WorldWideScience

Sample records for select preferred stimuli

  1. Perceiving, imaging, and preferring physiognomic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, M S

    1986-01-01

    Physiognomic color responses in perception, imagery, and affect were investigated. Maluma and taketa, nonsense stimuli defined by many investigators as physiognomic, were utilized as prototypical physiognomic stimuli, along with eight other stimuli of various sorts. In Experiment 1, 22 subjects matched the colors of the stimuli; in Experiment 2, 27 subjects reported their imagery to the stimuli; and in Experiment 3, 16 subjects gave their color preferences for the stimuli. The Munsell sets of colors were employed throughout. Significant differences between the physiognomic and other stimuli were found on the brightness and saturation of color matches, images, and preferences. Other differences (e.g., the latency of color images) were also present. Distinctions were also noted between the two physiognomic stimuli. These results support the priority of innate and perceptual processes in physiognomy over those of learning and memory, although some ambiguities still remain.

  2. Valuation of Go Stimuli or Devaluation of No-Go Stimuli? Evidence of an Increased Preference for Attended Go Stimuli Following a Go/No-Go Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuya; Sato, Nobuya

    2017-01-01

    Attentional inhibition that occurs during discrimination tasks leads to the negative evaluation of distractor stimuli. This phenomenon, known as the distractor devaluation effect also occurs when go/no-go tasks require response inhibition. However, it remains unclear whether there are interactions between attention and response controls when the distractor devaluation effect occurs. The aims of this study were to investigate whether attention to stimuli in the go/no-go task plays a facilitative role in distractor devaluation through response inhibition, and to clarify whether this effect reflects a decreased preference for no-go stimuli. Participants evaluated the preference for pictures before and after a go/no-go task. In Experiments 1 and 2, they made a go or no-go response depending on the category of pictures displayed (gummy candies or rice crackers), whereas in Experiment 3 they did on the basis digit category, even or odd numbers, superimposed on such pictures. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that the pictures presented as no-go stimuli in the preceding go/no-go task were evaluated as less positive than the pictures presented as go stimuli. This devaluation effect reflected an increased preference for the go stimuli but not a decreased preference for the no-go stimuli. Experiment 3 indicated that response inhibition did not affect the preference for the pictures that had not received attention in a preceding go/no-go task. These results suggest that although attention plays an important role in differential ratings for go and no-go stimuli, such differences, in fact, reflect the valuation of go stimuli.

  3. The impact of high- and low-preference stimuli on vocational and academic performances of youths with severe disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Richard B; Gibson, Lenwood; Galiatsatos, G Tracey

    2006-01-01

    Pictorial and tangible paired-stimulus preference assessments were compared with 4 adolescents with developmental disabilities. In the tangible assessment, two stimuli were placed in front of the participant on each trial; in the pictorial assessment, two line drawings were placed in front of the participant on each trial. Approach responses were recorded for each assessment. The assessments generated similar preference hierarchies for all participants. Reinforcer assessments confirmed that response rates were higher when access to high-preference items was available than when low-preference items were available. Implications for assessing preferences and selecting items to be used in training programs are discussed.

  4. Comparison of Verbal Preference Assessments in the Presence and Absence of the Actual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, David E.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Terlonge, Cindy; Goysovich, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Stimulus preference assessments for individuals with developmental disabilities typically involve offering choices among stimuli and providing immediate access to the chosen stimuli. Several researchers have explored the utility of presenting choices verbally, thereby obviating the need to present the choices in tangible form and deliver access to…

  5. Effects of test method and participant musical training on preference ratings of stimuli with different reverberation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Martin S; Vigeant, Michelle C

    2017-10-01

    Selecting an appropriate listening test design for concert hall research depends on several factors, including listening test method and participant critical-listening experience. Although expert listeners afford more reliable data, their perceptions may not be broadly representative. The present paper contains two studies that examined the validity and reliability of the data obtained from two listening test methods, a successive and a comparative method, and two types of participants, musicians and non-musicians. Participants rated their overall preference of auralizations generated from eight concert hall conditions with a range of reverberation times (0.0-7.2 s). Study 1, with 34 participants, assessed the two methods. The comparative method yielded similar results and reliability as the successive method. Additionally, the comparative method was rated as less difficult and more preferable. For study 2, an additional 37 participants rated the stimuli using the comparative method only. An analysis of variance of the responses from both studies revealed that musicians are better than non-musicians at discerning their preferences across stimuli. This result was confirmed with a k-means clustering analysis on the entire dataset that revealed five preference groups. Four groups exhibited clear preferences to the stimuli, while the fifth group, predominantly comprising non-musicians, demonstrated no clear preference.

  6. Teaching Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities to Access Preferred Stimuli with Multiple Microswitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gee May; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.

    2011-01-01

    We replicated and extended previous research on microswitch facilitated choice making by individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Following an assessment of stimulus preferences, we taught 6 adults with profound multiple disabilities to emit 2 different responses to activate highly preferred stimuli. All participants learnt to activate…

  7. Sour Taste preferences of children relate to preference of novel and intense stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Westerbeek, A.; Wolterink, S.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall

  8. Stress improves selective attention towards emotionally neutral left ear stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, M D; Woodruff, P W R

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the impact of psychological stress on visual selective attention has produced mixed results. The current paper describes two experiments which utilise a novel auditory oddball paradigm to test the impact of psychological stress on auditory selective attention. Participants had to report the location of emotionally-neutral auditory stimuli, while ignoring task-irrelevant changes in their content. The results of the first experiment, in which speech stimuli were presented, suggested that stress improves the ability to selectively attend to left, but not right ear stimuli. When this experiment was repeated using tonal stimuli the same result was evident, but only for female participants. Females were also found to experience greater levels of distraction in general across the two experiments. These findings support the goal-shielding theory which suggests that stress improves selective attention by reducing the attentional resources available to process task-irrelevant information. The study also demonstrates, for the first time, that this goal-shielding effect extends to auditory perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

    2012-02-01

    Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research.

  10. The use of preferred social stimuli as rewards for rhesus macaques in behavioural neuroscience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Gray

    Full Text Available Macaques are often motivated to perform in neuroscientific experiments by implementing fluid restriction protocols. Daily access to water is controlled and the monkeys are rewarded with droplets of fluid for performing correct trials in the laboratory. Although these protocols are widely used and highly effective, it is important from a 3Rs perspective to investigate refinements that may help to lessen the severity of the fluid restriction applied. We assessed the use of social stimuli (images of conspecifics as rewards for four rhesus macaques performing simple cognitive tasks. We found that individual preferences for images of male faces, female perinea and control stimuli could be identified in each monkey. However, using preferred images did not translate into effective motivators on a trial-by-trial basis: animals preferred fluid rewards, even when fluid restriction was relaxed. There was no difference in the monkeys' performance of a task when using greyscale versus colour images. Based on our findings, we cannot recommend the use of social stimuli, in this form, as a refinement to current fluid restriction protocols. We discuss the potential alternatives and possibilities for future research.

  11. Gender differences in associations of sexual and romantic stimuli: do young men really prefer sex over romance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2012-08-01

    Theory and research emphasize differences in men's and women's sexual and romantic attitudes, concluding that men have stronger preferences for sexual than romantic stimuli as compared to women. However, most of the research on gender differences have relied on self-reports, which are plagued by problems of social desirability bias. The current study assessed young men's and women's implicit attitudes toward sexual and romantic stimuli to test whether, in fact, men have a stronger preference for sexual over romantic stimuli compared to women. We also assessed associations between implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as sex role ideology and personality. College students (68 men and 114 women) completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that assessed strengths of associations of sexual and romantic stimuli to both pleasant and unpleasant conditions. Results revealed that both men and women more strongly associated romantic images to the pleasant condition than they associated the sexual images to the pleasant condition. However, as predicted, women had a stronger preference toward romantic versus sexual stimuli compared to men. Our study challenges a common assumption that men prefer sexual over romantic stimuli. The findings indicate that measures of implicit attitudes may tap preferences that are not apparent in studies relying on self-reported (explicit) attitudes.

  12. Auditory Preferences of Young Children with and without Hearing Loss for Meaningful Auditory-Visual Compound Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Sussman, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Experiment 1 examined modality preferences in children and adults with normal hearing to combined auditory-visual stimuli. Experiment 2 compared modality preferences in children using cochlear implants participating in an auditory emphasized therapy approach to the children with normal hearing from Experiment 1. A second objective in both…

  13. Chicks prefer to peck at insect-like elongated stimuli moving in a direction orthogonal to their longer axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous preferences towards possible prey have been little investigated using targets in motion. Preferences of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to peck at video-images of stimuli representing live insects moving along their longer body axis (i.e. "forwards") or along the shorter body axis (i.e. "sideways") were investigated. Chicks presented with both types of stimulus displayed a significant preference for pecking at stimuli moving sideways. This preference was already present on day 1 post-hatching, and it strengthened on day 6 for those chicks that had experienced pecking at live insects. Head angles used to fixate the stimuli prior to pecking were also analysed and were consistent (i.e. 30 degrees -35 degrees and 60 degrees -65 degrees ) with those reported for fixation of non-edible targets (larger stimuli at a distance). In a first control experiment the same video-presented stimuli were used but the insect's legs were removed to reduce flickering. In a second control experiment, paper-printed images of the whole insect were used. In both cases, the sideways direction of movement was clearly preferred. Overall, our data show that chicks have a spontaneous preference to peck at video-images resembling live insects moving along their shorter body axis. Sideways movement may constitute a crucial signal attracting chicks' attention and enhancing predatory responses possibly because of stronger stimulation of motion detectors.

  14. Discriminative stimuli that control instrumental tobacco-seeking by human smokers also command selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Dickinson, Anthony; Duka, Theodora

    2003-08-01

    Incentive salience theory states that acquired bias in selective attention for stimuli associated with tobacco-smoke reinforcement controls the selective performance of tobacco-seeking and tobacco-taking behaviour. To support this theory, we assessed whether a stimulus that had acquired control of a tobacco-seeking response in a discrimination procedure would command the focus of visual attention in a subsequent test phase. Smokers received discrimination training in which an instrumental key-press response was followed by tobacco-smoke reinforcement when one visual discriminative stimulus (S+) was present, but not when another stimulus (S-) was present. The skin conductance response to the S+ and S- assessed whether Pavlovian conditioning to the S+ had taken place. In a subsequent test phase, the S+ and S- were presented in the dot-probe task and the allocation of the focus of visual attention to these stimuli was measured. Participants learned to perform the instrumental tobacco-seeking response selectively in the presence of the S+ relative to the S-, and showed a greater skin conductance response to the S+ than the S-. In the subsequent test phase, participants allocated the focus of visual attention to the S+ in preference to the S-. Correlation analysis revealed that the visual attentional bias for the S+ was positively associated with the number of times the S+ had been paired with tobacco-smoke in training, the skin conductance response to the S+ and with subjective craving to smoke. Furthermore, increased exposure to tobacco-smoke in the natural environment was associated with reduced discrimination learning. These data demonstrate that discriminative stimuli that signal that tobacco-smoke reinforcement is available acquire the capacity to command selective attentional and elicit instrumental tobacco-seeking behaviour.

  15. Auditory preferences of young children with and without hearing loss for meaningful auditory-visual compound stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Sussman, Joan E

    2009-01-01

    Experiment 1 examined modality preferences in children and adults with normal hearing to combined auditory-visual stimuli. Experiment 2 compared modality preferences in children using cochlear implants participating in an auditory emphasized therapy approach to the children with normal hearing from Experiment 1. A second objective in both experiments was to evaluate the role of familiarity in these preferences. Participants were exposed to randomized blocks of photographs and sounds of ten familiar and ten unfamiliar animals in auditory-only, visual-only and auditory-visual trials. Results indicated an overall auditory preference in children, regardless of hearing status, and a visual preference in adults. Familiarity only affected modality preferences in adults who showed a strong visual preference to unfamiliar stimuli only. The similar degree of auditory responses in children with hearing loss to those from children with normal hearing is an original finding and lends support to an auditory emphasis for habilitation. Readers will be able to (1) Describe the pattern of modality preferences reported in young children without hearing loss; (2) Recognize that differences in communication mode may affect modality preferences in young children with hearing loss; and (3) Understand the role of familiarity in modality preferences in children with and without hearing loss.

  16. Alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol stimuli: automated processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, K M; Laberg, J C; Nordby, H; Hugdahl, K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol words in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. Alcoholic subjects (n = 23) and nonalcoholic control subjects (n = 23) identified the color of Stroop versions of alcohol, emotional, neutral and color words. Manual reaction times (RTs), skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Alcoholics showed overall longer RTs than controls while both groups were slower in responding to the incongruent color words than to the other words. Alcoholics showed longer RTs to both alcohol (1522.7 milliseconds [ms]) and emotional words (1523.7 ms) than to neutral words (1450.8 ms) which suggests that the content of these words interfered with the ability to attend to the color of the words. There was also a negative correlation (r = -.41) between RT and response accuracy to alcohol words for the alcoholics, reflecting that the longer time the alcoholics used to respond to the color of the alcohol words, the more incorrect their responses were. The alcoholics also showed significantly greater SCRs to alcohol words (0.16 microSiemens) than to any of the other words (ranging from 0.04-0.08 microSiemens), probably reflecting the emotional significance of the alcohol words. Finally, the alcoholics evidenced smaller HR acceleration to alcohol (1.9 delta bpm) compared to neutral (2.8 delta bpm), which could be related to difficulties alcoholics experience in terminating their attention to the alcohol words. These findings indicate that it is difficult for alcoholics to regulate their attention to alcohol stimuli, suggesting that alcoholics' processing of alcohol information is automated.

  17. Selecting sex: the effect of preferring sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese

    2011-11-01

    Son preference remains common in countries from East Asia through South Asia to the Middle East and North Africa. Where sex selective technology and abortion are readily available, such as in China, South Korea and India, this has led to a marked excess in male births. Worst excesses are seen in parts of rural China where there are 140 male births for every 100 female. This leads to large numbers of unmarriageable men. Concerns about the consequences centre around the propensity to aggression and violence of these men with increased levels of crime and antisocial behaviour, threatening societal stability and security. But recent studies do not support these assumptions, but rather suggest that these men are marginalised, lonely, withdrawn and prone to psychological problems. Measures to reduce sex selection should include enforcement of existing legislation on sex-selection, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of late abortion and gender imbalance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective processing of linguistic and pictorial food stimuli in females with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, Kjell Morten; Torkildsen, Øivind

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated subjects with eating disorders' selective attention to linguistic and pictorial representations of food stimuli in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. If subjects with eating disorders' attention really are biased by food stimuli, one would expect equally delayed color-naming latencies to food pictures as previous studies have found to food words. Twenty females with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or a combination of both) and 24 female controls identified the color of Stroop versions of linguistic and pictorial representations of color, food, emotional, and neutral stimuli. The eating disorder group was slower than the controls in identifying the color of all words (including the food words) and the pictures depicting food stimuli (but not any of the other pictures). The eating disorder group was also slower in identifying the color of both food and emotional than neutral stimuli, both for the linguistic and pictorial stimuli. These findings indicate that females with bulimia and anorexia nervosa's biased attention to food stimuli are not restricted to linguistic representations. The delayed responses to the emotional words and pictures suggest that processing of negative emotional stimuli, in addition to dysfunctional concerns about stimuli related to food and eating, is important in the maintenance of eating disorders.

  19. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  20. Clustering Words to Match Conditions: An Algorithm for Stimuli Selection in Factorial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Marc; Haro, Juan; Boada, Roger

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing refinement of language processing models and the new discoveries about which variables can modulate these processes, stimuli selection for experiments with a factorial design is becoming a tough task. Selecting sets of words that differ in one variable, while matching these same words into dozens of other confounding variables…

  1. Narcissism dimensions differentially moderate selective attention to evaluative stimuli in incarcerated offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance, and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct expressions of narcissistic defensiveness. The present study examined whether both dimensions exhibit a general defensive style marked by selective attention to evaluative stimuli or are differentially associated with selective attention to positive and negative information, respectively. Using a dot probe task consisting of valenced and neutral trait adjectives, we evaluated these hypotheses in a group of male offenders. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with attention biases for both positive and negative stimuli, though the dimension was further distinguished by disengagement difficulties and a greater recognition memory bias in response to negative words. Conversely, grandiose narcissism was associated with increased accuracy when attending to positive stimuli and directing attention away from negative stimuli. Overall, these findings suggest narcissistic individuals share motivated selective attention in response to evaluative stimuli, while simultaneously highlighting important phenotypic differences between grandiose and vulnerable dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Body image concern and selective attention to disgusting and non-self appearance-related stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onden-Lim, Melissa; Wu, Ray; Grisham, Jessica R

    2012-09-01

    Although selective attention to one's own appearance has been widely documented in studies of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), little is known about attentional bias toward non-self appearance-related stimuli in BDD. Furthermore, despite reports of heightened experience of disgust in BDD, it is unknown whether these individuals differentially attend to disgusting stimuli and whether disgust is important in processing of unattractive stimuli. We used a dot probe procedure to investigate the relationship between dysmorphic concern, a defining feature of BDD, and selective attention to faces, attractive, unattractive and disgusting images in a female heterosexual student population (N=92). At the long stimulus presentation (1000 ms), dysmorphic concern was positively associated with attention to faces in general and attractive appearance-related images. In contrast, at the short stimulus presentation (200 ms), there was a positive association between dysmorphic concern and disgusting images. Implications for theoretical models of BDD are discussed. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Exploring Visual Selective Attention towards Novel Stimuli in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah A. Chau; Nathan Herrmann; Moshe Eizenman; Jonathan Chung; Krista L. Lanctôt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with selective attention impairments, which could contribute to cognitive and functional deficits. Selective attention can be explored through examination of novelty preference. Aims: In this study, we quantified novelty preference in AD patients by measuring visual scanning behaviour using an eye tracking paradigm. Methods: Mild-to-moderate AD patients and elderly controls viewed slides containing novel and repeated images simultaneously. Th...

  4. Target Selection Models with Preference Variation Between Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Townsley, Michael; Birks, Daniel; Ruiter, Stijn; Bernasco, Wim; White, Gentry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study explores preference variation in location choice strategies of residential burglars. Applying a model of offender target selection that is grounded in assertions of the routine activity approach, rational choice perspective, crime pattern and social disorganization theories,

  5. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Prause

    Full Text Available Women's preferences for penis size may affect men's comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women's penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women's size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75 selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.

  6. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prause, Nicole; Park, Jaymie; Leung, Shannon; Miller, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Women's preferences for penis size may affect men's comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women's penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women's size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.

  7. Partnership Selection Involving Mixed Types of Uncertain Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partnership selection is an important issue in management science. This study proposes a general model based on mixed integer programming and goal-programming analytic hierarchy process (GP-AHP to solve partnership selection problems involving mixed types of uncertain or inconsistent preferences. The proposed approach is designed to deal with crisp, interval, step, fuzzy, or mixed comparison preferences, derive crisp priorities, and improve multiple solution problems. The degree of fulfillment of a decision maker’s preferences is also taken into account. The results show that the proposed approach keeps more solution ratios within the given preferred intervals and yields less deviation. In addition, the proposed approach can treat incomplete preference matrices with flexibility in reducing the number of pairwise comparisons required and can also be conveniently developed into a decision support system.

  8. Synergistic selection between ecological niche and mate preference primes diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughman, Janette W; Svanbäck, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The ecological niche and mate preferences have independently been shown to be important for the process of speciation. Here, we articulate a novel mechanism by which ecological niche use and mate preference can be linked to promote speciation. The degree to which individual niches are narrow and clustered affects the strength of divergent natural selection and population splitting. Similarly, the degree to which individual mate preferences are narrow and clustered affects the strength of divergent sexual selection and assortative mating between diverging forms. This novel perspective is inspired by the literature on ecological niches; it also explores mate preferences and how they may contribute to speciation. Unlike much comparative work, we do not search for evolutionary patterns using proxies for adaptation and sexual selection, but rather we elucidate how ideas from niche theory relate to mate preference, and how this relationship can foster speciation. Recognizing that individual and population niches are conceptually and ecologically linked to individual and population mate preference functions will significantly increase our understanding of rapid evolutionary diversification in nature. It has potential to help solve the difficult challenge of testing the role of sexual selection in the speciation process. We also identify ecological factors that are likely to affect individual niche and individual mate preference in synergistic ways and as a consequence to promote speciation. The ecological niche an individual occupies can directly affect its mate preference. Clusters of individuals with narrow, differentiated niches are likely to have narrow, differentiated mate preference functions. Our approach integrates ecological and sexual selection research to further our understanding of diversification processes. Such integration may be necessary for progress because these processes seem inextricably linked in the natural world. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution

  9. The effects of preferred natural stimuli on humans' affective states, physiological stress and mental health, and the potential implications for well-being in captive animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Misha; Mason, Georgia J

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to certain natural stimuli improves people's moods, reduces stress, enhances stress resilience, and promotes mental and physical health. Laboratory studies and real estate prices also reveal that humans prefer environments containing a broad range of natural stimuli. Potential mediators of these outcomes include: 1) therapeutic effects of specific natural products; 2) positive affective responses to stimuli that signalled safety and resources to our evolutionary ancestors; 3) attraction to environments that satisfy innate needs to explore and understand; and 4) ease of sensory processing, due to the stimuli's "evolutionary familiarity" and/or their fractal, self-repeating properties. These processes, and the benefits humans gain from natural stimuli, seem to be largely innate. They thus have strong implications for other species (including laboratory, farm and zoo animals living in environments devoid of natural stimuli), suggesting that they too may have nature-related "sensory needs". By promoting positive affect and stress resilience, preferred natural stimuli (including views, sounds and odours) could therefore potentially provide effective and efficient ways to improve captive animal well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rural Women\\'s Preference For Selected Programmes Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the rural women's preference for selected programmes of the National Special Programme for Food Security (NSPFS) in Imo State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of structured interview from 150 randomly selected women in the study area. Results from the study showed that respondents ...

  11. Do episodic migraineurs selectively attend to headache-related visual stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Michael J; Peck, Kelly R; Walters, A Brooke; Smitherman, Todd A

    2013-02-01

    To assess pain-related attentional biases among individuals with episodic migraine. Prior studies have examined whether chronic pain patients selectively attend to pain-related stimuli in the environment, but these studies have produced largely mixed findings and focused primarily on patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Limited research has implicated attentional biases among chronic headache patients, but no studies have been conducted among episodic migraineurs, who comprise the overwhelming majority of the migraine population. This was a case-control, experimental study. Three hundred and eight participants (mean age = 19.2 years [standard deviation = 3.3]; 69.5% female; 36.4% minority), consisting of 84 episodic migraineurs, diagnosed in accordance with International Classification of Headache Disorders (2(nd) edition) criteria using a structured diagnostic interview, and 224 non-migraine controls completed a computerized dot probe task to assess attentional bias toward headache-related pictorial stimuli. The task consisted of 192 trials and utilized 2 emotional-neutral stimulus pairing conditions (headache-neutral and happy-neutral). No within-group differences for reaction time latencies to headache vs happy conditions were found among those with episodic migraine or among the non-migraine controls. Migraine status was unrelated to attentional bias indices for both headache (F [1,306] = 0.56, P = .45) and happy facial stimuli (F [1,306] = 0.37, P = .54), indicating a lack of between-group differences. Lack of within- and between-group differences was confirmed with repeated measures analysis of variance. In light of the large sample size and prior pilot testing of presented images, results suggest that episodic migraineurs do not differentially attend to headache-related facial stimuli. Given modest evidence of attentional biases among chronic headache samples, these findings suggest potential differences in attentional

  12. Diminished Neural Processing of Aversive and Rewarding Stimuli During Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ciara; Mishor, Zevic; Cowen, Philip J.; Harmer, Catherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are popular medications for anxiety and depression, but their effectiveness, particularly in patients with prominent symptoms of loss of motivation and pleasure, has been questioned. There are few studies of the effect of SSRIs on neural reward mechanisms in humans. Methods We studied 45 healthy participants who were randomly allocated to receive the SSRI citalopram, the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine, or placebo for 7 days in a double-blind, parallel group design. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the neural response to rewarding (sight and/or flavor of chocolate) and aversive stimuli (sight of moldy strawberries and/or an unpleasant strawberry taste) on the final day of drug treatment. Results Citalopram reduced activation to the chocolate stimuli in the ventral striatum and the ventral medial/orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, reboxetine did not suppress ventral striatal activity and in fact increased neural responses within medial orbitofrontal cortex to reward. Citalopram also decreased neural responses to the aversive stimuli conditions in key “punishment” areas such as the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Reboxetine produced a similar, although weaker effect. Conclusions Our findings are the first to show that treatment with SSRIs can diminish the neural processing of both rewarding and aversive stimuli. The ability of SSRIs to decrease neural responses to reward might underlie the questioned efficacy of SSRIs in depressive conditions characterized by decreased motivation and anhedonia and could also account for the experience of emotional blunting described by some patients during SSRI treatment. PMID:20034615

  13. Cognitive Styles and Educational-Vocational Preferences and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipow, Samuel H.

    1969-01-01

    Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and other instruments administered to 365 students, both undecided and in various interest fields, revealed several differences in cognitive style. No differences regarding cognitive style variations and VPI high-point codes or ease of vocational selection were observed. (Author/CJ)

  14. The Emergence of Selective Attention through Probabilistic Associations between Stimuli and Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Simione

    Full Text Available In this paper we show how a multilayer neural network trained to master a context-dependent task in which the action co-varies with a certain stimulus in a first context and with a second stimulus in an alternative context exhibits selective attention, i.e. filtering out of irrelevant information. This effect is rather robust and it is observed in several variations of the experiment in which the characteristics of the network as well as of the training procedure have been varied. Our result demonstrates how the filtering out of irrelevant information can originate spontaneously as a consequence of the regularities present in context-dependent training set and therefore does not necessarily depend on specific architectural constraints. The post-evaluation of the network in an instructed-delay experimental scenario shows how the behaviour of the network is consistent with the data collected in neuropsychological studies. The analysis of the network at the end of the training process indicates how selective attention originates as a result of the effects caused by relevant and irrelevant stimuli mediated by context-dependent and context-independent bidirectional associations between stimuli and actions that are extracted by the network during the learning.

  15. Exploring Visual Selective Attention towards Novel Stimuli in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Chau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD is associated with selective attention impairments, which could contribute to cognitive and functional deficits. Selective attention can be explored through examination of novelty preference. Aims: In this study, we quantified novelty preference in AD patients by measuring visual scanning behaviour using an eye tracking paradigm. Methods: Mild-to-moderate AD patients and elderly controls viewed slides containing novel and repeated images simultaneously. The outcome measure was time spent on specific images, with novelty preference defined by greater relative fixation time (RFT on novel versus repeated images. Cognitive status (Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination, SMMSE and attention (Digit Span, DS were also measured. Results: AD patients (age 79.2 ± 6.7 years, SMMSE 22.2 ± 4.0, n = 41 and controls (age 76.2 ± 6.4 years, SMMSE 28.1 ± 2.0, n = 24 were similar in age, education and sex. Compared with controls, AD patients had lower RFT on novel than on repeated images (F1,63 = 11.18, p = 0.001. Further, reduced RFT was associated with lower scores on SMMSE (r63 = 0.288, p = 0.020 and DS (r63 = 0.269, p = 0.030. Within individuals, novelty preference was detected in 92.3% of patients and in 100% of controls. Conclusion: These findings suggest that novelty preference, measured by visual scanning behaviour, can differentiate cognitively healthy and impaired people and may offer a nonverbal, less cognitively demanding method of assessing selective attention.

  16. Exploring Visual Selective Attention towards Novel Stimuli in Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Sarah A; Herrmann, Nathan; Eizenman, Moshe; Chung, Jonathan; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with selective attention impairments, which could contribute to cognitive and functional deficits. Selective attention can be explored through examination of novelty preference. In this study, we quantified novelty preference in AD patients by measuring visual scanning behaviour using an eye tracking paradigm. Mild-to-moderate AD patients and elderly controls viewed slides containing novel and repeated images simultaneously. The outcome measure was time spent on specific images, with novelty preference defined by greater relative fixation time (RFT) on novel versus repeated images. Cognitive status (Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination, SMMSE) and attention (Digit Span, DS) were also measured. AD patients (age 79.2 ± 6.7 years, SMMSE 22.2 ± 4.0, n = 41) and controls (age 76.2 ± 6.4 years, SMMSE 28.1 ± 2.0, n = 24) were similar in age, education and sex. Compared with controls, AD patients had lower RFT on novel than on repeated images (F1,63 = 11.18, p = 0.001). Further, reduced RFT was associated with lower scores on SMMSE (r63 = 0.288, p = 0.020) and DS (r63 = 0.269, p = 0.030). Within individuals, novelty preference was detected in 92.3% of patients and in 100% of controls. These findings suggest that novelty preference, measured by visual scanning behaviour, can differentiate cognitively healthy and impaired people and may offer a nonverbal, less cognitively demanding method of assessing selective attention.

  17. 24 CFR 1000.120 - May a recipient use Indian preference or tribal preference in selecting families for housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a recipient use Indian preference or tribal preference in selecting families for housing assistance? 1000.120 Section 1000.120... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.120 May a recipient use Indian preference...

  18. The selective processing of emotional visual stimuli while detecting auditory targets: an ERP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T; Stockburger, Jessica; Bublatzky, Florian; Junghöfer, Markus; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O

    2008-09-16

    Event-related potential studies revealed an early posterior negativity (EPN) for emotional compared to neutral pictures. Exploring the emotion-attention relationship, a previous study observed that a primary visual discrimination task interfered with the emotional modulation of the EPN component. To specify the locus of interference, the present study assessed the fate of selective visual emotion processing while attention is directed towards the auditory modality. While simply viewing a rapid and continuous stream of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures in one experimental condition, processing demands of a concurrent auditory target discrimination task were systematically varied in three further experimental conditions. Participants successfully performed the auditory task as revealed by behavioral performance and selected event-related potential components. Replicating previous results, emotional pictures were associated with a larger posterior negativity compared to neutral pictures. Of main interest, increasing demands of the auditory task did not modulate the selective processing of emotional visual stimuli. With regard to the locus of interference, selective emotion processing as indexed by the EPN does not seem to reflect shared processing resources of visual and auditory modality.

  19. The Effects of Noncontingent Delivery of High- and Low-Preference Stimuli on Attention-Maintained Destructive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W.; O'Connor, Julia T.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Gotjen, Deidre L.

    2000-01-01

    An adolescent with severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy who displayed attention-maintained destructive behavior was exposed to noncontingent reinforcer delivery (NCR) with a high-preference or a low-preference stimulus while reinforcement for destructive behavior with attention remained in effect. NCR without extinction was effective only…

  20. Neural signals of selective attention are modulated by subjective preferences and buying decisions in a virtual shopping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Nobuhiko; Mushtaq, Faisal; Shee, Dexter; Lim, Xue Li; Mortazavi, Matin; Watabe, Motoki; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether well-known neural markers of selective attention to motivationally-relevant stimuli were modulated by variations in subjective preference towards consumer goods in a virtual shopping task. Specifically, participants viewed and rated pictures of various goods on the extent to which they wanted each item, which they could potentially purchase afterwards. Using the event-related potentials (ERP) method, we found that variations in subjective preferences for consumer goods strongly modulated positive slow waves (PSW) from 800 to 3000 milliseconds after stimulus onset. We also found that subjective preferences modulated the N200 and the late positive potential (LPP). In addition, we found that both PSW and LPP were modulated by subsequent buying decisions. Overall, these findings show that well-known brain event-related potentials reflecting selective attention processes can reliably index preferences to consumer goods in a shopping environment. Based on a large body of previous research, we suggest that early ERPs (e.g. the N200) to consumer goods could be indicative of preferences driven by unconditional and automatic processes, whereas later ERPs such as the LPP and the PSW could reflect preferences built upon more elaborative and conscious cognitive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective attention to affective value alters how the brain processes olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian; Margot, Christian; da Silva, Maria A A P; Velazco, Maria Ines

    2008-10-01

    How does selective attention to affect influence sensory processing? In a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation, when subjects were instructed to remember and rate the pleasantness of a jasmine odor, activations were greater in the medial orbito-frontal and pregenual cingulate cortex than when subjects were instructed to remember and rate the intensity of the odor. When the subjects were instructed to remember and rate the intensity, activations were greater in the inferior frontal gyrus. These top-down effects occurred not only during odor delivery but started in a preparation period after the instruction before odor delivery, and continued after termination of the odor in a short-term memory period. Thus, depending on the context in which odors are presented and whether affect is relevant, the brain prepares itself, responds to, and remembers an odor differently. These findings show that when attention is paid to affective value, the brain systems engaged to prepare for, represent, and remember a sensory stimulus are different from those engaged when attention is directed to the physical properties of a stimulus such as its intensity. This differential biasing of brain regions engaged in processing a sensory stimulus depending on whether the cognitive demand is for affect-related versus more sensory-related processing may be an important aspect of cognition and attention. This has many implications for understanding the effects not only of olfactory but also of other sensory stimuli.

  2. Extinction of Over-Selected Stimuli Causes Emergence of Under-Selected Cues in Higher-Functioning Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Broomfield, Laura; McHugh, Louise; McCausland, Aisling; Leader, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether over-selectivity is the product of a post-acquisition performance deficit, rather than an attention problem. In both experiments, children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder were presented with a trial-and-error discrimination task using two, two-element stimuli and over-selected in both studies. After behavioral…

  3. Teaching children with autism spectrum disorders to mand for the removal of stimuli that prevent access to preferred items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingsburg, M Alice; Powell, Nicole M; Bowen, Crystal N

    2013-01-01

    Mand training is often a primary focus in early language instruction and typically includes mands that are positively reinforced. However, mands maintained by negative reinforcement are also important skills to teach. These include mands to escape aversive demands or unwanted items. Another type of negatively reinforced mand important to teach involves the removal of a stimulus that prevents access to a preferred activity. We taught 5 participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders to mand for the removal of a stimulus in order to access a preferred item that had been blocked. An evaluation was conducted to determine if participants responded differentially when the establishing operations for the preferred item were present versus absent. All participants learned to mand for the removal of the stimulus exclusively under conditions when the establishing operation was present.

  4. Attractiveness of food and avoidance from contamination as conflicting stimuli to habitat selection by fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Rodríguez, Elizabeth N V; Salvatierra, David; Cedeño-Macias, Luis A; Vera-Vera, Victoria C; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Habitat selection by fish is the outcome of a choice between different stimuli. Typically, the presence of food tends to attract organisms, while contamination triggers an avoidance response to prevent toxic effects. Given that both food and contaminants are not homogeneously distributed in the environment and that food can be available in contaminated zones, a key question has been put forward in the present study: does a higher availability of food in contaminated areas interfere in the avoidance response to contaminants regardless of the contamination level? Tilapia fry (Oreochromis sp.; 2.5-3.0 cm and 0.5-0.8 g) were exposed to two different effluent samples, diluted along a free-choice, non-forced exposure system simulating a contamination gradient. Initially, avoidance to the effluents was checked during a one hour exposure. Afterwards, food was added to the system so that the availability of food increased with the increase in the level of contamination, and the avoidance response to contamination was checked during another hour. Results clearly showed a concentration-dependent avoidance response for both effluents during the first hour (i.e., with no food). However, in presence of the food, the avoidance pattern was altered: organisms were propelled to intermittently move towards contaminated areas where food availability was higher. The incursions were taken regardless of the potential risk linked to the toxic effects. In conclusion, even when the risk of toxicity was imminent, tilapia fry were more intensively stimulated by the attractiveness of the food than by repulsion to the contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Re-Emergence of Under-Selected Stimuli, after the Extinction of Over-Selected Stimuli in an Automated Match to Samples Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomfield, Laura; McHugh, Louise; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    Stimulus over-selectivity occurs when one of potentially many aspects of the environment comes to control behaviour. In two experiments, adults with no developmental disabilities, were trained and tested in an automated match to samples (MTS) paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants completed two conditions, in one of which the over-selected…

  6. Designer's approach for scene selection in tests of preference and restoration along a continuum of natural to manmade environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, MaryCarol R.; Askarinejad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that the experience of nature produces an array of positive benefits to mental well-being. Much less is known about the specific attributes of green space which produce these effects. In the absence of translational research that links theory with application, it is challenging to design urban green space for its greatest restorative potential. This translational research provides a method for identifying which specific physical attributes of an environmental setting are most likely to influence preference and restoration responses. Attribute identification was based on a triangulation process invoking environmental psychology and aesthetics theories, principles of design founded in mathematics and aesthetics, and empirical research on the role of specific physical attributes of the environment in preference or restoration responses. From this integration emerged a list of physical attributes defining aspects of spatial structure and environmental content found to be most relevant to the perceptions involved with preference and restoration. The physical attribute list offers a starting point for deciphering which scene stimuli dominate or collaborate in preference and restoration responses. To support this, functional definitions and metrics—efficient methods for attribute quantification are presented. Use of these research products and the process for defining place-based metrics can provide (a) greater control in the selection and interpretation of the scenes/images used in tests of preference and restoration and (b) an expanded evidence base for well-being designers of the built environment. PMID:26347691

  7. Evaluating the sustainable mining contractor selection problems: An imprecise last aggregation preference selection index method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Panahi Borujeni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity surrounding decision-making situations has made it inevitable for practitioners to apply ideas from a group of experts or decision makers (DMs instead of individuals. In a large proportion of recent studies, not enough attention has been paid to considering uncertainty in practical ways. In this paper, a hesitant fuzzy preference selection index (HFPSI method is proposed based on a new soft computing approach with risk preferences of DMs to deal with imprecise multi-criteria decision-making problems. Meanwhile, qualitative assessing criteria are considered in the process of the proposed method to help the DMs by providing suitable expressions of membership degrees for an element under a set. Moreover, the best alternative is selected based on considering the concepts of preference relation and hesitant fuzzy sets, simultaneously. Therefore, DMs' weights are determined according to the proposed hesitant fuzzy compromise solution technique to prevent judgment errors. Moreover, the proposed method has been extended based on the last aggregation method by aggregating the DMs' opinions during the last stage to avoid data loss. In this respect, a real case study about the mining contractor selection problem is provided to represent the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed HFPSI method in practice. Then, a comparative analysis is performed to show the feasibility of the presented approach. Finally, sensitivity analysis is carried out to show the effect of considering the DMs' weights and last aggregation approach in a dispersion of the alternatives’ ranking values.

  8. Selective Recall and Information Use in Consumer Preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Costley, Carolyn L; Brucks, Merrie

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between consumers' memory and use of information in judging brand preferences. The authors used ads to test hypotheses about how pictorial and verbal presentations of previously encountered information and the content of subsequently encountered information affect recall and information use in shaping brand preferences. Even when subjects more easily recalled.pictured attributes than verbally described attributes, this picture superiority effect did not in...

  9. Patients’ preferences for selection of endpoints in cardiovascular clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Chow

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To reduce the duration and overall costs of cardiovascular trials, use of the combined endpoints in trial design has become commonplace. Though this methodology may serve the needs of investigators and trial sponsors, the preferences of patients or potential trial subjects in the trial design process has not been studied. Objective: To determine the preferences of patients in the design of cardiovascular trials. Design: Participants were surveyed in a pilot study regarding preferences among various single endpoints commonly used in cardiovascular trials, preference for single vs. composite endpoints, and the likelihood of compliance with a heart medication if patients similar to them participated in the trial design process. Participants: One hundred adult English-speaking patients, 38% male, from a primary care ambulatory practice located in an urban setting. Key results: Among single endpoints, participants rated heart attack as significantly more important than death from other causes (4.53 vs. 3.69, p=0.004 on a scale of 1–6. Death from heart disease was rated as significantly more important than chest pain (4.73 vs. 2.47, p<0.001, angioplasty/PCI/CABG (4.73 vs. 2.43, p<0.001, and stroke (4.73 vs. 2.43, p<0.001. Participants also expressed a slight preference for combined endpoints over single endpoint (43% vs. 57%, incorporation of the opinions of the study patient population into the design of trials (48% vs. 41% for researchers, and a greater likelihood of medication compliance if patient preferences were considered during trial design (67% indicated a significant to major effect. Conclusions: Patients are able to make judgments and express preferences regarding trial design. They prefer that the opinions of the study population rather than the general population be incorporated into the design of the study. This novel approach to study design would not only incorporate patient preferences into medical decision making, but

  10. Selective Attention to Visual Stimuli Using Auditory Distractors Is Altered in Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Knock-Out Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Jorratt, Pascal; Aedo, Cristian; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Delano, Paul H

    2016-07-06

    During selective attention, subjects voluntarily focus their cognitive resources on a specific stimulus while ignoring others. Top-down filtering of peripheral sensory responses by higher structures of the brain has been proposed as one of the mechanisms responsible for selective attention. A prerequisite to accomplish top-down modulation of the activity of peripheral structures is the presence of corticofugal pathways. The mammalian auditory efferent system is a unique neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through the olivocochlear bundle, and it has been proposed to function as a top-down filter of peripheral auditory responses during attention to cross-modal stimuli. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of the involvement of olivocochlear neurons in selective attention paradigms. Here, we trained wild-type and α-9 nicotinic receptor subunit knock-out (KO) mice, which lack cholinergic transmission between medial olivocochlear neurons and outer hair cells, in a two-choice visual discrimination task and studied the behavioral consequences of adding different types of auditory distractors. In addition, we evaluated the effects of contralateral noise on auditory nerve responses as a measure of the individual strength of the olivocochlear reflex. We demonstrate that KO mice have a reduced olivocochlear reflex strength and perform poorly in a visual selective attention paradigm. These results confirm that an intact medial olivocochlear transmission aids in ignoring auditory distraction during selective attention to visual stimuli. The auditory efferent system is a neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through the olivocochlear system. It has been proposed to function as a top-down filter of peripheral auditory responses during attention to cross-modal stimuli. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of the involvement of olivocochlear

  11. A preference for mathematical processing outweighs the selectivity for Arabic numbers in the inferior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotheer, Mareike; Jeska, Brianna; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2018-03-28

    A region in the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), referred to as the number form area (NFA, here ITG-numbers) has been implicated in the visual processing of Arabic numbers. However, it is unknown if this region is specifically involved in the visual encoding of Arabic numbers per se or in mathematical processing more broadly. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during experiments that systematically vary tasks and stimuli, we find that mathematical processing, not preference to Arabic numbers, consistently drives both mean and distributed responses in the posterior ITG. While we replicated findings of higher responses in ITG-numbers to numbers than other visual stimuli during a 1-back task, this preference to numbers was abolished when participants engaged in mathematical processing. In contrast, an ITG region (ITG-math) that showed higher responses during an adding task vs. other tasks maintained this preference for mathematical processing across a wide range of stimuli including numbers, number/letter morphs, hands, and dice. Analysis of distributed responses across an anatomically-defined posterior ITG expanse further revealed that mathematical task but not Arabic number form can be successfully and consistently decoded from these distributed responses. Together, our findings suggest that the function of neuronal regions in the posterior ITG goes beyond the specific visual processing of Arabic numbers. We hypothesize that they ascribe numerical content to the visual input, irrespective of the format of the stimulus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of inter- and intramodal selective attention to non-spatial visual stimuli: An event-related potential analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M.B.; Kok, A.; van der Schoot, M.

    1998-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to trains of rapidly presented auditory and visual stimuli. ERPs in conditions in which Ss attended to different features of visual stimuli were compared with ERPs to the same type of stimuli when Ss attended to different features of auditory stimuli,

  13. 24 CFR 960.407 - Selection preference for mixed population developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... population developments. 960.407 Section 960.407 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Elderly Families and Disabled Families in Mixed Population Projects § 960.407 Selection preference for mixed population developments. (a) The PHA must give preference to elderly families and disabled...

  14. Evaluating selected demographic factors related to consumer preferences for furniture from commercial and from underutilized species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    This technical note describes consumer preferences within selected demographic categories in two major Pacific Northwest markets for six domestic wood species. These woods were considered for construction of four furniture pieces. Chi-square tests were performed to determine species preferences based on gender, age, and income. Age and income were statistically...

