment. ..... and observed responses (Figure 2) compared well during the initial stages of selection (three and four generations respect- ively). In the short term, the direct responses to ...

  3. Impact of Auditory Selective Attention on Verbal Short-Term Memory and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…

  4. A Long-Term Outcome Study of Selective Mutism in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Wachter, Miriam; Laimbock, Karin; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Controlled study of the long-term outcome of selective mutism (SM) in childhood. Method: A sample of 33 young adults with SM in childhood and two age- and gender-matched comparison groups were studied. The latter comprised 26 young adults with anxiety disorders in childhood (ANX) and 30 young adults with no psychiatric disorders during…

  5. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  6. Mistakes in the usage of anatomical terminology in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2009-06-01

    Anatomical terminology serves as a basic communication tool in all the medical fields. Therefore Latin anatomical nomenclature has been repetitively issued and revised from 1895 (Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica) until 1998, when the last version was approved and published as the Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. A brief history of the terminology and nomenclature development is mentioned, along with the concept and contributions of the Terminologia Anatomica including the employed abbreviations. Examples of obsolete anatomical terms and their current synonyms are listed. Clinicians entered the process of the nomenclature revision and this aspect is demonstrated with several examples of terms used in clinical fields only, some already incorporated in the Terminologia Anatomica and a few obsolete terms still alive in non-theoretical communication. Frequent mistakes in grammar and orthography are stated as well. Authors of the article strongly recommend the use of the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in theoretical and clinical medicine.

  7. Population size and selection intensity effects on short-term response for a selection index in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Turrado, H

    1997-01-12

    The effects of population size and selection intensity on the short-term response to selection were investigated in an experiment with Tribolium, using a two-trait empirical selection index for pupal and adult weights. Twenty lines were selected following a factorial design of five population sizes (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 pairs of parents) and four selection intensities (20, 25, 33, and 50%), with three replicates. For each replicate, an unselected control with 16 pairs of parents was produced. There were four generations of selection per line. Selection response was significant in all lines with the 20% selection intensity and/or the 16-pair population size. Selection intensity and population size were significant effects and there was significant interaction between them. Higher selection intensities produced more overall significant response to selection (20% > (25% = 33%) > 50%); this significance was also found for the 16-pair population size. There was an overall significant difference among population sizes, with the larger population sizes giving more response than the smaller sizes (16-pair = 8-pair = 4-pair) > (2-pair = 1-pair); this significance was also found for the 20% selection intensity. There was a good agreement between observed and expected responses, except for the 50% selection intensity and/or 1-pair population size; expected values in generation 1 overestimated observed values. The realized heritability was similar in all lines. With equal and high numbers of individuals scored, it was better to choose a high selection intensity than a large population size. The results show that the effect of population size cannot be ignored, even in short-term selection response; the main influence of population size is through selection differential. RESUMEN: Los efectos del tamaño de población y la intensidad de selección sobre la respuesta a corto plazo para un índice de selección en Tribolium Los efectos del tamaño de población y la intensidad de

  8. Auditory-Cortex Short-Term Plasticity Induced by Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    The ability to concentrate on relevant sounds in the acoustic environment is crucial for everyday function and communication. Converging lines of evidence suggests that transient functional changes in auditory-cortex neurons, “short-term plasticity”, might explain this fundamental function. Under conditions of strongly focused attention, enhanced processing of attended sounds can take place at very early latencies (~50 ms from sound onset) in primary auditory cortex and possibly even at earlier latencies in subcortical structures. More robust selective-attention short-term plasticity is manifested as modulation of responses peaking at ~100 ms from sound onset in functionally specialized nonprimary auditory-cortical areas by way of stimulus-specific reshaping of neuronal receptive fields that supports filtering of selectively attended sound features from task-irrelevant ones. Such effects have been shown to take effect in ~seconds following shifting of attentional focus. There are findings suggesting that the reshaping of neuronal receptive fields is even stronger at longer auditory-cortex response latencies (~300 ms from sound onset). These longer-latency short-term plasticity effects seem to build up more gradually, within tens of seconds after shifting the focus of attention. Importantly, some of the auditory-cortical short-term plasticity effects observed during selective attention predict enhancements in behaviorally measured sound discrimination performance. PMID:24551458

  9. Effects of trawl selectivity and genetic parameters on fish body length under long-term trawling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Peng; Cui, He; Sheng, Huaxiang; Zhao, Fenfang; Tang, Yanli; Chen, Zelin

    2015-10-01

    Long-term fishing pressure affects the biological characteristics of exploited fish stocks. The biological characteristics of hairtail ( Trichiurus lepturus) in the East China Sea are unable to recover because of long-term trawling. Fishing induces evolutionary effects on the fish's biological characteristics. Evidence of these changes includes small size at age, a shift to earlier age structure, and early maturation. Natural and artificial selection usually affect the fish's life history. Selection can induce different chances of reproduction, and individual fish can give a different genetic contribution to the next generation. In this study, analysis of time-dependent probability of significance and test of sensitivity were used to explore the effects of fish exploitation rate, mesh size, and heritability with long-term trawling. Results showed that fishing parameters were important drivers to exploited fish population. However, genetic traits altered by fishing were slow, and the changes in biological characteristics were weaker than those caused by fishing selection. Exploitation rate and mesh size exhibited similar evolutionary trend tendency under long-term fishing. The time-dependent probability of significance trend showed a gradual growth and tended to be stable. Therefore, the direction of fishing-induced evolution and successful management of fish species require considerable attention to contribute to sustainable fisheries in China.

  10. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after selective feticide in monochorionic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klink, Jmm; Koopman, H M; Middeldorp, J M; Klumper, F J; Rijken, M; Oepkes, D; Lopriore, E

    2015-10-01

    To assess the incidence of and risk factors for adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in complicated monochorionic pregnancies treated with selective feticide at our centre between 2000 and 2011. Observational cohort study. National referral centre for fetal therapy (Leiden University Medical Centre, the Netherlands). Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed in 74 long-term survivors. Children, at least 2 years of age, underwent an assessment of neurologic, motor and cognitive development using standardised psychometric tests and the parents completed a behavioural questionnaire. A composite outcome termed neurodevelopmental impairment including cerebral palsy (GMFCS II-V), cognitive and/or motor test score of blindness or bilateral deafness requiring amplification. A total of 131 monochorionic pregnancies were treated with selective feticide at the Leiden University Medical Centre. Overall survival rate was 88/131 (67%). Long-term outcome was assessed in 74/88 (84%). Neurodevelopmental impairment was detected in 5/74 [6.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-12.5] of survivors. Overall adverse outcome, including perinatal mortality or neurodevelopmental impairment was 48/131 (36.6%). In multivariate analysis, parental educational level was associated with cognitive test scores (regression coefficient B 3.9, 95% CI 1.8-6.0). Behavioural problems were reported in 10/69 (14.5%). Adverse long-term outcome in survivor twins of complicated monochorionic pregnancies treated with selective feticide appears to be more prevalent than in the general population. Cognitive test scores were associated with parental educational level. Neurodevelopmental impairment after selective feticide was detected in 5/74 (6.8%, 95% CI 1.1-12.5) of survivors. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Anatomical terminology in Ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Abib, Fernando César; Oréfice, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é informar à classe oftalmológica a existência da edição em língua portuguesa da Terminologia Anatômica Internacional, editada pela Federation Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT). No Brasil a Terminologia Anatômica Internacional é traduzida pela Comissão de Terminologia Anatômica (CTA) da Sociedade Brasileira de Anatomia (SBA).The purpose of this article is inform ophthalmologists of the International Anatomical Terminology in the Portuguese language edited by t...

  12. Island-Model Genomic Selection for Long-Term Genetic Improvement of Autogamous Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Yamasaki, Masanori; Ebana, Kaworu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    selection in autogamous crops, especially bringing long-term improvement.

  13. Island-Model Genomic Selection for Long-Term Genetic Improvement of Autogamous Crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiori Yabe

    potential of genomic selection in autogamous crops, especially bringing long-term improvement.

  14. Selection of multiple cued items is possible during visual short-term memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Michi; Vecera, Shaun P

    2015-07-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that maintenance of a selected object feature held in visual short-term/working memory (VSTM/VWM) is supported by the same neural mechanisms that encode the sensory information. If VSTM operates by retaining "reasonable copies" of scenes constructed during sensory processing (Serences, Ester, Vogel, & Awh, 2009, p. 207, the sensory recruitment hypothesis), then attention should be able to select multiple items represented in VSTM as long as the number of these attended items does not exceed the typical VSTM capacity. It is well known that attention can select at least two noncontiguous locations at the same time during sensory processing. However, empirical reports from the studies that examined this possibility are inconsistent. In the present study, we demonstrate that (1) attention can indeed select more than a single item during VSTM maintenance when observers are asked to recognize a set of items in the manner that these items were originally attended, and (2) attention can select multiple cued items regardless of whether these items are perceptually organized into a single group (contiguous locations) or not (noncontiguous locations). The results also replicate and extend the recent finding that selective attention that operates during VSTM maintenance is sensitive to the observers' goal and motivation to use the cueing information.

  15. Minimax robust relay selection based on uncertain long-term CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Nisar, Muhammad Danish

    2014-02-01

    Cooperative communications via multiple relay nodes is known to provide the benefits of increase diversity and coverage. Simultaneous transmission via multiple relays, however, requires strong coordination between nodes either in terms of slot-based transmission or distributed space-time (ST) code implementation. Dynamically selecting a single best relay out of multiple relays and then using it alone for cooperative transmission alleviates the need for this strong coordination while still reaping the benefits of increased diversity and coverage. In this paper, we consider the design of relay selection (RS) under an imperfect knowledge of long-term channel state information (CSI) at the relay nodes, and we pursue minimax optimization to arrive at a robust RS approach that promises the best guarantee on the worst-case end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We provide some intuitive examples and extensive simulation results, not only in terms of worst-case SNR performance but also in terms of average bit-error-rate (BER) performance, to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed minimax robust RS scheme. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Long- and short-term selective forces on malaria parasite genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Nygaard, Sanne

    2010-09-09

    Plasmodium parasites, the causal agents of malaria, result in more than 1 million deaths annually. Plasmodium are unicellular eukaryotes with small ~23 Mb genomes encoding ~5200 protein-coding genes. The protein-coding genes comprise about half of these genomes. Although evolutionary processes have a significant impact on malaria control, the selective pressures within Plasmodium genomes are poorly understood, particularly in the non-protein-coding portion of the genome. We use evolutionary methods to describe selective processes in both the coding and non-coding regions of these genomes. Based on genome alignments of seven Plasmodium species, we show that protein-coding, intergenic and intronic regions are all subject to purifying selection and we identify 670 conserved non-genic elements. We then use genome-wide polymorphism data from P. falciparum to describe short-term selective processes in this species and identify some candidate genes for balancing (diversifying) selection. Our analyses suggest that there are many functional elements in the non-genic regions of these genomes and that adaptive evolution has occurred more frequently in the protein-coding regions of the genome. © 2010 Nygaard et al.

  17. Long- and short-term selective forces on malaria parasite genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Nygaard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium parasites, the causal agents of malaria, result in more than 1 million deaths annually. Plasmodium are unicellular eukaryotes with small ∼23 Mb genomes encoding ∼5200 protein-coding genes. The protein-coding genes comprise about half of these genomes. Although evolutionary processes have a significant impact on malaria control, the selective pressures within Plasmodium genomes are poorly understood, particularly in the non-protein-coding portion of the genome. We use evolutionary methods to describe selective processes in both the coding and non-coding regions of these genomes. Based on genome alignments of seven Plasmodium species, we show that protein-coding, intergenic and intronic regions are all subject to purifying selection and we identify 670 conserved non-genic elements. We then use genome-wide polymorphism data from P. falciparum to describe short-term selective processes in this species and identify some candidate genes for balancing (diversifying selection. Our analyses suggest that there are many functional elements in the non-genic regions of these genomes and that adaptive evolution has occurred more frequently in the protein-coding regions of the genome.

  18. Importance to include the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system in medical subject headings and in the international anatomical nomenclature A importância da inclusão do termo sistema musculoaponeurótico superficial nos descritores em ciências da saúde e na terminologia anatômica internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Massako Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. METHODS: Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4% and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%. CONCLUSION: The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.OBJETIVO: Investigar a relevância do termo sistema musculoaponeurótico superficial (SMAS para propor a sua indicação para indexação como palavra-chave e inclusão na Terminologia Anatômica Internacional. MÉTODOS: Termos relacionados ao SMAS foram recuperados de artigos originais identificados por mapeamento automático nas bases ISI Web Of Science e MEDLINE (PubMed. Os termos foram agrupados a fim de formar uma estratégia de busca de alta sensibilidade, limitada a periódicos exclusivos da especialidade de Cirurgia Plástica. Destes periódicos, foram selecionados artigos publicados de janeiro de 1996 a

  19. LTP promotes a selective long-term stabilization and clustering of dendritic spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias De Roo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are the main postsynaptic site of excitatory contacts between neurons in the central nervous system. On cortical neurons, spines undergo a continuous turnover regulated by development and sensory activity. However, the functional implications of this synaptic remodeling for network properties remain currently unknown. Using repetitive confocal imaging on hippocampal organotypic cultures, we find that learning-related patterns of activity that induce long-term potentiation act as a selection mechanism for the stabilization and localization of spines. Through a lasting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and protein synthesis-dependent increase in protrusion growth and turnover, induction of plasticity promotes a pruning and replacement of nonactivated spines by new ones together with a selective stabilization of activated synapses. Furthermore, most newly formed spines preferentially grow in close proximity to activated synapses and become functional within 24 h, leading to a clustering of functional synapses. Our results indicate that synaptic remodeling associated with induction of long-term potentiation favors the selection of inputs showing spatiotemporal interactions on a given neuron.

  20. Selective deficit of spatial short-term memory: Role of storage and rehearsal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnì, Sonia; Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-10-01

    We report the neuropsychological and MRI investigation of a patient (GP) who developed a selective impairment of spatial short-term memory (STM) following damage to the dorso-mesial areas of the right frontal lobe. We assessed in this patient spatial STM with an experimental procedure that evaluated immediate and 5-20 s delayed recall of verbal, visual and spatial stimuli. The patient scored significantly worse than normal controls on tests that required delayed recall of spatial data. This could not be ascribed to a deficit of spatial episodic long-term memory because amnesic patients performed normally on these tests. Conversely, the patient scored in the normal range on tests of immediate recall of verbal, visual and spatial data and tests of delayed recall of verbal and visual data. Comparison with a previously described patient who had a selective deficit in immediate spatial recall and an ischemic lesion that affected frontal and parietal dorso-mesial areas in the right hemisphere (Carlesimo GA, Perri R, Turriziani P, Tomaiuolo F, Caltagirone C. Remembering what but not where: independence of spatial and visual working memory in the human brain. Cortex. 2001 Sep; 37(4):519-34) suggests that the right parietal areas are involved in the short-term storage of spatial information and that the dorso-mesial regions of the right frontal underlie mechanisms for the delayed maintenance of the same data.

  1. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  2. Using Long-Term Volunteer Records to Examine Dormouse (Muscardinusavellanarius Nestbox Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Williams

    Full Text Available Within ecology, there are unanswered questions about species-habitat interactions, which could potentially be resolved by a pragmatic analysis of a long-term volunteer-collected dataset. Here, we analysed 18 years of volunteer-collected data from a UK dormouse nestbox monitoring programme to determine the influence of habitat variables on nestbox choice by common dormice (Muscardinusavellanarius. We measured a range of habitat variables in a coppiced woodland in Gloucestershire, UK, and analysed these in relation to dormouse nestbox occupancy records (by dormice, other small mammals, and birds collected by volunteers. While some characteristics of the woodland had changed over 18 years, simple transformation of the data and interpretation of the results indicated that the dataset was informative. Using stepwise regressions, multiple environmental and ecological factors were found to determine nestbox selection. Distance from the edge of the wood was the most influential (this did not change over 18 years, with boxes in the woodland interior being selected preferentially. There was a significant negative relationship with the presence of ferns (indicative of damp shady conditions. The presence of oak (a long-lived species, and the clumped structural complexity of the canopy were also important factors in the final model. There was no evidence of competition between dormice and birds or other mammals. The results provide greater understanding of artificial dormouse nest-site requirements and indicate that, in terms of habitat selection, long-term volunteer-collected datasets contribute usefully to understanding the requirements of species with an important conservation status.

  3. [Violent video games and aggression: long-term impact and selection effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude-Müller, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    This study applied social-cognitive models of aggression in order to examine relations between video game use and aggressive tendencies and biases in social information processing. To this end, 499 secondary school students (aged 12-16) completed a survey on two occasions one year apart. Hierarchical regression analysis probed media effects and selection effects and included relevant contextual variables (parental monitoring of media consumption, impulsivity, and victimization). Results revealed that it was not the consumption of violent video games but rather an uncontrolled pattern of video game use that was associated with increasing aggressive tendencies. This increase was partly mediated by a hostile attribution bias in social information processing. The influence of aggressive tendencies on later video game consumption was also examined (selection path). Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control.

  4. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players ( n = 68) in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball 'talent' and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches ( n = 7) in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players ( n = 12 in each group) selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport.

  5. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schorer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players (n = 68 in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball ‘talent’ and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches (n = 7 in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players (n = 12 in each group selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport.

  6. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players (n = 68) in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball ‘talent’ and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches (n = 7) in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players (n = 12 in each group) selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport. PMID:28744238

  7. Short-Term Genetic Selection for Adolescent Locomotor Sensitivity to Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Chelsea R; Zhang, Yanping; Mackie, Ken; Boehm, Stephen L

    2018-03-17

    Cannabis use is linked to positive and negative outcomes. Identifying genetic targets of susceptibility to the negative effects of cannabinoid use is of growing importance. The current study sought to complete short-term selective breeding for adolescent sensitivity and resistance to the locomotor effects of a single 10 mg/kg THC dose in the open field. Selection for THC-locomotor sensitivity was moderately heritable, with the greatest estimates of heritability seen in females from the F2 to S3 generations. Selection for locomotor sensitivity also resulted in increased anxiety-like activity in the open field. These results are the first to indicate that adolescent THC-locomotor sensitivity can be influenced via selective breeding. Development of lines with a genetic predisposition for THC-sensitivity or resistance to locomotor effects allow for investigation of risk factors, differences in consequences of THC use, identification of correlated behavioral responses, and detection of genetic targets that may contribute to heightened cannabinoid sensitivity.

  8. Fisher Information Based Meteorological Factors Introduction and Features Selection for Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Cai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Weather information is an important factor in short-term load forecasting (STLF. However, for a long time, more importance has always been attached to forecasting models instead of other processes such as the introduction of weather factors or feature selection for STLF. The main aim of this paper is to develop a novel methodology based on Fisher information for meteorological variables introduction and variable selection in STLF. Fisher information computation for one-dimensional and multidimensional weather variables is first described, and then the introduction of meteorological factors and variables selection for STLF models are discussed in detail. On this basis, different forecasting models with the proposed methodology are established. The proposed methodology is implemented on real data obtained from Electric Power Utility of Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, in southeast China. The results show the advantages of the proposed methodology in comparison with other traditional ones regarding prediction accuracy, and it has very good practical significance. Therefore, it can be used as a unified method for introducing weather variables into STLF models, and selecting their features.

  9. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  10. Role of anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses on the prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses and their roles in the development of sinusitis. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography of paranasal sinuses of 350 patients was assessed in terms of anatomic variations and inflammatory sinus pathology.

  11. Genetic drift vs. natural selection in a long-term small isolated population: major histocompatibility complex class II variation in the Gulf of California endemic porpoise (Phocoena sinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Esquer-Garrigos, Yareli; Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo; Vazquez-Juarez, Ricardo; Castro-Prieto, Aines; Flores-Ramirez, Sergio

    2007-10-01

    Although many studies confirm long-term small isolated populations (e.g. island endemics) commonly sustain low neutral genetic variation as a result of genetic drift, it is less clear how selection on adaptive or detrimental genes interplay with random forces. We investigated sequence variation at two major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II loci on a porpoise endemic to the upper Gulf of California, México (Phocoena sinus, or vaquita). Its unique declining population is estimated around 500 individuals. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis revealed one putative functional allele fixed at the locus DQB (n = 25). At the DRB locus, we found two presumed functional alleles (n = 29), differing by a single nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution that could increase the stability at the dimer interface of alphabeta-heterodimers on heterozygous individuals. Identical trans-specific DQB1 and DRB1 alleles were identified between P. sinus and its closest relative, the Burmeister's porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis). Comparison with studies on four island endemic mammals suggests fixation of one allele, due to genetic drift, commonly occurs at the DQA or DQB loci (effectively neutral). Similarly, deleterious alleles of small effect are also effectively neutral and can become fixed; a high frequency of anatomical malformations on vaquita gave empirical support to this prediction. In contrast, retention of low but functional polymorphism at the DRB locus was consistent with higher selection intensity. These observations indicated natural selection could maintain (and likely also purge) some crucial alleles even in the face of strong and prolonged genetic drift and inbreeding, suggesting long-term small populations should display low inbreeding depression. Low levels of Mhc variation warn about a high susceptibility to novel pathogens and diseases in vaquita.

  12. Security threats to automotive CAN networks-Practical examples and selected short-term countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Tobias; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The IT security of automotive systems is an evolving area of research. To analyse the current situation and the potentially growing tendency of arising threats we performed several practical tests on recent automotive technology. With a focus on automotive systems based on CAN bus technology, this article summarises the results of four selected tests performed on the control systems for the window lift, warning light and airbag control system as well as the central gateway. These results are supplemented in this article by a classification of these four attack scenarios using the established CERT taxonomy and an analysis of underlying security vulnerabilities, and especially, potential safety implications. With respect to the results of these tests, in this article we further discuss two selected countermeasures to address basic weaknesses exploited in our tests. These are adaptations of intrusion detection (discussing three exemplary detection patterns) and IT-forensic measures (proposing proactive measures based on a forensic model). This article discusses both looking at the four attack scenarios introduced before, covering their capabilities and restrictions. While these reactive approaches are short-term measures, which could already be added to today's automotive IT architecture, long-term concepts also are shortly introduced, which are mainly preventive but will require a major redesign. Beneath a short overview on respective research approaches, we discuss their individual requirements, potential and restrictions.

  13. Stress within a Restricted Time Window Selectively Affects the Persistence of Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qin; Chai, Ning; Zhao, Li-Yan; Xue, Yan-Xue; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Jian, Min; Han, Ying; Shi, Hai-Shui; Lu, Lin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Ji-Shi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of stress on emotional memory are distinct and depend on the stages of memory. Memory undergoes consolidation and reconsolidation after acquisition and retrieval, respectively. Stress facilitates the consolidation but disrupts the reconsolidation of emotional memory. Previous research on the effects of stress on memory have focused on long-term memory (LTM) formation (tested 24 h later), but the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM (tested at least 1 week later) are unclear. Recent findings indicated that the persistence of LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the dorsal hippocampus. The present study investigated the effect of stress (i.e., cold water stress) during the late phase after the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory in rats. We found that stress and corticosterone administration during the late phase (12 h) after acquisition, referred to as late consolidation, selectively enhanced the persistence of LTM, whereas stress during the late phase (12 h) after retrieval, referred to as late reconsolidation, selectively disrupted the restabilized persistence of LTM. Moreover, the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM were blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, which was administered before stress, suggesting that the glucocorticoid system is involved in the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM. We conclude that stress within a restricted time window after acquisition or retrieval selectively affects the persistence of LTM and depends on the glucocorticoid system. PMID:23544051

  14. Stress within a restricted time window selectively affects the persistence of long-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yang

    Full Text Available The effects of stress on emotional memory are distinct and depend on the stages of memory. Memory undergoes consolidation and reconsolidation after acquisition and retrieval, respectively. Stress facilitates the consolidation but disrupts the reconsolidation of emotional memory. Previous research on the effects of stress on memory have focused on long-term memory (LTM formation (tested 24 h later, but the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM (tested at least 1 week later are unclear. Recent findings indicated that the persistence of LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the dorsal hippocampus. The present study investigated the effect of stress (i.e., cold water stress during the late phase after the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory in rats. We found that stress and corticosterone administration during the late phase (12 h after acquisition, referred to as late consolidation, selectively enhanced the persistence of LTM, whereas stress during the late phase (12 h after retrieval, referred to as late reconsolidation, selectively disrupted the restabilized persistence of LTM. Moreover, the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM were blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, which was administered before stress, suggesting that the glucocorticoid system is involved in the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM. We conclude that stress within a restricted time window after acquisition or retrieval selectively affects the persistence of LTM and depends on the glucocorticoid system.

  15. Long-term archives reveal shifting extinction selectivity in China's postglacial mammal fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crees, Jennifer J.; Li, Zhipeng; Bielby, Jon; Yuan, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems have been modified by human activities for millennia, and insights about ecology and extinction risk based only on recent data are likely to be both incomplete and biased. We synthesize multiple long-term archives (over 250 archaeological and palaeontological sites dating from the early Holocene to the Ming Dynasty and over 4400 historical records) to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene–modern range change across China, a megadiverse country experiencing extensive current-day biodiversity loss, for 34 mammal species over three successive postglacial time intervals. Our combined zooarchaeological, palaeontological, historical and current-day datasets reveal that both phylogenetic and spatial patterns of extinction selectivity have varied through time in China, probably in response both to cumulative anthropogenic impacts (an ‘extinction filter’ associated with vulnerable species and accessible landscapes being affected earlier by human activities) and also to quantitative and qualitative changes in regional pressures. China has experienced few postglacial global species-level mammal extinctions, and most species retain over 50% of their maximum estimated Holocene range despite millennia of increasing regional human pressures, suggesting that the potential still exists for successful species conservation and ecosystem restoration. Data from long-term archives also demonstrate that herbivores have experienced more historical extinctions in China, and carnivores have until recently displayed greater resilience. Accurate assessment of patterns of biodiversity loss and the likely predictive power of current-day correlates of faunal vulnerability and resilience is dependent upon novel perspectives provided by long-term archives. PMID:29167363

  16. [Transparency and replicability of nursing intervention studies in long-term care: A selective literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gspörer, Irene; Schrems, Berta M

    2017-12-18

    The development and evaluation of interventions in long-term care is time-consuming and expensive due to their complexity. To ensure reproducibility and successful implementation, these interventions must be described and published in a comprehensible and qualitative manner. The aim of this study is to analyze intervention studies from the inpatient long-term care setting with regard to their completeness, reporting quality, transparency and thus reproducibility. The completeness and the reporting quality of the interventions described in the publications were examined in the context of a selective literature review by means of intervention studies from the long-term care setting (n=22). To this end, the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and the Criteria for Reporting the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in Healthcare 2 (CReDECI2-DE) list were used. Transparency criteria included study registration and access to study protocols. The TIDieR checklist examination revealed that only three studies contained all the information necessary; the CReDECI2 test provided a complete description for only one study. Frequent shortcomings were observed concerning the information on modifications and titrations for the study participants and the location. Protocols were available for eight studies, 14 studies were registered. In terms of science, this means that the reproducibility of scientific findings is limited, which is why they cannot provide secure knowledge. As a result, the practical benefit to be derived from published studies that are accessible to decision-makers is limited as well. As far as publishers are concerned they should pay more attention to the completeness, registration and availability of materials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning upper limb anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this article is to revise and extend the existing sections of Terminologia Anatomica dealing with the upper limb structures, which nomenclature belongs to its most neglected and not developing parts, and to justify the use of the proposed anatomical terms in the clinical practice, research, and education. A sample collected from own educational and research experience was matched in the main anatomical textbooks as well as old and recent anatomical journals and compared with four versions of the official Latin anatomical nomenclatures. The authors summarize here 145 terms, completed with their definitions or explanations, concerning both constant and variable (inconstant) morphological structures (bones, joints, muscles, vessels, and nerves) of the pectoral girdle, arm, cubital region, forearm, wrist, and hand, completed with some grammar remarks and several general terms. After a broad discussion on this topic, the Terminologia Anatomica should be revised and extend with the listed terms (or their equivalents).

  18. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Plant selection and soil legacy enhance long-term biodiversity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra; Flynn, Dan F B; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Petermann, Jana S; Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Plant-plant and plant-soil interactions can help maintain plant diversity and ecosystem functions. Changes in these interactions may underlie experimentally observed increases in biodiversity effects over time via the selection of genotypes adapted to low or high plant diversity. Little is known, however, about such community-history effects and particularly the role of plant-soil interactions in this process. Soil-legacy effects may occur if co-evolved interactions with soil communities either positively or negatively modify plant biodiversity effects. We tested how plant selection and soil legacy influence biodiversity effects on productivity, and whether such effects increase the resistance of the communities to invasion by weeds. We used two plant selection treatments: parental plants growing in monoculture or in mixture over 8 yr in a grassland biodiversity experiment in the field, which we term monoculture types and mixture types. The two soil-legacy treatments used in this study were neutral soil inoculated with live or sterilized soil inocula collected from the same plots in the biodiversity experiment. For each of the four factorial combinations, seedlings of eight species were grown in monocultures or four-species mixtures in pots in an experimental garden over 15 weeks. Soil legacy (live inoculum) strongly increased biodiversity complementarity effects for communities of mixture types, and to a significantly weaker extent for communities of monoculture types. This may be attributed to negative plant-soil feedbacks suffered by mixture types in monocultures, whereas monoculture types had positive plant-soil feedbacks, in both monocultures and mixtures. Monocultures of mixture types were most strongly invaded by weeds, presumably due to increased pathogen susceptibility, reduced biomass, and altered plant-soil interactions of mixture types. These results show that biodiversity effects in experimental grassland communities can be modified by the evolution of

  20. [Historical development of modern anatomical education in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2008-12-01

    The medical schools in the beginning of Meiji era were diverse both in the founders and in the way of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organized medical education at the medical school of the university of Tokyo. The anatomical education in the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei who returned from the study in Germany. In 1882 (Meiji 15th), the general rule for medical school was enforced so that the medical schools were practically obliged to employ numbers of graduates of the university of Tokyo. In 1887 (Meiji 20th), the educational system was reformed so that many of the medical schools were closed, and the medical schools were integrated into one university, five national senior high schools and three prefectural ones in addition to four private ones. After that most of anatomical teachers were either graduates of the university of Tokyo or those who studied in the anatomical department of the university. Before 1877 (Meiji 10th), the anatomical books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationality were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 (Meiji 10th), the anatomical books based on the lectures by German teachers at the university of Tokyo were published. The anatomical books after 1887 (Meiji 20th) were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 (Meiji 38th), the original Japanese anatomical books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. At the first meeting of Japanese Association of Anatomists in 1893 (Meiji 26th), the Japanese anatomical teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the university of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomical department.

  1. Using long-term averted goats for selective grazing in olive groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanell, E; Manuelian, C L; Rovai, M; Salama, A A K; Caja, G

    2017-10-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a useful tool to modify animal feed preferences, allowing the implementation of selective grazing to control weeds in tree orchards without damaging the trees or affecting fruit production. LiCl is commonly used for inducing CTA. However, studies investigating the long-term persistence of CTA by LiCl in small ruminants are scarce. With this aim, we evaluated the efficiency of two LiCl doses (AV1 and AV2, 175 and 200 mg/kg BW, respectively) and a control (C, 0 mg/kg BW) for averting non-lactating dairy goats (n=15) to olive tree leaves. Aversion induction was reinforced on day 9 in those goats that consumed >10 g of olive leaves. Mid-term aversion effectiveness was assessed by five double-choice feeding tests (days 16, 24, 31, 38 and 53) of 30 min each, where 100 g of olive leaves were offered side-by-side with 390 g of Italian rye-grass (as-fed). Long-term aversion effectiveness was assessed in C, AV1 and AV2 goats by grazing for 30 min in paddocks with a simulated olive tree (days 59, 90, 121, 182 and 420). Moreover, C and AV2 goats were compared under on-field conditions (days 143, 211 and 363) in a commercial olive grove also for 30 min. The CTA proved to be established with a single LiCl dose in all goats and persisted for 4 and 55 days in AV1 and AV2 goats, respectively (Polive tree and commercial olive grove conditions, the CTA goats, especially AV2 group, avoided the contact with the olive trees and minimally used a bipedal stance to feed leaves, than control goats. On average, time proportion spent consuming olive leaves and sprouts was much greater (Polive tree leaves in goats.

  2. Visual Short-Term Memory Activity in Parietal Lobe Reflects Cognitive Processes beyond Attentional Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremata, Summer L; Somers, David C; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-02-07

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and attention are distinct yet interrelated processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires the maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection; therefore, it is important to determine whether overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands. While attention and VSTM activated similar cortical areas, BOLD amplitude and functional connectivity in parietal cortex differentiated the two tasks. Relative to attention, VSTM increased BOLD amplitude in dorsal parietal cortex and decreased BOLD amplitude in the angular gyrus. Additionally, the tasks differentially modulated parietal functional connectivity. Contrasting VSTM and attention, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) 1-2 were more strongly connected with anterior frontoparietal areas and more weakly connected with posterior regions. This divergence between tasks demonstrates that parietal activation reflects memory-specific functions and consequently modulates functional connectivity across the cortex. In contrast, both tasks demonstrated hemispheric asymmetries for spatial processing, exhibiting a stronger contralateral visual field bias in the left versus the right hemisphere across tasks, suggesting that asymmetries are characteristic of a shared selection process in IPS. These results demonstrate that parietal activity and patterns of functional connectivity distinguish VSTM from more general attention processes, establishing a central role of the parietal cortex in maintaining visual information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and

  3. Long-term outcome and adverse effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunt, S.; Becher, J.G.; Vermeulen, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess the long-term outcome and adverse events of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Method Studies were selected based on the following inclusion criteria: children with CP that underwent SDR with a follow-up period of at least 5years. The

  4. A Controlled Single-Case Treatment of Severe Long-Term Selective Mutism in a Child with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Sahiri, Safia; Riviere, Vinca

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the efficacy of combining two operant learning procedures--shaping and fading--for treating selective mutism. The participant was a 12-year-old boy with mental retardation presenting a severe long-term selective mutism. The treatment was aimed at increasing the loudness of his vocalizations in an…

  5. A study of Consistency in the Selection of Search Terms and Search Concepts: A Case Study in National Taiwan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the consistency in the selection of search terms and search contents of college and graduate students in National Taiwan University when they are using PsycLIT CD-ROM database. 31 students conducted pre-assigned searches, doing 59 searches generating 609 search terms. The study finds the consistency in selection of search terms of first level is 22.14% and second level is 35%. These results are similar with others’ researches. About the consistency in search concepts, no matter the overlaps of searched articles or judge relevant articles are lower than other researches. [Article content in Chinese

  6. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi; Vagner Messias Fruheling; Joao Caetano Abdo; Marcio Fernando Aparecido de Moura; Mario Namba; Joao Luiz Vieira da Silva; Luiz Antonio Munhoz da Cunha; Ana Paula Gebert de Oliveira Franco; Isabel Ziesemer Costa; Edmar Stieven Filho

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT), tibial plateau (TP) and tibial tuberosity (TT). A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the ...

  7. COMICS: Cartoon Visualization of Omics Data in Spatial Context Using Anatomical Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, Dmitrii; Popov, Iaroslav; Guler, Arzu Tugce; Medvedev, Dmitry; van der Plas-Duivesteijn, Suzanne; Varela, Monica; Kolder, Iris C R M; Meijer, Annemarie H; Spaink, Herman P; Palmblad, Magnus

    2018-01-05

    COMICS is an interactive and open-access web platform for integration and visualization of molecular expression data in anatomograms of zebrafish, carp, and mouse model systems. Anatomical ontologies are used to map omics data across experiments and between an experiment and a particular visualization in a data-dependent manner. COMICS is built on top of several existing resources. Zebrafish and mouse anatomical ontologies with their controlled vocabulary (CV) and defined hierarchy are used with the ontoCAT R package to aggregate data for comparison and visualization. Libraries from the QGIS geographical information system are used with the R packages "maps" and "maptools" to visualize and interact with molecular expression data in anatomical drawings of the model systems. COMICS allows users to upload their own data from omics experiments, using any gene or protein nomenclature they wish, as long as CV terms are used to define anatomical regions or developmental stages. Common nomenclatures such as the ZFIN gene names and UniProt accessions are provided additional support. COMICS can be used to generate publication-quality visualizations of gene and protein expression across experiments. Unlike previous tools that have used anatomical ontologies to interpret imaging data in several animal models, including zebrafish, COMICS is designed to take spatially resolved data generated by dissection or fractionation and display this data in visually clear anatomical representations rather than large data tables. COMICS is optimized for ease-of-use, with a minimalistic web interface and automatic selection of the appropriate visual representation depending on the input data.

  8. Simulating future uncertainty to guide the selection of survey designs for long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; Schweiger, E. William; Manier, Daniel J.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of environmental monitoring is to provide sound information on the status and trends of natural resources (Messer et al. 1991, Theobald et al. 2007, Fancy et al. 2009). When monitoring observations are acquired by measuring a subset of the population of interest, probability sampling as part of a well-constructed survey design provides the most reliable and legally defensible approach to achieve this goal (Cochran 1977, Olsen et al. 1999, Schreuder et al. 2004; see Chapters 2, 5, 6, 7). Previous works have described the fundamentals of sample surveys (e.g. Hansen et al. 1953, Kish 1965). Interest in survey designs and monitoring over the past 15 years has led to extensive evaluations and new developments of sample selection methods (Stevens and Olsen 2004), of strategies for allocating sample units in space and time (Urquhart et al. 1993, Overton and Stehman 1996, Urquhart and Kincaid 1999), and of estimation (Lesser and Overton 1994, Overton and Stehman 1995) and variance properties (Larsen et al. 1995, Stevens and Olsen 2003) of survey designs. Carefully planned, “scientific” (Chapter 5) survey designs have become a standard in contemporary monitoring of natural resources. Based on our experience with the long-term monitoring program of the US National Park Service (NPS; Fancy et al. 2009; Chapters 16, 22), operational survey designs tend to be selected using the following procedures. For a monitoring indicator (i.e. variable or response), a minimum detectable trend requirement is specified, based on the minimum level of change that would result in meaningful change (e.g. degradation). A probability of detecting this trend (statistical power) and an acceptable level of uncertainty (Type I error; see Chapter 2) within a specified time frame (e.g. 10 years) are specified to ensure timely detection. Explicit statements of the minimum detectable trend, the time frame for detecting the minimum trend, power, and acceptable probability of Type I error (

  9. Long-term functional benefits of selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Roy W R; Parolin, Michele; Gagnon, Bruno; Saluja, Rajeet; Yap, Rita; Montpetit, Kathleen; Ruck, Joanne; Poulin, Chantal; Cantin, Marie-Andrée; Benaroch, Thierry E; Farmer, Jean-Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Large-scale natural history studies of gross motor development have shown that children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) plateau during childhood and actually decline through adolescence. Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a well-recognized treatment for spastic CP, but little is known about long-term outcomes of this treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the durability of functional outcomes in a large number of patients through adolescence and into early adulthood using standardized assessment tools. The authors analyzed long-term follow-up data in children who had been evaluated by a multidisciplinary team preoperatively and at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years after SDR. These evaluations included quantitative, standardized assessments of lower-limb tone (Ashworth Scale), Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) by the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory in children who had been stratified by motor severity using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). In addition, group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) was used to identify any heterogeneity of response to SDR among these treated children, and to find which pretreatment variables might be associated with this heterogeneity. Finally, a chart review of adjunct orthopedic procedures required by these children following SDR was performed. Of 102 patients who underwent preoperative evaluations, 97, 62, 57, and 14 patients completed postoperative assessments at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. After SDR, through adolescence and into early adulthood, statistically significant durable improvements in lower-limb muscle tone, gross motor function, and performance of ADLs were found. When stratified by the GMFCS, long-lasting improvements for GMFCS Groups I, II, and III were found. The GBTM revealed 4 groups of patients who responded differently to SDR. This group assignment was associated with distribution of spasticity (diplegia was

  10. Long-term effects of soil management practices on selected indicators of chemical soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pecio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in scope of Catch-C project “Compatibility of agricultural management practices and types of farming in the EU to enhance climate change mitigation and soil health” (7FP, realized in 2012–2014 by the consortium of partners from 10 European countries (http://www.catch-c.eu. This work reports the effects of soil management practices – under different soil and climatic conditions – on the selected soil chemical quality indicators, based on the analysis of data extracted from literature on long term experiments (LTEs in Europe, as well as from LTEs held by the Catch-C consortium partners. The dataset related to soil chemical quality indicators consisted of 1044 records and referred to 59 long-term trials. The following indicators of chemical soil quality were analyzed: pH, N total content, N total stock, C:N ratio, N mineral content, P and K availability. They are the most frequently used indicators in the European literature on long-term experiments collected in the Catch-C project database. Soil organic carbon, however, the most important indicator was not presented here, due to it was covered by a separate study on indicators for climate change mitigation. The indicators were analyzed using their response ratio (RR to a management practice. For a given treatment (management practice, this ratio was calculated as the quotient between the indicator value obtained in the treatment, and the indicator value in the reference treatment. The examples were: rotation (with cereals, with legume crops, with tuber or root crops, with grassland vs. adequate monoculture, catch/cover crops vs. no catch/cover crops, no-tillage and no-inversion tillage vs. conventional tillage, mineral fertilization vs. no fertilization, organic fertilization (compost, farmyard manure, slurry vs. mineral fertilization at the same available nitrogen input, crop residue incorporation vs. removal. All tested practices influenced soil chemical quality

  11. Species selection under long-term experimental warming and drought explained by climatic distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daijun; Peñuelas, Josep; Ogaya, Romà; Estiarte, Marc; Tielbörger, Katja; Slowik, Fabian; Yang, Xiaohong; Bilton, Mark C

    2018-03-01

    Global warming and reduced precipitation may trigger large-scale species losses and vegetation shifts in ecosystems around the world. However, currently lacking are practical ways to quantify the sensitivity of species and community composition to these often-confounded climatic forces. Here we conducted long-term (16 yr) nocturnal-warming (+0.6°C) and reduced precipitation (-20% soil moisture) experiments in a Mediterranean shrubland. Climatic niche groups (CNGs) - species ranked or classified by similar temperature or precipitation distributions - informatively described community responses under experimental manipulations. Under warming, CNGs revealed that only those species distributed in cooler regions decreased. Correspondingly, under reduced precipitation, a U-shaped treatment effect observed in the total community was the result of an abrupt decrease in wet-distributed species, followed by a delayed increase in dry-distributed species. Notably, while partially correlated, CNG explanations of community response were stronger for their respective climate parameter, suggesting some species possess specific adaptations to either warming or drought that may lead to independent selection to the two climatic variables. Our findings indicate that when climatic distributions are combined with experiments, the resulting incorporation of local plant evolutionary strategies and their changing dynamics over time leads to predictable and informative shifts in community structure under independent climate change scenarios. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Selected Remarks about Computer Processing in Terms of Flow Control and Statistical Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Strzałka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that much has been said about processing in computer science, it seems that there is still much to do. A classical approach assumes that the computations done by computers are a kind of mathematical operation (calculations of functions values and have no special relations to energy transformation and flow. However, there is a possibility to get a new view on selected topics, and as a special case, the sorting problem is presented; we know many different sorting algorithms, including those that have complexity equal to O(n lg(n , which means that this problem is algorithmically closed, but it is also possible to focus on the problem of sorting in terms of flow control, entropy and statistical mechanics. This is done in relation to the existing definitions of sorting, connections between sorting and ordering and some important aspects of computer processing understood as a flow that are not taken into account in many theoretical considerations in computer science. The proposed new view is an attempt to change the paradigm in the description of algorithms’ performance by computational complexity and processing, taking into account the existing references between the idea of Turing machines and their physical implementations. This proposal can be expressed as a physics of computer processing; a reference point to further analysis of algorithmic and interactive processing in computer systems.