  15. Food selection preference of different ages and sizes of black tiger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it was found that the food selection preference of P. monodon is dependent on the availability of food items in the pond bottom. The tendency to prefer natural food by shrimps was observed when the food was available. The benthic organisms declined at the end of the culture period indicating that the culture ...

  16. Evaluating selected demographic factors related to consumer preferences for furniture from commercial and from underutilized species

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    This technical note describes consumer preferences within selected demographic categories in two major Pacific Northwest markets for six domestic wood species. These woods were considered for construction of four furniture pieces. Chi-square tests were performed to determine species preferences based on gender, age, and income. Age and income were statistically...

  17. Age Differences in Selective Memory of Goal-Relevant Stimuli Under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Kelly A; Clewett, David; Huang, Ringo; Mather, Mara

    2018-02-01

    When faced with threat, people often selectively focus on and remember the most pertinent information while simultaneously ignoring any irrelevant information. Filtering distractors under arousal requires inhibitory mechanisms, which take time to recruit and often decline in older age. Despite the adaptive nature of this ability, relatively little research has examined how both threat and time spent preparing these inhibitory mechanisms affect selective memory for goal-relevant information across the life span. In this study, 32 younger and 31 older adults were asked to encode task-relevant scenes, while ignoring transparent task-irrelevant objects superimposed onto them. Threat levels were increased on some trials by threatening participants with monetary deductions if they later forgot scenes that followed threat cues. We also varied the time between threat induction and a to-be-encoded scene (i.e., 2 s, 4 s, 6 s) to determine whether both threat and timing effects on memory selectivity differ by age. We found that age differences in memory selectivity only emerged after participants spent a long time (i.e., 6 s) preparing for selective encoding. Critically, this time-dependent age difference occurred under threatening, but not neutral, conditions. Under threat, longer preparation time led to enhanced memory for task-relevant scenes and greater memory suppression of task-irrelevant objects in younger adults. In contrast, increased preparation time after threat induction had no effect on older adults' scene memory and actually worsened memory suppression of task-irrelevant objects. These findings suggest that increased time to prepare top-down encoding processes benefits younger, but not older, adults' selective memory for goal-relevant information under threat. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Selective Attention to Emotional Stimuli: What IQ and Openness Do, and Emotional Intelligence Does Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Marina; Antonakis, John

    2012-01-01

    We examined how general intelligence, personality, and emotional intelligence--measured as an ability using the MSCEIT--predicted performance on a selective-attention task requiring participants to ignore distracting emotion information. We used a visual prime in which participants saw a pair of faces depicting emotions; their task was to focus on…

  19. The selective processing of emotional visual stimuli while detecting auditory targets : An ERP analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schupp, Harald Thomas; Stockburger, Jessica; Bublatzky, Florian; Junghöfer, Markus; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.

    2008-01-01

    Event-related potential studies revealed an early posterior negativity (EPN) for emotional compared to neutral pictures. Exploring the emotion-attention relationship, a previous study observed that a primary visual discrimination task interfered with the emotional modulation of the EPN component. To specify the locus of interference, the present study assessed the fate of selective visual emotion processing while attention is directed towards the auditory modality. While simply viewing a rapi...

  20. A Group Decision Framework with Intuitionistic Preference Relations and Its Application to Low Carbon Supplier Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiayu; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2016-09-19

    This article develops a group decision framework with intuitionistic preference relations. An approach is first devised to rectify an inconsistent intuitionistic preference relation to derive an additive consistent one. A new aggregation operator, the so-called induced intuitionistic ordered weighted averaging (IIOWA) operator, is proposed to aggregate individual intuitionistic fuzzy judgments. By using the mean absolute deviation between the original and rectified intuitionistic preference relations as an order inducing variable, the rectified consistent intuitionistic preference relations are aggregated into a collective preference relation. This treatment is presumably able to assign different weights to different decision-makers' judgments based on the quality of their inputs (in terms of consistency of their original judgments). A solution procedure is then developed for tackling group decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. A low carbon supplier selection case study is developed to illustrate how to apply the proposed decision model in practice.

  1. Evaluation of induced and evoked changes in EEG during selective attention to verbal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horki, P; Bauernfeind, G; Schippinger, W; Pichler, G; Müller-Putz, G R

    2016-09-01

    Two challenges need to be addressed before bringing non-motor mental tasks for brain-computer interface (BCI) control to persons in a minimally conscious state (MCS), who can be behaviorally unresponsive even when proven to be consciously aware: first, keeping the cognitive demands as low as possible so that they could be fulfilled by persons with MCS. Second, increasing the control of experimental protocol (i.e. type and timing of the task performance). The goal of this study is twofold: first goal is to develop an experimental paradigm that can facilitate the performance of brain-teasers (e.g. mental subtraction and word generation) on the one hand, and can increase the control of experimental protocol on the other hand. The second goal of this study is to exploit the similar findings for mentally attending to someone else's verbal performance of brain-teaser tasks and self-performing the same tasks to setup an online BCI, and to compare it in healthy participants to the current "state-of-the-art" motor imagery (MI, sports). The response accuracies for the best performing healthy participants indicate that selective attention to verbal performance of mental subtraction (SUB) is a viable alternative to the MI. Time-frequency analysis of the SUB task in one participant with MCS did not reveal any significant (pselective attention task (i.e. mentally attending to someone else's verbal performance of mental subtraction) can modulate both induced and evoked changes in EEG, and be used for yes/no communication in an auditory scanning paradigm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioural genetics: why eugenic selection is preferable to enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian; Hemsley, Melanie; Newson, Ainsley; Foddy, Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Criminal behaviour is but one behavioural tendency for which a genetic influence has been suggested. Whilst this research certainly raises difficult ethical questions and is subject to scientific criticism, one recent research project suggests that for some families, criminal tendency might be predicted by genetics. In this paper, supposing this research is valid, we consider whether intervening in the criminal tendency of future children is ethically justifiable. We argue that, if avoidance of harm is a paramount consideration, such an intervention is acceptable when genetic selection is employed instead of genetic enhancement. Moreover, other moral problems in avoiding having children with a tendency to criminal behaviour, such as the prospect of social discrimination, can also be overcome.

  3. Venture capital and private equity investment preferences in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dziekoński

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources of capital to finance companies in the SME sector is one of the basic conditions for the functioning and development of enterprises, especially in the early phase of their development. Increasingly popular is the use of capital market instruments, Private Equity, Venture Capital, Business Angels or Mezzanine. Funding of this kind can finance risky investments in return for a higher expected rate of return on capital. Access to financial resources and the conditions under which entrepreneurs can use them can determine the introduction of new technology, new products and services, expand distribution channels, implement changes that may lead to the growth in competitiveness and above all, innovation, thus the growth of the company. The paper presents results of statistical analysis of the venture capital and private equity funds investment strategies in selected countries. As a result investment profiles are created.

  4. Vocational Preferences and College Expectations: An Extension of Holland's Principle of Self-Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Holland's theory of vocational preferences provides a powerful framework for studying students' college experiences. A basic proposition of Holland's theory is that individuals actively seek out and select environments that are congruent with their personality types. Although studies consistently support the self-selection proposition, they have…

  5. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  6. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Conroy-Beam

    Full Text Available Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294 we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection.

  7. Elements of Parental Choice: The Evolution of Parental Preferences in Relation to In-Law Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of modern post-industrial societies, parents have primarily been in control of the mating decisions of their offspring. The selection of in-laws has important fitness consequences for parents. It is hypothesized, therefore, that parents have evolved specific preferences that enable them to select in-laws that will maximize their inclusive fitness. To test this hypothesis, data from 297 parents were collected. It is found that parents place differential emphasis on different in-law traits and that their preferences vary according to the sex of the in-law. In addition, parents are in agreement when they are selecting an in-law and their preferences are not contingent upon their sex.

  8. A Preference Model for Supplier Selection Based on Hesitant Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhexuan Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The supplier selection problem is a widespread concern in the modern commercial economy. Ranking suppliers involves many factors and poses significant difficulties for decision makers. Supplier selection is a multi-criteria and multi-objective problem, which leads to decision makers forming their own preferences. In addition, there are both quantifiable and non-quantifiable attributes related to their preferences. To solve this problem, this paper presents a preference model based on hesitant fuzzy sets (HFS to select suppliers. The cost and service quality of suppliers are the main considerations in the proposed model. HFS with interactive and multi-criteria decision making are used to evaluate the non-quantifiable attributes of service quality, which include competitive display, qualification ability, suitability and competitiveness of solutions, and relational fitness and dynamics. Finally, a numerical example of supplier selection for a high-end equipment manufacturer is provided to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model. The preferences of a decision maker are then analyzed by altering preference parameters.

  9. Effects of perceptual load and socially meaningful stimuli on crossmodal selective attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder and neurotypical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Ian; Ragless, Liam; O'Hora, Denis

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined whether increasing visual perceptual load differentially affected both Socially Meaningful and Non-socially Meaningful auditory stimulus awareness in neurotypical (NT, n = 59) adults and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 57) adults. On a target trial, an unexpected critical auditory stimulus (CAS), either a Non-socially Meaningful ('beep' sound) or Socially Meaningful ('hi') stimulus, was played concurrently with the presentation of the visual task. Under conditions of low visual perceptual load both NT and ASD samples reliably noticed the CAS at similar rates (77-81%), whether the CAS was Socially Meaningful or Non-socially Meaningful. However, during high visual perceptual load NT and ASD participants reliably noticed the meaningful CAS (NT = 71%, ASD = 67%), but NT participants were unlikely to notice the Non-meaningful CAS (20%), whereas ASD participants reliably noticed it (80%), suggesting an inability to engage selective attention to ignore non-salient irrelevant distractor stimuli in ASD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PREFACE: Stimuli Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Hans J.

    2011-01-01

    on the theory of maximal efficiency for solar cells, not really a topic regarding coherent radiation [9]. Once, however, a discussion evolved during one of those nearly dreaded hamburger lunches with Shockley at Kirk's charcoal restaurant on El Camino Real in Mountain View. Those frugal lunches ended with a demanding one-on-one interrogation, stricter and tougher than any doctoral oral examination. 'What, you do not know of Einstein's A and B coefficients?' Next afternoon I dutifully looked them up in the Stanford physics library. My first, rather indirect contacts with semiconductor heterojunctions occurred in this former apricot barn of Shockley's. Improving junction transistors required a maximum of the emitter efficiency. The emitter-to-base junction should carry only a forward current, no particles should flow from base to emitter [10]. This requirement can be met with a heterojunction: some other semiconductor material covering the silicon. Shockley had already contemplated this possibility while still at Bell Laboratories [11]. One day, a physicist by the name of Herbert Krömer visited us. This young man had also studied at Göttingen, especially with the memorable theoretician Richard Becker, whom we all admired. Krömer had in Princeton contributed to the theoretical understanding [12] of such wide-gap emitter/base junctions, and Shockley urgently wanted to hire him. But Herb preferred to join Varian Associates, just up the road in Palo Alto. Later, it was my great pleasure to attend the Nobel Festivities for Herb and Zhores Alferov in Stockholm. In the early sixties, I became a Member of Technical Staff at the Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. Now, compound semiconductors, such as gallium arsenide, had to attract my interest. By the time of the mid-sixties, helium/neon-lasers were quite the vogue; Bell Labs actually established a little workshop with a production line to fabricate them and spread them throughout the departments. 'The solution

  11. Selective attention to spatial and non-spatial visual stimuli is affected differentially by age: Effects on event-related brain potentials and performance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, Albert; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2006-01-01

    To assess selective attention processes in young and old adults, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures were recorded. Streams of visual stimuli were presented from left or right locations (Experiment 1) or from a central location and comprising two different spatial frequencies

  12. Natural selection on thermal preference, critical thermal maxima and locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anthony L; Miles, Donald B

    2017-08-16

    Climate change is resulting in a radical transformation of the thermal quality of habitats across the globe. Whereas species have altered their distributions to cope with changing environments, the evidence for adaptation in response to rising temperatures is limited. However, to determine the potential of adaptation in response to thermal variation, we need estimates of the magnitude and direction of natural selection on traits that are assumed to increase persistence in warmer environments. Most inferences regarding physiological adaptation are based on interspecific analyses, and those of selection on thermal traits are scarce. Here, we estimate natural selection on major thermal traits used to assess the vulnerability of ectothermic organisms to altered thermal niches. We detected significant directional selection favouring lizards with higher thermal preferences and faster sprint performance at their optimal temperature. Our analyses also revealed correlational selection between thermal preference and critical thermal maxima, where individuals that preferred warmer body temperatures with cooler critical thermal maxima were favoured by selection. Recent published estimates of heritability for thermal traits suggest that, in concert with the strong selective pressures we demonstrate here, evolutionary adaptation may promote long-term persistence of ectotherms in altered thermal environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Characterization of habitat preferences for selected wildlife species in encinal savannas of the Southwest [Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy D. Jones; Carlton M. Jones; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2005-01-01

    The encinal savannas of the sub-mogollon southwestern United States are important for livestock grazing and wildlife habitat. Little data have been collected on the ecology of these Sierra Madrean types of woodland land areas, which makes management difficult. Obtaining information such as habitat preferences for selected wildlife species and livestock can be an...

  14. A Further Analysis of the Value of Choice: Controlling for Illusory Discriminative Stimuli and Evaluating the Effects of Less Preferred Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anna C.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Layer, Stacy A.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to address limitations of prior research that has isolated choice as an independent variable. Children's preferences for the opportunity to choose were evaluated in a concurrent-chains arrangement in which identical consequences were available in choice and no-choice conditions. Results demonstrated that preference for choice, in and of…

  15. Effects of state and trait anxiety on selective attention to threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Ortega Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional biases, consisting of a preferential processing of threatening stimuli, have been found in anxious adults as predicted by several cognitive models. However, studies with non-clinical samples of children have provided mixed results. therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects of state and trait anxiety on the selective attention towards threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children (age: 8 to 13, n = 110 using the dot-probe task. This study did not reveal an effect of trait anxiety on selective attention towards threatening stimuli. However, a significant difference was found between participants with low state anxiety and high state anxiety. Nevertheless, the effect size was small. Specifically, participants with low state anxiety showed a bias towards threatening stimuli. Overall, the findings of this research with a non-clinical sample of school children suggest that attentional biases towards threatening information, which has been repeatedly found in anxious adults, are not necessarily inherent to non-clinical anxiety in children and on the other hand, the relationship between attentional biases and anxiety in this population might be moderated by other cognitive processes.

  16. Selection and Mode Effects in Risk Preference Elicitation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; van Soest, Arthur; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2008-01-01

    experiment is drastically below that of the representative sample in the Internet experiment, and average risk aversion is also lower. Considering the student-like subsample of the Internet subjects and comparing a traditional lab design with an Internet-like design in the lab gives two ways to decompose......We combine data from a risk preference elicitation experiment conducted on a representative sample via the Internet with laboratory data on students for the same experiment to investigate effects of implementation mode and of subject pool selection. We find that the frequency of errors in the lab...... shows that these processes are selective in selecting subjects who make fewer errors, but do not lead to biased conclusions on risk preferences. These findings point at the usefulness of the Internet survey as an alternative to a student pool in the laboratory if the ambition is to use the experiments...

  17. Consumer preferences for selection of solar home system in urban areas, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences can lay foundation for determining key product attributes essential for the success of a product in the market, enabling the manufacturers optimally allocate resources towards imparting these critical attributes. However identification of consumer preferences especially for new products is a challenging task. This research investigated the consumer preference factors for solar home systems in Rawalpindi/Islamabad (Pakistan); applying MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) approach, AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) survey and analysis method is used for prioritization of the factors and comparison of decision alternatives. Fourteen factors grouped into five categories are selected. It has been found that the manufacturers have to emphasize on performance and functional attributes of these systems at this stage, the cost factors are comparatively lower in importance. Make and warranty, Environmental and Physical features are also lesser important to the early adopters. (author)

  18. Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Utility Set and Its Application in Selection of Fire Rescue Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Guangsen; Xu, Zeshui

    2018-01-01

    Hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set provides an effective tool to represent uncertain decision information. However, the semantics corresponding to the linguistic terms in it cannot accurately reflect the decision-makers’ subjective cognition. In general, different decision-makers’ sensitivities towards the semantics are different. Such sensitivities can be represented by the cumulative prospect theory value function. Inspired by this, we propose a linguistic scale function to transform the semantics corresponding to linguistic terms into the linguistic preference values. Furthermore, we propose the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility set, based on which, the decision-makers can flexibly express their distinct semantics and obtain the decision results that are consistent with their cognition. For calculations and comparisons over the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility sets, we introduce some distance measures and comparison laws. Afterwards, to apply the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility sets in emergency management, we develop a method to obtain objective weights of attributes and then propose a hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility-TOPSIS method to select the best fire rescue plan. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified by some comparisons of the method with other two representative methods including the hesitant fuzzy linguistic-TOPSIS method and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic-VIKOR method. PMID:29614019

  19. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: a ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus using reservoir shoreline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Anteau

    Full Text Available Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers. We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m(2 that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median, but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  20. Alpha-Band Brain Oscillations Shape the Processing of Perceptible as well as Imperceptible Somatosensory Stimuli during Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forschack, Norman; Nierhaus, Till; Müller, Matthias M; Villringer, Arno

    2017-07-19

    Attention filters and weights sensory information according to behavioral demands. Stimulus-related neural responses are increased for the attended stimulus. Does alpha-band activity mediate this effect and is it restricted to conscious sensory events (suprathreshold), or does it also extend to unconscious stimuli (subthreshold)? To address these questions, we recorded EEG in healthy male and female volunteers undergoing subthreshold and suprathreshold somatosensory electrical stimulation to the left or right index finger. The task was to detect stimulation at the randomly alternated cued index finger. Under attention, amplitudes of somatosensory evoked potentials increased 50-60 ms after stimulation (P1) for both suprathreshold and subthreshold events. Prestimulus amplitude of peri-Rolandic alpha, that is mu, showed an inverse relationship to P1 amplitude during attention compared to when the finger was unattended. Interestingly, intermediate and high amplitudes of mu rhythm were associated with the highest P1 amplitudes during attention and smallest P1 during lack of attention, that is, these levels of alpha rhythm seemed to optimally support the behavioral goal ("detect" stimuli at the cued finger while ignoring the other finger). Our results show that attention enhances neural processing for both suprathreshold and subthreshold stimuli and they highlight a rather complex interaction between attention, Rolandic alpha activity, and their effects on stimulus processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Attention is crucial in prioritizing processing of relevant perceptible (suprathreshold) stimuli: it filters and weights sensory input. The present study investigates the controversially discussed question whether this attention effect extends to imperceptible (subthreshold) stimuli as well. We found noninvasive EEG signatures for attentional modulation of neural events following perceptible and imperceptible somatosensory stimulation in human participants. Specifically

  1. Not in Your Backyard? Selective Tariff Cuts for Environmentally Preferable Products

    OpenAIRE

    Estelle, Gozlan; Ramos, Maria Priscila

    2007-01-01

    Current negotiations at the WTO’s Committee on Trade and Environment have made it conceivable that WTO members agree on selective tariff cuts for certain Environmentally Preferable Products, in an attempt to combine gains from trade and from cleaner production/consumption. This raises questions on the environmental and welfare implications of trade policy when a close substitute (“environmentally worse") exists. Using a simple partial equilibrium model with two substitutable goods ('green' an...

  2. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: a ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J; Sherfy, Mark H; Wiltermuth, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m(2)) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  3. Facial attractiveness, sexual selection, and personnel selection : when evolved preferences matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, MF; Van de Vijver, FJR

    Using an evolutionary perspective, we looked at sex differences in the influence of facial attractiveness of applicants in hiring decisions, and determined whether expected contact intensity with applicants and experience in personnel selection moderated this influence. We found effects of evolved

  4. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Selection of a preferred initial access for the exploratory studies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, D.M.; Cikanek, E.M.; Elkins, N.Z.

    1995-06-01

    An issue of interest to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) has been selection of the preferred location for initial access to the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) in the event that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) elected to proceed with a phased approach to facility development. A task force to conduct an assessment and prepare a recommendation of the preferred initial location (north or south) for starting underground in situ tests at Yucca Mountain was initiated by YMPO to address this issue. The task force addressed geotechnical issues associated with the presence of disqualifying conditions at the site, the inability of the site to meet qualifying conditions, and the potential for unexpected geologic conditions at the site. The task force compared the north and south ramp accesses of the ESF to determine whether either access would be more likely to provide relevant information about potential site unsuitability. The task force did not address issues such as design time or construction costs. Within the aforementioned context, a balanced evaluation of currently available geotechnical information and issues failed to provide a clear mandate for either ramp as the preferred initial ESF access. Neither access was clearly superior in providing geotechnical information to resolve site suitability issues. The task force therefore recommended that other appropriate programmatic factors, such as schedule, be used as a basis in determining the choice of a preferred, initial ESF access in the event of phased construction

  6. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassim, Moath [Kyunghe Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kessel, David S. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value.

  7. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Moath; Kessel, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value

  8. When congruence breeds preference: the influence of selective attention processes on evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blask, Katarina; Walther, Eva; Frings, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We investigated in two experiments whether selective attention processes modulate evaluative conditioning (EC). Based on the fact that the typical stimuli in an EC paradigm involve an affect-laden unconditioned stimulus (US) and a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), we started from the assumption that learning might depend in part upon selective attention to the US. Attention to the US was manipulated by including a variant of the Eriksen flanker task in the EC paradigm. Similarly to the original Flanker paradigm, we implemented a target-distracter logic by introducing the CS as the task-relevant stimulus (i.e. the target) to which the participants had to respond and the US as a task-irrelevant distracter. Experiment 1 showed that CS-US congruence modulated EC if the CS had to be selected against the US. Specifically, EC was more pronounced for congruent CS-US pairs as compared to incongruent CS-US pairs. Experiment 2 disentangled CS-US congruence and CS-US compatibility and suggested that it is indeed CS-US stimulus congruence rather than CS-US response compatibility that modulates EC.

  9. Substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process. Conditions for the correct application of the proposed method in the selection process of preferred alternative of technical objects were worked out. The set of criteria of system effectiveness evalua-tion and the corresponding hierarchical structure in accordance with the developed conditions was proposed.

  10. The preference for high-fiber feed in laying hens divergently selected on feather pecking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmendal, R; Bessei, W

    2012-08-01

    Earlier studies in laying hens have demonstrated a negative correlation between feather pecking and the dietary fiber content of the feed. However, the factors underlying this relationship are not fully understood. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that birds prone to feather pecking would prefer a diet supplemented with dietary fiber. Thus, the aim was to investigate the voluntary consumption of a wheat-soy control diet (CON) and a diet supplemented with 8% spelt hulls (FIB) on the expense of wheat in 20 individually caged hens selected for high feather pecking (HFP) behavior and 20 individually caged hens selected for low feather pecking (LFP) behavior. The proportional intake of FIB was 0.39 and significantly different from 0.50 (Phens (0.36; Phens had inferior plumage condition (Pfeed intake (Phens plucked more feathers from a simple inanimate feather-pecking model, but the number of feathers being pulled out did not correlate with the proportional intake of FIB. It was concluded that the preference for feed supplemented with spelt hulls was different between hens displaying different feather-pecking behavior. The underlying reason for such a difference needs further investigation.

  11. Evolution of vertebrate mechanosensory hair cells and inner ears: toward identifying stimuli that select mutation driven altered morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Straka, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Among the major distance senses of vertebrates, the ear is unique in its complex morphological changes during evolution. Conceivably, these changes enable the ear to adapt toward sensing various physically well-characterized stimuli. This review develops a scenario that integrates sensory cell with organ evolution. We propose that molecular and cellular evolution of the vertebrate hair cells occurred prior to the formation of the vertebrate ear. We previously proposed that the genes driving hair cell differentiation, were aggregated in the otic region through developmental re-patterning that generated a unique vertebrate embryonic structure, the otic placode. In agreement with the presence of graviceptive receptors in many vertebrate outgroups, it is likely that the vertebrate ear originally functioned as a simple gravity-sensing organ. Based on the rare occurrence of angular acceleration receptors in vertebrate outgroups, we further propose that the canal system evolved with a more sophisticated ear morphogenesis. This evolving morphogenesis obviously turned the initial otocyst into a complex set of canals and recesses, harboring multiple sensory epithelia each adapted to the acquisition of a specific aspect of a given physical stimulus. As support for this evolutionary progression, we provide several details of the molecular basis of ear development. PMID:24281353

  12. REM Sleep Phase Preference in the Crepuscular Octodon degus Assessed by Selective REM Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián; Hernández, Felipe; Palacios, Adrian G.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase preference in a crepuscular mammal (Octodon degus) by challenging the specific REM sleep homeostatic response during the diurnal and nocturnal anticrepuscular rest phases. Design: We have investigated REM sleep rebound, recovery, and documented REM sleep propensity measures during and after diurnal and nocturnal selective REM sleep deprivations. Subjects: Nine male wild-captured O. degus prepared for polysomnographic recordings Interventions: Animals were recorded during four consecutive baseline and two separate diurnal or nocturnal deprivation days, under a 12:12 light-dark schedule. Three-h selective REM sleep deprivations were performed, starting at midday (zeitgeber time 6) or midnight (zeitgeber time 18). Measurements and Results: Diurnal and nocturnal REM sleep deprivations provoked equivalent amounts of REM sleep debt, but a consistent REM sleep rebound was found only after nocturnal deprivation. The nocturnal rebound was characterized by a complete recovery of REM sleep associated with an augment in REM/total sleep time ratio and enhancement in REM sleep episode consolidation. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that the circadian system actively promotes REM sleep. We propose that the sleep-wake cycle of O. degus is modulated by a chorus of circadian oscillators with a bimodal crepuscular modulation of arousal and a unimodal promotion of nocturnal REM sleep. Citation: Ocampo-Garcés A; Hernández F; Palacios AG. REM sleep phase preference in the crepuscular Octodon degus assessed by selective REM sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1247-1256. PMID:23904685

  13. Determination of laser cutting process conditions using the preference selection index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madić, Miloš; Antucheviciene, Jurgita; Radovanović, Miroslav; Petković, Dušan

    2017-03-01

    Determination of adequate parameter settings for improvement of multiple quality and productivity characteristics at the same time is of great practical importance in laser cutting. This paper discusses the application of the preference selection index (PSI) method for discrete optimization of the CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel. The main motivation for application of the PSI method is that it represents an almost unexplored multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method, and moreover, this method does not require assessment of the considered criteria relative significances. After reviewing and comparing the existing approaches for determination of laser cutting parameter settings, the application of the PSI method was explained in detail. Experiment realization was conducted by using Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Roughness of the cut surface, heat affected zone (HAZ), kerf width and material removal rate (MRR) were considered as optimization criteria. The proposed methodology is found to be very useful in real manufacturing environment since it involves simple calculations which are easy to understand and implement. However, while applying the PSI method it was observed that it can not be useful in situations where there exist a large number of alternatives which have attribute values (performances) very close to those which are preferred.

  14. Guidelines for selecting preferred highway routes for highway-route-controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The document presents guidelines for use by State officials in selecting preferred routes for highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. A methodology for analyzing and comparing safety factors of alternative routes is described. Technical information on the impacts of radioactive material transportation needed to apply the methodology is also presented. Application of the methodology will identify the route (or set of routes) that minimizes the radiological impacts from shipments of these radioactive materials within a given State. Emphasis in the document is on practical application of the methodology. Some details of the derivation of the methods and data are presented in the appendices. All references in the body of the report can be found listed in the Bibliography (Appendix F)

  15. A Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations Based ANP Model for R&D Project Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s rapidly changing economy, technology companies have to make decisions on research and development (R&D projects investment on a routine bases with such decisions having a direct impact on that company’s profitability, sustainability and future growth. Companies seeking profitable opportunities for investment and project selection must consider many factors such as resource limitations and differences in assessment, with consideration of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. Often, differences in perception by the various stakeholders hinder the attainment of a consensus of opinion and coordination efforts. Thus, in this study, a hybrid model is developed for the consideration of the complex criteria taking into account the different opinions of the various stakeholders who often come from different departments within the company and have different opinions about which direction to take. The decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL approach is used to convert the cause and effect relations representing the criteria into a visual network structure. A consistent fuzzy preference relations based analytic network process (CFPR-ANP method is developed to calculate the preference-weights of the criteria based on the derived network structure. The CFPR-ANP is an improvement over the original analytic network process (ANP method in that it reduces the problem of inconsistency as well as the number of pairwise comparisons. The combined complex proportional assessment (COPRAS-G method is applied with fuzzy grey relations to resolve conflicts arising from differences in information and opinions provided by the different stakeholders about the selection of the most suitable R&D projects. This novel combination approach is then used to assist an international brand-name company to prioritize projects and make project decisions that will maximize returns and ensure sustainability for the company.

  16. Low copulatory activity in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) relative to alcohol-preferring (sP) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that similar neural mechanisms are involved in the reinforcing properties of natural rewards, like food and sex, and drugs of abuse. Rat lines selectively bred for high and low oral alcohol intake and preference have been useful for understanding factors contributing to excessive alcohol intake and may constitute proper animal models for investigating the neurobiological basis of natural rewarding stimuli. Methods The present study evaluated copulatory behavior in alcohol and sexually naïve Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and -nonpreferring (sNP) male rats in three consecutive copulatory behavior tests. Results The main finding was that, under the conditions used in this study, sNP rats were sexually inactive relative to sP rats. To gain more information about the sexual behavior in sP rats, Wistar rats were included as an external reference strain. Only minor differences between sP and Wistar rats were revealed. Conclusions The reason behind the low copulatory activity of sNP rats remains to be elucidated, but may in part be mediated by innate differences in brain transmitter systems. The comparison between sP and Wistar rats may also suggest that the inherent proclivity to excessive alcohol drinking in sP rats may mainly be dependent on its anxiolytic properties, as previously proposed, and not changes in the reward system. PMID:25728453

  17. A game-theoretical model for selecting a site of non-preferred waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, a game-theoretic model (GTM) as a tool of conflict analysis is proposed for multiplayer multicriteria decision-making problems in a conflict situation. The developed GTM is used for obtaining the most possible resolutions in the conflict among multiple decision makers. The GTM is based on directed graph structure and solution concepts. To demonstrate the performance of the GTM, using a numerical example, the GTM is applied to an environmental conflict problem, especially a non-preferred waste disposal siting conflict available in the literature. It is found that with GTM the states in equilibrium can be recognized. The conflict under consideration is to select a site of non-preferred waste facilities. The government is to choose a site of installation for users of a toxic waste disposal facility. A certain time-point of interest is a period of time to select one of candidate sites that completely meet regular criteria of governmental body in charge of permitting a facility site. The facility siting conflict among multiple players (i.e., decision-makers, DMs) of concern is viewed as a multiple player-multiple criteria (MPMC) domain. For instance, three possible sites (i.e., site A, site B, and site C) to be selected by multiple players are characterized by the building cost, accessibility, and proximity to the residential area. Concerning the site A, the installation of a facility is not expensive, the accessible to a facility is easy, and the site A is located very near a residential area. Concerning site B, the facility is expensive to build, the facility is easily accessible, and the site is located near the residential area. Concerning site C, the installation cost is expensive, the accessibility is difficult, and the location of site is far from the residential area. In simple models, three main groups of players could be considered to be the government, users, and local residents. The government is to play a role as one of proponents or

  18. Age-related positivity enhancement is not universal: older Chinese look away from positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Lu, Alice Y; Goren, Deborah; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Wadlinger, Heather A; Wilson, Hugh R

    2008-06-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that with age, people are motivated to derive emotional meaning from life, leading them to pay more attention to positive relative to negative/neutral stimuli. The authors argue that cultures that differ in what they consider to be emotionally meaningful may show this preference to different extents. Using eye-tracking techniques, the authors compared visual attention toward emotional (happy, fearful, sad, and angry) and neutral facial expressions among 46 younger and 57 older Hong Kong Chinese. In contrast to prior Western findings, older but not younger Chinese looked away from happy facial expressions, suggesting that they do not show attentional preferences toward positive stimuli.

  19. Text-Selection for Teaching Reading to ESL Tertiary Students: A Study on Genre and Content Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razanawati Nordin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most learners studying English language feel that their educators use irrelevant, uninteresting, and culturally unfamiliar reading materials for teaching reading. As a result, most of them struggle to comprehend the English language texts used by the teachers. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the genre and content preferences of ESL tertiary learners in UiTM Kedah, Malaysia. A two-part questionnaire was administered to 132 respondents aged 20 to 23 years old who are presently furthering their undergraduate studies in Accountancy, Administrative Science and Policy Studies, Business Management, Industrial Design, and Information Management. The results of the study show that these ESL tertiary learners prefer texts from the websites and blogs; and their preferred reading contents are dealing with Business Management, watching movies and listening to music. This article offers guidance to ESL teachers to select L2 reading texts based on the students’ preferred genre and content.

  20. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Ling Lo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP. This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS, were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50% of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284 and intronic regions (169 with the least in exon's (4, suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a, excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1, neurotransmitters (Pomc, and synapses (Snap29. This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits.

  1. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chiao-Ling; Lossie, Amy C; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Lumeng, Lawrence; Zhou, Feng C; Muir, William M

    2016-08-01

    Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder) in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP). This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross) resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB) with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate) to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS), were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50%) of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284) and intronic regions (169) with the least in exon's (4), suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a), excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1), neurotransmitters (Pomc), and synapses (Snap29). This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits.

  2. Mixed Support for Sexual Selection Theories of Mate Preferences in the Swedish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Gustavsson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory predicts the existence of relatively stable sex differences in partner preferences with, for example, males being more concerned with traits predicting high fertility and females with traits predicting high resource availability. We tested three predictions using personal advertisements from both traditional newspapers and internet dating services. In accordance with predictions, men offered resources more often than did women, and women requested resources more often than did men. Males in all age-categories preferred younger partners. Young females preferred older males, but the pattern was reversed for the majority of females past their fertile period. In contrast to predictions, there was no difference between males and females in the degree to which they offered, or asked for, physical attractiveness. Based on our results and a review of previous studies, we suggest that sex differences in factual or advertised preference for physical attractiveness may be more labile than sex differences in preference for resources and status across societies.

  3. Early processing variations in selective attention to the color and direction of moving stimuli during 30 days head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; He, Si-Yang; Niu, Dong-Bin; Guo, Jian-Ping; Xu, Yun-Long; Wang, De-Sheng; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Li, Zhi-Li; Tang, Guo-Hua; Li, Yin-Hui; Bai, Yan-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic variations in early selective attention to the color and direction of moving stimuli were explored during a 30 days period of head-down bed rest. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at F5, F6, P5, P6 scalp locations in seven male subjects who attended to pairs of bicolored light emitting diodes that flashed sequentially to produce a perception of movement. Subjects were required to attend selectively to a critical feature of the moving target, e.g., color or direction. The tasks included: a no response task, a color selective response task, a moving direction selective response task, and a combined color-direction selective response task. Subjects were asked to perform these four tasks on: the 3rd day before bed rest; the 3rd, 15th and 30th day during the bed rest; and the 5th day after bed rest. Subjects responded quickly to the color than moving direction and combined color-direction response. And they had a longer reaction time during bed rest on the 15th and 30th day during bed rest after a relatively quicker response on the 3rd day. Using brain event-related potentials technique, we found that in the color selective response task, the mean amplitudes of P1 and N1 for target ERPs decreased in the 3rd day during bed rest and 5th day after bed rest in comparison with pre-bed rest, 15th day and 30th day during bed rest. In the combined color-direction selective response task, the P1 latencies for target ERPs on the 3rd and 30th day during bed rest were longer than on the 15th day during bed rest. As 3rd day during bed rest was in the acute adaptation period and 30th day during bed rest was in the relatively adaptation stage of head-down bed rest, the results help to clarify the effects of bed rest on different task loads and patterns of attention. It was suggested that subjects expended more time to give correct decision in the head-down tilt bed rest state. A difficulty in the recruitment of brain resources was found in feature selection task

  4. Chinese undergraduates' preferences for altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement: Evidence from Q-sort technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingke; Feng, Linlin; Wang, Mingming

    2017-04-01

    Human's preferences for altruistic mates have been confirmed by many researchers. Under the deep influence of Confucianism that authorised more parental control over offspring's mate selection, Chinese people's mating strategies and mate preferences may be different from what the evolutionary psychologists have suggested. This study used the Q-sort technique to assess the roles of altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement. A total of 200 university students participated in the Q-sort procedures and were asked to sort 50 traits (among which altruistic traits were mixed) according to their importance when choosing (or advertising to) a long-term (LT) or a short-term (ST) mate. Our findings were quite different from prior studies. When Chinese participants chose a mate or advertised themselves to a potential mate, kin altruism was considered to be the most important trait; altruistic traits were more preferred by males than by females and females tended to advertise themselves as more altruistic; preferences for altruistic traits showed no difference between LT and ST mate selections (or between personal advertisement to a LT and a ST mate). © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. The relationships between alcohol source, autonomy in brand selection, and brand preference among youth in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to describe the sources from which youth in the USA commonly obtain alcohol, their role in selecting the brands they drink and the relationship of these variables to their indicated alcohol brand preferences. We recruited 1031 underage drinkers in the age range of 13-20 through an internet panel managed by Knowledge Networks. Respondents completed an online survey assessing their recent brand-specific alcohol use, the source of their most recently consumed alcohol and whether the respondent or another person selected the brand they drank. Alcohol sources were more often passive than transactional. Nearly equal proportions of youth reported that they did versus did not choose the brand of their most recent drink. Analysis revealed that the brand preferences of passive versus active source drinkers were highly similar, as were the brand preferences of respondent versus non-respondent choice drinkers. Stratification of respondents by age did not significantly change these results. Our findings suggest that youth are consuming a homogenous list of preferred brands regardless of the source of their most recently obtained alcohol or who selected the brand they drank. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and mirtapazine results in differential brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won; Jin, Bo-Ra; Yang, Wan-Seok; Lee, Kyuong-Uk; Juh, Ra-Hyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Chung, Yong-An; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify patterns of brain activation elicited by erotic visual stimuli in patients treated with either Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) or mirtazipine. Nine middle-aged men with major depressive disorder treated with an SSRI and ten middle-aged men with major depressive disorder treated with mirtazapine completed the trial. Ten subjects with no psychiatric illness were included as a control group. We conducted functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while a film alternatively played erotic and non-erotic contents for 14 minutes and 9 seconds. The control group showed activation in the occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and caudate nucleus. For subjects treated with SSRIs, the intensity of activity in these regions was much lower compared to the control group. Intensity of activation in the group treated with mirtazapine was less than the control group but grea-ter than those treated with SSRIs. Using subtraction analysis, the SSRI group showed significantly lower activation than the mirtazapine group in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the caudate nucleus. Our study suggests that the different rates of sexual side effects between the patients in the SSRI-treated group and the mirtazapine-treated group may be due to different effects on brain activation.

  7. Reference Gene Selection for qRT-PCR Normalization Analysis in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. under Abiotic Stress and Hormonal Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Niu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., an environmental friendly and economic fiber crop, has a certain tolerance to abiotic stresses. Identification of reliable reference genes for transcript normalization of stress responsive genes expression by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is important for exploring the molecular mechanisms of plants response to abiotic stresses. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were cloned, and their expression stabilities were assessed in 132 abiotic stress and hormonal stimuli samples of kenaf using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper algorithms. Results revealed that HcPP2A (Protein phosphatase 2A and HcACT7 (Actin 7 were the optimum reference genes across all samples; HcUBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme like protein was the worst reference gene for transcript normalization. The reliability of the selected reference genes was further confirmed by evaluating the expression profile of HcWRKY28 gene at different stress durations. This work will benefit future studies on discovery of stress-tolerance genes and stress-signaling pathways in this important fiber crop.

  8. Preferences of people with disabilities on wheelchairs in relation to forest trails for recreational in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeczko Emilia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the survey on the preferences of disabled people in wheelchairs for selected features recreational trails in the woods. The study was conducted in 2015, including a sample of 130 people older than 18 years, in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia (52 interviews in Poland, 21 in the Czech Republic and 57 in Slovakia. Respondents were interviewed both at the premises of the organisation as well as by email. The questions in the survey were designed to determine the preferences of the respondents in terms of recreational trails in the forests concerned: the optimal length of the route, recreational and educational points along the distribution routes of and usability of different types of forest roads. The results show that there is quite a lot of differences between the preferences of respondents from each of the analysed countries. Respondents from the Poland and Slovakia prefer shorter routes for recreation in forests, with a greater incidence of recreational and educational points along the route, whilst respondents in the Czech Republic prefer far longer routes, with a relatively larger distance between recreational points. In all the analysed countries, people with disabilities attributed highest usefulness to asphalt surfaces, concrete surfaces or surfaces made of cobblestones. The surface evaluated lowest for usability was made of wood.

  9. Reward preferences for generations in selected Information and Communication Technology companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annetjie Moore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Previous research suggests that different generations have different reward preferences based on differences in values, frames of reference and life goals. Research purpose: The focus of this study was to determine whether different generations prefer different rewards in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT industry in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The rationale for this study was to obtain a better understanding of the reward preferences of Veterans, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y in the ICT industry.Research design, approach and method: The research was a quantitative, cross-sectional, correlational design. Participants from two ICT companies completed a structured electronic survey. One hundred and sixty four valid responses were received. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.821 indicates that the survey was reliable.Main findings: Contrary to previous research, the results show that generations do not display different reward preferences.Practical/managerial implications: It would be more beneficial to use individual interrelationship factors to develop a reward strategy than generations.Contribution/value-add: The research has added insight and value to reward preferences for generations in the ICT sector.

  10. Reward preferences for generations in selected Information and Communication Technology companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annetjie Moore

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Previous research suggests that different generations have different reward preferences based on differences in values, frames of reference and life goals. Research purpose: The focus of this study was to determine whether different generations prefer different rewards in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT industry in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The rationale for this study was to obtain a better understanding of the reward preferences of Veterans, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y in the ICT industry. Research design, approach and method: The research was a quantitative, cross-sectional, correlational design. Participants from two ICT companies completed a structured electronic survey. One hundred and sixty four valid responses were received. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.821 indicates that the survey was reliable. Main findings: Contrary to previous research, the results show that generations do not display different reward preferences. Practical/managerial implications: It would be more beneficial to use individual interrelationship factors to develop a reward strategy than generations. Contribution/value-add: The research has added insight and value to reward preferences for generations in the ICT sector.

  11. The Relationships Between Alcohol Source, Autonomy in Brand Selection, and Brand Preference Among Youth in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We aimed to describe the sources from which youth in the USA commonly obtain alcohol, their role in selecting the brands they drink and the relationship of these variables to their indicated alcohol brand preferences. Methods: We recruited 1031 underage drinkers in the age range of 13–20 through an internet panel managed by Knowledge Networks. Respondents completed an online survey assessing their recent brand-specific alcohol use, the source of their most recently consumed alcohol and ...

  12. The relation of risk-taking propensity, professional preferences and the approach to the selection of future profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosić-Marković Olga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that risk-taking individuals choose professions that involve a high level of uncertainty, change or flexibility. The aim of this research was to study the relation between risk-taking propensity and professional preferences, as well as between different indicators of the approach to the selection of future profession and risk-taking propensity. The study was conducted on the sample of 583 students attending the final grade of secondary school. For the assessment of risk-taking propensity we used a modified version of the Evaluation of Risk scale (EVAR, while professional interests were investigated by the Test of Professional Orientation (TPO. In addition, we analysed certain indicators of the approach to the selection of profession that were interesting in the context of career counselling, namely: duration of the selection of profession, the number of professional preferences and readiness to make a professional choice. The results have shown that risk-taking propensity is significantly correlated with professional preferences where risk is an important job feature (such as professions in the field of security as well as with the professions where risk is an important part of success (such as sports. It has also been shown that risk-taking individuals assess themselves as more ready to make decisions on their own professional choice. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that risk-taking propensity is an important characteristic that should be taken into account when studying professional preferences and the approach to the selection of future profession in adolescents.

  13. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Ying; Urban, Marek W

    2017-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that stimuli-responsive nanomaterials have become significantly critical components of modern materials design and technological developments. Recent advances in synthesis and fabrication of stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles with built-in stimuli-responsive components (Part A) and surface modifications of functional nanoparticles that facilitate responsiveness (Part B) are outlined here. The synthesis and construction of stimuli-responsive spherical, core-shell, concentric, hollow, Janus, gibbous/inverse gibbous, and cocklebur morphologies are discussed in Part A, with the focus on shape, color, or size changes resulting from external stimuli. Although inorganic/metallic nanoparticles exhibit many useful properties, including thermal or electrical conductivity, catalytic activity, or magnetic properties, their assemblies and formation of higher order constructs are often enhanced by surface modifications. Section B focuses on selected surface reactions that lead to responsiveness achieved by decorating nanoparticles with stimuli-responsive polymers. Although grafting-to and grafting-from dominate these synthetic efforts, there are opportunities for developing novel synthetic approaches facilitating controllable recognition, signaling, or sequential responses. Many nanotechnologies utilize a combination of organic and inorganic phases to produce ceramic or metallic nanoparticles. One can envision the development of new properties by combining inorganic (metals, metal oxides) and organic (polymer) phases into one nanoparticle designated as "ceramers" (inorganics) and "metamers" (metallic). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Effect of Speed Alterations on Tempo Note Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the tempo note preferences of 100 randomly selected college-level musicians using familiar orchestral music as stimuli. Subjects heard selections at increased, decreased, and unaltered tempi. Results showed musicians were not accurate in estimating original tempo and showed consistent preference for faster than actual tempo.…

  15. Economic considerations and patients' preferences affect treatment selection for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a discrete choice experiment among European rheumatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hifinger, M; Hiligsmann, M; Ramiro, S; Watson, V; Severens, J L; Fautrel, B; Uhlig, T; van Vollenhoven, R; Jacques, P; Detert, J; Canas da Silva, J; Scirè, C A; Berghea, F; Carmona, L; Péntek, M; Keat, A; Boonen, A

    2017-01-01

    To compare the value that rheumatologists across Europe attach to patients' preferences and economic aspects when choosing treatments for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a discrete choice experiment, European rheumatologists chose between two hypothetical drug treatments for a patient with moderate disease activity. Treatments differed in five attributes: efficacy (improvement and achieved state on disease activity), safety (probability of serious adverse events), patient's preference (level of agreement), medication costs and cost-effectiveness (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)). A Bayesian efficient design defined 14 choice sets, and a random parameter logit model was used to estimate relative preferences for rheumatologists across countries. Cluster analyses and latent class models were applied to understand preference patterns across countries and among individual rheumatologists. Responses of 559 rheumatologists from 12 European countries were included in the analysis (49% females, mean age 48 years). In all countries, efficacy dominated treatment decisions followed by economic considerations and patients' preferences. Across countries, rheumatologists avoided selecting a treatment that patients disliked. Latent class models revealed four respondent profiles: one traded off all attributes except safety, and the remaining three classes disregarded ICER. Among individual rheumatologists, 57% disregarded ICER and these were more likely from Italy, Romania, Portugal or France, whereas 43% disregarded uncommon/rare side effects and were more likely from Belgium, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden or UK. Overall, European rheumatologists are willing to trade between treatment efficacy, patients' treatment preferences and economic considerations. However, the degree of trade-off differs between countries and among individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  16. Behavioral Effects in Forming the Preferences of the Economic Selection of the Economic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana, V. Belikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to substantiate the behavioral features of the economic choice of an economic entity in the context of the decision-making environment transformation, and also to study their influence on the forming subjective preferences. At the same time, the behavioral paradigm is identified as a basic theoretical construct, which makes it possible to identify the main irrationalizing factors. Based on the study of the conceptual provisions of the behavioral paradigm, it was concluded that the preferences of the economic entity in the process of implementing the economic choice are formed under the influence of motivational and cognitive predictors, which limit the rationality of the economic entity. Deviating from rational criteria towards irrational, the economic entity shapes its preferences on the basis of economic and non-economic criteria, systematically making mistakes in the context of the influence of cognitive distortions manifested in decision-making under modern conditions. Based on the findings, the author constructs a model of economic choice, taking into account behavioral predictors. Among the most important cognitive distortions are herd instinct, professional deformation, "curse of knowledge", bias toward information retrieval, error of substantiation of assessment, bias of confirmation, neglect of formalized methods of cognition, conservatism, preferences of personified trust and heuristics of asymmetric perception.

  17. Personality and mate preferences: five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwin, M D; Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-03-01

    Although personality characteristics figure prominently in what people want in a mate, little is known about precisely which personality characteristics are most important, whether men and women differ in their personality preferences, whether individual women or men differ in what they want, and whether individuals actually get what they want. To explore these issues, two parallel studies were conducted, one using a sample of dating couples (N = 118) and one using a sample of married couples (N = 216). The five-factor model, operationalized in adjectival form, was used to assess personality characteristics via three data sources-self--report, partner report, and independent interviewer reports. Participants evaluated on a parallel 40-item instrument their preferences for the ideal personality characteristics of their mates. Results were consistent across both studies. Women expressed a greater preference than men for a wide array of socially desirable personality traits. Individuals differed in which characteristics they desired, preferring mates who were similar to themselves and actually obtaining mates who embodied what they desired. Finally, the personality characteristics of one's partner significantly predicted marital and sexual dissatisfaction, most notably when the partner was lower on Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect-Openness than desired.

  18. Effects of species information and furniture price on consumer preferences for selected woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; David Nicholls; Geoffrey Donovan

    2007-01-01

    Changing consumer tastes and species availability are influencing the design and manufacture of hardwood products. In addition, the globalization of wood product markets is exposing U.S. consumers to new species. This research evaluates consumer preferences for six domestic wood species--three from the eastern United States and three from the western United States. The...

  19. The mere exposure effect with scene stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    八木 , 善彦

    2016-01-01

     The mere exposure effect refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increasesubsequent affective preference for those stimuli. It has been indicated that with specific stimulus-category(i.e., paintings, matrices, and photographs of scene), repeated exposure has little or oppositeeffect on affective ratings. In this study, two experiments were conducted in order to explore theeffect of stimulus-category on the mere exposure effects. Photographs of young woman’s(Experiment1)a...

  20. Interval MULTIMOORA method with target values of attributes based on interval distance and preference degree: biomaterials selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Arian; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2017-06-01

    A target-based MADM method covers beneficial and non-beneficial attributes besides target values for some attributes. Such techniques are considered as the comprehensive forms of MADM approaches. Target-based MADM methods can also be used in traditional decision-making problems in which beneficial and non-beneficial attributes only exist. In many practical selection problems, some attributes have given target values. The values of decision matrix and target-based attributes can be provided as intervals in some of such problems. Some target-based decision-making methods have recently been developed; however, a research gap exists in the area of MADM techniques with target-based attributes under uncertainty of information. We extend the MULTIMOORA method for solving practical material selection problems in which material properties and their target values are given as interval numbers. We employ various concepts of interval computations to reduce degeneration of uncertain data. In this regard, we use interval arithmetic and introduce innovative formula for interval distance of interval numbers to create interval target-based normalization technique. Furthermore, we use a pairwise preference matrix based on the concept of degree of preference of interval numbers to calculate the maximum, minimum, and ranking of these numbers. Two decision-making problems regarding biomaterials selection of hip and knee prostheses are discussed. Preference degree-based ranking lists for subordinate parts of the extended MULTIMOORA method are generated by calculating the relative degrees of preference for the arranged assessment values of the biomaterials. The resultant rankings for the problem are compared with the outcomes of other target-based models in the literature.

  1. Spatial organization of frequency preference and selectivity in the human inferior colliculus

    OpenAIRE

    De Martino, Federico; Moerel, Michelle; van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, Rainer; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    2013-01-01

    To date, the functional organization of human auditory sub-cortical structures can only be inferred from animal models. Here we use high-resolution functional MRI at ultra-high magnetic fields (7 Tesla) to map the organization of spectral responses in the human inferior colliculus (hIC), a sub-cortical structure fundamental for sound processing. We reveal a tonotopic map with a spatial gradient of preferred frequencies approximately oriented from dorso-lateral (low frequencies) to ventro-medi...

  2. A New Methodology to Select the Preferred Solutions from the Pareto-optimal Set: Application to Polymer Extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Jose C.; Gaspar-Cunha, Antonio; Fonseca, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the real world optimization problems involve multiple, usually conflicting, optimization criteria. Generating Pareto optimal solutions plays an important role in multi-objective optimization, and the problem is considered to be solved when the Pareto optimal set is found, i.e., the set of non-dominated solutions. Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms based on the principle of Pareto optimality are designed to produce the complete set of non-dominated solutions. However, this is not allays enough since the aim is not only to know the Pareto set but, also, to obtain one solution from this Pareto set. Thus, the definition of a methodology able to select a single solution from the set of non-dominated solutions (or a region of the Pareto frontier), and taking into account the preferences of a Decision Maker (DM), is necessary. A different method, based on a weighted stress function, is proposed. It is able to integrate the user's preferences in order to find the best region of the Pareto frontier accordingly with these preferences. This method was tested on some benchmark test problems, with two and three criteria, and on a polymer extrusion problem. This methodology is able to select efficiently the best Pareto-frontier region for the specified relative importance of the criteria

  3. A Conjoint Analysis to Determine the Preferences for Some Selected MBA Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Özmen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the Conjoint Analysis Method (CAM, which is a multivariate marketing research technique used to determine consumer behaviours and preferences for products or services. One aim of this study is to demonstrate that the CAM can be used in “Service Sector” as well as in “Product Sector” and the other aim is to utilize CBC Sawtooth Software Program, which is a special program for CAM. A usage of CBC Sawtooth Software Program is demonstrated in the analysis of Management Business Administration (MBA program preferences of Başkent University students. This study includes those MBA programs that require substantial tuition and fee payments. According to the results of the study, “University Name” plays the most important role in MBA preferences. The Conjoint Analysis found that, most preferred university is the Boğaziçi University and the most preferred type of MBA program is the “Executive MBA Program”. Another important finding is that “Higher Tuition and Fees” makes the MBA less attractive.. Este trabajo examina el método de análisis conjunto (CAM, que es una técnica multivariante de investigación de mercados utilizada para determinar los comportamientos y preferencias del consumidor por productos o servicios. Un objetivo de este estudio es demostrar que el CAM puede ser aplicado en el "sector servicios" al igual que en el "sector de producción". El otro objetivo principal es utilizar programa informático CBC de Sawtooth, que es un programa especial para CAM. El CBC de Sawtooth se aplica a las preferencias de estudiantes por los programas de Administración y Dirección de Empresas de (MBA de la universidad de Baskent. Este estudio incluye sólo los programas de MBA que requieren una cuota de matrícula cuantiosa y pago de honorarios. Los resultados del estudio muestran que la variable "nombre de la universidad" es la más importante en las preferencias que los alumnos tienen por los MBA. El An

  4. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  5. Enhancing Web Service Selection by User Preferences of Non-Functional Features

    OpenAIRE

    Badr , Youakim; Abraham , Ajith; Biennier , Frédérique; Grosan , Crina

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Selection of an appropriate Web service for a particular task has become a difficult challenge due to the increasing number of Web services offering similar functionalities. The functional properties describe what the service can do and the nonfunctional properties depict how the service can do it. Non-functional properties involving qualitative or quantitative features have become essential criteria to enhance the selection process of services making the selection pro...

  6. PREFERENCE OF THE LISTED ENTITIES REGARDING THE SELECTION OF THE EXTERNAL AUDITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulop Melinda Timea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to highlight the importance of the external auditing in supporting corporate governance and the preference of the listed entities to be audited by the big audit companies. Given the proposed objectives of the research, our scientific method is based on a deductive approach from general to particular that combines quantitative and qualitative studies. The role of the external audit was analyzed by conducting a study of literature on two levels: a theoretical-conceptual level in terms of economic theories and an empirical-practical level based on literature from which we extracted through a content analysis the defining elements of the audit work quality. Falling within the scope of the study, we evaluated the preference of the listed entities to be audited by the Big Four. To this end we used the content analysis of the publicly posted audit reports for the period 2005-2009. Our research results show that although we are a country with an emerging capital market development, the entities in the I-st category on the Bucharest Stock Exchange tend to an audit conducted by one of the big audit companies. Another result arising from our study is that the entities of the I-st category on the Bucharest Stock Exchange become more transparent from a year to another. Whether for the year 2005 we find only 12 audit reports publicly posted, in 2007 we can find 21 audit reports publicly posted. The trend of the large entities audited shows that the preference of the entities to be audited by one of the Big Four is higher from a year to another. The preparation of the financial statements and their audit must be done according to regulations for the currently period. The presumption found in the literature according to which the large entities are audited by the big audit companies which provide higher audit quality is confirmed in the case of our national country as well.

  7. Investigating Chinese Migrants’ Information-Seeking Patterns in Canada: Media Selection and Language Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Mao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking a quantitative approach, this research surveyed Chinese migrants in Canada regarding channels they rely on to seek various information. This research also investigates how Chinese migrants’ preferences of channels correlate with their intercultural sensitivity level. Chinese migrants prefer Chinese newspapers and websites for government/policy information and life information rather than English newspapers and websites. However, they use English newspapers and websites more frequently for job and career development information. Overall, English television and radio are more frequently used by Chinese migrants than Chinese television and radio broadcasts. The intercultural sensitivity levels of Chinese migrants have a positive correlation with their frequencies of using English information resources, including government websites, English newspapers, English non-government websites, government officers, personal non-Chinese social networks, and English television and radio. Findings of this research suggest that Chinese ethnic media play an important role in Chinese migrants’ information-seeking behaviours and patterns in Canada. On one hand, government and other organizations can reach the Chinese migrant community through information diffusion in Chinese ethnic media. On the other hand, Chinese migrants should make an active effort to improve their English proficiency and intercultural communication sensitivity to better integrate themselves into the Canadian society. A more balanced approach of seeking information from English and Chinese media sources could be more beneficial for Chinese migrants.

  8. Implementation of preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (Promethee) on selection system of student’s achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlitasari, L.; Suhartini, D.; Nurrosikawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    Selection of Student Achievement is conducted every year, starting from the level of Study Program, Faculty, to University, which then rank one will be sent to Kopertis level. The criteria made for the selection are Academic and Rich Scientific, Organizational, Personality, and English. In order for the selection of Student Achievement is Objective, then in addition to the presence of the jury is expected to use methods that support the decision to be more optimal in determining the Student Achievement. One method used is the Promethee Method. Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (Promethee) is a method of ranking in Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). PROMETHEE has the advantage that there is a preference type against the criteria that can take into account alternatives with other alternatives on the same criteria. The conjecture of alternate dominance over a criterion used in PROMETHEE is the use of values in the relationships between alternative ranking values. Based on the calculation result, from 7 applicants between Manual and Promethee Matrices, rank 1, 2, and 3, did not change, only 4 to 7 positions were changed. However, after the sensitivity test, almost all criteria experience a high level of sensitivity. Although it does not affect the students who will be sent to the next level, but can bring psychological impact on prospective student’s achievement

  9. Preference-based Internet of Things dynamic service selection for smart campus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manqele, L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the Internet of Things technology across different service provisioning environments has increased the challenges associated with service discovery and selection. Users cannot always remember the Internet Protocol (IP) address for every...

  10. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godfrey

    Full Text Available Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total or were given access only to water (control. Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4-desaturase (Degs2, an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels

  11. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice. PMID:28926985

  12. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-09-17

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice.

  13. Novel antagonistic interactions associated with plant polyploidization influence trait selection and habitat preference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arvanitis, L.; Wiklund, C.; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Dahlgren, J. P.; Ehrlén, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 330-337 ISSN 1461-023X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : herbivore * trait * selection Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 15.253, year: 2010

  14. Selecting the right robot: Influence of user attitude, robot sociability and embodiment on user preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Mike; Truong, Khiet Phuong

    Selecting the suitable form of a robot, i.e. physical or virtual, for a task is not straightforward. The choice for a physical robot is not self-evident when the task is not physical but entirely social in nature. Results from previous studies comparing robots with different body types are found to

  15. Selective food preferences of walleyes of the 1959 year class in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, John W.

    1971-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,473 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) of the 1959 year class collected in western Lake Erie from June 1959 to October 1960. In the same period, the relative abundance and lengths of potential forage species were determined from trawl catches. The walleye fed almost entirely on fish. In 1959 the food was dominated first (in June and July) by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and then, in sequence, by spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius) and emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides). In 1960, the walleyes fed mostly on yearling spottail shiners and emerald shiners in the spring and summer but young alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) became the dominant food in the fall. The length of forage fish increased with the length of walleyes and walleyes of a given length usually ate forage fish within a restricted range of lengths. This size preference was shown by walleyes of the same length in the same and different months. The increased in length of forage fish with length of walleye was not proportionate. Walleyes 2.5 inches long ate forage fish 0.44 times their length whereas walleyes 15.5 inches long ate forage fish only 0.28 times their length. The diet of the walleyes changed according to species and lengths of forage fish available. Since young of several species hatched in different months and grew at different rates, abundance and suitability as forage sometimes changed rapidly.

  16. Generalized Habituation of Concept Stimuli in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkender, Patricia J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of selective generalization of habituation on the basis of meaningful categories of stimuli. Also explored are the sex differences in conceptual generalization of habituation. Subjects were 36 toddlers with a mean age of 40 months. (SDH)

  17. Do the Preferences of Healthcare Provider Selection Vary among Rural and Urban Patients with Different Income and Cause Different Outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Yu

    Full Text Available Equal access to healthcare facilities and high-level quality of care are important strategies to eliminate the disparity in outcome of care. However, the existing literature regarding how urban or rural dwelling patients with different income level select healthcare providers is insufficient. The purposes of this study were to examine whether differences of healthcare provider selection exist among urban and rural coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG patients with different income level. If so, we further investigated the associated impact on mortality.A retrospective, multilevel study design was conducted using claims data from 2007-2011 Taiwan's Universal Health Insurance Scheme. Healthcare providers' performance and patients' travelling distance to hospitals were used to define the patterns of healthcare provider selection. Baron and Kenny's procedures for mediation effect were conducted.There were 10,108 CABG surgeries included in this study. The results showed that urban dwelling and higher income patients were prone to receive care from better-performance providers. The travelling distances of urban dwelling patients was 15 KM shorter, especially when they received better-performance provider's care. The results also showed that the difference of healthcare provider selection and mortality rate existed between rural and urban dwelling patients with different income levels. After the procedure of mediation effect testing, the results showed that the healthcare provider selection partially mediated the relationships between patients' residential areas with different income levels and 30-day mortality.Preferences of healthcare provider selection vary among rural and urban patients with different income, and such differences partially mediated the outcome of care. Health authorities should pay attention to this issue, and propose appropriate solutions to eliminate the disparity in outcome of CABG care.

  18. Do the Preferences of Healthcare Provider Selection Vary among Rural and Urban Patients with Different Income and Cause Different Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Wei, Chung-Jen; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Hou, Yu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Equal access to healthcare facilities and high-level quality of care are important strategies to eliminate the disparity in outcome of care. However, the existing literature regarding how urban or rural dwelling patients with different income level select healthcare providers is insufficient. The purposes of this study were to examine whether differences of healthcare provider selection exist among urban and rural coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) patients with different income level. If so, we further investigated the associated impact on mortality. A retrospective, multilevel study design was conducted using claims data from 2007-2011 Taiwan's Universal Health Insurance Scheme. Healthcare providers' performance and patients' travelling distance to hospitals were used to define the patterns of healthcare provider selection. Baron and Kenny's procedures for mediation effect were conducted. There were 10,108 CABG surgeries included in this study. The results showed that urban dwelling and higher income patients were prone to receive care from better-performance providers. The travelling distances of urban dwelling patients was 15 KM shorter, especially when they received better-performance provider's care. The results also showed that the difference of healthcare provider selection and mortality rate existed between rural and urban dwelling patients with different income levels. After the procedure of mediation effect testing, the results showed that the healthcare provider selection partially mediated the relationships between patients' residential areas with different income levels and 30-day mortality. Preferences of healthcare provider selection vary among rural and urban patients with different income, and such differences partially mediated the outcome of care. Health authorities should pay attention to this issue, and propose appropriate solutions to eliminate the disparity in outcome of CABG care.

  19. Depression and selection of positive and negative social feedback: motivated preference or cognitive balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, L B; Lipman, A J

    1992-05-01

    In this commentary we examine Swann, Wenzlaff, Krull, and Pelham's (1992) findings with respect to each of 5 central propositions in self-verification theory. We conclude that although the data are consistent with self-verification theory, none of the 5 components of the theory have been demonstrated convincingly as yet. Specifically, we argue that depressed subjects' selection of social feedback appears to be balanced or evenhanded rather than biased toward negative feedback and that there is little evidence to indicate that depressives actively seek negative appraisals. Furthermore, we suggest that the studies are silent with respect to the motivational postulates of self-verification theory and that a variety of competing cognitive and motivational models can explain Swann et al.'s findings as well as self-verification theory.

  20. Selecting the best bank that offered Islamic personal loan package by using consistent fuzzy preference relations (CFPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Sarudin, Ezzah Suraya; Hamid, Fairus; Shamsuddin, Nor Diyana Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    There are various thoughts and opinions when it comes to how people think of their selected banks. Therefore, to choose the best bank with a good personal loan package can be a bit tricky especially for first time customer. This research offers a guide in choosing the right bank for applying personal loan package by highlighting the important criteria that applicants should take into consideration. In order to cater the problem above, we used Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations (CFPR). Based on expert and public opinions, the important criteria in selecting an Islamic personal loan package are interest rate, tenure of loan, processing period and security of the loan. We developed questionnaire with the criteria mention earlier and distributed it among academic staffs and non academic staffs at Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences (FSKM), UiTM Shah Alam. Based on the questionnaire, we found that four banks have been selected for multiple reasons. Before we could determine the best bank, calculations are divided into 2 phases which are criteria weights determination and ranking of alternatives. We implemented these phases to get the aggregation result and to obtain the ranking in descending order. As a result, our objectives have been achieved. As a conclusion, CFPR can help others in the decision making process.

  1. Confirming preferences or collecting data? Information search strategies and romantic partner selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael H; Fishbein, Marty; Curtis, Brenda; Barrett, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    This article investigates two kinds of information search strategies in the context of selecting romantic partners. Confirmatory searching occurs when people ask for more information about a romantic partner in order to validate or confirm their assessment. Balanced searches are characterized by a search for risk information for partners rated as attractive and for attractiveness information about partners rated as risky in order to attain a more complete evaluation. A factorial survey computer program randomly constructed five types of partner descriptions and college-age respondents evaluated nine descriptions in terms of both health risk and romantic attractiveness outcomes. The results show little evidence of balanced search strategies: for all vignette types the respondents searched for attractiveness information. Regression analysis of the search outcomes showed no difference between males and females in the desire for attractiveness or risk information, the amount of additional information desired, or the proportion of descriptions for which more information was desired. However, an attractive physical appearance did increase the amount of additional information desired and the proportion of vignettes for which more information was desired. The results were generally inconsistent with a balanced search hypothesis; a better characterization of the respondents' strategy might be "confirmatory bias."

  2. Women's preferences for selective estrogen reuptake modulators: an investigation using protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Angelique F; Ager, Brittany; Bell, Melanie L; Collins, Ian M; Andrews, Lesley; Tucker, Kathy; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Butow, Phyllis

    2014-07-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce breast cancer risk by 38%. However, uptake is low and the reasons are not well understood. This study applied protection motivation theory (PMT) to determine factors associated with intention to take SERMs. Women at increased risk of breast cancer (N=107), recruited from two familial cancer clinics in Australia, completed a questionnaire containing measures of PMT constructs. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Forty-five percent of women said they would be likely or very likely to take SERMs in the future. PMT components accounted for 40% of variance in intention to take SERMs. Perceived vulnerability, severity and response efficacy appeared the most influential in women's decisions to take or not take SERMs. Many women are interested in SERMs as a risk management option. Accurate risk estimation and an understanding of the benefits of SERMs are critical to women's decision making. Health professionals need to explore women's perceptions of their risk and its consequences, as well as providing clear evidence-based information about the efficacy of SERMs. Exploring the source and strength of beliefs about SERMs may allow more effective, tailored counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HSP10 selective preference for myeloid and megakaryocytic precursors in normal human bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cappello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs constitute a heterogeneous family of proteins involved in cell homeostasis. During cell life they are involved in harmful insults, as well as in immune and inflammatory reactions. It is known that they regulate gene expression, and cell proliferation, differentiation and death. HSP60 is a mitochondrial chaperonin, highly preserved during evolution, responsible of protein folding. Its function is strictly dependent on HSP10 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements. We investigated the presence and the expression of HSP60 and HSP10 in a series of 20 normal human bone marrow specimens (NHBM by the means of immunohistochemistry. NHBM showed no expression of HSP60, probably due to its being below the detectable threshold, as already demonstrated in other normal human tissues. By contrast, HSP10 showed a selective positivity for myeloid and megakaryocytic lineages. The positivity was restricted to precursor cells, while mature elements were constantly negative.We postulate that HSP10 plays a role in bone marrow cell differentiation other than being a mitochondrial co-chaperonin. The present data emphasize the role of HSP10 during cellular homeostasis and encourage further investigations in this field.

  4. Matching Level between Professors’ Selected Media and Emotional-Perception Preferences of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayati N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Considering individual differences and different learning styles in the learners is necessary in more effective learning. If the used learning style may be fully correspond with the students’ preffered style, there is a better learning performance. The aim of this study was to assess the conformity of the students’ learning styles with educational media and technologies used by the teachers at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Instrument & Methods: In the descriptive-correlational study, 90 medicine and dentistry students of Isfahan University were randomly selected via Stratified Sampling method in 2014-15 academic year. The study tool was a researcher-made questionnaire to investigate the learning styles and technologies used by the teachers. Data was analyzed in SPSS 22 software using Hotelling’s T test, and Somers’, Kendall’s, and Gamma Agreement Coefficients. Findings: From the students’ viewpoints, visual and auditory styles were the most and the least preffered styles, respectively. A combination of the technologies was used by the teachers. In addition, visual and kinesthetic/motion mediae were the most and the least used technologies by the teachers, respectively. There was no significant conformity between read/write, aural, and kinesthetic/motion styles of the students and the technologies used by the teachers (p>0.05. Neverheless, there was a significant conformity between the students’ visual style and the visual technologies used by the teachers (p<0.05. Conclusion: There is conformity between the technologies used by the teachers of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and the students’ viual learning style. However, the technologies are not compatible with read/write, aural, and kinesthetic/motion styles of the students.

  5. Analytical Hierarchy Process (Ahp) Approach on Consumer Preference in Franchise Fast Food Restaurant Selection in Manado City (Study at: Mcdonald's, Kfc, and A&w)

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Svetlania Wulan; Tielung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Franchise fast food restaurant has become one of the preferred restaurants in Manado City. There have been many outlets franchise fast food restaurant which opened its business in Manado City. The purpose of this research is to analyze the most preferred franchise fast food restaurant by consumer and to analyze the criteria that influence consumer in selecting franchise fast food restaurant. Researcher used Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare each franchise fast food restaurant as t...

  6. Body Size Preference of Marine Animals in Relation to Extinction Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, A.; Idgunji, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    comparisons showed that mean size decreased across the extinction boundary. This was due to the fact that new originating genera were smaller than the genera that survived. Our results show that there is variability in the relationship between body size and extinction selectivity in various mass extinctions.

  7. Selective Etching of Silicon in Preference to Germanium and Si0.5Ge0.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahles, Christopher F; Choi, Jong Youn; Wolf, Steven; Kummel, Andrew C

    2017-06-21

    The selective etching characteristics of silicon, germanium, and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 subjected to a downstream H 2 /CF 4 /Ar plasma have been studied using a pair of in situ quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). At 50 °C and 760 mTorr, Si can be etched in preference to Ge and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 , with an essentially infinite Si/Ge etch-rate ratio (ERR), whereas for Si/Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 , the ERR is infinite at 22 °C and 760 mTorr. XPS data showed that the selectivity is due to the differential suppression of etching by a ∼2 ML thick C x H y F z layer formed by the H 2 /CF 4 /Ar plasma on Si, Ge, and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 . The data are consistent with the less exothermic reaction of fluorine radicals with Ge or Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 being strongly suppressed by the C x H y F z layer, whereas, on Si, the C x H y F z layer is not sufficient to completely suppress etching. Replacing H 2 with D 2 in the feed gas resulted in an inverse kinetic isotope effect (IKIE) where the Si and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 etch rates were increased by ∼30 times with retention of significant etch selectivity. The use of D 2 /CF 4 /Ar instead of H 2 /CF 4 /Ar resulted in less total carbon deposition on Si and Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 and gave less Ge enrichment of Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 . These results are consistent with the selectivity being due to the differential suppression of etching by an angstrom-scale carbon layer.

  8. Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii are selective herbivores that track the flowering phenology of their preferred food plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Bryan Jennings

    Full Text Available Previous studies of desert tortoise foraging ecology in the western Mojave Desert suggest that these animals are selective herbivores, which alter their diet according to the temporal availability of preferred food plants. These studies, however, did not estimate availability of potential food plants by taking into account the spatial and temporal variability in ephemeral plant abundance that occurs within the spring season. In this study, we observed 18 free-ranging adult tortoises take 35,388 bites during the spring foraging season. We also estimated the relative abundance of potential food plants by stratifying our sampling across different phenological periods of the 3-month long spring season and by different habitats and microhabitats. This methodology allowed us to conduct statistical tests comparing tortoise diet against plant abundance. Our results show that tortoises choose food plants non-randomly throughout the foraging season, a finding that corroborates the hypothesis that desert tortoises rely on key plants during different phenological periods of spring. Moreover, tortoises only consumed plants in a succulent state until the last few weeks of spring, at which time most annuals and herbaceous perennials had dried and most tortoises had ceased foraging. Many species of food plants--including several frequently eaten species--were not detected in our plant surveys, yet tortoises located these rare plants in their home ranges. Over 50% of bites consumed were in the group of undetected species. Interestingly, tortoises focused heavily on several leguminous species, which could be nutritious foods owing to their presumably high nitrogen contents. We suggest that herbaceous perennials, which were rare on our study area but represented ~30% of tortoise diet, may be important in sustaining tortoise populations during droughts when native annuals are absent. These findings highlight the vulnerability of desert tortoises to climate change

  9. Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) are selective herbivores that track the flowering phenology of their preferred food plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bryan W.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of desert tortoise foraging ecology in the western Mojave Desert suggest that these animals are selective herbivores, which alter their diet according to the temporal availability of preferred food plants. These studies, however, did not estimate availability of potential food plants by taking into account the spatial and temporal variability in ephemeral plant abundance that occurs within the spring season. In this study, we observed 18 free-ranging adult tortoises take 35,388 bites during the spring foraging season. We also estimated the relative abundance of potential food plants by stratifying our sampling across different phenological periods of the 3-month long spring season and by different habitats and microhabitats. This methodology allowed us to conduct statistical tests comparing tortoise diet against plant abundance. Our results show that tortoises choose food plants non-randomly throughout the foraging season, a finding that corroborates the hypothesis that desert tortoises rely on key plants during different phenological periods of spring. Moreover, tortoises only consumed plants in a succulent state until the last few weeks of spring, at which time most annuals and herbaceous perennials had dried and most tortoises had ceased foraging. Many species of food plants—including several frequently eaten species—were not detected in our plant surveys, yet tortoises located these rare plants in their home ranges. Over 50% of bites consumed were in the group of undetected species. Interestingly, tortoises focused heavily on several leguminous species, which could be nutritious foods owing to their presumably high nitrogen contents. We suggest that herbaceous perennials, which were rare on our study area but represented ~30% of tortoise diet, may be important in sustaining tortoise populations during droughts when native annuals are absent. These findings highlight the vulnerability of desert tortoises to climate change if such changes

  10. Use of cluster analysis and preference mapping to evaluate consumer acceptability of choice and select bovine M. longissimus lumborum steaks cooked to various end-point temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T B; Schilling, M W; Behrends, J M; Battula, V; Jackson, V; Sekhon, R K; Lawrence, T E

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of choice and select steaks from the Longissimus lumborum that were cooked to varying degrees of doneness using demographic information, cluster analysis and descriptive analysis. On average, using data from approximately 155 panelists, no differences (P>0.05) existed in consumer acceptability among select and choice steaks, and all treatment means ranged between like slightly and like moderately (6-7) on the hedonic scale. Individual consumers were highly variable in their perception of acceptability and consumers were grouped into clusters (eight for select and seven for choice) based on their preference and liking of steaks. The largest consumer groups liked steaks from all treatments, but other groups preferred (Pconsumers could be grouped together according to preference, liking and descriptive sensory attributes, (juiciness, tenderness, bloody, metallic, and roasted) to further understand consumer perception of steaks that were cooked to different end-point temperatures.

  11. Evaluation of a Multiple-Stimulus Presentation Format for Assessing Reinforcer Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of seven adults with profound developmental disabilities compared methods for presenting stimuli during reinforcer-preference assessments. It found that a multiple-stimulus format in which selections were made without replacement may share the advantages of a paired-stimulus format and a multiple-stimulus format with replacement, while…

  12. Anhedonia reflects impairment in making relative value judgments between positive and neutral stimuli in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Visser, Katherine Frost; Keller, William R; Gold, James M; Buchanan, Robert W

    2018-02-27

    Anhedonia (i.e., diminished capacity to experience pleasure) has traditionally been viewed as a core symptom of schizophrenia (SZ). However, modern laboratory-based studies suggest that this definition may be incorrect, as hedonic capacity may be intact. Alternative conceptualizations have proposed that anhedonia may reflect an impairment in generating mental representations of affective value that are needed to guide decision-making and initiate motivated behavior. The current study evaluated this hypothesis in 42 outpatients with SZ and 19 healthy controls (CN) who completed two tasks: (a) an emotional experience task that required them to indicate how positive, negative, and calm/excited they felt in response to a single emotional or neutral photograph; (b) a relative value judgment task where they selected which of 2 photographs they preferred. Results indicated that SZ and CN reported similar levels of positive emotion and arousal in response to emotional and neutral stimuli; however, SZ reported higher negative affect for neutral and pleasant stimuli than CN. In the relative value judgment task, CN displayed clear preference for stimuli differing in valence; however, SZ showed less distinct preferences for positive over neutral stimuli. Findings suggest that although in-the-moment experiences of positive emotion to singular stimuli may be intact in SZ, the ability to make relative value judgments that are needed to guide decision-making is impaired. Original conceptualizations of anhedonia as a diminished capacity for pleasure in SZ may be inaccurate; anhedonia may more accurately reflect a deficit in relative value judgment that results from impaired value representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Statin Selection in Qatar Based on Multi-indication Pharmacotherapeutic Multi-criteria Scoring Model, and Clinician Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Fahey, Michael; Alabbadi, Ibrahim; Al-Khal, Abdullatif; Zaidan, Manal

    2015-12-01

    Statin selection for the largest hospital formulary in Qatar is not systematic, not comparative, and does not consider the multi-indication nature of statins. There are no reports in the literature of multi-indication-based comparative scoring models of statins or of statin selection criteria weights that are based primarily on local clinicians' preferences and experiences. This study sought to comparatively evaluate statins for first-line therapy in Qatar, and to quantify the economic impact of this. An evidence-based, multi-indication, multi-criteria pharmacotherapeutic model was developed for the scoring of statins from the perspective of the main health care provider in Qatar. The literature and an expert panel informed the selection criteria of statins. Relative weighting of selection criteria was based on the input of the relevant local clinician population. Statins were comparatively scored based on literature evidence, with those exceeding a defined scoring threshold being recommended for use. With 95% CI and 5% margin of error, the scoring model was successfully developed. Selection criteria comprised 28 subcriteria under the following main criteria: clinical efficacy, best publish evidence and experience, adverse effects, drug interaction, dosing time, and fixed dose combination availability. Outcome measures for multiple indications were related to effects on LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein. Atorvastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin exceeded defined pharmacotherapeutic thresholds. Atorvastatin and pravastatin were recommended as first-line use and rosuvastatin as a nonformulary alternative. It was estimated that this would produce a 17.6% cost savings in statins expenditure. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the evaluation's outcomes against input uncertainties. Incorporating a comparative evaluation of statins in Qatari practices based on a locally developed, transparent, multi

  14. Application of preference selection index method for decision making over the design stage of production system life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Attri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of production system shows the progress of production system from the inception to the termination of the system. During each stage, mainly in the design stage, certain strategic decisions have to be taken. These decisions are more complex as the decision makers have to assess a wide range of alternatives based on a set of conflicting criteria. As the decision making process is found to be unstructured, characterized by domain dependent knowledge, there is a need to apply an efficient multi-criteria decision making (MCDM tool to help the decision makers in making correct decisions. This paper explores the application of a novel MCDM method i.e. Preference selection index (PSI method to solve various decision-making problems that are generally encountered in the design stage of production system life cycle. To prove the potentiality, applicability and accuracy of PSI method in solving decision making problem during the design stage of production system life cycle, five examples are cited from the literature and are compared with the results obtained by the past researchers.

  15. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  16. Stimuli-Adaptable Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    The work presented in this Thesis deals with the development of a stimuli-adaptable polymer material based on the UV-induced dimerisation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. It is in the nature of an adhesive to adhere very well to its substrate and therefore problems can arise upon removal...

  17. Development of Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Sensitization and Relapse Drinking in Mice Selected for High or Low Ethanol Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Becker, Howard C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that high alcohol consumption is associated with low withdrawal susceptiblility, while at the same time, other studies have shown that exposure to ethanol vapor increases alcohol drinking in rats and mice. In the present studies, we sought to shed light on this seeming contradiction by using mice selectively bred for High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preference, first, assessing these lines for differences in signs of ethanol withdrawal and second, for differences in the efficacy of intermittent alcohol vapor exposure on elevating subsequent ethanol intake. Methods Experiment 1 examined whether these lines of mice differed in ethanol withdrawal-induced CNS hyperexcitability and the development of sensitization to this effect following intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Adult HAP and LAP lines (replicates 1 and 2), and the C3H/HeNcr inbred strain (included as a control genotype for comparison purposes) received intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor and were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures assessed by scoring handling-induced convulsions (HIC). Experiment 2 examined the influence of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on voluntary ethanol drinking. Adult male and female HAP-2 and LAP-2 mice, along with male C57BL/6J (included as comparative controls) were trained to drink 10% ethanol using a limited access (2 hr/day) 2-bottle choice paradigm. After stable baseline daily intake was established, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers. Ethanol intake sessions resumed 72 hr after final ethanol (or air) exposure for 5 consecutive days. Results Following chronic ethanol treatment, LAP mice exhibited overall greater withdrawal seizure activity compared to HAP mice. In Experiment 2, chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal resulted in a significant increase in ethanol intake in male C57BL/6J, and modestly elevated intake in HAP-2 male mice. Ethanol intake for male control mice

  18. Study of Selected Components of Architectural Environment of Primary Schools - Preferences of Adults and Analysis of the Specialist Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halarewicz, Aleksandra

    2017-10-01

    The school is one of the oldest social institutions designed to prepare a young man for an adult life. It performs a teaching and educational function in child’s life. It is a place where, apart from home, the child spends most of the time in a day, therefore it is one of the most important institutions in the life of a young person. The school environment has a direct impact on the student's personality and ambition, and it shapes an attitude of the young person. Therefore, the design process preceding the establishment of school facilities is extremely responsible and should be conducted in a conscious and thoughtful way. This article is a summary and an attempt to synthesize the data obtained from the survey carried out by the author in the context of the design guidelines contained in the specialist literature. The questionnaire survey was designed to make an attempt to determine adult’s preferences, opinions and perceptions about selected components of the primary school environment, including the factors which determine the choice of school for children, the priorities of architecture components made for early childhood use, also to specify the type and the scale of existing drawbacks and problems in the school construction industry, as well as expectations about the contemporary architecture of primary schools and its future changes. Moreover, in the article, based on the analysis of the available specialist’s literature, the following are broadly discussed: the general division and characterization of school spaces, issues related to the influence of selected components of the architectural environment on the physical, mental and psychological safety of children. Furthermore, the author raises the subject of the influence of the architectural interiors and furniture on the mood, emotions or comfort of children in the early school age, based on the anthropometric characteristics of children and issues related to the perception of space with an extra

  19. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Economic considerations and patients' preferences affect treatment selection for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a discrete choice experiment among European rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hifinger, M.; Hiligsmann, M.; Ramiro, S.; Watson, V.; Severens, J. L.; Fautrel, B.; Uhlig, T.; van Vollenhoven, R.; Jacques, P.; Detert, J.; Canas da Silva, J.; Scirè, C. A.; Berghea, F.; Carmona, L.; Péntek, M.; Keat, A.; Boonen, A.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the value that rheumatologists across Europe attach to patients' preferences and economic aspects when choosing treatments for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a discrete choice experiment, European rheumatologists chose between two hypothetical drug treatments for a patient with

  1. On the Correspondence between Preference Assessment Outcomes and Progressive-Ratio Schedule Assessments of Stimulus Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Frank, Michelle A.; Gregory, Meagan K.; Allman, Melissa J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether stimuli of different preference levels would be associated with different amounts of work maintained by the stimuli, as determined through progressive-ratio schedule break points. Using a paired-choice preference assessment, stimuli were classified as high, moderate, or low preference for 4 individuals with…

  2. Promoting the use of personally relevant stimuli for investigating patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Fabien; Castro, Maïté; Tillmann, Barbara; Luauté, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimuli are used to evaluate and to restore cognitive functions and consciousness in patients with a disorder of consciousness (DOC) following a severe brain injury. Although sophisticated protocols can help assessing higher order cognitive functions and awareness, one major drawback is their lack of sensitivity. The aim of the present review is to show that stimulus selection is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the state of patients with disorders of consciousness as it determines the levels of processing that the patient can have with stimulation from his/her environment. The probability to observe a behavioral response or a cerebral response is increased when her/his personal history and/or her/his personal preferences are taken into account. We show that personally relevant stimuli (i.e., with emotional, autobiographical, or self-related characteristics) are associated with clearer signs of perception than are irrelevant stimuli in patients with DOC. Among personally relevant stimuli, music appears to be a promising clinical tool as it boosts perception and cognition in patients with DOC and could also serve as a prognostic tool. We suggest that the effect of music on cerebral processes in patients might reflect the music's capacity to act both on the external and internal neural networks supporting consciousness.

  3. Promoting the use of personally-relevant stimuli for investigating patients with disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien ePerrin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensory stimuli are used to evaluate and to restore cognitive functions and consciousness in patients with a disorder of consciousness (DOC following a severe brain injury. Although sophisticated protocols can help assessing higher order cognitive functions and awareness, one major drawback is their lack of sensitivity. The aim of the present review is to show that stimulus selection is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the state of patients with disorders of consciousness as it determines the levels of processing that the patient can have with stimulation from his/her environment. The probability to observe a behavioral response or a cerebral response is increased when her/his personal history and/or her/his personal preferences are taken into account. We show that personally-relevant stimuli (i.e. with emotional, autobiographical or self-related characteristics are associated with clearer signs of perception than are irrelevant stimuli in patients with DOC. Among personally-relevant stimuli, music appears to be a promising clinical tool as it boosts perception and cognition in patients with DOC and could also serve as a prognostic tool. We suggest that the effect of music on cerebral processes in patients might reflect the music’s capacity to act both on the external and internal neural networks supporting consciousness.

  4. Winning the Popularity Contest: Researcher Preference When Selecting Resources for Civil Engineering, Computer Science, Mathematics and Physics Dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Daniel S.; Franks, Tina P.