  13. Assessment of anatomical knowledge: Approaches taken by higher education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Freemont, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    Assessment serves the primary function of determining a student's competence in a subject. Several different assessment formats are available for assessing anatomical skills, knowledge and understanding and, as assessment can drive learning, a careful selection of assessments can help to engender the correct deep learning facility required of the safe clinical practitioner. The aim of this review was to survey the published literature to see whether higher education institutions are taking an andragogical approach to assessment. Five databases (EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge) were searched using standardized search terms with two limits applied (English language, and 2000 to the present). Among the 2,094 papers found, 32 were deemed suitable for this review. Current literature on assessment can be categorized into the following themes: assessment driven learning, types of assessments, frequency of assessments, and use of images in assessments. The consensus is to use a variety of methods, written and practical, to assess anatomical knowledge and skill in different domains. Institutions aim for different levels of Bloom's taxonomy for students at similar stages of their medical degree. Formative assessments are used widely, in differing formats, with mostly good effects on the final examination grade. In conclusion, a wide variety of assessments, each aimed at a different level of Bloom's taxonomy, are used by different institutions. Clin. Anat. 30:290-299, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Long-term outcomes after selective dorsal rhizotomy: a retrospective matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Meghan E; Aldahondo, Nanette; Krach, Linda E; Novacheck, Tom F; Schwartz, Michael H

    2017-11-01

    To examine long-term outcomes of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) 10 to 17 years after surgery. Participants who underwent SDR had spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP), completed baseline gait analysis, and were 16 to 25 years old at follow-up. Non-SDR participants (i.e. controls) were matched on important clinical parameters at baseline but did not undergo SDR. All study participants completed six surveys assessing pain, quality of life, participation, function, and mobility. Treatment history for lower extremity surgery and antispasticity injections was tabulated. A subset of each study group returned for three-dimensional gait analysis, including kinematics, metabolic energy cost, and physical examination. Gait Deviation Index (GDI) was calculated to measure gait quality. The study cohort had 24 participants with SDR and 11 without SDR. Of these, 13 patients with SDR (five males, eight females; median [IQR] age 17y 2mo [16y 8mo-17y 9mo]) and eight without SDR (three males, five females; median [IQR] age 19y 2mo [17y 3mo-21y 11mo]) completed baseline and follow-up gait analysis. Spasticity significantly decreased in those with SDR (pSDR than those with SDR (Δ non-SDR =12.8 vs Δ SDR =9.1; p=0.01). Compared with the SDR group, participants without SDR underwent significantly more subsequent interventions (pSDR and non-SDR groups showed improved gait quality more than 10 years after surgery. Participants without SDR had a larger improvement in gait pathology but underwent significantly more intervention. There were no differences between groups in survey measures. These results suggest differing treatment courses provide similar outcomes into early adulthood. Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) and non-SDR groups had significant improvement in gait pathology over time. The non-SDR group had significantly better gait compared with the SDR group at follow-up. The groups had similar levels of energy cost, pain, and quality of life. Non-SDR participants underwent

  15. Long term selection for reduced or increased pecking behaviour in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, A J; Kjaer, J B

    2008-01-01

    consensus as to the relation between selection on pecking behaviour and laying performance and egg quality, d) Plasma serotonin level in the blood was reduced in the lines selected against pecking behaviour in both the individual selected lines and the group selected lines and there were indications......) Aggressive pecking is not related to feather pecking, c) There is no clear consensus as to the relation between selection on pecking behaviour and laying performance and egg quality, d) Plasma serotonin level in the blood was reduced in the lines selected against pecking behaviour in both the individual......Feather pecking in laying hens is an important issue in animal welfare. Four studies in laying hens were selected which investigated increased or reduced pecking behaviour using direct or indirect measures of feather pecking behaviour. Direct comparison of the selected experiments is difficult...

  16. Short-term responses to selection for parameters of the allometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The allometric-autoregressive model describes growth accurately and is useful in the characterization of growth responses. Hence, the potential of the model for selection purposes was investigated. Rats were used in a selection experiment, where selection was practised for slope (b) and intercept (ln a) of the allometric ...

  17. Nomina anatomica. Anatomic terminology and the old French terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Passos, Luiz Fernando De Souza; Euzébio Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    A surprising finding in our seminars in Latin America and Spain was that approximately half of the participants continued to use the old French anatomical nomenclature. The substance of this paper is a table in which we compare the anatomical names for the items reviewed in our seminar, in a Spanish version of the old French nomenclature and in the Spanish, Portuguese, and English versions of the currently employed anatomical terms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  19. Long-term citalopram maintenance in mice: selective reduction of alcohol-heightened aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Elizabeth E; Miczek, Klaus A

    2008-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) alleviate many affective disturbances in human clinical populations and are used in animal models to study the influence of serotonin (5-HT) on aggressive behavior and impulsivity. We hypothesized that long-term SSRI treatment may reduce aggressive behavior escalated by alcohol consumption in mice. Therefore, aggression was tested in male CFW mice to determine whether repeated citalopram (CIT) administration reduces alcohol-heightened aggression. Resident male mice self-administered alcohol by performing an operant response on a panel placed in their home cage that delivered a 6% alcohol solution. Mice repeatedly confronted an intruder 15 min after self-administration of either 1 g/kg alcohol (EtOH) or water (H(2)O). Aggressive behaviors were higher in most mice when tests occurred after EtOH intake relative to H(2)O. Once baseline aggression was established, animals were injected (i.p.) twice daily with 10 mg/kg CIT or saline (SAL) for 32 days. Every 4 days throughout the CIT treatment period, aggressive encounters occurred 6 h after CIT injections, with testing conditions alternating between EtOH and H(2)O intake. Aggression was only modestly affected by CIT in the first 2 weeks of treatment. However, by day 17 of CIT treatment, alcohol-heightened aggressive behavior was abolished, while baseline aggression remained stable. These data lend support for the role of the 5-HT transporter in the control of alcohol-related aggressive behavior, and the time course of effects suggests that a change in density of 5HT(1A) autoreceptors is necessary before antidepressant drugs produce beneficial outcomes.

  20. Time Course Changes in Selected Biochemical Stress Indices in Broilers Exposed to Short-term Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bedáňová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Time course changes in selected biochemical stress indices (corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, cholesterol following short-term noise exposure at 100 dB for 28 min were studied in broilers aged 42 days. Corticosterone concentrations were found to increase during the first 10 min of noise exposure and to differ significantly from the control (background sound – 50 dB at Time 10 min and 14 min, then decreased continually and at 28 min returned to the initial prestress value. Triglyceride concentrations increased in broilers exposed to 100 dB noise during the first 12 min with a significant difference from the control at 12 min and 14 min. Glucose concentrations were higher due to 100 dB noise exposure for almost the entire period monitored, with significant differences between 100 dB and control broilers at 6 min and from 10 min to 14 min. Similarly as for the corticosterone concentration, a drop in triglycerides and glucose concentrations was seen approximately from Time 14 min and a return to the pre-stress value at 28 min. The cholesterol concentrations showed various temporal patterns with no significant difference between 100 dB and control broilers in this experiment. The pattern of response found in the study indicates that 100 dB noise represents a stress factor in broilers, however, there is the ability of broilers to adapt to an increased level of noise at this intensity after the first 14 min of exposure. The findings obtained in the study may contribute to expanding detailed knowledge of physiological stress responses to this specific noise stimulus in poultry, and could thereby be used to improve the welfare of broilers in intensive housing systems.

  1. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjae Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.

  3. Baseline anatomical assessment of the uterus and ovaries in infertile women: a systematic review of the evidence on which assessment methods are the safest and most effective in terms of improving fertility outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sarah C; Showell, Marian; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Rebar, Robert W; Vanderpoel, Sheryl; Farquhar, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    This review focuses on the initial presentation of women who suspect that they are infertile, and how best to assess the anatomy of their uterus and ovaries in order to investigate the cause of their infertility, and potentially improve desired fertility outcomes. This review was undertaken as part of a World Health Organization initiative to assess the evidence available to address guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility within a global context. Providing access to care for infertile women will help to ease the psycho-social burdens, such as ostracization, intimate partner violence and other negative consequences of being involuntarily childless or unable to become pregnant despite desiring a biological child or children. The aim of this paper was to present an evidence base for the diagnostic and prognostic value of various investigations used for detecting uterine and/or ovarian pathology in women presenting at fertility clinics for their initial assessment. We performed a comprehensive search of relevant studies on 28 August and 10 September 2014. A further search was performed on 6 June 2016 to ensure all possible studies were captured. These strategies were not limited by date or language. The search returned 3968 publications in total; 63 full text articles were retrieved and 10 additional studies were found through hand-searching. After excluding 54, a total of 19 studies were analysed. We extracted and tabulated data on the characteristics, quality and results of each eligible study and combined the findings in a narrative synthesis. Risk of bias was assessed according to article type using tools such as assessment of the methodological quality of systematic reviews, Newcastle Ottawa Scale, Cochrane risk of bias tool, quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies and quality in prognostic studies. Nineteen studies were selected as being the best evidence available. A narrative synthesis of the data was undertaken. Discussion of

  4. Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. On the new anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecková, E; Simon, F; Cervený, L

    2001-05-01

    The present paper is concerned with the linguistic aspect of the new anatomical nomenclature (Terminologia Anatomica 1998). Orthographic, morphological, syntactic, lexical, and terminological comments are presented. In the authors' opinion, shortcomings might have been effectively avoided by cooperation with linguists.

  6. Effect of long-term selection for egg production on eggshell quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, M M; El-Dlebshany, A E; El-Deen, M Bahie; Radwan, L M; Rayan, G N

    2016-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastuctural measurements of eggshell using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail. A selection program was applied over 22 consecutive generations for higher egg production and lower broken egg percentage. The results revealed that the females of the selected line produced significantly (P < 0.01) higher egg mass compared to that of the control line. Also, the selection procedure significantly improved feed conversion ratio. The eggshells of the selected line had a higher breaking strength compared to those of the control line, although there was no difference between them in shell thickness. Significantly higher wet (P < 0.01) and dry (P < 0.05) eggshell percentages were found in the selected line. In general, the eggshells of the selected line had a lower total score (good) of ultrastructural evaluation compared to the control line. According to scanning electron microscope data, the incidence of certain structural variants was more common in eggshells of the control line suggesting poor shell strength. The incidence of alignment was more prevalent in control eggshells compared to selected ones, suggesting lower resistance to breakage. Late fusion and large interstitial spaces of the palisade layer indicating decreased resistance to fracture were observed in control eggshells. It could be concluded that the improvement eggshell quality may be caused by the long-term selection for lower cracked and broken egg rates from generation to generation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Anatomic Preformed Post: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lamas Lara, César; Cirujano Dentista, Docente del Área de Operatoria Dental y Endodoncia de la Facultad de OdontoIogía de la UNMSM.; Alvarado Menacho, Sergio; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Profesor Asociado del Área de Prótesis y Oclusión de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Pari Espinoza, Rosa; Alumna del 5to año de Odontología de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, preformed posts are being used frequently, but they do not follow root canal anatomy. Obtaining a more anatomical form of the root canal and reducing the space of the cement, it would help to reduce the possibility of its eviction. This article details the process of making of an anatomical preformed post and the advantages that would represent its clinical use. En la actualidad los postes preformados se utilizan con mucha frecuencia, pero tienenla dificultad de no seguir la anat...

  8. Long-term response to genomic selection: effects of estimation method and reference population structure for different genetic architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, John W M; Coster, Albart; Calus, Mario P L; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2012-01-24

    Genomic selection has become an important tool in the genetic improvement of animals and plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of breeding value estimation method, reference population structure, and trait genetic architecture, on long-term response to genomic selection without updating marker effects. Three methods were used to estimate genomic breeding values: a BLUP method with relationships estimated from genome-wide markers (GBLUP), a Bayesian method, and a partial least squares regression method (PLSR). A shallow (individuals from one generation) or deep reference population (individuals from five generations) was used with each method. The effects of the different selection approaches were compared under four different genetic architectures for the trait under selection. Selection was based on one of the three genomic breeding values, on pedigree BLUP breeding values, or performed at random. Selection continued for ten generations. Differences in long-term selection response were small. For a genetic architecture with a very small number of three to four quantitative trait loci (QTL), the Bayesian method achieved a response that was 0.05 to 0.1 genetic standard deviation higher than other methods in generation 10. For genetic architectures with approximately 30 to 300 QTL, PLSR (shallow reference) or GBLUP (deep reference) had an average advantage of 0.2 genetic standard deviation over the Bayesian method in generation 10. GBLUP resulted in 0.6% and 0.9% less inbreeding than PLSR and BM and on average a one third smaller reduction of genetic variance. Responses in early generations were greater with the shallow reference population while long-term response was not affected by reference population structure. The ranking of estimation methods was different with than without selection. Under selection, applying GBLUP led to lower inbreeding and a smaller reduction of genetic variance while a similar response to selection was

  9. The future qualities of workforces : a simulation study of the long-term consequences of minor selection decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, W.S.J.; van Veen, K.

    In this paper we argue that in the HR literature, scant attention has been paid to the implementation and long-term effects of personnel selection policies. Our analysis focuses on how these policies affect the distribution of employees within a job structure over time. We simulate job-mobility

  10. Instructional Methods and Students' End of Term Achievement in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…

  11. Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle 4. Cow fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A selection and line x environment interaction study with grade Afrikaner cattle was established in 1956 at the Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe. Two selection lines of 100 cows each were reared in different management environments. The non-supplemented (NS) line relied on the range throughout the year and was ...

  12. Medium-term responses to and changes in fitness with selection for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was postulated that poor fit of the model in later generations, a lack of genetic variance, mutation, genetic drift and / or natural selection may be causing these discrepancies. The selection responses were accompanied by losses of fitness during certain generations, while in others, the responses disappeared altogether.

  13. Selection Behavior in the Market for Private Complementary Long-term Care Insurance in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jan; Schiller, Jörg; Schreckenberger, Christopher

    In this paper, we analyze selection effects in the German market for private complementary longterm care insurance contracts (CompLTCI) within a static and dynamic framework. Using data on more than 98,000 individuals from a German insurance company, we provide evidence that advantageous selection...

  14. Short-term traffic flow forecasting based on feature selection with mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhengwu; Tu, Chuan

    2017-05-01

    Traffic flow forecasting is related to many traffic variables, and how to select appropriate traffic variable combination is very important to traffic flow forecasting, which can reduce the cost of calculation and improve the forecasting precision. In this paper, a feature selection technique with mutual information is proposed for this purpose. Firstly, the mutual information is used to evaluate the relevance and redundancy of variables, and feature selection is used to select the relevant variables and filter out the redundancy between the selected variables. Secondly, BP neural network is used as the forecasting engine. Finally, a numerical example of traffic flow data from Pems is used to verify the forecasting performance of the proposed method, the results indicate that the proposed method can effectively reduce the cost of calculation and also improve the model forecasting precision.

  15. Most of the Long-Term Genetic Gains from Optimum-Contribution Selection can be Realised with Restrictions Imposed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Ostersen, Tage; Ask, Birgitte

    Text: We reasoned that optimum-contribution selection (OCS) with restrictions imposed during optimisation will realise most of the long-term genetic gains realised by OCS without restrictions. We used stochastic simulation to estimate long-term rates of genetic gain realised by breeding schemes...... using OCS without and with restrictions imposed during optimisation. In all but a few exceptions, the long-term rates of genetic gain realised by OCS with restrictions was 95-100% of the rates realised by OCS without restrictions. It was only when the restrictions became overly strict that we began...... to lose gain. We also present evidence from the Danish pig-breeding scheme for Duroc that practical implementation of OCS with restrictions increases genetic gains and decreases rates of inbreeding. OCS has gone from a selection method that was difficult to apply in practice, to one that is readily...

  16. Common usage of cardiologic anatomical terminology: critical analysis and a trilingual discussion proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Alexandre Lins; Batigália, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Terminology and Lexicography have been especially addressed to the Allied Health Sciences regarding discussion of case reports or concerning publication of scientific articles. The knowledge of Human Anatomy enables the understanding of medical terms and the refinement of Medical Terminology makes possible a better anatomicomedical communication in a highly technical level. Most of the scientific publications in both Anatomy and Medicine are found only in English and most of dictionaries or search resources available do not have specificity enough to explain anatomicomedical, terminological, or lexicographical occurrences. To design and produce a multilingual terminological dictionary (Latin-English-Portuguese-Spanish) containing a list of English anatomicomedical terms in common usage in cardiology subspecialties addressed to medical students and professionals, to other allied health sciences professionals, and to translators working in this specific field. Terms, semantical and grammatical components were selected to compose an anatomicocardiological corpus. The adequacy to the thematic terminological research requests and the translation reliability level will be settled from the terminology specificity in contrast to the semantics, as well as from a peer survey of the main terms used by national and international experts in specialized journals, Internet sites, and from text-books on Anatomy and Cardiology. The inclusion criteria will be the terms included in the English, Portuguese, and Spanish Terminologia Anatomica - the official terminology of the anatomical sciences; nonofficial technical commonly used terms which lead to terminology or translation misunderstanding often being a source of confusion. A table with a sample of the 508 most used anatomical cardiologic terms in English language peer-reviewed journals of cardiology and (pediatric and adult) thoracic surgery is shown. The working up of a multilingual terminological dictionary reduces the risk of

  17. Selected source term topics. Report to CSNI by an OECD/NEA Group of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    CSNI Report 136 summarizes the results of the work performed by the Group of Experts on the Source Term and Environmental Consequences (PWG4) during the period extending from 1983 and 1986. This report is complementary to Part 1, 'Technical Status of the Source Term' of CSNI Report 135, 'Report to CSNI on Source Term Assessment, Containment atmosphere control systems, and accident consequences'; it considers in detail a number of very specific issues thought to be important in the source term area. It consists of: an executive summary (prepared by the Chairman of the Group), a section on conclusions and recommendations, and five technical chapters (fission product chemistry in the primary circuit of a LWR during severe accidents; resuspension/re-entrainment of aerosols in LWRs following a meltdown accident; iodine chemistry under severe accident conditions; effects of combustion, steam explosions and pressurized melt ejection on fission product behaviour; radionuclide removal by pool scrubbing), a technical annex and two appendices

  18. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Long-Term Evaluation of SSL Field Performance in Select Interior Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The GATEWAY program evaluated the long-term performance characteristics (chromaticity change, maintained illuminance, and operations and maintenance) of LED lighting systems in four field installations previously documented in separate DOE GATEWAY reports.

  19. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

  20. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information.

  1. A plea for an extension of the anatomical nomenclature: The locomotor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Musil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical nomenclature is the main tool of communication in morphology, anatomy and other medical disciplines as well as in medical education, and thus needs to be exact, flawless, elaborate and correct. The Terminologia Anatomica (TA is a thorough and extensive list of anatomical terms and their definitions, and the current standard for human anatomical terminology. Although several revisions to the TA have been made in the last 20 years, some important anatomical structures are still not included. This article is aimed at correcting and extending the anatomical nomenclature described in the TA. We gathered and presented a list of anatomical terms, with their definitions and explanations, to provoke a discussion about correcting and extending the TA. Our list comprises of 96 terms related to the locomotor system of the human body, i.e., the bones, joints, muscles and related structures.

  2. A plea for an extension of the anatomical nomenclature: The locomotor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Vladimir; Blankova, Alzbeta; Baca, Vaclav

    2017-11-16

    Anatomical nomenclature is the main tool of communication in morphology, anatomy and other medical disciplines as well as in medical education, and thus needs to be exact, flawless, elaborate and correct. The Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is a thorough and extensive list of anatomical terms and their definitions, and the current standard for human anatomical terminology. Although several revisions to the TA have been made in the last 20 years, some important anatomical structures are still not included. This article is aimed at correcting and extending the anatomical nomenclature described in the TA. We gathered and presented a list of anatomical terms, with their definitions and explanations, to provoke a discussion about correcting and extending the TA. Our list comprises of 96 terms related to the locomotor system of the human body, i.e., the bones, joints, muscles and related structures.

  3. Understanding vaccination resistance: vaccine search term selection bias and the valence of retrieved information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jeanette B; Bell, Robert A

    2014-10-07

    Dubious vaccination-related information on the Internet leads some parents to opt out of vaccinating their children. To determine if negative, neutral and positive search terms retrieve vaccination information that differs in valence and confirms searchers' assumptions about vaccination. A content analysis of first-page Google search results was conducted using three negative, three neutral, and three positive search terms for the concepts "vaccine," "vaccination," and "MMR"; 84 of the 90 websites retrieved met inclusion requirements. Two coders independently and reliably coded for the presence or absence of each of 15 myths about vaccination (e.g., "vaccines cause autism"), statements that countered these myths, and recommendations for or against vaccination. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Across all websites, at least one myth was perpetuated on 16.7% of websites and at least one myth was countered on 64.3% of websites. The mean number of myths perpetuated on websites retrieved with negative, neutral, and positive search terms, respectively, was 1.93, 0.53, and 0.40. The mean number of myths countered on websites retrieved with negative, neutral, and positive search terms, respectively, was 3.0, 3.27, and 2.87. Explicit recommendations regarding vaccination were offered on 22.6% of websites. A recommendation against vaccination was more often made on websites retrieved with negative search terms (37.5% of recommendations) than on websites retrieved with neutral (12.5%) or positive (0%) search terms. The concerned parent who seeks information about the risks of childhood immunizations will find more websites that perpetuate vaccine myths and recommend against vaccination than the parent who seeks information about the benefits of vaccination. This suggests that search term valence can lead to online information that supports concerned parents' misconceptions about vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Custom anatomic healing abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak S Gowda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants with their increasing success rates and predictability of final outcome are fast becoming the treatment of choice for replacing missing teeth. Considering the success of immediate implant placement in reducing tissue loss and achieving good esthetic results, is making it a more popular treatment modality in implant dentistry. Understanding the management of gingival tissues in relation to implants to obtain maximum esthetics is of utmost importance. The use of provisional abutments and immediate temporization has a proven track record of their ability to produce optimal esthetics and to guide the tissue response during the healing phase. With careful patient selection and execution, customized healing abutments can provide an effective method to enhance the esthetic and emergence profile for anterior implant restorations.

  5. Long- and short-term selective forces on malaria parasite genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Braunstein, Alexander; Malsen, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites, the causal agents of malaria, result in more than 1 million deaths annually. Plasmodium are unicellular eukaryotes with small ~23 Mb genomes encoding ~5200 protein-coding genes. The protein-coding genes comprise about half of these genomes. Although evolutionary processes have...... a significant impact on malaria control, the selective pressures within Plasmodium genomes are poorly understood, particularly in the non-protein-coding portion of the genome. We use evolutionary methods to describe selective processes in both the coding and non-coding regions of these genomes. Based on genome...

  6. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  7. Selection harvests in Amazonian rainforests: long-term impacts on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. McNabb; M.S. Miller; B.G. Lockaby; B.J. Stokes; R.G. Clawson; John A. Stanturf; J.N.M. Silva

    1997-01-01

    Surface soil properties were compared among disturbance classes associated with a single-tree selection harvest study installed in 1979 in the Brazilian Amazon. Response variables included pH, total N, total organic C, extractable P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and bulk density. In general, concentrations of all elements displayed residual effects 16 years after harvests...

  8. Plant selection and soil legacy enhance long-term biodiversity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, D.; Flynn, D.F.B.; Deyn, de G.B.; Petermann, J.S.; Schmid, B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-plant and plant-soil interactions can help maintain plant diversity and ecosystem functions. Changes in these interactions may underlie experimentally-observed increases in biodiversity effects over time via the selection of genotypes adapted to low or high plant diversity. However, little is

  9. Long-term Carbon Loss and Recovery Following Selective Logging in Amazon Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Maoyi; Asner, Gregory P.

    2010-09-30

    Amazon deforestation contributes significantly to global carbon (C) emissions. In comparison, the contribution from selective logging to atmospheric CO2 emissions, and its impact on regional C dynamics, is highly uncertain. Using a new geographically-based modeling approach in combination with high resolution remote sensing data from 1999-2002, we estimate that C emissions were 0.04 – 0.05 Pg C yr-1 due to selective logging from a ~2,664,960 km2 region of the Brazilian Amazon. Selective logging was responsible for 15-19% higher carbon emissions than reported from deforestation (clear-cutting) alone. Our simulations indicated that forest carbon lost via selective logging lasts two to three decades following harvest, and that the original live biomass takes up to a century to recover, if the forests are not subsequently cleared. The two- to three-decade loss of carbon results from the biomass damaged by logging activities, including leaves, wood, and roots, estimated to be 89.1 Tg C yr-1 from 1999-2002 over the study region, leaving 70.0 Tg C yr-1 and 7.9 Tg C yr-1 to accumulate as coarse woody debris and soil C, respectively. While avoided deforestation is central to crediting rainforest nations for reduced carbon emissions, the extent and intensity of selective logging are also critical to determining carbon emissions in the context of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). We show that a combination of automated high-resolution satellite monitoring and detailed forest C modeling can yield spatially explicit estimates of harvest related C losses and subsequent recovery in support of REDD and other international carbon market mechanisms.

  10. Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano R R; Tessaro, Victor H; Teixeira, Luis A C; Murakava, Karina; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-02-01

    Acute moderate intensity continuous aerobic exercise can improve specific cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and selective attention. Moreover, high-intensity interval training (HIT) has been recently proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise. However, considering previous speculations that the exercise intensity affects cognition in a U-shaped fashion, it was hypothesized that a HIT session may impair cognitive performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of an acute HIT session on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. 22 healthy middle-aged individuals (M age = 53.7 yr.) engaged in both (1) a HIT session, 10 1 min. cycling bouts at the intensity corresponding to 80% of the reserve heart rate interspersed by 1 min. active pauses cycling at 60% of the reserve heart rate and (2) a control session, consisting of an active condition with low-intensity active stretching exercise. Before and after each experimental session, cognitive performance was assessed by the Victoria Version of the Stroop test (a selective attention test) and the Digit Span test (a short-term memory test). Following the HIT session, the time to complete the Stroop "Color word" test was significantly lower when compared with that of the control session. The performances in the other subtasks of the Stroop test as well as in the Digit Span test were not significantly different. A HIT session can improve cognitive function.

  11. Flexible selection of a single treatment incorporating short-term endpoint information in a phase II/III clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Nigel; Kunz, Cornelia Ursula; Todd, Susan; Parsons, Nicholas; Friede, Tim

    2015-10-15

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials in which an experimental treatment is selected at an interim analysis have been the focus of much recent research interest. Many of the methods proposed are based on the group sequential approach. This paper considers designs of this type in which the treatment selection can be based on short-term endpoint information for more patients than have primary endpoint data available. We show that in such a case, the familywise type I error rate may be inflated if previously proposed group sequential methods are used and the treatment selection rule is not specified in advance. A method is proposed to avoid this inflation by considering the treatment selection that maximises the conditional error given the data available at the interim analysis. A simulation study is reported that illustrates the type I error rate inflation and compares the power of the new approach with two other methods: a combination testing approach and a group sequential method that does not use the short-term endpoint data, both of which also strongly control the type I error rate. The new method is also illustrated through application to a study in Alzheimer's disease. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Short-term memory for auditory and visual durations: evidence for selective interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattat, Anne-Claire; Picard, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    The present study sought to determine the format in which visual, auditory and auditory-visual durations ranging from 400 to 600 ms are encoded and maintained in short-term memory, using suppression conditions. Participants compared two stimulus durations separated by an interval of 8 s. During this time, they performed either an articulatory suppression task, a visuospatial tracking task or no specific task at all (control condition). The results showed that the articulatory suppression task decreased recognition performance for auditory durations but not for visual or bimodal ones, whereas the visuospatial task decreased recognition performance for visual durations but not for auditory or bimodal ones. These findings support the modality-specific account of short-term memory for durations.

  13. Optimization of mixed quantum-classical dynamics: Time-derivative coupling terms and selected couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittner, Jiri; Lischka, Hans; Barbatti, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The usage of time-derivative non-adiabatic coupling terms and partially coupled time-dependent equations are investigated to accelerate non-adiabatic dynamics simulations at multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) level. The quality of the results and computational costs are compared against non-adiabatic benchmark dynamics calculations using non-adiabatic coupling vectors. In the comparison between the time-derivative couplings and coupling vectors, deviations in the adiabatic population of individual trajectories were observed in regions of rapid variation of the coupling terms. They, however, affected the average adiabatic population to only about 5%. For small multiconfiguration spaces, dynamics with time-derivative couplings are significantly faster than those with coupling vectors. This relation inverts for larger configuration spaces. The use of the partially coupled equations approach speeds up the simulations significantly while keeping the deviations in the population below few percent. Imidazole and the methaniminium cation are used as test examples

  14. Long-Term Evaluation of SSL Field Performance in Select Interior Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This GATEWAY project evaluated four field installations to better understand the long-term performance of a number of LED products, which can hopefully stimulate improvements in designing, manufacturing, specifying, procuring, and installing LED products. Field studies provide the opportunity to discover and investigate issues that cannot be simulated or uncovered in a laboratory, but the installed performance over time of commercially available LED products has not been well documented. Improving long-term performance can provide both direct energy savings by reducing the need to over-light to account for light loss and indirect energy savings through better market penetration due to SSL’s competitive advantages over less-efficient light source technologies. The projects evaluated for this report illustrate that SSL use is often motivated by advantages other than energy savings, including maintenance savings, easier integration with control systems, and improved lighting quality.

  15. Long-term genomic selection for heterosis without dominance in multiplicative traits: case study of bunch production in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, David; Denis, Marie; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Sánchez, Leopoldo

    2015-08-29

    To study the potential of genomic selection for heterosis resulting from multiplicative interactions between additive and antagonistic components, we focused on oil palm, where bunch production is the product of bunch weight and bunch number. We simulated two realistic breeding populations and compared current reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS) with reciprocal recurrent genomic selection (RRGS) over four generations. All breeding strategies aimed at selecting the best individuals in parental populations to increase bunch production in hybrids. For RRGS, we obtained the parental genomic estimated breeding values using GBLUP with hybrid phenotypes as data records and population specific allele models. We studied the effects of four RRGS parameters on selection response and genetic parameters: (1) the molecular data used to calibrate the GS model: in RRGS_PAR, we used parental genotypes and in RRGS_HYB we also used hybrid genotypes; (2) frequency of progeny tests (model calibration); (3) number of candidates and (4) number of genotyped hybrids in RRGS_HYB. We concluded that RRGS could increase the annual selection response compared to RRS by decreasing the generation interval and by increasing the selection intensity. With 1700 genotyped hybrids, calibration every four generations and 300 candidates per generation and population, selection response of RRGS_HYB was 71.8 % higher than RRS. RRGS_PAR with calibration every two generations and 300 candidates was a relevant alternative, as a good compromise between the annual response, risk around the expected response, increased inbreeding and cost. RRGS required inbreeding management because of a higher annual increase in inbreeding than RRS. RRGS appeared as a valuable method to achieve a long-term increase in the performance for a trait showing heterosis due to the multiplicative interaction between additive and negatively correlated components, such as oil palm bunch production.

  16. Alcohol during adolescence selectively alters immediate and long-term behavior and neurochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M; Badanich, Kimberly A; Kirstein, Cheryl L

    2010-02-01

    Alcohol use increases across adolescence and is a concern in the United States. In humans, males and females consume different amounts of alcohol depending on the age of initiation, and the long-term consequences of early ethanol consumption are not readily understood. The purpose of our work was to better understand the immediate and long-term impact of ethanol exposure during adolescence and the effects it can have on behavior and dopaminergic responsivity. We have assessed sex differences in voluntary ethanol consumption during adolescence and adulthood and the influence of binge ethanol exposure during adolescence. We have observed that males are sensitive to passive social influences that mediate voluntary ethanol consumption, and early ethanol exposure induces long-term changes in responsivity to ethanol in adulthood. Exposure to moderate doses of ethanol during adolescence produced alterations in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens septi during adolescence and later in adulthood. Taken together, all of these data indicate that the adolescent brain is sensitive to the impact of early ethanol exposure during this critical developmental period. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Ten years after the latest revision International Anatomical Terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlík, D; Bozdechová, I; Cech, P; Musil, V; Báca, V

    2008-01-01

    Ten years ago, the latest revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature was approved and published as Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology), and is acknowledged by the organization uniting national anatomical societies--International Federation of Associations of Anatomists. The authors concentrate on new terms included in the nomenclature and on the linguistic changes of terminology. The most frequent errors done by medical specialists in the usage of the Latin anatomical terminology are emphasized and the situation of eponyms in contemporary anatomy is discussed in detail as well. The last version of the nomenclature makes its way very slowly in the professional community and it is necessary to refer to positive changes and advantages it has brought. The usage of this Latin anatomical nomenclature version is suggested by the International Federation to follow in theoretical and clinical fields of medicine. The authors of the article strongly recommend using the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in the oral and written forms, when educating and publishing.

  18. Industrial disinfectants do not select for resistance in Listeria monocytogenes following long term exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can persist for years in food processing plants. It has been hypothesized that this could be due to the development of tolerance or resistance to the disinfectants used. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether biocide resistance...... or tolerance would evolve in L. monocytogenes under continued selection in three industrial disinfectants. L. monocytogenes EGD was exposed to Desinfect CL (hypochlorite) and Incimaxx DES (peracedic acid and hydrogen peroxide) for several hundred generations. This caused no increase in the minimal inhibitory...

  19. Conceptualizing the Autism Spectrum in Terms of Natural Selection and Behavioral Ecology: The Solitary Forager Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Edward Reser

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews etiological and comparative evidence supporting the hypothesis that some genes associated with the autism spectrum were naturally selected and represent the adaptive benefits of being cognitively suited for solitary foraging. People on the autism spectrum are conceptualized here as ecologically competent individuals that could have been adept at learning and implementing hunting and gathering skills in the ancestral environment. Upon independence from their mothers, individuals on the autism spectrum may have been psychologically predisposed toward a different life-history strategy, common among mammals and even some primates, to hunt and gather primarily on their own. Many of the behavioral and cognitive tendencies that autistic individuals exhibit are viewed here as adaptations that would have complemented a solitary lifestyle. For example, the obsessive, repetitive and systemizing tendencies in autism, which can be mistakenly applied toward activities such as block stacking today, may have been focused by hunger and thirst toward successful food procurement in the ancestral past. Both solitary mammals and autistic individuals are low on measures of gregariousness, socialization, direct gazing, eye contact, facial expression, facial recognition, emotional engagement, affiliative need and other social behaviors. The evolution of the neurological tendencies in solitary species that predispose them toward being introverted and reclusive may hold important clues for the evolution of the autism spectrum and the natural selection of autism genes. Solitary animals are thought to eschew unnecessary social contact as part of a foraging strategy often due to scarcity and wide dispersal of food in their native environments. It is thought that the human ancestral environment was often nutritionally sparse as well, and this may have driven human parties to periodically disband. Inconsistencies in group size must have led to

  20. Evaluation of selected near-term energy-conservation options for the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Colsher, C.S.; Hamilton, R.W.; Buehring, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    This report evaluates the potential for implementation of near-term energy-conservation practices for the residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, transportation, and utility sectors of the economy in twelve states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The information used to evaluate the magnitude of achievable energy savings includes regional energy use, the regulatory/legislative climate relating to energy conservation, technical characteristics of the measures, and their feasibility of implementation. This work is intended to provide baseline information for an ongoing regional assessment of energy and environmental impacts in the Midwest. 80 references.

  1. Why Does Romania Have a Negative Selection in Parliamentary Elections? An Analysis of the Recruitment and Selection System During the Last Three Legislative Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana MUNTEAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers theoretical perspectives on the recruitment and selection of political party candidates, in order to analyze the recruitment and selection process of Romanian MPs during the last three legislative terms. The Romanian proportional closed-list electoral system was replaced in 2008 by a majoritarian one, with single-member districts. In the wake of this change, party selectorates have loosened the admission criteria for candidates in parliamentary elections. Selectorates started considering candidates mostly because of their financial power and notoriety, while their education was overlooked. Our analysis shows that the quality of MPs’ diplomas has decreased significantly since 2008. Romanian MPs complete their education, most frequently technical, with MA or PhD degrees. Some get a second BA in fields complementary to their activity in Parliament – such as political, administrative or social sciences. These courses are usually taken later in life, at private universities, which are characterized by easy admission and graduation. Since there is no general rule for submitting their CVs, some MPs omit mentioning the information regarding the educational bodies that issued their diplomas. Romania continues to be characterized by a heterogeneous parliamentarian elite, as opposed to solid democracies, where the elite is formed in renowned universities. The latter also share a common background and are thus rather homogenous. We consider that a successful political reform in Romania should start within the party selectorates and their selection criteria of candidates for parliamentary elections.

  2. Evaluation and selection of NPPs for medium term period around 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zezula, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the European countries where a nuclear option remains open as a part of an energy mix. This will help the country to meet its international commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Moreover the country has also its own industrial potential which can significantly contribute to possible construction of a new nuclear source both in the Czech Republic and abroad. Therefore, the selection of a new nuclear source which could be connected to the national grid after 2020 is actually a pressing issue. General features of economics assessment philosophy as to electricity generation costs are briefly discussed, and an overview of basic economic assessment methods is presented. An example of the economic calculations for a small grid is also given. General approach to the evaluation of advanced nuclear power plants projects (feasible for the period around 2020) are discussed. A simple method of the preliminary evaluation and selection of a suitable type of the plant is presented and general targets which are prerequisite and follow also from important international activities (GIF project and INPRO project) are elucidated. (author)

  3. Short- and long-term effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy on gross motor function in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, Petra E M; Schothorst, Maaike; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; Strijers, Rob L M; Becher, Jules G

    2011-05-01

    The primary aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the short-term (1 year) and long-term (mean 6 years) effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) on gross motor function and spasticity in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia. Secondary aims were to investigate side effects, additional treatment during follow-up (botulinum toxin type A injections or orthopedic surgery), and parental satisfaction. Thirty-three children who had undergone SDR at a mean age of 6 years and 7 months (± 2 years) were included. There were 7 children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) Level I, 7 at Level II, and 19 at Level III. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66). Spasticity was measured according to a modified Tardieu scale. Side effects, additional treatment, and parental satisfaction were recorded using a parental questionnaire and medical records. At 1-year follow-up, mean GMFM-66 scores improved significantly by 4.3 ± 4.1 points. Children at GMFCS Levels I and II showed significantly more improvement (7.2 points) on the GMFM-66 compared with children at GMFCS Level III (2.9 points). On long-term follow-up (mean 6 years ± 22 months), mean GMFM-66 scores improved significantly by 6.5 ± 5.9 points, without a difference between children at GMFCS Levels I and II and Level III. No relapse of spasticity was noted. Ten children (30%) needed orthopedic surgery and 13 children (39%) received botulinum toxin type A treatment after SDR. Twenty (91%) of the 22 parents who answered the questionnaire at long-term follow-up believed that their child's functioning had improved after SDR. Selective dorsal rhizotomy resulted in short- and long-term improvements in gross motor function, without relapse of spasticity. However, the majority of the children still needed additional surgery or botulinum toxin A treatment.

  4. Short-term spatial memory responses in aged Japanese quail selected for divergent adrenocortical stress responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, C L; Schmidt, J B; Treese, S T; Satterlee, D G

    2010-04-01

    Stress-induced glucocorticoids can dampen learning and spatial memory via neuronal damage to the hippocampus. Cognition losses can be transient (associated with acute stress episodes) or permanent as in aged individuals who show chronic glucocorticoid-induced accelerated brain aging and neurodegeneration (dementia). Thus, chronic versus acute stress effects on spatial memory responses of quail selected for reduced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone (B) response to brief restraint were assessed. Aged food-motivated male LS and HS quail were tested for 10 min in a feed-baited 8-arm radial arm maze (RAM) 1) at 255 d of age (quail who had experienced lifelong management stressors but who were otherwise never intentionally stressed; that is, chronically stressed birds), 2) on the next day post-acute stressor treatment (5 min of restraint), and 3) on the next day without treatment (acute stress recovery). The RAM tests used the win-shift procedure in which visited arms were not rebaited. Radial arm maze performance was measured by determination of the total number of arm choices made, the number of correct entries made into baited arms out of the first 8 choices, the time required to make a choice, and the number of pellets eaten. Line effects (P LS), and number of pellets eaten (HS RAM testing nor its interaction with line further influenced these variables. Thus, although selection for divergent plasma B responsiveness to an acute stressor was found to be associated with severe impairment of spatial memory in aged male HS compared with LS quail, the observed spatial memory impairments (HS > LS) could not be further altered by acute stressor treatment. Line differences in cognition may reflect lifelong management-induced stress episodes that periodically produce higher plasma B responses in HS than LS quail, which underlie HS quail memory deficits, or other etiologies, or both.

  5. Selective peripheral denervation for cervical dystonia: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenheim, A Tommy; Nordh, Erik; Larsson, Eva; Hariz, Marwan I

    2015-12-01

    61 procedures with selective peripheral denervation for cervical dystonia were retrospectively analysed concerning surgical results, pain, quality of life (QoL) and recurrences. The patients were assessed with the Tsui torticollis scale, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and Fugl-Meyer scale for QoL. Evaluations were performed preoperatively, early postoperatively, at 6 months, then at a mean of 42 (13-165) months. All patients underwent electromyogram at baseline, which was repeated in cases who presented with recurrence of symptoms after surgery. Six months of follow-up was available for 55 (90%) of the procedures and late follow-up for 34 (56%). The mean score of the Tsui scale was 10 preoperatively. It improved to 4.5 (pFugl-Meyer score for QoL improved from 43.3 to 46.6 (p<0.05) at 6 months, and to 51.1 (p<0.05) at late follow-up. Major reinnervation and/or change in the dystonic pattern occurred following 29% of the procedures, and led in 26% of patients to reoperation with either additional denervation or pallidal stimulation. Selective peripheral denervation remains a surgical option in the treatment of cervical dystonia when conservative measures fail. Although the majority of patients experience a significant relief of symptoms, there is a substantial risk of reinnervation and/or change in the pattern of the cervical dystonia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Uterine and tubal anatomical abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    120 SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • December 2011. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Uterine and tubal anatomical abnormalities in infertile women: diagnosis with routine hystero- salpingography prior to selective laparoscopy. M Heis, MD, FRCR, FFRRCSI, CST. Z Amarin, MD, FRCOG, FFPH. A Y Ibrahim, MD. N Obeidat, MD.

  8. Stabilized gene duplication enables long-term selection-free heterologous pathway expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyo, Keith E J; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2009-08-01

    Engineering robust microbes for the biotech industry typically requires high-level, genetically stable expression of heterologous genes and pathways. Although plasmids have been used for this task, fundamental issues concerning their genetic stability have not been adequately addressed. Here we describe chemically inducible chromosomal evolution (CIChE), a plasmid-free, high gene copy expression system for engineering Escherichia coli. CIChE uses E. coli recA homologous recombination to evolve a chromosome with approximately 40 consecutive copies of a recombinant pathway. Pathway copy number is stabilized by recA knockout, and the resulting engineered strain requires no selection markers and is unaffected by plasmid instabilities. Comparison of CIChE-engineered strains with equivalent plasmids revealed that CIChE improved genetic stability approximately tenfold and growth phase-specific productivity approximately fourfold for a strain producing the high metabolic burden-biopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. We also increased the yield of the nutraceutical lycopene by 60%. CIChE should be applicable in many organisms, as it only requires having targeted genomic integration methods and a recA homolog.

  9. The Importance of Knowledge Management in Terms of Increasing Social Capital in Selected Slovene Technology Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the importance of knowledge management (KM and how it is influencing social capital (SC in selected organisations that are members of Slovene technology parks. The purpose of this article is to point out statistical important characteristics between the dependant variable and several independent variables on the basis of preliminary studied empirical data based on a population of 667 organisations chosen from the subjects of the innovative environment database maintained by the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI. On the basis of a multivariate regression analysis we wanted to present empirical findings, namely, whether communication technologies and the capability (ability of the employed to access information sources influences KM. With this article we want to present the final findings which define the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the influence of KM in small and medium sized companies on the development of social capital. We came to the conclusion that in an organisation the importance of intellectual and social capital, intangible capital assets and their continuous measurement has to be emphasised in order to increase the importance (awareness of KM.

  10. Routine maintenance: safety term based work selection; Selecao de trabalho baseado no prazo seguro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Albair de; Filho, Antnio S.; Brendler, Fabiano E.; Adamatti, Gilberto A.; Naruto, Itiro; Araujo, Luiz C.F.; Puerari, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work has objective to present the experience of improvement of routine maintenance system in some refineries of the PETROBRAS system, with the purpose to increase the efficiency in the Industrial Maintenance Management (cost), Utilization and HSE (Health, Safety and Environment), key of success of a petroleum company. The new system is based on the implantation of the culture of work selection in the safe period, through elaboration of new maintenance procedure, with emphasis in decisions shared between Operation and Maintenance Team, resulting in reduction of emergencies, making possible contract of services of maintenance for packages and improved allocation of resources. This work treat about improvement of the system in use, in view of that it has already taken in consideration the consequence of fail in the maintenance with participation of the operators. Besides of these challenge, this modification was made without causing riots in the process of implantation of SAP. As main result, financial profits had got better of resources with increase of safety, considering that they are analyzed in a way it that systematized potential risks. (author)

  11. Anatomical structure of Polystichum Roth ferns rachises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomical characteristics of rachis cross sections of five Polystichum species is presented. The main and auxiliary anatomical features which help to distinguish investigated species are revealed.

  12. Evaluation of long-term bond strength and selected properties of self-adhesive resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carianne Mendes de ALMEIDA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS of self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs to dentin and their physical-chemical properties. Five commercial SARCs were evaluated [SmartCem®2 – DENTSPLY (SC2; BisCem® – Bisco (BC; SeT PP® − SDI (SeT; Relyx U100® – 3M ESPE (U100 and YCEM® SA - Yller (YCEM]. The SARCs were evaluated for SBS to dentin (n = 10 after 24 h, 6 months, and 12 months. The dentin demineralization caused by acidic monomers was observed by SEM, and pH-neutralization of eluate was observed for 24 h. Degree of conversion (DC, rate of polymerization (Rp, flexural strength (FS, and elastic modulus (E were evaluated. Immediate SBS of SC2, SET, U100, and YCEM were statistically higher than that of BC (p < 0.001. After 12 months, all SARCs showed reduced SBS values and U100 showed values similar to those of SET and YCEM, and higher than those of BC and SC2 (p = 0.001. Demineralization pattern of SARCs was similar. At 24h, all SARCs showed no differences in the pH-value, except BC and U100 (p < 0.001. YCEM showed the highest Rp. U100, YCEM, and SC2 showed statistically higher FS (p<0.001 and E (p < 0.001 when compared with SET and BC. U100 and YCEM showed the best long-term bonding irrespective of the storage period. A significant reduction in SBS was found for all groups after 12 months. SBS was not shown to be correlated with physical-chemical properties, and appeared to be material-dependent. The polymerization profile suggested that an increased time of light activation, longer than that recommended by manufacturers, would be necessary to optimize DC of SARCs.