    2015-01-01

    More than 53,000 citations from 609 dissertations published at The Ohio State University between 1998-2012 representing four science disciplines--civil engineering, computer science, mathematics and physics--were examined to determine what, if any, preferences or trends exist. This case study seeks to identify whether or not researcher preferences…

  5. The Effect of Differentiated Video Presentation Formats on Community College Students' Preferences for Selected Excerpts of Western Classical Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tracey Jean

    2009-01-01

    This study was an examination of participants' preference for classical music excerpts presented in differentiated types of music video formats. Participants (N = 83) were volunteer students enrolled in intact music appreciation classes at a suburban community college located in a Midwestern city. Participants listened to and viewed music video…

  6. Selecting and Using Information Sources: Source Preferences and Information Pathways of Israeli Library and Information Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The study investigated the source preference criteria of library and information science students for their academic and personal information needs. Method: The empirical study was based on two methods of data collection. Eighteen participants wrote a personal diary for four months in which they recorded search episodes and answered…

  7. Experimental evaluation of imprinting and the role innate preference plays in habitat selection in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Danielle L; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L; Planes, Serge; Pratchett, Morgan S; Thorrold, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    When facing decisions about where to live, juveniles have a strong tendency to choose habitats similar to where their parents successfully bred. Developing larval fishes can imprint on the chemical cues from their natal habitat. However, to demonstrate that imprinting is ecologically important, it must be shown that settlers respond and distinguish among different imprinted cues, and use imprinting for decisions in natural environments. In addition, the potential role innate preferences play compared to imprinted choices also needs to be examined. As environmental variability increases due to anthropogenic causes these two recognition mechanisms, innate and imprinting, could provide conflicting information. Here we used laboratory rearing and chemical choice experiments to test imprinting in larval anemonefish (Amphiprion percula). Individuals exposed to a variety of benthic habitat or novel olfactory cues as larvae either developed a preference for (spent >50% of their time in the cue) or increased their attraction to (increased preference but did not spend >50% of their time in the cue) the cue when re-exposed as settlers. Results indicate not only the capacity for imprinting but also the ability to adjust innate preferences after early exposure to a chemical cue. To test ecological relevance in the natural system, recruits were collected from anemones and related to their parents, using genetic parentage analysis, providing information on the natal anemone species and the species chosen at settlement. Results demonstrated that recruits did not preferentially return to their natal species, conflicting with laboratory results indicating the importance imprinting might have in habitat recognition.

  8. 20 CFR 404.2021 - What is our order of preference in selecting a representative payee for you?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate; or (5) A family member. (c) For beneficiaries under age 18, our preference is— (1) A natural or adoptive parent who has custody of the beneficiary, or a guardian; (2) A natural or adoptive parent who... demonstrating strong concern for the beneficiary's well being; (3) A natural or adoptive parent who does not...

  9. 20 CFR 416.621 - What is our order of preference in selecting a representative payee for you?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family member. (c) For beneficiaries under age 18, our preference is— (1) A natural or adoptive parent who has custody of the beneficiary, or a guardian; (2) A natural or adoptive parent who does not have... strong concern for the beneficiary's well being; (3) A natural or adoptive parent who does not have...

  10. PURCHASE PREFERENCE OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN MOTORCYCLE BUYERS: THE DISCRIMINATING ROLE OF PERCEPTION OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF BRAND AND ETHNOCENTRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neoh Chee Yeong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of country of origin on the evaluation of products and purchase intention has been studied for decades. However, this paradigm has shifted where nowadays, products are typically designed in one country, manufactured in another and assembled elsewhere which led to the proliferation of "hybrid products". Consumers are confused and are no longer able to identify or recognize the difference between country of origin of brand and country of assembly or country of product design which, in turn, may lead towrong purchasing decisions. The objective of this study is to understand the variables influencing consumers' purchase preference related to motorcycles in the Malaysian market. Results have confirmed that country of origin of brand and consumer ethnocentrism influence consumer purchase preference. Implications of the results and directions for future researches are also discussed.

  11. Impact of selected personal factors on seasonal variability of recreationist weather perceptions and preferences in Warsaw (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner-Cendrowska, Katarzyna; Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Weather and climate are important natural resources for tourism and recreation, although sometimes they can make outdoor leisure activities less satisfying or even impossible. The aim of this work was to determine weather perception seasonal variability of people staying outdoors in urban environment for tourism and recreation, as well as to determine if personal factors influence estimation of recreationist actual biometeorological conditions and personal expectations towards weather elements. To investigate how human thermal sensations vary upon meteorological conditions typical for temperate climate, weather perception field researches were conducted in Warsaw (Poland) in all seasons. Urban recreationists' preference for slightly warm thermal conditions, sunny, windless and cloudless weather, were identified as well as PET values considered to be optimal for sightseeing were defined between 27.3 and 31.7 °C. The results confirmed existence of phenomena called alliesthesia, which manifested in divergent thermal perception of comparable biometeorological conditions in transitional seasons. The results suggest that recreationist thermal sensations differed from other interviewees' responses and were affected not only by physiological processes but they were also conditioned by psychological factors (i.e. attitude, expectations). Significant impact of respondents' place of origin and its climate on creating thermal sensations and preferences was observed. Sex and age influence thermal preferences, whereas state of acclimatization is related with thermal sensations to some point.

  12. Why and how selection patterns in classroom networks differ between students.The potential influence of networks size preferences, level of information, and group membership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baerveldt, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High school students can select class mates for new friendships using a repertoire of patterns. They can actively pursue new friendships, make use of the existing network structure, and/ or use the scarce and often erroneous information about candidates. In this theoretical paper, we argue that such selection patterns should not be studied as the result of general rules, as is usually done in social network studies. Specifically, we state that network size preferences, the level of information about individual attributes of fellow classmates, and group membership are likely to differ among high school students, and that as a result, also their selection patterns are likely to be different. In this paper we sketch the theoretical articulations between these.

  13. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  14. Developing Affective Mental Imagery Stimuli with Multidimensional Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Facciani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to provide an example of how multidimensional scaling (MDS can be used for stimuli development. The study described in this paper illustrates this process by developing affective mental imagery stimuli using the circumplex model of affect as a guide. The circumplex model of affect argues that all emotions can be described in terms of two underlying primary dimensions: valence and arousal (Russel, 1980. We used MDS to determine if affective mental imagery stimuli obtained from verbal prompts could be separated by arousal and valence to create four distinct categories (high –positive, low-positive, high-negative, and low-negative as seen in other stimuli. 60 students from the University of South Carolina participated in the first experiment to evaluate three sets of stimuli. After being analyzed using MDS, selected stimuli were then assessed again in a second experiment to validate their robust valence and arousal distinctions. The second experiment was conducted with 34 subjects to validate 40 of the best stimuli from experiment 1. It was found that mental imagery stimuli can produce a reliable affective response for the dimensions of valence and arousal and that MDS can be an effective tool for stimuli development.

  15. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  16. [Biological and neural bases of partner preferences in rodents: models to understand human pair bonds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, G A; Hernández-Aguilar, M E; Toledo-Cárdenas, R; García-Hernández, L I; Manzo, J; Pacheco, P; Miquel, M; Pfaus, J G

    To analyse the biological and neural bases of partner preference formation in rodents as models to understand human pair bonding. Rodents are social individuals, capable of forming short- or long-lasting partner preferences that develop slowly by stimuli like cohabitation, or rapidly by stimuli like sex and stress. Dopamine, corticosteroids, oxytocin, vasopressin, and opioids form the neurochemical substrate for pair bonding in areas like the nucleus accumbens, the prefrontal cortex, the piriform cortex, the medial preoptic area, the ventral tegmental area and the medial amygdala, among others. Additional areas may participate depending on the nature of the conditioned stimuli by which and individual recognizes a preferred partner. Animal models help us understand that the capacity of an individual to display long-lasting and selective preferences depends on neural bases, selected throughout evolution. The challenge in neuroscience is to use this knowledge to create new solutions for mental problems associated with the incapacity of an individual to display a social bond, keep one, or cope with the disruption of a consolidated one.

  17. An evidence-based approach to case management model selection for an acute care facility: is there really a preferred model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Sandra M

    2007-01-01

    This research seeks to determine whether there is adequate evidence-based justification for selection of one acute care case management model over another. Acute Inpatient Hospital. This article presents a systematic review of published case management literature, resulting in classification specific to terms of level of evidence. This review examines the best available evidence in an effort to select an acute care case management model. Although no single case management model can be identified as preferred, it is clear that adequate evidence-based literature exists to acknowledge key factors driving the acute care model and to form a foundation for the efficacy of hospital case management practice. Although no single case management model can be identified as preferred, this systematic review demonstrates that adequate evidence-based literature exists to acknowledge key factors driving the acute care model and forming a foundation for the efficacy of hospital case management practice. Distinctive aspects of case management frameworks can be used to guide the development of an acute care case management model. The study illustrates: * The effectiveness of case management when there is direct patient contact by the case manager regardless of disease condition: not only does the quality of care increase but also length of stay (LOS) decreases, care is defragmented, and both patient and physician satisfaction can increase. * The preferred case management models result in measurable outcomes that can directly relate to, and demonstrate alignment with, organizational strategy. * Acute care management programs reduce cost and LOS, and improve outcomes. * An integrated case management program that includes social workers, as well as nursing, is the most effective acute care management model. * The successful case management model will recognize physicians, as well as patients, as valued customers with whom partnership can positively affect financial outcomes in terms of

  18. Testing the prediction from sexual selection of a positive genetic correlation between human mate preferences and corresponding traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Burri, A.V.; Zietsch, B.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection can cause evolution in traits that affect mating success, and it has thus been implicated in the evolution of human physical and behavioural traits that influence attractiveness. We use a large sample of identical and nonidentical female twins to test the prediction from mate choice

  19. Tertiary Education: An Investigation of Location Selection Criteria and Preferences by International Students--The Case of Two Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Binta; Shanka, Tekle; Muuka, Gerry Nkombo

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies and analyzes factors that influence international student selection of universities and the role that education marketing plays in the process. The research for the paper was inspired by work done by Canterbury on education marketing, published in the "Journal of Marketing for Higher Education". The study…

  20. Brain serotonin signaling does not determine sexual preference in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Angoa-Pérez

    Full Text Available It was reported recently that male mice lacking brain serotonin (5-HT lose their preference for females (Liu et al., 2011, Nature, 472, 95-100, suggesting a role for 5-HT signaling in sexual preference. Regulation of sex preference by 5-HT lies outside of the well established roles in this behavior established for the vomeronasal organ (VNO and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE. Presently, mice with a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2, which are depleted of brain 5-HT, were tested for sexual preference. When presented with inanimate (urine scents from male or estrous female or animate (male or female mouse in estrus sexual stimuli, TPH2-/- males show a clear preference for female over male stimuli. When a TPH2-/- male is offered the simultaneous choice between an estrous female and a male mouse, no sexual preference is expressed. However, when confounding behaviors that are seen among 3 mice in the same cage are controlled, TPH2-/- mice, like their TPH2+/+ counterparts, express a clear preference for female mice. Female TPH2-/- mice are preferred by males over TPH2+/+ females but this does not lead to increased pregnancy success. In fact, if one or both partners in a mating pair are TPH2-/- in genotype, pregnancy success rates are significantly decreased. Finally, expression of the VNO-specific cation channel TRPC2 and of CNGA2 in the MOE of TPH2-/- mice is normal, consistent with behavioral findings that sexual preference of TPH2-/- males for females is intact. In conclusion, 5-HT signaling in brain does not determine sexual preference in male mice. The use of pharmacological agents that are non-selective for the 5-HT neuronal system and that have serious adverse effects may have contributed historically to the stance that 5-HT regulates sexual behavior, including sex partner preference.

  1. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  2. Pharmacology of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, HN-56249: a novel compound exhibiting a marked preference for the human enzyme in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J; Fellier, H; Christoph, T; Kremminger, P; Hartmann, M; Blaschke, H; Rovensky, F; Towart, R; Stimmeder, D

    2000-04-01

    human and murine COX-2 approximately equipotently. In conclusion, HN-56249 is a novel potent and highly selective COX-2 inhibitor with a marked preference for the human COX-2 enzyme in vitro. Despite excellent bioavailability and the long plasma half-life of HN-56249, anti-inflammatory effects in rodents were only moderate. We suggest these differing in vitro-in vivo effects observed could be due to significant inflammatory prostaglandin synthesis by COX-1, or to the genetic differences between human and rodent COX-2, or to both.

  3. Preschool-Age Children and Adults Flexibly Shift Their Preferences for Auditory versus Visual Modalities but Do Not Exhibit Auditory Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the claim that young children display preferences for auditory stimuli over visual stimuli. This study was motivated by concerns that the visual stimuli employed in prior studies were considerably more complex and less distinctive than the competing auditory stimuli, resulting in an illusory preference for…

  4. Structural basis of subunit selectivity for competitive NMDA receptor antagonists with preference for GluN2A over GluN2B subunits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Genevieve E.; Mou, Tung-Chung; Tamborini, Lucia; Pomper, Martin G.; De Micheli, Carlo; Conti, Paola; Pinto, Andrea; Hansen, Kasper B. (JHU); (Milan); (Montana)

    2017-07-31

    NMDA-type glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that contribute to excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Most NMDA receptors comprise two glycine-binding GluN1 and two glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits (GluN2A–D). We describe highly potent (S)-5-[(R)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (ACEPC) competitive GluN2 antagonists, of which ST3 has a binding affinity of 52 nM at GluN1/2A and 782 nM at GluN1/2B receptors. This 15-fold preference of ST3 for GluN1/2A over GluN1/2B is improved compared with NVP-AAM077, a widely used GluN2A-selective antagonist, which we show has 11-fold preference for GluN1/2A over GluN1/2B. Crystal structures of the GluN1/2A agonist binding domain (ABD) heterodimer with bound ACEPC antagonists reveal a binding mode in which the ligands occupy a cavity that extends toward the subunit interface between GluN1 and GluN2A ABDs. Mutational analyses show that the GluN2A preference of ST3 is primarily mediated by four nonconserved residues that are not directly contacting the ligand, but positioned within 12 Å of the glutamate binding site. Two of these residues influence the cavity occupied by ST3 in a manner that results in favorable binding to GluN2A, but occludes binding to GluN2B. Thus, we reveal opportunities for the design of subunit-selective competitive NMDA receptor antagonists by identifying a cavity for ligand binding in which variations exist between GluN2A and GluN2B subunits. This structural insight suggests that subunit selectivity of glutamate-site antagonists can be mediated by mechanisms in addition to direct contributions of contact residues to binding affinity.

  5. Time-of-day effects in implicit racial in-group preferences are likely selection effects, not circadian rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Schofield

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-day effects in human psychological functioning have been known of since the 1800s. However, outside of research specifically focused on the quantification of circadian rhythms, their study has largely been neglected. Moves toward online data collection now mean that psychological investigations take place around the clock, which affords researchers the ability to easily study time-of-day effects. Recent analyses have shown, for instance, that implicit attitudes have time-of-day effects. The plausibility that these effects indicate circadian rhythms rather than selection effects is considered in the current study. There was little evidence that the time-of-day effects in implicit attitudes shifted appropriately with factors known to influence the time of circadian rhythms. Moreover, even variables that cannot logically show circadian rhythms demonstrated stronger time-of-day effects than did implicit attitudes. Taken together, these results suggest that time-of-day effects in implicit attitudes are more likely to represent processes of selection rather than circadian rhythms, but do not rule out the latter possibility.

  6. Time-of-day effects in implicit racial in-group preferences are likely selection effects, not circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Time-of-day effects in human psychological functioning have been known of since the 1800s. However, outside of research specifically focused on the quantification of circadian rhythms, their study has largely been neglected. Moves toward online data collection now mean that psychological investigations take place around the clock, which affords researchers the ability to easily study time-of-day effects. Recent analyses have shown, for instance, that implicit attitudes have time-of-day effects. The plausibility that these effects indicate circadian rhythms rather than selection effects is considered in the current study. There was little evidence that the time-of-day effects in implicit attitudes shifted appropriately with factors known to influence the time of circadian rhythms. Moreover, even variables that cannot logically show circadian rhythms demonstrated stronger time-of-day effects than did implicit attitudes. Taken together, these results suggest that time-of-day effects in implicit attitudes are more likely to represent processes of selection rather than circadian rhythms, but do not rule out the latter possibility.

  7. Why Did You Choose This Pet?: Adopters and Pet Selection Preferences in Five Animal Shelters in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Emily; Miller, Katherine; Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Vela, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary This study examined reasons why adopters chose their pet in an animal shelter, what behaviors were first exhibited by the pet to the adopter, what information was important during their selection process, and the relative importance of seeing the animals’ behavior in various contexts. Abstract Responses from an adopter survey (n = 1,491) determined reasons for pet selection, type of information received by the adopter, and the context in which the animal’s behavior was observed. Appearance of the animal, social behavior with adopter, and personality were the top reasons for adoption across species and age groups. Most adopters stated that information about the animal from a staff member or volunteer was more important than information on cage cards, and health and behavior information was particularly important. Adopters found greater importance in interacting with the animal rather than viewing it in its kennel. The results of this study can be used by shelters to create better adoption matches, prioritize shelter resources and staff training, and potentially increase adoptions. Additionally, some simple training techniques are suggested to facilitate adopter-friendly behaviors from sheltered dogs and cats. PMID:26486914

  8. Emotional stimuli and motor conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voon, V.; Brezing, C.; Gallea, C.; Ameli, R.; Roelofs, K.; LaFrance, W.C.; Hallett, M.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli,

  9. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung W.; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kuster, John K.; Blood, Anne J.; Kuhnen, Camelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA) are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT) has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT), but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information), and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics. PMID:26394306

  10. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Lee

    Full Text Available Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT, but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information, and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics.

  11. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung J; Kim, Byoung W; Gilman, Jodi M; Kuster, John K; Blood, Anne J; Kuhnen, Camelia M; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA) are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT) has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT), but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information), and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics.

  12. Novel stimuli are negative stimuli: evidence that negative affect is reduced in the mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brent M; Elias, Lorin J

    2005-04-01

    Repeated exposure of a nonreinforced stimulus results in an increased preference for that stimulus, the mere exposure effect. The present study repeatedly presented positive, negative, and neutrally affective faces to 48 participants while they made judgments about the emotional expression. Participants then rated the likeability of novel neutrally expressive faces and some of these previously presented faces, this time in their neutral expression. Faces originally presented as happy were rated as the most likeable, followed by faces originally presented as neutral. Negative and novel faces were not rated significantly differently from each other. These findings support the notion that the increase in preference towards repeatedly presented stimuli is the result of the reduction in negative affect, consistent with the modified two-factor uncertainty-reduction model and classical conditioning model of the mere exposure effect.

  13. Why Did You Choose This Pet?: Adopters and Pet Selection Preferences in Five Animal Shelters in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Responses from an adopter survey (n = 1,491 determined reasons for pet selection, type of information received by the adopter, and the context in which the animal’s behavior was observed. Appearance of the animal, social behavior with adopter, and personality were the top reasons for adoption across species and age groups. Most adopters stated that information about the animal from a staff member or volunteer was more important than information on cage cards, and health and behavior information was particularly important. Adopters found greater importance in interacting with the animal rather than viewing it in its kennel. The results of this study can be used by shelters to create better adoption matches, prioritize shelter resources and staff training, and potentially increase adoptions. Additionally, some simple training techniques are suggested to facilitate adopter-friendly behaviors from sheltered dogs and cats.

  14. A newly developed highly selective Zn2+-AcO- ion-pair sensor through partner preference: equal efficiency under solitary and colonial situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karar, Monaj; Paul, Suvendu; Biswas, Bhaskar; Majumdar, Tapas; Mallick, Arabinda

    2018-05-10

    Unusual self-sorting of an ion-pair under highly crowded conditions driven by a synthesized intelligent molecule 2-((E)-(3-((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)-2-hydroxypropyl imino)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol, hereafter HBP, is described. When a mixture of various metal salts was allowed to react with HBP, only a specific ion-pair ZnII/AcO- in the solution simultaneously reacted, resulting in high-fidelity ion-pair recognition of HBP. This phenomenon was evidenced by significant changes in the absorption spectra and huge enhancement in emission intensity of HBP. The property that one molecule preferring one particular cation-anion pair over others is a rare but interesting phenomenon. Thus, the potential to interact selectively with the targeted ion-pair resulting in the formation of a specific complex recognized HBP as a new class of molecule that might find future applications in real time and on-site monitoring and separation of new molecules.

  15. The Relationship Between the Learning Style Perceptual Preferences of Urban Fourth Grade Children and the Acquisition of Selected Physical Science Concepts Through Learning Cycle Instructional Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Mark

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade urban students and the attainment of selected physical science concepts for three simple machines as taught using learning cycle methodology. The sample included all fourth grade children from one urban elementary school (N = 91). The research design followed a quasi-experimental format with a single group, equivalent teacher demonstration and student investigation materials, and identical learning cycle instructional treatment. All subjects completed the Understanding Simple Machines Test (USMT) prior to instructional treatment, and at the conclusion of treatment to measure student concept attainment related to the pendulum, the lever and fulcrum, and the inclined plane. USMT pre and post-test scores, California Achievement Test (CAT-5) percentile scores, and Learning Style Inventory (LSI) standard scores for four perceptual elements for each subject were held in a double blind until completion of the USMT post-test. The hypothesis tested in this study was: Learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade students as measured by the Dunn, Dunn, and Price Learning Style Inventory (LSI) are significant predictors of success in the acquisition of physical science concepts taught through use of the learning cycle. Analysis of pre and post USMT scores, 18.18 and 30.20 respectively, yielded a significant mean gain of +12.02. A controlled stepwise regression was employed to identify significant predictors of success on the USMT post-test from among USMT pre-test, four CAT-5 percentile scores, and four LSI perceptual standard scores. The CAT -5 Total Math and Total Reading accounted for 64.06% of the variance in the USMT post-test score. The only perceptual element to act as a significant predictor was the Kinesthetic standard score, accounting for 1.72% of the variance. The study revealed that learning cycle instruction does not appear

  16. Benchmarking whole-building energy performance with multi-criteria technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution using a selective objective-weighting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Endong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A TOPSIS based multi-criteria whole-building energy benchmarking is developed. • A selective objective-weighting procedure is used for a cost-accuracy tradeoff. • Results from a real case validated the benefits of the presented approach. - Abstract: This paper develops a robust multi-criteria Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) based building energy efficiency benchmarking approach. The approach is explicitly selective to address multicollinearity trap due to the subjectivity in selecting energy variables by considering cost-accuracy trade-off. It objectively weights the relative importance of individual pertinent efficiency measuring criteria using either multiple linear regression or principal component analysis contingent on meta data quality. Through this approach, building energy performance is comprehensively evaluated and optimized. Simultaneously, the significant challenges associated with conventional single-criterion benchmarking models can be avoided. Together with a clustering algorithm on a three-year panel dataset, the benchmarking case of 324 single-family dwellings demonstrated an improved robustness of the presented multi-criteria benchmarking approach over the conventional single-criterion ones

  17. The relationship of music preferences and the selected risk-taking and autodestructive behaviour among teenage girls subject to inpatient stay due to mental condition – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krajewska

    2017-03-01

    substances, nor the psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions: Girls subject to inpatient stay at the mental ward most often preferred hip-hop. No significant relationship of the preference over a particular music genre and the number of autodestructive and risky behaviour was observed; only tendencies for more frequent selection of particular genres of music were visible.

  18. Effects of acoustical stimuli delivered through hearing aids on tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetow, Robert W; Sabes, Jennifer Henderson

    2010-01-01

    range of preferences observed for fractal settings, with most participants preferring fractals with a slow or medium tempo and restricted dynamic range. The majority (86%) indicated that it was easier to relax while listening to fractal signals. Participants had preferences for certain programs and fractal characteristics. Although seven participants rated the noise-only condition as providing the least tinnitus annoyance, only two opted to have noise only as a program during the field trial, and none selected the noise-only condition as the preferred setting. Furthermore, while all four of the experienced hearing aid users selected noise as producing the least annoying tinnitus in the laboratory, only one selected it for field wear. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire scores were improved over the course of the 6 mo trial, with clinically significant improvements occurring for over half of the participants on at least one of the measures. The results suggest that use of acoustic stimuli, particularly fractal tones, delivered though hearing aids can provide amplification while allowing for relief for some tinnitus sufferers. It is important to recognize, however, that tinnitus management procedures need to be supplemented with appropriate counseling. American Academy of Audiology.

  19. Teachers' preferences towards textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Darko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the method named Conjoint analysis, and with the goal of determining teacher's preferences in the process of textbook selection, and also defining the prototype of quality textbook which will could be used in the classroom. With consideration of criteria defined in the previous researches on this topic, an continuing the work on those results, we will create clear hypothetical prototype of the textbook which will satisfy the teacher's preference.

  20. The esthetic preference of Chinese typefaces--an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Qin, Ruilin; Zhang, Junsong; Wu, Junjie; Zhou, Changle

    2015-02-19

    Emotional stimuli such as pictures, logos, geometric shapes, etc can evoke human esthetic preference from previous neuroesthetic studies. Chinese characters can be considered as emotional stimuli as they have an important property: typeface. Intuitively, the emotional meaning of Chinese characters can cause esthetic preference. However, whether a typeface can cause esthetic preference or not from an empirical perspective is still unknown. To address this issue, participants׳ event-related potential (ERP) waves are recorded while they are presented a series of Chinese characters in different typefaces. Participants are asked to distinguish specific target from the others. Afterwards, from the Chinese characters presented in this task, participants are asked individually to select the characters they like the most and dislike the most. By recording the ERP responses (a response of implicit preference to Chinese characters themselves) during the experiment to different typefaces of Chinese characters, we find a significant difference between disliked and all characters in the frontal-central area in the 200-300 ms window after the stimulus׳ onset. In the 400-600 ms window, after the stimulus׳ onset, a significant bias for disliked characters emerges in frontal, central, parietal and occipital areas. Our results suggest that people could make a rapid, implicit esthetic preference for the typefaces of Chinese characters. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Post-Coma Persons with Motor and Communication/Consciousness Impairments Choose among Environmental Stimuli and Request Stimulus Repetitions via Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Oliva, Doretta; Megna, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether a program based on microswitch and computer technology would enable three post-coma participants (adults) with motor and communication/consciousness impairments to choose among environmental stimuli and request their repetition whenever they so desired. Within each session, 16 stimuli (12 preferred and 4 non-preferred)…

  2. Perceptual load modifies processing of unattended stimuli both in the presence and absence of attended stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couperus, J W

    2010-11-26

    This study explored effects of perceptual load on stimulus processing in the presence and absence of an attended stimulus. Participants were presented with a bilateral or unilateral display and asked to perform a discrimination task at either low or high perceptual load. Electrophysiological responses to stimuli were then compared at the P100 and N100. As in previous studies, perceptual load modified processing of attended and unattended stimuli seen at occipital scalp sites. Moreover, perceptual load modulated attention effects when the attended stimulus was presented at high perceptual load for unilateral displays. However, this was not true when the attended and unattended stimulus appeared simultaneously in bilateral displays. Instead, only a main effect of perceptual load was found. Reductions in processing contralateral to the unattended stimulus at the N100 provide support for Lavie's (1995) theory of selective attention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Selective D3 Receptor Antagonist SB277011A Attenuates Morphine-Triggered Reactivation of Expression of Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Onarae V.; Heidbreder, Christian A.; Gardner, Eliot L.; Schonhar, Charles D.; Ashby, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of acute administration of the selective D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A on morphine-triggered reactivation of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Repeated pairing of animals with 15 mg/kg i.p. of cocaine HCl or vehicle to cue-specific CPP chambers produced a significant CPP response compared to animals paired only with vehicle in both chambers. Expression of the CPP response to cocaine was then extinguished by repeatedly giving the animals vehicle injections in the cocaine-paired chambers. The magnitude of the CPP response after extinction was not significantly different from that of animals paired only with vehicle. Expression of the extinguished CPP response was reactivated by acute administration of 5 mg/kg i.p. of morphine but not by vehicle. Acute administration of 6 or 12 mg/kg i.p. (but not 3 mg/kg) of SB277011A significantly attenuated morphine-triggered reactivation of the cocaine-induced CPP. SB277011A itself (12 mg/kg i.p.) did not reactivate the extinguished CPP response. Overall, SB277011 decreases the incentive motivational actions of morphine. The present findings suggest that central D3 dopamine receptors are involved in relapse to cocaine-seeking behavior that a final common neural mechanism exists to mediate the incentive motivational effects of psychostimulants and opiates, and that selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists constitute promising compounds for treating addiction. PMID:23404528

  4. Age-related differences in attention and memory toward emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dandan; Han, Buxin

    2015-09-01

    From the perspectives of time perception and motivation, socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) postulates that in comparison with younger adults, older adults tend to prefer positive stimuli and avoid negative stimuli. Currently the cross-cultural consistency of this positivity effect (PE) is still not clear. While empirical evidence for Western populations is accumulating, the validation of the PE in Asians is still rare. The current study compared 28 younger and 24 older Chinese adults in the processing of emotional information. Eye-tracking and recognition data of participants in processing pictures with positive, negative, or neutral emotional information sampled from the International Affection Picture System were collected. The results showed less negative bias for emotional attention in older adults than in younger adults, whereas for emotional recognition, only younger adults showed a negative bias while older adults showed no bias between negative and positive emotional information. Overall, compared with younger adults, emotional processing was more positive in older adults. It was concluded that Chinese older adults show a PE. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Emotional Stimuli and Motor Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Roelofs, Karin; LaFrance, W. Curt, Jr.; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to…

  6. Exposure is not enough: suppressing stimuli from awareness can abolish the mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zilva, Daniel; Vu, Luke; Newell, Ben R; Pearson, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Passive exposure to neutral stimuli increases subsequent liking of those stimuli--the mere exposure effect. Because of the broad implications for understanding and controlling human preferences, the role of conscious awareness in mere exposure has received much attention. Previous studies have claimed that the mere exposure effect can occur without conscious awareness of the stimuli. In two experiments, we applied a technique new to the mere exposure literature, called continuous flash suppression, to expose stimuli for a controlled duration with and without awareness. To ensure the reliability of the awareness manipulation, awareness was monitored on a trial-by-trial basis. Our results show that under these conditions the mere exposure effect does not occur without conscious awareness. In contrast, only when participants were aware of the stimuli did exposure increase liking and recognition. Together these data are consistent with the idea that the mere exposure effect requires conscious awareness and has important implications for theories of memory and affect.

  7. Measuring Preference for Supernormal Over Natural Rewards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Goodwin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Supernormal (SN stimuli are artificial products that activate reward pathways and approach behavior more so than naturally occurring stimuli for which these systems were intended. Many modern consumer products (e.g., snack foods, alcohol, and pornography appear to incorporate SN features, leading to excessive consumption, in preference to naturally occurring alternatives. No measure currently exists for the self-report assessment of individual differences or changes in susceptibility to such stimuli. Therefore, an anticipatory pleasure scale was modified to include items that represented both SN and natural (N classes of rewarding stimuli. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution, and as predicted, N and SN items reliably loaded on separate dimensions. Internal reliability for the two scales was high, ρ =.93 and ρ =.90, respectively. The two-dimensional measure was evaluated via regression using the N and SN scale means as predictors and self-reports of daily consumption of 21 products with SN features as outcomes. As expected, SN pleasure ratings were related to higher SN product consumption, while N pleasure ratings had either negative or neutral associations to consumption of these products. We conclude that the resulting two-dimensional measure is a potentially reliable and valid self-report measure of differential preference for SN stimuli. While further evaluation is needed (e.g., using experimental measures, the proposed scale may play a useful role in the study of both trait- and state-based variation in human susceptibility to SN stimuli.

  8. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through…

  9. [Effects of exposure frequency and background information on preferences for photographs of cars in different locations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ken; Kusumi, Takashi; Hosomi, Naohiro; Osa, Atsushi; Miike, Hidetoshi

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the influence of familiarity and novelty on the mere exposure effect while manipulating the presentation of background information. We selected presentation stimuli that integrated cars and backgrounds based on the results of pilot studies. During the exposure phase, we displayed the stimuli successively for 3 seconds, manipulating the background information (same or different backgrounds with each presentation) and exposure frequency (3, 6, and 9 times). In the judgment phase, 18 participants judged the cars in terms of preference, familiarity, and novelty on a 7-point scale. As the number of stimulus presentations increased, the preference for the cars increased during the different background condition and decreased during the same background condition. This increased preference may be due to the increase in familiarity caused by the higher exposure frequency and novelty resulting from the background changes per exposure session. The rise in preference judgments was not seen when cars and backgrounds were presented independently. Therefore, the addition of novel features to each exposure session facilitated the mere exposure effect.

  10. Chemosensory responsiveness to ethanol and its individual sensory components in alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring and genetically heterogeneous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Susan M; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Ketchum, Myles J; Olney, Jeffrey J; Lemon, Christian H

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol activates orosensory circuits that project to motivationally relevant limbic forebrain areas that control appetite, feeding and drinking. To date, limited data exists regarding the contribution of chemosensory-derived ethanol reinforcement to ethanol preference and consumption. Measures of taste reactivity to intra-orally infused ethanol have not found differences in initial orofacial responses to alcohol between alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-non-preferring (NP) genetically selected rat lines. Yet, in voluntary intake tests, P rats prefer highly concentrated ethanol upon initial exposure, suggesting an early sensory-mediated attraction. Here, we directly compared self-initiated chemosensory responding for alcohol and prototypic sweet, bitter and oral trigeminal stimuli among selectively bred P, NP and non-selected Wistar (WI) outbred lines to determine whether differential sensory responsiveness to ethanol and its putative sensory components are phenotypically associated with genetically influenced alcohol preference. Rats were tested for immediate short-term lick responses to alcohol (3-40%), sucrose (0.01-1 M), quinine (0.01-3 mM) and capsaicin (0.003-1 mM) in a brief-access assay designed to index orosensory-guided behavior. P rats exhibited elevated short-term lick responses to both alcohol and sucrose relative to NP and WI lines across a broad range of concentrations of each stimulus and in the absence of blood alcohol levels that would produce significant post-absorptive effects. There was no consistent relationship between genetically mediated alcohol preference and orosensory avoidance of quinine or capsaicin. These data indicate that enhanced initial chemosensory attraction to ethanol and sweet stimuli are phenotypes associated with genetic alcohol preference and are considered within the framework of downstream activation of oral appetitive reward circuits. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of

  11. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  12. Pedophilic brain potential responses to adult erotic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner; Impey, Danielle; Fisher, Derek; Delpero, Emily; Fedoroff, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive mechanisms associated with the relative lack of sexual interest in adults by pedophiles are poorly understood and may benefit from investigations examining how the brain processes adult erotic stimuli. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to investigate the time course of the explicit processing of erotic, emotional, and neutral pictures in 22 pedophilic patients and 22 healthy controls. Consistent with previous studies, early latency anterior ERP components were highly selective for erotic pictures. Although the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli were similar in patients and controls, an early frontal positive (P2) component starting as early as 185 ms was significantly attenuated and slow to onset in pedophilia, and correlated with a clinical measure of cognitive distortions. Failure of rapid attentional capture by erotic stimuli suggests a relative reduction in early processing in pedophilic patients which may be associated with relatively diminished sexual interest in adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Selectively bred crossed high-alcohol-preferring mice drink to intoxication and develop functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization during free-choice ethanol access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Kasten, Chelsea R; Boehm, Stephen L; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Crossed high-alcohol-preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines and demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. In this report, we investigated the relationship between free-choice drinking, intoxication, tolerance, and sensitization in cHAP mice. We hypothesized that initially mice would become ataxic after drinking alcohol, but that increased drinking over days would be accompanied by increasing tolerance to the ataxic effects of ethanol (EtOH). Male and female cHAP mice had free-choice access to 10% EtOH and water (E), while Water mice (W) had access to water alone. In experiment 1, the first drinking experience was monitored during the dark portion of the cycle. Once E mice reached an average intake rate of ≥1.5 g/kg/h, they, along with W mice, were tested for footslips on a balance beam, and BECs were assessed. In experiments 2, 3, and 4, after varying durations of free-choice 10% EtOH access (0, 3, 14, or 21 days), mice were challenged with 20% EtOH and tested for number of footslips on a balance beam or locomotor stimulant response. Blood was sampled for BEC determination. We found that cHAP mice rapidly acquire alcohol intakes that lead to ataxia. Over time, cHAP mice developed behavioral tolerance to the ataxic effects of alcohol, paralleled by escalating alcohol consumption. However, locomotor sensitization did not develop following 14 days of free-choice EtOH access. Overall, we observed increases in free-choice drinking with extended alcohol access paralleled by increases in functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization. These data support our hypothesis that escalating free-choice drinking over days in cHAP mice is driven by tolerance to alcohol's behavioral effects. These data are the first to demonstrate that escalating free-choice consumption is accompanied by increasing alcohol tolerance. In

  14. Do lions Panthera leo actively select prey or do prey preferences simply reflect chance responses via evolutionary adaptations to optimal foraging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt W Hayward

    Full Text Available Research on coursing predators has revealed that actions throughout the predatory behavioral sequence (using encounter rate, hunting rate, and kill rate as proxy measures of decisions drive observed prey preferences. We tested whether similar actions drive the observed prey preferences of a stalking predator, the African lion Panthera leo. We conducted two 96 hour, continuous follows of lions in Addo Elephant National Park seasonally from December 2003 until November 2005 (16 follows, and compared prey encounter rate with prey abundance, hunt rate with prey encounter rate, and kill rate with prey hunt rate for the major prey species in Addo using Jacobs' electivity index. We found that lions encountered preferred prey species far more frequently than expected based on their abundance, and they hunted these species more frequently than expected based on this higher encounter rate. Lions responded variably to non-preferred and avoided prey species throughout the predatory sequence, although they hunted avoided prey far less frequently than expected based on the number of encounters of them. We conclude that actions of lions throughout the predatory behavioural sequence, but particularly early on, drive the prey preferences that have been documented for this species. Once a hunt is initiated, evolutionary adaptations to the predator-prey interactions drive hunting success.

  15. Do lions Panthera leo actively select prey or do prey preferences simply reflect chance responses via evolutionary adaptations to optimal foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Matt W; Hayward, Gina J; Tambling, Craig J; Kerley, Graham I H

    2011-01-01

    Research on coursing predators has revealed that actions throughout the predatory behavioral sequence (using encounter rate, hunting rate, and kill rate as proxy measures of decisions) drive observed prey preferences. We tested whether similar actions drive the observed prey preferences of a stalking predator, the African lion Panthera leo. We conducted two 96 hour, continuous follows of lions in Addo Elephant National Park seasonally from December 2003 until November 2005 (16 follows), and compared prey encounter rate with prey abundance, hunt rate with prey encounter rate, and kill rate with prey hunt rate for the major prey species in Addo using Jacobs' electivity index. We found that lions encountered preferred prey species far more frequently than expected based on their abundance, and they hunted these species more frequently than expected based on this higher encounter rate. Lions responded variably to non-preferred and avoided prey species throughout the predatory sequence, although they hunted avoided prey far less frequently than expected based on the number of encounters of them. We conclude that actions of lions throughout the predatory behavioural sequence, but particularly early on, drive the prey preferences that have been documented for this species. Once a hunt is initiated, evolutionary adaptations to the predator-prey interactions drive hunting success.

  16. "There is such a thing as too many daughters, but not too many sons": A qualitative study of son preference and fetal sex selection among Indian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sunita; Adams, Vincanne; Ivey, Susan; Nachtigall, Robert D

    2011-04-01

    In response to concerns from feminists, demographers, bioethicists, journalists, and health care professionals, the Indian government passed legislation in 1994 and 2003 prohibiting the use of sex selection technology and sex-selective abortion. In contrast, South Asian families immigrating to the United States find themselves in an environment where reproductive choice is protected by law and technologies enabling sex selection are readily available. Yet there has been little research exploring immigrant Indian women's narratives about the pressure they face to have sons, the process of deciding to utilize sex selection technologies, and the physical and emotional health implications of both son preference and sex selection. We undertook semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 65 immigrant Indian women in the United States who had pursued fetal sex selection on the East and West coasts of the United States between September 2004 and December 2009. Women spoke of son preference and sex selection as separate though intimately related phenomena, and the major themes that arose during interviews included the sociocultural roots of son preference; women's early socialization around the importance of sons; the different forms of pressure to have sons that women experienced from female in-laws and husbands; the spectrum of verbal and physical abuse that women faced when they did not have male children and/or when they found out they were carrying a female fetus; and the ambivalence with which women regarded their own experience of reproductive "choice." We found that 40% of the women interviewed had terminated prior pregnancies with female fetuses and that 89% of women carrying female fetuses in their current pregnancy pursued an abortion. These narratives highlight the interaction between medical technology and the perpetuation of this specific form of violence against women in an immigrant context where women are both the assumed beneficiaries of reproductive choice

  17. Differential neural representation of oral ethanol by central taste-sensitive neurons in ethanol-preferring and genetically heterogeneous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Christian H; Wilson, David M; Brasser, Susan M

    2011-12-01

    In randomly bred rats, orally applied ethanol stimulates neural substrates for appetitive sweet taste. To study associations between ethanol's oral sensory characteristics and genetically mediated ethanol preference, we made electrophysiological recordings of oral responses (spike density) by taste-sensitive nucleus tractus solitarii neurons in anesthetized selectively bred ethanol-preferring (P) rats and their genetically heterogeneous Wistar (W) control strain. Stimuli (25 total) included ethanol [3%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, and 40% (vol/vol)], a sucrose series (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1 M), and other sweet, salt, acidic, and bitter stimuli; 50 P and 39 W neurons were sampled. k-means clustering applied to the sucrose response series identified cells showing high (S(1)) or relatively low (S(0)) sensitivity to sucrose. A three-way factorial analysis revealed that activity to ethanol was influenced by a neuron's sensitivity to sucrose, ethanol concentration, and rat line (P = 0.01). Ethanol produced concentration-dependent responses in S(1) neurons that were larger than those in S(0) cells. Although responses to ethanol by S(1) cells did not differ between lines, neuronal firing rates to ethanol in S(0) cells increased across concentration only in P rats. Correlation and multivariate analyses revealed that ethanol evoked responses in W neurons that were strongly and selectively associated with activity to sweet stimuli, whereas responses to ethanol by P neurons were not easily associated with activity to representative sweet, sodium salt, acidic, or bitter stimuli. These findings show differential central neural representation of oral ethanol between genetically heterogeneous rats and P rats genetically selected to prefer alcohol.

  18. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as indicators of habitat selection by cultured and natural fish preferences. A case study of ayu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Huang; Kyushu University, Fukuoka; Xixi Chen; Xiaobo Liu; Shinichiro Yano

    2017-01-01

    Reliable indicators on whether natural and cultured fish exhibit differences in habitat preferences are lacking. In this study, δ 13 C and δ 15 N were used to distinguish the habitat preferences of cultured versus natural ayu and their prey (periphyton) in a typical riffle-pool river reach. It found that the δ 13 C of natural ayu (-13.747‰) was consistent with that of periphyton in riffles (-14.611‰), while the δ 13 C of cultured ayu (-19.088‰) was consistent with that of periphyton (-19.711‰) in pools. The results indicated that cultured ayu appear to favor pools whereas natural ayu favor riffles, and δ 13 C and δ 15 N represent potential reliable indicators of habitat preferences of cultured ayu. (author)

  19. When goals conflict with values: counterproductive attentional and oculomotor capture by reward-related stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pelley, Mike E; Pearson, Daniel; Griffiths, Oren; Beesley, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Attention provides the gateway to cognition, by selecting certain stimuli for further analysis. Recent research demonstrates that whether a stimulus captures attention is not determined solely by its physical properties, but is malleable, being influenced by our previous experience of rewards obtained by attending to that stimulus. Here we show that this influence of reward learning on attention extends to task-irrelevant stimuli. In a visual search task, certain stimuli signaled the magnitude of available reward, but reward delivery was not contingent on responding to those stimuli. Indeed, any attentional capture by these critical distractor stimuli led to a reduction in the reward obtained. Nevertheless, distractors signaling large reward produced greater attentional and oculomotor capture than those signaling small reward. This counterproductive capture by task-irrelevant stimuli is important because it demonstrates how external reward structures can produce patterns of behavior that conflict with task demands, and similar processes may underlie problematic behavior directed toward real-world rewards.

  20. A Series of Case Studies of Tinnitus Suppression With Mixed Background Stimuli in a Cochlear Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, A. J.; Walker, Kurt; Deshpande, Aniruddha K.; Witt, Shelley; Killian, Matthijs; Ji, Helena; Patrick, Jim; Dillier, Norbert; van Dijk, Pim; Lai, Wai Kong; Hansen, Marlan R.; Gantz, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Background sounds provided by a wearable sound playback device were mixed with the acoustical input picked up by a cochlear implant speech processor in an attempt to suppress tinnitus. Method First, patients were allowed to listen to several sounds and to select up to 4 sounds that they thought might be effective. These stimuli were programmed to loop continuously in the wearable playback device. Second, subjects were instructed to use 1 background sound each day on the wearable device, and they sequenced the selected background sounds during a 28-day trial. Patients were instructed to go to a website at the end of each day and rate the loudness and annoyance of the tinnitus as well as the acceptability of the background sound. Patients completed the Tinnitus Primary Function Questionnaire (Tyler, Stocking, Secor, & Slattery, 2014) at the beginning of the trial. Results Results indicated that background sounds were very effective at suppressing tinnitus. There was considerable variability in sounds preferred by the subjects. Conclusion The study shows that a background sound mixed with the microphone input can be effective for suppressing tinnitus during daily use of the sound processor in selected cochlear implant users. PMID:26001407

  1. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in the…

  2. Factors influencing Consumer Preference for Fresh Beef in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    selected and interviewed to identify factors that affect preference for fresh beef and to determine the nature of the ... preference are appreciated by the food ... composition and household income .... habit and flavor, made them to prefer fresh.

  3. Virtual reality stimuli for force platform posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossavainen, Timo; Juhola, Martti; Ilmari, Pyykö; Aalto, Heikki; Toppila, Esko

    2002-01-01

    People relying much on vision in the control of posture are known to have an elevated risk of falling. Dependence on visual control is an important parameter in the diagnosis of balance disorders. We have previously shown that virtual reality methods can be used to produce visual stimuli that affect balance, but suitable stimuli need to be found. In this study the effect of six different virtual reality stimuli on the balance of 22 healthy test subjects was evaluated using force platform posturography. According to the tests two of the stimuli have a significant effect on balance.

  4. The impact of past and present preferences on stimulus engagement in nursing home residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S; Thein, Khin; Dakheel-Ali, Maha

    2010-01-01

    We examined engagement with stimuli in 193 nursing home residents with dementia. We hypothesized that activities and stimuli based on a person's past and current preferences would result in more engagement than other activities/stimuli. The expanded version of the self-identity questionnaire [Cohen-Mansfield, J., Golander, H. & Arheim, G. (2000)] was used to determine participants' past/present interests (as reported by relatives) in the following areas: art, music, babies, pets, reading, television, and office work. We utilized the observational measurement of engagement (Cohen-Mansfield, J., Dakheel-Ali, M., & Marx, M.S. (2009). Analysis revealed that residents with current interests in music, art, and pets were more engaged by stimuli that reflect these interests than residents without these interests. Our findings demonstrate the utility of determining a person's preferences for stimuli in order to predict responsiveness. Lack of prediction for some stimuli may reflect differences between past preferences and activities that are feasible in the present.

  5. Chemosensory responsiveness to ethanol and its individual sensory components in alcohol-preferring, -nonpreferring and genetically heterogeneous rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Susan M.; Silbaugh, Bryant C.; Ketchum, Myles J.; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Lemon, Christian H.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol activates orosensory circuits that project to motivationally relevant limbic forebrain areas that control appetite, feeding and drinking. To date, limited data exists regarding the contribution of chemosensory-derived ethanol reinforcement to ethanol preference and consumption. Measures of taste reactivity to intra-orally infused ethanol have not found differences in initial orofacial responses to alcohol between alcohol-preferring (P) and – nonpreferring (NP) genetically selected rat lines. Yet, in voluntary intake tests P rats prefer highly-concentrated ethanol upon initial exposure, suggesting an early sensory-mediated attraction. Here, we directly compared self-initiated chemosensory responding for alcohol and prototypic sweet, bitter, and oral trigeminal stimuli among selectively bred P, NP, and non-selected Wistar (WI) outbred lines to determine whether differential sensory responsiveness to ethanol and its putative sensory components are phenotypically associated with genetically-influenced alcohol preference. Rats were tested for immediate short-term lick responses to alcohol (3–40%), sucrose (0.01–1 M), quinine (0.01–3 mM) and capsaicin (0.003–1 mM) in a brief-access assay designed to index orosensory-guided behavior. P rats exhibited elevated short-term lick responses to both alcohol and sucrose relative to NP and WI lines across a broad range of concentrations of each stimulus and in the absence of blood alcohol levels that would produce significant postabsorptive effects. There was no consistent relationship between genetically-mediated alcohol preference and orosensory avoidance of quinine or capsaicin. These data indicate that enhanced initial chemosensory attraction to ethanol and sweet stimuli are phenotypes associated with genetic alcohol preference and are considered within the framework of downstream activation of oral appetitive reward circuits. PMID:22129513

  6. The role of conditioning on heterosexual and homosexual partner preferences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-01-01

    Partner preferences are expressed by many social species, including humans. They are commonly observed as selective contacts with an individual, more time spent together, and directed courtship behavior that leads to selective copulation. This review discusses the effect of conditioning on the development of heterosexual and homosexual partner preferences in rodents. Learned preferences may develop when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is associated in contingency with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that functions as a reinforcer. Consequently, an individual may display preference for a partner that bears a CS. Some UCS may be more or less reinforcing, depending on when they are experienced, and may be different for males and females. For example, it could be that, only during periods of early development, that stimuli associated with nurture and juvenile play become conditioned. In adulthood, other stimuli such as sexual reward, cohabitation, mild stress, or even pharmacological manipulations may function as reinforcers to condition partner preferences. Evolutionary biologists and psychologists must take into consideration the idea that an individual's experience with reward (i.e. sexual and pharmacological) can override presumably 'innate' mate choices (e.g. assortativeness and orientation) or mate strategies (e.g. monogamy or polygamy) by means of Pavlovian and operant contingencies. In fact, it is likely as innate to learn about the environment in ways that maximize reward and minimize aversive outcomes, making so-called 'proximate' causes (e.g. pleasure) ultimately more powerful predictors of social behavior and choice than so-called 'ultimate' causes (e.g. genetic or reproductive fitness).

  7. Cardiorespiratory interactions to external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, L; Porta, C; Spicuzza, L; Sleight, P

    2005-09-01

    Respiration is a powerful modulator of heart rate variability, and of baro- or chemo-reflex sensitivity. This occurs via a mechanical effect of breathing that synchronizes all cardiovascular variables at the respiratory rhythm, particularly when this occurs at a particular slow rate coincident with the Mayer waves in arterial pressure (approximately 6 cycles/min). Recitation of the rosary prayer (or of most mantras), induces a marked enhancement of these slow rhythms, whereas random verbalization or random breathing does not. This phenomenon in turn increases baroreflex sensitivity and reduces chemoreflex sensitivity, leading to increases in parasympathetic and reductions in sympathetic activity. The opposite can be seen during either verbalization or mental stress tests. Qualitatively similar effects can be obtained even by passive listening to more or less rhythmic auditory stimuli, such as music, and the speed of the rhythm (rather than the style) appears to be one of the main determinants of the cardiovascular and respiratory responses. These findings have clinical relevance. Appropriate modulation of breathing, can improve/restore autonomic control of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in relevant diseases such as hypertension and heart failure, and might therefore help improving exercise tolerance, quality of life, and ultimately, survival.

  8. Attention to Social Stimuli and Facial Identity Recognition Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Brock, J.; Palermo, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a reduced preference for viewing social stimuli in the environment and impaired facial identity recognition. Methods: Here, we directly tested a link between these two phenomena in 13 ASD children and 13 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls.…

  9. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  10. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  11. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  12. Autoradiographical in-vitro examination of the cell proliferation of persisting psoriatic plaques in preferred areas under therapy with ultraviolet light: Photochemotherapy (PUVA) and selective ultraviolet phototherapy (SUP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middendorf, M.

    1982-01-01

    The application of ultraviolet rays (PUVA, SUP) brought significant progress in the treatment of psoriasis. The goal of UV-irradiation is to normalise the epidermal growth conditions. The cell cycle of persisting psoriatic plaque in preferred areas was examined under therapy with PUVA and SUP using an autoradiographic in-vitro method, double labelling with 14 C- and 3 H-thymididin. The results were compared to the known cell-kinetic parameters of psoriasis. The values thus obtained confirm the characteristic changes in the cell cycle of psoriasis. Furthermore, there is a block within the DNA-synthesis phase in the plaques persisting under UV-therapy. The resistence of persisting psoriatic plaques in preferred regions against UV-therapy is regarded as an indication of an extreme disturbance in the proliferation behaviour of the psoriatic skin. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Incorporating stakeholder preferences in the selection of technologies for using invasive alien plants as a bio-energy feedstock: applying the analytical hierarchy process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available (priorities, 132 values and objectives) in the context of the problem; the outputs can guide decision-makers to 133 identify a preferred course of action (Mamphweli and Meyer, 2009, Strager and Rosenberger, 134 2006, Hobbs et al., 1992, Belton and Stewart..., A. (1993) People?s self development: Perspectives on participatory action research., London, UK., 604 Zed Publications. 605 RENN, O. (2006) Participatory processes for designing environmental policies. Land Use Policy, 23, 34-43. 606 RENN, O...

  14. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Li, Wengang; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate

  15. Instructed fear stimuli bias visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deltomme, Berre; Mertens, G.; Tibboel, Helen; Braem, Senne

    We investigated whether stimuli merely instructed to be fear-relevant can bias visual attention, even when the fear relation was never experienced before. Participants performed a dot-probe task with pictures of naturally fear-relevant (snake or spider) or -irrelevant (bird or butterfly) stimuli.

  16. Dendrites Enable a Robust Mechanism for Neuronal Stimulus Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazé, Romain D; Jarvis, Sarah; Foust, Amanda J; Schultz, Simon R

    2017-09-01

    Hearing, vision, touch: underlying all of these senses is stimulus selectivity, a robust information processing operation in which cortical neurons respond more to some stimuli than to others. Previous models assume that these neurons receive the highest weighted input from an ensemble encoding the preferred stimulus, but dendrites enable other possibilities. Nonlinear dendritic processing can produce stimulus selectivity based on the spatial distribution of synapses, even if the total preferred stimulus weight does not exceed that of nonpreferred stimuli. Using a multi-subunit nonlinear model, we demonstrate that stimulus selectivity can arise from the spatial distribution of synapses. We propose this as a general mechanism for information processing by neurons possessing dendritic trees. Moreover, we show that this implementation of stimulus selectivity increases the neuron's robustness to synaptic and dendritic failure. Importantly, our model can maintain stimulus selectivity for a larger range of loss of synapses or dendrites than an equivalent linear model. We then use a layer 2/3 biophysical neuron model to show that our implementation is consistent with two recent experimental observations: (1) one can observe a mixture of selectivities in dendrites that can differ from the somatic selectivity, and (2) hyperpolarization can broaden somatic tuning without affecting dendritic tuning. Our model predicts that an initially nonselective neuron can become selective when depolarized. In addition to motivating new experiments, the model's increased robustness to synapses and dendrites loss provides a starting point for fault-resistant neuromorphic chip development.

  17. Neural activation toward erotic stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Sabine; Klucken, Tim; Wehrum, Sina; Zimmermann, Mark; Schienle, Anne; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2011-11-01

    Studies investigating sexual arousal exist, yet there are diverging findings on the underlying neural mechanisms with regard to sexual orientation. Moreover, sexual arousal effects have often been confounded with general arousal effects. Hence, it is still unclear which structures underlie the sexual arousal response in homosexual and heterosexual men. Neural activity and subjective responses were investigated in order to disentangle sexual from general arousal. Considering sexual orientation, differential and conjoint neural activations were of interest. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study focused on the neural networks involved in the processing of sexual stimuli in 21 male participants (11 homosexual, 10 heterosexual). Both groups viewed pictures with erotic content as well as aversive and neutral stimuli. The erotic pictures were subdivided into three categories (most sexually arousing, least sexually arousing, and rest) based on the individual subjective ratings of each participant. Blood oxygen level-dependent responses measured by fMRI and subjective ratings. A conjunction analysis revealed conjoint neural activation related to sexual arousal in thalamus, hypothalamus, occipital cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Increased insula, amygdala, and anterior cingulate gyrus activation could be linked to general arousal. Group differences emerged neither when viewing the most sexually arousing pictures compared with highly arousing aversive pictures nor compared with neutral pictures. Results suggest that a widespread neural network is activated by highly sexually arousing visual stimuli. A partly distinct network of structures underlies sexual and general arousal effects. The processing of preferred, highly sexually arousing stimuli recruited similar structures in homosexual and heterosexual males. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Krueger, Tillmann; Paul, Thomas; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms of deviant sexual preferences such as pedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze whether brain activation patterns of homosexual pedophiles differed from those of a nonpedophile homosexual control group during visual sexual stimulation. A consecutive sample of 11 pedophile forensic inpatients exclusively attracted to boys and 12 age-matched homosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visual sexual stimulation procedure that used sexually stimulating and emotionally neutral photographs. Sexual arousal was assessed according to a subjective rating scale. In contrast to sexually neutral pictures, in both groups sexually arousing pictures having both homosexual and pedophile content activated brain areas known to be involved in processing visual stimuli containing emotional content, including the occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices. However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects. Central processing of visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles seems to be comparable to that in nonpedophile control subjects. However, compared with homosexual control subjects, activation patterns in pedophiles refer more strongly to subcortical regions, which have previously been discussed in the context of processing reward signals and also play an important role in addictive and stimulus-controlled behaviour. Thus future studies should further elucidate the specificity of these brain regions for the processing of sexual stimuli in pedophilia and should address the generally weaker activation pattern in homosexual men.

  19. Positive erotic picture stimuli for emotion research in heterosexual females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta Anne; Arntz, Arnoud; Domes, Gregor; Reiss, Neele; Siep, Nicolette

    2011-12-30

    In most experimental studies, emotional pictures are widely used as stimulus material. However, there is still a lack of standardization of picture stimuli displaying erotic relationships, despite the association between a number of psychological problems and severe impairments and problems in intimate relationships. The aim of the study was to test a set of erotic stimuli, with the potential to be used in experimental studies, with heterosexual female subjects. Twenty International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures and an additional 100 pictures showing romantic but not explicitly sexual scenes and/or attractive single males were selected. All pictures were rated with respect to valence, arousal, and dominance by 41 heterosexual women and compared to pictures with negative, positive, and neutral emotional valence. Erotic IAPS pictures and our additional erotic pictures did not differ in any of the evaluation dimensions. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for valence, arousal, and dominance comparing different picture valence categories showed strong effects for category. However, valence was not significantly different between erotic and positive pictures, while arousal and control were not significantly different between positive and neutral pictures. The pictures of our new set are as positive for heterosexual women as highly positive IAPS pictures, but higher in arousal and dominance. The picture set can be used in experimental psychiatric studies requiring high numbers of stimuli per category. Limitations are the restriction of stimuli application to heterosexual females only and to self-report data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Subliminal influence on preferences? A test of evaluative conditioning for brief visual conditioned stimuli using auditory unconditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heycke, Tobias; Aust, Frederik; Stahl, Christoph

    2017-09-01

    In the field of evaluative conditioning (EC), two opposing theories-propositional single-process theory versus dual-process theory-are currently being discussed in the literature. The present set of experiments test a crucial prediction to adjudicate between these two theories: Dual-process theory postulates that evaluative conditioning can occur without awareness of the contingency between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US); in contrast, single-process propositional theory postulates that EC requires CS-US contingency awareness. In a set of three studies, we experimentally manipulate contingency awareness by presenting the CSs very briefly, thereby rendering it unlikely to be processed consciously. We address potential issues with previous studies on EC with subliminal or near-threshold CSs that limited their interpretation. Across two experiments, we consistently found an EC effect for CSs presented for 1000 ms and consistently failed to find an EC effect for briefly presented CSs. In a third pre-registered experiment, we again found evidence for an EC effect with CSs presented for 1000 ms, and we found some indication for an EC effect for CSs presented for 20 ms.

  1. Novelty preference in patients with developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, M; Chadwick, M; Perez-Hernandez, E; Vargha-Khadem, F; Mishkin, M

    2011-12-01

    To re-examine whether or not selective hippocampal damage reduces novelty preference in visual paired comparison (VPC), we presented two different versions of the task to a group of patients with developmental amnesia (DA), each of whom sustained this form of pathology early in life. Compared with normal control participants, the DA group showed a delay-dependent reduction in novelty preference on one version of the task and an overall reduction on both versions combined. Because VPC is widely considered to be a measure of incidental recognition, the results appear to support the view that the hippocampus contributes to recognition memory. A difficulty for this conclusion, however, is that according to one current view the hippocampal contribution to recognition is limited to task conditions that encourage recollection of an item in some associated context, and according to another current view, to recognition of an item with the high confidence judgment that reflects a strong memory. By contrast, VPC, throughout which the participant remains entirely uninstructed other than to view the stimuli, would seem to lack such task conditions and so would likely lead to recognition based on familiarity rather than recollection or, alternatively, weak memories rather than strong. However, before concluding that the VPC impairment therefore contradicts both current views regarding the role of the hippocampus in recognition memory, two possibilities that would resolve this issue need to be investigated. One is that some variable in VPC, such as the extended period of stimulus encoding during familiarization, overrides its incidental nature, and, because this condition promotes either recollection- or strength-based recognition, renders the task hippocampal-dependent. The other possibility is that VPC, rather than providing a measure of incidental recognition, actually assesses an implicit, information-gathering process modulated by habituation, for which the hippocampus is

  2. Balancing selected medication costs with total number of daily injections: a preference analysis of GnRH-agonist and antagonist protocols by IVF patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During in vitro fertilization (IVF, fertility patients are expected to self-administer many injections as part of this treatment. While newer medications have been developed to substantially reduce the number of these injections, such agents are typically much more expensive. Considering these differences in both cost and number of injections, this study compared patient preferences between GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist based protocols in IVF. Methods Data were collected by voluntary, anonymous questionnaire at first consultation appointment. Patient opinion concerning total number of s.c. injections as a function of non-reimbursed patient cost associated with GnRH-agonist [A] and GnRH-antagonist [B] protocols in IVF was studied. Results Completed questionnaires (n = 71 revealed a mean +/− SD patient age of 34 +/− 4.1 yrs. Most (83.1% had no prior IVF experience; 2.8% reported another medical condition requiring self-administration of subcutaneous medication(s. When out-of-pocket cost for [A] and [B] were identical, preference for [B] was registered by 50.7% patients. The tendency to favor protocol [B] was weaker among patients with a health occupation. Estimated patient costs for [A] and [B] were $259.82 +/− 11.75 and $654.55 +/− 106.34, respectively (p  Conclusions This investigation found consistently higher non-reimbursed direct medication costs for GnRH-antagonist IVF vs. GnRH-agonist IVF protocols. A conditional preference to minimize downregulation (using GnRH-antagonist was noted among some, but not all, IVF patient sub-groups. Compared to IVF patients with a health occupation, the preference for GnRH-antagonist was weaker than for other patients. While reducing total number of injections by using GnRH-antagonist is a desirable goal, it appears this advantage is not perceived equally by all IVF patients and its utility is likely discounted heavily by patients when nonreimbursed medication costs

  3. Balancing selected medication costs with total number of daily injections: a preference analysis of GnRH-agonist and antagonist protocols by IVF patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E Scott; Collins, Gary S; Salem, Shala A; Jones, Christopher A; Peck, Alison C; Salem, Rifaat D

    2012-08-30

    During in vitro fertilization (IVF), fertility patients are expected to self-administer many injections as part of this treatment. While newer medications have been developed to substantially reduce the number of these injections, such agents are typically much more expensive. Considering these differences in both cost and number of injections, this study compared patient preferences between GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist based protocols in IVF. Data were collected by voluntary, anonymous questionnaire at first consultation appointment. Patient opinion concerning total number of s.c. injections as a function of non-reimbursed patient cost associated with GnRH-agonist [A] and GnRH-antagonist [B] protocols in IVF was studied. Completed questionnaires (n = 71) revealed a mean +/- SD patient age of 34 +/- 4.1 yrs. Most (83.1%) had no prior IVF experience; 2.8% reported another medical condition requiring self-administration of subcutaneous medication(s). When out-of-pocket cost for [A] and [B] were identical, preference for [B] was registered by 50.7% patients. The tendency to favor protocol [B] was weaker among patients with a health occupation. Estimated patient costs for [A] and [B] were $259.82 +/- 11.75 and $654.55 +/- 106.34, respectively (p cost difference increased. This investigation found consistently higher non-reimbursed direct medication costs for GnRH-antagonist IVF vs. GnRH-agonist IVF protocols. A conditional preference to minimize downregulation (using GnRH-antagonist) was noted among some, but not all, IVF patient sub-groups. Compared to IVF patients with a health occupation, the preference for GnRH-antagonist was weaker than for other patients. While reducing total number of injections by using GnRH-antagonist is a desirable goal, it appears this advantage is not perceived equally by all IVF patients and its utility is likely discounted heavily by patients when nonreimbursed medication costs reach a critical level.

  4. Something Old, Something New: A Developmental Transition from Familiarity to Novelty Preferences with Hidden Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Munakata, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    Novelty seeking is viewed as adaptive, and novelty preferences in infancy predict cognitive performance into adulthood. Yet 7-month-olds prefer familiar stimuli to novel ones when searching for hidden objects, in contrast to their strong novelty preferences with visible objects (Shinskey & Munakata, 2005). According to a graded representations…

  5. 24 CFR 5.655 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Owner preferences in selection for a project or unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... However, selection is subject to the income-eligibility and income-targeting requirements in § 5.653. (2... its income in order to satisfy the targeting requirements of § 5.653(c). (4) Selection for particular... in the Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing plan (in accordance with § 108.25 of this title) as a...

  6. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Stockton

    Full Text Available Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate

  7. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Dara G; Martini, Xavier; Patt, Joseph M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a) whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b) the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate Rutaceae in the area

  8. Stimulus collative properties and consumers’ flavor preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Duerlund, Mette; Bøegh-Petersen, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    properties. The relationship between overall arousal potential and hedonic response takes the shape of an inverted “U”, reaching an optimum at a certain level of arousal potential. In three independent studies, using different sets of novel beers as stimuli, consumers’ reported their hedonic response......The present work investigated consumers’ hedonic response to flavor stimuli in light of Berlyne’s (1967) collative-motivational model of aesthetic preferences. According to this paradigm, sensory preferences are a function of a stimulus’ arousal potential, which is determined by its collative......, whereas mixed results were obtained for familiarity and complexity. Additionally, in two of the studies the moderating role of relevant consumer characteristics – product knowledge, food neophobia and variety seeking tendency – was investigated. A consumer’s degree of product knowledge was found...

  9. fMRI orientation decoding in V1 does not require global maps or globally coherent orientation stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Arjen; Krugliak, Alexandra; Walther, Alexander; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    The orientation of a large grating can be decoded from V1 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, even at low resolution (3-mm isotropic voxels). This finding has suggested that columnar-level neuronal information might be accessible to fMRI at 3T. However, orientation decodability might alternatively arise from global orientation-preference maps. Such global maps across V1 could result from bottom-up processing, if the preferences of V1 neurons were biased toward particular orientations (e.g., radial from fixation, or cardinal, i.e., vertical or horizontal). Global maps could also arise from local recurrent or top-down processing, reflecting pre-attentive perceptual grouping, attention spreading, or predictive coding of global form. Here we investigate whether fMRI orientation decoding with 2-mm voxels requires (a) globally coherent orientation stimuli and/or (b) global-scale patterns of V1 activity. We used opposite-orientation gratings (balanced about the cardinal orientations) and spirals (balanced about the radial orientation), along with novel patch-swapped variants of these stimuli. The two stimuli of a patch-swapped pair have opposite orientations everywhere (like their globally coherent parent stimuli). However, the two stimuli appear globally similar, a patchwork of opposite orientations. We find that all stimulus pairs are robustly decodable, demonstrating that fMRI orientation decoding does not require globally coherent orientation stimuli. Furthermore, decoding remained robust after spatial high-pass filtering for all stimuli, showing that fine-grained components of the fMRI patterns reflect visual orientations. Consistent with previous studies, we found evidence for global radial and vertical preference maps in V1. However, these were weak or absent for patch-swapped stimuli, suggesting that global preference maps depend on globally coherent orientations and might arise through recurrent or top-down processes related to the perception of

  10. Mouth and Voice: A Relationship between Visual and Auditory Preference in the Human Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin L; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-03-08

    Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes. Mouth-preferring regions responded strongly to voices and showed a significant preference for vocal compared with nonvocal sounds. In contrast, eye-preferring regions did not respond to either vocal or nonvocal sounds. The converse was also true: regions of the pSTS that showed a significant response to speech or preferred vocal to nonvocal sounds responded more strongly to visually presented mouths than eyes. These findings can be explained by environmental statistics. In natural environments, humans see visual mouth movements at the same time as they hear voices, while there is no auditory accompaniment to visual eye movements. The strength of a voxel's preference for visual mouth movements was strongly correlated with the magnitude of its auditory speech response and its preference for vocal sounds, suggesting that visual and auditory speech features are coded together in small populations of neurons within the pSTS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans interacting face to face make use of auditory cues from the talker's voice and visual cues from the talker's mouth to understand speech. The human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a brain region known to be important for speech perception, is complex, with some regions responding to specific visual stimuli and others to specific auditory stimuli. Using BOLD fMRI, we show that the natural statistics of human speech, in which voices co-occur with mouth movements, are reflected in the neural architecture of

  11. Development of the Korean Facial Emotion Stimuli: Korea University Facial Expression Collection 2nd Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Min Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing valid emotional facial stimuli for specific ethnicities creates ample opportunities to investigate both the nature of emotional facial information processing in general and clinical populations as well as the underlying mechanisms of facial emotion processing within and across cultures. Given that most entries in emotional facial stimuli databases were developed with western samples, and given that very few of the eastern emotional facial stimuli sets were based strictly on the Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System, developing valid emotional facial stimuli of eastern samples remains a high priority.Aims: To develop and examine the psychometric properties of six basic emotional facial stimuli recruiting professional Korean actors and actresses based on the Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System for the Korea University Facial Expression Collection-Second Edition (KUFEC-II.Materials And Methods: Stimulus selection was done in two phases. First, researchers evaluated the clarity and intensity of each stimulus developed based on the Facial Action Coding System. Second, researchers selected a total of 399 stimuli from a total of 57 actors and actresses, which were then rated on accuracy, intensity, valence, and arousal by 75 independent raters.Conclusion: The hit rates between the targeted and rated expressions of the KUFEC-II were all above 80%, except for fear (50% and disgust (63%. The KUFEC-II appears to be a valid emotional facial stimuli database, providing the largest set of emotional facial stimuli. The mean intensity score was 5.63 (out of 7, suggesting that the stimuli delivered the targeted emotions with great intensity. All positive expressions were rated as having a high positive valence, whereas all negative expressions were rated as having a high negative valence. The KUFEC II is expected to be widely used in various psychological studies on emotional facial expression. KUFEC-II stimuli can be obtained through

  12. Selecting a cutoff point for a developmental screening test based on overall diagnostic indices and total expected utilities of professional preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua-Fang; Cheng, Ling-Yee; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Yang, Ming-Chin

    2010-03-01

    A cutoff point in a test with sounded validity and professional preferences can help to make an accurate clinical decision. This study aimed to determine a cutoff point between two strategies for a developmental screening checklist (referred to as Taipei II). Cutoff point A was set as one or more item failed and cutoff point B was set as two or more items failed or one or more marked item failed. This study was based on the total expected utilities of professional preferences and overall diagnostic indices. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to collect the estimated utility from professionals involved in early childhood interventions (n = 81) regarding four screening outcomes (probabilities of true positive, false positive, true negative, or false negative) and costs. The total expected utilities were calculated from the probabilities of four screening outcomes and utility values. The diagnostic odds ratio was higher for strategy B (695 and 209, respectively) than that of strategy A (184 and 150, respectively) when using the Taipei II on children under 3 years of age and age 3 and over. Strategy B also had a higher median total expected utilities score than strategy A (0.78 vs. 0.72 for children or = 3). If only one cutoff point can be chosen, the authors suggest that clinicians should choose cutoff point B when using the Taipei II for screening. However, two cutoff points of Taipei II, a combination of strategy A and B, can also be used clinically. 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multi-Functional Stimuli-Responsive Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Supramolecular polymers based on non-covalent interactions can display a wide array of stimuli-responsive attributes. They can be tailored to change shape, actuate...

  14. Newborns' Discrimination of Chromatic from Achromatic Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Russell J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the extent of newborns' ability to discriminate color. Results imply that newborns have some, albeit limited, capacity to discriminate chromatic from achromatic stimuli, and hence, are at least dichromats. (Author/DR)

  15. Extinction of Conditioned Responses to Methamphetamine-Associated Stimuli in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Joel S; Ruiz, Nicholas A; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Contextual stimuli present during drug experiences become associated with the drug through Pavlovian conditioning and are thought to sustain drug-seeking behavior. Thus, extinction of conditioned responses is an important target for treatment. To date, acquisition and extinction to drug-paired cues have been studied in animal models or drug-dependent individuals, but rarely in non-drug users. We have recently developed a procedure to study acquisition of conditioned responses after single doses of methamphetamine (MA) in healthy volunteers. Here, we examined extinction of these responses and their persistence after conditioning. Healthy adults (18-35 years; N = 20) received two pairings of audio-visual stimuli with MA (20 mg oral) or placebo. Responses to stimuli were assessed before and after conditioning, using three tasks: behavioral preference, attentional bias, and subjective "liking." Subjects exhibited behavioral preference for the drug-paired stimuli at the first post-conditioning test, but this declined rapidly on subsequent extinction tests. They also exhibited a bias to initially look towards the drug-paired stimuli at the first post-test session, but not thereafter. Subjects who experienced more positive subjective drug effects during conditioning exhibited a smaller decline in preference during the extinction phase. Further, longer inter-session intervals during the extinction phase were associated with less extinction of the behavioral preference measure. Conditioned responses after two pairings with MA extinguish quickly, and are influenced by both subjective drug effects and the extinction interval. Characterizing and refining this conditioning procedure will aid in understanding the acquisition and extinction processes of drug-related conditioned responses in humans.

  16. Binocular Combination of Second-Order Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements. PMID:24404180

  17. A methodology to design heuristics for model selection based on the characteristics of data: Application to investigate when the Negative Binomial Lindley (NB-L) is preferred over the Negative Binomial (NB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mohammadali; Dhavala, Soma Sekhar; Lord, Dominique; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy

    2017-10-01

    Safety analysts usually use post-modeling methods, such as the Goodness-of-Fit statistics or the Likelihood Ratio Test, to decide between two or more competitive distributions or models. Such metrics require all competitive distributions to be fitted to the data before any comparisons can be accomplished. Given the continuous growth in introducing new statistical distributions, choosing the best one using such post-modeling methods is not a trivial task, in addition to all theoretical or numerical issues the analyst may face during the analysis. Furthermore, and most importantly, these measures or tests do not provide any intuitions into why a specific distribution (or model) is preferred over another (Goodness-of-Logic). This paper ponders into these issues by proposing a methodology to design heuristics for Model Selection based on the characteristics of data, in terms of descriptive summary statistics, before fitting the models. The proposed methodology employs two analytic tools: (1) Monte-Carlo Simulations and (2) Machine Learning Classifiers, to design easy heuristics to predict the label of the 'most-likely-true' distribution for analyzing data. The proposed methodology was applied to investigate when the recently introduced Negative Binomial Lindley (NB-L) distribution is preferred over the Negative Binomial (NB) distribution. Heuristics were designed to select the 'most-likely-true' distribution between these two distributions, given a set of prescribed summary statistics of data. The proposed heuristics were successfully compared against classical tests for several real or observed datasets. Not only they are easy to use and do not need any post-modeling inputs, but also, using these heuristics, the analyst can attain useful information about why the NB-L is preferred over the NB - or vice versa- when modeling data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subconscious Subliminal Stimuli And rrrsssssshhhppp!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis Brooks, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    is it that is happening inside that affects our ‘sensitive selective & subjective’ choice.  Does the present education of design incorporate this ‘hidden human happening’ in a suitably eloquent manner and is it more accessible as the computer becomes a more ubiquitous entity as we approach the age of the disappearing......"What is fantastic about today is that there is no one or two ways to go. Now things are more interesting in that they are completely open, and people do not have to restrain their imagination. For how can you restrain imagination?" Abstract: The age of the disappearing computer will result...... in a ‘remarkable reductive retraction’ from ‘fixation centers’ such that a more human intuitive interaction to the ‘New World’ becomes apparent in design scenarios. Ubiquitous ‘Virtual Interactive Space’ (Brooks, 1999) will become a more utilized and higher resolution capture resource integrative to design...

  19. Delineation of the preferences and requirements of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dimerization initiation signal by using an in vivo cell-based selection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, Islam T M; Ni, Na; Galli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 packages two copies of RNA into one particle, and the dimerization initiation signal (DIS) in the viral RNA plays an important role in selecting the copackaged RNA partner. We analyzed the DIS sequences of the circulating HIV-1 isolates in the GenBank database and observed that, in addition...

  20. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary.

  1. Generalization of the disruptive effects of alternative stimuli when combined with target stimuli in extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Miranda-Dukoski, Ludmila; Jonas Chan, C K; Bland, Vikki J; Bai, John Y H

    2017-09-01

    Differential-reinforcement treatments reduce target problem behavior in the short term but at the expense of making it more persistent long term. Basic and translational research based on behavioral momentum theory suggests that combining features of stimuli governing an alternative response with the stimuli governing target responding could make target responding less persistent. However, changes to the alternative stimulus context when combining alternative and target stimuli could diminish the effectiveness of the alternative stimulus in reducing target responding. In an animal model with pigeons, the present study reinforced responding in the presence of target and alternative stimuli. When combining the alternative and target stimuli during extinction, we altered the alternative stimulus through changes in line orientation. We found that (1) combining alternative and target stimuli in extinction more effectively decreased target responding than presenting the target stimulus on its own; (2) combining these stimuli was more effective in decreasing target responding trained with lower reinforcement rates; and (3) changing the alternative stimulus reduced its effectiveness when it was combined with the target stimulus. Therefore, changing alternative stimuli (e.g., therapist, clinical setting) during behavioral treatments that combine alternative and target stimuli could reduce the effectiveness of those treatments in disrupting problem behavior. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. VIERS- User Preference Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...

  3. Emotion and Attention Interaction: a trade-off between stimuli relevance, motivation and individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia eOliveira; Izabela eMocaiber; Isabel A David; Fatima eErthal; Eliane eVolchan; Mirtes ePereira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the neural processing of emotional stimuli is prioritized. However, whether the processing of emotional stimuli is dependent on attention remains debatable. Several studies have investigated this issue by testing the capacity of emotional distracters to divert processing resources from an attentional main task. The attentional load theory postulates that the perceptual load of the main task determines the selective processing of the distracter. Although we agre...

  4. The Aesthetic Preferences of Infants: Pictures of Faces that Captivate Their Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko-McGhee, Katherina

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the observation of infants between the ages of 2 and 18 months with regard to their aesthetic preferences for a variety of visual stimuli. These stimuli included: a black-and-white schematic drawing of a baby, a popular cartoon image, a colorful abstract painting of a baby, and a photographic image of a baby's face. Prior…

  5. Dopamine, paranormal belief, and the detection of meaningful stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummenacher, Peter; Mohr, Christine; Haker, Helene; Brugger, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) is suggested to improve perceptual and cognitive decisions by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Somewhat paradoxically, a hyperdopaminergia (arguably more accentuated in the right hemisphere) has also been implied in the genesis of unusual experiences such as hallucinations and paranormal thought. To test these opposing assumptions, we used two lateralized decision tasks, one with lexical (tapping left-hemisphere functions), the other with facial stimuli (tapping right-hemisphere functions). Participants were 40 healthy right-handed men, of whom 20 reported unusual, "paranormal" experiences and beliefs ("believers"), whereas the remaining participants were unexperienced and critical ("skeptics"). In a between-subject design, levodopa (200 mg) or placebo administration was balanced between belief groups (double-blind procedure). For each task and visual field, we calculated sensitivity (d') and response tendency (criterion) derived from signal detection theory. Results showed the typical right visual field advantage for the lexical decision task and a higher d' for verbal than facial stimuli. For the skeptics, d' was lower in the levodopa than in the placebo group. Criterion analyses revealed that believers favored false alarms over misses, whereas skeptics displayed the opposite preference. Unexpectedly, under levodopa, these decision preferences were lower in both groups. We thus infer that levodopa (1) decreases sensitivity in perceptual-cognitive decisions, but only in skeptics, and (2) makes skeptics less and believers slightly more conservative. These results stand at odd to the common view that DA generally improves signal-to-noise ratios. Paranormal ideation seems an important personality dimension and should be assessed in investigations on the detection of signals in noise.

  6. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  7. Reward modulates oculomotor competition between differently valued stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucker, Berno; Silvis, Jeroen D; Donk, Mieke; Theeuwes, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The present work explored the effects of reward in the well-known global effect paradigm in which two objects appear simultaneously in close spatial proximity. The experiment consisted of three phases (i) a pre-training phase that served as a baseline, (ii) a reward-training phase to associate differently colored stimuli with high, low and no reward value, and (iii) a post-training phase in which rewards were no longer delivered, to examine whether objects previously associated with higher reward value attracted the eyes more strongly than those associated with low or no reward value. Unlike previous reward studies, the differently valued objects directly competed with each other on the same trial. The results showed that initially eye movements were not biased towards any particular stimulus, while in the reward-training phase, eye movements started to land progressively closer towards stimuli that were associated with a high reward value. Even though rewards were no longer delivered, this bias remained robustly present in the post-training phase. A time course analysis showed that the effect of reward was present for the fastest saccades (around 170 ms) and increased with increasing latency. Although strategic effects for slower saccades cannot be ruled out, we suggest that fast oculomotor responses became habituated and were no longer under strategic attentional control. Together the results imply that reward affects oculomotor competition in favor of stimuli previously associated high reward, when multiple reward associated objects compete for selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The MaSe decision support system: Development of an integrated information system for the selection of environmentally preferable materials and products in the building process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Sigrid Melby

    2003-07-01

    New building regulations and increased focus on building related environmental burdens have created a need for guidance to design more sustainable buildings. The main objective in this thesis is to develop a decision support system, to guide decision-makers to a better selection of building materials and products, based on environmental prioritisation. The system is focused on building materials and products, but the structure of the system can be adapted to other types of decision problems. No tool is found that satisfy the identified needs for a material selection system. By studying existing methods, however important information and possible solutions are gathered, that partly could be used in a new tool. Key decision makers with respect to material and product selection are the client, the architects, the technical consultants, and the contractors when they decide on specific brands. The user of the MaSe system first identifies the materials acceptable in the specific project, based on the technical requirements. These pre-selected materials are then scored and ranked through the procedures in the MaSe system. The alternative ranking is then the basis for the selection of construction elements, materials or products. Seeing the building and real estate industry as a part of our society, it is clear that the use of material resources and pollution are areas that need improvement. The MaSe system includes environmental aspects under the headlines Resources, Ecology and Human health. When selecting building materials, factors like recycling and reuse needs to be considered. Renewability, energy and waste are other aspects included in the Resource area. Toxic substances are clearly important when it comes to building materials. Factors to be included under the headline Ecology are global warming, acidification, and photochemical oxidant formation. The emissions of toxics to air, water and soil will have effect on human health. Aspects that should be included in

  9. Feedback and feedforward control of frequency tuning to naturalistic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacron, Maurice J; Maler, Leonard; Bastian, Joseph

    2005-06-08

    Sensory neurons must respond to a wide variety of natural stimuli that can have very different spatiotemporal characteristics. Optimal responsiveness to subsets of these stimuli can be achieved by devoting specialized neural circuitry to different stimulus categories, or, alternatively, this circuitry can be modulated or tuned to optimize responsiveness to current stimulus conditions. This study explores the mechanisms that enable neurons within the initial processing station of the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish to shift their tuning properties based on the spatial extent of the stimulus. These neurons are tuned to low frequencies when the stimulus is restricted to a small region within the receptive field center but are tuned to higher frequencies when the stimulus impinges on large regions of the sensory epithelium. Through a combination of modeling and in vivo electrophysiology, we reveal the respective contributions of the filtering characteristics of extended dendritic structures and feedback circuitry to this shift in tuning. Our results show that low-frequency tuning can result from the cable properties of an extended dendrite that conveys receptor-afferent information to the cell body. The shift from low- to high-frequency tuning, seen in response to spatially extensive stimuli, results from increased wide-band input attributable to activation of larger populations of receptor afferents, as well as the activation of parallel fiber feedback from the cerebellum. This feedback provides a cancellation signal with low-pass characteristics that selectively attenuates low-frequency responsiveness. Thus, with spatially extensive stimuli, these cells preferentially respond to the higher-frequency components of the receptor-afferent input.

  10. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C.Y.; Applegate, Marissa C.; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the “fading embers” of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory. PMID:28132858

  11. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C Y; Applegate, Marissa C; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M; Norman, Kenneth A

    2017-03-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the "fading embers" of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. VEP Responses to Op-Art Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O'Hare

    Full Text Available Several types of striped patterns have been reported to cause adverse sensations described as visual discomfort. Previous research using op-art-based stimuli has demonstrated that spurious eye movement signals can cause the experience of illusory motion, or shimmering effects, which might be perceived as uncomfortable. Whilst the shimmering effects are one cause of discomfort, another possible contributor to discomfort is excessive neural responses: As striped patterns do not have the statistical redundancy typical of natural images, they are perhaps unable to be encoded efficiently. If this is the case, then this should be seen in the amplitude of the EEG response. This study found that stimuli that were judged to be most comfortable were also those with the lowest EEG amplitude. This provides some support for the idea that excessive neural responses might also contribute to discomfort judgements in normal populations, in stimuli controlled for perceived contrast.

  13. VEP Responses to Op-Art Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Louise; Clarke, Alasdair D F; Pollux, Petra M J

    2015-01-01

    Several types of striped patterns have been reported to cause adverse sensations described as visual discomfort. Previous research using op-art-based stimuli has demonstrated that spurious eye movement signals can cause the experience of illusory motion, or shimmering effects, which might be perceived as uncomfortable. Whilst the shimmering effects are one cause of discomfort, another possible contributor to discomfort is excessive neural responses: As striped patterns do not have the statistical redundancy typical of natural images, they are perhaps unable to be encoded efficiently. If this is the case, then this should be seen in the amplitude of the EEG response. This study found that stimuli that were judged to be most comfortable were also those with the lowest EEG amplitude. This provides some support for the idea that excessive neural responses might also contribute to discomfort judgements in normal populations, in stimuli controlled for perceived contrast.

  14. The Use of Minipig in Drug Discovery and Development: Pros and Cons of Minipig Selection and Strategies to Use as a Preferred Nonrodent Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heining, Peter; Ruysschaert, Tristan

    2016-04-01

    The pig was introduced more than 20 years ago in drug development following attempts of finding a species that shares better homology with human than the dog, based on biophysiological parameters. However, miniaturization, standardized breeding, and health status control were required before the pig could find a broader than niche application in pharmaceutical industry. During the years of experience with minipigs in pharmaceutical research and the science evolving rapidly, the selection of a nonrodent animal species for preclinical safety testing became primarily driven by pharmacological (target expression homologous function), pharmacokinetic, and biophysiological considerations. This offered a broad field of application for the minipig, besides the well-established use in dermal projects in all areas of drug development but also in novel approaches including genetically modified animals. In this article, we look at recent approaches and requirements in the optimal selection of a nonrodent model in pharmaceutical development and critically ask how good a choice the minipig offers for the scientist, how did the testing environment evolve, and what are the key requirements for a broader use of the minipig compared to the other well-established nonrodent species like dog or monkey. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  16. Lichen species preference by reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, D F; Luick, J R

    1977-08-01

    The preference by reindeer for five species of lichens commonly found on Central Alaska rangelands was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that reindeer are strongly selective species in their lichen grazing habits. The five tested species ranged as follows in order of decreasing acceptibility: Caldonia alpestris, C. rangiferina, Stereocaulon paschale, Cetraria richardsonii, and Peltigera aphthosa.