  13. Tinkering and the Origins of Heritable Anatomical Variation in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. L. Bard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary change comes from natural and other forms of selection acting on existing anatomical and physiological variants. While much is known about selection, little is known about the details of how genetic mutation leads to the range of heritable anatomical variants that are present within any population. This paper takes a systems-based view to explore how genomic mutation in vertebrate genomes works its way upwards, though changes to proteins, protein networks, and cell phenotypes to produce variants in anatomical detail. The evidence used in this approach mainly derives from analysing anatomical change in adult vertebrates and the protein networks that drive tissue formation in embryos. The former indicate which processes drive variation—these are mainly patterning, timing, and growth—and the latter their molecular basis. The paper then examines the effects of mutation and genetic drift on these processes, the nature of the resulting heritable phenotypic variation within a population, and the experimental evidence on the speed with which new variants can appear under selection. The discussion considers whether this speed is adequate to explain the observed rate of evolutionary change or whether other non-canonical, adaptive mechanisms of heritable mutation are needed. The evidence to hand suggests that they are not, for vertebrate evolution at least.

  14. The contribution of attenuated selection in utero to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term African American male infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julia M; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph A

    2013-07-01

    Natural selection conserves mechanisms allowing women to spontaneously abort gestations least likely to yield fit offspring. Small gestational size has been proposed as an indicator of fitness observable by maternal biology. Previous research suggests that exposure to ambient stress in utero results in more "culling" of small fetuses and therefore lower rates of small-for-gestational-age (SGA). However, African American women persistently have higher rates of SGA than non-Hispanic white women, despite experiencing more ambient stress. This paper tests whether attenuation of the stress response among highly stressed African American women, as suggested by the weathering hypothesis, may help to explain this apparent inconsistency. We apply time-series modeling to over 2 million African American and non-Hispanic white male term births in California over the period of January 1989 through December 2010. We test for the parabolic (i.e., "U" shaped) relationship, implied by an attenuated stress response, between unusually strong labor market contraction and the rate of SGA among African American term male infants, and a linear relationship among non-Hispanic whites. We find the hypothesized parabolic relationship among term male African American infants. As expected, we find a linear relationship between unexpected layoffs and the rate of SGA among term male non-Hispanic whites. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses. These results may help to explain the high rates of SGA among term male African American infants, despite greater maternal exposure to ambient stress during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does unemployment cause long-term mortality? Selection and causation after the 1992–96 deep Swedish recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mass unemployment in Europe is endemic, especially among the young. Does it cause mortality? Methods: We analyzed long-term effects of unemployment occurring during the deep Swedish recession 1992–96. Mortality from all and selected causes was examined in the 6-year period after the recession among those employed in 1990 (3.4 million). Direct health selection was analyzed as risk of unemployment by prior medical history based on all hospitalizations 1981–91. Unemployment effects on mortality were estimated with and without adjustment for prior social characteristics and for prior medical history. Results: A prior circulatory disease history did not predict unemployment; a history of alcohol-related disease or suicide attempts did, in men and women. Unemployment predicted excess male, but not female, mortality from circulatory disease, both ischemic heart disease and stroke, and from all causes combined, after full adjustment. Adjustment for prior social characteristics reduced estimates considerably; additional adjustment for prior medical history did not. Mortality from external and alcohol-related causes was raised in men and women experiencing unemployment, after adjustment for social characteristics and medical history. For the youngest birth cohorts fully adjusted alcohol mortality HRs were substantial (male HR = 4.44; female HR = 5.73). The effect of unemployment on mortality was not uniform across the population; men, those with a low education, low income, unmarried or in urban employment were more vulnerable. Conclusions: Direct selection by medical history explains a modest fraction of any increased mortality risk following unemployment. Mass unemployment imposes long-term mortality risk on a sizeable segment of the population. PMID:27085193

  16. No advantages in terms of safety. 'Energy in a Dialog' about the 'Final disposal site selection law'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The current legislative process for the site selection law (StandAG) was topic of the DAtF event 'Energy in a Dialog' on 6 June 2013 in Berlin: 'Is the path the goal: purpose and results of the site selection law'. The President of the German Atomic Forum (DAtF), Dr. Ralf Gldner, moderated the discussion with Prof. Dr. Ortwin Renn of the University of Stuttgart and the CEO of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service (GNS), Hannes Wimmer. The opportunities and risks of a new site search for high-level radioactive waste were the main topics. Professor Renn summarized some findings to conditions of acceptance perceived in connection with industrial projects. Dr. Wimmer said in his keynote that social acceptance for site selection for a repository must be maintained for a long time. During the ensuing discussion, a common understanding was evident on some aspects of the topic. This is especially true for a limitation of the new location search method in terms of its objective. As a realistic objective to determine a secure suitable site was considered instead of a 'best' location proposed by the new law. (orig.)

  17. Task-irrelevant distractors in the delay period interfere selectively with visual short-term memory for spatial locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; Scott, Jerry; Aron, Adam R; Ester, Edward F

    2017-07-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables the representation of information in a readily accessible state. VSTM is typically conceptualized as a form of "active" storage that is resistant to interference or disruption, yet several recent studies have shown that under some circumstances task-irrelevant distractors may indeed disrupt performance. Here, we investigated how task-irrelevant visual distractors affected VSTM by asking whether distractors induce a general loss of remembered information or selectively interfere with memory representations. In a VSTM task, participants recalled the spatial location of a target visual stimulus after a delay in which distractors were presented on 75% of trials. Notably, the distractor's eccentricity always matched the eccentricity of the target, while in the critical conditions the distractor's angular position was shifted either clockwise or counterclockwise relative to the target. We then computed estimates of recall error for both eccentricity and polar angle. A general interference model would predict an effect of distractors on both polar angle and eccentricity errors, while a selective interference model would predict effects of distractors on angle but not on eccentricity errors. Results showed that for stimulus angle there was an increase in the magnitude and variability of recall errors. However, distractors had no effect on estimates of stimulus eccentricity. Our results suggest that distractors selectively interfere with VSTM for spatial locations.

  18. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  19. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  20. Reboxetine, a unique selective NRI, prevents relapse and recurrence in long-term treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versiani, M; Mehilane, L; Gaszner, P; Arnaud-Castiglioni, R

    1999-06-01

    The long-term efficacy and tolerability of the antidepressant reboxetine, a unique selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (selective NRI), were assessed in an international study. Two hundred eighty-three patients with recurrent DSM-III-R major depression who responded to 6 weeks of reboxetine treatment (> or =50% decrease in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D] total score) were randomly assigned to receive reboxetine or placebo for 46 weeks in a double-blind phase. Relapse (> or =50% increase in HAM-D total score and/or a HAM-D total score > or =18) rate was the principal assessment criterion and included patients who experienced relapse or recurrence. Only patients who remained relapse-free at the end of the first 6-month treatment period were included in the relapse rate assessment at the end of the second 6-month treatment period. Reboxetine was associated with a markedly lower relapse rate than placebo (22% vs. 56%; p<.001) and a greater cumulative probability of a maintained response (p = .0001) during long-term treatment. Patients in remission (HAM-D total score < or =10) at the time of random assignment were less likely to relapse (16% reboxetine, 48% placebo; p<.001). The proportion of patients who were relapse-free and therefore remained in the study was significantly (p< or =.001) higher among those on reboxetine treatment than on placebo at the end of the first (61% vs. 40%) and second (88% vs. 59%) 6 months of treatment. Additional efficacy measures supported these findings. The incidence of adverse events with reboxetine was low and comparable with that for placebo. Discontinuation due to adverse events occurred infrequently. Reboxetine treatment over 1 year is more effective than placebo in the prevention of relapse in patients with recurrent depression. The low relapse rates at the end of the second 6 months of treatment further suggest that reboxetine effectively prevents recurrence of depressive symptoms following episode resolution

  1. Introducing 3-Dimensional Printing of a Human Anatomic Pathology Specimen: Potential Benefits for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education and Anatomic Pathology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amr; Bennett, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, a rapidly advancing technology, is widely applied in fields such as mechanical engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional printing has been introduced recently into medical practice in areas such as reconstructive surgery, as well as in clinical research. Three-dimensionally printed models of anatomic and autopsy pathology specimens can be used for demonstrating pathology entities to undergraduate medical, dental, and biomedical students, as well as for postgraduate training in examination of gross specimens for anatomic pathology residents and pathology assistants, aiding clinicopathological correlation at multidisciplinary team meetings, and guiding reconstructive surgical procedures. To apply 3D printing in anatomic pathology for teaching, training, and clinical correlation purposes. Multicolored 3D printing of human anatomic pathology specimens was achieved using a ZCorp 510 3D printer (3D Systems, Rock Hill, South Carolina) following creation of a 3D model using Autodesk 123D Catch software (Autodesk, Inc, San Francisco, California). Three-dimensionally printed models of anatomic pathology specimens created included pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple operation) and radical nephrectomy specimens. The models accurately depicted the topographic anatomy of selected specimens and illustrated the anatomic relation of excised lesions to adjacent normal tissues. Three-dimensional printing of human anatomic pathology specimens is achievable. Advances in 3D printing technology may further improve the quality of 3D printable anatomic pathology specimens.

  2. Patterns of survival and volatile metabolites of selected Lactobacillus strains during long-term incubation in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja; Olszewska, Magdalena; Miks-Krajnik, Marta; Zadernowska, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The focus of this study was to monitor the survival of populations and the volatile compound profiles of selected Lactobacillus strains during long-term incubation in milk. The enumeration of cells was determined by both the Direct Epifluorescent Filter Technique using carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) staining and the plate method. Volatile compounds were analysed by the gas-chromatography technique. All strains exhibited good survival in cultured milks, but Lactobacillus crispatus L800 was the only strain with comparable growth and viability in milk, assessed by plate and epifluorescence methods. The significant differences in cell numbers between plate and microscopic counts were obtained for L. acidophilus strains. The investigated strains exhibited different metabolic profiles. Depending on the strain used, 3 to 8 compounds were produced. The strains produced significantly higher concentrations of acetic acid, compared to other volatiles. Lactobacillus strains differed from one another in number and contents of the volatile compounds.

  3. Short-term choice behaviour in a mixed fishery: investigating métier selection in the Danish gillnet fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Ulrich, Clara; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2012-01-01

    fishers in a mixed fishery make use of a number of decision variables used previously in the literature, but also a number of decision parameters rarely explicitly accounted for, such as price, weather, and management regulation. The seasonal availability of individual target species and within......The study presents a short-term effort allocation modelling approach based on a discrete choice random utility model combined with a survey questionnaire to examine the selection of métiers (a combination of fishing area and target species) in the Danish North Sea gillnet fishery. Key decision......-year changes in monthly catch ration were the main explanatory drivers, but gillnetters were also responsive to information on the whole fishery, fish prices, and distance travelled to fishing grounds. Heterogeneous responses were evident from geographic differences in home harbour, which underpins the need...

  4. Stability of selected serum hormones and lipids after long-term storage in the Janus Serum Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislefoss, Randi E; Grimsrud, Tom K; Mørkrid, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The potential value of a biobank depends on the quality of the samples, i.e. how well they reflect the biological or biochemical state of the donors at the time of sampling. Documentation of sample quality has become a particularly important issue for researchers and users of biobank studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of selected components: cholesterol, high density cholesterol (HDLC), low density cholesterol (LDLC), apolipoprotein A1 (apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (apo B), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (FT4). Samples, stored at -25°C, from 520 men aged 40-49 years at blood sampling distributed in equally sized groups (n=130) according to length of storage, 0, 4, 17 and 29 years, respectively, were used in a cross sectional design. The freshly collected serum samples were used as a reference group to calculate storage related changes. The differences between fresh samples and samples stored for 29 years were substantial for apo-A1 (+12%), apo-B (+22.3%), HDLC (-69.2%), LDLC (+31.3%), and PRL (-33.5%), while total cholesterol, FSH, LH, TSH and FT4 did not show any significant difference. The study showed large differences in serum level of the selected components. The lipids and apolipoproteins were all changed except for total cholesterol. Most hormones investigated (FSH, LH, TSH and FT4) proved to be stable after 29 years of storage while PRL showed sign of degradation. The observed differences are probably due to long-term storage effects and/or external factors (i.e. diet and smoking). Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term effect of dexfenfluramine on amino acid profiles and food selection in obese patients during weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L.; Møller, S.-E.; Andersen, T.

    1996-01-01

    groups. Macronutrient selection was not affected by the dF treatment. In the placebo group weight loss was associated with a high pre-treatment energy intake and a high carbohydrate-protein ratio (p fat and increase in protein intake (%) and age was found to explain 82...... in obesity and to elucidate the long-term effect of dexfenfluramine (dF) on plasma amino acid profiles and macronutrient selection, we examined 29 obese patients participating in a 12 months double-blind weight loss trial with either dexfenfluramine (dF) (30 mg/day) or placebo (PL) in conjunction with 4.......2-5.0 MJ/d diet. Maximum weight loss was obtained after 6 months (dF 12.8 +/- 5.4 kg; PL 13.8 +/- 9.2 kg, x +/- s.d., ns). Plasma Trp/LNAA and Tyr/LNAA were found to be lower than in normal weight controls and were further reduced during treatment (p

  6. Mid-Long Term Results in the Arthroscopic Selective Capsular Release and Manipulation Treatment of Frozen Shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Haluk; Seckin, Mustafa Faik; Kara, Adnan; Camur, Savas; Kilinc, Eray; Akman, Senol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to present mid-long term functional outcomes of patients who underwent arthroscopic selective capsular release and manipulation for frozen shoulder refractory to conservative treatment. Methods: Between 2006 and 2012, 32 patients presented to our clinic with the diagnosis of frozen shoulder. 24 shoulders of 22 patients treated with arthroscopic selective capsular release and manipulation were included in the study. Functional results were analyzed with Constant shoulder score. The mean follow-up was 4.3 years (range 1-7 years). Results: We detected an average increase in passive range of motion in flexion 72°, abduction 90°, abduction-internal rotation 33°, and abduction-external rotation 38°, adduction-external rotation at 37° compared to the preoperative status. Constant shoulder score increased by an average of 44 points after surgery. Eighteen (82%) patients were satisfied with the operation. Three of four patients whose symptoms persisted had resistant diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Frozen shoulder is one of the most well-known causes of shoulder pain and disability. Although surgery has a good rate of success it does not help in all cases. Unsatisfactory results may be experienced in patients who have diabetes mellitus as a confounding factor.

  7. Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. P. D.; Bidin, K.; Blake, W. H.; Chappell, N. A.; Clarke, M. A.; Douglas, I.; Ghazali, R.; Sayer, A. M.; Suhaimi, J.; Tych, W.; Annammala, K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term (21–30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km2 Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990–2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994–1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5–15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km−2 a−1 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout 210Pb and 137Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km2 Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7–13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992–1993 and 1999–2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale. PMID:22006973

  8. Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R P D; Bidin, K; Blake, W H; Chappell, N A; Clarke, M A; Douglas, I; Ghazali, R; Sayer, A M; Suhaimi, J; Tych, W; Annammala, K V

    2011-11-27

    Long-term (21-30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km(2) Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990-2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994-1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5-15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km(-2) a(-1) 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout (210)Pb and (137)Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km(2) Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7-13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992-1993 and 1999-2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale.

  9. Greenhouse gases reduction potential through consumer’s behavioral changes in terms of food-related product selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Naoki; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Nagata, Junko; Amano, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction potential by shopping behavior change is analyzed. • Four scenarios related to food consumption is evaluated using life cycle assessment. • Total GHG reduction potential by four scenarios in Japan is 1367 kt-CO 2 /year. • Potential reduces to 45% when considering feasible ratio of taking behavior change. • Contribution of seasonal production/consumption scenario is highest among scenarios. - Abstract: Sustainable consumption plays an important role in the mitigation of global warming and the conservation of energy. Promoting more environmentally responsible consumer behavior, especially through open communication between stakeholders, is one way to achieve low-carbon consumption. This study evaluates the potential for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through behavioral transformation of consumers in terms of their daily shopping habits. In this context, the behavioral transformative actions pertain to certain foods and daily necessities, and are analyzed from a life cycle assessment perspective. We developed multiple product-selection scenarios to evaluate GHG emissions related to the daily purchase of commodities. Based on the life cycle assessment, we estimated the GHG emissions that result from the production and distribution of these commodities, pertaining to both the current product selection and to a possibly improved selection. The results of our study show that because of seasonal consumption patterns and energy conversion, there is a substantial potential to reduce GHG emissions resulting from out-of-season produce cultivation. The GHG reduction potential is not high for each individual commodity because diverse commodities are needed on a daily basis. However, various actions in combination could have substantial potential for reducing emissions.

  10. Blood morphology and the levels of selected cytokines related to hematopoiesis in occupational short-term exposure to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Boroń, Marta; Czuba, Zenon P.; Birkner, Ewa; Chwalba, Artur; Hudziec, Edyta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a short-term exposure to lead on the blood morphology and the levels of selected cytokines related to hematopoiesis in occupationally exposed workers. The study population included 37 males occupationally exposed to lead for 36 to 44 days. Their blood lead level raised from 10.7 ± 7.67 μg/dl at baseline to the level of 49.1 ± 14.1 μg/dl at the end of the study. The level of hemoglobin and values of MCH and MCHC were decreased due to a short-term exposure to lead by 2%, 2%, and 1%, respectively. The counts of WBC, LYM, and MXD increased significantly by 5%, 7%, and 35%. Similarly, the count of PLT increased by 7%, while PDW, MPV, and P-LCR decreased by 6%, 3%, and 9%, respectively. The levels of IL-7, G-CSF, HGF, PDGF AB/BB, SCF, and PECAM-1, decreased significantly by 30%, 33%, 8%, 30%, 25%, and 20%, respectively. A short-term occupational exposure to lead results in a decreased hemoglobin level and increased counts of WBC and PLT. Changes in counts and proportions of different types of leukocytes and decreased values of PLT indices, such as PDW, MPV, and P-LCR, due to the subacute lead-exposure may be associated with lead-induced decreased levels of cytokines related to hematopoiesis, including SCF, G-CSF, IL-7, and PDGF. - Highlights: • Subacute exposure to lead results in a decreased hemoglobin level. • Subacute exposure to lead results in increased counts of WBC and PLT. • Subacute exposure to lead decreases the levels of SCF, G-CSF, IL-7, and PDGF.

  11. Short- and long-term effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy on gross motor function in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia Clinical article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, P.E.M.; Schothorst, M.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeulen, R.J.; van Ouwerkerk, W.J.R.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Becher, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Object. The primary aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the short-term (1 year) and long-term (mean 6 years) effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) on gross motor function and spasticity in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia. Secondary aims were to investigate side

  12. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Bubenchikova; E. A. Nikitin

    2017-01-01

    The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical s...

  13. MR urography: Anatomical and quantitative information on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR urography: Anatomical and quantitative information on congenital malformations in children. Maria Karaveli, Dimitrios Katsanidis, Ioannis Kalaitzoglou, Afroditi Haritanti, Anastasios Sioundas, Athanasios Dimitriadis, Kyriakos Psarrakos ...

  14. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gastric Anatomic Type Is Associated with Obesity and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu Jen; Hung, Kun-Long; Yang, Jui-Neng; Wang, Tien-Cheng; Chin, Chih-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. Methods 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI); the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic t...

  16. Physiological Exploration of the Long Term Evolutionary Selection against Expression ofN-Glycolylneuraminic Acid in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito-Matsui, Yuko; Davies, Leela R L; Takematsu, Hiromu; Chou, Hsun-Hua; Tangvoranuntakul, Pam; Carlin, Aaron F; Verhagen, Andrea; Heyser, Charles J; Yoo, Seung-Wan; Choudhury, Biswa; Paton, James C; Paton, Adrienne W; Varki, Nissi M; Schnaar, Ronald L; Varki, Ajit

    2017-02-17

    All vertebrate cell surfaces display a dense glycan layer often terminated with sialic acids, which have multiple functions due to their location and diverse modifications. The major sialic acids in most mammalian tissues are N -acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N -glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the latter being derived from Neu5Ac via addition of one oxygen atom at the sugar nucleotide level by CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase (Cmah). Contrasting with other organs that express various ratios of Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc depending on the variable expression of Cmah, Neu5Gc expression in the brain is extremely low in all vertebrates studied to date, suggesting that neural expression is detrimental to animals. However, physiological exploration of the reasons for this long term evolutionary selection has been lacking. To explore the consequences of forced expression of Neu5Gc in the brain, we have established brain-specific Cmah transgenic mice. Such Neu5Gc overexpression in the brain resulted in abnormal locomotor activity, impaired object recognition memory, and abnormal axon myelination. Brain-specific Cmah transgenic mice were also lethally sensitive to a Neu5Gc-preferring bacterial toxin, even though Neu5Gc was overexpressed only in the brain and other organs maintained endogenous Neu5Gc expression, as in wild-type mice. Therefore, the unusually strict evolutionary suppression of Neu5Gc expression in the vertebrate brain may be explained by evasion of negative effects on neural functions and by selection against pathogens. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Variations in the Anatomical Structures of the Guyon Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Zahir T; Samargandi, Osama A; Tang, David T

    2017-05-01

    Compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon canal is commonly seen by hand surgeons. Different anatomical variations of structures related to the Guyon canal have been reported in the literature. A thorough knowledge of the normal contents and possible variations is essential during surgery and exploration. To review the recognized anatomical variations within and around the Guyon canal. This study is a narrative review in which relevant papers, clinical studies, and anatomical studies were selected by searching electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE). Extensive manual review of references of the included studies was performed. We also describe a case report of an aberrant muscle crossing the Guyon canal. This study identified several variations in the anatomical structures of the Guyon canal reported in the literature. Variations of the ulnar nerve involved its course, branching pattern, deep motor branch, superficial sensory branch, dorsal cutaneous branch, and the communication with the median nerve. Ulnar artery variations involved its course, branching pattern, the superficial ulnar artery, and the dorsal perforating artery. Aberrant muscles crossing the Guyon canal were found to originate from the antebrachial fascia, pisiform bone, flexor retinaculum, the tendon of palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, or flexor carpi radialis; these muscles usually fuse with the hypothenar group. The diverse variations of the contents of the Guyon canal were adequately described in the literature. Taking these variations into consideration is important in preventing clinical misinterpretation and avoiding potential surgical complications.

  18. Region-selective effects of long-term lithium and carbamazepine administration on cyclic AMP levels in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiborg, Ove; Krueger, Tanja; Jakosen, Soeren N.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of lithium and carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar affective disorder is well established. Althougt a number of biochemical effects have been found, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic actions have not been elucidated nor are the target regions in the brain identified. Taken into account the important role of the cyclic AMP second messenger system in the regulation of neuronal exitability and the indications of its involvement in the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorder, we have focused on the drug effects on cyclic AMP levels. The objectives of this investigation were to measure the effects on basal cyclic AMP levels, and to locate target regions within the rat brain after long-term administration of lithium and carbamazepine. Drug treatments were carried out for a period of 28 days. After either drug treatment the cyclic AMP level was increased 3-4 times in frontal cortex but unchanged in hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala and in cerebellum. In neostratum the cyclic AMP level was decreased to about 30% after treatment with lithium. We suggest the common region-selective effect, observed for both drugs in frontal cortex, to be essential for the therapeutic actions of lithium and carbamazepine. (au)

  19. Long-term impact of childhood selective dorsal rhizotomy on pain, fatigue, and function: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunter, Alecia K; Kratz, Anna L; Hurvitz, Edward A

    2017-10-01

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a surgical treatment for spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Studies suggest long-lasting effects of SDR on spasticity; long-term effects on symptoms and function are not clear. This study tested whether adults with CP (average 22y after SDR) report less pain, fatigue, and functional decline than a retrospectively assessed non-surgical comparison group. This was a case-control study. Eighty-eight adults with CP (mean age 27y; SDR=38 male/female/missing=20/16/2; non-surgical [comparison]=50, male/female=19/31) recruited from a tertiary care center and the community completed a battery of self-reported outcome measures. Regression models were used to test whether SDR status predicted pain, fatigue, functional change, and hours of assistance (controlling for Gross Motor Function Classification System level). SDR status did not significantly predict pain interference (p=0.965), pain intensity (p=0.512), or fatigue (p=0.404). SDR related to lower decline in gross motor functioning (p=0.010) and approximately 6 fewer hours of daily assistance than for those in the comparison group (p=0.001). Adults with CP who had SDR in childhood reported less gross motor decline and fewer daily assistance needs than non-surgically treated peers, suggesting the functional impact of SDR persists long after surgery. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Acne conglobata in a long-term survivor with trisomy 13, accompanied by selective IgM deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Chiyoko N; Tanaka, Yoshiko; Tabata, Nobuko

    2017-05-07

    Trisomy 13 (T13) is a congenital chromosomal disorder that is usually fatal within 2 years of birth, and only a few patients have been reported to reach adolescence. Here, we report a male long-term survivor of T13, currently 15 years of age, with a several-year history of extensive acne conglobata (AC) with abscesses on the face and neck. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was consistently isolated from the pustular lesions. Serum IgM levels were extremely low at 10 mg/dl. There were no abnormalities in neutrophil and total B cell number, or in serum IgA and IgG levels. Increased CD8+ T cell counts and inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio were observed repeatedly. The patient's clinical features and laboratory data support a diagnosis of selective IgM deficiency (SIgMD) with concurrent AC. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy elevated serum IgM levels to the normal range and reduced the severity of AC. We suggest that T13 may represent a syndromic disorder associated with multiple organ malformation and a risk of developing immunodeficiency involving SIgMD. Because pediatric SIgMD is rare and an immunological abnormality in T13 patients has not previously been reported, we describe the patient's clinical course. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Reengineering of MeSH thesauri for term selection to optimize literature retrieval and knowledge reconstruction in support of stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Andrews, James; Huang, Hong; Wang, Yue; Kong, Liangliang; Cannon, Peter; Xu, Ping

    2016-05-23

    PubMed is a widely used database for scientists to find biomedical-related literature. Due to the complexity of the selected research subject and its interdisciplinary nature, as well as the exponential growth in the number of disparate pieces of biomedical literature, it is an overwhelming challenge for scientists to define the right search strategies and quickly locate all related information. Specialized subsets and groupings of controlled vocabularies, such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), can enhance information retrieval in specialized domains, such as stem cell research. There is a need to develop effective search strategies and convenient solutions for knowledge organization in stem cell research. The understanding of the interrelationships between these MeSH terms also facilitates the building of knowledge organization systems in related subject fields. This study collected empirical data for MeSH-related terms from stem cell literature and developed a novel approach that uses both automation and expert-selection to create a set of terms that supports enhanced retrieval. The selected MeSH terms were reconstructed into a classified thesaurus that can guide researchers towards a successful search and knowledge organization of stem cell literature. First, 4253 MeSH terms were harvested from a sample of 5527 stem cell related research papers from the PubMed database. Next, unrelated terms were filtered out based on term frequency and specificity. Precision and recall measures were used to help identify additional valuable terms, which were mostly non-MeSH terms. The study identified 15 terms that specifically referred to stem cell research for information retrieval, which would yield a higher precision (97.7 %) and recall (94.4 %) rates in comparison to other approaches. In addition, 128 root MeSH terms were selected to conduct knowledge organization of stem cell research in categories of anatomy, disease, and others. This study presented a novel strategy

  2. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, anatomical and palynological features of the roots, stems, petiole and leaves of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge and Salvia veneris Hedge, Salvia species endemic to Cyprus, were investigated. In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of ...

  3. Morphological and anatomical response of Acacia ehrenbergiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 3

    2012-02-20

    Feb 20, 2012 ... The response of Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne and Acacia tortilis (Forssk) Haynes subspp. raddiana seedlings to 100, 50 and 25% field capacity (FC) watering regimes was studied to determine their morphological and anatomical behaviour. Both species responded morphologically as well as anatomically ...

  4. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  5. Experimental study of the relative efficiency of nonlinear and restricted selection indices for ratios including quadratic and cubic terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Jorquera, M J

    1994-01-12

    A nonlinear selection index (NL) method was compared with restricted linear index (RI) using two experiments of upward selection for the weight/(lenght)(n) ratio in Tribolium castaneum. The first experiment was designed to increase pupal weight/(pupal length)(2) , while the second experiment was intended to improve larval weight/(larval length)(3) . Larval and pupal traits were measured at 14 and 21 days after adult emergence, respectively. There were four generations of selection in each of three replicates, the proportion selected being 20 %. The selection criterion in the NL lines was (m(1) + Ĝ(1) )/(m(2) + Ĝ(2) )(n) , where m(1) and m(2) are the population means for the numerator and denominator traits, Ĝ(1) and Ĝ(2) are the estimated additive genetic values, and n is 2 (experiment 1) or 3 (experiment 2). The restricted linear index used as the selection criterion in the RI lines was calculated to increase the numerator trait and hold the denominator constant. Responses observed for the ratios differed significantly between lines (P generaciones de selección en cada una de tres repeticiones, siendo la proporción seleccionada el 20 %. El criterio de selección en las líneas NL fue (m(1) +Ĝ(1) /(m(2) +Ĝ(2) )(n) , donde m(1) y m(2) son las medias para los caracteres numerador y denominador, Ĝ(1) y Ĝ(2) son los valores aditivos estimados, y n es 2 (experimento 1) o 3 (experimento 2). El índice con restricción usado como criterio de selección en las líneas RI fue calculado para incrementar el numerador y mantener constante el denominador. Las respuestas observadas para el cociente diferían significativamente entre líneas (P < .05) en ambos experimentos, teniendo mayor respuesta las líneas NL. En el experimento 1, la respuesta observada en el numerador fue significativa en la línea NL, mientras que fue positiva y significativa para ambos caracteres en la línea RI; las líneas diferían significativamente para longitud de pupa (P < .01). La

  6. Most of the long-term genetic gain from optimum-contribution selection can be realised with restrictions imposed during optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Ostersen, Tage; Ask, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis that optimum-contribution selection (OCS) with restrictions imposed during optimisation realises most of the long-term genetic gain realised by OCS without restrictions. Methods We used stochastic simulation to estimate long-term rates of genetic gain realised...... restrictions, OCS with restrictions provides a useful alternative. Not only does it realise most of the long-term genetic gain, OCS with restrictions enables OCS to be tailored to individual breeding schemes.......% of the additional gain realised by OCS without restrictions, where additional gain was the difference in the long-term rates of genetic gain realised by OCS without restrictions and our reference point with truncation selection. The only exceptions were those restrictions that removed all solutions near the optimum...

  7. Employment of the anatomical terminology of the Nomina Anatomica in the radiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, B; Roland, J; Braun, M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to assess the relationship of the anatomical terms employed in the radiologic literature to the International Nomenclature derived from the Nomina Anatomica. A critical analysis was made of the anatomical terminology employed in three French and two American journals of radiology. In about 40% of the French journals, the International Anatomical Nomenclature was not adhered to, whereas in 50%, there was no difference in the terms encountered between the French traditional terminology and the French adaptation of the Nomina Anatomica. In contrast, a close adherence to the Nomina Anatomica was observed in the two American journals. The exceptions most frequently encountered are detailed. The aim and principles of the Nomina Anatomica, based on the Latin terminology and aimed at clarification and systematisation, are stressed. The advantages of employing the International Anatomical Nomenclature in medical papers, allowing easy understanding by foreign readers in a world of rapid information exchange are highlighted.

  8. Gastric Anatomic Type Is Associated with Obesity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu Jen; Hung, Kun-Long; Yang, Jui-Neng; Wang, Tien-Cheng; Chin, Chih-Hui

    2016-01-01

    To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI); the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic types 1 through 6 based on gastric morphology. The gastric morphology was identified based on the initial UGI examination: 166 follow-up UGI radiographs at 12 ± 1.5 months to evaluate whether the stability of gastric anatomy persisted over time. There was a significant difference in anatomic types between females and males (p obese (p obese (p obesity and gender. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Anatomical basis for the fastigial pressor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, Marianna; Ruggiero, David A; Del Bo, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of rostromedial portion of cerebellar fastigial nucleus elicits integrated cardiovascular effects, which are neurally and humorally mediated. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the anatomical substrates of the fastigial pressor response (FPR) in the rat. The response was electrophysiologically localized in anesthetized, paralyzed-ventilated rats. Anterograde transport techniques were used to study the efferent projections of the fastigial pressor area; the distribution of efferent projection cells were then mapped by injecting retrograde tracers into anterogradely labeled sites. Electrolytic lesions were then placed bilaterally in selected brainstem areas in the attempt to block the pressor response. Sites of cerebellar stimulation and of brainstem lesions were subsequently histologically identified. The following lesions abolished the FPR: in nine animals lesions involved portions of the nucleus gigantocellularis dorsalis (NGCd), paramedian reticular formation (PMN) and the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) (in two animals fairly selectively the caudal NTS); in two other animals lesions destroyed the rostral ventrolateral medulla (C1 area) and in one animal the area encompassing the dorsal convexity of the superior cerebellar peduncle bordering the locus coeruleus-lateral parabrachial complex; partially effective were unilateral lesions of NGCd and NTS (three), bilateral lesions confined to NGCd and PMN (two), to vestibular complex and uncinate fasciculus (UF) (three), to UF and locus coeruleus (three) and to nucleus reticularis ventralis (two). Ineffective lesions involved A1 area, the nucleus gigantocellularis ventralis (NGCv), the spinal trigeminal nucleus and nucleus reticularis parvocellularis, the A5 area of the ventrolateral pons, the central gray and lateral mesencephalic tegmentum. It seems therefore that the pressor response elicited by stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus utilizes central specific pathways, as

  10. August Hirt and "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery" to anatomical institutes in National Socialism: a murderous change in paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Hans-Joachim

    2013-10-01

    German anatomical institutes always had problems obtaining sufficient cadavers for research and training. In the National Socialist (NS) period this changed. Universities could count on "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery." Most frequently tacitly, many bodies were those of victims of NS crimes. Scientists increasingly exploited the exceptional political situation to systematically supplement their institutional collections. Their endeavors to fill the, in their terms, "lamentable gaps" in their collections took on truly bizarre forms. In Austria, Jewish cemeteries were plundered for racial-political expansion of anatomical collections. A change in paradigm was merely the next step: intentional murder for the benefit of NS-oriented science. In December of 1942, anatomists meeting in Tübingen discussed plans for "material acquisition." August Hirt, director of the anatomical institute at the Reichsuniversität in Strasbourg, was to develop guidelines. There was express reference to "Auftrag Beger," which had already been conceived although not yet realized: at the behest of Hirt and the SS-scientific organization, "Ahnenerbe," the anthropologists Bruno Beger and Hans Fleischhacker selected 86 Jewish prisoners in Auschwitz in June of 1943 and deported them to the concentration camp at Struthof near Natzweiler, where they were murdered. The bodies were delivered to the anatomy department in Strasbourg for preparation and used as anatomical specimens. The Reichsuniversität Strasbourg was considered a center of excellence for Nazi ideology. For modern scientists, the elucidation of these criminal acts is not exhausted in the search for an answer to the questions of perpetrator, place, modus operandi or motive. A suitable memorial to the victims must go beyond mere quantification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrast in Usage of FCAT-Approved Anatomical Terminology between Members of Two Anatomy Associations in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bradford D.; Thorpe, Donna; Merenda, Victoria; Finch, Brian; Anderson-Smith, Wendy; Consiglio-Lahti, Zane

    2010-01-01

    Almost 12 years since the publishing of Terminologia Anatomica (TA) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT), there has yet to be a unified adoption of FCAT-recommended anatomical terms by North American anatomists. A survey was sent to members of the Human Anatomy & Physiology Society (HAPS) to compare the frequency of…

  12. Method selection and evaluation of midtrimester and long-term therapeutic efficiency of achalasia with three methods of interventional procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yingsheng; Yang Renjie; Li Minghua; Chen Weixiong; Shang Kezhong; Zhuang Qixin; Xu Jianrong; Chen Niwei; Zhu Yude

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study method selection and evaluation of midtrimester and long-term therapeutic efficiency of achalasia with three methods of interventional procedure. Method: 50 cases achalasia with 30 cases performing with balloon dilation (group A) and 5 cases with permanent metallic internal stent dilation (group B) and 15 cases with temporary metallic internal stent dilation (group C) under fluoroscopy. Results: 30 cases of group A had 56 times of dilations (mean 1.9 times). The mean diameter of cardia was (2.4 +- 1.2) mm before dilation and (9.7 +- 3.0) mm after dilation. The mean dysphagia scores were 2.4 +- 1.2 grades before dilation and 1.0 +- 0.3 grades after dilation. Complications in 30 cases included chest pain (n = 9), reflux (n = 8) and bleeding (n = 3). 18(60%) of 30 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months, 18(90%) of 20 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months. 5 uncovered expandable metal stents were permanently placed in 5 cases of group B. The mean diameter of cardia was (3.2 +- 2.0) mm before dilation and (18.4 +- 1.7) mm after dilation. The mean dysphagia scores were (2.4 +- 1.1) grade before dilation and (0.4 +- 0.2) grade after dilation. Complications in 5 cases included chest pain (n = 3), reflux (n = 4), bleeding (n = 1) and hyperplasia of granulation tissue (n 2). 3(60%) in 5 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months, 1(50%) in 2 cases were dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months. 15 covered expandable metal stents were temporarily placed in 15 cases of group C and drawn out at the 3-7 days via gastroscopy. The mean diameter of cardia was (3.4 +- 2.9) mm before dilation and (14.7 +- 2.9) mm after dilation. The mean dysphagia scores were (2.5 +- 1.1) grades before dilation and (0.6 +- 0.3) grades after dilation. Complications in 15 cases included chest pain (n = 3), reflux (n = 3) and bleeding (n = 2). 3(20%) in 15 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6

  13. Long-term effect of selective dorsal rhizotomy on gross motor function in ambulant children with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy, compared with reference centiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolster, E.A.M.; van Schie, P.E.M.; Becher, J.G.; van Ouwerkerk, W.J.R.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Vermeulen, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) on the gross motor function of ambulant children with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy (CP), compared with reference centiles. Method: The study used a prospective cohort design and participants

  14. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  15. Examining the Influence of Selected Factors on Perceived Co-Op Work-Term Quality from a Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewery, David; Nevison, Colleen; Pretti, T. Judene; Cormier, Lauren; Barclay, Sage; Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses and tests a conceptual model of co-op work-term quality from a student perspective. Drawing from an earlier exploration of co-op students' perceptions of work-term quality, variables related to role characteristics, interpersonal dynamics, and organizational elements were used in a multiple linear regression analysis to…

  16. Anatomical studies of selected tree species of the Moraceae family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The internode, bark and wood anatomy of seven tree species of the Family Moraceae, grown in Nigeria were studied to determine their characteristic tissue distribution and unique ergastic substances which could be of immense value in taxonomic work as well as of great economic and medicinal values. Direct microscopic ...

  17. Long-term selection using a single trait criterion, non-destructive deformation, in White Leghorns: Effect over time on genetic parameters for traits related to egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Olivier; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Vincenot, Christian E; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Moriya, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Although non-destructive deformation is relevant for assessing eggshell strength, few long-term selection experiments are documented which use non-destructive deformation as a selection criterion. This study used restricted maximum likelihood-based methods with a four-trait animal model to analyze the effect of non-destructive deformation on egg production, egg weight and sexual maturity in a two-way selection experiment involving 17 generations of White Leghorns. In the strong shell line, corresponding to the line selected for low non-destructive deformation values, the heritability estimates were 0.496 for non-destructive deformation, 0.253 for egg production, 0.660 for egg weight and 0.446 for sexual maturity. In the weak shell line, corresponding to the line selected for high non-destructive deformation values, the heritabilities were 0.372, 0.162, 0.703 and 0.404, respectively. An asymmetric response to selection was observed for non-destructive deformation, egg production and sexual maturity, whereas egg weight decreased for both lines. Using non-destructive deformation to select for stronger eggshell had a small negative effect on egg production and sexual maturity, suggesting the need for breeding programs to balance selection between eggshell traits and egg production traits. However, the analysis of the genetic correlation between non-destructive deformation and egg weight revealed that large eggs are not associated with poor eggshell quality. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Anterior selective amygdalohippocampectomy: technical description and microsurgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Deshmukh, Pushpa; Nakaji, Peter; Crusius, Marcelo U; Teixeira, Manoel J; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a technique for performing a selective amygdalohippocampectomy (AH) through a minisupraorbital approach. A minisupraorbital craniotomy and an anterior selective AH were performed in 8 cadaver heads (16 sides). The anatomic specimens were analyzed, and the extent of resection of the hippocampus and amygdala was evaluated. Surgically relevant measurements were performed using anatomic specimens. An image-guided system was used to document the extent of the anterior AH. Laboratory data were used to support the clinical application of the technique. The anterior route allowed removal of the amygdala and hippocampus, as confirmed by anatomic assessment. The image-guided system and anatomic evaluation confirmed that the amygdala and hippocampus can be accessed and removed through this route. The mean distance between the anterior aspect of the uncus and the tip of the temporal horn was 17.0 +/- 4.6 mm; the mean distance from the head of the hippocampus to the posterior border of the cerebral peduncles was 26.0 +/- 3.2 mm. Clinical application resulted in satisfactory removal of the amygdala and hippocampus. The anterior route for selective AH is a logical and straightforward approach to the mesial temporal lobe. Compared with other variations, it is less invasive and destructive, especially in terms of the fibers of the optic pathway, temporal stem, and lateral temporal neocortex.

  19. The selection of best tillage implements in terms of energy use efficiency using simple additive weighting methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Andekaeizadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Main part of energy consumption in agricultural mechanization is tillage operations therefore optimization of energy consumption in tillage operation is very important. A management method for system to optimize in agriculture is Simple Additive Weighting (SAW methodology that this method can operate according to criteria of the systems. This method states that, which system has better performance? (for example the system for agricultural tractors, type of implements, methods of tillage, planting and harvesting, and etc. Fuel consumption is the most important factor in terms of energy consumption in tractor because the fuel energy contributes to help tractor to work . Specific draught is important force that measured for investigation of energy consumption of tillage implements, it can show the amount of drawbar force that optimized (for work width 1 meter implements tillage by using this method. The multiplication of the drawbar force in forward speed factor resulted drawbar power. The most common method is using of tractors drawbar power in mechanized agriculture. Important factor for assessment and determination performance of tractor is drawbar power. Several studies have been showed that about 20 to 55%of available drawbar power was wasting by implements tillage. Another important parameters that affect on traction efficiency pull’s machine is slip. A simple additive weighting two-step procedure involving basic weighted as follows: (1 scale the values of all attributes to make them comparable; (2 sum up the values of the all attributes for each alternative. Materials and Methods In this study, three implements tillage were studied including moldboard plow, disk plow and disk harrow and they called A, B and C , respectively. Three different forward speeds of 3, 4, 5, 6 Km/h for each implements were selected according to the type of work at various depths. In this study fuel consumption factor was measured by means of micro

  20. A naturalistic long-term comparison study of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Iancu, Iulian; Lowengrub, Katherine; Gonopolsky, Yehudit; Musin, Ernest; Grunhaus, Leon; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are currently considered as the first drug of choice in the treatment of panic disorder (PD). The aim of this long-term, naturalistic comparison study was to compare 4 SSRIs with respect to tolerability and treatment outcome of PD. Outcome measures included relapse rates and adverse effects. Two hundred patients with PD were enrolled in our study. All subjects met DSM-IV criteria for PD or PD with agoraphobia (PDA). All patients were assigned to receive SSRI monotherapy for 12 months with either citalopram (n = 50), fluoxetine (n = 50), fluvoxamine (n = 50), or paroxetine (n = 50) in a randomized, nonblinded fashion. Both the treating psychiatrist and the patients were not blind to the assigned treatment, but the clinician raters were blind to the study medication. The study design allowed for assignment of a particular SSRI as indicated according to the clinical judgment of the study psychiatrists. The Panic Self-Questionnaire, which is a self-report scale, was administered at baseline and then once per month during the duration of the 12-month study. The visual analog scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale were administered at baseline and then once per month during the period of the study. Reports of sexual dysfunction were assessed using a nonstructured clinical interview at monthly visits. The body weight of study subjects was measured at baseline, and then at the 12th month visit end point. Of 200 patients who entered the study, 127 patients (63.5%) completed the full 12-month protocol. Retention rates were highest for paroxetine (76% [38/50]), intermediate for citalopram (68% [34/50]) and fluvoxamine (60% [30/50]), and lowest for fluoxetine (50% [25/50]). Patients who completed the 12-month protocol responded favorably to the study treatment. The paroxetine and the citalopram groups had significantly lower rates of panic symptoms as measured at visits on weeks 4 and 8. At visits on months 3, 6, 9, and

  1. Fascia redefined: anatomical features and technical relevance in fascial flap surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecco, Carla; Tiengo, Cesare; Stecco, Antonio; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stern, Robert; De Caro, Raffaele

    2013-07-01

    Fascia has traditionally been thought of as a passive structure that envelops muscles, and the term "fascia" was misused and confusing. However, it is now evident that fascia is a dynamic tissue with complex vasculature and innervation. A definition of fascia as an integral tissue has been provided here, highlighting the main features of the superficial and deep fasciae. Wide anatomic variations and site-specific differences in fascial structure are described, coupled with results of our extensive investigations of fascial anatomy. This will enable surgeons to make better decisions on selecting the appropriate fascia in the construction of fascial flaps. The use of the superficial or deep fasciae in the creation of a fascial flap cannot be selected at random, but must be guided by the anatomical features of the different types of fasciae. In particular, we suggest the use of the superficial fascia, such as the parascapular fascio-cutaneous free flap or any cutaneous flap, when a well-vascularized elastic flap, with the capacity to adhere to underlying tissues, is required, and a fascio-cutaneous flap formed by aponeurotic fascia to resurface any tendon or joints exposures. Moreover, the aponeurotic fascia, such as the fascia lata, can be used as a surgical patch if the plastic surgeon requires strong resistance to stress and/or the capacity to glide freely. Finally, the epimysial fascia, such as in the latissimus dorsi flap, can be used with success when used together with the underlying muscles. Clearly, extensive clinical experience and judgment are necessary for assessment of their potential use.