  17. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  18. Visual cells remember earlier applied target: plasticity of orientation selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Ghisovan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A canonical proposition states that, in mature brain, neurons responsive to sensory stimuli are tuned to specific properties installed shortly after birth. It is amply demonstrated that that neurons in adult visual cortex of cats are orientation-selective that is they respond with the highest firing rates to preferred oriented stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In anesthetized cats, prepared in a conventional fashion for single cell recordings, the present investigation shows that presenting a stimulus uninterruptedly at a non-preferred orientation for twelve minutes induces changes in orientation preference. Across all conditions orientation tuning curves were investigated using a trial by trial method. Contrary to what has been previously reported with shorter adaptation duration, twelve minutes of adaptation induces mostly attractive shifts, i.e. toward the adapter. After a recovery period allowing neurons to restore their original orientation tuning curves, we carried out a second adaptation which produced three major results: (1 more frequent attractive shifts, (2 an increase of their magnitude, and (3 an additional enhancement of responses at the new or acquired preferred orientation. Additionally, we also show that the direction of shifts depends on the duration of the adaptation: shorter adaptation in most cases produces repulsive shifts, whereas adaptation exceeding nine minutes results in attractive shifts, in the same unit. Consequently, shifts in preferred orientation depend on the duration of adaptation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The supplementary response improvements indicate that neurons in area 17 keep a memory trace of the previous stimulus properties, thereby upgrading cellular performance. It also highlights the dynamic nature of basic neuronal properties in adult cortex since repeated adaptations modified both the orientation tuning selectivity and the response strength to the preferred orientation. These

  19. Individual variation in habituation: behaviour over time toward different stimuli in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alison M.; Peeke, Harman V.S.

    2014-01-01

    Habituation, or the relatively permanent waning of a response as a result of repeated stimulation, is a form of behavioural plasticity that allows animals to filter out irrelevant stimuli and to focus selectively on important stimuli. Individuals that fail to habituate might be at a disadvantage if they continue to respond to irrelevant stimuli; therefore, habituation can have adaptive significance. In this study we compared rates of behaviour over time toward three different ecologically-relevant stimuli (food, a male intruder and a gravid female) in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We detected evidence for habituation to the stimuli, and males in this study were especially aggressive toward both male and female conspecifics. Although there were some clear temporal patterns that could be detected by looking at average behaviour, not all individuals behaved in the same ‘average’ way. We detected substantial inter-individual variation in behaviour toward all three stimuli, inter-individual variation in rates of habituation to both male and female conspecifics, but no evidence for correlations between behaviours across stimuli (behavioural syndromes). These results suggest that individual animals vary in rates of habituation, and prompt hypotheses about the causes and consequences of variation in rates of habituation. PMID:25678715

  20. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  1. A comparison of sound quality judgments for monaural and binaural hearing aid processed stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, P B; Hawkins, D B

    1992-10-01

    Fifteen adults with bilaterally symmetrical mild and/or moderate sensorineural hearing loss completed a paired-comparison task designed to elicit sound quality preference judgments for monaural/binaural hearing aid processed signals. Three stimuli (speech-in-quiet, speech-in-noise, and music) were recorded separately in three listening environments (audiometric test booth, living room, and a music/lecture hall) through hearing aids placed on a Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustics Research. Judgments were made on eight separate sound quality dimensions (brightness, clarity, fullness, loudness, nearness, overall impression, smoothness, and spaciousness) for each of the three stimuli in three listening environments. Results revealed a distinct binaural preference for all eight sound quality dimensions independent of listening environment. Binaural preferences were strongest for overall impression, fullness, and spaciousness. Stimulus type effect was significant only for fullness and spaciousness, where binaural preferences were strongest for speech-in-quiet. After binaural preference data were obtained, subjects ranked each sound quality dimension with respect to its importance for binaural listening relative to monaural. Clarity was ranked highest in importance and brightness was ranked least important. The key to demonstration of improved binaural hearing aid sound quality may be the use of a paired-comparison format.

  2. Receptor-Targeted Nipah Virus Glycoproteins Improve Cell-Type Selective Gene Delivery and Reveal a Preference for Membrane-Proximal Cell Attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben R Bender

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-targeted lentiviral vectors (LVs can be an effective tool for selective transfer of genes into distinct cell types of choice. Moreover, they can be used to determine the molecular properties that cell surface proteins must fulfill to act as receptors for viral glycoproteins. Here we show that LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted Nipah virus (NiV glycoproteins effectively enter into cells when they use cell surface proteins as receptors that bring them closely enough to the cell membrane (less than 100 Å distance. Then, they were flexible in receptor usage as demonstrated by successful targeting of EpCAM, CD20, and CD8, and as selective as LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted measles virus (MV glycoproteins, the current standard for cell-type specific gene delivery. Remarkably, NiV-LVs could be produced at up to two orders of magnitude higher titers compared to their MV-based counterparts and were at least 10,000-fold less effectively neutralized than MV glycoprotein pseudotyped LVs by pooled human intravenous immunoglobulin. An important finding for NiV-LVs targeted to Her2/neu was an about 100-fold higher gene transfer activity when particles were targeted to membrane-proximal regions as compared to particles binding to a more membrane-distal epitope. Likewise, the low gene transfer activity mediated by NiV-LV particles bound to the membrane distal domains of CD117 or the glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GluA4 was substantially enhanced by reducing receptor size to below 100 Å. Overall, the data suggest that the NiV glycoproteins are optimally suited for cell-type specific gene delivery with LVs and, in addition, for the first time define which parts of a cell surface protein should be targeted to achieve optimal gene transfer rates with receptor-targeted LVs.

  3. Value Preferences of Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

  4. Stimuli-responsive liquid crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Hashmi, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive materials which respond to triggers from the environment by changing their properties are one of the focal points in materials science. For precise functional properties, well-defined hierarchically ordered supramolecular materials are crucial. The self-assembly of liquid crystals

  5. Preference of effective Factors in suitable selection of Microtunnel boring machines (mtbm by using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fahp approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jafari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of underground infrastructure, environmental concerns, and economic trend is influencing society. Due to the increasingly critical nature of installations of utility systems especially in congested areas, the need for monitoring and control system has increased. The microtunneling system will therefore have to provide for possibility of minimized surface disruption. Suitable selection of Microtunneling Boring Machine (MTBM is the most curial decision that manager must be done. Because once the trenchless excavation has started, it might be too late to make any changes in equipment without extra costs and delays. Therefore, the various factors and parameters are affecting the choice of machine. In this paper discusses a developed methodology based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP in order to determine weights of the criteria and sub criteria and then ranking them. Within the proposed model, four criteria site, machinery, structural, labor force impact and 18 sub-criteria are specified. The linguistic level of comparisons produced by experts are tapped and constructed in a form of triangular fuzzy numbers in order to construct fuzzy pair wise comparison matrices. Therefore, FAHP uses the pair wise comparison matrices for determining the weights of the criteria and sub-criteria.

  6. Influence of auditory and audiovisual stimuli on the right-left prevalence effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Minakata, Katsumi; Ngo, Mary Kim

    2014-01-01

    occurs when the two-dimensional stimuli are audiovisual, as well as whether there will be cross-modal facilitation of response selection for the horizontal and vertical dimensions. We also examined whether there is an additional benefit of adding a pitch dimension to the auditory stimulus to facilitate...... vertical coding through use of the spatial-musical association of response codes (SMARC) effect, where pitch is coded in terms of height in space. In Experiment 1, we found a larger right-left prevalence effect for unimodal auditory than visual stimuli. Neutral, non-pitch coded, audiovisual stimuli did...... not result in cross-modal facilitation, but did show evidence of visual dominance. The right-left prevalence effect was eliminated in the presence of SMARC audiovisual stimuli, but the effect influenced horizontal rather than vertical coding. Experiment 2 showed that the influence of the pitch dimension...

  7. Height preferences in humans may not be universal: evidence from the Datoga people of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, P; Butovskaya, M L

    2012-09-01

    Many studies in Western societies have shown that women prefer relatively taller men as potential partners, whereas men prefer women who are slightly shorter than themselves. Here, we discuss possible limitations of previous results within the context of the stimuli used (i.e., differences in the perceived body size of female silhouettes). Our results show that, at least in a Polish sample (N=231), modified stimuli did not essentially change the observed male-taller preferences. In contrast, we report height preferences in a traditional ethnic group, the Datoga people from Tanzania (N=107), in which men and women preferred extreme sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) sets (i.e., men and women chose women much taller or much shorter than themselves). Thus, our data do not accord with the suggestion of a universal preference for taller men, but rather suggests that height preferences may be influenced by cultural, environmental, and ecological conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The componential processing of fractions in adults and children: effects of stimuli variability and contextual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Fang, Qiaochu; Gabriel, Florence C; Szücs, Dénes

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that people have a strong tendency to compare fractions based on constituent numerators or denominators. This is called componential processing. This study explored whether componential processing was preferred in tasks involving high stimuli variability and high contextual interference, when fractions could be compared based either on the holistic values of fractions or on their denominators. Here, stimuli variability referred to the fact that fractions were not monotonous but diversiform. Contextual interference referred to the fact that the processing of fractions was interfered by other stimuli. To our ends, three tasks were used. In Task 1, participants compared a standard fraction 1/5 to unit fractions. This task was used as a low stimuli variability and low contextual interference task. In Task 2 stimuli variability was increased by mixing unit and non-unit fractions. In Task 3, high contextual interference was created by incorporating decimals into fractions. The RT results showed that the processing patterns of fractions were very similar for adults and children. In task 1 and task 3, only componential processing was utilzied. In contrast, both holistic processing and componential processing were utilized in task 2. These results suggest that, if individuals are presented with the opportunity to perform componential processing, both adults and children will tend to do so, even if they are faced with high variability of fractions or high contextual interference.

  9. Exposure is not enough: suppressing stimuli from awareness can abolish the mere exposure effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Zilva

    Full Text Available Passive exposure to neutral stimuli increases subsequent liking of those stimuli--the mere exposure effect. Because of the broad implications for understanding and controlling human preferences, the role of conscious awareness in mere exposure has received much attention. Previous studies have claimed that the mere exposure effect can occur without conscious awareness of the stimuli. In two experiments, we applied a technique new to the mere exposure literature, called continuous flash suppression, to expose stimuli for a controlled duration with and without awareness. To ensure the reliability of the awareness manipulation, awareness was monitored on a trial-by-trial basis. Our results show that under these conditions the mere exposure effect does not occur without conscious awareness. In contrast, only when participants were aware of the stimuli did exposure increase liking and recognition. Together these data are consistent with the idea that the mere exposure effect requires conscious awareness and has important implications for theories of memory and affect.

  10. Our Preferences: Why We Like What We Like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Karl; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth

    Humans tend to judge and sort their social and non-social environment permanently into a few basic categories: 'likes' and 'don't likes'. Indeed we have developed general preferences for our social and non-social environment. These preferences can be subsumed under the term 'evolutionary aesthetics' (Voland & Grammer 2003). Indeed humans and animals have evolved preferences for mates, food, habitats, odors, and objects. Those stimuli that promoted reproductive success are bound to evoke positive emotional responses, and humans develop an obsession-like attitude towards aesthetics and beauty. Although we are 'all legally equal', people are often treated differently according to their physical appearance. This differential treatment by others starts early in life. Three-month-old children gaze longer at attractive faces than at unattractive faces. From these results, Langlois et al. (1990) conclude that beauty standards are not learned, but that there is an innate beauty detector. Attractive children receive less punishment than unattractive children for the same types of misbehavior. Differential treatment goes on at school, college, and even university (Baugh & Parry 1991). In this part of our lives attractiveness is coupled to academic achievements - attractive students receive better grades. Even when we apply for jobs, appearance may dominate qualification (Collins & Zebrowitz 1995). This differential treatment reaches its peak perhaps in jurisdiction, where attractiveness can lead to better treatment and lighter sentences. However, this is only the case if attractiveness did not play a role in the crime (Hateld & Sprecher 1986). We even believe that attractive people are better - 'what is beautiful is good' is a common standard in our thinking, according to Dion et al. (1972). The question then arises: Where does this obsessive preoccupation with beauty and attractiveness come from?We will outline here the thesis that human mate selection criteria, which have

  11. An evaluation of preference for video and in vivo modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Kaneen B; Leblanc, Linda A; Dillon, Courtney M; Bates, Stephanie L

    2010-01-01

    We assessed preference for video or in vivo modeling using a concurrent-chains arrangement with 3 children with autism. The two modeling conditions produced similar acquisition rates and no differential selection (i.e., preference) for all 3 participants.

  12. Retinal ganglion cells with distinct directional preferences differ in molecular identity, structure, and central projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeremy N; De la Huerta, Irina; Kim, In-Jung; Zhang, Yifeng; Yamagata, Masahito; Chu, Monica W; Meister, Markus; Sanes, Joshua R

    2011-05-25

    The retina contains ganglion cells (RGCs) that respond selectively to objects moving in particular directions. Individual members of a group of ON-OFF direction-selective RGCs (ooDSGCs) detect stimuli moving in one of four directions: ventral, dorsal, nasal, or temporal. Despite this physiological diversity, little is known about subtype-specific differences in structure, molecular identity, and projections. To seek such differences, we characterized mouse transgenic lines that selectively mark ooDSGCs preferring ventral or nasal motion as well as a line that marks both ventral- and dorsal-preferring subsets. We then used the lines to identify cell surface molecules, including Cadherin 6, CollagenXXVα1, and Matrix metalloprotease 17, that are selectively expressed by distinct subsets of ooDSGCs. We also identify a neuropeptide, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), that distinguishes all ooDSGCs from other RGCs. Together, this panel of endogenous and transgenic markers distinguishes the four ooDSGC subsets. Patterns of molecular diversification occur before eye opening and are therefore experience independent. They may help to explain how the four subsets obtain distinct inputs. We also demonstrate differences among subsets in their dendritic patterns within the retina and their axonal projections to the brain. Differences in projections indicate that information about motion in different directions is sent to different destinations.

  13. Cortical Response Similarities Predict which Audiovisual Clips Individuals Viewed, but Are Unrelated to Clip Preference.

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    David A Bridwell

    Full Text Available Cortical responses to complex natural stimuli can be isolated by examining the relationship between neural measures obtained while multiple individuals view the same stimuli. These inter-subject correlation's (ISC's emerge from similarities in individual's cortical response to the shared audiovisual inputs, which may be related to their emergent cognitive and perceptual experience. Within the present study, our goal is to examine the utility of using ISC's for predicting which audiovisual clips individuals viewed, and to examine the relationship between neural responses to natural stimuli and subjective reports. The ability to predict which clips individuals viewed depends on the relationship of the EEG response across subjects and the nature in which this information is aggregated. We conceived of three approaches for aggregating responses, i.e. three assignment algorithms, which we evaluated in Experiment 1A. The aggregate correlations algorithm generated the highest assignment accuracy (70.83% chance = 33.33% and was selected as the assignment algorithm for the larger sample of individuals and clips within Experiment 1B. The overall assignment accuracy was 33.46% within Experiment 1B (chance = 06.25%, with accuracies ranging from 52.9% (Silver Linings Playbook to 11.75% (Seinfeld within individual clips. ISC's were significantly greater than zero for 15 out of 16 clips, and fluctuations within the delta frequency band (i.e. 0-4 Hz primarily contributed to response similarities across subjects. Interestingly, there was insufficient evidence to indicate that individuals with greater similarities in clip preference demonstrate greater similarities in cortical responses, suggesting a lack of association between ISC and clip preference. Overall these results demonstrate the utility of using ISC's for prediction, and further characterize the relationship between ISC magnitudes and subjective reports.

  14. Cortical Response Similarities Predict which Audiovisual Clips Individuals Viewed, but Are Unrelated to Clip Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridwell, David A; Roth, Cullen; Gupta, Cota Navin; Calhoun, Vince D

    2015-01-01

    Cortical responses to complex natural stimuli can be isolated by examining the relationship between neural measures obtained while multiple individuals view the same stimuli. These inter-subject correlation's (ISC's) emerge from similarities in individual's cortical response to the shared audiovisual inputs, which may be related to their emergent cognitive and perceptual experience. Within the present study, our goal is to examine the utility of using ISC's for predicting which audiovisual clips individuals viewed, and to examine the relationship between neural responses to natural stimuli and subjective reports. The ability to predict which clips individuals viewed depends on the relationship of the EEG response across subjects and the nature in which this information is aggregated. We conceived of three approaches for aggregating responses, i.e. three assignment algorithms, which we evaluated in Experiment 1A. The aggregate correlations algorithm generated the highest assignment accuracy (70.83% chance = 33.33%) and was selected as the assignment algorithm for the larger sample of individuals and clips within Experiment 1B. The overall assignment accuracy was 33.46% within Experiment 1B (chance = 06.25%), with accuracies ranging from 52.9% (Silver Linings Playbook) to 11.75% (Seinfeld) within individual clips. ISC's were significantly greater than zero for 15 out of 16 clips, and fluctuations within the delta frequency band (i.e. 0-4 Hz) primarily contributed to response similarities across subjects. Interestingly, there was insufficient evidence to indicate that individuals with greater similarities in clip preference demonstrate greater similarities in cortical responses, suggesting a lack of association between ISC and clip preference. Overall these results demonstrate the utility of using ISC's for prediction, and further characterize the relationship between ISC magnitudes and subjective reports.

  15. Reward anticipation and processing of social versus nonsocial stimuli in children with and without autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Katherine K M; Carver, Leslie J

    2014-12-01

    How children respond to social and nonsocial rewards has important implications for both typical and atypical social-cognitive development. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to process rewards differently than typically developing (TD) individuals. However, there is little direct evidence to support this claim. Two event-related potentials were measured. The stimulus preceding negativity (SPN) was utilized to measure reward anticipation, and the feedback related negativity (FRN) was utilized to measure reward processing. Participants were 6- to 8-year-olds with (N = 20) and without (N = 23) ASD. Children were presented with rewards accompanied by incidental face or nonface stimuli. Nonface stimuli were composed of scrambled face elements in the shape of arrows, controlling for low-level visual properties. Children with ASD showed smaller responses while anticipating and processing rewards accompanied by social stimuli than TD children. Anticipation and processing of rewards accompanied by nonsocial stimuli was intact in children with ASD. This is the first study to measure both reward anticipation and processing in ASD while controlling for reward properties. The findings provide evidence that children with autism have reward anticipation and processing deficits for social stimuli only. Our results suggest that while typically developing children find social stimuli more salient than nonsocial stimuli, children with ASD may have the opposite preference. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Are preference and resistance to change convergent expressions of stimulus value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-07-01

    Behavioral momentum theory asserts that preference and relative resistance to disruption depend on reinforcement rates and provide converging expressions of the conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. However, preference and resistance to disruption diverge when assessing preference during brief extinction probes. We expanded upon this opposing relation by arranging target stimuli signaling equal variable-interval schedules across components of a multiple schedule. We paired one target stimulus with a richer reinforced alternative and the other with a leaner alternative. Furthermore, we varied reinforcement rates for the paired alternatives to assess the effects of manipulating relative conditioned value on preference and resistance to disruption by presession feeding, intercomponent food, and extinction. We replicated the opposing relation between preference and resistance to disruption but varying reinforcement rates for the paired alternatives did not systematically affect preference or resistance to disruption beyond levels observed in our initial condition. Importantly, we found that only preference between the target stimuli was related to relative baseline response rates in the presence of those stimuli. These findings suggest that preference during extinction probes might reveal more about baseline response rates between concurrently available alternatives than relative conditioned value. Resistance to disruption, conversely, appears to better reflect conditioned value because it is less confounded with baseline response rates and is a function of all sources of reinforcement obtained in the presence of a stimulus context. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  18. Physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Shigeki; Kim, Yeon-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    The specific physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli were investigated in this study. Various physiological responses of the brain (encephaloelectrogram; EEG), autonomic nervous system (ANS), immune system and endocrine system were monitored when pleasant stimuli such as odors, emotional pictures and rakugo, a typical Japanese comical story-telling, were presented to subjects. The results revealed that (i) EEG activities of the left frontal brain region were enhanced by a pleasant odor; (ii) emotional pictures related to primitive element such as nudes and erotic couples elevated vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity; and (iii) an increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and a decrease in salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) were induced by rakugo-derived linguistic pleasant emotion. Pleasant emotion is complicated state. However, by considering the evolutionary history of human being, it is possible to assess and evaluate pleasant emotion from certain physiological responses by appropriately summating various physiological parameters.

  19. Preparation of stimuli for timbre perception studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuschagne, Ilse B; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-09-01

    Stimuli used in timbre perception studies must be controlled carefully in order to yield meaningful results. During psychoacoustic testing of individual timbre properties, (1) it must be ensured that timbre properties do not co-vary, as timbre properties are often not independent from one another, and (2) the potential influence of loudness, pitch, and perceived duration must be eliminated. A mathematical additive synthesis method is proposed which allows complete control over two spectral parameters, the spectral centroid (corresponding to brightness) and irregularity, and two temporal parameters, log rise-time (LRT) and a parameter characterizing the sustain/decay segment, while controlling for covariation in the spectral centroid and irregularity. Thirteen musical instrument sounds were synthesized. Perceptual data from six listeners indicate that variation in the four timbre properties mainly influences loudness and that perceived duration and pitch are not influenced significantly for the stimuli of longer duration (2 s) used here. Trends across instruments were found to be similar.

  20. Picture book exposure elicits positive visual preferences in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula

    2009-09-01

    Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture book. We describe three studies that explored the number and nature of exposures required to elicit positive visual preferences for stimuli and the extent to which induced preferences generalize to other similar items. Results show that positive preferences for stimuli are easily and reliably induced in children and, importantly, that this effect of exposure is not restricted to the exposed stimulus per se but also applies to new representations of the exposed item.

  1. Fitts's law in a selective reaching task: the proximity-to-hand effect of action-centered attention revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Timothy N; Zbinden, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The "proximity-to-hand" effect refers to the finding that distractors between the home position and the target cause more interference in a selective reaching movement than distractors farther from the home position. Based largely on the proximity-to-hand effect, Tipper, Lortie, and Baylis (1992) proposed that attention is distributed in an action-centered framework such that the interference caused by a specific stimulus depends on the action. The current experiments sought to determine if there is an attentional preference for stimuli closer to home or for stimuli that activate more efficiently executed actions regardless of the location. Results supported the latter hypothesis in that the greatest interference was observed when the distractor activated an action with a lower index of difficulty than the target, even though that distractor was farther from home than the target. These findings indicate that the action context mediates the influence that nontarget stimuli have on the processing of target responses.

  2. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  3. Multiaccommodative stimuli in VR systems: problems & solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marran, L; Schor, C

    1997-09-01

    Virtual reality environments can introduce multiple and sometimes conflicting accommodative stimuli. For instance, with the high-powered lenses commonly used in head-mounted displays, small discrepancies in screen lens placement, caused by manufacturer error or user adjustment focus error, can change the focal depths of the image by a couple of diopters. This can introduce a binocular accommodative stimulus or, if the displacement between the two screens is unequal, an unequal (anisometropic) accommodative stimulus for the two eyes. Systems that allow simultaneous viewing of virtual and real images can also introduce a conflict in accommodative stimuli: When real and virtual images are at different focal planes, both cannot be in focus at the same time, though they may appear to be in similar locations in space. In this paper four unique designs are described that minimize the range of accommodative stimuli and maximize the visual system's ability to cope efficiently with the focus conflicts that remain: pinhole optics, monocular lens addition combined with aniso-accommodation, chromatic bifocal, and bifocal lens system. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are described and recommendation for design choice is given after consideration of the end use of the virtual reality system (e.g., low or high end, entertainment, technical, or medical use). The appropriate design modifications should allow greater user comfort and better performance.

  4. Simulation of Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gruhn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure and material properties of polymer networks can depend sensitively on changes in the environment. There is a great deal of progress in the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels for applications like sensors, self-repairing materials or actuators. Biocompatible, smart hydrogels can be used for applications, such as controlled drug delivery and release, or for artificial muscles. Numerical studies have been performed on different length scales and levels of details. Macroscopic theories that describe the network systems with the help of continuous fields are suited to study effects like the stimuli-induced deformation of hydrogels on large scales. In this article, we discuss various macroscopic approaches and describe, in more detail, our phase field model, which allows the calculation of the hydrogel dynamics with the help of a free energy that considers physical and chemical impacts. On a mesoscopic level, polymer systems can be modeled with the help of the self-consistent field theory, which includes the interactions, connectivity, and the entropy of the polymer chains, and does not depend on constitutive equations. We present our recent extension of the method that allows the study of the formation of nano domains in reversibly crosslinked block copolymer networks. Molecular simulations of polymer networks allow the investigation of the behavior of specific systems on a microscopic scale. As an example for microscopic modeling of stimuli sensitive polymer networks, we present our Monte Carlo simulations of a filament network system with crosslinkers.

  5. Anagrus breviphragma Soyka Short Distance Search Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus breviphragma Soyka (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae successfully parasitises eggs of Cicadella viridis (L. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, embedded in vegetal tissues, suggesting the idea of possible chemical and physical cues, revealing the eggs presence. In this research, three treatments were considered in order to establish which types of cue are involved: eggs extracted from leaf, used as a control, eggs extracted from leaf and cleaned in water and ethanol, used to evaluate the presence of chemicals soluble in polar solvents, and eggs extracted from leaf and covered with Parafilm (M, used to avoid physical stimuli due to the bump on the leaf surface. The results show that eggs covered with Parafilm present a higher number of parasitised eggs and a lower probing starting time with respect to eggs washed with polar solvents or eggs extracted and untreated, both when the treatments were singly tested or when offered in sequence, independently of the treatment position. These results suggest that the exploited stimuli are not physical due to the bump but chemicals that can spread in the Parafilm, circulating the signal on the whole surface, and that the stimuli that elicit probing and oviposition are not subjected to learning.

  6. Patients' preferences for nurses' gender in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Alasad, Jafar A

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine patients' preferences for nurses' gender in Jordan. The public, private and university hospitals are represented by selecting one major hospital from each health sector. The sample size was 919 participants. Data were collected by a questionnaire through standardized individual interviews with patients. The findings of the study indicate that gender preferences are stronger among female patients than among male patients. Furthermore, two-thirds of female patients preferred female nurses, whereas only 3.4% preferred male nurses to care for them. In contrast, one-third of male patients' preferred male nurses, and only 10% preferred female nurses. The authors recommend that the high percentage of male nursing students need to be reconsidered by health policy-makers in Jordan.

  7. Gene expression analysis in response to osmotic stimuli in the intervertebral disc with DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Li, Xu; Shang, Xifu; Zhao, Qichun; Hu, Yefeng; Xu, Xiang; He, Rui; Duan, Liqun; Zhang, Feng

    2013-12-27

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) cells experience a broad range of physicochemical stimuli under physiologic conditions, including alterations in their osmotic environment. At present, the molecular mechanisms underlying osmotic regulation in IVD cells are poorly understood. This study aims to screen genes affected by changes in osmotic pressure in cells of subjects aged 29 to 63 years old, with top-scoring pair (TSP) method. Gene expression data set GSE1648 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including four hyper-osmotic stimuli samples, four iso-osmotic stimuli samples, and three hypo-osmotic stimuli samples. A novel, simple method, referred to as the TSP, was used in this study. Through this method, there was no need to perform data normalization and transformation before data analysis. A total of five pairs of genes ((CYP2A6, FNTB), (PRPF8, TARDBP), (RPS5, OAZ1), (SLC25A3, NPM1) and (CBX3, SRSF9)) were selected based on the TSP method. We inferred that all these genes might play important roles in response to osmotic stimuli and age in IVD cells. Additionally, hyper-osmotic and iso-osmotic stimuli conditions were adverse factors for IVD cells. We anticipate that our results will provide new thoughts and methods for the study of IVD disease.

  8. Preserved suppression of salient irrelevant stimuli during visual search in Age-Associated Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eLorenzo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that older adults with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI may show a significant decline in attentional resource capacity and inhibitory processes in addition to memory impairment. In the present paper, the potential attentional capture by task-irrelevant stimuli was examined in older adults with AAMI compared to healthy older adults using scalp-recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs. ERPs were recorded during the execution of a visual search task, in which the participants had to detect the presence of a target stimulus that differed from distractors by orientation. To explore the automatic attentional capture phenomenon, an irrelevant distractor stimulus defined by a different feature (color was also presented without previous knowledge of the participants. A consistent N2pc, an electrophysiological indicator of attentional deployment, was present for target stimuli but not for task-irrelevant color stimuli, suggesting that these irrelevant distractors did not attract attention in AAMI older adults. Furthermore, the N2pc for targets was significantly delayed in AAMI patients compared to healthy older controls. Together, these findings suggest a specific impairment of the attentional selection process of relevant target stimuli in these individuals and indicate that the mechanism of top-down suppression of entirely task-irrelevant stimuli is preserved, at least when the target and the irrelevant stimuli are perceptually very different.

  9. Are females more responsive to emotional stimuli? A neurophysiological study across arousal and valence dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithari, C; Frantzidis, C A; Papadelis, C; Vivas, Ana B; Klados, M A; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Pappas, C; Ioannides, A A; Bamidis, P D

    2010-03-01

    Men and women seem to process emotions and react to them differently. Yet, few neurophysiological studies have systematically investigated gender differences in emotional processing. Here, we studied gender differences using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) and Skin Conductance Responses (SCR) recorded from participants who passively viewed emotional pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). The arousal and valence dimension of the stimuli were manipulated orthogonally. The peak amplitude and peak latency of ERP components and SCR were analyzed separately, and the scalp topographies of significant ERP differences were documented. Females responded with enhanced negative components (N100 and N200), in comparison to males, especially to the unpleasant visual stimuli, whereas both genders responded faster to high arousing or unpleasant stimuli. Scalp topographies revealed more pronounced gender differences on central and left hemisphere areas. Our results suggest a difference in the way emotional stimuli are processed by genders: unpleasant and high arousing stimuli evoke greater ERP amplitudes in women relatively to men. It also seems that unpleasant or high arousing stimuli are temporally prioritized during visual processing by both genders.

  10. Keypress-Based Musical Preference Is Both Individual and Lawful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, Sherri L.; Sheppard, John P.; Kim, Byoung W.; Malthouse, Edward C.; Bourne, Janet E.; Barlow, Anne E.; Lee, Myung J.; Marin, Veronica; O'Connor, Kailyn P.; Csernansky, John G.; Block, Martin P.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2017-01-01

    Musical preference is highly individualized and is an area of active study to develop methods for its quantification. Recently, preference-based behavior, associated with activity in brain reward circuitry, has been shown to follow lawful, quantifiable patterns, despite broad variation across individuals. These patterns, observed using a keypress paradigm with visual stimuli, form the basis for relative preference theory (RPT). Here, we sought to determine if such patterns extend to non-visual domains (i.e., audition) and dynamic stimuli, potentially providing a method to supplement psychometric, physiological, and neuroimaging approaches to preference quantification. For this study, we adapted our keypress paradigm to two sets of stimuli consisting of seventeenth to twenty-first century western art music (Classical) and twentieth to twenty-first century jazz and popular music (Popular). We studied a pilot sample and then a separate primary experimental sample with this paradigm, and used iterative mathematical modeling to determine if RPT relationships were observed with high R2 fits. We further assessed the extent of heterogeneity in the rank ordering of keypress-based responses across subjects. As expected, individual rank orderings of preferences were quite heterogeneous, yet we observed mathematical patterns fitting these data similar to those observed previously with visual stimuli. These patterns in music preference were recurrent across two cohorts and two stimulus sets, and scaled between individual and group data, adhering to the requirements for lawfulness. Our findings suggest a general neuroscience framework that predicts human approach/avoidance behavior, while also allowing for individual differences and the broad diversity of human choices; the resulting framework may offer novel approaches to advancing music neuroscience, or its applications to medicine and recommendation systems. PMID:28512395

  11. Keypress-Based Musical Preference Is Both Individual and Lawful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri L. Livengood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Musical preference is highly individualized and is an area of active study to develop methods for its quantification. Recently, preference-based behavior, associated with activity in brain reward circuitry, has been shown to follow lawful, quantifiable patterns, despite broad variation across individuals. These patterns, observed using a keypress paradigm with visual stimuli, form the basis for relative preference theory (RPT. Here, we sought to determine if such patterns extend to non-visual domains (i.e., audition and dynamic stimuli, potentially providing a method to supplement psychometric, physiological, and neuroimaging approaches to preference quantification. For this study, we adapted our keypress paradigm to two sets of stimuli consisting of seventeenth to twenty-first century western art music (Classical and twentieth to twenty-first century jazz and popular music (Popular. We studied a pilot sample and then a separate primary experimental sample with this paradigm, and used iterative mathematical modeling to determine if RPT relationships were observed with high R2 fits. We further assessed the extent of heterogeneity in the rank ordering of keypress-based responses across subjects. As expected, individual rank orderings of preferences were quite heterogeneous, yet we observed mathematical patterns fitting these data similar to those observed previously with visual stimuli. These patterns in music preference were recurrent across two cohorts and two stimulus sets, and scaled between individual and group data, adhering to the requirements for lawfulness. Our findings suggest a general neuroscience framework that predicts human approach/avoidance behavior, while also allowing for individual differences and the broad diversity of human choices; the resulting framework may offer novel approaches to advancing music neuroscience, or its applications to medicine and recommendation systems.

  12. Humans and mice express similar olfactory preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mandairon

    Full Text Available In humans, the pleasantness of odors is a major contributor to social relationships and food intake. Smells evoke attraction and repulsion responses, reflecting the hedonic value of the odorant. While olfactory preferences are known to be strongly modulated by experience and learning, it has been recently suggested that, in humans, the pleasantness of odors may be partly explained by the physicochemical properties of the odorant molecules themselves. If odor hedonic value is indeed predetermined by odorant structure, then it could be hypothesized that other species will show similar odor preferences to humans. Combining behavioral and psychophysical approaches, we here show that odorants rated as pleasant by humans were also those which, behaviorally, mice investigated longer and human subjects sniffed longer, thereby revealing for the first time a component of olfactory hedonic perception conserved across species. Consistent with this, we further show that odor pleasantness rating in humans and investigation time in mice were both correlated with the physicochemical properties of the molecules, suggesting that olfactory preferences are indeed partly engraved in the physicochemical structure of the odorant. That odor preferences are shared between mammal species and are guided by physicochemical features of odorant stimuli strengthens the view that odor preference is partially predetermined. These findings open up new perspectives for the study of the neural mechanisms of hedonic perception.

  13. Reduced social preferences in autism: evidence from charitable donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alice; Tsai, Karin; Rangel, Antonio; Adolphs, Ralph

    2012-05-17

    People with autism have abnormal preferences, ranging from an apparent lack of preference for social stimuli to unusually strong preferences for restricted sets of highly idiosyncratic stimuli. Yet the profile of preferences across social and nonsocial domains has not been mapped out in detail, and the processes responsible remain poorly understood. To assess preferences across a range of stimuli, we measured real monetary donations to 50 charities spanning categories pertaining to people, mental health, animals, or the environment. We compared the donations made by 16 high-functioning adults with autism to those made by neurotypical controls matched on age, gender and education. We additionally collected ratings of how people evaluated the different charities. Compared with controls, high-functioning adults with autism donated less overall and also showed a significantly disproportionate reduction in donations to people charities compared with donations to the other charities. Furthermore, whereas controls discriminated strongly between different people charities, choosing to donate a lot of money to some and very little to others, much less discrimination was seen in the autism group. Ratings that probed how participants constructed their preferences did not differ between groups, except for a difference in the perceived impact of pictures and text information about people charities. Strikingly, there were some charities related to mental health, and autism in particular, to which the autism group donated considerably more than did the controls. People with autism were found to have reduced preference and sensitivity towards charities benefiting other people. The findings provide evidence for a domain-specific impairment in social cognition in autism spectrum disorder, and in particular in linking otherwise intact social knowledge to the construction of value signals on which preferences regarding other people are based.

  14. Reduced social preferences in autism: evidence from charitable donations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Alice

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with autism have abnormal preferences, ranging from an apparent lack of preference for social stimuli to unusually strong preferences for restricted sets of highly idiosyncratic stimuli. Yet the profile of preferences across social and nonsocial domains has not been mapped out in detail, and the processes responsible remain poorly understood. Methods To assess preferences across a range of stimuli, we measured real monetary donations to 50 charities spanning categories pertaining to people, mental health, animals, or the environment. We compared the donations made by 16 high-functioning adults with autism to those made by neurotypical controls matched on age, gender and education. We additionally collected ratings of how people evaluated the different charities. Results Compared with controls, high-functioning adults with autism donated less overall and also showed a significantly disproportionate reduction in donations to people charities compared with donations to the other charities. Furthermore, whereas controls discriminated strongly between different people charities, choosing to donate a lot of money to some and very little to others, much less discrimination was seen in the autism group. Ratings that probed how participants constructed their preferences did not differ between groups, except for a difference in the perceived impact of pictures and text information about people charities. Strikingly, there were some charities related to mental health, and autism in particular, to which the autism group donated considerably more than did the controls. Conclusions People with autism were found to have reduced preference and sensitivity towards charities benefiting other people. The findings provide evidence for a domain-specific impairment in social cognition in autism spectrum disorder, and in particular in linking otherwise intact social knowledge to the construction of value signals on which preferences

  15. Direct fitness benefits explain mate preference, but not choice, for similarity in heterozygosity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Elizabeth Christina; Gort, G.; van Oers, K.; Hinde, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Under sexual selection, mate preferences can evolve for traits advertising fitness benefits. Observed mating patterns (mate choice) are often assumed to represent preference, even though they result from the interaction between preference, sampling strategy and environmental factors. Correlating

  16. Direct fitness benefits explain mate preference, but not choice, for similarity in heterozygosity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Lies; Gort, Gerrit; Oers, van Kees; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2017-01-01

    Under sexual selection, mate preferences can evolve for traits advertising fitness benefits. Observed mating patterns (mate choice) are often assumed to represent preference, even though they result from the interaction between preference, sampling strategy and environmental factors. Correlating

  17. [WMN: a negative ERPs component related to working memory during non-target visual stimuli processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lun; Wei, Jin-he

    2003-10-01

    To study non-target stimuli processing in the brain. Features of the event-related potentials (ERPs) from non-target stimuli during selective response task (SR) was compared with that during visual selective discrimination (DR) task in 26 normal subjects. The stimuli consisted of two color LED flashes (red and green) appeared randomly in left (LVF) or right (RVF) visual field with same probability. ERPs were derived at 9 electrode sites on the scalp under 2 task conditions: a) SR, making switch response to the target (NT) stimuli from LVF or RVF in one direction and making no response to the non-target (NT) ones; b) DR, making switching response to T stimuli differentially, i.e., to the left for T from LVF and to the right for T from RVF. 1) the non-target stimuli in DR conditions, compared with that in SR condition, elicited smaller P2 and P3 components and larger N2 component at the frontal brain areas; 2) a significant negative component, named as WMN (working memory negativity), appeared in the non-target ERPs during DR in the period of 100 to 700 ms post stimulation which was predominant at the frontal brain areas. According to the major difference between brain activities for non-target stimuli during SR and DR, the predominant appearance of WMN at the frontal brain areas demonstrated that the non-target stimulus processing was an active process and was related to working memory, i.e., the temporary elimination and the retrieval of the response mode which was stored in working memory.

  18. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk......We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence...

  19. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  20. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Wallentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY (KS is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49 responded to whether the words “GREEN” or “RED” were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors. One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  1. Accounting for taste: individual differences in preference for harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Griscom, William S

    2013-06-01

    Although empirical research on aesthetics has had some success in explaining the average preferences of groups of observers, relatively little is known about individual differences in preference, and especially about how such differences might covary across different domains. In this study, we identified a new factor underlying aesthetic response-preference for harmonious stimuli-and examined how it varies over four domains (color, shape, spatial location, and music) across individuals with different levels of training in art and music. We found that individual preferences for harmony are strongly correlated across all four dimensions tested and decrease consistently with training in the relevant aesthetic domains. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that cross-domain preference for harmony is well-represented as a single, unified factor, with effects separate from those of training and of common personality measures.

  2. Read-out of emotional information from iconic memory: the longevity of threatening stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Spitzer, Bernhard; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has shown that emotional stimuli are more likely than neutral stimuli to be selected by attention, indicating that the processing of emotional information is prioritized. In this study, we examined whether the emotional significance of stimuli influences visual processing already at the level of transient storage of incoming information in iconic memory, before attentional selection takes place. We used a typical iconic memory task in which the delay of a poststimulus cue, indicating which of several visual stimuli has to be reported, was varied. Performance decreased rapidly with increasing cue delay, reflecting the fast decay of information stored in iconic memory. However, although neutral stimulus information and emotional stimulus information were initially equally likely to enter iconic memory, the subsequent decay of the initially stored information was slowed for threatening stimuli, a result indicating that fear-relevant information has prolonged availability for read-out from iconic memory. This finding provides the first evidence that emotional significance already facilitates stimulus processing at the stage of iconic memory.

  3. Visual attention to meaningful stimuli by 1- to 3-year olds: implications for the measurement of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Harlene; Jaeger, Katja; Sonne, Trine; Gross, Julien

    2016-11-01

    The visual recognition memory (VRM) paradigm has been widely used to measure memory during infancy and early childhood; it has also been used to study memory in human and nonhuman adults. Typically, participants are familiarized with stimuli that have no special significance to them. Under these conditions, greater attention to the novel stimulus during the test (i.e., novelty preference) is used as the primary index of memory. Here, we took a novel approach to the VRM paradigm and tested 1-, 2-, and 3-year olds using photos of meaningful stimuli that were drawn from the participants' own environment (e.g., photos of their mother, father, siblings, house). We also compared their performance to that of participants of the same age who were tested in an explicit pointing version of the VRM task. Two- and 3-year olds exhibited a strong familiarity preference for some, but not all, of the meaningful stimuli; 1-year olds did not. At no age did participants exhibit the kind of novelty preference that is commonly used to define memory in the VRM task. Furthermore, when compared to pointing, looking measures provided a rough approximation of recognition memory, but in some instances, the looking measure underestimated retention. The use of meaningful stimuli raise important questions about the way in which visual attention is interpreted in the VRM paradigm, and may provide new opportunities to measure memory during infancy and early childhood. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of Size Change and Brightness Change of Visual Stimuli on Loudness Perception and Pitch Perception of Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syouya Tanabe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available People obtain a lot of information from visual and auditory sensation on daily life. Regarding the effect of visual stimuli on perception of auditory stimuli, studies of phonological perception and sound localization have been made in great numbers. This study examined the effect of visual stimuli on perception in loudness and pitch of auditory stimuli. We used the image of figures whose size or brightness was changed as visual stimuli, and the sound of pure tone whose loudness or pitch was changed as auditory stimuli. Those visual and auditory stimuli were combined independently to make four types of audio-visual multisensory stimuli for psychophysical experiments. In the experiments, participants judged change in loudness or pitch of auditory stimuli, while they judged the direction of size change or the kind of a presented figure in visual stimuli. Therefore they cannot neglect visual stimuli while they judged auditory stimuli. As a result, perception in loudness and pitch were promoted significantly around their difference limen, when the image was getting bigger or brighter, compared with the case in which the image had no changes. This indicates that perception in loudness and pitch were affected by change in size and brightness of visual stimuli.

  5. Emotion attribution to basic parametric static and dynamic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, P.

    2009-01-01

    The following research investigates the effect of basic visual stimuli on the attribution of basic emotions by the viewer. In an empirical study (N = 33) we used two groups of visually minimal expressive stimuli: dynamic and static. The dynamic stimuli consisted of an animated circle moving

  6. Neighborhood preference, walkability and walking in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gregory J; Carlson, Jordan A; O'Mara, Stephanie; Sallis, James F; Patrick, Kevin; Frank, Lawrence D; Godbole, Suneeta V

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether self-selection moderated the effects of walkability on walking in overweight and obese men. 240 overweight and obese men completed measures on importance of walkability when choosing a neighborhood (selection) and preference for walkable features in general (preference). IPAQ measured walking. A walkbility index was derived from geographic information systems (GIS). Walkability was associated with walking for transportation (p = .027) and neighborhood selection was associated with walking for transportation (p = .002) and total walking (p = .001). Preference was associated with leisure walking (p = .045) and preference moderated the relationship between walkability and total walking (p = .059). Walkability and self-selection are both important to walking behavior.