  2. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  3. The brain atlas concordance problem: quantitative comparison of anatomical parcellations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Bohland

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Many neuroscientific reports reference discrete macro-anatomical regions of the brain which were delineated according to a brain atlas or parcellation protocol. Currently, however, no widely accepted standards exist for partitioning the cortex and subcortical structures, or for assigning labels to the resulting regions, and many procedures are being actively used. Previous attempts to reconcile neuroanatomical nomenclatures have been largely qualitative, focusing on the development of thesauri or simple semantic mappings between terms. Here we take a fundamentally different approach, discounting the names of regions and instead comparing their definitions as spatial entities in an effort to provide more precise quantitative mappings between anatomical entities as defined by different atlases. We develop an analytical framework for studying this brain atlas concordance problem, and apply these methods in a comparison of eight diverse labeling methods used by the neuroimaging community. These analyses result in conditional probabilities that enable mapping between regions across atlases, which also form the input to graph-based methods for extracting higher-order relationships between sets of regions and to procedures for assessing the global similarity between different parcellations of the same brain. At a global scale, the overall results demonstrate a considerable lack of concordance between available parcellation schemes, falling within chance levels for some atlas pairs. At a finer level, this study reveals spatial relationships between sets of defined regions that are not obviously apparent; these are of high potential interest to researchers faced with the challenge of comparing results that were based on these different anatomical models, particularly when coordinate-based data are not available. The complexity of the spatial overlap patterns revealed points to problems for attempts to reconcile anatomical parcellations and nomenclatures

  4. Equivalent Selection in Specialized e-Lexicography: A Case Study with Spanish Accounting Terms Ekwivalent-seleksie in gespesialiseerde e-leksikografie: 'n Gevallestudie met Spaanse rekeningkundige terme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Interest in specialized lexicography has been propelled both by the development of LSP communication in academic circles and by the consolidation of function-based approaches to lexicography that have identified the existence of several user types, e.g., experts, semi-experts and interested laypersons, and use situations, typically cognitive-oriented and communicative-oriented (Bergenholtz and Tarp, 2003, 2004. This paper follows suit and elaborates on the selection of Spanish equivalents in a particular dictionary project: the Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, one of the Accounting dictionaries. This dictionary aims to satisfy the needs of translators (primary user group, accountants and financial experts (secondary user group, as well as students of accountancy and translation, journalists, and interested laypersons (tertiary user group. It addresses the issue as a lexicographical problem and makes comments on the decisions taken by elaborating on three lexicographical principles that take into consideration the nature of lexicography, the technical options the Internet offers, and the defining characteristics of specialized discourse: relevance, proscription and recreation.

    Belangstelling in gespesialiseerde leksikografie is aangevuur deur sowel die ontwikkeling van TSD-kommunikasie in akademiese kringe as die konsolidasie van funksie-gebaseerde benaderings tot leksikografie. Laasgenoemde benadering het die bestaan van verskeie gebruikerstipes, bv. kundiges, semi-kundiges en geïnteresseerde leke, en gebruiksituasies, tipies kognitief-georiënteerde en kommunikatief-goriënteerde situasies, geïdentifiseer (Bergenholtz and Tarp, 2003, 2004. Hierdie artikel volg hierdie ontwikkelings na en wei uit oor die seleksie van Spaanse ekwivalente in 'n spesifieke woordeboekprojek: die Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, 'n

  5. Determining customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has become a standard practice in the United States, prompted by national accreditation requirements. Unlike other surveys of hospital-, outpatient care-, or physician-related activities, no ongoing, comprehensive customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services is available for subscription that would allow continual benchmarking against peer laboratories. Pathologists, therefore, must often design their own local assessment tools to determine physician satisfaction in anatomic pathology. To describe satisfaction survey design that would elicit specific information from physician customers about key elements of anatomic pathology services. The author shares his experience in biannually assessing customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology with survey tools designed at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Benchmarks for physician satisfaction, opportunities for improvement, and characteristics that correlated with a high level of physician satisfaction were identified nationally from a standardized survey tool used by 94 laboratories in the 2001 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program. In general, physicians are most satisfied with professional diagnostic services and least satisfied with pathology services related to poor communication. A well-designed and conducted customer satisfaction survey is an opportunity for pathologists to periodically educate physician customers about services offered, manage unrealistic expectations, and understand the evolving needs of the physician customer. Armed with current information from physician customers, the pathologist is better able to strategically plan for resources that facilitate performance improvements in anatomic pathology laboratory services that align with evolving clinical needs in health care delivery.

  6. Retrospective selection of elite parent trees using paternity testing with microsatellite markers: an alternative short term breeding tactic for Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattapaglia, D; Ribeiro, V J; Rezende, G D S P

    2004-06-01

    The conventional way to drive modifications in old forest tree seed orchards is to establish progeny trials involving each parent tree and then evaluate its contribution to the performance of the progeny by estimating its general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA). In this work, we successfully applied an alternative parent selection tactic based on paternity testing of superior offspring derived from a hybrid seed orchard established with a single Eucalyptus grandis seed parents and six E. urophylla pollen parents. A battery of 14 microsatellite markers was used to carry out parentage tests of 256 progeny individuals including two independent samples of selected trees and one control unselected sample, all derived from 6-year-old forest stands in eastern Brazil. Paternity determination was carried out for all progeny individuals by a sequential paternity exclusion procedure. Exclusion was declared only when the obligatory paternal allele in the progeny tree was not present in the alleged parent tree for at least four independent markers to avoid false exclusions due to mutation or null alleles. After maternity checks to identify seed mixtures and selfed individuals, the paternity tests revealed that approximately 29% of the offspring was sired by pollen parents outside the orchard. No selfed progeny were found in the selected samples. Three pollen parents were found to have sired essentially all of the offspring in the samples of selected and non-selected progeny individuals. One of these three parents sired significantly more selected progeny than unselected ones ( P< or =0.0002 in a Fisher exact test). Based on these results, low-reproductive-successful parents were culled from the orchard, and management procedures were adopted to minimize external pollen contamination. A significant difference ( P<0.01) in mean annual increment was observed between forest stands produced with seed from the orchard before and after selection of parents and

  7. Using generalized linear models to estimate selectivity from short-term recoveries of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Effects of gear, fate, and regulation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Paramore, Lee M.; Buckel, Jeffrey A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the selectivity patterns of various fishing gears is a critical component of fisheries stock assessment due to the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from most gears. We used short-term recoveries (n = 3587) of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus to directly estimate age- and length-based selectivity patterns using generalized linear models. The most parsimonious models were selected using AIC, and standard deviations were estimated using simulations. Selectivity of red drum was dependent upon the regulation period in which the fish was caught, the gear used to catch the fish (i.e., hook-and-line, gill nets, pound nets), and the fate of the fish upon recovery (i.e., harvested or released); models including all first-order interactions between main effects outperformed models without interactions. Selectivity of harvested fish was generally dome-shaped and shifted toward larger, older fish in response to regulation changes. Selectivity of caught-and-released red drum was highest on the youngest and smallest fish in the early and middle regulation periods, but increased on larger, legal-sized fish in the late regulation period. These results suggest that catch-and-release mortality has consistently been high for small, young red drum, but has recently become more common in larger, older fish. This method of estimating selectivity from short-term tag recoveries is valuable because it is simpler than full tag-return models, and may be more robust because yearly fishing and natural mortality rates do not need to be modeled and estimated.

  8. Anatomic breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, S.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2011-01-01

    inside the breast. Most of the risk assessment and CAD modules use a breast region in a image centered Cartesian x,y coordinate system. Nevertheless, anatomical structure follows curve-linear trajectories. We examined an anatomical breast coordinate system that preserves the anatomical correspondence...... between the mammograms and allows extracting not only the aligned position but also the orientation aligned with the anatomy of the breast tissue structure. Materials and Methods The coordinate system used the nipple location as the point A and the border of the pectoral muscle as a line BC. The skin air...... interface was identified as a curve passing through A and intersecting the pectoral muscle line. The nipple was defined as the origin of the coordinate system. A family of second order curves were defined through the nipple and intersecting the pectoral line (AD). Every pixel location in mammogram...

  9. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    In medicine, an eponym is a word-typically referring to an anatomic structure, disease, or syndrome-that is derived from a person's name. Medical eponyms are ubiquitous and numerous. They are also at times controversial. Eponyms reflect medicine's rich and colorful history and can be useful for concisely conveying complex concepts. Familiarity with eponyms facilitates correct usage and accurate communication. In this article, 22 eponyms used to describe anatomic structures of the head and neck are discussed. For each structure, the author first provides a biographical account of the individual for whom the structure is named. An anatomic description and brief discussion of the structure's clinical relevance follow. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Positive assortative mating with selection restrictions on group coancestry enhances gain while conserving genetic diversity in long-term forest tree breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, O; Mullin, T J

    2003-08-01

    levels of status effective number, i.e. when more gene diversity was conserved in the BP. Thus, the combination of precise selection and PAM resulted in close to maximal short-term PP gain, while conserving maximal gene diversity in the BP.

  11. Full-body skin mapping for six biophysical parameters: baseline values at 16 anatomical sites in 125 human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleesz, P; Darlenski, R; Fluhr, J W

    2012-01-01

    The skin, as the outermost organ, protects against exogenous hazards (outside-in barrier) and prevents the loss of essential parts of the body (inside-out barrier). The epidermal barrier exerts several functions with specific morphological elements. Regional differences in skin functions are well known. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare skin physiological parameters in vivo at 16 anatomical sites: Barrier function in terms of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum (SC) hydration (assessed by capacitance), skin surface pH, skin surface temperature, erythema index and skin pigmentation were quantified at 16 anatomical sites under basal conditions. In addition, casual skin lipid level as a function of sebaceous lipids was measured on the forehead. The 6 functions at the 16 anatomical sites were assessed in a cohort of 125 volunteers working in the food processing industry. These functions were quantified with noninvasive instruments, namely a Tewameter (barrier function), a Corneometer (SC hydration), a pH-meter, a Mexameter (erythema index and pigmentation), a skin surface thermometer and a Sebumeter (casual sebum level). We identified ranges for the 16 anatomical locations for each instrument and some parameters could be classified into distinctive groups. Furthermore, a left-right comparison was performed at 3 sites (dorsal hand, ventral hand and ventral forearm). Certain side differences could be shown for SC hydration, surface pH, erythema index, melanin index and skin surface temperature in the 3 assessed areas. A left-to-right, statistically nonsignificant difference was also established for TEWL. The detected site-specific characteristics could be attributed to factors such as occlusion, different degrees of UV exposure, microcirculation and distribution of afferent and efferent nerve endings as well as fat distribution. External factors, such as life style, UV exposure and working conditions need to be taken into account. The

  12. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  13. Lacrimal Gland Pathologies from an Anatomical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Sinan Abit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients in our daily practice have one or more ocular surface disorders including conjucntivitis, keratitis, dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact lens related symptoms, refractive errors,computer vision syndrome. Lacrimal gland has an important role in all above mentioned pathologies due to its major secretory product. An anatomical and physiological knowledge about lacrimal gland is a must in understanding basic and common ophthalmological cases. İn this paper it is aimed to explain the lacrimal gland diseases from an anatomical perspective.

  14. Selectivity of calixarene-bonded silica phases in HPLC: Description of special characteristics with a multiple term linear equation at different methanol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Jira, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Retention and selectivity characteristics of different calixarene-, resorcinarene- and alkyl-bonded stationary phases are examined by analyzing a set of test solutes covering the main interactions (hydrophobic, steric, ionic, polar) that apply in HPLC. Therefore Dolan and Snyder's multiple term linear equation has been adapted to fit the properties of calixarene-bonded columns. The obtained parameters are used to describe retention and selectivity of the novel Caltrex(®) phases and to elucidate underlying mechanisms of retention. Here, differences of stationary phase characteristics at different methanol concentrations in the mobile phases are examined. Both selectivity and retention were found to depend on the methanol content. Differences of these dependencies were found for different stationary phases and interactions. The differences between common alkyl-bonded and novel calixarene-bonded phases increase with increasing methanol content.

  15. Anatomic position of the asterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J D; Tschabitscher, M

    1998-01-01

    The asterion is defined as the junction of the lambdoid, parietomastoid, and occipitomastoid sutures. The asterion has been used as a landmark in lateral approaches to the posterior fossa. However, its reliability as a landmark comes into question considering the apparent variability of its position. This study was performed to determine the reliability of the asterion as a surgical landmark. One hundred dried skulls were obtained for study. A 2-mm drill hole was placed at the asterion on each side. The position of the drill hole on the inner surface of the skull was next determined and recorded. The asterion was located over the posterior fossa dura in 32% on the right and 25% on the left. Its position was over the transverse or sigmoid sinus complex in 61% on the right and 66% on the left. The landmark was located above the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex in 7% on the right and 9% on the left. The asterion is not a strictly reliable landmark in terms of locating the underlying posterior fossa dura. Its location is very often directly over the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex. Burr holes placed at the asterion may often open the bone directly over the sinus, leading to potential damage.

  16. Speed selection for traveling-wave solutions to the diffusion-reaction equation with cubic reaction term and Burgers nonlinear convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelnikov, V A; Lipatnikov, A N

    2014-09-01

    The problem of traveling wave (TW) speed selection for solutions to a generalized Murray-Burgers-KPP-Fisher parabolic equation with a strictly positive cubic reaction term is considered theoretically and the initial boundary value problem is numerically solved in order to support obtained analytical results. Depending on the magnitude of a parameter inherent in the reaction term (i) the term is either a concave function or a function with the inflection point and (ii) transition from pulled to pushed TW solution occurs due to interplay of two nonlinear terms; the reaction term and the Burgers convection term. Explicit pushed TW solutions are derived. It is shown that physically observable TW solutions, i.e., solutions obtained by solving the initial boundary value problem with a sufficiently steep initial condition, can be determined by seeking the TW solution characterized by the maximum decay rate at its leading edge. In the Appendix, the developed approach is applied to a non-linear diffusion-reaction equation that is widely used to model premixed turbulent combustion.

  17. A data-driven multi-model methodology with deep feature selection for short-term wind forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Cong; Cui, Mingjian; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An ensemble model is developed to produce both deterministic and probabilistic wind forecasts. • A deep feature selection framework is developed to optimally determine the inputs to the forecasting methodology. • The developed ensemble methodology has improved the forecasting accuracy by up to 30%. - Abstract: With the growing wind penetration into the power system worldwide, improving wind power forecasting accuracy is becoming increasingly important to ensure continued economic and reliable power system operations. In this paper, a data-driven multi-model wind forecasting methodology is developed with a two-layer ensemble machine learning technique. The first layer is composed of multiple machine learning models that generate individual forecasts. A deep feature selection framework is developed to determine the most suitable inputs to the first layer machine learning models. Then, a blending algorithm is applied in the second layer to create an ensemble of the forecasts produced by first layer models and generate both deterministic and probabilistic forecasts. This two-layer model seeks to utilize the statistically different characteristics of each machine learning algorithm. A number of machine learning algorithms are selected and compared in both layers. This developed multi-model wind forecasting methodology is compared to several benchmarks. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is evaluated to provide 1-hour-ahead wind speed forecasting at seven locations of the Surface Radiation network. Numerical results show that comparing to the single-algorithm models, the developed multi-model framework with deep feature selection procedure has improved the forecasting accuracy by up to 30%.

  18. Hemispheric specialisation in selective attention and short-term memory: A fine-coarse model of left and right ear disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Marsh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Serial short-term memory is impaired by irrelevant sound, particularly when the sound changes acoustically. This acoustic effect is larger when the sound is presented to the left compared to the right ear (a left-ear disadvantage. Serial memory appears relatively insensitive to distraction from the semantic properties of a background sound. In contrast, short-term free recall of semantic-category exemplars is impaired by the semantic properties of background speech and relatively insensitive to the sound’s acoustic properties. This semantic effect is larger when the sound is presented to the right compared to the left ear (a right-ear disadvantage. In this paper, we outline a speculative neurocognitive fine-coarse model of these hemispheric differences in relation to short-term memory and selective attention, and explicate empirical directions in which this model can be critically evaluated.

  19. Anatomical Considerations on Surgical Anatomy of the Carotid Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamantios Michalinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical anatomy of carotid bifurcation is of unique importance for numerous medical specialties. Despite extensive research, many aspects such as precise height of carotid bifurcation, micrometric values of carotid arteries and their branches as their diameter, length, and degree of tortuosity, and variations of proximal external carotid artery branches are undetermined. Furthermore carotid bifurcation is involved in many pathologic processes, atheromatous disease being the commonest. Carotid atheromatous disease is a major predisposing factor for disabling and possibly fatal strokes with geometry of carotid bifurcation playing an important role in its natural history. Consequently detailed knowledge of various anatomic parameters is of paramount importance not only for understanding of the disease but also for design of surgical treatment, especially selection between carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. Carotid bifurcation paragangliomas constitute unique tumors with diagnostic accuracy, treatment design, and success of operative intervention dependent on precise knowledge of anatomy. Considering those, it becomes clear that selection and application of proper surgical therapy should consider anatomical details. Further research might ameliorate available treatment options or even lead to innovative ones.

  20. The anatomical scaffold underlying the functional centrality of known cortical hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pasquale, Francesco; Della Penna, Stefania; Sabatini, Umberto; Caravasso Falletta, Chiara; Peran, Patrice

    2017-10-01

    Cortical hubs play a fundamental role in the functional architecture of brain connectivity at rest. However, the anatomical scaffold underlying their centrality is still under debate. Certainly, the brain function and anatomy are significantly entwined through synaptogenesis and pruning mechanisms that continuously reshape structural and functional connections. Thus, if hubs are expected to exhibit a large number of direct anatomical connections with the rest of the brain, such a dense wiring is extremely inefficient in energetic terms. In this work, we investigate these aspects on fMRI and DTI data from a set of know resting-state networks, starting from the hypothesis that to promote integration, functional, and anatomical connections link different areas at different scales or hierarchies. Thus, we focused on the role of functional hubs in this hierarchical organization of functional and anatomical architectures. We found that these regions, from a structural point of view, are first linked to each other and successively to the rest of the brain. Thus, functionally central nodes seem to show few strong anatomical connections. These findings suggest an efficient strategy of the investigated cortical hubs in exploiting few direct anatomical connections to link functional hubs among each other that eventually reach the rest of the considered nodes through local indirect tracts. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5141-5160, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Information on the changes in the revised anatomical nomenclature of the lower limb veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Pechacek, Vaclav; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2010-03-01

    Two consensus documents have appeared which revised the anatomical nomenclature of the venous system of the lower extremity. They changed and substantially extended the last valid version of the Latin anatomical nomenclature, Terminologia Anatomica, published by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, with approval of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, in 1998. The clinicians felt the need to adjust the terminology in order to better serve their purposes and to serve as a relevant theoretical base for correct diagnostic and appropriate treatment. First a consensus was made to expand and complete the nomenclature of the lower limb venous system during the 14th World Congress of the International Union of Phlebology in 2001. Another consensus was made again three years later, during 21st World Congress of the International Union of Angiology, under the auspices of Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and International Federation of Associations of Anatomists. The articles were compiled with the emphasis on the Latin terminology. Review of the original articles concerning the arrangement, variability and different nomenclature was performed thoroughly. The both documents comprise 89 terms of the veins of the lower extremity in both Latin and English. The clinicians, anatomists, and university teachers should follow the new extended anatomical nomenclature of the lower limb veins. The precise anatomical terminology can serve for diagnostic, treatment, and scientific purposes not only in the anatomy and angiology.

  2. Determination of Genetic Diversity Using 15 Simple Sequence Repeats Markers in Long Term Selected Japanese Quail Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabağ, Kemal; Balcıoğlu, Murat Soner; Karlı, Taki; Alkan, Sezai

    2016-12-01

    Japanese quail is still used as a model for poultry research because of their usefulness as laying, meat, and laboratory animals. Microsatellite markers are the most widely used molecular markers, due to their relative ease of scoring and high levels of polymorphism. The objective of the research was to determine genetic diversity and population genetic structures of selected Japanese quail lines (high body weight 1 [HBW1], HBW2, low body weight [LBW], and layer [L]) throughout 15th generations and an unselected control (C). A total of 69 individuals from five quail lines were genotyped by fifteen microsatellite markers. When analyzed profiles of the markers the observed (H o ) and expected (H e ) heterozygosity ranged from 0.04 (GUJ0027) to 0.64 (GUJ0087) and 0.21 (GUJ0027) to 0.84 (GUJ0037), respectively. Also, H o and H e were separated from 0.30 (L and LBW) to 0.33 (C and HBW2) and from 0.52 (HBW2) to 0.58 (L and LBW), respectively. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.46 (HBW2) to 0.52 (L). Approximately half of the markers were informative (PIC≥0.50). Genetic distances were calculated from 0.09 (HBW1 and HBW2) to 0.33 (C and L). Phylogenetic dendrogram showed that the quail lines were clearly defined by the microsatellite markers used here. Bayesian model-based clustering supported the results from the phylogenetic tree. These results reflect that the set of studied markers can be used effectively to capture the magnitude of genetic variability in selected Japanese quail lines. Also, to identify markers and alleles which are specific to the divergence lines, further generations of selection are required.

  3. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... investigated in this study and the findings obtained were compared with other studies conducted on Salvia genus. Metcalfe and Chalk (1950) found the data on the anatomical characteristics of S. species. These researchers revealed that the species belonging to Labiatae family usually have rectangle or ...

  4. Descriptions of anatomical differences between skulls and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The external anatomical differences between the skulls and mandibles of 10 mountain zebras Equus zebra and 10 plains zebras E. burchelli of both sexes were studied. The nomenclature used conforms to Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (1983). Eleven structural differences are described for the first time and illustrated, viz., ...

  5. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  6. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a lef...

  7. Morphological and anatomical response of Acacia ehrenbergiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both species responded morphologically as well as anatomically to water stress. Water stress caused significant (P=0.05) decrease in relative water content, leaf number and area and leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, and stem height and diameter. Seedlings of both species responded to water stress by the ...

  8. Anatomical characteristics of southern pine stemwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine T. Howard; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1968-01-01

    To obtain a definitive description of the wood and anatomy of all 10 species of southern pine, juvenile, intermediate, and mature wood was sampled at three heights in one tree of each species and examined under a light microscope. Photographs and three-dimensional drawings were made to illustrate the morphology. No significant anatomical differences were found...

  9. TIBIAL LANDMARKS IN ACL ANATOMIC REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Demesсhenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify anatomical landmarks on tibial articular surface to serve as reference in preparing tibial canal with respect to the center of ACL footprint during single bundle arthroscopic repair.Materials and methods. Twelve frozen knee joint specimens and 68 unpaired macerated human tibia were studied using anatomical, morphometric, statistical methods as well as graphic simulation.Results. Center of the tibial ACL footprint was located 13,1±1,7 mm anteriorly from posterior border of intercondylar eminence, at 1/3 of the distance along the line connecting apexes of internal and external tubercles and 6,1±0,5 mm anteriorly along the perpendicular raised to this point.Conclusion. Internal and external tubercles, as well as posterior border of intercondylar eminence can be considered as anatomical references to determine the center of the tibial ACL footprint and to prepare bone canals for anatomic ligament repair.

  10. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  11. Influences on anatomical knowledge: The complete arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, E.M.; Verheijen, I.W.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Bruin, A.B. De

    2014-01-01

    Eight factors are claimed to have a negative influence on anatomical knowledge of medical students: (1) teaching by nonmedically qualified teachers, (2) the absence of a core anatomy curriculum, (3) decreased use of dissection as a teaching tool, (4) lack of teaching anatomy in context, (5)

  12. Anatomical entity mention recognition at literature scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-03-15

    Anatomical entities ranging from subcellular structures to organ systems are central to biomedical science, and mentions of these entities are essential to understanding the scientific literature. Despite extensive efforts to automatically analyze various aspects of biomedical text, there have been only few studies focusing on anatomical entities, and no dedicated methods for learning to automatically recognize anatomical entity mentions in free-form text have been introduced. We present AnatomyTagger, a machine learning-based system for anatomical entity mention recognition. The system incorporates a broad array of approaches proposed to benefit tagging, including the use of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)- and Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO)-based lexical resources, word representations induced from unlabeled text, statistical truecasing and non-local features. We train and evaluate the system on a newly introduced corpus that substantially extends on previously available resources, and apply the resulting tagger to automatically annotate the entire open access scientific domain literature. The resulting analyses have been applied to extend services provided by the Europe PubMed Central literature database. All tools and resources introduced in this work are available from http://nactem.ac.uk/anatomytagger. sophia.ananiadou@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation ...

  14. Improved method for P and T strategy selection by long-term risk evaluation of nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, G.; Feher, S.; Szieberth, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed introduction of the presently used indicators of long-term risk, namely various concepts of radiotoxicity, analyses their advantages and disadvantages, and proposes further indicators called residual hazard and residual hazard index. In order to illustrate them, the time behavior of the relative radiotoxicity and the residual hazard index is investigated for a few representative cases. In the first one, conventional thermal and fast reactors, while in the second one molten salt reactors are investigated from the viewpoint of transmutation. The results shown indicate the usefulness of the application of the now proposed quantities. (author)

  15. A multi-channel device for high-density target-selective stimulation and long-term monitoring of cells and subcellular features in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Sean; Mugno, Paula; Hammarlund, Marc; Hilliard, Massimo A.; Lu, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Selective cell ablation can be used to identify neuronal functions in multicellular model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans. The optogenetic tool KillerRed facilitates selective ablation by enabling light-activated damage of cell or subcellular components in a temporally and spatially precise manner. However, the use of KillerRed requires stimulating (5 min-1 hr), culturing (~24 hrs) and imaging (often repeatedly) a large number of individual animals. Current manual manipulation methods are limited by their time-consuming, labor-intensive nature, and their usage of anesthetics. To facilitate large-scale selective ablation, culturing, and repetitive imaging, we developed a densely-packed multi-channel device and used it to perform high-throughput neuronal ablation on KillerRed-expressing animals. The ability to load worms in identical locations with high loading efficiency allows us to ablate selected neurons in multiple worms simultaneously. Our device also enables continuous observation of aminals for 24 hrs following KillerRed activation, and allows the animals to be recovered for behavioural assays. We expect this multi-channel device to facilitate a broad range of long-term imaging and selective illumination experiments in neuroscience. PMID:25257026

  16. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  17. Difference in short-term responses to a high-fiber diet in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, L; Loisel, F; Le Naou, T; Gondret, F; Gilbert, H; Le Gall, M

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between observed and predicted feed intakes, has been explored as a relevant selection criterion to improve feed efficiency in growing pigs. Previous studies exploring the genetic and physiological bases of RFI have been focused on pigs fed a regular diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of RFI selection on pigs' ability to digest and metabolize a diet enriched in fiber. After 11 wk of age, pigs of 2 lines divergently selected for RFI (low or high; n = 7 pairs of littermates in each line) were fed either a control diet (133 g NDF and 9.69 MJ NE/kg) or a high-fiber diet (244 g NDF and 8.36 MJ NE/kg) for 3 wk. Irrespective of diet, ADFI and water consumption were lower (P line, whereas G:F over the test period was 16% greater (P line compared with the high RFI line. There was no line-associated difference in the digestibility of nutrients and energy, despite a lighter digestive tract (-6.4%, P = 0.04) and a lower colon weight (-8.6%, P = 0.03) in the low RFI pigs than in the high RFI pigs. As compared with the control diet, ADFI was reduced (-7.5%, P lines when fed a high-fiber diet, but ADG and G:F were lowered for the high RFI line only (P fiber diet decreased (P lines. However, it increased the ratio of acetate to propionate concentrations in the distal part of the gastrointestinal tract for the high RFI line only (P line, and long-lasting plasma concentrations of lactate tended to be lower (P line than in high RFI line. Plasma NEFA concentrations were greater in that line compared with the high RFI line. The activity levels of catabolic enzymes in muscle and the liver did not differ between lines and diets. In conclusion, the low RFI pigs seem to better utilize a high-fiber diet than high RFI pigs. This was not associated with marked changes in digestion, and the underlying metabolic mechanisms remain to be clarified.

  18. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  19. HIV-specific Cytotoxic T Cells from Long-Term Survivors Select a Unique T Cell Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Chen, Nan; Easterbrook, Philippa; Xu, Xiaoning; Papagno, Laura; Appay, Victor; Weekes, Michael; Conlon, Chris; Spina, Celsa; Little, Susan; Screaton, Gavin; van der Merwe, Anton; Richman, Douglas D.; McMichael, Andrew J.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2004-01-01

    HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are important in controlling HIV replication, but the magnitude of the CTL response does not predict clinical outcome. In four donors with delayed disease progression we identified Vβ13.2 T cell receptors (TCRs) with very similar and unusually long β-chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) regions in CTL specific for the immunodominant human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA)-B8–restricted human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) nef epitope, FLKEKGGL (FL8). CTL expressing Vβ13.2 TCRs tolerate naturally arising viral variants in the FL8 epitope that escape recognition by other CTL. In addition, they expand efficiently in vitro and are resistant to apoptosis, in contrast to FL8–specific CTL using other TCRs. Selection of Vβ13.2 TCRs by some patients early in the FL8-specific CTL response may be linked with better clinical outcome. PMID:15596521

  20. Short-term impacts of air pollutants in Switzerland: Preliminary scenario calculations for selected Swiss energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    In the frame of the comprehensive assessment of Swiss energy systems, air quality simulations were performed by using a 3-dimensional photo-chemical dispersion model. The objective is to investigate the impacts of pollutants in Switzerland for future options of Swiss energy systems. Four scenarios were investigated: Base Case: simulations with the projected emissions for the year 2030, Scenario 1) all nuclear power plants were replaced by oil-driven combined cycle plants (CCP), Scenarios 2 to 4) traffic emissions were reduced in whole Switzerland as well as in the cities and on the highways separately. Changes in the pollutant concentrations and depositions, and the possible short-term impacts are discussed on the basis of exceedences of critical levels for plants and limits given to protect the public health. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  1. Rationale for selecting antihistamine drugs for the therapy of chronic urticaria in terms of efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Skorokhodkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study. To compare the efficacy of antihistamine drugs for the therapy of chronic urticaria taking into consideration their effect on the patients’ cognitive functions. Materials and methods. The study involved 178 patients with chronic urticaria who were divided into six groups taking second generation antihistamine drugs: Cetirizine (n = 38, Levocetirizine (n = 27, Fexofenadine (n=26, Ebastine (n = 33, Loratadine (n = 26 and Desloratadine (n = 28. The patients recorded dynamic changes in clinical symptoms of the disease (number of urticarial components, skin itching intensity, availability or absence of urticarial derniographism, angioedema signs and signs of the shortness of breath and reduced blood pressure in their individual diaries. Baseline signs of the patients’ cognitive condition and those recorded during the treatment were studied using the Kraepelin’s arithmetic test (modified by Schulte, I.M. Lushchikhina’s verbal and visual thinking assessment method and method for memorizing ten words. The control group comprised 31 subjects without chronic urticaria. Results of the study. Ebastine and Fexofenadine are the most efficient antihistamine drugs for the treatment of chronic urticaria. At the same time, they do not have any negative effect on the patients’ cognitive functions so they can be recommended for long-term treatment of chronic urticaria. In spite of its evident positive therapeutic effect, Cetirizine reduces mental alertness and deteriorates thinking in patients with chronic urticaria. Because of this, the drug must be prescribed with care for long-term administration to those patients whose professional activities demand increased attention concentration. Loratadine has a positive effect on the patients’ attention and thinking. However, taking into consideration its low efficacy, the drug can be prescribed as the basis therapy for the treatment of light forms of chronic urticaria.

  2. Management of post-biopsy renal allograft arteriovenous fistulas with selective arterial embolization: immediate and long-term outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loffroy, R. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, Dijon (France)], E-mail: loffroy.romaric@neuf.fr; Guiu, B.; Lambert, A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, Dijon (France); Mousson, C.; Tanter, Y. [Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation (France); Martin, L. [Department of Pathology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, Dijon (France); Cercueil, J.-P.; Krause, D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, Dijon (France)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To evaluate the outcomes after transcatheter embolization of percutaneous biopsy-related arteriovenous fistulas in renal allografts. Materials and methods: All post-biopsy renal-transplant vascular injuries referred for embolization between June 1999 and October 2006 were reviewed retrospectively. There were six male and six female patients with a mean age of 49.8 years (range 25-67 years); nine patients were symptomatic, three asymptomatic. Colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) and angiography showed one intra-renal arteriovenous fistula in 10 patients and two in two patients, combined with a pseudoaneurysm in six patients. Superselective embolization using a single catheter or coaxial microcatheter was performed with 0.035'' coils or 0.018''microcoils, respectively, in all 12 cases. 24-h creatinine clearance values before (the day of biopsy) and after (7-14 days; 3 months) the procedure were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Physical examination and CDUS were performed after 1, 6, and 12 months, and yearly thereafter. Mean follow-up was 33.6 months. Results: Complete definitive occlusion of the fistula was achieved consistently with a single procedure. No procedure-related complications occurred. Renal infarction was minor in all patients (0-10% in nine and 10-20% in three). Symptoms resolved completely. Creatinine clearance values obtained before and after embolization were not statistically different (p = 0.168;.889 respectively). No late recurrences were reported. Conclusion: Transcatheter embolization with coaxial or single-catheter techniques was effective and safe for treating post-biopsy arteriovenous fistulas in renal transplants. The loss of renal parenchyma was minimal and no mid-term deterioration of allograft function was noted. The long-term survival of the renal allograft seemed to be not affected by embolization.

  3. [Japanese anatomical terminology (nomina anatomica japonica) from the educational view point (1)--sune and nezumi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, T

    1984-12-01

    A few considerations on two Japanese anatomical terms, sune (the anterior part of the leg or the shin in medical terminology) and nezumi (the rat) from the anatomical point of view are made. Japanese words generally have two readings. For example, sune which means the anterior part of the leg, may be read as sune and kei. But kei has two other meanings, the neck and the road. Sune is used more for the anterior part of the leg than kei, especially in classes for beginners of the anatomical course. Nezumi means rat, but is also read as so. Because kei means road, and kan means canal, sokeikan means the rat's tubular passageway, namely, the descent of testis (Descensus testis). In Japanese anatomical terminology the passage of the testis through the inguinal canal is considered similar to a rat going through a passageway. The work sokeikan is better than the English anatomical term inguinal canal which means only the canal in the root of the groin. In Japanese, two words, fukurahagi and komura are used for the posterior part of the leg.

  4. Short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity ameliorates the suppressed expression of key β-cell factors under diabetic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimo, Naoki [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuoka, Taka-aki, E-mail: matsuoka@endmet.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Miyatsuka, Takeshi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunky-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Takebe, Satomi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Kaneto, Hideaki [Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-city, Okayama, 701-0192 (Japan); Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-11-27

    Alleviation of hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidemia improves pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how the expression alterations of key β-cell factors are altered by the short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity or lipotoxicity. We treated db/db mice for one week with empagliflozin and/or bezafibrate to alleviate glucotoxicity and/or liptotoxicity, respectively. The gene expression levels of Pdx1 and Mafa, and their potential targets, insulin 1, Slc2a2, and Glp1r, were higher in the islets of empagliflozin-treated mice, and levels of insulin 2 were higher in mice treated with both reagents, than in untreated mice. Moreover, compared to the pretreatment levels, Mafa and insulin 1 expression increased in empagliflozin-treated mice, and Slc2a2 increased in combination-treated mice. In addition, empagliflozin treatment enhanced β-cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Our date clearly demonstrated that the one-week selective alleviation of glucotoxicity led to the better expression levels of the key β-cell factors critical for β-cell function over pretreatment levels, and that the alleviation of lipotoxicity along with glucotoxicity augmented the favorable effects under diabetic conditions. - Highlights: • One-week selective reduction of gluco- and lipo-toxicity in db/db mice was performed. • Selective glucotoxicity reduction increases key pancreatic β-cell factors expression. • Selective glucotoxicity reduction improves β-cell factors over pretreatment levels. • Selective glucotoxicity reduction turns β-cell mass toward increase. • Lipotoxicity reduction has additive effects on glucotoxicity reduction.

  5. A short-term clinical trial on selected outcomes for immediately loaded implant-supported mandibular overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Tumer, Celal; Avci, Mehmet; Hersek, Nur; Celik-Bagci, Emine

    2006-01-01

    This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the outcomes of implant-supported mandibular overdentures (ISMOs) using 2 different loading protocols. Two groups of 10 edentulous patients each were selected for the study. Each patient received 2 implants placed in the mandibular canine sites. After 1 week, ISMOs were delivered to the 10 patients in the test group, while conventional mandibular dentures were delivered to the 10 patients in the control group. The conventional prostheses were converted to ISMOs after 3 months. Treatment outcomes for the ISMOs were evaluated 1 year after implant surgery. The number of appointments and time needed for fabrication of ISMOs revealed statistically significant differences between the patient groups. The requirements for prosthodontic maintenance of ISMOs in the test group were higher than those in the control group; however, these differences were not statistically significant. The mean marginal bone resorption for each group was 0.3 mm after 1 year. The results of this clinical trial suggest that early loading of a specific length of implants used to support mandibular overdentures does not jeopardize treatment outcomes during the first year of service.

  6. Technology readiness levels and technology status for selected long term/high payoff technologies on the RLV program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a new space transportation system in a climate of constant budget cuts and staff reductions can be and is a difficult task. It is no secret that NASA's current launching system consumes a very large portion of NASA funding and requires a large army of people to operate & maintain the system. The new Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) project and it's programs are faced with a monumental task of making the cost of access to space dramatically lower and more efficient than NASA's current system. With pressures from congressional budget cutters and also increased competition and loss of market share from international agencies RLV's first priority is to develop a 'low-cost, reliable transportation to earth orbit.' One of the RLV's major focus in achieving low-cost, reliable transportation to earth orbit is to rely on the maturing of advanced technologies. The technologies for the RLV are numerous and varied. Trying to assess their current status, within the RLV development program is paramount. There are several ways to assess these technologies. One way is through the use of Technology Readiness Levels (TRL's). This project focused on establishing current (summer 95) 'worst case' TRL's for six selected technologies that are under consideration for use within the RLV program. The six technologies evaluated were Concurrent Engineering, Embedded Sensor Technology, Rapid Prototyping, Friction Stir Welding, Thermal Spray Coatings, and VPPA Welding.

  7. The short- and medium-term effectiveness of CT-guided selective cervical nerve root injection for pain and disability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Amidevi; Saha, Shouvik; Sharma, Naveen; Huckerby, Lauren; Houghton, Russell

    2014-01-01

    CT-guided cervical nerve root injection with corticosteroid and/or local anesthetic is a recognized technique in the evaluation and treatment of cervical radiculopathy. There are few prospective studies on the efficacy of the various techniques employed in cervical nerve root injection. We present our results from a 1-year prospective series using a CT-guided anterolateral transforaminal approach for cervical nerve root injection of bupivacaine and dexamethasone. Pain using a numeric rating scale was assessed at pre-injection, 15 min post-injection, 1 month, and 3 months. Disability was assessed using the Oswestry Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire at pre-injection, 1 month post-injection, and 3 months. In total, 50 patients were followed for 3 months. The mean reductions in pain were: 15 min (77 %), 1 month (39 %), and 3 months (33 %). The mean reductions in NDI were: 1 month (26 %) and 3 months (also 26 %). Results were statistically significant. CT-guided selective cervical nerve root injection in the treatment of cervical radicular pain and related disability produces statistically significant reductions in pain and disability to at least 3 months post-procedure. (orig.)

  8. Immune selection of equine infectious anemia virus env variants during the long-term inapparent stage of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponseller, Brett A; Sparks, Wendy O; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Li, Yuxing; Antons, Amanda K; Oaks, J Lindsay; Carpenter, Susan

    2007-06-20

    The principal neutralizing domain (PND) of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is located in the V3 region of SU. Genetic variation in the PND is considered to play an important role in immune escape and EIAV persistence; however, few studies have characterized genetic variation in SU during the inapparent stage of disease. To better understand the mechanisms of virus persistence, we undertook a longitudinal study of SU variation in a pony experimentally inoculated with the virulent EIAV(Wyo). Viral RNA isolated from the inoculum and from sequential sera samples was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned, and individual clones were sequenced. Of the 147 SU clones obtained, we identified 71 distinct V3 variants that partitioned into five major non-overlapping groups, designated PND-1 to PND-5, which segregated with specific stages of clinical disease. Genotypes representative of each group were inserted into an infectious molecular clone, and chimeric viruses were tested for susceptibility to neutralization by autologous sera from successive times post-infection. Overall, there was a trend for increasing resistance to neutralizing antibody during disease progression. The PND genotype associated with recrudescence late in infection was resistant to both type-specific and broadly neutralizing antibody, and displayed a reduced replication phenotype in vitro. These findings indicate that neutralizing antibody exerts selective pressure throughout infection and suggest that viral strategies of immune evasion and persistence change in the face of an evolving and maturing host immune response.

  9. The short- and medium-term effectiveness of CT-guided selective cervical nerve root injection for pain and disability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Amidevi; Saha, Shouvik; Sharma, Naveen; Huckerby, Lauren; Houghton, Russell [Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospitals, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    CT-guided cervical nerve root injection with corticosteroid and/or local anesthetic is a recognized technique in the evaluation and treatment of cervical radiculopathy. There are few prospective studies on the efficacy of the various techniques employed in cervical nerve root injection. We present our results from a 1-year prospective series using a CT-guided anterolateral transforaminal approach for cervical nerve root injection of bupivacaine and dexamethasone. Pain using a numeric rating scale was assessed at pre-injection, 15 min post-injection, 1 month, and 3 months. Disability was assessed using the Oswestry Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire at pre-injection, 1 month post-injection, and 3 months. In total, 50 patients were followed for 3 months. The mean reductions in pain were: 15 min (77 %), 1 month (39 %), and 3 months (33 %). The mean reductions in NDI were: 1 month (26 %) and 3 months (also 26 %). Results were statistically significant. CT-guided selective cervical nerve root injection in the treatment of cervical radicular pain and related disability produces statistically significant reductions in pain and disability to at least 3 months post-procedure. (orig.)

  10. Long-term effects of clear-cutting and selective cutting on soil methane fluxes in a temperate spruce forest in southern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xing; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Gasche, Rainer; Papen, Hans; Willibald, Georg; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-year measurements of CH 4 exchange in sub-daily resolution we show that clear-cutting of a forest in Southern Germany increased soil temperature and moisture and decreased CH 4 uptake. CH 4 uptake in the first year after clear-cutting (-4.5 ± 0.2 μg C m -2 h -1 ) was three times lower than during the pre-harvest period (-14.2 ± 1.3 μg C m -2 h -1 ). In contrast, selective cutting did not significantly reduce CH 4 uptake. Annual mean uptake rates were -1.18 kg C ha -1 yr -1 (spruce control), -1.16 kg C ha -1 yr -1 (selective cut site) and -0.44 kg C ha -1 yr -1 (clear-cut site), respectively. Substantial seasonal and inter-annual variations in CH 4 fluxes were observed as a result of significant variability of weather conditions, demonstrating the need for long-term measurements. Our findings imply that a stepwise selective cutting instead of clear-cutting may contribute to mitigating global warming by maintaining a high CH 4 uptake capacity of the soil. - Highlights: → Long-term, sub-daily measurements of CH 4 exchange at differently managed forest sites. → Inter-annual variability in CH 4 uptake is affected by annual precipitation. → Clear-cutting reduces the CH 4 sink strength of forest soils, whereas thinning has no significant effect. → Sink strength changes due to clear cutting are long-term and were still present approx. nine years following forest harvest. - Forest management affects the soil CH 4 sink strength, with clear-cutting reducing uptake rates for at least eight years.

  11. Long-term selective degradation of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in a Maderia Abyssal Plain turbidite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Daniel D.; Versteegh, Gerard J. M.; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.

    2017-04-01

    Post-depositional sedimentary dinoflagellate cyst degradation is well documented under oxic conditions, a process characterised by the preferential loss of "S-cysts" at elevated ambient oxygen concentrations. Establishing a quantitative relationship between degradation rates and aerobic exposure would allow paleo-bottom oxygen water profiles to be reconstructed. Here we trace the long-term (centennial-millennial scale) degradation pattern of a dinocyst assemblage from the F-turbidite of core GeoB20305-7 retrieved at Maderia Abyssal Plain (MAP), with reference to a suite of inorganic and organic geochemical profiles. A downward-migrating oxidation front advances through the the upper part of the depositional unit, resulting in a near-total loss of the Peridiniales cyst fraction dominated by Brigantedinium spp. and Echinidinium spp. specimens. In contrast, Gonyaulacales species have subdued degradation responses resulting in the progressive reconstitution of the cyst assemblage away from its source signal. Assuming a diffusion-dominated migration of the oxidation front and a basic parameterisation of boundary conditions we estimate the oxygen exposure time (OET) of the oxidised section to be 5000 years. The resulting degradation profile is well-fitted by an exponential decay curve. Implications of these observations are discussed with regard to existing schemes for dinoflagellate based proxy interpretation in oxic environments.

  12. Long-Term Monitoring of the Broad-Line Region Properties in a Selected Sample of AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Ilić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the long-term optical monitoring campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGN coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. This campaign has produced a remarkable set of optical spectra, since we have monitored for several decades different types of broad-line (type 1 AGN, from a Seyfert 1, double-peaked line, radio loud and radio quiet AGN, to a supermassive binary black hole candidate. Our analysis of the properties of the broad line region (BLR of these objects is based on the variability of the broad emission lines. We hereby give a comparative review of the variability properties of the broad emission lines and the BLR of seven different type 1 AGNs, emphasizing some important results, such as the variability rate, the BLR geometry, and the presence of the intrinsic Baldwin effect. We are discussing the difference and similarity in the continuum and emission line variability, focusing on what is the impact of our results to the supermassive black hole mass determination from the BLR properties.

  13. Comparative assessment of genetic and epigenetic variation among regenerants of potato (Solanum tuberosum) derived from long-term nodal tissue-culture and cell selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Alison L; Wilson, Calum R

    2011-04-01

    Three long-term nodal tissued cultured Russet Burbank potato clones and nine thaxtomin A-treated regenerant lines, derived from the nodal lines, were assessed for genetic and epigenetic (in the form of DNA methylation) differences by AFLP and MSAP. The treated regenerant lines were originally selected for superior resistance to common scab disease and acceptable tuber yield in pot and field trials. The long-term, tissue culture clone lines exhibited genetic (8.75-15.63% polymorphisms) and epigenetic (12.56-26.13% polymorphisms) differences between them and may represent a stress response induced by normal plant growth disruption. The thaxtomin A-treated regenerant lines exhibited much higher significant (p disease resistance. However, linking phenotypic differences that could be of benefit to potato growers, to single gene sequence polymorphisms in a tetraploid plant such as the potato would be extremely difficult since it is assumed many desirable traits are under polygenic control.

  14. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  15. DEVELOPING A MODULAR PORTFOLIO SELECTION MODEL FOR SHORT-TERM AND LONGTERM MARKET TRENDS AND MASS PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jasemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In an effort to model stock markets, many researchers have developed portfolio selection models to maximise investor satisfaction. However, this field still needs more accurate and comprehensive models. Development of these models is difficult because of unpredictable economic, social, and political variables that affect stock market behaviour. In this paper, a new model with three modules for portfolio optimisation is presented. The first module derives the efficient frontier through a new approach; the second presents an intelligent mechanism for emitting trading signals; while the third module integrates the outputs of the first two modules. Some important features of the model in comparison with others are: 1 consideration of investors’ emotions – the psychology of the market – that arises from the three above-mentioned factors; 2 significant loosening of simplifying assumptions about markets and stocks; and 3 greater sensitivity to new data.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In ‘n poging om aandelemarkte te modelleer het verskeie navorsers portefeulje-seleksiemodelle ontwikkel om beleggers se tevredenheid te maksimiseer. Desnieteenstaande word meer akkurate en omvattende modelle benodig. Die ontwikkeling van hierdie modelle word bemoeilik deur die onvoorspelbare ekonomiese, sosiale en politiese veranderlikes wat aandelemarkte se gedrag raak. In hierdie artikel word ‘n nuwe model voorgehou wat bestaan uit drie modules vir portefeulje-optimisering. Die eerste module bepaal die doelmatigheidsgrens op ‘n nuwe metode; die tweede hou ‘n intelligente meganisme voor om transaksieseine te lewer terwyl die derde module die uitsette van die eerste twee modules integreer. Sommige van die belangrike eienskappe van die model wat dit van ander onderskei is: 1 konsiderasie van die beleggers se emosies – die sielkunde van die mark – wat ontstaan vanweë die genoemde faktore; 2 betekenisvolle verslapping van die

  16. Long-term safety of tiotropium delivered by Respimat® SoftMist™ Inhaler: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan CK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ching Kuo Tan, Gui Quan Say, James B Geake Department of Respiratory Medicine, Lyell McEwin Hospital, Elizabeth Vale, SA, Australia Abstract: Tiotropium bromide is a long-acting inhaled muscarinic antagonist used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. It has been available since 2002 as a single-dose dry powder formulation via the HandiHaler® dry powder inhaler (DPI device, and since 2007 as the Respimat® SoftMist™ Inhaler (SMI. The latter is a novel method of medication delivery that utilizes a multidose aqueous solution to deliver the drug as a fine mist. Potential benefits include more efficient drug deposition throughout the respiratory tract, reduced systemic exposure, and greater ease of use and patient satisfaction compared with the use of HandiHaler DPI. Although tiotropium bromide delivered via the HandiHaler DPI has been clearly shown to improve lung function, dyspnea, and quality of life and to reduce exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, there is accumulating evidence regarding the use of tiotropium HandiHaler in other respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation, such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Developed more recently, tiotropium delivered via the Respimat SMI appears to have a similar efficacy and safety profile to the HandiHaler DPI, and early data raising the possibility of safety concerns with its use in COPD have been refuted by more recent evidence. The benefits over the HandiHaler DPI, however, remain unclear. This paper will review the evidence for tiotropium delivered via the Respimat SMI inhaler, in particular as an alternative to the HandiHaler DPI, and will focus on the safety profile for each of the chronic lung diseases in which it has been trialed, as well as an approach to appropriate patient selection. Keywords: tiotropium, Respimat, safety, COPD, asthma, HandiHaler

  17. Biases in Long-term NO2 Averages Inferred from Satellite Observations Due to Cloud Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; O'Brien, Jason M.; Celarier, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrievals of atmospheric trace gas column densities from space are compromised by the presence of clouds, requiring most studies to exclude observations with significant cloud fractions in the instrument's field of view. Using NO2 observations at three ground stations representing urban, suburban, and rural environments, and tropospheric vertical column densities measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over each site, we show that the observations from space represent monthly averaged ground-level pollutant conditions well (R=0.86) under relatively cloud-free conditions. However, by analyzing the ground-level data and applying the OMI cloud fraction as a filter, we show there is a significant bias in long-term averaged NO2 as a result of removing the data during cloudy conditions. For the ground-based sites considered in this study, excluding observations on days when OMI-derived cloud fractions were greater than 0.2 causes 12:00-14:00 mean summer mixing ratios to be underestimated by 12%+/-6%, 20%+/-7%, and 40%+/-10% on average (+/-1 standard deviation) at the urban, suburban, and rural sites respectively. This bias was investigated in particular at the rural site, a region where pollutant transport is the main source of NO2, and where longterm observations of NOy were also available. Evidence of changing photochemical conditions and a correlation between clear skies and the transport of cleaner air masses play key roles in explaining the bias. The magnitude of a bias is expected to vary from site to site depending on meteorology and proximity to NOx sources, and decreases when longer averaging times of ground station data (e.g. 24-h) are used for the comparison.

  18. Oriental eyelids. Anatomic difference and surgical consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Hsu, W M

    1986-01-01

    Fashions change with time and beauty standards differ in different cultures. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of immigrants to the United States from the Orient. The creation of an upper eyelid crease has been for the past several decades the most popular cosmetic procedure in many Asian countries. In order to perform this procedure to the satisfaction of an Oriental patient, the surgeon must know what the patient perceives as beautiful and the anatomic differences between the Oriental and the Occidental eyelids. In this paper with data collected from over 3,600 patients, we are presenting important statistics that enables the surgeon to understand better the Oriental mind and facilitate communications. The anatomic difference in the upper eyelid is also discussed.

  19. Accessory mental foramen: a rare anatomical finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Thayil, Sumeeth Cyriac; Nair, Preeti P

    2011-01-01

    Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is a rare anatomical variation with a prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 10%. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more AMF during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Careful surgical dissection should be performed in the region so that the presence of AMF can be detected and the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or haemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an AMF may exist. Trigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed. On the basis of diagnostic test results, peripheral neurectomy of mental nerve was planned. Failure to do neurectomy of mental nerve branch in the reported case, coming out from AMF, would have resulted in recurrence of pain and eventually failure of the procedure. PMID:22707601

  20. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Shen, Elaine H.; Ng, Lydia; Miller, Jeremy A.; van de Lagemaat, Louie N.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L.; Abajian, Chris; Beckmann, Christian F.; Bernard, Amy; Bertagnolli, Darren; Boe, Andrew F.; Cartagena, Preston M.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chapin, Mike; Chong, Jimmy; Dalley, Rachel A.; David Daly, Barry; Dang, Chinh; Datta, Suvro; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Faber, Vance; Feng, David; Fowler, David R.; Goldy, Jeff; Gregor, Benjamin W.; Haradon, Zeb; Haynor, David R.; Hohmann, John G.; Horvath, Steve; Howard, Robert E.; Jeromin, Andreas; Jochim, Jayson M.; Kinnunen, Marty; Lau, Christopher; Lazarz, Evan T.; Lee, Changkyu; Lemon, Tracy A.; Li, Ling; Li, Yang; Morris, John A.; Overly, Caroline C.; Parker, Patrick D.; Parry, Sheana E.; Reding, Melissa; Royall, Joshua J.; Schulkin, Jay; Sequeira, Pedro Adolfo; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R.; Smith, Simon C.; Sodt, Andy J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Swanson, Beryl E.; Vawter, Marquis P.; Williams, Derric; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Hof, Patrick R.; Smith, Stephen M.; Koch, Christof; Grant, Seth G. N.; Jones, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of ~900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals. Transcriptional regulation varies enormously by anatomical location, with different regions and their constituent cell types displaying robust molecular signatures that are highly conserved between individuals. Analysis of differential gene expression and gene co-expression relationships demonstrates that brain-wide variation strongly reflects the distributions of major cell classes such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Local neighbourhood relationships between fine anatomical subdivisions are associated with discrete neuronal subtypes and genes involved with synaptic transmission. The neocortex displays a relatively homogeneous transcriptional pattern, but with distinct features associated selectively with primary sensorimotor cortices and with enriched frontal lobe expression. Notably, the spatial topography of the neocortex is strongly reflected in its molecular topography— the closer two cortical regions, the more similar their transcriptomes. This freely accessible online data resource forms a high-resolution transcriptional baseline for neurogenetic studies of normal and abnormal human brain function. PMID:22996553

  1. Teaching of anatomical sciences: A blended learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Abdel Meguid, Eiman M; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2018-04-01

    Blended learning is the integration of different learning approaches, new technologies, and activities that combine traditional face-to-face teaching methods with authentic online methodologies. Although advances in educational technology have helped to expand the selection of different pedagogies, the teaching of anatomical sciences has been challenged by implementation difficulties and other limitations. These challenges are reported to include lack of time, costs, and lack of qualified teachers. Easy access to online information and advances in technology make it possible to resolve these limitations by adopting blended learning approaches. Blended learning strategies have been shown to improve students' academic performance, motivation, attitude, and satisfaction, and to provide convenient and flexible learning. Implementation of blended learning strategies has also proved cost effective. This article provides a theoretical foundation for blended learning and proposes a validated framework for the design of blended learning activities in the teaching and learning of anatomical sciences. Clin. Anat. 31:323-329, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Anatomically corrected transposition of great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskij, A.V.; Sarkisova, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the description of rare congenital heart disease: anatomically corrected malposition of major vessels in a 9-mos 24 day old girl. The diagnosis of this disease was shown on the results of angiocardiography, concomitant congenital heart diseases were descibed. This abnormality is characterized by common atrioventricular and ventriculovascular joints and inversion position of the major vessels, it is always attended by congenital heart diseases. Surgical intervention is aimed at the elimination of concomitant heart dieseases

  3. Variation in Anatomical Position of Vermiform Appendix among Iranian Population: An Old Issue Which Has Not Lost Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Forouzesh, Mehdi; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Vermiform appendix has diverse anatomical positions, lengths, and conditions of mesoappendix. Knowing the exact anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important in view of surgeons for on-time diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. The aim of present study is determination of these characteristics of vermiform appendix among Iranian population. The present study was conducted on 200 bodies, selected from the dead bodies that had been referred to local bureau of legal medicine, ...

  4. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eZamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  5. The Sleep Elaboration-Awake Pruning (SEAP) theory of memory: long term memories grow in complexity during sleep and undergo selection while awake. Clinical, psychopharmacological and creative implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G; Andras, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Long term memory (LTM) systems need to be adaptive such that they enhance an organism's reproductive fitness and self-reproducing in order to maintain their complexity of communications over time in the face of entropic loss of information. Traditional 'representation-consolidation' accounts conceptualize memory adaptiveness as due to memories being 'representations' of the environment, and the longevity of memories as due to 'consolidation' processes. The assumption is that memory representations are formed while an animal is awake and interacting with the environment, and these memories are consolidated mainly while the animal is asleep. So the traditional view of memory is 'instructionist' and assumes that information is transferred from the environment into the brain. By contrast, we see memories as arising endogenously within the brain's LTM system mainly during sleep, to create complex but probably maladaptive memories which are then simplified ('pruned') and selected during the awake period. When awake the LTM system is brought into a more intense interaction with past and present experience. Ours is therefore a 'selectionist' account of memory, and could be termed the Sleep Elaboration-Awake Pruning (or SEAP) theory. The SEAP theory explains the longevity of memories in the face of entropy by the tendency for memories to grow in complexity during sleep; and explains the adaptiveness of memory by selection for consistency with perceptions and previous memories during the awake state. Sleep is therefore that behavioural state during which most of the internal processing of the system of LTM occurs; and the reason sleep remains poorly understood is that its primary activity is the expansion of long term memories. By re-conceptualizing the relationship between memory, sleep and the environment; SEAP provides a radically new framework for memory research, with implications for the measurement of memory and the design of empirical investigations in clinical

  6. Long-term impacts of selective logging on two Amazonian tree species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics: inferences from Eco-gene model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Sebbenn, A M; Williams, T C R; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H

    2015-08-01

    The impact of logging and subsequent recovery after logging is predicted to vary depending on specific life history traits of the logged species. The Eco-gene simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term impacts of selective logging over 300 years on two contrasting Brazilian Amazon tree species, Dipteryx odorata and Jacaranda copaia. D. odorata (Leguminosae), a slow growing climax tree, occurs at very low densities, whereas J. copaia (Bignoniaceae) is a fast growing pioneer tree that occurs at high densities. Microsatellite multilocus genotypes of the pre-logging populations were used as data inputs for the Eco-gene model and post-logging genetic data was used to verify the output from the simulations. Overall, under current Brazilian forest management regulations, there were neither short nor long-term impacts on J. copaia. By contrast, D. odorata cannot be sustainably logged under current regulations, a sustainable scenario was achieved by increasing the minimum cutting diameter at breast height from 50 to 100 cm over 30-year logging cycles. Genetic parameters were only slightly affected by selective logging, with reductions in the numbers of alleles and single genotypes. In the short term, the loss of alleles seen in J. copaia simulations was the same as in real data, whereas fewer alleles were lost in D. odorata simulations than in the field. The different impacts and periods of recovery for each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information are essential at species, ecological guild or reproductive group levels to help derive sustainable management scenarios for tropical forests.

  7. Research and Application of a Novel Hybrid Model Based on Data Selection and Artificial Intelligence Algorithm for Short Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning plays a vital role in several modern economic and industrial fields, and selecting an optimized machine learning method to improve time series’ forecasting accuracy is challenging. Advanced machine learning methods, e.g., the support vector regression (SVR model, are widely employed in forecasting fields, but the individual SVR pays no attention to the significance of data selection, signal processing and optimization, which cannot always satisfy the requirements of time series forecasting. By preprocessing and analyzing the original time series, in this paper, a hybrid SVR model is developed, considering periodicity, trend and randomness, and combined with data selection, signal processing and an optimization algorithm for short-term load forecasting. Case studies of electricity power data from New South Wales and Singapore are regarded as exemplifications to estimate the performance of the developed novel model. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid method is not only robust but also capable of achieving significant improvement compared with the traditional single models and can be an effective and efficient tool for power load forecasting.

  8. The Short-Term Power Load Forecasting Based on Sperm Whale Algorithm and Wavelet Least Square Support Vector Machine with DWT-IR for Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-peng Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term power load forecasting is an important basis for the operation of integrated energy system, and the accuracy of load forecasting directly affects the economy of system operation. To improve the forecasting accuracy, this paper proposes a load forecasting system based on wavelet least square support vector machine and sperm whale algorithm. Firstly, the methods of discrete wavelet transform and inconsistency rate model (DWT-IR are used to select the optimal features, which aims to reduce the redundancy of input vectors. Secondly, the kernel function of least square support vector machine LSSVM is replaced by wavelet kernel function for improving the nonlinear mapping ability of LSSVM. Lastly, the parameters of W-LSSVM are optimized by sperm whale algorithm, and the short-term load forecasting method of W-LSSVM-SWA is established. Additionally, the example verification results show that the proposed model outperforms other alternative methods and has a strong effectiveness and feasibility in short-term power load forecasting.

  9. Anatomical alterations due to polyploidy in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nagib M A; Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Fernandes, S D C; Araujo, P C

    2008-04-01

    Information on anatomical structure is needed by breeders working on improvement for drought tolerance. For studying the effect of polyploidy on cassava anatomy and its significance to tolerance to drought, we induced a polyploidy type of a selected clone (UnB 530) by applying an aqueous solution of 0.2% colchicine on lateral buds for a period of 12 h. The stem identified as tetraploid was propagated to produce the whole plant. Free-hand cross-sections of the median portion between stem internodes were made. They were clarified using 50% sodium hypochlorite solution, stained with 1% safranin-alcian blue, passed through an ethanol series and butyl acetate and mounted in synthetic resin. The tetraploid type showed more prismatic and druse crystals in the cortical parenchyma, and its pericycle fibers had thicker walls. The secondary xylem of tetraploid types was wider than diploid ones, having thinner walls and less starch.

  10. An Anatomical Approach to Evaluating and Treating Cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Mitalee P; Belkin, Daniel; Geronemus, Roy G; Brauer, Jeremy A

    2017-01-01

    Cellulite is the common rippling or dimpling of skin of the thighs and buttocks of women, formed from a confluence of skin laxity, tethering fibrous septa, and fat herniation. We describe an anatomical approach to evaluating the cellulite patient and selecting the best treatment from among available non-invasive, minimally invasive, and invasive therapies. It is crucial to consider the anatomy of the patient and the morphology of cellulite while choosing a treatment. Diffuse rippling represents increased adiposity and/or increased skin laxity which may stand to benefit from lipolytic and skin tightening modalities. Dimpling represents tethering by fibrous septa which may stand to improve from subcision by minimally invasive devices such as Cell na. Patients with both morphologies may be treated with a combination of treatments or Cellulaze. Careful evaluation of the patient can help identify the best therapeutic strategy. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(1):58-61..

  11. Anatomical eponyms, part 1: to look on the bright side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry, Regis

    2014-11-01

    The use of eponyms in medical sciences generally, and in anatomy specifically, remains controversial. In principle, this discussion should have been concluded as far back as 1895 (publication of the first Nomina anatomica): all eponyms should have been removed from the anatomical vocabulary then. In practice, what was believed to be a mere formality proved much more difficult to apply. Most eponyms remain in current use; moreover, their number goes on increasing. Assuming that there's no smoke without fire, we wondered why it seems impossible to get rid of a specific kind of term. The aim of this article and its successor is to weigh up the pros and cons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program

  13. Chronic ankle instability: Arthroscopic anatomical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Hernández, M; Mellado-Romero, M; Páramo-Díaz, P; García-Lamas, L; Vilà-Rico, J

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries. Despite appropriate conservative treatment, approximately 20-40% of patients continue to have chronic ankle instability and pain. In 75-80% of cases there is an isolated rupture of the anterior talofibular ligament. A retrospective observational study was conducted on 21 patients surgically treated for chronic ankle instability by means of an arthroscopic anatomical repair, between May 2012 and January 2013. There were 15 men and 6 women, with a mean age of 30.43 years (range 18-48). The mean follow-up was 29 months (range 25-33). All patients were treated by arthroscopic anatomical repair of anterior talofibular ligament. Four (19%) patients were found to have varus hindfoot deformity. Associated injuries were present in 13 (62%) patients. There were 6 cases of osteochondral lesions, 3 cases of posterior ankle impingement syndrome, and 6 cases of peroneal pathology. All these injuries were surgically treated in the same surgical time. A clinical-functional study was performed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. The mean score before surgery was 66.12 (range 60-71), and after surgery it increased up to a mean of 96.95 (range 90-100). All patients were able to return to their previous sport activity within a mean of 21.5 weeks (range 17-28). Complications were found in 3 (14%) patients. Arthroscopic anatomical ligament repair technique has excellent clinical-functional results with a low percentage of complications, and enables patients to return to their previous sport activity within a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing patient-focused information: an opportunity for communicating anatomically related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Darrell J R

    2008-01-01

    Literature clearly demonstrates that there has been a large increase in the time devoted to teaching oral communication skills within medical curricula worldwide. In contrast, the ability to communicate with patients through written means does not appear to be a feature in many programmes, despite its fundamental importance in creating understanding of medicine within the general population. This article investigates one way patient-centered written communication has been integrated into part of the early training years of medical students using anatomically related material as a focus. Following a series of interactive seminars and debates as part of a student-selected component, students were asked to prepare a patient-focused information leaflet on a particular birth defect. The leaflets included aspects of anatomy and embryology as well as causes of the birth defect, signs and symptoms, treatments, outlook, and support mechanisms. Evaluation of the leaflets using set marking criteria and readability indexes showed that students had successfully targeted the chosen audiences. Feedback showed that the component was rated highly by the students in terms of quality, usefulness, and interest. Students viewed sessions as an excellent forum for appreciating the importance of and developing their own effective written communication skills. It is hoped that such developments will enhance the capacity of all potential doctors to communicate more effectively with patients and colleagues in both the written and spoken form.

  15. Anatomical Inputs From the Sensory and Value Structures to the Tail of the Rat Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS, is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not. First, inputs from the sensory cortex and sensory thalamus to the TS were found; visual, auditory, somatosensory and gustatory cortex and thalamus projected to the TS but not to the DMS. Second, two value systems innervated the TS; dopamine and serotonin neurons in the lateral part of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc and dorsal raphe nucleus projected to the TS, respectively. The DMS received inputs from the separate group of dopamine neurons in the medial part of the SNc. In addition, learning-related regions of the limbic system innervated the TS; the temporal areas and the basolateral amygdala selectively innervated the TS, but not the DMS. Our data showed that both sensory and value-processing structures innervated the TS, suggesting its plausible role in value-guided sensory-motor association for habitual behavior.

  16. [Anatomical studying of the tear trough area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ningze; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Zhijun; Su, Xiaowei; Jia, Huafeng; Shi, Heng

    2014-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of the aging deformity of tear trough through the anatomic study of the tear trough region. 13 adult cadaveric heads (26 sides), including 9 male heads (18 sides) and 4 female heads (8 sides), aged 22-78 years old, were used. Anatomic study was performed around the orbital, especially tear trough region, with microsurgery instrument under microscope( x 10 times). The lower orbicularis retaining ligament was dissected and exposed. The anatomic location was recorded and photographed. (1) The anatomic layers of the tear trough region contains skin, subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi muscle, periosteal membrane. There is no subcutaneous fat above the tear trough, while it exists below the tear trough, called malar fat pad. (2) There is a natural boundary between the septal and the orbital portions of the orbicularis oculi muscle of lower eyelid at surface of the orbital bone. The natural boundary, projected on the body surface corresponds to tear trough. The width of boundary is (2.06 +/- 0.15) mm on the vertical line through inner canthus and (3.25 +/- 0.12) mm on the vertical line through the lateral margin of the ala. The septal portion and the orbital portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle began to merge in (16.56 +/- 0.51) mm to inner canthus. (3) There is ligament attachment in the medial, upper and lower orbital and no ligament attachment in the lateral orbital. Orbicularis retaining ligament of lower eyelid is divided into two layers. (4) The medial of the upper layer of the orbicularis retaining ligament in lower eyelid originates from orbital margin and from preorbital walls laterally in (16.10 +/- 0.43) mm to the medial of lateral orbital margin, through orbicularis oculi muscle and ends at the skin. The lower layer of the orbicularis retaining ligament of lower eyelid originates from preorbital walls through orbicularis oculi muscle and its superficial fat, then ends at the skin. The length of tear trough is (16.56 +/- 0.51) mm

  17. Newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb selected for long-term survival through olfactory learning are prematurely suppressed when the olfactory memory is erased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sébastien; Rey, Nolwen; Sacquet, Joelle; Mandairon, Nathalie; Didier, Anne

    2011-10-19

    A role for newborn neurons in olfactory memory has been proposed based on learning-dependent modulation of olfactory bulb neurogenesis in adults. We hypothesized that if newborn neurons support memory, then they should be suppressed by memory erasure. Using an ecological approach in mice, we showed that behaviorally breaking a previously learned odor-reward association prematurely suppressed newborn neurons selected to survive during initial learning. Furthermore, intrabulbar infusions of the caspase pan-inhibitor ZVAD (benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp) during the behavioral odor-reward extinction prevented newborn neurons death and erasure of the odor-reward association. Newborn neurons thus contribute to the bulbar network plasticity underlying long-term memory.

  18. Selectivity of calixarene-bonded silica-phases in HPLC: description of special characteristics with a multiple term linear equation at two different pH-values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Meyer, Rüdiger; Jira, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Six different calixarene-bonded phases were characterized by analyzing 36 and 26 solutes at pH 3 and 7, respectively. Dolan and Snyder's multiple term linear equation was used to correlate retention factors k' to parameters of the solutes and columns. The column parameters have been related to molecular properties of the stationary phases and new suggestions were made for the interpretation of steric selectivity. Ionic and polar interactions have been found dependent on pH value, while steric interactions are less dependent and hydrophobic interactions remain unchanged. Distinct differences of the supported interactions were confirmed between the calixarene-bonded and the common alkyl-bonded silicas. By use of the parameters, values of k' can be estimated with an average deviation of 2.50 and 7.92% at low and neutral pH-value, respectively.

  19. Identification and characterization of novel long-term metabolites of oxymesterone and mesterolone in human urine by application of selected reaction monitoring GC-CI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Geldof, Lore; Deventer, Koen; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The search for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task in, for example, toxicology and doping control. The impact of these long-term metabolites is highlighted by the high number of positive cases after reanalysis of samples that were stored for several years, e.g. samples of previous Olympic Games. A substantial number of previously alleged negative samples have now been declared positive due to the detection of various long-term steroid metabolites the existence of which was unknown during the Olympic Games of 2008 and 2012. In this work, the metabolism of oxymesterone and mesterolone, two anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), was investigated by application of a selected reaction monitoring gas chromatography-chemical ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CI-MS/MS) protocol for metabolite detection and identification. Correlations between AAS structure and GC-CI-MS/MS fragmentation behaviour enabled the search for previously unknown but expected AAS metabolites by selection of theoretical transitions for expected metabolites. Use of different hydrolysis protocols allowed for evaluation of the detection window of both phase I and phase II metabolites. For oxymesterone, a new metabolite, 18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-4-hydroxy-androst-4,13-diene-3-one, was identified. It was detectable up to 46 days by using GC-CI-MS/MS, whereas with a traditional screening (detection of metabolite 17-epioxymesterone with electron ionization GC-MS/MS) oxymesterone administration was only detectable for 3.5 days. A new metabolite was also found for mesterolone. It was identified as 1α-methyl-5α-androstan-3,6,16-triol-17-one and its sulfate form after hydrolysis with Helix pomatia resulted in a prolonged detection time (up to 15 days) for mesterolone abuse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A new practical method to reconstruct cerebral surface anatomical images for computer-assisted neurosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Shin; Kato, Amami; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Taneda, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Toru (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-03-01

    Authors have developed a new, practical method to reconstruct cerebral surface anatomical images for better surgical orientation and surgical planning. Using a personal computer and a commercially available image handling software, an area encompassing the surface gyri and sulci is selected from the most superficial slice of T1-weighted MR images, after which this selected area, on adjusting the alignment, is overlayed onto the next superficial slice. By repeating this procedure for 4 to 7 times, the brain surface image obtained clearly displays the gyri and sulci. A vascular image of the cerebral surface can also be obtained by this same method by using T2-weighted images or MR angiograms. Then, by combining both the brain surface and vascular images, an anatomically reconstructed image of the cerebral surface is achieved. The outlines of the lesion or ventricles can also be added, if necessary, and the entire procedure takes an hour or less. The authors believe that this method is superior to conventional surface anatomy scanning for discriminating anatomical structures close to a lesion. This surface anatomical imaging method has been used for the surgical planning and its use helped to minimize surgical damage to the eloquent areas. (author).

  1. Estimating fast neural input using anatomical and functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eriksson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years there has been an increased interest in estimating signals that are sent between neurons and brain areas. During this time many new methods have appeared for measuring those signals. Here we review a wide range of methods for which connected neurons can be identified anatomically, by tracing axons that runs between the cells, or functionally, by detecting if the activity of two neurons are correlated with a short lag. The signals that are sent between the neurons are represented by the activity in the neurons that are connected to the target population or by the activity at the corresponding synapses. The different methods not only differ in the accuracy of the signal measurement but they also differ in the type of signal being measured. For example, unselective recording of all neurons in the source population encompasses more indirect pathways to the target population than if one selectively record from the neurons that project to the target population. Infact, this degree of selectivity is similar to that of optogenetic perturbations; one can perturb selectively or unselectively. Thus it becomes possible to match a given signal measurement method with a signal perturbation method, something that allows for an exact input control to any neuronal population.

  2. The effect of spatial organization of targets and distractors on the capacity to selectively memorize objects in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Aymen Ben; Gavault, Emmanuelle; Ripoll, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments to explore how the spatial configuration of objects influences the selection and the processing of these objects in a visual short-term memory task. We designed a new experiment in which participants had to memorize 4 targets presented among 4 distractors. Targets were cued during the presentation of distractor objects. Their locations varied according to 4 spatial configurations. From the first to the last configuration, the distance between targets' locations was progressively increased. The results revealed a high capacity to select and memorize targets embedded among distractors even when targets were extremely distant from each other. This capacity is discussed in relation to the unitary conception of attention, models of split attention, and the competitive interaction model. Finally, we propose that the spatial dispersion of objects has different effects on attentional allocation and processing stages. Thus, when targets are extremely distant from each other, attentional allocation becomes more difficult while processing becomes easier. This finding implicates that these 2 aspects of attention need to be more clearly distinguished in future research.

  3. Fast correspondences search in anatomical trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Thiago R.; Gergel, Ingmar; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    2010-03-01

    Registration of multiple medical images commonly comprises the steps feature extraction, correspondences search and transformation computation. In this paper, we present a new method for a fast and pose independent search of correspondences using as features anatomical trees such as the bronchial system in the lungs or the vessel system in the liver. Our approach scores the similarities between the trees' nodes (bifurcations) taking into account both, topological properties extracted from their graph representations and anatomical properties extracted from the trees themselves. The node assignment maximizes the global similarity (sum of the scores of each pair of assigned nodes), assuring that the matches are distributed throughout the trees. Furthermore, the proposed method is able to deal with distortions in the data, such as noise, motion, artifacts, and problems associated with the extraction method, such as missing or false branches. According to an evaluation on swine lung data sets, the method requires less than one second on average to compute the matching and yields a high rate of correct matches compared to state of the art work.

  4. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  5. Sleep Disturbance and Anatomic Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brent J; Sciascia, Aaron D; Jacobs, Cale A; Edwards, T Bradley

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disturbance is commonly encountered in patients with glenohumeral joint arthritis and can be a factor that drives patients to consider surgery. The prevalence of sleep disturbance before or after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty has not been reported. The authors identified 232 eligible patients in a prospective shoulder arthroplasty registry following total shoulder arthroplasty for primary glenohumeral joint arthritis with 2- to 5-year follow-up. Sleep disturbance secondary to the affected shoulder was characterized preoperatively and postoperatively as no sleep disturbance, frequent sleep disturbance, or nightly sleep disturbance. A total of 211 patients (91%) reported sleep disturbance prior to surgery. Patients with nightly sleep disturbance had significantly worse (Psleep disturbance, with 186 patients (80%) reporting no sleep disturbance (Psleep disturbance group had significantly greater patient-reported outcome scores and range of motion following surgery compared with the other sleep disturbance groups for nearly all outcome measures (P≤.01). Patients have significant improvements in sleep after anatomic shoulder arthroplasty. There was a high prevalence of sleep disturbance preoperatively (211 patients, 91%) compared with postoperatively (46 patients, 20%). [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e450-e454.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Anatomical and roentgenographic features of atlantooccipital instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B; Duval, M J; Davis, J A; Bernini, P M

    1993-02-01

    An anatomical study using six fresh, human cadaveric cervical spine specimens was performed. After the dissection of all soft tissue, flexion-extension radiographs were obtained to verify initial stability. A sagittal plane bone cut was then made, centered on the odontoid and sparing the alar ligaments, the tectorial membrane, and the atlantooccipital (AO) ligaments. Repeat flexion-extension radiographs and photographs were taken to document maintenance of stability of these hemisections. The occipital-atlantoaxial ligaments were then individually and sequentially incised, maintaining all other structures each time. After the sectioning of each ligament, flexion-extension radiographs and photographs were obtained to identify subsequent motion patterns. Both gross anatomical and roentgenographic examinations demonstrated the important stabilizing role of the tectorial membrane in flexion. Additionally, contact between the posterior arch of C1 and the occiput limited hyperextension as a secondary restraint once the tectorial membrane was sectioned. Furthermore, the AO ligaments proved to play an insignificant role in the preservation of AO stability through a flexion-extension arc of motion. Under normal circumstances, the AO articulation is not excessively stressed. However, acute AO injury, as well as the insidious failure of these ligaments, has been documented in several cases involving various pathologies. This study demonstrates a mechanism of instability and highlights the essential role of the tectorial membrane in maintaining upper cervical spine stability.

  7. Long-term impacts of grazing intensity on soil carbon sequestration and selected soil properties in the arid Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talore, Deribe G; Tesfamariam, Eyob H; Hassen, Abubeker; Du Toit, J C O; Klampp, Katja; Jean-Francois, Soussana

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about how basic soil properties respond to contrasting grazing intensities in the Karoo biome, South Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate impacts of long-term (>75 years) grazing at 1.18 heads ha(-1) (heavy; CGH), 0.78 heads ha(-1) (light; CGL), and exclosure on selected soil properties. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm from the long-term experimental site of Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute, Eastern Cape. The samples were analyzed for C, N, bulk density and infiltration rate, among others. Generally, heavy and light grazing reduced soil N storage by 27.5% and 22.6%, respectively, compared with the exclosure. Animal exclusion improved water infiltration rate and C stocks significantly (P grazing treatments in the top 3-7 cm soil layer but for exclosure at the top 1 cm soil surface. Although livestock exclusion has the potential to improve C sequestration, a sufficient resting period for 1-2 years followed by three consecutive grazing years at light stocking rate would be ideal for sustainable livestock production in this arid region of South Africa. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Fuel selection during short-term submaximal treadmill exercise in the cold is not affected by pre-exercise low-intensity shivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dominique D; Rintamäki, Hannu; Gagnon, Sheila S; Oksa, Juha; Porvari, Katja; Cheung, Stephen S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2014-03-01

    Exercise and shivering rely on different metabolic pathways and consequently, fuel selection. The present study examined the effects of a pre-exercise low-intensity shivering protocol on fuel selection during submaximal exercise in a cold environment. Nine male subjects exercised 4 times for 60 min at 50% (LOW) or 70% (MOD) of their peak oxygen consumption on a motorized treadmill in a climatic chamber set at 0 °C with (SHIV) and without (CON) a pre-exercise cooling protocol, inducing low-intensity shivering. Thermal, cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses were measured every 15 min whereas blood samples were collected every 30 min to assess serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Rectal and skin temperatures were lower in the SHIV condition, within LOW and MOD conditions, during the first 45 min of exercise. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration was greater in SHIV vs. CON within LOW (1.39 ± 0.17 vs. 0.98 ± 0.17 ng·mL(-1)) and MOD (1.50 ± 0.20 vs. 1.01 ± 0.09 ng·mL(-1)), whereas NEFA, glycerol and BHB were greater in SHIV vs. CON (1060 ± 49 vs. 898 ± 78 μmol·L(-1); 0.27 ± 0.02 vs. 0.22 ± 0.03 mmol·L(-1); 0.39 ± 0.06 vs. 0.27 ± 0.04 mmol·L(-1), respectively) within MOD only. No changes were observed in fat or carbohydrate oxidation between SHIV and CON during exercise. Despite increases in NE, NEFA, glycerol and BHB from pre-exercise low-intensity shivering, fuel selection during short-term submaximal exercise in the cold was unaltered.

  9. Early prevention of antisocial personality: long-term follow-up of two randomized controlled trials comparing indicated and selective approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jackie; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-06-01

    Antisocial personality is a common adult problem that imposes a major public health burden, but for which there is no effective treatment. Affected individuals exhibit persistent antisocial behavior and pervasive antisocial character traits, such as irritability, manipulativeness, and lack of remorse. Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking. The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13. The primary psychiatric outcome measures were the two elements of antisocial personality, namely, antisocial behavior (assessed by a diagnostic interview) and antisocial character traits (assessed by a questionnaire). Also assessed were reading achievement (an important domain of youth functioning at work) and parent-adolescent relationship quality. In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group (antisocial behavior: odds ratio of oppositional defiant disorder=0.20, 95% CI=0.06, 0.69; antisocial character traits: B=-4.41, 95% CI=-1.12, -8.64). Additionally, reading ability improved (B=9.18, 95% CI=0.58, 18.0). Parental expressed emotion was warmer (B=0.86, 95% CI=0.20, 1.41) and supervision was closer (B=-0.43, 95% CI=-0.11, -0.75), but direct observation of parenting showed no differences. Teacher-rated and self-rated antisocial behavior were unchanged. In contrast, in the selective high-risk sample, early intervention was not associated with improved long-term outcomes. Early intervention with

  10. Contribution of the computed tomography of the anatomical aspects of the sphenoid sinuses to forensic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffret, Mathieu; Garetier, Marc; Diallo, Idris; Aho, Serge; Ben Salem, Douraied

    2016-12-01

    Body identification is the cornerstone of forensic investigation. It can be performed using radiographic techniques, if antemortem images are available. This study was designed to assess the value of visual comparison of the computed tomography (CT) anatomical aspects of the sphenoid sinuses, in forensic individual identification, especially if antemortem dental records, fingerprints or DNA samples are not available. This retrospective work took place in a French university hospital. The supervisor of this study randomly selected from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), 58 patients who underwent one (16 patients) or two (42 patients) head CT in various neurological contexts. To avoid bias, those studies were prepared (anonymized, and all the head structures but the sphenoid sinuses were excluded), and used to constitute two working lists of 50 (42+8) CT studies of the sphenoid sinuses. An anatomical classification system of the sphenoid sinuses anatomical variations was created based on the anatomical and surgical literature. In these two working lists, three blinded readers had to identify, using the anatomical system and subjective visual comparison, 42 pairs of matched studies, and 16 unmatched studies. Readers were blinded from the exact numbers of matching studies. Each reader correctly identified the 42 pairs of CT with a concordance of 100% [97.5% confidence interval: 91-100%], and the 16 unmatched CT with a concordance of 100% [97.5% confidence interval: 79-100%]. Overall accuracy was 100%. Our study shows that establishing the anatomical concordance of the sphenoid sinuses by visual comparison could be used in personal identification. This easy method, based on a frequently and increasingly prescribed exam, still needs to be assessed on a postmortem cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Clarification of Eponymous Anatomical Terminology: Structures Named After Dr Geoffrey V. Osborne That Compress the Ulnar Nerve at the Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Arvin R; Gabel, Brandon; Mitwalli, Madhawi; Tubbs, R Shane; Brown, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    In 1957, Dr Geoffrey Osborne described a structure between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon that placed excessive pressure on the ulnar nerve. Three terms associated with such structures have emerged: Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia. As anatomical language moves away from eponymous terminology for descriptive, consistent nomenclature, we find discrepancies in the use of anatomic terms. This review clarifies the definitions of the above 3 terms. We conducted an extensive electronic search via PubMed and Google Scholar to identify key anatomical and surgical texts that describe ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. We searched the following terms separately and in combination: "Osborne's band," "Osborne's ligament," and "Osborne's fascia." A total of 36 papers were included from 1957 to 2016. Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia were found to inconsistently describe the etiology of ulnar neuritis, referring either to the connective tissue between the 2 heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle as described by Dr Osborne or to the anatomically distinct fibrous tissue between the olecranon process of the ulna and the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The use of eponymous terms to describe ulnar pathology of the elbow remains common, and although these terms allude to the rich history of surgical anatomy, these nonspecific descriptions lead to inconsistencies. As Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia are not used consistently across the literature, this research demonstrates the need for improved terminology to provide reliable interpretation of these terms among surgeons.

  12. Anatomical study of middle cluneal nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University, 2Department of Spine and Spinal Cord, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama City, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Object: Entrapment of the middle cluneal nerve (MCN under the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL is a possible, and underdiagnosed, cause of low-back and/or leg symptoms. To date, detailed anatomical studies of MCN entrapment are few. The purpose of this study was to ascertain, using cadavers, the relationship between the MCN and LPSL and to investigate MCN entrapment. Methods: A total of 30 hemipelves from 20 cadaveric donors (15 female, 5 male designated for education or research, were studied by gross anatomical dissection. The age range of the donors at death was 71–101 years with a mean of 88 years. Branches of the MCN were identified under or over the gluteus maximus fascia caudal to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS and traced laterally as far as their finest ramification. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the MCN and LPSL. The distance from the branch of the MCN to the PSIS and to the midline and the diameter of the MCN were measured. Results: A total of 64 MCN branches were identified in the 30 hemipelves. Of 64 branches, 10 (16% penetrated the LPSL. The average cephalocaudal distance from the PSIS to where the MCN penetrated the LPSL was 28.5±11.2 mm (9.1–53.7 mm. The distance from the midline was 36.0±6.4 mm (23.5–45.2 mm. The diameter of the MCN branch traversing the LPSL averaged 1.6±0.5 mm (0.5–3.1 mm. Four of the 10 branches penetrating the LPSL had obvious constriction under the ligament. Conclusion: This is the first anatomical study illustrating MCN entrapment. It is likely that MCN entrapment is not a rare clinical entity. Keywords: middle cluneal nerve, sacroiliac joint

  13. Global tractography with embedded anatomical priors for quantitative connectivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia eLemkaddem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main assumption of fiber-tracking algorithms is that fiber trajectories are represented by paths of highest diffusion, which is usually accomplished by following the principal diffusion directions estimated in every voxel from the measured diffusion MRI data. The state-of-the-art approaches, known as global tractography, reconstruct all the fiber tracts of the whole brain simultaneously by solving a global energy minimization problem. The tractograms obtained with these algorithms outperform any previous technique but, unfortunately, the price to pay is an increased computational cost which is not suitable in many practical settings, both in terms of time and memory requirements. Furthermore, existing global tractography algorithms suffer from an important shortcoming that is crucial in the context of brain connectivity analyses. As no anatomical priors are used during in the reconstruction process, the recovered fiber tracts are not guaranteed to connect cortical regions and, as a matter of fact, most of them stop prematurely in the white matter. This does not only unnecessarily slow down the estimation procedure and potentially biases any subsequent analysis but also, most importantly, prevents the de facto quantification of brain connectivity. In this work, we propose a novel approach for global tractography that is specifically designed for connectivity analysis applications by explicitly enforcing anatomical priors of the tracts in the optimization and considering the effective contribution of each of them, i.e. volume, to the acquired diffusion MRI image. We evaluated our approach on both a realistic diffusion MRI phantom and in-vivo data, and also compared its performance to existing tractography aloprithms.

  14. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Pepele

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our ...