  7. Sensory sensitivity and identification and hedonic assessment ofolfactory stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Ruszpel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducted research had an exploratory character. It was focused on connections between temperament and olfactory functioning – in particular, identification and affective assessment of olfactory stimuli. Main research question dealt with potential correlations between sensory sensitivity (dimension of temperamental questionnaire FCZ‑KT with declarative and objective ability to identify presented odours and their assessment. Fifty four schoolgirls from one of the Warsaw sec‑ ondary schools participated in the research and they were asked for filling in the FCZ‑KT questionnaire and evaluating each of 16 smell samples. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between declared familiarity and accurate odours’ identification (odours that were subjectively known were recognized more accurately than unknown and a posi‑ tive correlation between declared familiarity and affective assessment (odours that were known were assessed as more pleasant than unknown. Sensory sensitivity was not correlated neither with declarative nor real ability to identify smells, however sensory sensitivity was positively correlated with affective assessment (the higher scores on sensory sensitivity dimension, the more pleasantly assessed odours in general. Analyses revealed a number of connections between other dimensions of FCZ‑KT questionnaire (perseverance, liveliness, stamina and the ability (both objective and subjective to correctly identify odours which were most difficult to recognize. Completed project might be perceived as a starting point for further research concerning relationships between temperament, olfactory functioning, and food preferences among patients diagnosed with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and obesity.

  8. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  9. Aboveground mechanical stimuli affect belowground plant-plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ali; Markovic, Dimitrije; Broberg, Anders; Anten, Niels P R; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2018-01-01

    Plants can detect the presence of their neighbours and modify their growth behaviour accordingly. But the extent to which this neighbour detection is mediated by abiotic stressors is not well known. In this study we tested the acclimation response of Zea mays L. seedlings through belowground interactions to the presence of their siblings exposed to brief mechano stimuli. Maize seedling simultaneously shared the growth solution of touched plants or they were transferred to the growth solution of previously touched plants. We tested the growth preferences of newly germinated seedlings toward the growth solution of touched (T_solution) or untouched plants (C_solution). The primary root of the newly germinated seedlings grew significantly less towards T_solution than to C_solution. Plants transferred to T_solution allocated more biomass to shoots and less to roots. While plants that simultaneously shared their growth solution with the touched plants produced more biomass. Results show that plant responses to neighbours can be modified by aboveground abiotic stress to those neighbours and suggest that these modifications are mediated by belowground interactions.

  10. Aboveground mechanical stimuli affect belowground plant-plant communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Elhakeem

    Full Text Available Plants can detect the presence of their neighbours and modify their growth behaviour accordingly. But the extent to which this neighbour detection is mediated by abiotic stressors is not well known. In this study we tested the acclimation response of Zea mays L. seedlings through belowground interactions to the presence of their siblings exposed to brief mechano stimuli. Maize seedling simultaneously shared the growth solution of touched plants or they were transferred to the growth solution of previously touched plants. We tested the growth preferences of newly germinated seedlings toward the growth solution of touched (T_solution or untouched plants (C_solution. The primary root of the newly germinated seedlings grew significantly less towards T_solution than to C_solution. Plants transferred to T_solution allocated more biomass to shoots and less to roots. While plants that simultaneously shared their growth solution with the touched plants produced more biomass. Results show that plant responses to neighbours can be modified by aboveground abiotic stress to those neighbours and suggest that these modifications are mediated by belowground interactions.

  11. Deadly Attraction - Attentional Bias toward Preferred Cigarette Brand in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaradzka, Ewa; Bielecki, Maksymilian

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that biases in visual attention might be evoked by affective and personally relevant stimuli, for example addiction-related objects. Despite the fact that addiction is often linked to specific products and systematic purchase behaviors, no studies focused directly on the existence of bias evoked by brands. Smokers are characterized by high levels of brand loyalty and everyday contact with cigarette packaging. Using the incentive-salience mechanism as a theoretical framework, we hypothesized that this group might exhibit a bias toward the preferred cigarette brand. In our study, a group of smokers ( N = 40) performed a dot probe task while their eye movements were recorded. In every trial a pair of pictures was presented - each of them showed a single cigarette pack. The visual properties of stimuli were carefully controlled, so branding information was the key factor affecting subjects' reactions. For each participant, we compared gaze behavior related to the preferred vs. other brands. The analyses revealed no attentional bias in the early, orienting phase of the stimulus processing and strong differences in maintenance and disengagement. Participants spent more time looking at the preferred cigarettes and saccades starting at the preferred brand location had longer latencies. In sum, our data shows that attentional bias toward brands might be found in situations not involving choice or decision making. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms of formation and maintenance of attentional biases to stimuli of personal relevance and might serve as a first step toward developing new attitude measurement techniques.

  12. Relationship between heart rate and preference for tempo of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, M

    1995-10-01

    People prefer music with tempi ranging from 70 to 100 cycles per minute similar to that of adults' heart rate within normal daily situations. Previous studies of the relation between preferred tempi and heart rates using a pure tone also have indicated that subjects tended to prefer tempi similar to their heart rates. The present study examined this relationship using a musical piece (the theme of "It's a small world") as a stimulus. 14 undergraduate women were subjects who searched for their favorite tempi by controlling the musical tempo by themselves. The most preferred tempo was close to their cycle of heart beats, however, tempi that were one and a half and twice as fast as the heart rate were less preferred in the present study than in a previous study using a tone. Subjects preferred faster tempi in the descending series of stimuli than in the ascending one, and hence were influenced by the initial value of the tempo in the trial sequence. The effects due to the differences of the meaning of the stimuli are considered.

  13. Balancing Attended and Global Stimuli in Perceived Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    . This paper proposes a quality model based on the late attention selection theory, assuming that the video quality is perceived via two mechanisms: global and local quality assessment. First we model several visual features influencing the visual attention in quality assessment scenarios to derive......The visual attention mechanism plays a key role in the human perception system and it has a significant impact on our assessment of perceived video quality. In spite of receiving less attention from the viewers, unattended stimuli can still contribute to the understanding of the visual content...... an attention map using appropriate fusion techniques. The global quality assessment as based on the assumption that viewers allocate their attention equally to the entire visual scene, is modeled by four carefully designed quality features. By employing these same quality features, the local quality model...

  14. Audiovisual Capture with Ambiguous Audiovisual Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Hupé

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual capture happens when information across modalities get fused into a coherent percept. Ambiguous multi-modal stimuli have the potential to be powerful tools to observe such effects. We used such stimuli made of temporally synchronized and spatially co-localized visual flashes and auditory tones. The flashes produced bistable apparent motion and the tones produced ambiguous streaming. We measured strong interferences between perceptual decisions in each modality, a case of audiovisual capture. However, does this mean that audiovisual capture occurs before bistable decision? We argue that this is not the case, as the interference had a slow temporal dynamics and was modulated by audiovisual congruence, suggestive of high-level factors such as attention or intention. We propose a framework to integrate bistability and audiovisual capture, which distinguishes between “what” competes and “how” it competes (Hupé et al., 2008. The audiovisual interactions may be the result of contextual influences on neural representations (“what” competes, quite independent from the causal mechanisms of perceptual switches (“how” it competes. This framework predicts that audiovisual capture can bias bistability especially if modalities are congruent (Sato et al., 2007, but that is fundamentally distinct in nature from the bistable competition mechanism.

  15. Can persons with dementia be engaged with stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Regier, Natalie G; Thein, Khin

    2010-04-01

    To determine which stimuli are 1) most engaging 2) most often refused by nursing home residents with dementia, and 3) most appropriate for persons who are more difficult to engage with stimuli. Participants were 193 residents of seven Maryland nursing homes. All participants had a diagnosis of dementia. Stimulus engagement was assessed by the Observational Measure of Engagement. The most engaging stimuli were one-on-one socializing with a research assistant, a real baby, personalized stimuli based on the person's self-identity, a lifelike doll, a respite video, and envelopes to stamp. Refusal of stimuli was higher among those with higher levels of cognitive function and related to the stimulus' social appropriateness. Women showed more attention and had more positive attitudes for live social stimuli, simulated social stimuli, and artistic tasks than did men. Persons with comparatively higher levels of cognitive functioning were more likely to be engaged in manipulative and work tasks, whereas those with low levels of cognitive functioning spent relatively more time responding to social stimuli. The most effective stimuli did not differ for those most likely to be engaged and those least likely to be engaged. Nursing homes should consider both having engagement stimuli readily available to residents with dementia, and implementing a socialization schedule so that residents receive one-on-one interaction. Understanding the relationship among type of stimulus, cognitive function, and acceptance, attention, and attitude toward the stimuli can enable caregivers to maximize the desired benefit for persons with dementia.

  16. Characteristics of the consumer preferences research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela-Cristina Voicu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONSUMER PREFERENCES RESEARCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.

  18. Artificial Cochlear Sensory Epithelium with Functions of Outer Hair Cells Mimicked Using Feedback Electrical Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tsuji

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel vibration control technique of an artificial auditory cochlear epithelium that mimics the function of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. The proposed piezoelectric and trapezoidal membrane not only has the acoustic/electric conversion and frequency selectivity of the previous device developed mainly by one of the authors and colleagues, but also has a function to control local vibration according to sound stimuli. Vibration control is achieved by applying local electrical stimuli to patterned electrodes on an epithelium made using micro-electro-mechanical system technology. By choosing appropriate phase differences between sound and electrical stimuli, it is shown that it is possible to both amplify and dampen membrane vibration, realizing better control of the response of the artificial cochlea. To be more specific, amplification and damping are achieved when the phase difference between the membrane vibration by sound stimuli and electrical stimuli is zero and π , respectively. We also demonstrate that the developed control system responds automatically to a change in sound frequency. The proposed technique can be applied to mimic the nonlinear response of the outer hair cells in a cochlea, and to realize a high-quality human auditory system.

  19. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  20. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  1. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  2. Measuring Normative Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe results of eliciting risk preferences depend on the elicitation method. Different methods of measuring the same variable tend to produce different results. This raises the question whether normative risk preferences can be elicited at all. Using two types of manipulation, I assess

  3. Mere Exposure: Preference Change for Novel Drinks Reflected in Human Ventral Tegmental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ian C; Hennigan, Kelly; McClure, Samuel M

    2017-05-01

    Preferences for novel stimuli tend to develop slowly over many exposures. Psychological accounts of this effect suggest that it depends on changes in the brain's valuation system. Participants consumed a novel fluid daily for 10 days and underwent fMRI on the first and last days. We hypothesized that changes in activation in areas associated with the dopamine system would accompany changes in preference. The change in activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) between sessions scaled with preference change. Furthermore, a network comprising the sensory thalamus, posterior insula, and ventrolateral striatum showed differential connectivity with the VTA that correlated with individual changes in preference. Our results suggest that the VTA is centrally involved in both assigning value to sensory stimuli and influencing downstream regions to translate these value signals into subjective preference. These results have important implications for models of dopaminergic function and behavioral addiction.

  4. Selective Preference of Parallel DNA Triplexes Is Due to the Disruption of Hoogsteen Hydrogen Bonds Caused by the Severe Nonisostericity between the G*GC and T*AT Triplets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunaseelan Goldsmith

    Full Text Available Implications of DNA, RNA and RNA.DNA hybrid triplexes in diverse biological functions, diseases and therapeutic applications call for a thorough understanding of their structure-function relationships. Despite exhaustive studies mechanistic rationale for the discriminatory preference of parallel DNA triplexes with G*GC & T*AT triplets still remains elusive. Here, we show that the highest nonisostericity between the G*GC & T*AT triplets imposes extensive stereochemical rearrangements contributing to context dependent triplex destabilisation through selective disruption of Hoogsteen scheme of hydrogen bonds. MD simulations of nineteen DNA triplexes with an assortment of sequence milieu reveal for the first time fresh insights into the nature and extent of destabilization from a single (non-overlapping, double (overlapping and multiple pairs of nonisosteric base triplets (NIBTs. It is found that a solitary pair of NIBTs, feasible either at a G*GC/T*AT or T*AT/G*GC triplex junction, does not impinge significantly on triplex stability. But two overlapping pairs of NIBTs resulting from either a T*AT or a G*GC interruption disrupt Hoogsteen pair to a noncanonical mismatch destabilizing the triplex by ~10 to 14 kcal/mol, implying that their frequent incidence in multiples, especially, in short sequences could even hinder triplex formation. The results provide (i an unambiguous and generalised mechanistic rationale for the discriminatory trait of parallel triplexes, including those studied experimentally (ii clarity for the prevalence of antiparallel triplexes and (iii comprehensive perspectives on the sequence dependent influence of nonisosteric base triplets useful in the rational design of TFO's against potential triplex target sites.

  5. Preference learning for cognitive modeling: a case study on entertainment preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Maragoudakis, Manolis; Hallam, John

    2009-01-01

    Learning from preferences, which provide means for expressing a subject's desires, constitutes an important topic in machine learning research. This paper presents a comparative study of four alternative instance preference learning algorithms (both linear and nonlinear). The case study...... investigated is to learn to predict the expressed entertainment preferences of children when playing physical games built on their personalized playing features (entertainment modeling). Two of the approaches are derived from the literature--the large-margin algorithm (LMA) and preference learning...... with Gaussian processes--while the remaining two are custom-designed approaches for the problem under investigation: meta-LMA and neuroevolution. Preference learning techniques are combined with feature set selection methods permitting the construction of effective preference models, given suitable individual...

  6. Exposure to Sexual Stimuli Induces Greater Discounting Leading to Increased Involvement in Cyber Delinquency Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2018-02-01

    People frequently encounter sexual stimuli during Internet use. Research has shown that stimuli inducing sexual motivation can lead to greater impulsivity in men, as manifested in greater temporal discounting (i.e., a tendency to prefer smaller, immediate gains to larger, future ones). Extant findings in crime research suggest that delinquents tend to focus on short-term gains while failing to adequately think through the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior. We experimentally tested the possibility that exposure to sexual stimuli is associated with the tendency to engage in cyber delinquency among men, as a result of their overly discounting remote consequences. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to pictures of "sexy" women were more likely to discount the future and were more inclined to make cyber-delinquent choices (e.g., cyberbullying, cyber fraud, cyber theft, and illegal downloading), compared with male participants who rated the sex appeal of less sexy opposite-sex pictures. However, these relationships were not observed in female participants exposed to either highly or less sexy pictures of men. In Experiment 2, male participants exposed to sexual primes showed a greater willingness to purchase a wide range of counterfeit rather than authentic products online and experienced a higher likelihood of logging into the other person's Facebook webpage (i.e., invading online privacy). The discounting tendency mediated the link between exposure to sexual primes and the inclination to engage in cyber-delinquent behavior. These findings provide insight into a strategy for reducing men's involvement in cyber delinquency; that is, through less exposure to sexual stimuli and promotion of delayed gratification. The current results suggest that the high availability of sexual stimuli in cyberspace may be more closely associated with men's cyber-delinquent behavior than previously thought.

  7. A comparative analysis of colour preferences in temperate and tropical social bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurali, G. S.; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Somanathan, Hema; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie

    2018-02-01

    The spontaneous occurrence of colour preferences without learning has been demonstrated in several insect species; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood. Here, we use a comparative approach to investigate spontaneous and learned colour preferences in foraging bees of two tropical and one temperate species. We hypothesised that tropical bees utilise different sets of plants and therefore might differ in their spontaneous colour preferences. We tested colour-naive bees and foragers from colonies that had been enclosed in large flight cages for a long time. Bees were shortly trained with triplets of neutral, UV-grey stimuli placed randomly at eight locations on a black training disk to induce foraging motivation. During unrewarded tests, the bees' responses to eight colours were video-recorded. Bees explored all colours and displayed an overall preference for colours dominated by long or short wavelengths, rather than a single colour stimulus. Naive Apis cerana and Bombus terrestris showed similar choices. Both inspected long-wavelength stimuli more than short-wavelength stimuli, whilst responses of the tropical stingless bee Tetragonula iridipennis differed, suggesting that resource partitioning could be a determinant of spontaneous colour preferences. Reward on an unsaturated yellow colour shifted the bees' preference curves as predicted, which is in line with previous findings that brief colour experience overrides the expression of spontaneous preferences. We conclude that rather than determining foraging behaviour in inflexible ways, spontaneous colour preferences vary depending on experimental settings and reflect potential biases in mechanisms of learning and decision-making in pollinating insects.

  8. A comparative analysis of colour preferences in temperate and tropical social bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurali, G S; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Somanathan, Hema; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie

    2018-01-02

    The spontaneous occurrence of colour preferences without learning has been demonstrated in several insect species; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood. Here, we use a comparative approach to investigate spontaneous and learned colour preferences in foraging bees of two tropical and one temperate species. We hypothesised that tropical bees utilise different sets of plants and therefore might differ in their spontaneous colour preferences. We tested colour-naive bees and foragers from colonies that had been enclosed in large flight cages for a long time. Bees were shortly trained with triplets of neutral, UV-grey stimuli placed randomly at eight locations on a black training disk to induce foraging motivation. During unrewarded tests, the bees' responses to eight colours were video-recorded. Bees explored all colours and displayed an overall preference for colours dominated by long or short wavelengths, rather than a single colour stimulus. Naive Apis cerana and Bombus terrestris showed similar choices. Both inspected long-wavelength stimuli more than short-wavelength stimuli, whilst responses of the tropical stingless bee Tetragonula iridipennis differed, suggesting that resource partitioning could be a determinant of spontaneous colour preferences. Reward on an unsaturated yellow colour shifted the bees' preference curves as predicted, which is in line with previous findings that brief colour experience overrides the expression of spontaneous preferences. We conclude that rather than determining foraging behaviour in inflexible ways, spontaneous colour preferences vary depending on experimental settings and reflect potential biases in mechanisms of learning and decision-making in pollinating insects.

  9. Deep learning for EEG-Based preference classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jason; Hou, Chew Lin; Mountstephens, James

    2017-10-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion classification is rapidly becoming one of the most intensely studied areas of brain-computer interfacing (BCI). The ability to passively identify yet accurately correlate brainwaves with our immediate emotions opens up truly meaningful and previously unattainable human-computer interactions such as in forensic neuroscience, rehabilitative medicine, affective entertainment and neuro-marketing. One particularly useful yet rarely explored areas of EEG-based emotion classification is preference recognition [1], which is simply the detection of like versus dislike. Within the limited investigations into preference classification, all reported studies were based on musically-induced stimuli except for a single study which used 2D images. The main objective of this study is to apply deep learning, which has been shown to produce state-of-the-art results in diverse hard problems such as in computer vision, natural language processing and audio recognition, to 3D object preference classification over a larger group of test subjects. A cohort of 16 users was shown 60 bracelet-like objects as rotating visual stimuli on a computer display while their preferences and EEGs were recorded. After training a variety of machine learning approaches which included deep neural networks, we then attempted to classify the users' preferences for the 3D visual stimuli based on their EEGs. Here, we show that that deep learning outperforms a variety of other machine learning classifiers for this EEG-based preference classification task particularly in a highly challenging dataset with large inter- and intra-subject variability.

  10. Nonhuman primates prefer slow tempos but dislike music overall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D

    2007-09-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21] to test cotton-top tamarins and common marmosets, two new-World primates, for their spontaneous responses to stimuli that varied systematically with respect to tempo. Across several experiments, we found that both tamarins and marmosets preferred slow tempos to fast. It is possible that the observed preferences were due to arousal, and that this effect is homologous to the human response to tempo. In other respects, however, these two monkey species showed striking differences compared to humans. Specifically, when presented with a choice between slow tempo musical stimuli, including lullabies, and silence, tamarins and marmosets preferred silence whereas humans, when similarly tested, preferred music. Thus despite the possibility of homologous mechanisms for tempo perception in human and nonhuman primates, there appear to be motivational ties to music that are uniquely human.

  11. Visual sensitivity for luminance and chromatic stimuli during the execution of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Doris I; Schütz, Alexander C; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2017-07-01

    Visual sensitivity is dynamically modulated by eye movements. During saccadic eye movements, sensitivity is reduced selectively for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli and largely unaffected for high-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli (Nature 371 (1994), 511-513). During smooth pursuit eye movements, sensitivity for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is moderately reduced while sensitivity for chromatic and high-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is even increased (Nature Neuroscience, 11 (2008), 1211-1216). Since these effects are at least partly of different polarity, we investigated the combined effects of saccades and smooth pursuit on visual sensitivity. For the time course of chromatic sensitivity, we found that detection rates increased slightly around pursuit onset. During saccades to static and moving targets, detection rates dropped briefly before the saccade and reached a minimum at saccade onset. This reduction of chromatic sensitivity was present whenever a saccade was executed and it was not modified by subsequent pursuit. We also measured contrast sensitivity for flashed high- and low-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli during saccades and pursuit. During saccades, the reduction of contrast sensitivity was strongest for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli (about 90%). However, a significant reduction was also present for chromatic stimuli (about 58%). Chromatic sensitivity was increased during smooth pursuit (about 12%). These results suggest that the modulation of visual sensitivity during saccades and smooth pursuit is more complex than previously assumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Attribute amnesia is greatly reduced with novel stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Attribute amnesia is the counterintuitive phenomenon where observers are unable to report a salient aspect of a stimulus (e.g., its colour or its identity immediately after the stimulus was presented, despite both attending to and processing the stimulus. Almost all previous attribute amnesia studies used highly familiar stimuli. Our study investigated whether attribute amnesia would also occur for unfamiliar stimuli. We conducted four experiments using stimuli that were highly familiar (colours or repeated animal images or that were unfamiliar to the observers (unique animal images. Our results revealed that attribute amnesia was present for both sets of familiar stimuli, colour (p < .001 and repeated animals (p = .001; but was greatly attenuated, and possibly eliminated, when the stimuli were unique animals (p = .02. Our data shows that attribute amnesia is greatly reduced for novel stimuli.

  13. Auditory Evoked Potentials and Hand Preference in 6-Month-Old Infants: Possible Gender-Related Differences in Cerebral Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucard, Janet L.; Shucard, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Verbal and musical stimuli were presented to infants in a study of the relations of evoked potential left-right amplitude asymmetries to gender and hand preference. There was a relation between asymmetry and hand preference, and for girls, between asymmetry and stimulus condition. Results suggest a gender difference in cerebral hemisphere…

  14. Group-Based Preference Assessment for Children and Adolescents in a Residential Setting: Examining Developmental, Clinical, Gender, and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Jennifer L. Resetar; Cook, Clayton R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred…

  15. Separating discriminative and function-altering effects of verbal stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since Skinner's first discussion of rule-governed behavior, behavior analysts have continued to define rules, either explicitly or implicitly, as verbal discriminative stimuli. Consequently, it is not difficult to find, in the literature on rule-governed behavior, references to stimulus control, antecedent control, or to rules occasioning behavior. However, some verbal stimuli have effects on behavior that are not easily described as discriminative. Such stimuli don't evoke behavior as d...

  16. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  17. Multisensory stimuli improve relative localisation judgments compared to unisensory auditory or visual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer; Wood, Katherine; Freeman, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Observers performed a relative localisation task in which they reported whether the second of two sequentially presented signals occurred to the left or right of the first. Stimuli were detectability-matched auditory, visual, or auditory-visual signals and the goal was to compare changes in performance with eccentricity across modalities. Visual performance was superior to auditory at the midline, but inferior in the periphery, while auditory-visual performance exceeded both at all locations....

  18. Competition between color and luminance for target selection in smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Montagnini, Anna; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2008-11-24

    Visual processing of color and luminance for smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements was investigated using a target selection paradigm. In two experiments, stimuli were varied along the dimensions color and luminance, and selection of the more salient target was compared in pursuit and saccades. Initial pursuit was biased in the direction of the luminance component whereas saccades showed a relative preference for color. An early pursuit response toward luminance was often reversed to color by a later saccade. Observers' perceptual judgments of stimulus salience, obtained in two control experiments, were clearly biased toward luminance. This choice bias in perceptual data implies that the initial short-latency pursuit response agrees with perceptual judgments. In contrast, saccades, which have a longer latency than pursuit, do not seem to follow the perceptual judgment of salience but instead show a stronger relative preference for color. These substantial differences in target selection imply that target selection processes for pursuit and saccadic eye movements use distinctly different weights for color and luminance stimuli.

  19. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of finitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed...... consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisfied. Market data sets consist of finitely...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  20. Consumers’ preferences for bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...

  1. Stimuli-responsive cement-reinforced rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Simone; Robisson, Agathe; Maheshwar, Sudeep; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report the successful development of a cement-rubber reactive composite with reversible mechanical properties. Initially, the composite behaves like rubber containing inert filler, but when exposed to water, it increases in volume and reaches a stiffness that is intermediate between that of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and hydrated cement, while maintaining a relatively large ductility characteristic of rubber. After drying, the modulus increases even further up to 400 MPa. Wet/drying cycles prove that the elastic modulus can reversibly change between 150 and 400 MPa. Utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), we demonstrate that the high pH produced by the hydration of cement triggers the hydrolysis of the rubber nitrile groups into carboxylate anions. Thus, the salt bridges, generated between the carboxylate anions of the elastomer and the cations of the filler, are responsible for the reversible variations in volume and elastic modulus of the composite as a consequence of environmental moisture exposure. These results reveal that cement nanoparticles can successfully be used to accomplish a twofold task: (a) achieve an original postpolymerization modification that allows one to work with carboxylate HNBR (HXNBR) not obtained by direct copolymerization of carboxylate monomers with butadiene, and (b) synthesize a stimuli-responsive polymeric composite. This new type of material, having an ideal behavior for sealing application, could be used as an alternative to cement for oil field zonal isolation applications.

  2. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Community detection using preference networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasgin, Mursel; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2018-04-01

    Community detection is the task of identifying clusters or groups of nodes in a network where nodes within the same group are more connected with each other than with nodes in different groups. It has practical uses in identifying similar functions or roles of nodes in many biological, social and computer networks. With the availability of very large networks in recent years, performance and scalability of community detection algorithms become crucial, i.e. if time complexity of an algorithm is high, it cannot run on large networks. In this paper, we propose a new community detection algorithm, which has a local approach and is able to run on large networks. It has a simple and effective method; given a network, algorithm constructs a preference network of nodes where each node has a single outgoing edge showing its preferred node to be in the same community with. In such a preference network, each connected component is a community. Selection of the preferred node is performed using similarity based metrics of nodes. We use two alternatives for this purpose which can be calculated in 1-neighborhood of nodes, i.e. number of common neighbors of selector node and its neighbors and, the spread capability of neighbors around the selector node which is calculated by the gossip algorithm of Lind et.al. Our algorithm is tested on both computer generated LFR networks and real-life networks with ground-truth community structure. It can identify communities accurately in a fast way. It is local, scalable and suitable for distributed execution on large networks.

  4. Age Preferences for Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furchtgott, Ernest; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    1981-01-01

    For all occupations except clergyman, a relationship between the age of the respondent and preferred age of the professional existed. Older individuals preferred older service providers with one exception, their physician. Highly educated respondents preferred younger physicians. (Author)

  5. Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.

  6. Preferencias de los estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en la elección de la especialidad Medical students' preferences on specialty selection in Buenos Aires University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Borracci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los factores que influyen en la elección de una especialidad son la demanda laboral, la remuneración, el prestigio, el tiempo de formación y la posibilidad de tener un estilo de vida 'controlable'. Sin embargo, la influencia de la cultura podría modificar el peso de estas variables a la hora de elegir una especialidad. Objetivo. Analizar los factores que influían sobre la elección de la especialidad médica por parte de los estudiantes. Sujetos y métodos. Entre marzo y mayo de 2010 se encuestaron 125 estudiantes que cursaban quinto año o el internado. Por medio de una encuesta anónima se recogió información sobre los factores que podrían influir en la elección futura de la especialidad. Resultados. La pediatría fue la especialidad más elegida, pero se la consideró entre las menos lucrativas, con más tiempo de formación y prestigio moderado, aunque con una adecuada demanda laboral. La cirugía fue la segunda más elegida y considerada como la de mayor prestigio y mejor remunerada. La clínica médica requeriría más tiempo de formación, con más oportunidades laborales, pero peor remuneradas. Tanto la clínica médica como la cirugía se eligieron como las de estilo de vida menos 'controlable', hallándose en tercer lugar la pediatría. Conclusión. Las características de remuneración, prestigio, estilo de vida, tiempo de formación y demanda laboral, en general, parecen no haber influido significativamente en la elección de la especialidad.Introduction. Factors associated with medical students' specialty choice are work market opportunities, expected income, prestige, length of training and controllable life style possibility. However, cultural influence may modify the weight of these variables at time of choosing a specialty. Aim. To analyze the factors influencing on medical students' specialty preferences. Subjects and methods. From March to May of 2010, 125 medical students' from 5th and 6th year were

  7. Biologically Predisposed Learning and Selective Associations in Amygdalar Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ain; Barot, Sabiha K.; Kim, Jeansok J.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern views on learning and memory accept the notion of biological constraints--that the formation of association is not uniform across all stimuli. Yet cellular evidence of the encoding of selective associations is lacking. Here, conditioned stimuli (CSs) and unconditioned stimuli (USs) commonly employed in two basic associative learning…

  8. Mirrored and rotated stimuli are not the same: A neuropsychological and lesion mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, Olivier; Mirlink, Nicolas; Bioux, Sandrine; Bliaux, Evangéline; Champmartin, Cécile; Pouliquen, Dorothée; Cruypeninck, Yohann; Hannequin, Didier; Gérardin, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    Agnosia for mirrored stimuli is a rare clinical deficit. Only eight patients have been reported in the literature so far and little is known about the neural substrates of this agnosia. Using a previously developed experimental test designed to assess this agnosia, namely the Mirror and Orientation Agnosia Test (MOAT), as well as voxel-lesion symptom mapping (VLSM), we tested the hypothesis that focal brain-injured patients with right parietal damage would be impaired in the discrimination between the canonical view of a visual object and its mirrored and rotated images. Thirty-four consecutively recruited patients with a stroke involving the right or left parietal lobe have been included: twenty patients (59%) had a deficit on at least one of the six conditions of the MOAT, fourteen patients (41%) had a deficit on the mirror condition, twelve patients (35%) had a deficit on at least one the four rotated conditions and one had a truly selective agnosia for mirrored stimuli. A lesion analysis showed that discrimination of mirrored stimuli was correlated to the mesial part of the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the lateral part of the inferior parietal lobule, while discrimination of rotated stimuli was correlated to the lateral part of the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the mesial part of the inferior parietal lobule, with only a small overlap between the two. These data suggest that the right visual 'dorsal' pathway is essential for accurate perception of mirrored and rotated stimuli, with a selective cognitive process and anatomical network underlying our ability to discriminate between mirrored images, different from the process of discriminating between rotated images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heightened attentional capture by visual food stimuli in Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neimeijer, Renate A.M.; Roefs, Anne; de Jong, Peter J.

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients are relatively insensitive to the attentional capture of visual food stimuli. Attentional avoidance of food might help AN patients to prevent more elaborate processing of food stimuli and the subsequent

  10. Product perception from sensory stimuli: the case of vacuum cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúciar R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of consideration of different sensory stimuli in the perception of the product. So we conducted an experiment that examined whether there is a difference between the perception of sensory stimuli from artificially isolated. The result is an analysis of the different sensory modalities, relating them to product an between them.

  11. Roll motion stimuli : sensory conflict, perceptual weighting and motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B. de; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    In an experiment with seventeen subjects interactions of visual roll motion stimuli and vestibular body tilt stimuli were examined in determining the subjective vertical. Interindi-vidual differences in weighting the visual information were observed, but in general visual and vestibular responses

  12. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  13. Processing of natural temporal stimuli by macaque retinal ganglion cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Rüttiger, L.; Lee, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies the performance of primate retinal ganglion cells in response to natural stimuli. Stimuli were confined to the temporal and chromatic domains and were derived from two contrasting environments, one typically northern European and the other a flower show. The performance of the

  14. Haptic and Audio-visual Stimuli: Enhancing Experiences and Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Dijk, Esko O.; Lemmens, Paul M.C.; Luitjens, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The intention of the symposium on Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli at the EuroHaptics 2010 conference is to deepen the understanding of the effect of combined Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli. The knowledge gained will be used to enhance experiences and interactions in daily life. To this end, a

  15. Stimuli-Regulated Smart Polymeric Systems for Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansuja Pulickal Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The physiological condition of the human body is a composite of different environments, each with its own parameters that may differ under normal, as well as diseased conditions. These environmental conditions include factors, such as pH, temperature and enzymes that are specific to a type of cell, tissue or organ or a pathological state, such as inflammation, cancer or infection. These conditions can act as specific triggers or stimuli for the efficient release of therapeutics at their destination by overcoming many physiological and biological barriers. The efficacy of conventional treatment modalities can be enhanced, side effects decreased and patient compliance improved by using stimuli-responsive material that respond to these triggers at the target site. These stimuli or triggers can be physical, chemical or biological and can be internal or external in nature. Many smart/intelligent stimuli-responsive therapeutic gene carriers have been developed that can respond to either internal stimuli, which may be normally present, overexpressed or present in decreased levels, owing to a disease, or to stimuli that are applied externally, such as magnetic fields. This review focuses on the effects of various internal stimuli, such as temperature, pH, redox potential, enzymes, osmotic activity and other biomolecules that are present in the body, on modulating gene expression by using stimuli-regulated smart polymeric carriers.

  16. Gender differences in identifying emotions from auditory and visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2017-12-01

    The present study focused on gender differences in emotion identification from auditory and visual stimuli produced by two male and two female actors. Differences in emotion identification from nonsense samples, language samples and prolonged vowels were investigated. It was also studied whether auditory stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without visual stimuli, and whether visual stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without auditory stimuli. The aim was to get a better knowledge of vocal attributes and a more holistic understanding of the nonverbal communication of emotion. Females tended to be more accurate in emotion identification than males. Voice quality parameters played a role in emotion identification in both genders. The emotional content of the samples was best conveyed by nonsense sentences, better than by prolonged vowels or shared native language of the speakers and participants. Thus, vocal non-verbal communication tends to affect the interpretation of emotion even in the absence of language. The emotional stimuli were better recognized from visual stimuli than auditory stimuli by both genders. Visual information about speech may not be connected to the language; instead, it may be based on the human ability to understand the kinetic movements in speech production more readily than the characteristics of the acoustic cues.

  17. Attentional Capture by Emotional Stimuli Is Modulated by Semantic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang-Ming; Baddeley, Alan; Young, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    The attentional blink paradigm was used to examine whether emotional stimuli always capture attention. The processing requirement for emotional stimuli in a rapid sequential visual presentation stream was manipulated to investigate the circumstances under which emotional distractors capture attention, as reflected in an enhanced attentional blink…

  18. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects.

  19. Sexual odor preference and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens by estrous olfactory cues in sexually naïve and experienced male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masaya; Chiba, Atsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward that activates mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Microdialysis studies have shown that extracellular level of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) significantly increases during copulation in male rats. The NAcc DA level is also known to be increased during the presentation of a sexually receptive female before mating. This rise in DA was probably associated with sexual motivation elicited by incentive stimuli from the receptive female. These microdialysis studies, however, did not thoroughly investigated if olfactory stimuli from estrous females could significantly increase the extracellular DA in the NAcc of male rats. The present study was designed to examine systematically the relationship between the expression of preference for the olfactory stimuli from estrous females and the effects of these stimuli on the extracellular DA levels in the NAcc measured by in vivo microdialysis in male Long-Evans (LE) rats. We used two types of olfactory stimuli, either airborne odors (volatile stimuli) or soiled bedding (volatile plus nonvolatile stimuli). The sexually experienced male rats, which experienced six ejaculations, significantly preferred both of these olfactory stimuli from estrous females as opposed to males. Exposure to these female olfactory stimuli gradually increased extracellular DA in the NAcc, which reached significantly higher level above baseline during the period following the removal of the stimuli although not during the 15-min stimulus presentation period. The sexually naïve male rats, on the other hand, showed neither preference for olfactory stimuli from estrous females nor increase in the NAcc DA after exposure to these stimuli. These data suggest that in male LE rats olfactory stimuli from estrous females in and of themselves can be conditional cues that induce both incentive motivation and a significant increase in the NAcc DA probably as a result of being associated with sexual reward through

  20. Social preference and maternal defeat-induced social avoidance in virgin female rats: sex differences in involvement of brain oxytocin and vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Michael; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-08-30

    Research concerning non-reproductive sociability in rodents is mainly restricted to assessing the effects of oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in male rats and mice. Comparable studies on natural social preference and social avoidance in females are substantially lacking. Here, we adapted a behavioral paradigm for monitoring social preference of female rats consisting of two consecutive exposures to either non-social or social stimuli. Further, to induce stimulus-specific social avoidance, female rats were exposed to a single 10-min maternal defeat by a lactating dam. Social preference towards same-sex conspecifics in female rats was shown to be independent of the estrous cycle and even more pronounced than in male rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) application of OXT, AVP, or their selective receptor antagonists or agonists, did not alter naturally-occurring social preference in female rats. Stimulus-specific social avoidance could be induced by prior exposure to a lactating rat: an effect that could not be reversed/overcome by icv OXT. The female social preference paradigm for rats established in this study detected subtle sex differences in social preference behavior of rats. Further, stimulus-specific social deficits could be induced in female rats using an acute exposure to social defeat - as previously observed in male rodents. Female rats show strong social preference behavior, which can be prevented by social defeat, but does not seem to be regulated by the OXT or AVP systems. Accordingly, icv application of synthetic OXT does not reverse maternal defeat-induced social avoidance in female rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotional attention for erotic stimuli: Cognitive and brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennwald, Vanessa; Pool, Eva; Brosch, Tobias; Delplanque, Sylvain; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Sander, David

    2016-06-01

    It has long been posited that among emotional stimuli, only negative threatening information modulates early shifts of attention. However, in the last few decades there has been an increase in research showing that attention is also involuntarily oriented toward positive rewarding stimuli such as babies, food, and erotic information. Because reproduction-related stimuli have some of the largest effects among positive stimuli on emotional attention, the present work reviews recent literature and proposes that the cognitive and cerebral mechanisms underlying the involuntarily attentional orientation toward threat-related information are also sensitive to erotic information. More specifically, the recent research suggests that both types of information involuntarily orient attention due to their concern relevance and that the amygdala plays an important role in detecting concern-relevant stimuli, thereby enhancing perceptual processing and influencing emotional attentional processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Response of cat inferior colliculus neurons to binaural beat stimuli: possible mechanisms for sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, S; Yin, T C; Wickesberg, R E

    1979-11-02

    The interaural phase sensitivity of neurons was studied through the use of binaural beat stimuli. The response of most cells was phase-locked to the beat frequency, which provides a possible neural correlate to the human sensation of binaural beats. In addition, this stimulus allowed the direction and rate of interaural phase change to be varied. Some neurons in our sample responded selectively to manipulations of these two variables, which suggests a sensitivity to direction or speed of movement.

  3. The effect of Ramadan fasting on spatial attention through emotional stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavi, Maziyar; Yunus, Jasmy; Utama, Nugraha P

    2016-01-01

    Fasting can influence psychological and mental states. In the current study, the effect of periodical fasting on the process of emotion through gazed facial expression as a realistic multisource of social information was investigated for the first time. The dynamic cue-target task was applied via behavior and event-related potential measurements for 40 participants to reveal the temporal and spatial brain activities – before, during, and after fasting periods. The significance of fasting included several effects. The amplitude of the N1 component decreased over the centroparietal scalp during fasting. Furthermore, the reaction time during the fasting period decreased. The self-measurement of deficit arousal as well as the mood increased during the fasting period. There was a significant contralateral alteration of P1 over occipital area for the happy facial expression stimuli. The significant effect of gazed expression and its interaction with the emotional stimuli was indicated by the amplitude of N1. Furthermore, the findings of the study approved the validity effect as a congruency between gaze and target position, as indicated by the increment of P3 amplitude over centroparietal area as well as slower reaction time from behavioral response data during incongruency or invalid condition between gaze and target position compared with those during valid condition. Results of this study proved that attention to facial expression stimuli as a kind of communicative social signal was affected by fasting. Also, fasting improved the mood of practitioners. Moreover, findings from the behavioral and event-related potential data analyses indicated that the neural dynamics of facial emotion are processed faster than that of gazing, as the participants tended to react faster and prefer to relay on the type of facial emotions than to gaze direction while doing the task. Because of happy facial expression stimuli, right hemisphere activation was more than that of the left

  4. Farmers’ Preferences for Mobile Agro Advisory Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Prabha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu to understand the service preferences of the mobile agro advisory services offered by the public extension system. The agro advisories offered by the e-extension centre of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University were selected for the study. A sample of 200 respondents was selected employing proportionate random sampling method. The study was carried out in terms of dimensions viz., technical components, message frequency and timings, message physical dimension, message channel and message follow up. Results of the survey showed that among the technical components majority of the respondents opined that the information on advance warning of weather risks was very much adequate, the messages on plant protection were relevant and that the messages on advance warning of weather risks were timely. With reference to the message frequency, a majority preferred frequency of the messages on daily basis and preferred to receive messages during mornings.

  5. Evaluation of color preference in zebrafish for learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdesh, Avdesh; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T; Mondal, Alinda; Chen, Mengqi; Askraba, Sreten; Morgan, Newman; Lardelli, Michael; Groth, David M; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. A zebrafish model of tauopathies has recently been developed and characterized in terms of presence of the pathological hallmarks (i.e., neurofibrillary tangles and cell death). However, it is also necessary to validate these models for function by assessing learning and memory. The majority of tools to assess memory and learning in animal models involve visual stimuli, including color preference. The color preference of zebrafish has received little attention. To validate zebrafish as a model for color-associated-learning and memory, it is necessary to evaluate its natural preferences or any pre-existing biases towards specific colors. In the present study, we have used four different colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) to test natural color preferences of the zebrafish using two procedures: Place preference and T-maze. Results from both experiments indicate a strong aversion toward blue color relative to all other colors (red, yellow, and green) when tested in combinations. No preferences or biases were found among reds, yellows, and greens in the place preference procedure. However, red and green were equally preferred and both were preferred over yellow by zebrafish in the T-maze procedure. The results from the present study show a strong aversion towards blue color compared to red, green, and yellow, with yellow being less preferred relative to red and green. The findings from this study may underpin any further designing of color-based learning and memory paradigms or experiments involving aversion, anxiety, or fear in the zebrafish.

  6. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  7. Song tutoring in presinging zebra finch juveniles biases a small population of higher-order song-selective neurons toward the tutor song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adret, Patrice; Meliza, C Daniel; Margoliash, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    We explored physiological changes correlated with song tutoring by recording the responses of caudal nidopallium neurons of zebra finches aged P21-P24 (days post hatching) to a broad spectrum of natural and synthetic stimuli. Those birds raised with their fathers tended to show behavioral evidence of song memorization but not of singing; thus auditory responses were not confounded by the birds' own vocalizations. In study 1, 37 of 158 neurons (23%) in 17 of 22 tutored and untutored birds were selective for only 1 of 10 stimuli comprising broadband signals, early juvenile songs and calls, female calls, and adult songs. Approximately 30% of the selective neurons (12/37 neurons in 9 birds) were selective for adult conspecific songs. All these were found in the song system nuclei HVC and paraHVC. Of 122 neurons (17 birds) in tutored birds, all of the conspecific song-selective neurons (8 neurons in 6 birds) were selective for the adult tutor song; none was selective for unfamiliar song. In study 2 with a different sampling strategy, we found that 11 of 12 song-selective neurons in 6 of 7 birds preferred the tutor song; none preferred unfamiliar or familiar conspecific songs. Most of these neurons were found in caudal lateral nidopallium (NCL) below HVC. Thus by the time a bird begins to sing, there are small numbers of tutor song-selective neurons distributed in several forebrain regions. We hypothesize that a small population of higher-order auditory neurons is innately selective for complex features of behaviorally relevant stimuli and these responses are modified by specific perceptual/social experience during development.