  15. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia: MR imaging and anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Savino, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a gaze disorder characterized by impaired adduction of the side of a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) with dissociated nystagmus of the abducting eye. Eleven patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia (nine with multiple sclerosis, two with infarction) were examined with spin-echo MR imaging performed at 1.5 T. Nine of the 11 patients also underwent CT. MR imaging was highly sensitive (10 of 11 cases) and CT was of no value (0 of 9 cases) in detecting clinically suspected MLF lesions. These lesions must be distinguished from ''pseudo-MLF hyperintensity,'' which appears as a thin, strictly midline, linear hyperintensity just interior to the fourth ventricle and aqueduct in healthy subjects. True MLF lesions are nodular, more prominent, and slightly off the midline, corresponding to the paramedian anatomic site of the MLF

  16. Anatomic Twist to a Straightforward Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh Randhawa, MD

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atrioventricular (AV junction ablation for treatment of refractory atrial fibrillation is a well defined, standardized procedure and the simplest of commonly performed radiofrequency ablations in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. We report successful AV junction ablation using an inferior approach in a case of inferior vena cava interruption. Inability during the procedure to initially pass the ablation catheter into the right ventricle, combined with low amplitude electrograms, led to suspicion of an anatomic abnormality. This was determined to be a heterotaxy syndrome with inferior vena cava interruption and azygos continuation, draining in turn into the superior vena cava. Advancing Schwartz right 0 (SRO sheath through the venous abnormality into the right atrium allowed adequate catheter stability to successfully induce complete AV block with radiofrequency energy.

  17. [Antique anatomical collections for contemporary museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy and Pathology Museum collections display a great biological value and offer unique samples for research purposes. Pathological specimens may be investigated by means of modern radiological and molecular biology techniques in order to provide the etiological background of disease, with relevance to present-day knowledge. Meanwhile, historical resources provide epidemiologic data regarding the socio-economic conditions of the resident populations, the more frequently encountered illnesses and dietary habits. These multidisciplinary approaches lead to more accurate diagnoses also allowing new strategies in cataloguing and musealization of anatomical specimens. Further, once these data are gathered, they may constitute the basis of riedited Museum catalogues feasible to be digitalized and displayed via the Web.

  18. Gross feature recognition of Anatomical Images based on Atlas grid (GAIA): Incorporating the local discrepancy between an atlas and a target image to capture the features of anatomic brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Hsu, Johnny T; Yoshida, Shoko; Faria, Andreia V; Oishi, Kumiko; Unschuld, Paul G; Redgrave, Graham W; Ying, Sarah H; Ross, Christopher A; van Zijl, Peter C M; Hillis, Argye E; Albert, Marilyn S; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu; Oishi, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to develop a new method to convert T1-weighted brain MRIs to feature vectors, which could be used for content-based image retrieval (CBIR). To overcome the wide range of anatomical variability in clinical cases and the inconsistency of imaging protocols, we introduced the Gross feature recognition of Anatomical Images based on Atlas grid (GAIA), in which the local intensity alteration, caused by pathological (e.g., ischemia) or physiological (development and aging) intensity changes, as well as by atlas-image misregistration, is used to capture the anatomical features of target images. As a proof-of-concept, the GAIA was applied for pattern recognition of the neuroanatomical features of multiple stages of Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, and four subtypes of primary progressive aphasia. For each of these diseases, feature vectors based on a training dataset were applied to a test dataset to evaluate the accuracy of pattern recognition. The feature vectors extracted from the training dataset agreed well with the known pathological hallmarks of the selected neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, discriminant scores of the test images accurately categorized these test images to the correct disease categories. Images without typical disease-related anatomical features were misclassified. The proposed method is a promising method for image feature extraction based on disease-related anatomical features, which should enable users to submit a patient image and search past clinical cases with similar anatomical phenotypes.

  19. Variability of anatomical-physiological traits in black locust clones - Robinia pseudoacacia L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Saša S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability within R. pseudoacacia species represents an important factor in selection of fast-growing genotypes. Therefore, it is important to identify superior individuals according to their anatomical and physiological traits. This paper presents the results of a study of genotype variability of the main leaf anatomical (frequency, length and width of stomata, leaflet thickness among veins, leaflet thickness on the main vein, mesophyll thickness, length and width of vascular bundle of main vein and physiological (leaf area, photosynthetic pigments content and content of N P, K, Ca, Na parameters among five clones of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Significant interclonal variations were observed in the investigated parameters. Clone R-56 had the highest N, P, and K concentrations, the largest mesophyll volume and the highest pigment concentration. We concluded that the clone R-56, although without a remarkable leaf area, possesses the ability for high photosynthetic production. The results are going to be used in further work on selection.

  20. Anatomical measurements of the gastric cardia in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, A Katherine; Gonzalez, Florencia; Brody, Fred

    2009-11-01

    Currently, surgeons implant a variety of laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands. However, there is little data to guide the selection process. This study aims to determine the relationship between a patient's body mass index (BMI), height, and weight and the anatomical measurements of the gastric cardia in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) surgery. A total of 67 morbidly obese patients undergoing LAGB surgery were studied. Intraoperative measurements of the gastric cardia were obtained. The relative circumference and posterior diameter of the gastric cardia were measured along with the patient's height, weight, and BMI. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationship between the circumference and posterior diameter of the gastric cardia and the BMI, height, and weight. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. No correlation exists between a patient's BMI or weight and the circumference or diameter of the gastric cardia. A correlation exists between a patient's height and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia (p = 0.02). Of note, there is a correlation between the relative circumference and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia for each patient (p = 0.05). Our unique data show no significant correlation between a patient's BMI and weight and the measurements of the gastric cardia. There was a correlation between a patient's height and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia. These intraoperative measurements may help surgeons objectively select the appropriate band for each respective patient undergoing LAGB surgery. This may potentially decrease postoperative dysphagia.

  1. The significant impact of framing coils on long-term outcomes in endovascular coiling for intracranial aneurysms: how to select an appropriate framing coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Wataru; Sato, Masayuki; Amano, Tatsuo; Matsumaru, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The importance of a framing coil (FC)-the first coil inserted into an aneurysm during endovascular coiling, also called a lead coil or a first coil-is recognized, but its impact on long-term outcomes, including recanalization and retreatment, is not well established. The purposes of this study were to test the hypothesis that the FC is a significant factor for aneurysmal recurrence and to provide some insights on appropriate FC selection. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed endovascular coiling for 280 unruptured intracranial aneurysms and gathered data on age, sex, aneurysm location, aneurysm morphology, maximal size, neck width, adjunctive techniques, recanalization, retreatment, follow-up periods, total volume packing density (VPD), volume packing density of the FC, and framing coil percentage (FCP; the percentage of FC volume in total coil volume) to clarify the associated factors for aneurysmal recurrence. RESULTS Of 236 aneurysms included in this study, 33 (14.0%) had recanalization, and 18 (7.6%) needed retreatment during a mean follow-up period of 37.7 ± 16.1 months. In multivariate analysis, aneurysm size (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, p < 0.001), FCP < 32% (OR 3.54, p = 0.009), and VPD < 25% (OR 2.96, p = 0.015) were significantly associated with recanalization, while aneurysm size (OR 1.25, p < 0.001) and FCP < 32% (OR 6.91, p = 0.017) were significant predictors of retreatment. VPD as a continuous value or VPD with any cutoff value could not predict retreatment with statistical significance in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS FCP, which is equal to the FC volume as a percentage of the total coil volume and is unaffected by the morphology of the aneurysm or the measurement error in aneurysm length, width, or height, is a novel predictor of recanalization and retreatment and is more significantly predictive of retreatment than VPD. To select FCs large enough to meet the condition of FCP ≥ 32% is a potential relevant factor for better

  2. Effects of Late Toxicities on Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of Ex-Vivo CD34+-Selected Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordo, Michael; Shah, Gunjan L; Kosuri, Satyajit; Herrera, Diego Adrianzen; Cho, Christina; Devlin, Sean M; Maloy, Molly A; Nieves, Jimmy; Borrill, Taylor; Avecilla, Scott T; Meagher, Richard C; Carlow, Dean C; O'Reilly, Richard J; Papadopoulos, Esperanza B; Jakubowski, Ann A; Koehne, Guenther; Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Castro-Malaspina, Hugo; Tamari, Roni; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Giralt, Sergio A; Shaffer, Brian C

    2018-01-01

    The late adverse events in long-term survivors after myeloablative-conditioned allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with ex vivo CD34 + cell selection are not well characterized. Using the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, we assessed all grade ≥3 toxicities from the start of conditioning to the date of death, relapse, or last contact in 131 patients who survived >1 year post-HCT, identifying 285 individual toxicities among 17 organ-based toxicity groups. Pretransplantation absolute lymphocyte count >.5 K/µL and serum albumin >4.0 g/dL were associated with a reduced risk of toxicities, death, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM), whereas serum ferritin >1000 ng/mL was associated with an increased risk of toxicities and NRM after 1 year. An HCT Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) score ≥3 was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death and NRM, but was not associated with a specific increased toxicity risk after 1 year. Patients who incurred more than the median number of toxicities (n = 7) among all patients within the first year subsequently had an increased risk of hematologic, infectious, and metabolic toxicities, as well as an increased risk of NRM and inferior 4-year overall survival (OS) (67% versus 86%; P = .003) after the 1-year landmark. The development of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) within the first year was associated with incurring >7 toxicities within the first year (P = .016), and also with an increased risk of all-cause death and NRM after 1 year. In multivariate models, cardiovascular, hematologic, hepatic, infectious, metabolic, neurologic, and pulmonary toxicities incurred after 1 year were independently associated with increased risk of death and NRM when adjusting for both HCT-CI and grade II-IV acute GVHD within the first year. One-year survivors of ex vivo CD34 + selection had a favorable 4-year OS of 77%, although the

  3. Long-term Radiological and Clinical Outcomes After Using Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Concentrate Obtained With Selective Retention Cell Technology in Posterolateral Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Mohamed Abdelhamid Ali; La Maida, Giovanni Andrea; Misaggi, Bernardo

    2017-12-15

    Retrospective study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell concentrate obtained with selective cell retention technology using Cellect with a particular collagen scaffold, Healos for posterolateral spinal fusion. With the increasing rate of spinal fusion, the problem of pseudarthrosis, which contributes to recurrent pain with patient disability, is considered to be the most common cause of revision lumbar spine surgery. Intensive research is being carried out to develop an alternative source of bone grafting and improve the spinal fusion rate. A retrospective review of hospital records was performed. Identified patients were contacted to have a clinical and radiological evaluation follow-up. Clinical outcome was evaluated using visual analog scales for the back pain (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, and quality of life (EQ-5D) questionnaire. Radiological outcome was evaluated by performing dynamic flexion/extension lateral views and calculation of segmental Cobb angle. Any implant-associated complication was reported. Computed tomography (CT) scans were also performed. Twenty-one patients were included and all patients achieved successful fusion. The mean difference of the segmental Cobb angle was 0.48° (range 0.3°-0.7°). Computed tomography scans showed solid bilateral fusion with bridging bone (Grade I) in all patients, but solid unilateral fusion with bridging bone (Grade II) was detected for one patient at one level. Patients started to resume working activities within a mean period of 3.5 months. The VAS score for the residual back pain was 4.1 ± 2.1, whereas the ODI was 10.5 ± 5.6 points, and the mean disability index was 21.1%. The use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell concentrate obtained with selective cell retention technology could be considered as an effective means for augmenting spinal fusion. 3.

  4. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant, E-mail: anant.madabhushi@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Genega, Elizabeth M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States); Feleppa, Ernest [Riverside Research Institute, New York, New York 10038 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors introduce a novel framework, the anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme and apply it to create a fused anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate which the authors refer to as the prostatome. The prostatome combines a MRI based anatomic and a histology based disease atlas. Statistical imaging atlases allow for the integration of information across multiple scales and imaging modalities into a single canonical representation, in turn enabling a fused anatomical-disease representation which may facilitate the characterization of disease appearance relative to anatomic structures. While statistical atlases have been extensively developed and studied for the brain, approaches that have attempted to combine pathology and imaging data for study of prostate pathology are not extant. This works seeks to address this gap. Methods: The AnCoR framework optimizes a scoring function composed of two surface (prostate and central gland) misalignment measures and one intensity-based similarity term. This ensures the correct mapping of anatomic regions into the atlas, even when regional MRI intensities are inconsistent or highly variable between subjects. The framework allows for creation of an anatomic imaging and a disease atlas, while enabling their fusion into the anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The atlas presented here was constructed using 83 subjects with biopsy confirmed cancer who had pre-operative MRI (collected at two institutions) followed by radical prostatectomy. The imaging atlas results from mapping thein vivo MRI into the canonical space, while the anatomic regions serve as domain constraints. Elastic co-registration MRI and corresponding ex vivo histology provides “ground truth” mapping of cancer extent on in vivo imaging for 23 subjects. Results: AnCoR was evaluated relative to alternative construction strategies that use either MRI intensities or the prostate surface alone for registration. The AnCoR framework

  5. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Feleppa, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this work, the authors introduce a novel framework, the anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme and apply it to create a fused anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate which the authors refer to as the prostatome. The prostatome combines a MRI based anatomic and a histology based disease atlas. Statistical imaging atlases allow for the integration of information across multiple scales and imaging modalities into a single canonical representation, in turn enabling a fused anatomical-disease representation which may facilitate the characterization of disease appearance relative to anatomic structures. While statistical atlases have been extensively developed and studied for the brain, approaches that have attempted to combine pathology and imaging data for study of prostate pathology are not extant. This works seeks to address this gap. Methods: The AnCoR framework optimizes a scoring function composed of two surface (prostate and central gland) misalignment measures and one intensity-based similarity term. This ensures the correct mapping of anatomic regions into the atlas, even when regional MRI intensities are inconsistent or highly variable between subjects. The framework allows for creation of an anatomic imaging and a disease atlas, while enabling their fusion into the anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The atlas presented here was constructed using 83 subjects with biopsy confirmed cancer who had pre-operative MRI (collected at two institutions) followed by radical prostatectomy. The imaging atlas results from mapping thein vivo MRI into the canonical space, while the anatomic regions serve as domain constraints. Elastic co-registration MRI and corresponding ex vivo histology provides “ground truth” mapping of cancer extent on in vivo imaging for 23 subjects. Results: AnCoR was evaluated relative to alternative construction strategies that use either MRI intensities or the prostate surface alone for registration. The AnCoR framework

  6. A plea for extension of the anatomical nomenclature. Part 1: Nervous system and senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlík, D; Musil, V; Baca, V

    2017-01-01

    A correct, exact, concise and detailed anatomical nomenclature is a cornerstone of communication not only in anatomy and related subjects but also in other medical branches and in the whole medical education. Terminologia Anatomica fulfils this task but some important structures are still missing there. The authors have collected and present here a list of terms including their definitions or explanations to provoke discussion about possible extension of the Terminologia Anatomica. The first part of this contribution, presented in this article, comprises 113 terms concerning the regulation systems of the human body: endocrine glands, central and peripheral nervous system, and senses. It also contains some corrections of anatomical mistakes, systemic inconsistencies and grammar changes.

  7. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root?s apical third

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRÖNER Izabel Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy.

  8. STUDENTS' PERCEPTION ABOUT THE CLINICO-ANATOMICAL CONFERENCES AS A TEACHING METHODOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Kanwal; Baptist, Marina; Mukhtar, Atima

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has always been considered as an essential basis for clinical sciences. In recent decades there has been an increased trend towards incorporation of clinical problems in the teaching of anatomy. To promote clinical knowledge clinico-anatomical conferences have been conducted in our department for the last five years. This study has been undertaken to determine perception of medical students regarding these conferences and to formulate recommendations for their improvement based on feedback obtained from students. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2013 to January 2014 at the Lahore Medical & Dental College (LMDC), Lahore. A sample of 200 students of first and second year MBBS classes was selected for the study through convenience sampling technique. A 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree) was used to determine students' perception about clinic-anatomical conferences, using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS-19.0. Out of total 144 (72%) students were of the opinion that clinico-anatomical conferences were a good source of clinical knowledge, 126 (63%) opined that these conferences promoted understanding rather than memorization, 122 (61%) found them interesting, and 15 (30%) found improvement in their grades in the subject of anatomy after attending the conferences. The clinico-anatomical conferences were found interesting and reported to be a good source of clinical knowledge. It is recommended that these conferences should be conducted frequently, made interactive and patients should be presented as case studies during the conferences

  9. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: A method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin ePyka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM, to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: i the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, ii the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  10. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  11. Recent advances in standards for collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology refers to the use of information technology that supports the creation and sharing or exchange of information, including data and images, during the complex workflow performed in an Anatomic Pathology department from specimen reception to report transmission and exploitation. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology can only be fully achieved using medical informatics standards. The goal of the international integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative is precisely specifying how medical informatics standards should be implemented to meet specific health care needs and making systems integration more efficient and less expensive. Objective To define the best use of medical informatics standards in order to share and exchange machine-readable structured reports and their evidences (including whole slide images) within hospitals and across healthcare facilities. Methods Specific working groups dedicated to Anatomy Pathology within multiple standards organizations defined standard-based data structures for Anatomic Pathology reports and images as well as informatic transactions in order to integrate Anatomic Pathology information into the electronic healthcare enterprise. Results The DICOM supplements 122 and 145 provide flexible object information definitions dedicated respectively to specimen description and Whole Slide Image acquisition, storage and display. The content profile “Anatomic Pathology Structured Report” (APSR) provides standard templates for structured reports in which textual observations may be bound to digital images or regions of interest. Anatomic Pathology observations are encoded using an international controlled vocabulary defined by the IHE Anatomic Pathology domain that is currently being mapped to SNOMED CT concepts. Conclusion Recent advances in standards for Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology are a unique opportunity to share or exchange Anatomic Pathology structured

  12. The new vestibular stimuli: sound and vibration-anatomical, physiological and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curthoys, Ian S

    2017-04-01

    The classical view of the otoliths-as flat plates of fairly uniform receptors activated by linear acceleration dragging on otoconia and so deflecting the receptor hair bundles-has been replaced by new anatomical and physiological evidence which shows that the maculae are much more complex. There is anatomical spatial differentiation across the macula in terms of receptor types, hair bundle heights, stiffness and attachment to the overlying otolithic membrane. This anatomical spatial differentiation corresponds to the neural spatial differentiation of response dynamics from the receptors and afferents from different regions of the otolithic maculae. Specifically, receptors in a specialized band of cells, the striola, are predominantly type I receptors, with short, stiff hair bundles and looser attachment to the overlying otoconial membrane than extrastriolar receptors. At the striola the hair bundles project into holes in the otolithic membrane, allowing for fluid displacement to deflect the hair bundles and activate the cell. This review shows the anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the hypothesis that fluid displacement, generated by sound or vibration, deflects the short stiff hair bundles of type I receptors at the striola, resulting in neural activation of the irregular afferents innervating them. So these afferents are activated by sound or vibration and show phase-locking to individual cycles of the sound or vibration stimulus up to frequencies above 2000 Hz, underpinning the use of sound and vibration for clinical tests of vestibular function.

  13. The anatomical diaspora: evidence of early American anatomical traditions in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Phoebe R

    2011-09-01

    The current focus in forensic anthropology on increasing scientific certainty in ancestry determination reinforces the need to examine the ancestry of skeletal remains used for osteology instruction. Human skeletal remains were discovered on the University of North Dakota campus in 2007. After recovery, the osteological examination resulted in a profile for a 33- to 46-year-old woman of African descent with stature ranging from 56.3 to 61.0 in. The pattern of postmortem damage indicated that the remains had been prepared for use as an anatomical teaching specimen. Review of the American history of anatomical teaching revealed a preference for Black subjects, which apparently extended to states like North Dakota despite extremely low resident populations of people of African descent. This study emphasizes the need to examine the ancestry of older teaching specimens that lack provenience, rather than assuming they are derived from typical (i.e., Indian) sources of anatomical material. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Surface-Water Quality Conditions and Long-Term Trends at Selected Sites within the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network in Missouri, Water Years 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Davis, Jerri V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, collects data pertaining to the surface-water resources of Missouri. These data are collected as part of the Missouri Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network and constitute a valuable source of reliable, impartial, and timely information for developing an improved understanding of water resources in the State. Six sites from the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network, with data available from the 1993 through 2008 water years, were chosen to compare water-quality conditions and long-term trends of dissolved oxygen, selected physical properties, total suspended solids, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal indicator bacteria, and selected trace elements. The six sites used in the study were classified in groups corresponding to the physiography, main land use, and drainage basin size, and represent most stream types in Missouri. Long-term trends in this study were analyzed using flow-adjusted and non-flow adjusted models. Highly censored datasets (greater than 5 percent but less than 50 percent censored values) were not flow-adjusted. Trends that were detected can possibly be related to changes in agriculture or urban development within the drainage basins. Trends in nutrients were the most prevalent. Upward flow-adjusted trends in dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (as nitrogen) concentrations were identified at the Elk River site, and in total phosphorus concentrations at the South Fabius and Grand River sites. A downward flow-adjusted trend was identified in total phosphorus concentrations from Wilson Creek, the only urban site in the study. The downward trend in phosphorus possibly was related to a phosphorus reduction system that began operation in 2001 at a wastewater treatment plant upstream from the sampling site. Total suspended solids concentrations indicated an upward non-flow adjusted trend at the two northern sites (South Fabius

  15. Extra-anatomic transplantations in autologous adult cell therapies aiding anatomical regeneration and physiological recovery – An insight and categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-12-01

    stimuli (voluntary and lack propagation of action potentials. However, the skeletal myoblasts in vitro, expanded as patches, have aided the in situ regeneration of the dysfunctional myocardium by secreting relevant growth factors [3]. Similarly, the buccal mucosal epithelium which is an opaque tissue has been applied to regenerate the damaged corneal epithelium, which in contrast is a transparent tissue. Here the buccal mucosal epithelium has been found to replace directly the dysfunctional corneal epithelium to assist in its regeneration and the resumption of proper function [4]. Though the source of the cells taken for repair of cartilage and corneal epithelium are extra-anatomic, they belong to the same germ layer of developmental origin; skeletal myoblasts (source and cardiomyocytes (target both from the mesoderm while buccal mucosal epithelium (source and corneal epithelium (target are both from the ectoderm. Extra-anatomic cell therapies reported in the literature such as the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells in spinal cord injury [5] also fit into this association, as the cell source for the replacement and the target organ exist within the same germ layer of ectoderm, developmentally but separated regionally. All these exchanges, we propose, should be termed as “Intra-germ Extra-anatomic Cell Therapies” (IECT. We have come across two extra-anatomic cell therapies that have been reported in the literature, where cells of the source and target tissue have different embryonic origins. Firstly, the transplantation of in vitro expanded buccal mucosal epithelial cells to treat urethral strictures in the “BEES-HAUS” (Buccal Epithelium Expanded & encapsulated in Scaffold - Hybrid Approach to Urethral Stricture approach reported by Vaddi et al [6] and secondly the use of gingival fibroblasts to replace the lost dermal fibroblasts in cell therapy for facial anti-aging [7] by Ebisawa et al both fall under this category. The buccal mucosal epithelial

  16. Anatomical features of renal artery in a black Kenyan population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of anatomical features of the renal artery is important in prediction, management and control of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. These features show population variations but data from black African populations are scarce. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the anatomical features of the renal ...

  17. A theoretical ovary position in link with the global anatomical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally the position of different organs is determined by simple description following the anatomical elements surrounded them and such description could be developed and applied in surgical anatomy. Here, I present for the first time a theoretical three-dimensional ovary position in link with the global anatomical ...

  18. Evaluation of anatomical and physical properties of Khaya nthotheca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical and physical properties of Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C. DC wood from the transition forest of middle altitude (zone 1) and the humid dense forest of low altitude (zone 2) in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo were evaluated to ascertain the effect of growth area on the anatomical and physical ...

  19. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  20. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: reducing anterior tibial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Bart; Duerr, Eric R. H.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Fu, Freddie H.

    2016-01-01

    To measure and compare the amount of anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) after anatomic ACL reconstruction for both acute and chronic ACL-deficient patients. Fifty-two patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated after primary, unilateral, anatomic ACL reconstruction. Post-operative true

  1. Role of Anatomic Variations of Paranasal Sinuses on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-09

    May 9, 2017 ... pathology. The coexistence of anatomic variations with sinusitis was statistically investigated.Results: At least one anatomical variation of paranasal sinuses was detected in 325 patients ... area, hardly evaluated regions of sinonasal pathologies ..... formation. Optic nerve and extraorbital muscle damage.

  2. Is the cervical fascia an anatomical proteus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Condino, Sara; Stecco, Antonio; Soldani, Paola; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Gesi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The cervical fasciae have always represented a matter of debate. Indeed, in the literature, it is quite impossible to find two authors reporting the same description of the neck fascia. In the present review, a historical background was outlined, confirming that the Malgaigne's definition of the cervical fascia as an anatomical Proteus is widely justified. In an attempt to provide an essential and a more comprehensive classification, a fixed pattern of description of cervical fasciae is proposed. Based on the morphogenetic criteria, two fascial groups have been recognized: (1) fasciae which derive from primitive fibro-muscular laminae (muscular fasciae or myofasciae); (2) fasciae which derive from connective thickening (visceral fasciae). Topographic and comparative approaches allowed to distinguish three different types of fasciae in the neck: the superficial, the deep and the visceral fasciae. The first is most connected to the skin, the second to the muscles and the third to the viscera. The muscular fascia could be further divided into three layers according to the relationship with the different muscles.

  3. Metacarpophalangeal portal safety. An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, B; Corella, F; Del Campo, B; Fernández, E; Corella, M Á; Ocampos, M; Vázquez, T; Larrainzar-Garijo, R

    2017-12-02

    To quantify the risk of dorsal innervation injury when performing direct metacarpophalangeal joint portals of the second to fifth fingers. An anatomical study of 11 upper limbs of fresh corpses was carried out. After placing them in a traction tower, the metacarpophalangeal portals were developed on both sides of the extensor tendon. The dorsal sensory branches were dissected and the distances between the portal and the nearest nerve were measured by a digital caliper. The portals of all the fingers were compared globally to assess the safest finger and two to two radial and ulnar portals were compared in each of the fingers to assess the safest portal within each finger. The overall comparison of all portals and fingers showed that the third finger is the safest in any of its portals, while the ulnar side of the second and radial of the fourth are the portals with the highest risk of nerve injury (P=8.96·10 -5 ). Comparing two to two of the radial and ulnar portals in each of the fingers showed that the ulnar portal is safer than the radial on the fourth finger (P=.042), while the radial is safer than the ulnar on the fifth finger (P=.003). The third finger was the safest to perform metacarpophalangeal portals, while the ulnar side of the second finger and radial side of the fourth had the highest risk of nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  5. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber M. Anderson

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV. To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05. Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8. Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4% and epididymal anomalies (EAs in 1 testis (2%. Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4% and EA in 4 (14.28%. When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116. Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies.

  6. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  7. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  8. Favorable Long-term Outcome in Patients Submitted to Liver Transplantation After Downstaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma According to a Brazilian Selection Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarollo, P C B; Coppini, A Z; Salzedas-Netto, A A; Coelho, F F; Minami, T; Gonzalez, A M

    2016-09-01

    In October 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of Health authorized listing of downstaged hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for liver transplantation, according to a standardized protocol. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of patients submitted to liver transplantation after downstaging of HCC with the results other standard indications in Brazil. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2,667 adult 1st elective deceased-donor liver transplantations registered at the database of the Transplant Notification Center of the São Paulo State Health Secretariat. These cases are classified into 3 groups: "cirrhosis," including 1,709 patients transplanted because of end-stage liver disease; "Milan-HCC," including 873 HCC patients initially meeting the Milan criteria; and "downstaging" group, including 85 HCC patients submitted to tumor downstaging to the Milan criteria before liver transplantation. One-, 3-, 5-, and 6-year patients survivals were, respectively, 82.7%, 72.0%, 66.1%, and 66.1%, in the "downstaging" group and 76.7%, 68.4%, 63.9%, and 63.5% in the "Milan-HCC" group (P = .483). At the same time intervals, patient survivals were 67.8%, 62.9%, 60.9%, and 60.2% in the "cirrhosis" group. These probabilities were significantly lower than those of both "downstaging" (P = .047) and "Milan-HCC" (P = .001) groups. Patients submitted to liver transplantation after downstaging of HCC, according to a Brazilian selection protocol, present long-term outcomes similar to HCC patients initially within the Milan criteria and better survival than recipients with end-stage liver disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of digital surface displacements of maxillary dentures based on noninvasive anatomic landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, Nicholas G; Korioth, Tom V; Cagna, David R; Versluis, Antheunis

    2018-02-08

    Artificial markers called fiducials are commonly used to orient digitized surfaces for analysis. However, when these markers are tangible and placed in the region of interest, they may alter surface topography and influence data analysis. The purpose of this in vitro study was to apply a modified digital surface fitting method based on anatomic landmarks to evaluate denture accuracy and to use 2 different denture processing techniques to evaluate the method. The goal was to noninvasively measure and describe any surface differences in denture processing techniques at the intaglio and denture tooth levels. Twenty standardized maxillary complete dentures were waxed on standardized edentulous casts and processed by using acrylic resin compression (COM, n=10) and injection molding (INJ, n=10) methods. Digital scans were recorded of the anatomic surface of the cast, the intaglio and cameo surfaces of the acrylic resin dentures, and the cameo surface of the wax dentures. Three anatomic fiducials were identified on denture intaglio and cast scans and 4 on the cameo surfaces of waxed and acrylic resin denture scans. These fiducials were then used to digitally align the anatomic with the processed intaglio surfaces and the waxed with the processed cameo surfaces. Surface displacements were compared among processed dentures expressed at specific points (9 tissue landmarks and 8 tooth landmarks). The accuracy of surface displacements was assessed by changes in the number and location of anatomic fiducials. The scanning precision and the intraobserver repeatability in the selection of dental landmarks were also determined. For each landmark, the spatial (x, y, and z) mean differences between the 2 processing techniques were calculated for the intaglio and the cameo surfaces and presented on each orthogonal plane. Statistical nonparametric comparison of these means was analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). Benjamini-Hochberg corrections for multiple comparisons were

  10. Fast left ventricle tracking using localized anatomical affine optical flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Sandro; Vilaça, João L; Morais, Pedro; Fonseca, Jaime C; D'hooge, Jan; Barbosa, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    In daily clinical cardiology practice, left ventricle (LV) global and regional function assessment is crucial for disease diagnosis, therapy selection, and patient follow-up. Currently, this is still a time-consuming task, spending valuable human resources. In this work, a novel fast methodology for automatic LV tracking is proposed based on localized anatomically constrained affine optical flow. This novel method can be combined to previously proposed segmentation frameworks or manually delineated surfaces at an initial frame to obtain fully delineated datasets and, thus, assess both global and regional myocardial function. Its feasibility and accuracy were investigated in 3 distinct public databases, namely in realistically simulated 3D ultrasound, clinical 3D echocardiography, and clinical cine cardiac magnetic resonance images. The method showed accurate tracking results in all databases, proving its applicability and accuracy for myocardial function assessment. Moreover, when combined to previous state-of-the-art segmentation frameworks, it outperformed previous tracking strategies in both 3D ultrasound and cardiac magnetic resonance data, automatically computing relevant cardiac indices with smaller biases and narrower limits of agreement compared to reference indices. Simultaneously, the proposed localized tracking method showed to be suitable for online processing, even for 3D motion assessment. Importantly, although here evaluated for LV tracking only, this novel methodology is applicable for tracking of other target structures with minimal adaptations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Image-anatomic research of the alar ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Caixian; Liu Jun; Jin Ying; Wang Jian; Zhong Jin; Wang Jinyue; Zhu Miao; Cheng Jinbao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To detect position and morphous as well as coursing of the alar ligament, and to further investigate the sectional anatomy and CT and MRI imaging of the alar ligament. Methods: Twelve formalin fixed specimens including head and neck utilized, three of the twelve were observed in gross anatomy, nine of them were dissectioned. Fifty- one healthy volunteers from each group were selected to perform CT and MRI examination respectively. By combining gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI manifestations of the alar ligament were analyzed, the alar ligament width was measured. Results: Location and shape, as well as coursing of the alar ligament could be demonstrated clearly in gross and sectional anatomy. The transverse plane across the upper dens and the coronal plane by the middle dens were the optimal planes for demonstrating the alar ligament. The display ratio of the alar ligament was even 100% (51/51) in both images of CT and MRI. MRI had better advantages than CT in respect of demonstrating the alar ligament, PDWI (proton density weighted imaging, PDWI) is the most optimal sequence for the alar ligament. There were no significant differences of the alar ligament width between male and female and between the right and the left side (P>0.05). Conclusion: In combination with gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI could both provide an imageo-anatomic basis for diagnosis of the alar ligament trauma and malformation as well as infection. (authors)

  12. Learning and study strategies correlate with medical students' performance in anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Williams, Shanna E; Gregory Hawkins, H

    2017-09-22

    Much of the content delivered during medical students' preclinical years is assessed nationally by such testing as the United States Medical Licensing Examination ® (USMLE ® ) Step 1 and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination ® (COMPLEX-USA ® ) Step 1. Improvement of student study/learning strategies skills is associated with academic success in internal and external (USMLE Step 1) examinations. This research explores the strength of association between the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) scores and student performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. The LASSI inventory assesses learning and study strategies based on ten subscale measures. These subscales include three components of strategic learning: skill (Information processing, Selecting main ideas, and Test strategies), will (Anxiety, Attitude, and Motivation) and self-regulation (Concentration, Time management, Self-testing, and Study aid). During second year (M2) orientation, 180 students (Classes of 2016, 2017, and 2018) were administered the LASSI survey instrument. Pearson Product-Moment correlation analyses identified significant associations between five of the ten LASSI subscales (Anxiety, Information processing, Motivation, Selecting main idea, and Test strategies) and students' performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. Identification of students lacking these skills within the anatomical sciences curriculum allows targeted interventions, which not only maximize academic achievement in an aspect of an institution's internal examinations, but in the external measure of success represented by USMLE Step 1 scores. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. In vivo posterior cruciate ligament elongation in running activity after anatomic and non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Thorhauer, Eric; Bowman, Karl; Fu, Freddie H; Tashman, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) investigate the in vivo elongation behaviour of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) during running in the uninjured knee and (2) evaluate changes in PCL elongation during running after anatomic or non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Seventeen unilateral ACL-injured subjects were recruited after undergoing anatomic (n = 9) or non-anatomic (n = 8) ACL reconstruction. Bilateral high-resolution CT scans were obtained to produce 3D models. Anterolateral (AL) and posteromedial (PM) bundles insertion sites of the PCL were identified on the 3D CT scan reconstructions. Dynamic knee function was assessed during running using a dynamic stereo X-ray (DSX) system. The lengths of the AL and PM bundles were estimated from late swing through mid-stance. The contralateral knees served as normal controls. Control knees demonstrated a slight decrease in AL bundle and a significant decrease in PM bundle length following foot strike. Length and elongation patterns of the both bundles of the PCL in the anatomic ACL reconstruction group were similar to the controls. However, the change in dynamic PCL length was significantly greater in the non-anatomic group than in the anatomic reconstruction group after foot strike (p < 0.05). The AL bundle length decreased slightly, and the PM bundle length significantly decreased after foot strike during running in uninjured knees. Anatomic ACL reconstruction maintained normal PCL elongation patterns more effectively than non-anatomic ACL reconstruction during high-demand, functional loading. These results support the use of anatomic ACL reconstruction to achieve normal knee function in high-demand activities. Case-control study, Level III.

  14. CBCT Assessment of Mental Foramen Position Relative to Anatomical Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was carried out on an Iranian population aiming to investigate mental foramen position relative to inferior border of mandible and skeletal midline and its gender and age differences on CBCT projections. Materials and Methods. A number of 180 CBCT images of patients were analyzed in different planes (tangential, cross-sectional, and axial. The distances from the superior border of mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible and from the anterior border of mental foramen to the midline were calculated. Results. The mean distance from mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible in the right side was 13.26 mm (SD ± 2.34 and in the left side was 13.37 mm (SD ± 2.19. There was a statistically significant difference between genders in terms of the distance between mental foramen and inferior border of mandible (P value = 0.000. The mean distances from mental foramen to midline were 25.86 mm (SD ± 0.27 and 25.53 mm (SD ± 0.31 in the right and left sides, respectively. Conclusions. The vertical and horizontal positions of mental foramen can be determined from stable anatomical landmarks such as mandibular inferior border and skeletal midline in both dentulous and edentulous patients. The distance from the superior border of mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible exhibited sexual dimorphism.

  15. CBCT Assessment of Mental Foramen Position Relative to Anatomical Landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Kheir, Mitra Karbasi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . This study was carried out on an Iranian population aiming to investigate mental foramen position relative to inferior border of mandible and skeletal midline and its gender and age differences on CBCT projections. Materials and Methods . A number of 180 CBCT images of patients were analyzed in different planes (tangential, cross-sectional, and axial). The distances from the superior border of mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible and from the anterior border of mental foramen to the midline were calculated. Results . The mean distance from mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible in the right side was 13.26 mm (SD ± 2.34) and in the left side was 13.37 mm (SD ± 2.19). There was a statistically significant difference between genders in terms of the distance between mental foramen and inferior border of mandible ( P value = 0.000). The mean distances from mental foramen to midline were 25.86 mm (SD ± 0.27) and 25.53 mm (SD ± 0.31) in the right and left sides, respectively. Conclusions . The vertical and horizontal positions of mental foramen can be determined from stable anatomical landmarks such as mandibular inferior border and skeletal midline in both dentulous and edentulous patients. The distance from the superior border of mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible exhibited sexual dimorphism.

  16. Parametric spherical deconvolution: inferring anatomical connectivity using diffusion MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Enrico; Knösche, Thomas R; Anwander, Alfred

    2007-08-15

    The human brain forms a complex neural network with a connectional architecture that is still far from being known in full detail, even at the macroscopic level. The advent of diffusion MR imaging has enabled the exploration of the structural properties of white matter in vivo. In this article we propose a new forward model that maps the microscopic geometry of nervous tissue onto the water diffusion process and further onto the measured MR signals. Our spherical deconvolution approach completely parameterizes the fiber orientation density by a finite mixture of Bingham distributions. In addition, we define the term anatomical connectivity, taking the underlying image modality into account. This neurophysiological metric may represent the proportion of the nerve fibers originating in the source area which intersect a given target region. The specified inverse problem is solved by Bayesian statistics. Posterior probability maps denote the probability that the connectivity value exceeds a chosen threshold, conditional upon the noisy observations. These maps allow us to draw inferences about the structural organization of the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we will demonstrate the proposed approach with diffusion-weighted data sets featuring high angular resolution.

  17. Defining the minimum anatomical coverage required to protect the axilla and arm against penetrating ballistic projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Johno; Fryer, R; Lewis, E A; Clasper, J

    2016-08-01

    Defining the minimum anatomical structural coverage required to protect from ballistic threats is necessary to enable objective comparisons between body armour designs. Current protection for the axilla and arm is in the form of brassards, but no evidence exists to justify the coverage that should be provided by them. A systematic review was undertaken to ascertain which anatomical components within the arm or axilla would be highly likely to lead to either death within 60 min or would cause significant long-term morbidity. Haemorrhage from vascular damage to the axillary or brachial vessels was demonstrated to be the principal cause of mortality from arm trauma on combat operations. Peripheral nerve injuries are the primary cause of long-term morbidity and functional disability following upper extremity arterial trauma. Haemorrhage is managed through direct pressure and the application of a tourniquet. It is therefore recommended that the minimum coverage should be the most proximal extent to which a tourniquet can be applied. Superimposition of OSPREY brassards over these identified anatomical structures demonstrates that current coverage provided by the brassards could potentially be reduced. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Unifying the analyses of anatomical and diffusion tensor images using volume-preserved warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Bansal, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    morphologies of detected fiber bundles. We tested our framework using datasets from a group of patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) and normal controls. RESULTS: Our framework automatically identified regions of localized volumetric differences across groups and then used those regions as seed points......PURPOSE: To introduce a framework that automatically identifies regions of anatomical abnormality within anatomical MR images and uses those regions in hypothesis-driven selection of seed points for fiber tracking with diffusion tensor (DT) imaging (DTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regions of interest...... (ROIs) are first extracted from MR images using an automated algorithm for volume-preserved warping (VPW) that identifies localized volumetric differences across groups. ROIs then serve as seed points for fiber tracking in coregistered DT images. Another algorithm automatically clusters and compares...

  19. Anatomical reference point for harvesting a flexor graft during arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clécio de Lima Lopes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of a vascular network adjacent to the insertion of the pes anserinus, so that it could be used as an anatomical reference point to facilitate harvesting flexor grafts for arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL.METHODS: Thirty patients with ACL tears who were going to undergo ACL reconstruction using the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles as grafts were selected randomly. During the harvesting of these tendons, the presence or absence of this anatomical reference point was noted.RESULTS: All the patients presented a vascular network of greater or lesser diameter.CONCLUSION: The vascular network seems to be a good reference point during harvesting of the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, for facilitating graft harvesting.

  20. An Anatomic and Biomechanical Comparison of Bankart Repair Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Christopher H; Voss, Andreas; Obopilwe, Elifho; Dyrna, Felix; Arciero, Robert A; Shea, Kevin P

    2017-11-01

    Suture anchor repair for anterior shoulder instability can be performed using a number of different repair techniques, but none has been proven superior in terms of anatomic and biomechanical properties. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the anatomic footprint coverage and biomechanical characteristics of 4 different Bankart repair techniques: (1) single row with simple sutures, (2) single row with horizontal mattress sutures, (3) double row with sutures, and (4) double row with labral tape. The hypotheses were as follows: (1) double-row techniques would improve the footprint coverage and biomechanical properties compared with single-row techniques, (2) horizontal mattress sutures would increase the footprint coverage compared with simple sutures, and (3) repair techniques with labral tape and sutures would not show different biomechanical properties. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were dissected. The native labrum was removed and the footprint marked and measured. Repair for each of the 4 groups was performed, and the uncovered footprint was measured using a 3-dimensional digitizer. The strength of the repair sites was assessed using a servohydraulic testing machine and a digital video system to record load to failure, cyclic displacement, and stiffness. The double-row repair techniques with sutures and labral tape covered 73.4% and 77.0% of the footprint, respectively. These percentages were significantly higher than the footprint coverage achieved by single-row repair techniques using simple sutures (38.1%) and horizontal mattress sutures (32.8%) ( P footprint coverage of the simple suture and horizontal mattress suture groups was not significantly different ( P = .44). There were no significant differences in load to failure, cyclic displacement, or stiffness between the single-row and double-row groups or between the simple suture and horizontal mattress suture techniques. Likewise, there was no

  1. Standard Anatomic Terminologies: Comparison for Use in a Health Information Exchange–Based Prior Computed Tomography (CT) Alerting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Tina; Vreeman, Daniel J; Loo, George T; Delman, Bradley N; Thum, Frederick L; Slovis, Benjamin H; Shapiro, Jason S

    2017-01-01

    Background A health information exchange (HIE)–based prior computed tomography (CT) alerting system may reduce avoidable CT imaging by notifying ordering clinicians of prior relevant studies when a study is ordered. For maximal effectiveness, a system would alert not only for prior same CTs (exams mapped to the same code from an exam name terminology) but also for similar CTs (exams mapped to different exam name terminology codes but in the same anatomic region) and anatomically proximate CTs (exams in adjacent anatomic regions). Notification of previous same studies across an HIE requires mapping of local site CT codes to a standard terminology for exam names (such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes [LOINC]) to show that two studies with different local codes and descriptions are equivalent. Notifying of prior similar or proximate CTs requires an additional mapping of exam codes to anatomic regions, ideally coded by an anatomic terminology. Several anatomic terminologies exist, but no prior studies have evaluated how well they would support an alerting use case. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the fitness of five existing standard anatomic terminologies to support similar or proximate alerts of an HIE-based prior CT alerting system. Methods We compared five standard anatomic terminologies (Foundational Model of Anatomy, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms, RadLex, LOINC, and LOINC/Radiological Society of North America [RSNA] Radiology Playbook) to an anatomic framework created specifically for our use case (Simple ANatomic Ontology for Proximity or Similarity [SANOPS]), to determine whether the existing terminologies could support our use case without modification. On the basis of an assessment of optimal terminology features for our purpose, we developed an ordinal anatomic terminology utility classification. We mapped samples of 100 random and the 100 most frequent LOINC CT codes to anatomic regions in each

  2. Impact of β-blocker selectivity on long-term outcomes in congestive heart failure patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota Y

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiaki Kubota, Kuniya Asai, Erito Furuse, Shunichi Nakamura, Koji Murai, Yayoi Tetsuou Tsukada, Wataru Shimizu Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiology, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is present in approximately one-third of all congestive heart failure (CHF patients, and is a key cause of underprescription and underdosing of β-blockers, largely owing to concerns about precipitating respiratory deterioration. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of β-blockers on the long-term outcomes in CHF patients with COPD. In addition, we compared the effects of two different β-blockers, carvedilol and bisoprolol. Methods: The study was a retrospective, non-randomized, single center trial. Acute decompensated HF patients with COPD were classified according to the oral drug used at discharge into β-blocker (n=86; carvedilol [n=52] or bisoprolol [n=34] and non-β-blocker groups (n=46. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality between the β-blocker and non-β-blocker groups during a mean clinical follow-up of 33.9 months. The secondary endpoints were the differences in all-cause mortality and the hospitalization rates for CHF and/or COPD exacerbation between patients receiving carvedilol and bisoprolol. Results: The mortality rate was higher in patients without β-blockers compared with those taking β-blockers (log-rank P=0.039, and univariate analyses revealed that the use of β-blockers was the only factor significantly correlated with the mortality rate (hazard ratio: 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.99; P=0.047. Moreover, the rate of CHF and/or COPD exacerbation was higher in patients treated with carvedilol compared with bisoprolol (log-rank P=0.033. In the multivariate analysis, only a past history of COPD exacerbation significantly increased the risk of re-hospitalization due to CHF and/or COPD exacerbation (adjusted hazard

  3. Analysis on anatomical references to assess the coronal alignment of tibial and femoral cuts in mega prosthetic knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karade, Vikas; Ravi, Bhallamudi

    2014-06-01

    In megaprosthetic knee replacement, surgeons use cutting guides that depend on anatomical references to determine the ideal cutting plane alignment. In this work, we investigated the accuracy of using femoral cortical surfaces and tibial canal portions as the references. The study aims to improve the design and use of the cutting guides. Sixty-one knee scanograms of 33 patients (mean age around 20 years) diagnosed with osteogenic sarcoma and undergoing distal femur megaprosthetic surgery were acquired. Angles between the selected anatomical references and axis perpendicular to the ideal cutting plane (anatomical axis for femur and mechanical axis for tibia) were measured for both femur and tibia, in coronal view. The smaller the magnitude of the angles, the better the anatomical reference is. At the central femoral region, on average, both lateral and medial cortical surfaces give accurate alignment of the ideal cutting plane (0.6° and 0.8°, respectively), with no significant difference (p > 0.01). At the distal region, the lateral cortical surface gives significantly better alignment compared to the medial cortical surface (p references, but only at the central region. For a tibial cut, the central anatomical axis is the best reference. IV.

  4. A method to visualize 3-dimensional anatomic changes in the cervix during pregnancy: a preliminary observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christopher T; Iams, Jay D; Tangchitnob, Edward; Socrate, Simona; House, Michael

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to visualize 3-dimensional (3D) anatomic changes in the cervix and lower uterine segment during the antepartum period. An observational study of patients with both uncomplicated and complicated pregnancies was performed. To visualize 3D anatomic changes, solid models were constructed from 3D sonographic data. Model construction followed a 3-step protocol. First, 3D transvaginal sonographic data of the cervix and lower uterine segment were obtained. Second, sonographic data were exported to a medical image-processing program, which was used to align 3D sonographic data obtained from a single patient at different time points. Last, sonographic data were used to guide construction of solid models using mechanical design software. Anatomic changes were visualized by comparing solid models constructed from sonographic data obtained at different time points. From 16 patients who consented, 5 patients were selected for this study. Two to 4 models were derived from each of the 5 patients at 15 to 38 weeks' gestation. To show anatomic changes in the cervix and lower uterine segment, solid models from different time points in the same patient were superimposed. A total of 16 solid models were constructed. In addition, 3D changes associated with second-trimester cervical failure and successful therapeutic cerclage were shown. A method to visualize 3D cervical changes is presented, revealing complex anatomic changes in the lower uterine segment, cervical stroma, and cervical mucosa as pregnancy progresses.

  5. Variation in Anatomical Position of Vermiform Appendix among Iranian Population: An Old Issue Which Has Not Lost Its Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermiform appendix has diverse anatomical positions, lengths, and conditions of mesoappendix. Knowing the exact anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important in view of surgeons for on-time diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. The aim of present study is determination of these characteristics of vermiform appendix among Iranian population. The present study was conducted on 200 bodies, selected from the dead bodies that had been referred to local bureau of legal medicine, Zenjan province, Iran, for medicolegal autopsy since 21 Mar 2010 to 21 Mar 2011. According to the results, the anatomical positions of the appendix were pelvic, subcecal, retroileal, retrocecal, ectopic, and preileal in 55.8%, 19%, 12.5%, 7%, 4.2%, and 1.5% of the bodies, respectively. The mean length of vermiform appendix was 91.2 mm and 80.3 mm in men and women, respectively. Mesoappendix was complete in 79.5% of the bodies. No association was found between sex and anatomical position of vermiform appendix. Anterior anatomical position was the most common position for vermiform appendix. It is inconsistent with most related reports from western countries. It might be possible that some factors, such as race, geographical changes, and dietary habits, play roles in determining the position of vermiform appendix.

  6. Variation in Anatomical Position of Vermiform Appendix among Iranian Population: An Old Issue Which Has Not Lost Its Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Forouzesh, Mehdi; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Vermiform appendix has diverse anatomical positions, lengths, and conditions of mesoappendix. Knowing the exact anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important in view of surgeons for on-time diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. The aim of present study is determination of these characteristics of vermiform appendix among Iranian population. The present study was conducted on 200 bodies, selected from the dead bodies that had been referred to local bureau of legal medicine, Zenjan province, Iran, for medicolegal autopsy since 21 Mar 2010 to 21 Mar 2011. According to the results, the anatomical positions of the appendix were pelvic, subcecal, retroileal, retrocecal, ectopic, and preileal in 55.8%, 19%, 12.5%, 7%, 4.2%, and 1.5% of the bodies, respectively. The mean length of vermiform appendix was 91.2 mm and 80.3 mm in men and women, respectively. Mesoappendix was complete in 79.5% of the bodies. No association was found between sex and anatomical position of vermiform appendix. Anterior anatomical position was the most common position for vermiform appendix. It is inconsistent with most related reports from western countries. It might be possible that some factors, such as race, geographical changes, and dietary habits, play roles in determining the position of vermiform appendix.

  7. Anatomical influences on internally coupled ears in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Many reptiles, and other vertebrates, have internally coupled ears in which a patent anatomical connection allows pressure waves generated by the displacement of one tympanic membrane to propagate (internally) through the head and, ultimately, influence the displacement of the contralateral tympanic membrane. The pattern of tympanic displacement caused by this internal coupling can give rise to novel sensory cues. The auditory mechanics of reptiles exhibit more anatomical variation than in any other vertebrate group. This variation includes structural features such as diverticula and septa, as well as coverings of the tympanic membrane. Many of these anatomical features would likely influence the functional significance of the internal coupling between the tympanic membranes. Several of the anatomical components of the reptilian internally coupled ear are under active motor control, suggesting that in some reptiles the auditory system may be more dynamic than previously recognized.

  8. Automatic anatomical segmentation of the liver by separation planes

    OpenAIRE

    Boltcheva , Dobrina; Passat , Nicolas; Agnus , Vincent; Jacob-Da Col , Marie-Andrée; Ronse , Christian; Soler , Luc

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Surgical planning in oncological liver surgery is based on the location of the 8 anatomical segments according to Couinaud’s definition and tumors inside these structures. The detection of the boundaries between the segments is then the first step of the preoperative planning. The proposed method, devoted to binary images of livers segmented from CT-scans, has been designed to delineate these segments. It automatically detects a set of landmarks using a priori anatomic...

  9. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an individualized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola F. van Eck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Recently, there has been a shift in interest towards reconstruction techniques that more closely restore the native anatomy of the ACL. This review paper discusses our approach to individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction, including the anatomy of the ACL, the physical exam, imaging modalities, the surgical technique for anatomic reconstruction including pre- and intraoperative considerations and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol.

  10. Corona mortis: an anatomical variation with clinical relevance. Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Adrián Rivera-Cardona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The obturator artery is one of the parietal branches arising from the internal iliac artery, the anatomical variation from which this artery originates is called “The corona mortis”, generally from the external iliac artery or the inferior epigastric artery. This finding was observed bilaterally in a male cadaver during a pelvis dissection. Clinical consideration of the anatomical variation in the obturator artery, during surgical procedures, is of great importance due to the risk of pelvic hemorrhage.

  11. Ultrasound of the rotator cuff with MRI and anatomic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: M.Rutten@JBZ.nl; Maresch, Bas J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, Willy Brandtlaan 10, 6710 HN Ede (Netherlands)]. E-mail: MareschB@zgv.nl; Jager, Gerrit J. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: G.Jager@JBZ.nl; Blickman, Johan G. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 18, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: J.Blickman@rad.umcn.nl; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)]. E-mail: vanholsbeeck@comcast.net

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution ultrasound (US) are frequently used for the detection of rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic yield of US is influenced by several factors as technique, knowledge of the imaging characteristics of anatomic and pathologic findings and of pitfalls. The purpose of this article is to illustrates that the standardized high-resolution US examination of the shoulder covers the entire rotator cuff and correlates with MR imaging and anatomic sections.

  12. Anatomical knee postero-lateral corner reconstruction: The "Versailles" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgier, J; Boisrenoult, P; Steltzlen, C; Beaufils, P; Pujol, N

    2017-11-01

    Postero-lateral knee instability raises surgical challenges. Of the many available reconstruction techniques, few ensure anatomical reconstruction of the postero-lateral corner (PLC). The "Versailles" technique ensures the anatomical reconstruction of the three main PLC stabilisers (lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteo-fibular ligament) by using either a hamstring autograft or a tendon allograft. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Construction of patient specific atlases from locally most similar anatomical pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Liliane; Commowick, Olivier; Malandain, Grégoire

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy planning requires accurate delineations of the critical structures. To avoid manual contouring, atlas-based segmentation can be used to get automatic delineations. However, the results strongly depend on the chosen atlas, especially for the head and neck region where the anatomical variability is high. To address this problem, atlases adapted to the patient’s anatomy may allow for a better registration, and already showed an improvement in segmentation accuracy. However, building such atlases requires the definition of a criterion to select among a database the images that are the most similar to the patient. Moreover, the inter-expert variability of manual contouring may be high, and therefore bias the segmentation if selecting only one image for each region. To tackle these issues, we present an original method to design a piecewise most similar atlas. Given a query image, we propose an efficient criterion to select for each anatomical region the K most similar images among a database by considering local volume variations possibly induced by the tumor. Then, we present a new approach to combine the K images selected for each region into a piecewise most similar template. Our results obtained with 105 CT images of the head and neck show that our method reduces the over-segmentation seen with an average atlas while being robust to inter-expert manual segmentation variability. PMID:20879395

  14. Reappraising the functional implications of the primate visual anatomical hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegdé, Jay; Felleman, Daniel J

    2007-10-01

    The primate visual system has been shown to be organized into an anatomical hierarchy by the application of a few principled criteria. It has been widely assumed that cortical visual processing is also hierarchical, with the anatomical hierarchy providing a defined substrate for clear levels of hierarchical function. A large body of empirical evidence seemed to support this assumption, including the general observations that functional properties of visual neurons grow progressively more complex at progressively higher levels of the anatomical hierarchy. However, a growing body of evidence, including recent direct experimental comparisons of functional properties at two or more levels of the anatomical hierarchy, indicates that visual processing neither is hierarchical nor parallels the anatomical hierarchy. Recent results also indicate that some of the pathways of visual information flow are not hierarchical, so that the anatomical hierarchy cannot be taken as a strict flowchart of visual information either. Thus, while the sustaining strength of the notion of hierarchical processing may be that it is rather simple, its fatal flaw is that it is overly simplistic.

  15. Determination optimum technologists and models of selection of children on the initial stage of long-term improvement (on an example rowed on kayaks and canoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matviyenko I.S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of introduction of pedagogical technology of selection of children are lighted up. Optimum technology and model of selection is certain on the stage of initial preparation. Expedient is bringing in of maximal amount of children of optimum age to the system of school sport. Directions of transition of the selected contingent of capable children are rotined in the system child-youth sport. Specific gravity of training time a trainer is in a position to spare teaching a rational technique rowed, to forming of base of functional preparedness.

  16. Systemic Right Ventricle in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Anatomic and Phenotypic Spectrum and Current Approach to Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brida, Margarita; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Gatzoulis, Michael A

    2018-01-30

    The systemic right ventricle (SRV) is commonly encountered in congenital heart disease representing a distinctly different model in terms of its anatomic spectrum, adaptation, clinical phenotype, and variable, but overall guarded prognosis. The most common clinical scenarios where an SRV is encountered are complete transposition of the great arteries with previous atrial switch repair, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, double inlet right ventricle mostly with previous Fontan palliation, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome palliated with the Norwood-Fontan protocol. The reasons for the guarded prognosis of the SRV in comparison with the systemic left ventricle are multifactorial, including distinct fibromuscular architecture, shape and function, coronary artery supply mismatch, intrinsic abnormalities of the tricuspid valve, intrinsic or acquired conduction abnormalities, and varied SRV adaptation to pressure or volume overload. Management of the SRV remains an ongoing challenge because SRV dysfunction has implications on short- and long-term outcomes for all patients irrespective of underlying cardiac morphology. SRV dysfunction can be subclinical, underscoring the need for tertiary follow-up and timely management of target hemodynamic lesions. Catheter interventions and surgery have an established role in selected patients. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is increasingly used, whereas pharmacological therapy is largely empirical. Mechanical assist device and heart transplantation remain options in end-stage heart failure when other management strategies have been exhausted. The present report focuses on the SRV with its pathological subtypes, pathophysiology, clinical features, current management strategies, and long-term sequelae. Although our article touches on issues applicable to neonates and children, its main focus is on adults with SRV. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Computed-tomography-guided anatomic standardization for quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kota [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Sumida, Kaoru; Sone, Daichi; Kimura, Yukio; Sato, Noriko [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Mukai, Youhei; Murata, Miho [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    For the quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter (DAT) using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (DaTscan), anatomic standardization is preferable for achieving objective and user-independent quantification of striatal binding using a volume-of-interest (VOI) template. However, low accumulation of DAT in Parkinson's disease (PD) would lead to a deformation error when using a DaTscan-specific template without any structural information. To avoid this deformation error, we applied computed tomography (CT) data obtained using SPECT/CT equipment to anatomic standardization. We retrospectively analyzed DaTscan images of 130 patients with parkinsonian syndromes (PS), including 80 PD and 50 non-PD patients. First we segmented gray matter from CT images using statistical parametric mapping 12 (SPM12). These gray-matter images were then anatomically standardized using the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. Next, DaTscan images were warped with the same parameters used in the CT anatomic standardization. The target striatal VOIs for decreased DAT in PD were generated from the SPM12 group comparison of 20 DaTscan images from each group. We applied these VOIs to DaTscan images of the remaining patients in both groups and calculated the specific binding ratios (SBRs) using nonspecific counts in a reference area. In terms of the differential diagnosis of PD and non-PD groups using SBR, we compared the present method with two other methods, DaTQUANT and DaTView, which have already been released as software programs for the quantitative assessment of DaTscan images. The SPM12 group comparison showed a significant DAT decrease in PD patients in the bilateral whole striatum. Of the three methods assessed, the present CT-guided method showed the greatest power for discriminating PD and non-PD groups, as it completely separated the two groups. CT-guided anatomic standardization using

  18. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Notaris, Matteo; Enseñat, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; San Molina, Joan; Berenguer, Joan; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1) simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions); (2) dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries). Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered. PMID:24575410

  19. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Di Somma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1 simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions; (2 dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered.

  20. A multivariate pattern analysis study of the HIV-related white matter anatomical structural connections alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenchao; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Ruili; Cui, Xinwei; Li, Hongjun; Dong, Enqing; Tian, Jie

    2017-03-01

    It's widely known that HIV infection would cause white matter integrity impairments. Nevertheless, it is still unclear that how the white matter anatomical structural connections are affected by HIV infection. In the current study, we employed a multivariate pattern analysis to explore the HIV-related white matter connections alterations. Forty antiretroviraltherapy- naïve HIV patients and thirty healthy controls were enrolled. Firstly, an Automatic Anatomical Label (AAL) atlas based white matter structural network, a 90 × 90 FA-weighted matrix, was constructed for each subject. Then, the white matter connections deprived from the structural network were entered into a lasso-logistic regression model to perform HIV-control group classification. Using leave one out cross validation, a classification accuracy (ACC) of 90% (P=0.002) and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96 was obtained by the classification model. This result indicated that the white matter anatomical structural connections contributed greatly to HIV-control group classification, providing solid evidence that the white matter connections were affected by HIV infection. Specially, 11 white matter connections were selected in the classification model, mainly crossing the regions of frontal lobe, Cingulum, Hippocampus, and Thalamus, which were reported to be damaged in previous HIV studies. This might suggest that the white matter connections adjacent to the HIV-related impaired regions were prone to be damaged.

  1. Critical anatomic region of nasopalatine canal based on tridimensional analysis: cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alonso, Ana; Suárez-Quintanilla, Juan Antonio; Muinelo-Lorenzo, Juan; Varela-Mallou, Jesús; Smyth Chamosa, Ernesto; Suárez-Cunqueiro, María Mercedes

    2015-08-06

    The study aim of this was to define the critical anatomic region of the premaxilla by evaluating dimensions of nasopalatine canal, buccal bone plate (BBP) and palatal bone plate (PBP). 230 CBCTs were selected with both, one or no upper central incisors present (+/+, -/+, -/-) and periodontal condition was evaluated. T-student test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation and a multivariant-linear regression model (MLRM) were used. Regarding gender, significant differences at level 1 (lower NC) were found for: buccal-palatal, transversal and sagittal NC diameters, and NC length (NCL). Regarding dental status, significant differences were found for: total BBP length (tBL) and PBP width (PW2) at level 2 (NCL midpoint). NCL was correlated with PW2, tBL, and PBP length at level 3 (foramina of Stenson level). An MLRM had a high prediction value for NCL (69.3%). Gender is related to NC dimensions. Dental status has an influence on BBP dimensions, but does not influence on NC and PBP. Periodontal condition should be evaluated for precise premaxillae analysis NC diameters at the three anatomical planes are related to each other, while NCL is related to BBP and PBP lengths. A third of premaxilla is taken up by NC, thus, establishing the critical anatomic region.

  2. Digital atlas of anatomical subdivisions and boundaries of the rat hippocampal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Kjonigsen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The rat hippocampal region is frequently studied in relation to learning and memory processes and brain diseases. The region is complex, consisting of multiple subdivisions that are challenging to delineate anatomically. Published atlases of the rat brain typically lack the underlying histological criteria necessary to identify boundaries, and textbooks descriptions of the region are often inadequately illustrated and thus difficult to relate to experimental data. An overview of both anatomical features and criteria used to delineate boundaries is required to assign location to experimental material from the hippocampal region. To address this issue, we have developed a web-based atlas application in which images of histological sections are integrated with new and up-to-date criteria for subdividing the rat hippocampus formation, fasciola and associated parahippocampal regions. The atlas application consists of an interactive image viewer with high-resolution images of an extensive series of sections stained for NeuN, calbindin, and parvalbumin, and an index of structures with detailed descriptions of the criteria used to define the boundaries. Images can be inspected with a graphical overlay of selected subregions. Bi-directional links between images and the index of structures are provided. In summary, we provide a novel content-rich digital atlas resource facilitating identification of morphological features relevant for delineating the anatomical subdivisions of the rat hippocampal region. The atlas application is available at http://www.rbwb.org.

  3. Efficient Variational Approach to Multimodal Registration of Anatomical and Functional Intra-Patient Tumorous Brain Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz-Aparicio, Alvar-Ginés; Verdú-Monedero, Rafael; Larrey-Ruiz, Jorge; Morales-Sánchez, Juan; López-Mir, Fernando; Naranjo, Valery; Bernabéu, Ángela

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses the functional localization of intra-patient images of the brain. Functional images of the brain (fMRI and PET) provide information about brain function and metabolism whereas anatomical images (MRI and CT) supply the localization of structures with high spatial resolution. The goal is to find the geometric correspondence between functional and anatomical images in order to complement and fuse the information provided by each imaging modality. The proposed approach is based on a variational formulation of the image registration problem in the frequency domain. It has been implemented as a C/C[Formula: see text] library which is invoked from a GUI. This interface is routinely used in the clinical setting by physicians for research purposes (Inscanner, Alicante, Spain), and may be used as well for diagnosis and surgical planning. The registration of anatomic and functional intra-patient images of the brain makes it possible to obtain a geometric correspondence which allows for the localization of the functional processes that occur in the brain. Through 18 clinical experiments, it has been demonstrated how the proposed approach outperforms popular state-of-the-art registration methods in terms of efficiency, information theory-based measures (such as mutual information) and actual registration error (distance in space of corresponding landmarks).

  4. Strategies for a Successful Anatomic Pathology Subspecialty Workgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1990 to present, 14 liver pathologists and 2 clinical hepatologists from 9 countries have met annually to hold thematic 2.5-day meetings centered on case-based discussion. The goal of these meetings has been to identify gaps in knowledge in our field and fuel scholarly effort to address these gaps. The founding principles were worldwide representation, good representation of women, compatibility of participants, commitment to stable membership and regular attendance, mutual education and friendship, and free exchange of ideas. A summary report of the 2.5-day meeting constituted an enduring document that captured the free flow of ideas discussed. These ideas were open to all participants for the pursuit of scholarship back at their home institutions. However, any idea borne out of an Elves meeting merits open invitation for other Elves to participate in, using established standards for meaningful coauthorship. Over 26 consecutive meetings (1990-2015, themes covered the breadth of liver pathology. With retirement of 2 individuals, resignation of 3, and death of 1, six new members were nominated and voted into membership. Over these same 26 years, active members published 2025 articles indexed in PubMEd Central under the topic “liver;” 3% of these articles represented collaborations between members. This international group represents a successful model in a subspecialty of anatomic pathology for open exchange of ideas, mutual education, and generation of topics worthy of scholarly investigation. We conclude that a self-selected group of subspecialty pathologists can meet successfully over 26 years, maintain a high state of engagement through each annual meeting, self-renew as a result of retirement or resignation, and provide a creative stimulus for highly productive academic careers.

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament anatomy and function relating to anatomical reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zantop, Thore; Petersen, Wolf; Sekiya, Jon K; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H

    2006-10-01

    Recently, the interest in surgical techniques that reconstruct the anteromedial (AM) and the posterolateral (PL) bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has risen. This review focuses on the structural as well as the mechanical properties of the ACL and the anatomical details of the femoral origin, midsubstance, and tibial insertion of AM and PL bundles of the ACL. The terminology of AM and PL bundles is chosen according to the tibial insertion and determined by their functional tensioning pattern throughout knee flexion. Close to extension the AM is moderately loose and the PL is tight. As the knee is flexed, the femoral attachment of the ACL becomes more horizontally oriented, causing the AM bundle to tighten and the PM bundle to loosen up. The ACL has been described to be restraint to anterior tibial displacement and internal tibial rotation. The rotational component might be represented by the PL bundle. The femoral origin has an oval shape with the center of the AM close to over-the-top position and the center of the PL close to the anterior and inferior cartilage margin. Tibial and femoral insertions of the ACL are over 3.5 times larger when compared to the midsubstance and tunnel placement is more challenging because of the limited size of potential grafts selection of tunnel site placement. For reconstruction, both bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) and quadrupled hamstring grafts are used. Structural properties of a 10 mm wide BPTB or quadrupled hamstring graft have been reported to be comparable with those of the native ACL.

  6. Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome: anatomic and functional parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Adam P; Adunka, Oliver F; Zhou, Bingqing; Qaqish, Bahjat F; Buchman, Craig A

    2011-02-01

    To correlate imaging and audiologic findings in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). Retrospective analysis. Thirty-eight patients with LVAS evident on magnetic resonance imaging with available clinical and audiometric data were selected from the databases of the study institution. Images were analyzed for endolymphatic sac and duct size, evidence of incomplete cochlear partitioning, and endolymphatic sac signal heterogeneity. The endolymphatic duct was measured in two different locations: near the vestibular aperture (ED(VA)) and at the midpoint between the common crus and the operculum (ED(MID)). Imaging data were correlated with audiologic variables. There was significant correlation between ears for the audiologic and anatomic variables collected. Twenty-one (62%) patients had a fluctuating or progressive hearing loss, and 13 (38%) remained stable (four were not evaluable). At the time of the analysis, 41% of ears had a profound loss. Significant correlation was identified between the presence of endolymphatic signal heterogeneity and worse pure tone average (PTA). ED(VA) measures were significantly larger among ears with a progressive pattern of hearing loss when compared to those that were stable. Also, ED(VA) correlated with PTA and the presence of progressive hearing loss, but ED(MID) had no such a relationship. Evidence of endolymphatic sac signal heterogeneity and larger measures of endolymphatic width when measured near the vestibule (ED(VA)) are markers of poorer hearing in these patients. By contrast, midpoint measures of the endolymphatic duct (ED(MID)) have no correlation with audiometric parameters. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Global localization of 3D anatomical structures by pre-filtered Hough forests and discrete optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, René; Menze, Bjoern H; Bischof, Horst; Langs, Georg

    2013-12-01

    The accurate localization of anatomical landmarks is a challenging task, often solved by domain specific approaches. We propose a method for the automatic localization of landmarks in complex, repetitive anatomical structures. The key idea is to combine three steps: (1) a classifier for pre-filtering anatomical landmark positions that (2) are refined through a Hough regression model, together with (3) a parts-based model of the global landmark topology to select the final landmark positions. During training landmarks are annotated in a set of example volumes. A classifier learns local landmark appearance, and Hough regressors are trained to aggregate neighborhood information to a precise landmark coordinate position. A non-parametric geometric model encodes the spatial relationships between the landmarks and derives a topology which connects mutually predictive landmarks. During the global search we classify all voxels in the query volume, and perform regression-based agglomeration of landmark probabilities to highly accurate and specific candidate points at potential landmark locations. We encode the candidates' weights together with the conformity of the connecting edges to the learnt geometric model in a Markov Random Field (MRF). By solving the corresponding discrete optimization problem, the most probable location for each model landmark is found in the query volume. We show that this approach is able to consistently localize the model landmarks despite the complex and repetitive character of the anatomical structures on three challenging data sets (hand radiographs, hand CTs, and whole body CTs), with a median localization error of 0.80 mm, 1.19 mm and 2.71 mm, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Students perception about the clinico-anatomical conferences as a teaching methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.; Baptist, M.; Mukhtar, F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has always been considered as an essential basis for clinical sciences. In recent decades there has been an increased trend towards incorporation of clinical problems in the teaching of anatomy. To promote clinical knowledge clinico-anatomical conferences have been conducted in our department for the last five years. This study has been undertaken to determine perception of medical students regarding these conferences and to formulate recommendations for their improvement based on feedback obtained from students. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2013 to January 2014 at the Lahore Medical and Dental College (LMDC), Lahore. A sample of 200 students of first and second year MBBS classes was selected for the study through convenience sampling technique. A 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree) was used to determine students perception about clinic-anatomical conferences, using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS-19.0. Results: Out of total 144 (72%) students were of the opinion that clinico-anatomical conferences were a good source of clinical knowledge, 126 (63%) opined that these conferences promoted understanding rather than memorization, 122 (61%) found them interesting, and 15 (30%) found improvement in their grades in the subject of anatomy after attending the conferences. Conclusion: The clinico-anatomical conferences were found interesting and reported to be a good source of clinical knowledge. It is recommended that these conferences should be conducted frequently, made interactive and patients should be presented as case studies during the conferences. (author)

  9. Longitudinal retention of anatomical knowledge in second-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doomernik, Denise E; van Goor, Harry; Kooloos, Jan G M; Ten Broek, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    The Radboud University Medical Center has a problem-based, learner-oriented, horizontally, and vertically integrated medical curriculum. Anatomists and clinicians have noticed students' decreasing anatomical knowledge and the disability to apply knowledge in diagnostic reasoning and problem solving. In a longitudinal cohort, the retention of anatomical knowledge gained during the first year of medical school among second-year medical students was assessed. In May 2011, 346 medical students applied for the second-year gastro-intestinal (GI) tract course. The students were asked to participate in a reexamination of a selection of anatomical questions of an examination from October 2009. The examination consisted of a clinical anatomy case scenario and two computed tomography (CT) images of thorax and abdomen in an extended matching format. A total of 165 students were included for analysis. In 2011, students scored significantly lower for the anatomy examination compared to 2009 with a decline in overall examination score of 14.7% (±11.7%). Decrease in knowledge was higher in the radiological questions, compared to the clinical anatomy cases 17.5% (±13.6%) vs. 7.9% (±10.0%), respectively, d = 5.17. In both years, male students scored slightly better compared to female students, and decline of knowledge seems somewhat lower in male students (13.1% (±11.1%) vs. 15.5% (±12.0%), respectively), d = -0.21. Anatomical knowledge in the problem-oriented horizontal and vertical integrated medical curriculum, declined by approximately 15% 1.5 year after the initial anatomy course. The loss of knowledge in the present study is relative small compared to previous studies. Anat Sci Educ 10: 242-248. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Morphological approach of the sternal foramen: an anatomic study and a short review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantsinikoudis, N; Chaniotakis, C; Gkasdaris, G; Georgiou, N; Kapetanakis, S

    2017-01-01

    The sternal foramen (SF) constitutes a specific anatomic defect in sternum, indicating an impaired fusion of ossificated segments, which occurs either in an anatomical part of the sternum or in sternal joints. The aim of this article is to provide baseline statistical data about the variations of the SF, to present a short review of the relevant literature and to compare results with other studies and populations. We review relevant literature, and we present data obtai-ned from skeletal samples of known population and sex. A total of 35 well-preserved dried sterna from the prefecture of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Greece, were selected: 20 men and 15 women with a mean age of 55 ± 6 years old. Measurements were made with a sliding calliper and photographic documentation. The incidence of the SF in the 35 dried specimens was 14.2%, 4 men (20% of male sample) and 1 woman (6.6% of female sample) and 80% of sternal foramina were observed in male individuals. The SF was found in the sternum body (2 cases, 40% of foramina), in xiphoid process (2 cases, 40% of foramina) and in sternoxiphoidal junction (1 case, 20% of foramina). All of the sterna presented 1 single visible SF. Two anatomically unique cases were identified throughout these 5 sterna, both belonging in male subjects. The SF constitutes a relatively common variation with great radiological, clinical, and forensic significance. Presence of a SF with irregular bony margins complicates considerably radiological differential diagnosis. Awareness of this important anatomic variation is fundamental for clinicians and autopsy pathologists, in order to avoid severe fatal complications and elucidate the exact cause of death, respectively.

  11. Anatomical background and generalized detectability in tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, G J; Tward, D J; Lee, J; Siewerdsen, J H

    2010-05-01

    Anatomical background presents a major impediment to detectability in 2D radiography as well as 3D tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT). This article incorporates theoretical and experimental analysis of anatomical background "noise" in cascaded systems analysis of 2D and 3D imaging performance to yield "generalized" metrics of noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ) and detectability index as a function of the orbital extent of the (circular arc) source-detector orbit. A physical phantom was designed based on principles of fractal self-similarity to exhibit power-law spectral density (kappa/Fbeta) comparable to various anatomical sites (e.g., breast and lung). Background power spectra [S(B)(F)] were computed as a function of source-detector orbital extent, including tomosynthesis (approximately 10 degrees -180 degrees) and CBCT (180 degrees + fan to 360 degrees) under two acquisition schemes: (1) Constant angular separation between projections (variable dose) and (2) constant total number of projections (constant dose). The resulting S(B) was incorporated in the generalized NEQ, and detectability index was computed from 3D cascaded systems analysis for a variety of imaging tasks. The phantom yielded power-law spectra within the expected spatial frequency range, quantifying the dependence of clutter magnitude (kappa) and correlation (beta) with increasing tomosynthesis angle. Incorporation of S(B) in the 3D NEQ provided a useful framework for analyzing the tradeoffs among anatomical, quantum, and electronic noise with dose and orbital extent. Distinct implications are posed for breast and chest tomosynthesis imaging system design-applications varying significantly in kappa and beta, and imaging task and, therefore, in optimal selection of orbital extent, number of projections, and dose. For example, low-frequency tasks (e.g., soft-tissue masses or nodules) tend to benefit from larger orbital extent and more fully 3D tomographic imaging, whereas high-frequency tasks (e

  12. Primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment - surgical methods and anatomical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstad, Marta; Moosmayer, Stefan; Bragadόttir, Ragnheiður

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the anatomical success of surgical management of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and to compare the anatomical outcomes from different surgical techniques. During 2012, 517 consecutive eyes (514 patients) were operated by 11 surgeons at the Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital. Patient records were retrospectively analysed with no exclusions. Main outcome measures were primary and final anatomical success. Primary anatomical success was defined as retinal reattachment 6 months after primary surgery with reoperations excluded. Final anatomical success was defined as retinal reattachment 6 months after primary surgery with reoperations included. Incidence of RRD was 18.6 eyes per 100 000 person-years. The macula was detached in 50.5% of the eyes at baseline. Of 517 operated eyes, 317 (61.3%) underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), 23 (4.5%) pars plana vitrectomy together with a scleral buckle (PPV-SB), 175 (33.9%) scleral buckle (SB) surgery and two (0.4%) pneumatic retinopexy (PR). Primary anatomical success was 89.0% in the PPV group, 87.0% in the PPV-SB group and 85.7% in the SB group. Final anatomical success was 98.1% in the PPV group, 100% in the PPV-SB group and 99.4% in the SB group. Factors which were correlated to the redetachment were detachment of more than 6 clock hours (p = 0.003) and visual acuity (VA) on Snellen chart retina were large detachment and low VA. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Patient reported and anatomical outcomes after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azab, Ahmed S; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A; Imam, Hala M K

    2009-01-01

    Primary aim was to modify Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ) to assess pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in Arabic Muslim women. Secondary aim was to compare functional and anatomical outcomes of POP repair. Questionnaire. A characteristic (prayer) was added to PFIQ. Linguistic validation of questionnaires was then done. Twenty cases were enrolled in a pilot study to test internal consistency and reliability. Subsequent study. Prospective study included women with symptomatic POP >or= stage II. History, examination by POP-Q, and administration of PFDI and PFIQ, were done before and 6 months after surgery. Questionnaire. Internal consistency of added question was good (Cronbach alpha = 0.78). Test-retest reliability of individual PFIQ items was variable. Subsequent Study. Between September 2004 and February 2007, 78 consecutive women were included. Cystocele, rectocele, and no site predominated in 74.4%, 17.9% and 7.7% of cases, respectively. Preoperatively 19.2%, 15.4% and 47.4% reported stress, urge, and mixed incontinence, respectively. Overall and individual urinary symptoms scores improved significantly after surgery. There were significant improvements in individual symptoms of constipation, splint to defecate and losing not well formed stools. Low self-esteem was most negative impact of prolapse on quality of life (QoL) followed by prayer. After surgery 90% of subjects had anatomical cure. After surgery, QoL issues are significantly related to anatomic location of prolapse as determined by POP-Q. Modified PFIQ and PFDI are suitable to assess POP among Muslim women. Postoperatively, many prolapse-related symptoms and QoL significantly improve after surgery on the short term with an anatomic cure rate of 90%.

  14. Anatomical applications of a new direct Ceromer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, D

    1997-01-01

    Composite resin materials have become the basic restorative materials of the modern aesthetics-oriented practice. However, the application of composite resin in posterior teeth remains a challenge as a result of its handling characteristics and chairside stratification. New ceramic optimized polymers (ceromers), such as Tetric Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), now offer versatility and improved handling properties in response to increasing clinical demand for producing high-quality natural restorations. With a well-designed instrumentation, the work of the clinician may be greatly facilitated. This article evaluates the selection and utilization of a direct ceromer material for posterior restorations and presents a predictable method to achieve aesthetic restorations.

  15. Stenting is improving and stabilizing anatomical results of coiled intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubicz, Boris; Bandeira, Alexandra; Baleriaux, Danielle; Bruneau, Michael; Witte, Olivier de; Dewindt, Aloys

    2009-01-01

    Stent-assisted coiling (SAC) is an alternative to surgical clipping for the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms (IA). However, little information is available concerning the long-term results of this treatment. The aim of this study was to report the long-term clinical and anatomical findings in 32 patients with 34 wide-necked IA treated by SAC. A retrospective review of our prospectively maintained database identified all patients followed up for wide-necked IA treated by SAC. The clinical charts, procedural data, and angiographic results were reviewed. Thirty-two patients with 34 IA were identified including 25 asymptomatic patients, four with cranial nerve palsies, two with a subarachnoid hemorrhage, and one with transient ischemic attacks. Mean aneurysm size was 10.2 mm (range 3.5 to 26 mm). Embolization was successful in all patients and no procedure-related neurological morbidity or mortality was observed. Immediate anatomical results included nine complete occlusions (26.5%), two neck remnants (6%), and 23 incomplete occlusions (67.5%). Mean imaging follow-up of 20 months showed 18 further thrombosis (53%) and 16 stable results (47%). Finally, 27 aneurysms were completely occluded (79%), three had a neck remnant (9%), and four were incompletely occluded (12%). Asymptomatic and nonsignificant in-stent stenosis occurred in seven patients (22%). SAC is safe and effective for the treatment of wide-necked IA. Despite unsatisfying immediate aneurysm occlusion, the adjunctive effect of the stent is stabilizing or significantly improving long-term anatomical results. (orig.)

  16. Application of rapid prototyping techniques for modelling of anatomical structures in medical training and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, K; Staśkiewicz, G; Śnieżyński, M; Drop, A; Maciejewski, R

    2011-02-01

    Rapid prototyping has become an innovative method of fast and cost-effective production of three-dimensional models for manufacturing. Wide access to advanced medical imaging methods allows application of this technique for medical training purposes. This paper presents the feasibility of rapid prototyping technologies: stereolithography, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling, and three-dimensional printing for medical education. Rapid prototyping techniques are a promising method for improvement of anatomical education in medical students but also a valuable source of training tools for medical specialists.

  17. Genetic and anatomical basis of the barrier separating wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Joiner

    Full Text Available A robust, bistable switch regulates the fluctuations between wakefulness and natural sleep as well as those between wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness. We previously provided experimental evidence for the existence of a behavioral barrier to transitions between these states of arousal, which we call neural inertia. Here we show that neural inertia is controlled by processes that contribute to sleep homeostasis and requires four genes involved in electrical excitability: Sh, sss, na and unc79. Although loss of function mutations in these genes can increase or decrease sensitivity to anesthesia induction, surprisingly, they all collapse neural inertia. These effects are genetically selective: neural inertia is not perturbed by loss-of-function mutations in all genes required for the sleep/wake cycle. These effects are also anatomically selective: sss acts in different neurons to influence arousal-promoting and arousal-suppressing processes underlying neural inertia. Supporting the idea that anesthesia and sleep share some, but not all, genetic and anatomical arousal-regulating pathways, we demonstrate that increasing homeostatic sleep drive widens the neural inertial barrier. We propose that processes selectively contributing to sleep homeostasis and neural inertia may be impaired in pathophysiological conditions such as coma and persistent vegetative states.

  18. Genetic and anatomical basis of the barrier separating wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, William J; Friedman, Eliot B; Hung, Hsiao-Tung; Koh, Kyunghee; Sowcik, Mallory; Sehgal, Amita; Kelz, Max B

    2013-01-01

    A robust, bistable switch regulates the fluctuations between wakefulness and natural sleep as well as those between wakefulness and anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness. We previously provided experimental evidence for the existence of a behavioral barrier to transitions between these states of arousal, which we call neural inertia. Here we show that neural inertia is controlled by processes that contribute to sleep homeostasis and requires four genes involved in electrical excitability: Sh, sss, na and unc79. Although loss of function mutations in these genes can increase or decrease sensitivity to anesthesia induction, surprisingly, they all collapse neural inertia. These effects are genetically selective: neural inertia is not perturbed by loss-of-function mutations in all genes required for the sleep/wake cycle. These effects are also anatomically selective: sss acts in different neurons to influence arousal-promoting and arousal-suppressing processes underlying neural inertia. Supporting the idea that anesthesia and sleep share some, but not all, genetic and anatomical arousal-regulating pathways, we demonstrate that increasing homeostatic sleep drive widens the neural inertial barrier. We propose that processes selectively contributing to sleep homeostasis and neural inertia may be impaired in pathophysiological conditions such as coma and persistent vegetative states.

  19. Design and implementation of an anatomical web interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.M.; Young, J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Internet, and in particular, the World-Wide Web, has provided tremendous opportunities for enabling access and transfer of information. Traditionally, Internet services have relied on textual methods for delivery of information. The World-Wide Web (WWW) in its current (and ever-changing form) is primarily a method of communication which includes both graphical and textual information. The easy-to-use graphical interface, developed as part of the WWW, is based on the Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML). More advanced interfaces can be developed by incorporating interactive documents, which can be updated depending upon the wishes of the user. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) can be utilised to transfer information b y utilising various programming and scripting languages (eg. C, Perl). This paper describes the development of a WWW interface for the viewing of anatomical and radiographic information in the form of two-dimensional cross-sectional images and three-dimensional reconstruction images. HTML documents were prepared using a commercial software program (HotDog, Sausage Software Co., Australia). Forms were used to control user-selection parameters such as imaging modality and cross-sectional slice number. All documents were developed and tested using Netscape 2.0. Visual and radiographic images were processed using ANALYZE TM Version 7.5 (Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, USA). Perl scripting was used to process all requests passed to the WWW server. ANSI 'C' programming was used to implement image processing operations which are performed in response to user-selected options. The interface which has been developed is easy to use, is independent of browsing software, is accessible by multiple users, and provides an example of how easily medical imaging data can be distributed amongst interested parties. Various imaging datasets, including the Visible Human Project TM (National Library of Medicine, USA.) have been prepared

  20. [ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN MUSEUMS A SPECIAL CATEGORY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums.

  1. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  2. Anatomical success in patients after retinectomy for complex retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, A.; Ishaq, M.; Islam, Q.U.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of primary and redo retinectomy in eyes with complex retinal detachment. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology Rawalpindi from Jan 2012 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Fifty eight eyes (patients) underwent relaxing retinectomies for complex retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy or intrinsic retinal shortening. Operative technique included pars plana vitrectomy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy management, use of intraoperative perfluorocarbon liquid, retinectomy, endolaser and intraocular temponade. The main outcome was anatomic success, defined as complete retinal reattachment at four months follow up. Eighteen eyes out of the same primary group underwent second retinectomy because of anatomical failure. Results: Mean age of study population was 53.78 ± 15.11 years, 56.9% of patients were male(s). Anatomic success rate after 1st retinectomy was achieved in 68.96% (40 eyes out of 58). In eighteen eyes that underwent 2nd retinectomy, anatomic success rate was 72.22% (13 eyes out of 18). Overall success rate was 91.3% (53 eyes out of 58) in our study. Conclusions: Relaxing retinectomies for retinal shortening can improve the anatomical success rate in patients with complex RD. (author)

  3. Nomenclatura anatômica em oftalmologia Anatomical nomenclature in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lamy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo são: informar os oftalmologistas sobre as diferenças existentes entre as listas em língua inglesa e portuguesa de termos equivalentes para as estruturas do olho, ambas aprovadas pela Comissão Federativa Internacional de Terminologia Anatômica; apresentar os termos anatômicos incluídos na lista de descritores publicada pela Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina Norte-Americana e traduzida pela Biblioteca Regional de Medicina (BIREME; para propor uma lista em português de termos de uso comum pelos oftalmologistas.The purposes of this article are: to inform ophthalmologists about the differences between the English and Portuguese list of equivalent terms for eye structures, approved by the Federative International Committee on Anatomical Terminology; to present the anatomical terms included in the list of medical subject headings published by the United States National Library of Medicine and translated by the Regional Library of Medicine (BIREME; propose a list of Portuguese terms of common usage by ophthalmologists.

  4. Image Restoration Using Functional and Anatomical Information Fusion with Application to SPECT-MRI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benameur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is usually viewed as an ill-posed problem in image processing, since there is no unique solution associated with it. The quality of restored image closely depends on the constraints imposed of the characteristics of the solution. In this paper, we propose an original extension of the NAS-RIF restoration technique by using information fusion as prior information with application in SPECT medical imaging. That extension allows the restoration process to be constrained by efficiently incorporating, within the NAS-RIF method, a regularization term which stabilizes the inverse solution. Our restoration method is constrained by anatomical information extracted from a high resolution anatomical procedure such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. This structural anatomy-based regularization term uses the result of an unsupervised Markovian segmentation obtained after a preliminary registration step between the MRI and SPECT data volumes from each patient. This method was successfully tested on 30 pairs of brain MRI and SPECT acquisitions from different subjects and on Hoffman and Jaszczak SPECT phantoms. The experiments demonstrated that the method performs better, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, than a classical supervised restoration approach using a Metz filter.

  5. Confusing dinosaurs with mammals: tetrapod phylogenetics and anatomical terminology in the world of homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jerald D

    2004-12-01

    At present, three different systems of anatomical nomenclature are available to researchers describing new tetrapod taxa: a nonstandardized traditional system erected in part by Sir Richard Owen and subsequently elaborated by Alfred Romer; a standardized system created for avians, the Nomina Anatomica Avium (NAA); and a standardized system for extant (crown-group) mammals, the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). Conserved homologous structures widely distributed within the Tetrapoda are often granted different names in each system. The recent shift toward a phylogenetic system based on homology requires a concomitant shift toward a single nomenclatural system also based on both evolutionary and functional morphological homology. Standardized terms employed in the NAA and NAV should be perpetuated as far as possible basally in their respective phylogenies. Thus, NAA terms apply to nonavian archosaurs (or even all diapsids) and NAV terms apply to noncrown-group mammals and more basal synapsids. Taxa equally distant from both avians and crown-group mammals may maintain the traditional nonstandardized terminology until a universal anatomical nomenclature for all tetrapods is constructed. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Cytotechnologists as coinvestigators in anatomical pathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Karla J; Passow, Marie R; Del Rosario, Kristina M; Christensen, Michael R; O'Shaughnessy, John W; Bartholet, Mary K; Francis, Mary E; Flotte, Thomas J

    2018-04-01

    The amount of time available to pathologists with which to perform research is becoming limited due to an increasing manpower shortage in pathology, decreased reimbursement, and increased workload. This is occurring at the same time as demands escalate for pathologists to develop new companion tests, correlate the molecular findings with traditional methods, and assist in the development of individualized medicine. This study examined whether cytotechnologists may be integrated into a research team that uses their expertise in understanding pathology and clinical disease to provide interpretations of experiments that traditionally were performed by pathologists. Cytotechnologists worked with pathologists to choose blocks for tissue microarrays (TMAs) and to interpret immunohistochemically stained TMA slides. The pathologist met with the cytotechnologist to review the study design. The cytotechnologists reviewed the slides and blocks and chose the most appropriate blocks for the TMA. Either 10% or all of the slides/blocks selected for TMA construction were reviewed by the supervising pathologist. The final selections were given to the TMA technologist to make the TMA. A minimum of 10% of the immunohistochemically stained TMA slides were reviewed by the supervising pathologist. A total of 32 TMAs were created with 6 cytotechnologists collaborating with 6 pathologists. Immunohistochemical stains of 190 TMAs were interpreted by 4 cytotechnologists collaborating with 3 pathologists. All the TMAs and TMA interpretation data were used successfully for the research for which they were designed. The collaboration of cytotechnologists and pathologists in research can improve the quality of effort and increase satisfaction and productivity. Cancer Cytopathol 2018;126:232-5. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  7. Long-term evolution of upper stratospheric ozone at selected stations of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbrecht, W; Claude, H; Schönenborn, F; McDermid, I S; Leblanc, T; Godin, S; Song, T; Swart, D P J; Meijer, Y J; Bodeker, G E; Connor, B J; Kämpfer, N; Hocke, K; Calisesi, Y; Schneider, N; Noë, J de la; Parrish, A D; Boyd, I S; Brühl, C; Steil, B; Giorgetta, M A; Manzini, E; Thomason, L W; Zawodny, J M; McCormick, M P; Russell, J M; Bhartia, P K; Stolarski, R S; Hollandsworth-Frith, S M

    2006-01-01

    The long-term evolution of upper stratospheric ozone has been recorded by lidars and microwave radiometers within the ground-based Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), and by the space-borne Solar Backscatter Ultra-Violet instruments (SBUV), Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas

  8. Long-term monitoring of air pollution effects on selected forest ecosystems in the Bucegi-Piatra Craiului and Retezat Mountains, southern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Badea; S. Neagu; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; D. Silaghi; I. Barbu; C. Iacoban; F. Popescu; M. Andrei; E. Preda; C. Iacob; I. Dumitru; H. Iuncu; C. Vezeanu; V. Huber

    2011-01-01

    The monitoring studies carried out in the southern Romanian Carpathians (Retezat and Bucegi - Piatra Craiului Mts) provide a scientific support for long term ecosystem research (LTER). Their general objective is to characterize the air pollution and its potential effects upon forest ecosystems' status and biodiversity in close connection with climatic changes. Two...

  9. The Impact of Short-Term Science Teacher Professional Development on the Evaluation of Student Understanding and Errors Related to Natural Selection. CRESST Report 822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a short-term professional development session. Forty volunteer high school biology teachers were randomly assigned to one of two professional development conditions: (a) developing deep content knowledge (i.e., control condition) or (b) evaluating student errors and understanding in writing samples (i.e.,…

  10. The Impact of Short-Term Science Teacher Professional Development on the Evaluation of Student Understanding and Errors Related to Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a short-term professional development session. Forty volunteer high school biology teachers were randomly assigned to one of two professional development conditions: (a) developing deep content knowledge (i.e., control condition) or (b) evaluating student errors and understanding in writing samples (i.e.,…

  11. Patients with Anatomically “Simple” Renal Masses are More Likely to be Placed on Active Surveillance than those with Anatomically “Complex” Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Jeffrey J.; Uzzo, Robert G.; Kocher, Neil; Li, Tianyu; Manley, Brandon; Mehrazin, Reza; Ito, Timothy; Abbosh, Philip; Viterbo, Rosalia; Chen, David Y.T.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Canter, Daniel; Smaldone, Marc C.; Kutikov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if radiographically less complex renal lesions are deemed clinically less “worrisome” and therefore are more likely to be considered for active surveillance (AS). Methods We queried our prospective institutional database to identify and compare patients with localized RCC undergoing an initial period of AS or immediate surgery. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine covariates associated with receipt of AS. Results Of 1059 patients with available anatomic complexity data, 195 underwent an initial period of AS (median duration of AS 25.6 months [IQR 11.8, 52.8 months]. Compared to patients undergoing immediate surgical treatment, patients selected for AS had lower overall Nephrometry scores, were smaller, further from the sinus or urothelium, more often polar and less often hilar (p<0.0015 all comparisons). After adjustment for age, largest tumor size, individual components of NS, total NS, and CCI, total NS (OR 1.9 [CI 1.4–2.5]), “R” score of 1 (OR 5.2 [CI 1.8–15.2]), “N” score of 1 (OR 2.3 [CI 1.5–3.6]), “L” score of 1 (OR 1.4 [CI 0.84–2.2]), and non-hilar tumor location (OR 2.7 [CI 1.2–5.8]) increased the probability of being selected for AS compared to immediate surgery. Findings remained significant in a sub-analysis of T1a renal masses. Conclusions Lower tumor anatomic complexity was strongly associated with the decision to proceed with AS in patients with Stage I renal mass. Not only may these data afford new insights into renal mass treatment trends, but the findings may also prove useful in development of objective protocols to most appropriately select patients for AS. PMID:24913564

  12. Morpho-anatomical investigations on Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlham Eröz Poyraz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae used for some medicinal purposes like antidiabetic, anticancer, antiviral and treat to gastritis was investigated. Morphological studies were supported by morphometric measurements and drawings of male and female flowers, fruit and seeds of the species. In anatomical studies, cross sections of stem and leaf, upper and lower surface sections of leaves were evaluated. It was detected that the stem with typical anatomical properties of a climbing dicotyl plant. The leaves were amphistotamic and with lots of cyctoliths on the lower surface of leaves. Stomata are anomocytic and situated much more at the lower surface of leaves. Morpho-anatomical investigations on Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae*

  13. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulcus: olfatory sulcus, orbital medial sulcus, orbital lateral sulcus, orbital transverse sulcus and orbital intermediate sulcus. These sulcus, excluding the intermediate sulcus, delimit five gyrus: rectus gurys, orbital medial gyrus, orbital anterior gyrus, orbital lateral gyrus and orbital posterior gyrus. The main sulcal configuration can be divided on four more frequently patterns. Conclusion Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Better anatomical and functional characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections will improve our knowledge about these diseases.

  14. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment...... between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved...... by including anatomical features in the branch feature vectors. The proposed approach is applied to classify airway trees in computed tomography images of subjects with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using the wall area percentage (WA%), a common measure of airway abnormality in COPD...

  15. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian

  16. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J

    2002-12-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian

  17. The stylomastoid artery as an anatomical landmark to the facial nerve during parotid surgery: a clinico-anatomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouraei Seyed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of the facial nerve can be difficult in a bloody operative field or by an incision that limits exposure; hence anatomical landmarks and adequate operative exposure can aid such identification and preservation. In this clinico-anatomic study, we examined the stylomastoid artery (SMA and its relation to the facial nerve trunk; the origin of the artery was identified on cadavers and its nature was confirmed histologically. Methods The clinical component of the study included prospective reviewing of 100 consecutive routine parotidectomies; while, the anatomical component of the study involved dissecting 50 cadaveric hemifaces. Results We could consistently identify a supplying vessel, stylomastoid artery, which tends to vary less in position than the facial nerve. Following this vessel, a few millimetres inferiorly and medially, we have gone on to identify the facial nerve trunk, which it supplies, with relative ease. The origin of the stylomastoid artery, in our study, was either from the occipital artery or the posterior auricular artery. Conclusion This anatomical aid, the stylomastoid artery, when supplemented by the other more commonly known anatomical landmarks and intra-operative facial nerve monitoring further reduces the risk of iatrogenic facial nerve damage and operative time.

  18. Anatomic mapping of molecular subtypes in diffuse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Lian, Yuxi; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang

    2017-09-15

    Tumor location served as an important prognostic factor in glioma patients was considered to postulate molecular features according to cell origin theory. However, anatomic distribution of unique molecular subtypes was not widely investigated. The relationship between molecular phenotype and histological subgroup were also vague based on tumor location. Our group focuses on the study of glioma anatomic location of distinctive molecular subgroups and histology subtypes, and explores the possibility of their consistency based on clinical background. We retrospectively reviewed 143 cases with both molecular information (IDH1/TERT/1p19q) and MRI images diagnosed as cerebral diffuse gliomas. The anatomic distribution was analyzed between distinctive molecular subgroups and its relationship with histological subtypes. The influence of tumor location, molecular stratification and histology diagnosis on survival outcome was investigated as well. Anatomic locations of cerebral diffuse glioma indicate varied clinical outcome. Based on that, it can be stratified into five principal molecular subgroups according to IDH1/TERT/1p19q status. Triple-positive (IDH1 and TERT mutation with 1p19q codeletion) glioma tended to be oligodendroglioma present with much better clinical outcome compared to TERT mutation only group who is glioblastoma inclined (median overall survival 39 months VS 18 months). Five molecular subgroups were demonstrated with distinctive locational distribution. This kind of anatomic feature is consistent with its corresponding histological subtypes. Each molecular subgroup in glioma has unique anatomic location which indicates distinctive clinical outcome. Molecular diagnosis can be served as perfect complementary tool for the precise diagnosis. Integration of histomolecular diagnosis will be much more helpful in routine clinical practice in the future.

  19. The Effects of Both Recent and Long-Term Selection and Genetic Drift Are Readily Evident in North American Barley Breeding Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Poets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley was introduced to North America ∼400 yr ago but adaptation to modern production environments is more recent. Comparisons of allele frequencies among growth habits and spike (inflorescence types in North America indicate that significant genetic differentiation has accumulated in a relatively short evolutionary time span. Allele frequency differentiation is greatest among barley with two-row vs. six-row spikes, followed by spring vs. winter growth habit. Large changes in allele frequency among breeding programs suggest a major contribution of genetic drift and linked selection on genetic variation. Despite this, comparisons of 3613 modern North American cultivated barley breeding lines that differ for spike-type and growth habit permit the discovery of 142 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP outliers putatively linked to targets of selection. For example, SNPs within the Cbf4, Ppd-H1, and Vrn-H1 loci, which have previously been associated with agronomically adaptive phenotypes, are identified as outliers. Analysis of extended haplotype sharing identifies genomic regions shared within and among breeding populations, suggestive of a number of genomic regions subject to recent selection. Finally, we are able to identify recent bouts of gene flow between breeding populations that could point to the sharing of agronomically adaptive variation. These results are supported by pedigrees and breeders’ understanding of germplasm sharing.

  20. Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Onken, Kristine L; Beitz, Donald C

    2011-12-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners have been used to lower the energy density of foods with the intention of affecting weight loss or weight maintenance. However, some epidemiological and animal evidence indicates an association between weight gain or insulin resistance and artificial sweetener consumption. In the present study, we hypothesized that the nonnutritive sweetener sucralose, a trichlorinated sucrose molecule, would elicit responses similar to water but different from sucrose and sucrose combined with sucralose on subjective and hormonal indications of hunger and short-term glucose homeostasis. Eight female volunteers (body mass index, 22.16 ± 1.71 kg/m(2); age, 21.75 ± 2.25 years) consumed sucrose and/or sucralose in water in a factorial design. Blood samples were taken at fasting and 30 and 60 minutes after treatment followed by a standardized breakfast across treatments, and blood samples were taken 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after breakfast. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin, glucagon, triacylglycerols (TAG), and acylated ghrelin. Perceptions of hunger and other subjective measurements were assessed before each blood sample. No differences were detected in subjective responses, circulating triacylglycerol, or glucagon concentrations among treatments over time. Significant differences were observed in insulin, glucose, and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time only between sucrose-containing treatments and non-sucrose-containing treatments regardless of sucralose consumption. Therefore, sucralose may be a relatively inert nonnutritive sweetener with regard to hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of virtual microscopy for didactic live-audience presentation in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, David J; Suster, Saul

    2003-02-01

    Didactic presentations on the topic of anatomic pathology in front of a live audience have been largely dependent on the use of standard 2 x 2 inch projection slides (Kodachromes) of selected still images from the topic at hand. Because of the highly visual nature of the specialty of anatomic pathology, this method has had some serious limitations. With the advent of digital imaging techniques and the availability of new electronic software for the projection of images, new possibilities have become available for didactic presentations in anatomic pathology in front of a large, live audience. We describe a method whereby large digital images or "virtual slides" were produced from digitally scanned whole-mount sections of histologic glass slides and projected using a combination of PowerPoint (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) and virtual microscopy in front of a live audience. To provide a seamless transition between the two presentation formats, the personal computer-based PowerPoint slides were hyperlinked to a browser-based virtual microscope viewer. The presenter, with the use of a mouse, was able to "move" the image of the scanned slide on the screen, to transition seamlessly among various magnifications, and to rapidly select from the whole-mount scanned slide among any areas of interest pertinent to the topic. Thus, the visual experience obtained by the audience simulated that of viewing a glass slide at a multi-headed microscope during a glass slide tutorial. Because this most closely approximates the experience of reviewing glass slides under the microscope for practicing pathologists, the educational experience of the presentation is greatly enhanced by the use of this technique. Also, this method permits making this type of presentation available to a much larger group of individuals in a live audience. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  2. [Strabismus determined by anatomical changes in the extrinsic ocular muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinea, L; Samson, M; Glejaru, M; Popa, R

    1995-01-01

    The anatomical primitive strabismus is prenatal and its characteristic is the loose in the elasticity of the muscles of the surrounding tissues. The cause is the deficit of embryogenesis, originating in the first two months of pregnancy. They are presented the clinical cases of anatomical strabismus, investigated and treated in the Ophthalmological Clinic during 10 years, the surgical techniques used and the postoperative functional and obstetrical results the ocular disturbances are intense and the debut is early. The surgery involves both eyes and the results depend on the clinical form, the restant ocular motility and the degree of fibrosis of the affected muscle.

  3. Sonographic and Anatomic Description of the Subtalar Joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandl, Peter; Bong, David; Balint, Peter V

    2018-01-01

    Our study provides a detailed anatomic and sonographic description of the subtalar joint, a single joint that, anatomically, is divided into the anterior subtalar joint (ASTJ) and the posterior subtalar joint (PSTJ). Cadaver specimens of the ankle and foot were examined in detail by ultrasound (US......), and the subtalar joints of all the specimens were injected with colored latex of a contrasting color under US guidance. Compatible with other studies, examination of the sections revealed lack of communication between the ASTJ and the PSTJ and communication between the PSTJ and the posterior recess...

  4. Double auricles of the right atrium: a unique anatomic deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampoura Stefania S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomic deviations, especially those detected during the course of an operation, are medically intriguing, as they raise concerns about their clinical significance and putative complications. Case presentation We present, to our knowledge, for the first time a case of an anatomic deviation in the form of a second right atrial auricle in a 70 year-old, coronary bypass-operated male Caucasian patient of Greek origin. No complications were noted intra-or postoperatively. Conclusions A second right atrial auricle was found intraoperatively, without causing any clinical complications, or obstructing the normal course of a surgical procedure.

  5. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Brain, Cerebral Vasculature, and Calvarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M; Zamani, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    Medical eponyms are ubiquitous, numerous, and at times controversial. They are often useful for succinctly conveying complex concepts, and familiarity with eponyms is important for proper usage and appropriate communication. In this historical review, we identify 18 anatomic eponyms used to describe structures of the brain, cerebral vasculature, and calvarium. For each structure, we first offer a biographical sketch of the individual for whom the structure is named. This is followed by a description of the anatomic structure and a brief discussion of its clinical relevance. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain anatomical networks in world class gymnasts: a DTI tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Fan, Yuanyuan; Lu, Min; Li, Shumei; Song, Zheng; Peng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Ruibin; Lin, Qixiang; He, Yong; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ruiwang

    2013-01-15

    The excellent motor skills of world class gymnasts amaze everyone. People marvel at the way they precisely control their movements and wonder how the brain structure and function of these elite athletes differ from those of non-athletes. In this study, we acquired diffusion images from thirteen world class gymnasts and fourteen matched controls, constructed their anatomical networks, and calculated the topological properties of each network based on graph theory. From a connectivity-based analysis, we found that most of the edges with increased connection density in the champions were linked to brain regions that are located in the sensorimotor, attentional, and default-mode systems. From graph-based metrics, we detected significantly greater global and local efficiency but shorter characteristic path length in the anatomical networks of the champions compared with the controls. Moreover, in the champions we found a significantly higher nodal degree and greater regional efficiency in several brain regions that correspond to motor and attention functions. These included the left precentral gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus and temporal lobes. In addition, we revealed an increase in the mean fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract in the champions, possibly in response to long-term gymnastic training. Our study indicates that neuroanatomical adaptations and plastic changes occur in gymnasts' brain anatomical networks either in response to long-term intensive gymnastic training or as an innate predisposition or both. Our findings may help to explain gymnastic skills at the highest levels of performance and aid in understanding the neural mechanisms that distinguish expert gymnasts from novices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-template analysis of human perirhinal cortex in brain MRI: Explicitly accounting for anatomical variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Long; Pluta, John B.; Das, Sandhitsu R.; Wisse, Laura E.M.; Wang, Hongzhi; Mancuso, Lauren; Kliot, Dasha; Avants, Brian B.; Ding, Song-Lin; Manjón, José V.; Wolk, David A.; Yushkevich, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Rational The human perirhinal cortex (PRC) plays critical roles in episodic and semantic memory and visual perception. The PRC consists of Brodmann areas 35 and 36 (BA35, BA36). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), BA35 is the first cortical site affected by neurofibrillary tangle pathology, which is closely linked to neural injury in AD. Large anatomical variability, manifested in the form of different cortical folding and branching patterns, makes it difficult to segment the PRC in MRI scans. Pathology studies have found that in ~97% of specimens, the PRC falls into one of three discrete anatomical variants. However, current methods for PRC segmentation and morphometry in MRI are based on single-template approaches, which may not be able to accurately model these discrete variants Methods A multi-template analysis pipeline that explicitly accounts for anatomical variability is used to automatically label the PRC and measure its thickness in T2-weighted MRI scans. The pipeline uses multi-atlas segmentation to automatically label medial temporal lobe cortices including entorhinal cortex, PRC and the parahippocampal cortex. Pairwise registration between label maps and clustering based on residual dissimilarity after registration are used to construct separate templates for the anatomical variants of the PRC. An optimal path of deformations linking these templates is used to establish correspondences between all the subjects. Experimental evaluation focuses on the ability of single-template and multi-template analyses to detect differences in the thickness of medial temporal lobe cortices between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n=41) and age-matched controls (n=44). Results The proposed technique is able to generate templates that recover the three dominant discrete variants of PRC and establish more meaningful correspondences between subjects than a single-template approach. The largest reduction in thickness associated with aMCI, in absolute terms

  8. [Analysis and classification of Latin anatomical names of skeletal fossa in Terminologia Anatomica, and comparison with corresponding Japanese anatomical names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Tatsuo

    2011-10-01

    For a better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of the possible need for future revision of anatomical nomenclature, Latin anatomical names of skeletal fossa in Terminologia Anatomica were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Fossa indicated: 1) the form of the fossa, 2) the structure to which the fossa belongs, 3) the position of the fossa, 4) the structure that exists near the fossa, 5) the structure that the fossa contains, 6) the structure attached to the fossa, 7) the structure that transmits the fossa, or 8) the structure with which the fossa articulates. The analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  9. [Analysis and classification of Latin anatomical names of skeletal canals in Terminologia anatomica, and comparison with corresponding Japanese anatomical names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Tatsuo

    2010-10-01

    For a better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of the possible need for future revision of anatomical nomenclature, Latin anatomical names of skeletal canals (including canaliculi) in Terminologia Anatomica were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Canalis or Canales indicated: (1) the structure to which the canal belongs, (2) the structure to which the opening of the canal belongs, (3) the position of the canal, (4) the structure to which the canal leads, (5) the structure that exists near the opening of the canal, (6) the structure that transmits the canal, (7) the structure that is a component of the canal, or (8) the function of the canal. The analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  10. Direct estimation of patient attributes from anatomical MRI based on multi-atlas voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Ceritoglu, Can; Miller, Michael I; Mori, Susumu

    MRI brain atlases are widely used for automated image segmentation, and in particular, recent developments in multi-atlas techniques have shown highly accurate segmentation results. In this study, we extended the role of the atlas library from mere anatomical reference to a comprehensive knowledge database with various patient attributes, such as demographic, functional, and diagnostic information. In addition to using the selected (heavily-weighted) atlases to achieve high segmentation accuracy, we tested whether the non-anatomical attributes of the selected atlases could be used to estimate patient attributes. This can be considered a context-based image retrieval (CBIR) approach, embedded in the multi-atlas framework. We first developed an image similarity measurement to weigh the atlases on a structure-by-structure basis, and then, the attributes of the multiple atlases were weighted to estimate the patient attributes. We tested this concept first by estimating age in a normal population; we then performed functional and diagnostic estimations in Alzheimer's disease patients. The accuracy of the estimated patient attributes was measured against the actual clinical data, and the performance was compared to conventional volumetric analysis. The proposed CBIR framework by multi-atlas voting would be the first step toward a knowledge-based support system for quantitative radiological image reading and diagnosis.

  11. Direct estimation of patient attributes from anatomical MRI based on multi-atlas voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MRI brain atlases are widely used for automated image segmentation, and in particular, recent developments in multi-atlas techniques have shown highly accurate segmentation results. In this study, we extended the role of the atlas library from mere anatomical reference to a comprehensive knowledge database with various patient attributes, such as demographic, functional, and diagnostic information. In addition to using the selected (heavily-weighted atlases to achieve high segmentation accuracy, we tested whether the non-anatomical attributes of the selected atlases could be used to estimate patient attributes. This can be considered a context-based image retrieval (CBIR approach, embedded in the multi-atlas framework. We first developed an image similarity measurement to weigh the atlases on a structure-by-structure basis, and then, the attributes of the multiple atlases were weighted to estimate the patient attributes. We tested this concept first by estimating age in a normal population; we then performed functional and diagnostic estimations in Alzheimer's disease patients. The accuracy of the estimated patient attributes was measured against the actual clinical data, and the performance was compared to conventional volumetric analysis. The proposed CBIR framework by multi-atlas voting would be the first step toward a knowledge-based support system for quantitative radiological image reading and diagnosis.

  12. Anatomical criteria of malignancy by computed tomography angiography in patients with anomalous coronary arteries with an interarterial course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashrafpoor, Golmehr [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Universite Paris Descartes, Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Paris (France); Danchin, Nicolas [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Universite Paris Descartes, Department of Cardiology, Paris (France); Houyel, Lucile; Belli, Emre [Centre Chirurgical Marie-Lannelongue, Department of Congenital Cardiac Surgery, Le Plessis-Robinson (France); Ramadan, Ramzi [Centre Chirurgical Marie-Lannelongue, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Le Plessis-Robinson (France); Paul, Jean-Francois [Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2014-10-11

    We sought to determine the relation between major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and anatomical criteria assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with an anomalous coronary artery with an interarterial course (ACAIAC). We selected CCTA studies of patients with an ACAIAC from a database of 4,160 examinations and studied anatomical criteria according to the presence of prior MACE, defined as syncope, unstable angina, myocardial infarction and resuscitated sudden cardiac death. There were 19 patients (18 males) with an ACAIAC during the study period (incidence 0.46 %). Seven patients with prior MACE were younger (26 years vs 59 years, p < 0.001), had a smaller minimal lumen area (3.6 mm{sup 2} vs 9.0 mm{sup 2}, p = 0.001), a higher degree of area stenosis (57 % vs 24 %, p = 0.001), a longer interarterial course (14.7 vs 8.6 mm, p = 0.003) and a smaller proximal segment width (1.6 mm vs 2.5 mm, p = 0.02) compared with the 12 patients without prior MACE. All patients with MACE had the following concomitant anatomical characteristics: minimum lumen area ≤4 mm{sup 2}, an area stenosis ≥50 % and intra-arterial length >10 mm Prior MACE is associated with specific anatomical CCTA characteristics among patients with ACAIAC. CCTA may therefore contribute to distinguish patients at risk of adverse events. (orig.)

  13. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range--A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38-0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation.

  14. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range—A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Methods Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38–0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Results Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation. PMID:25906320

  15. Hierarchical anatomical brain networks for MCI prediction: revisiting volumetric measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Zhou

    Full Text Available Owning to its clinical accessibility, T1-weighted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been extensively studied in the past decades for prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The volumes of gray matter (GM, white matter (WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are the most commonly used measurements, resulting in many successful applications. It has been widely observed that disease-induced structural changes may not occur at isolated spots, but in several inter-related regions. Therefore, for better characterization of brain pathology, we propose in this paper a means to extract inter-regional correlation based features from local volumetric measurements. Specifically, our approach involves constructing an anatomical brain network for each subject, with each node representing a Region of Interest (ROI and each edge representing Pearson correlation of tissue volumetric measurements between ROI pairs. As second order volumetric measurements, network features are more descriptive but also more sensitive to noise. To overcome this limitation, a hierarchy of ROIs is used to suppress noise at different scales. Pairwise interactions are considered not only for ROIs with the same scale in the same layer of the hierarchy, but also for ROIs across different scales in different layers. To address the high dimensionality problem resulting from the large number of network features, a supervised dimensionality reduction method is further employed to embed a selected subset of features into a low dimensional feature space, while at the same time preserving discriminative information. We demonstrate with experimental results the efficacy of this embedding strategy in comparison with some other commonly used approaches. In addition, although the proposed method can be easily generalized to incorporate other metrics of regional similarities, the benefits of using Pearson correlation in our application are reinforced by the experimental

  16. Wood anatomical and chemical properties related to the pulpability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most important hardwood species used by the pulp and paper industry due to its high pulp yield, high wood density, excellent fibre quality and good handsheet properties. However, the wood is a highly variable and complex material that has different chemical, physical and anatomical ...

  17. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Vos, Hendrik J.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment evaluated the impact of two typical features of virtual learning environments on anatomical learning for users of differing visuo-spatial ability. The two features studied are computer-implemented stereopsis (the spatial information that is based on differences in visual patterns

  18. Prevalence and anatomical pattern of the median artery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the anatomy of median arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel and pronator teres syndromes, reconstructive surgery in the forearm, minimizing inadvertent vascular injury as well as in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The anatomical pattern displays ...

  19. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  20. Anatomical Variation in the Wall Thickness of Wood Fibres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wall thickness of wood fibres of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) grown and tapped for latex in south eastern Nigeria were investigated to determine anatomical variation. The rubber trees which were overmature for tapping and keeping were sampled in hierarchical order of plantations, bud classes, trees, discs, cardinal ...

  1. Correlation of clinical data, anatomical site and disease stage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the colorectal cancer clinical data with respect to the anatomical location and stage of disease. Design: Retrospective observational study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and fifty three tumours were categorised as right colonic (RCC), left colonic ...

  2. A comparison of some anatomical characteristics of male and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of some anatomical characteristics of male and female reproductive organs of the white Fulani and west African short horn cattle in Ghana: a ... be due to the confounding effects of the physiological state (follicular or luteal) of the ovaries depending on the oestrus cycle of the cow at the time measurements ...

  3. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  4. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan

    2012-01-01

    . In tree-space, the airway tree topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural way to automatically handle anatomical differences and noise. The algorithm is made efficient using a hierarchical approach, in which labels are assigned from the top down. We only use features of the airway...

  5. Agreement between anatomic and ultrasound measurements of femoral trochlear depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Eriksen, Thomas

    and ultrasonographic measurements of trochlear depth using the red fox hind limb as a canine surrogate, dividing the trochlea into five regions from the origin of the caudal cruciate ligament to the proximal aspect of the trochlea. We found reasonable agreement between anatomic and ultrasonographic measurements...

  6. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved...

  7. Anatomical practices of preserving, handling and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of this review is that an act will be required to address the management of human remains as well the regulation of the anatomical practices of preserving, handling and management of human remains. Human remains as used in this context includes established lifeless or dead whole human body otherwise ...

  8. Anatomical approach for surgery of the male posterior urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpiaz, Orietta; Mitterberger, Michael; Kerschbaumer, Andrea; Pinggera, Germar M; Bartsch, Georg; Strasser, Hannes

    2008-11-01

    To investigate, in a morphological study, the anatomy of the male rhabdosphincter and the relation between the membranous urethra, the rhabdosphincter and the neurovascular bundles (NVBs) to provide the anatomical basis for surgical approach of the posterior urethra as successful outcomes in urethral reconstructive surgery still remain a challenging issue. In all, 11 complete pelves and four tissue blocks of prostate, rectum, membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter were studied. Besides anatomical preparations, the posterior urethra and their relationship were studied by means of serial histological sections. In the histological cross-sections, the rhabdosphincter forms an omega-shaped loop around the anterior and lateral aspects of the membranous urethra. Ventrally and laterally, it is separated from the membranous urethra by a delicate sheath of connective tissue. Through a midline approach displacing the nerves and vessels laterally, injuries to the NVBs can be avoided. With meticulous dissection of the delicate ventral connective tissue sheath between the ventral wall of the membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter, the two structures can be separated without damage to either of them. This anatomical approach can be used for dissection of the anterior urethral wall in urethral surgery. Based on precise anatomical knowledge, the ventral wall of the posterior urethra can be dissected and exposed without injuring the rhabdosphincter and the NVBs. This approach provides the basis for sparing of the rhabdosphincter and for successful outcomes in urethral surgery for the treatment of bulbo-membranous urethral strictures.

  9. Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose (Anser anser domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 343-347

  10. Anatomical variations of the brachial plexus terminal branches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical variations are clinically significant, but many are inadequately described or quantified. Variations in anatomy of the brachial plexus are important to surgeons and anesthesiologists performing surgical procedures in the neck, axilla and upper limb regions. It is also important for radiologists who interpret plain and ...

  11. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... Plastination technology for anatomical studies in. Nigeria: Opinion of ... Today, modern techniques used to preserve the human body for didactic purposes are built on methods that began in ... of new techniques and computer science, alternative methods of teaching anatomy have come. Dr. Gunther von ...

  12. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performed with an optic microscope “Motic. 2.0” to a magnification of forty x. The observation was facilitated by a Ken-A-Vision camera connected to a computer. The software. Vision 4 allowed to take pictures and to measure the constituent of the woody plan. The following anatomical characters were measured: the number ...

  13. More about...Anatomical Pathology | Eyal | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. More about...Anatomical Pathology. P Eyal. Abstract.

  14. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  15. Assessment of Anatomical Knowledge and Core Trauma Competency Vascular Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Guinevere; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Garofalo, Evan; Shackelford, Stacy; Shalin, Valerie; Puche, Adam; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin

    2018-03-01

    Surgical residents express confidence in performing specific vascular exposures before training, but such self-reported confidence did not correlate with co-located evaluator ratings. This study reports residents' self-confidence evaluated before and after Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) cadaver-based training, and 12-18 mo later. We hypothesize that residents will better judge their own skill after ASSET than before when compared with evaluator ratings. Forty PGY2-7 surgical residents performed four procedures: axillary artery (AA), brachial artery (BA), femoral artery exposure and control (FA), and lower extremity fasciotomy (FAS) at the three evaluations. Using 5-point Likert scales, surgeons self-assessed their confidence in anatomical understanding and procedure performance after each procedure and evaluators rated each surgeon accordingly. For all the three evaluations, residents consistently rated their anatomical understanding (p < 0.04) and surgical performance (p < 0.03) higher than evaluators for both FA and FAS. Residents rated their anatomical understanding and surgical performance higher (p < 0.005) than evaluators for BA after training and up to 18 mo later. Only for third AA evaluation were there no rating differences. Residents overrate their anatomical understanding and performance abilities for BA, FA, and FAS even after performing the procedures and being debriefed three times in 18 mo.

  16. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Khan

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... Curr Opin Urol 2008;18:214–9. [9] Lingeman JE, Siegal YI, Steele B, Nyhus AW, Woods JR. Manage- ment of lower pole nephrolithiasis: a critical analysis. J Urol 1994;151: 663–7. [10] Sampaio FJB, Aragao AHM. Limitations of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for lower caliceal stone: anatomic insight.

  17. Ethmomaxillary sinus: a particular anatomic variation of the paranasal sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirikci, Akif; Bayram, Metin [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, 27310, Gaziantep (Turkey); Bayazit, Y.A.; Kanlikama, Muzaffer [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, 27310, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2004-02-01

    We assessed the morphological and radiological characteristics of ethmomaxillary sinus (EMS), which is an enlarged posterior ethmoidal air cell occupying the superior portion of the maxillary sinus while draining into superior meatus. This study is based on 1450 patients submitted to CT examination of the paranasal sinuses between 1998 and 2002. Sequential CT scans were obtained in the coronal plane in all the patients with 2.5- to 5-mm section thickness and were evaluated for EMS. The diagnosis of EMS was made when there was a posterior ethmoidal cell occupying the superior part of the maxillary sinus while draining to the superior meatus. When EMS was diagnosed, the morphology of the septum between the and maxillary sinus, and width of the superior meatus, were noted. The EMS was found in 10 of 1450 (0.7%) patients. The coexisting anatomic variations were concha bullosa (50%), upper concha pneumatization (20%), maxillary sinus hypoplasia (20%), uncinate bulla (10%), hypertrophied inferior concha (10%), paradoxic middle concha (10%), and septate maxillary sinus (10%). There was no relation between EMS and sinus disease. The EMS is a rare anatomic variation and does not appear to be associated with sinusitis. The EMS is not a well-studied anatomic variation, and the literature is lacking adequate information about this anatomic variation. This study performed in a large series of patients will possibly contribute to better understanding of this particular anomaly. (orig.)

  18. An Investigation of How Clinicians use Anatomical Knowledge in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Investigation of How Clinicians use Anatomical Knowledge in Diagnostic Reasoning: A Grounded Theory Study of Clinicians in Zambia. ... observations, self-administered questionnaires from 168 respondents (140 doctors and 28 medical students at UTH), and unstructured interviews with doctors working in hospitals.

  19. Anatomical site predilections of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical site predilections of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: A report on 54 cases. OW Mwanda, C Whalen, CR Scot, M Lederman, J Orem, C Banura. Abstract. No Abstract Available East African Medical Journal August (Supplement) 2004: S90-S96.

  20. Motor perception and anatomical realism in Classical Greek art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoyles, J R

    1998-07-01

    The rise of anatomical realism in sculpture with the Classical Greeks puzzles art historians. Recently, it has been discovered that the motor cortex perceives motor actions. I argue that Classical artists discovered a new aesthetic based on using art to stimulate not just, as previously, the visual cortex, but also the motor one.

  1. CAVEman: Standardized Anatomical Context for Biomedical Data Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinsky, Andrei L.; Fanea, Elena; Trinh, Quang; Wat, Stephen; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Dong, Xiaoli; Shu, Xueling; Stromer, Julie N.; Hill, Jonathan W.; Edwards, Carol; Grosenick, Brenda; Yajima, Masumi; Sensen, Christoph W.

    2008-01-01

    The authors have created a software system called the CAVEman, for the visual integration and exploration of heterogeneous anatomical and biomedical data. The CAVEman can be applied for both education and research tasks. The main component of the system is a three-dimensional digital atlas of the adult male human anatomy, structured according to…

  2. Anatomical features of the sternum in a Kenyan population | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical features of the sternum in a Kenyan population. ... Eighty one dry adult sterna were studied at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sternal asymmetry was taken as displacement of the ... Further research is needed to correlate these findings. However, careful evaluation of chest ...

  3. Gross Anatomical Variations and Congenital Anomalies of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A wide range of Anatomical variations of surgical importance were noted among the Ugandan cadavers. In 5% of the cases, the common hepatic artery originated from the superior Mesenteric artery. The course of the cystic artery in 61.9% of the cases was anterior to the right hepatic duct, in 31% it passed anterior ...

  4. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  5. Beyond Anatomical Dolls: Professionals' Use of Other Play Therapy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.

    1992-01-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 201 Boston-area professionals who work with child victims of sexual abuse. Questions concerned use of anatomical dolls and other techniques and behavioral indicators of sexual abuse. Results indicated that mental health professionals used significantly more techniques than did law enforcement professionals.…

  6. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint. Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar a. , Fardos Ahmed El-Kalaa a. ,. El Sebai Farag Ali b. , Ali Ali Abd El-Karim c. , Nancy Mohamed El Sekily d,. * a Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of ...

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models.

  8. Environmental impact on morphological and anatomical structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological and anatomical structure of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from two specific locations in one town, depending on environmental conditions, were carried out: anthropogenic Ada Huja (polluted zone) and non anthropogenic Topcider park (unpolluted). Study included the diferences in the structure of leaves, ...

  9. The concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofbauer, M.; Muller, B. [=Bart; Murawski, C. D.; van Eck, C. F.; Fu, F. H.

    2014-01-01

    To describe the concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The PubMed/Medline database was searched using keywords pertaining to ACL reconstruction. Relevant articles were reviewed in order to summarize important concepts of individualized surgery in ACL

  10. An anatomically oriented breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Sami; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2011-01-01

    the breast cancer became visible to a radiologist. The coordinate system provides both the relative position and orientation information on the breast region from which the features are derived. In addition, the coordinate system can be used in temporal studies to pin-point anatomically equivalent locations...

  11. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...... to properly reveal the clinical value. The paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming tissue harmonic imaging....

  12. Comparison of ultrasound-guided versus anatomical landmark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Femoral vein cannulation may be required during major surgery in infants and children and may prove to be life saving under certain conditions. This study compared ultrasound (US)-guided cannulation of the femoral vein in infants with the traditional anatomical landmark-guided technique. Methods Eighty ...

  13. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was also determined. The morphology and anatomical structure of the salt gland varied according to the salinity degree. At low salinities, salt gland was small, thin and flat having many shallow canals, while ...

  14. 3 Variation in Leaf Anatomical Characters.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Dry and wet season studies of the leaf anatomy of ten plant species in the family Euphorbiaceae from three sites with different pollution levels in Southwestern Nigeria were carried out. This is with a view to establish the response of plant anatomical structures to air pollution. The species investigated were Alchornea laxiflora.

  15. Conventional trans‑tibial versus anatomic medial portal technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we aimed to determine if there is any difference between the clinical outcomes of two most commonly used drilling techniques; which are conventional trans‑tibial (TT) drilling of femoral tunnel and anatomic preparation of femoral tunnel through medial portal (MP), in patients who underwent ACL reconstruction.

  16. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Gunther von Hagens developed plastination as a technique of tissue preservation in 1977. He used a delicate method of forced impregnation with curable polymers like silicone, epoxy or polyester resins for preservation of anatomical specimens. With plastination, every part of a biological tissue is treated, preserving it ...

  17. Diet selection in a molluscivore shorebird across Western Europe: does it show short- or long-term intake rate-maximization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaintenne, Gwenael; van Gils, Jan A; Bocher, Pierrick; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    1. Studies of diet choice usually assume maximization of energy intake. The well-known 'contingency model' (CM) additionally assumes that foraging animals only spend time searching or handling prey. Despite considerable empirical support, there are many foraging contexts in which the CM fails, but such cases were considered exceptions rather than the rule. 2. For animals constrained by the rate at which food is digested, CM does not necessarily lead to maximal energy intake rates because the time for digestion is not part of the selection criteria. In the main model developed to explain diet choice under a digestive constraint, the 'digestive rate model' (DRM), time lost to digestive breaks is minimized so that energy intake over total time (searching, handling, digestive breaks) is maximized. 3. It is increasingly acknowledged that most animals may face digestive constraints as prey capture rates vary over time and as it would be a waste to carry around heavy digestive machinery that can rapidly process food under all circumstances: this is only needed in times of high demand, provided that enough food can be found. 4. In molluscivore shorebirds ingesting hard-shelled prey such as red knots (Calidris canutus), the predictions of DRM were held up so far, whereas those of CM were rejected. However, most tests were carried out under controlled experimental conditions. Red knots overwinter in coastal areas over much of Western Europe and we capitalized on this variation by comparing, during a single winter, observed diet composition with predictions of DRM, CM and a null model assuming no prey selection ('no-selection model', NSM). 5. The observed diets were best predicted by DRM followed by CM. NSM poorly predicted observed diet choice. Under the present conditions, diet choice based on DRM would on average have yielded an energy intake rate twice as large as one based on CM. By adjusting the size of their gizzard (held constant in the present simulations), red knots

  18. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: reducing anterior tibial subluxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bart; Duerr, Eric R H; van Dijk, C Niek; Fu, Freddie H

    2016-09-01

    To measure and compare the amount of anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) after anatomic ACL reconstruction for both acute and chronic ACL-deficient patients. Fifty-two patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated after primary, unilateral, anatomic ACL reconstruction. Post-operative true lateral radiographs were obtained of both knees with the patient in supine position and knees in full passive extension with heels on a standardized bolster. ATS was measured on the radiographs by two independent and blinded observers. ATS was calculated as the side-to-side difference in tibial position relative to the femur. An independent t test was used to compare ATS between those undergoing anatomic reconstruction for an acute versus chronic ACL injury. Chronic ACL deficiency was defined as more than 12 weeks from injury to surgery. Patients averaged 26.4 ± 11.5 years (mean ± SD) of age, 43.6 % were female, and 48.1 % suffered an injury of the left knee. There were 30 and 22 patients in the acute and chronic groups, respectively. The median duration from injury to reconstruction for the acute group was 5 versus 31 weeks for the chronic group. After anatomic ACL reconstruction, the mean ATS was 1.0 ± 2.1 mm. There was no statistical difference in ATS between the acute and chronic groups (1.2 ± 2.0 vs. 0.6 ± 2.3 mm, n.s.). Assessment of inter-tester reliability for radiographic evaluation of ATS revealed an excellent intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.894. Anatomic ACL reconstruction reduces ATS with a mean difference of 1.0 mm from the healthy contralateral limb. This study did not find a statistical difference in ATS between patients after anatomic ACL reconstruction in the acute or chronic phase. These observations suggest that anatomic ACL reconstruction, performed in either the acute or the chronic phase, approaches the normal AP relationship of the tibiofemoral joint. IV.

  19. Selective immunolesion of cholinergic neurons leads to long-term changes in 5-HT2A receptor levels in hippocampus and frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severino, Maurizio; Pedersen, Anja F; Trajkovska, Viktorija

    2007-01-01

    Although loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain is considered a key initial feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD), changes in other transmitter systems, including serotonin and 5-HT(2A) receptors, are also associated with early AD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether...... elimination of the cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain directly affects 5-HT(2A) receptor levels. For this purpose intraventricular injection of the selective immunotoxin 192 IgG-Saporin was given to rats in doses of either 2.5 or 5 microg. The rats were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4 and 20 weeks. 5-HT(2A......) protein levels were determined by western techniques in frontal cortex and hippocampus. A significant 70% downregulation in frontal cortex and a 100% upregulation in hippocampus of 5-HT(2A) receptor levels were observed 20 weeks after the cholinergic lesion when using the highest dose of 192 Ig...

  20. Short- and long-term temporal changes in soil concentrations of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) following single or multiple applications of sewage sludge to pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, S M; Kyle, C E; Ruffie, H; Calmettes, E; Osprey, M; Zhang, Z L; Hamilton, D; McKenzie, C

    2013-10-01

    Temporal changes in soil burdens of selected endocrine disrupting compounds were determined following application to pasture of either sewage sludge or inorganic fertilizer. Soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were not altered. Changes in concentrations of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and PBDEs 47 and 99 differed with season but concentrations remained elevated for more than three weeks after application, when grazing animals are normally excluded from pasture. It is concluded that single applications of sewage sludge can increase soil concentrations of some, but not all classes of EDCs, possibly to concentrations sufficient to exert biological effects when different chemicals act in combination, but patterns of change depend on season and soil temperature. Analysis of soil from pasture subjected to repeated sludge applications, over 13 years, provided preliminary evidence of greater increases in soil burdens of all of the EDC groups measured, including all of the PBDE congeners measured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.