  8. Social interaction, food, scent or toys? A formal assessment of domestic pet and shelter cat (Felis silvestris catus) preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Udell, Monique A R

    2017-08-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) engage in a variety of relationships with humans and can be conditioned to engage in numerous behaviors using Pavlovian and operant methods Increasingly cat cognition research is providing evidence of their complex socio-cognitive and problem solving abilities. Nonetheless, it is still common belief that cats are not especially sociable or trainable. This disconnect may be due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of what stimuli cats prefer, and thus may be most motivated to work for. The current study investigated domestic cat preferences at the individual and population level using a free operant preference assessment. Adult cats from two populations (pet and shelter) were presented with three stimuli within each of the following four categories: human social interaction, food, toy, and scent. Proportion of time interacting with each stimulus was recorded. The single most-preferred stimulus from each of the four categories were simultaneously presented in a final session to determine each cat's most-preferred stimulus overall. Although there was clear individual variability in cat preference, social interaction with humans was the most-preferred stimulus category for the majority of cats, followed by food. This was true for cats in both the pet and shelter population. Future research can examine the use of preferred stimuli as enrichment in applied settings and assess individual cats' motivation to work for their most-preferred stimulus as a measure of reinforcer efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Marczak, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Many systems administrators on the Mac need a way to manage machine configuration after initial setup and deployment. Apple's Managed Preferences system (also known as MCX) is under-documented, often misunderstood, and sometimes outright unknown by sys admins. MCX is usually deployed in conjunction with an OS X server, but it can also be used in Windows environments or where no dedicated server exists at all. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences is the definitive guide to Apple's Managed Client technology. With this book, you'll get the following: * An example-driven guide to Mac OS X Managed Pr

  10. Selective Impairment of Auditory Selective Attention under Concurrent Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Stahl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent cognitive load impairs selective attention. For visual stimuli, it has been shown that this impairment can be selective: Distraction was specifically increased when the stimulus material used in the cognitive load task matches that of the selective attention task. Here, we report four experiments that…

  11. Encoding Processes and Sex-Role Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Robert V., Jr.; Levine, Laura E.

    1976-01-01

    Seven and 10-year-olds were tested on memory and sex-role preference tasks. The memory task was the Wickens release from proactive inhibition paradigm in which short-term recall of words is tested on successive trials. Children selected favorite pictures from an array including masculine and feminine items. (JH)

  12. Measuring Prefered Services from Cloud Computing Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018, 10(5S), 207-212. 207. Measuring Prefered Services from ... Published online: 22 March 2018 .... and then introduces a general service selection and ranking model with QoS ..... To facilitate add, remove, and prioritize services in election.

  13. The effects of anxiety upon attention allocation to affective stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Nitz, Ashley B; Craske, Michelle G; Johnson, Chris

    2007-04-01

    Pictures of emotionally aversive, neutral, and pleasant scenes were presented for 500 ms, followed by a probe presented in the same location (valid trials) or an alternate location (invalid trials) as the picture. Response-times to the probes were recorded in low (N=20) and high (N=27) trait anxious participants. Results revealed an overall negative cue validity effect of shorter reaction times (RTs) on invalid than valid trials, suggestive of an inhibition of return effect. Moreover, high trait anxious females showed a reduced negative cue validity effect for aversive pictures in comparison with neutral and pleasant pictures, suggestive of selective interference by the unpleasant material. By contrast, low trait anxious females showed an enhanced negative cue validity effect for aversive pictures relative to neutral and pleasant pictures, suggestive of attentional avoidance of the aversive content. The emotional content of picture cues did not significantly affect RTs in males, regardless of anxiety status. The results suggest that biased attention processes for aversive stimuli may contribute to the greater female propensity for anxiety disorders.

  14. Learning quadratic receptive fields from neural responses to natural stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kanaka; Marre, Olivier; Tkačik, Gašper

    2013-07-01

    Models of neural responses to stimuli with complex spatiotemporal correlation structure often assume that neurons are selective for only a small number of linear projections of a potentially high-dimensional input. In this review, we explore recent modeling approaches where the neural response depends on the quadratic form of the input rather than on its linear projection, that is, the neuron is sensitive to the local covariance structure of the signal preceding the spike. To infer this quadratic dependence in the presence of arbitrary (e.g., naturalistic) stimulus distribution, we review several inference methods, focusing in particular on two information theory-based approaches (maximization of stimulus energy and of noise entropy) and two likelihood-based approaches (Bayesian spike-triggered covariance and extensions of generalized linear models). We analyze the formal relationship between the likelihood-based and information-based approaches to demonstrate how they lead to consistent inference. We demonstrate the practical feasibility of these procedures by using model neurons responding to a flickering variance stimulus.

  15. Dynamic bioactive stimuli-responsive polymeric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Heather Marie

    This dissertation focuses on the design, synthesis, and development of antimicrobial and anticoagulant surfaces of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) polymers. Aliphatic polymeric surfaces of PE and PP polymers functionalized using click chemistry reactions by the attachment of --COOH groups via microwave plasma reactions followed by functionalization with alkyne moieties. Azide containing ampicillin (AMP) was synthesized and subsequently clicked into the alkyne prepared PE and PP surfaces. Compared to non-functionalized PP and PE surfaces, the AMP clicked surfaces exhibited substantially enhanced antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To expand the biocompatibility of polymeric surface anticoagulant attributes, PE and PTFE surfaces were functionalized with pH-responsive poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polyelectrolyte tethers terminated with NH2 and COOH groups. The goal of these studies was to develop switchable stimuli-responsive polymeric surfaces that interact with biological environments and display simultaneous antimicrobial and anticoagulant properties. Antimicrobial AMP was covalently attached to --COOH terminal ends of protected PAA, while anticoagulant heparin (HEP) was attached to terminal --NH2 groups of P2VP. When pH 5.5, they collapse while the PAA segments extend. Such surfaces, when exposed to Staphylococcus aureus, inhibit bacterial growth due to the presence of AMP, as well as are effective anticoagulants due to the presence of covalently attached HEP. Comparison of these "dynamic" pH responsive surfaces with "static" surfaces terminated with AMP entities show significant enhancement of longevity and surface activity against microbial film formation. The last portion of this dissertation focuses on the covalent attachment of living T1 and Φ11 bacteriophages (phages) on PE and PTFE surface. This was accomplished by carbodiimide coupling between --COOH

  16. MAGDM linear-programming models with distinct uncertain preference structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeshui S; Chen, Jian

    2008-10-01

    Group decision making with preference information on alternatives is an interesting and important research topic which has been receiving more and more attention in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to investigate multiple-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with distinct uncertain preference structures. We develop some linear-programming models for dealing with the MAGDM problems, where the information about attribute weights is incomplete, and the decision makers have their preferences on alternatives. The provided preference information can be represented in the following three distinct uncertain preference structures: 1) interval utility values; 2) interval fuzzy preference relations; and 3) interval multiplicative preference relations. We first establish some linear-programming models based on decision matrix and each of the distinct uncertain preference structures and, then, develop some linear-programming models to integrate all three structures of subjective uncertain preference information provided by the decision makers and the objective information depicted in the decision matrix. Furthermore, we propose a simple and straightforward approach in ranking and selecting the given alternatives. It is worth pointing out that the developed models can also be used to deal with the situations where the three distinct uncertain preference structures are reduced to the traditional ones, i.e., utility values, fuzzy preference relations, and multiplicative preference relations. Finally, we use a practical example to illustrate in detail the calculation process of the developed approach.

  17. Parallel search for conjunctions with stimuli in apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, C; Ganis, G

    1999-01-01

    integration of feature conjunctions before they are identified by the static system; and (iii) target detectability in these stimuli relies upon a nonattentive, cooperative, directionally selective motion mechanism that responds to high-level attributes (conjunction of size and orientation).

  18. Facilitation of responses by task-irrelevant complex deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Meeter, M

    2014-05-01

    Novel stimuli reliably attract attention, suggesting that novelty may disrupt performance when it is task-irrelevant. However, under certain circumstances novel stimuli can also elicit a general alerting response having beneficial effects on performance. In a series of experiments we investigated whether different aspects of novelty--stimulus novelty, contextual novelty, surprise, deviance, and relative complexity--lead to distraction or facilitation. We used a version of the visual oddball paradigm in which participants responded to an occasional auditory target. Participants responded faster to this auditory target when it occurred during the presentation of novel visual stimuli than of standard stimuli, especially at SOAs of 0 and 200 ms (Experiment 1). Facilitation was absent for both infrequent simple deviants and frequent complex images (Experiment 2). However, repeated complex deviant images did facilitate responses to the auditory target at the 200 ms SOA (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that task-irrelevant deviant visual stimuli can facilitate responses to an unrelated auditory target in a short 0-200 millisecond time-window after presentation. This only occurs when the deviant stimuli are complex relative to standard stimuli. We link our findings to the novelty P3, which is generated under the same circumstances, and to the adaptive gain theory of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005), which may explain the timing of the effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  20. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  1. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  2. Preferred Dance Tempo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo. Measurements of height, shoulder width, leg length, and weight were taken for each participant, and their sex recorded. Using a multiple regression analysis, height and leg length combined was found to be the bes...

  3. Neural Processing of Emotional Musical and Nonmusical Stimuli in Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Lepping

    Full Text Available Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and striatum are part of the emotional neural circuitry implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Music is often used for emotion regulation, and pleasurable music listening activates the dopaminergic system in the brain, including the ACC. The present study uses functional MRI (fMRI and an emotional nonmusical and musical stimuli paradigm to examine how neural processing of emotionally provocative auditory stimuli is altered within the ACC and striatum in depression.Nineteen MDD and 20 never-depressed (ND control participants listened to standardized positive and negative emotional musical and nonmusical stimuli during fMRI scanning and gave subjective ratings of valence and arousal following scanning.ND participants exhibited greater activation to positive versus negative stimuli in ventral ACC. When compared with ND participants, MDD participants showed a different pattern of activation in ACC. In the rostral part of the ACC, ND participants showed greater activation for positive information, while MDD participants showed greater activation to negative information. In dorsal ACC, the pattern of activation distinguished between the types of stimuli, with ND participants showing greater activation to music compared to nonmusical stimuli, while MDD participants showed greater activation to nonmusical stimuli, with the greatest response to negative nonmusical stimuli. No group differences were found in striatum.These results suggest that people with depression may process emotional auditory stimuli differently based on both the type of stimulation and the emotional content of that stimulation. This raises the possibility that music may be useful in retraining ACC function, potentially leading to more effective and targeted treatments.

  4. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  5. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed.

  6. Reward-associated stimuli capture the eyes in spite of strategic attentional set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Clayton; van Zoest, Wieske

    2013-11-01

    Theories of reinforcement learning have proposed that the association of reward to visual stimuli may cause these objects to become fundamentally salient and thus attention-drawing. A number of recent studies have investigated the oculomotor correlates of this reward-priming effect, but there is some ambiguity in this literature regarding the involvement of top-down attentional set. Existing paradigms tend to create a situation where participants are actively looking for a reward-associated stimulus before subsequently showing that this selective bias sustains when it no longer has strategic purpose. This perseveration of attentional set is potentially different in nature than the direct impact of reward proposed by theory. Here we investigate the effect of reward on saccadic selection in a paradigm where strategic attentional set is decoupled from the effect of reward. We find that during search for a uniquely oriented target, the receipt of reward following selection of a target characterized by an irrelevant unique color causes subsequent stimuli characterized by this color to be preferentially selected. Importantly, this occurs regardless of whether the color characterizes the target or distractor. Other analyses demonstrate that only features associated with correct selection of the target prime the target representation, and that the magnitude of this effect can be predicted by variability in saccadic indices of feedback processing. These results add to a growing literature demonstrating that reward guides visual selection, often in spite of our strategic efforts otherwise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. External-stimuli responsive systems for cancer theranostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Yao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The upsurge of novel nanomaterials and nanotechnologies has inspired the researchers who are striving for designing safer and more efficient drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Stimuli responsive nanomaterial offered an alternative to design controllable drug delivery system on account of its spatiotemporally controllable properties. Additionally, external stimuli (light, magnetic field and ultrasound could develop into theranostic applications for personalized medicine use because of their unique characteristics. In this review, we give a brief overview about the significant progresses and challenges of certain external-stimuli responsive systems that have been extensively investigated in drug delivery and theranostics within the last few years.

  8. ANALISIS KEPUASAN PENGHUNI DAN PERANAN ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS DAN MARKETER STIMULI PADA KONDOMINIUM MEWAH DI SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoticin Kwanda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The occupancy rate of luxurious condominiums in Surabaya keep on decreasing. There are many reasons for these problems, among others economic crisis that weakened market-buying capability (external and decreased preferences to reside (internal. The internal factor comprises of occupant’s satisfaction, environmental influences, individual consumers and marketer stimuli. The purpose of the research is to know according to the assessment of the occupants which of these four factors, is higher and more dominant. The occupants surveyed are the occupants of the luxurious condominiums in Surabaya, such as Paragon, Beverly, Puri Matahari, Regency, Graha Famili, and Puri Darmo. Samples were taken with Purposive Sampling method and collected through questioners. Anova is used to analyse the data with SPS 2000 program. The result showed that there are no significant differences of occupant’s satisfaction, environmental influences, individual consumers and marketer stimuli on the six observed condominiums. Meanwhile according to the mean, occupant’s satisfaction, individual consumers and marketer stimuli are dominant at Puri Matahari, and environmental influences are dominant at Puri Darmo. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Tingkat hunian kondominium mewah di Surabaya terus menurun tajam. Hal yang menjadi penyebabnya antara lain krisis ekonomi yang memperlemah daya beli pasar (eksternal dan menurunnya minat menempati (internal. Faktor internal adalah kepuasan penghuni, environmental influences, individual consumers dan marketer stimuli. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penilaian penghuni kondominium mewah di Surabaya, yaitu Paragon, Beverly, Puri Matahari, Regency, Graha Famili, dan Puri Darmo terhadap keempat faktor ini. Ingin diketahui faktor mana yang lebih tinggi dan lebih dominan peranannya. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan metode Purposive Sampling dengan pengumpulan data melalui kuesioner. Analisis data menggunakan Anova dengan program SPS

  9. Behavioral and anatomical characterization of the bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction (bCCI) injury: correlation of anatomic changes and responses to cold stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sukdeb; Chatterjee, Koel; Kline, Robert H; Wiley, Ronald G

    2010-01-27

    Unilateral constrictive sciatic nerve injury (uCCI) is a common neuropathic pain model. However, the bilateral constrictive injury (bCCI) model is less well studied, and shows unique characteristics. In the present study, we sought to correlate effects of bCCI on nocifensive responses to cold and mechanical stimuli with selected dorsal horn anatomic markers. bCCI or sham ligation of both rat sciatic nerves were followed up to 90 days of behavioural testing. Additional rats sacrificed at 15, 30 and 90 days were used for anatomic analyses. Behavioural tests included hindpaw withdrawal responses to topical acetone, cold plate testing, an operant thermal preference task and hindpaw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical probing. All nocifensive responses to cold increased and remained enhanced for >45 days. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds decreased for 25 days only. Densitometric analyses of immunoperoxidase staining in the superficial dorsal horn at L4-5 revealed decreased cholecystokinin (CCK) staining at all times after bCCI, decreased mu opiate receptor (MOR) staining, maximal at 15 days, increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) staining only at days 15 and 30, and increased neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) staining at all time points, maximal at 15 days. Correlation analyses at 45 days post-bCCI, were significant for individual rat nocifensive responses in each cold test and CCK and NK-1R, but not for MOR or NPY. These results confirm the usefulness of cold testing in bCCI rats, a new approach using CCI to model neuropathic pain, and suggest a potential value of studying the roles of dorsal horn CCK and substance P in chronic neuropathic pain. Compared to human subjects with neuropathic pain, responses to cold stimuli in rats with bCCI may be a useful model of neuropathic pain.

  10. Behavioral and anatomical characterization of the bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction (bCCI injury: correlation of anatomic changes and responses to cold stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unilateral constrictive sciatic nerve injury (uCCI is a common neuropathic pain model. However, the bilateral constrictive injury (bCCI model is less well studied, and shows unique characteristics. In the present study, we sought to correlate effects of bCCI on nocifensive responses to cold and mechanical stimuli with selected dorsal horn anatomic markers. bCCI or sham ligation of both rat sciatic nerves were followed up to 90 days of behavioural testing. Additional rats sacrificed at 15, 30 and 90 days were used for anatomic analyses. Behavioural tests included hindpaw withdrawal responses to topical acetone, cold plate testing, an operant thermal preference task and hindpaw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical probing. Results All nocifensive responses to cold increased and remained enhanced for >45 days. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds decreased for 25 days only. Densitometric analyses of immunoperoxidase staining in the superficial dorsal horn at L4-5 revealed decreased cholecystokinin (CCK staining at all times after bCCI, decreased mu opiate receptor (MOR staining, maximal at 15 days, increased neuropeptide Y (NPY staining only at days 15 and 30, and increased neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R staining at all time points, maximal at 15 days. Correlation analyses at 45 days post-bCCI, were significant for individual rat nocifensive responses in each cold test and CCK and NK-1R, but not for MOR or NPY. Conclusions These results confirm the usefulness of cold testing in bCCI rats, a new approach using CCI to model neuropathic pain, and suggest a potential value of studying the roles of dorsal horn CCK and substance P in chronic neuropathic pain. Compared to human subjects with neuropathic pain, responses to cold stimuli in rats with bCCI may be a useful model of neuropathic pain.

  11. Symmetric Electrode Spanning Narrows the Excitation Patterns of Partial Tripolar Stimuli in Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Wu, Ching-Chih

    2016-12-01

    In cochlear implants (CIs), standard partial tripolar (pTP) mode reduces current spread by returning a fraction of the current to two adjacent flanking electrodes within the cochlea. Symmetric electrode spanning (i.e., separating both the apical and basal return electrodes from the main electrode by one electrode) has been shown to increase the pitch of pTP stimuli, when the ratio of intracochlear return current was fixed. To explain the pitch increase caused by symmetric spanning in pTP mode, this study measured the electrical potentials of both standard and symmetrically spanned pTP stimuli on a main electrode EL8 in five CI ears using electrical field imaging (EFI). In addition, the spatial profiles of evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) and the psychophysical forward masking (PFM) patterns were also measured for both stimuli. The EFI, ECAP, and PFM patterns of a given stimulus differed in shape details, reflecting the different levels of auditory processing and different ratios of intracochlear return current across the measurement methods. Compared to the standard pTP stimuli, the symmetrically spanned pTP stimuli significantly reduced the areas under the curves of the normalized EFI and PFM patterns, without shifting the pattern peaks and centroids (both around EL8). The more focused excitation patterns with symmetric spanning may have caused the previously reported pitch increase, due to an interaction between pitch and timbre perception. Being able to reduce the spread of excitation, pTP mode symmetric spanning is a promising stimulation strategy that may further increase spectral resolution and frequency selectivity with CIs.

  12. Human-caused Disturbance Stimuli as a Form of Predation Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Frid

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies quantify the impact of nonlethal human disturbance on the behavior and reproductive success of animals. Athough many are well designed and analytically sophisticated, most lack a theoretical framework for making predictions and for understanding why particular responses occur. Behavioral ecologists have recently begun to fill this theoretical vacuum by applying economic models of antipredator behavior to disturbance studies. In this emerging paradigm, predation and nonlethal disturbance stimuli create similar trade-offs between avoiding perceived risk and other fitness-enhancing activities, such as feeding, parental care, or mating. A vast literature supports the hypothesis that antipredator behavior has a cost to other activities, and that this trade-off is optimized when investment in antipredator behavior tracks short-term changes in predation risk. Prey have evolved antipredator responses to generalized threatening stimuli, such as loud noises and rapidly approaching objects. Thus, when encountering disturbance stimuli ranging from the dramatic, low-flying helicopter to the quiet wildlife photographer, animal responses are likely to follow the same economic principles used by prey encountering predators. Some authors have argued that, similar to predation risk, disturbance stimuli can indirectly affect fitness and population dynamics via the energetic and lost opportunity costs of risk avoidance. We elaborate on this argument by discussing why, from an evolutionary perspective, disturbance stimuli should be analogous to predation risk. We then consider disturbance effects on the behavior of individuals - vigilance, fleeing, habitat selection, mating displays, and parental investment - as well as indirect effects on populations and communities. A wider application of predation risk theory to disturbance studies should increase the generality of predictions and make mitigation more effective without over

  13. A Study of Auditory Preferences in Nonhandicapped Infants and Infants with Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Sheila M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Eleven infants with Down's syndrome and 10 of 11 nonhandicapped infants operated an automatic device which enabled them to choose to listen to nursery rhymes sung or played on musical instruments. Both groups preferred the singing, and the Down's Syndrome infants had much longer response durations for the more complex auditory stimuli. (Author/DB)

  14. Stevia preferences in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Martínez, Paula; Argüelles Luis, Juan; Perillán Méndez, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    The Stevia rebaudiana plant is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural-food market. S. rebaudiana is the source of a number of sweet diterpenoid glycosides, but the major sweet constituents are rebaudioside A and stevioside. These two constituents have similar pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles in rats and humans, and thus, studies carried out with either steviol glycoside are relevant to both. Other studies illustrate the diversity of voluntary sweet intake in mammals. This study was done using a series of two-bottle tests that compared a wide range of sweetener concentrations versus saccharin concentrations and versus water. Wistar rats displayed preferences for stevia extract and pure rebaudioside A solutions over water at a range of concentrations (0.001% to 0.3%), and their intake peak occurred at 0.1% concentration. They also preferred solutions prepared with a commercial rebaudioside A plus erythritol mixture to water, and their peak was at 2% concentration. The present study provides new information about the responses of Wistar rats to stevia compounds and commercial stevia products such as Truvia. These results could help with the appropriate dosage selection for focused behavioral and physiological studies on stevia.

  15. Direct fitness benefits explain mate preference, but not choice, for similarity in heterozygosity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, Lies; Gort, Gerrit; van Oers, Kees; Hinde, Camilla A

    2017-10-01

    Under sexual selection, mate preferences can evolve for traits advertising fitness benefits. Observed mating patterns (mate choice) are often assumed to represent preference, even though they result from the interaction between preference, sampling strategy and environmental factors. Correlating fitness with mate choice instead of preference will therefore lead to confounded conclusions about the role of preference in sexual selection. Here we show that direct fitness benefits underlie mate preferences for genetic characteristics in a unique experiment on wild great tits. In repeated mate preference tests, both sexes preferred mates that had similar heterozygosity levels to themselves, and not those with which they would optimise offspring heterozygosity. In a subsequent field experiment where we cross fostered offspring, foster parents with more similar heterozygosity levels had higher reproductive success, despite the absence of assortative mating patterns. These results support the idea that selection for preference persists despite constraints on mate choice. © 2017 The Authors Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Preferences for variation in forest characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna; Taye, Fitalew Agimass; Lundhede, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    . This study aims at evaluating the effects of variation both within and between stands on recreational values. A choice experiment (CE) was applied to elicit people's preferences for forest types on their next recreational visit. Each alternative is presented with drawings of three forest stands which differ...... with respect to tree species, height (age) and distance to the site, the latter representing the cost factor – willingness-to-travel. Respondents also compose their ideal recreational forest by selecting three types of stands from the catalogue of drawings. We find that mixed tree species are preferred...

  17. Stress Induction and Visual Working Memory Performance: The Effects of Emotional and Non-Emotional Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khayyer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Some studies have shown working memory impairment following stressful situations. Also, researchers have found that working memory performance depends on many different factors such as emotional load of stimuli and gender. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the effects of stress induction on visual working memory (VWM performance among female and male university students. Methods This quasi-experimental research employed a posttest with only control group design (within-group study. A total of 62 university students (32 males and 30 females were randomly selected and allocated to experimental and control groups (mean age of 23.73. Using cold presser test (CPT, stress was induced and then, an n-back task was implemented to evaluate visual working memory function (such as the number of true items, time reactions, and the number of wrong items through emotional and non-emotional pictures. 100 pictures were selected from the international affective picture system (IASP with different valences. Results Results showed that stress impaired different visual working memory functions (P < 0.002 for true scores, P < 0.001 for reaction time, and P < 0.002 for wrong items. Conclusions In general, stress significantly decreases the VWM performances. On the one hand, females were strongly impressed by stress more than males and on the other hand, the VWM performance was better for emotional stimuli than non-emotional stimuli.

  18. Algorithms for Learning Preferences for Sets of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A method is being developed that provides for an artificial-intelligence system to learn a user's preferences for sets of objects and to thereafter automatically select subsets of objects according to those preferences. The method was originally intended to enable automated selection, from among large sets of images acquired by instruments aboard spacecraft, of image subsets considered to be scientifically valuable enough to justify use of limited communication resources for transmission to Earth. The method is also applicable to other sets of objects: examples of sets of objects considered in the development of the method include food menus, radio-station music playlists, and assortments of colored blocks for creating mosaics. The method does not require the user to perform the often-difficult task of quantitatively specifying preferences; instead, the user provides examples of preferred sets of objects. This method goes beyond related prior artificial-intelligence methods for learning which individual items are preferred by the user: this method supports a concept of setbased preferences, which include not only preferences for individual items but also preferences regarding types and degrees of diversity of items in a set. Consideration of diversity in this method involves recognition that members of a set may interact with each other in the sense that when considered together, they may be regarded as being complementary, redundant, or incompatible to various degrees. The effects of such interactions are loosely summarized in the term portfolio effect. The learning method relies on a preference representation language, denoted DD-PREF, to express set-based preferences. In DD-PREF, a preference is represented by a tuple that includes quality (depth) functions to estimate how desired a specific value is, weights for each feature preference, the desired diversity of feature values, and the relative importance of diversity versus depth. The system applies statistical

  19. International preferences for pork appearance: I. Consumer choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    Using the same digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in fat cover, colour, marbling and drip, 12,590 consumers from 23 countries each selected their preferred chop. Preferences differed considerably between individuals, between groups and between countries when comparing

  20. Colour is more than hue: preferences for compiled colour traits in the stingless bees Melipona mondury and M. quadrifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, Sebastian; Bossems, Jessica; Dyer, Adrian G; Lunau, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    The colour vision of bees has been extensively analysed in honeybees and bumblebees, but few studies consider the visual perception of stingless bees (Meliponini). In a five-stage experiment the preference for colour intensity and purity, and the preference for the dominant wavelength were tested by presenting four colour stimuli in each test to freely flying experienced workers of two stingless bee species, Melipona mondury and Melipona quadrifasciata. The results with bee-blue, bee-UV-blue and bee-green colours offered in four combinations of varying colour intensity and purity suggest a complex interaction between these colour traits for the determination of colour choice. Specifically, M. mondury preferred bee-UV-blue colours over bee-green, bee-blue and bee-blue-green colours while M. quadrifasciata preferred bee-green colour stimuli. Moreover in M. mondury the preferences were different if the background colour was changed from grey to green. There was a significant difference between species where M. mondury preferred UV-reflecting over UV-absorbing bee-blue-green colour stimuli, whereas M. quadrifasciata showed an opposite preference. The different colour preferences of the free flying bees in identical conditions may be caused by the bees' experience with natural flowers precedent to the choice tests, suggesting reward partitioning between species.

  1. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued

  2. Adding stimuli-responsive extensions to antifouling hairy particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz Bonilla, Sandra; Herk, van A.M.; Heuts, J.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of living block copolymers as stabilisers in emulsion polymerisation allowed preparation of multilayer functional hairy particles via surface-initiated ATRP. Polymer films prepared from the obtained particles present antifouling properties along with stimuli-responsive behaviour.

  3. Perceptual multistability in figure-ground segregation using motion stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Simone; Giora, Enrico; Pedersini, Riccardo

    2008-11-01

    In a series of experiments using ambiguous stimuli, we investigate the effects of displaying ordered, discrete series of images on the dynamics of figure-ground segregation. For low frame presentation speeds, the series were perceived as a sequence of discontinuous, static images, while for high speeds they were perceived as continuous. We conclude that using stimuli varying continuously along one parameter results in stronger hysteresis and reduces spontaneous switching compared to matched static stimuli with discontinuous parameter changes. The additional evidence that the size of the hysteresis effects depended on trial duration is consistent with the stochastic nature of the dynamics governing figure-ground segregation. The results showed that for continuously changing stimuli, alternative figure-ground organizations are resolved via low-level, dynamical competition. A second series of experiments confirmed these results with an ambiguous stimulus based on Petter's effect.

  4. Effects of Peer Models' Food Choices and Eating Behaviors on Preschoolers' Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1980-01-01

    The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)

  5. Proverb preferences across cultures: dialecticality or poeticality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mike; Chen, Hsin-Chin; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-04-01

    Peng and Nisbett (1999) claimed that members of Asian cultures show a greater preference than Euro-Americans for proverbs expressing paradox (so-called dialectical proverbs; e.g., Too humble is half proud). The present research sought to replicate this claim with the same set of stimuli used in Peng and Nisbett's Experiment 2 and a new set of dialectical and nondialectical proverbs that were screened to be comparably pleasing in phrasing. Whereas the proverbs were rated as more familiar and (in Set 1) more poetic by Chinese than by American participants, no group differences were found in relation to proverb dialecticality. Both the Chinese and Americans in our study rated the dialectical proverbs from Peng and Nisbett's study as more likable, higher in wisdom, and higher in poeticality than the nondialectical proverbs. For Set 2, both groups found the dialectical proverbs to be as likable, wise, and poetic as the nondialectical proverbs. When poeticality was covaried out, dialectical proverbs were liked better than nondialectical proverbs across both stimulus sets by the Chinese and the Americans alike, and when wisdom was covaried out, the effect of dialecticality was reduced in both sets and groups. Our findings indicate that caution should be taken in ascribing differences in proverb preferences solely to cultural differences in reasoning.

  6. From the eyes and the heart: a novel eye-gaze metric that predicts video preferences of a large audience

    OpenAIRE

    Christoforou, Christoforos; Christou-Champi, Spyros; Constantinidou, Fofi; Theodorou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking has been extensively used to quantify audience preferences in the context of marketing and advertising research, primarily in methodologies involving static images or stimuli (i.e., advertising, shelf testing, and website usability). However, these methodologies do not generalize to narrative-based video stimuli where a specific storyline is meant to be communicated to the audience. In this paper, a novel metric based on eye-gaze dispersion (both within and across viewings) that ...

  7. Quantitative Autoradiography on [(35)S]TBPS Binding Sites of Gamma- Aminobutyric Acid(A) Receptors in Discrete Brain Regions of High- Alcohol-Drinking and Low-Alcohol- Drinking Rats Selectively Bred forHigh- and Low-Alcohol Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, B.H.; Kunkler, P.E.; Lumeng, L.

    1997-01-01

    It has been documented that ethanol can potentiate brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic function, and there is a close link between the GABA(A) receptor complex and effects of ethanol, including reinforcement of alcohol which is a fundamental element of alcohol preference. However, it is unknown in what discrete brain regions GABA(A) receptors might be associated with alcohol preference. In the present study, [(35)S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([(35)S]TBPS) was used to localize GABA(A) receptors in high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats and low-alcohol-drinking (LAD) rats which were selectively bred for high and low alcohol preference, respectively. Initial qualitative observations indicated that [(35)S]TBPS binding sites were abundant in many brain areas including the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala of HAD and LAD rats. Furthermore, the quantitative autoradiographic analysis revealed fewer [(35)S]TBPS binding sites of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdaloid complex, central medial thalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic nucleus and anterior hypothalamic nucleus of HAD rats than LAD rats. Collectively, this study has indicated that HAD rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference possess lower [(35)S]TBPS binding in the brain. Since lower TBPS binding has been proposed to reflect enhanced GABAergic function, as evidenced in rats with seizure or under alcohol withdrawal, the results from the present study suggest that HAD rats might have an enhanced GABAergic function. It is thus likely that enhanced GABAergic function in the brain might be related to high alcohol preference which is characteristic in HAD rats. In addition, the present result showing no difference of [(35)S]TBPS binding in the nucleus accumbens is also in agreement with a notion that [(35)S]TBPS binding may represent only a small spectrum of the GABA(A) receptor complex which is constituted of a sophisticated subunit combination whose functional compositions are still unknown. In

  8. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal......Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  9. Characterization of Ferrofluid-based Stimuli-responsive Elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra dePedro; Xavier Munoz-Berbel; Rosalia Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Jordi Sort; Jose Antonio Plaza; Juergen Brugger; Andreu Llobera; Victor J Cadarso

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive materials undergo physicochemical and/or structural changes when a specific actuation is applied. They are heterogeneous composites, consisting of a non-responsive matrix where functionality is provided by the filler. Surprisingly, the synthesis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based stimuli-responsive elastomers (SRE) has seldomly been presented. Here, we present the structural, biological, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties of several magnetic SRE (M-SRE) obtained...

  10. Analyzing the User Behavior toward Electronic Commerce Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm this research analyzes the main differences between the effects of two types of web technologies: Verbal web technology (i.e., navigational structure as utilitarian stimulus) versus non-verbal web technology (music and presentation of products as hedonic stimuli). Specific webmosphere stimuli have not been examined yet as separate variables and their impact on internal and behavioral responses seems unknown. Therefore, the objective of this res...

  11. Analyzing the user behavior towards Electronic Commerce stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Carlota Lorenzo-Romero; María-del-Carmen Alarcón-del-Amo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm this research analyzes the main differences between the effects of two types of web technologies: Verbal web technology (i.e. navigational structure as utilitarian stimulus) versus nonverbal web technology (music and presentation of products as hedonic stimuli). Specific webmosphere stimuli have not been examined yet as separate variables and their impact on internal and behavioral responses seems unknown. Therefore, the objective of this resea...

  12. Responses to amplitude modulated infrared stimuli in the guinea pig inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Young, Hunter

    2013-03-01

    Responses of units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig were recorded with tungsten electrodes. The set of data presented here is limited to high stimulus levels. The effect of changing the modulation frequency and the modulation depth was explored for acoustic and laser stimuli. The selected units responded to sinusoidal amplitude modulated (AM) tones, AM trains of clicks, and AM trains of laser pulses with a modulation of their spike discharge. At modulation frequencies of 20 Hz, some units tended to respond with 40 Hz to the acoustic stimuli, but only at 20 Hz for the trains of laser pulses. For all modes of stimulation the responses revealed a dominant response to the first cycle of the modulation, with decreasing number of action potential during successive cycles. While amplitude modulated tone bursts and amplitude modulated trains of acoustic clicks showed similar patterns, the response to trains of laser pulses was different.

  13. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  14. Emotions and Economic Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara; Ramachandran, Bharath

    2005-01-01

    We wish to examine critically the viewpoint that: a) economists take too narrow a view of rationality and do not recognize the role of emotions as a component of rationality and b) do not address the question of whether preferences are rational or not, and instead take them as just given. We trace the relationship between economics and emotions showing some economic dimensions of emotional states. We illustrate them with examples of economic behavior based on emotional reactions.

  15. Suppression of bulboreticular unit responses to noxious stimuli by analgesic mesencephalic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, T J; Casey, K L

    1983-01-01

    The responses of 302 neurons in the medial medullary reticular formation (MRF) to a variety of noxious and innocuous somatic stimuli were studied in anesthetized and awake rats. In addition, the effects of analgesic electrical stimulation in the mesencephalon (MES) on unit responses were examined. Tail shock was the most effective stimulus, exciting more than 80% of all units recorded. This stimulus was considered separately during data analysis, since it could not be classified as noxious or innocuous. Noxious somatic stimuli (including pinch, firm pressure, pin prick, and radiant heating of the tail above 45 degrees C were especially effective in eliciting discharge in a significant fraction of all cells in both awake (123/205) and anesthetized (45/97) animals. Nociceptive neurons could be classified as nociceptive specific (NS) or wide dynamic range (WDR) depending on their responses to all somatic stimuli tested. Nociceptive neurons showed no preferential anatomical distribution. Most neurons, including those responsive to noxious inputs, exhibited large, often bilateral receptive fields which frequently covered the tail, one or more limbs, and extensive areas of the body or head. Electrical stimulation within or adjacent to the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray matter depressed the spontaneous and evoked discharge of MRF neurons in both acute and chronic preparations. This inhibition showed a significant preference (p less than 0.001, chi-square statistic) for units that were excited by somatic and especially noxious stimuli. No units were facilitated by MES stimulation. In the awake rat, unit suppression closely followed the time course and level of MES-induced analgesia. Excitability data from the acute experiments suggest that this response inhibition may be the result of a direct action on MRF neurons. Anesthesia severely depressed the spontaneous discharge of MRF neurons as well as the activity evoked by innocuous somatic stimulation. Our data suggest

  16. Assessment of pedophilia using hemodynamic brain response to sexual stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponseti, Jorge; Granert, Oliver; Jansen, Olav

    2012-01-01

    Accurately assessing sexual preference is important in the treatment of child sex offenders. Phallometry is the standard method to identify sexual preference; however, this measure has been criticized for its intrusiveness and limited reliability.......Accurately assessing sexual preference is important in the treatment of child sex offenders. Phallometry is the standard method to identify sexual preference; however, this measure has been criticized for its intrusiveness and limited reliability....

  17. Effects of Auditory Stimuli on Visual Velocity Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiaki Shibata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of auditory stimuli on the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus. Previous studies have reported that the duration of visual events is perceived as being longer for events filled with auditory stimuli than for events not filled with auditory stimuli, ie, the so-called “filled-duration illusion.” In this study, we have shown that auditory stimuli also affect the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus. In Experiment 1, a moving comparison stimulus (4.2∼5.8 deg/s was presented together with filled (or unfilled white-noise bursts or with no sound. The standard stimulus was a moving visual stimulus (5 deg/s presented before or after the comparison stimulus. The participants had to judge which stimulus was moving faster. The results showed that the perceived velocity in the auditory-filled condition was lower than that in the auditory-unfilled and no-sound conditions. In Experiment 2, we investigated the effects of auditory stimuli on velocity adaptation. The results showed that the effects of velocity adaptation in the auditory-filled condition were weaker than those in the no-sound condition. These results indicate that auditory stimuli tend to decrease the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus.

  18. Bitter taste stimuli induce differential neural codes in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wilson

    Full Text Available A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as "bitter" induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total, including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA, presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5 were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05 to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05 from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among "bitter" stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality.

  19. Poly(ethyl glyoxylate)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanoparticles: Stimuli-Responsive Drug Release via End-to-End Polyglyoxylate Depolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bo; Gillies, Elizabeth R

    2017-08-07

    The ability to disrupt polymer assemblies in response to specific stimuli provides the potential to release drugs selectively at certain sites or conditions in vivo. However, most stimuli-responsive delivery systems require many stimuli-initiated events to release drugs. "Self-immolative polymers" offer the potential to provide amplified responses to stimuli as they undergo complete end-to-end depolymerization following the cleavage of a single end-cap. Herein, linker end-caps were developed to conjugate self-immolative poly(ethyl glyoxylate) (PEtG) with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to form amphiphilic block copolymers. These copolymers were self-assembled to form nanoparticles in aqueous solution. Cleavage of the linker end-caps were triggered by a thiol reducing agent, UV light, H 2 O 2 , and combinations of these stimuli, resulting in nanoparticle disintegration. Low stimuli concentrations were effective in rapidly disrupting the nanoparticles. Nile red, doxorubin, and curcumin were encapsulated into the nanoparticles and were selectively released upon application of the appropriate stimulus. The ability to tune the stimuli-responsiveness simply by changing the linker end-cap makes this new platform highly attractive for applications in drug delivery.

  20. medical students' preference for choice of clinical specialties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    This study seeks to determine the medical student preference for the clinical specialty and the factors that they consider in making ... undergraduates in selecting these specialties is important. .... effect of National Health Insurance on changes.

  1. The Vocational Preference Inventory Scores and Environmental Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunce, Joseph T.; Kappes, Bruno Maurice

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocational interest measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and preferences of 175 undergraduates for structured or unstructured environments. Males having clear-cut preferences for structured situations had significantly higher Realistic-Conventional scores than those without…

  2. Under pressure: adolescent substance users show exaggerated neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, L.; Stewart, J.L.; May, A.C.; Wiers, R.W.; Davenport, P.W.; Paulus, M.P.; Tapert, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD) exhibit hyposensitivity to pleasant internally generated (interoceptive) stimuli and hypersensitivity to external rewarding stimuli. It is unclear whether similar patterns exist for aversive interoceptive stimuli. We compared activation in the

  3. Lip line preference for variant face types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Nabila; Fida, Mubassar

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effect of altered lip line on attractiveness and to find preferred lip line for vertical face types in both genders. Cross-sectional analytical study. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from May to July 2009. Photographs of two selected subjects were altered to produce three face types for the same individual with the aim of keeping the frame of the smile constant. Lip line was then altered for both the subjects as: both dentitions visible, upper incisors visible, upper incisors and 2 mm gum and 4 mm gum visible. The pictures were rated by different professionals for attractiveness. Descriptive statistics for the raters and multiple factor ANOVA was used to find the most attractive lip line. The total number of raters was 100 with the mean age of 30.3 ± 8 years. The alterations in the smile parameters produced statistically significant difference in the attractiveness of faces, whereas the perception difference was found to be insignificant amongst raters of different professions. Preferred lip line was the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects. The variability in lip line showed significant difference in the perceived attractiveness. Preferred lip lines as the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects.

  4. Epidemic spreading on preferred degree adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolad, Shivakumar; Liu, Wenjia; Schmittmann, B; Zia, R K P

    2012-01-01

    We study the standard SIS model of epidemic spreading on networks where individuals have a fluctuating number of connections around a preferred degree κ. Using very simple rules for forming such preferred degree networks, we find some unusual statistical properties not found in familiar Erdös-Rényi or scale free networks. By letting κ depend on the fraction of infected individuals, we model the behavioral changes in response to how the extent of the epidemic is perceived. In our models, the behavioral adaptations can be either 'blind' or 'selective'--depending on whether a node adapts by cutting or adding links to randomly chosen partners or selectively, based on the state of the partner. For a frozen preferred network, we find that the infection threshold follows the heterogeneous mean field result λ(c)/μ = / and the phase diagram matches the predictions of the annealed adjacency matrix (AAM) approach. With 'blind' adaptations, although the epidemic threshold remains unchanged, the infection level is substantially affected, depending on the details of the adaptation. The 'selective' adaptive SIS models are most interesting. Both the threshold and the level of infection changes, controlled not only by how the adaptations are implemented but also how often the nodes cut/add links (compared to the time scales of the epidemic spreading). A simple mean field theory is presented for the selective adaptations which capture the qualitative and some of the quantitative features of the infection phase diagram.

  5. Subcortical orientation biases explain orientation selectivity of visual cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Trichur R; Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Lloyd, Errol; Levichkina, Ekaterina V

    2015-04-01

    The primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates shows an orderly progression of domains of neurons that are selective to a particular orientation of visual stimuli such as bars and gratings. We recorded from single-thalamic afferent fibers that terminate in these domains to address the issue whether the orientation sensitivity of these fibers could form the basis of the remarkable orientation selectivity exhibited by most cortical cells. We first performed optical imaging of intrinsic signals to obtain a map of orientation domains on the dorsal aspect of the anaesthetized cat's area 17. After confirming using electrophysiological recordings the orientation preferences of single neurons within one or two domains in each animal, we pharmacologically silenced the cortex to leave only the afferent terminals active. The inactivation of cortical neurons was achieved by the superfusion of either kainic acid or muscimol. Responses of single geniculate afferents were then recorded by the use of high impedance electrodes. We found that the orientation preferences of the afferents matched closely with those of the cells in the orientation domains that they terminated in (Pearson's r = 0.633, n = 22, P = 0.002). This suggests a possible subcortical origin for cortical orientation selectivity. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. The Effect of Answering in a Preferred Versus a Non-Preferred Survey Mode on Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Smyth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that offering respondents their preferred mode can increase response rates, but the effect of doing so on how respondents process and answer survey questions (i.e., measurement is unclear. In this paper, we evaluate whether changes in question format have different effects on data quality for those responding in their preferred mode than for those responding in a non-preferred mode for three question types (multiple answer, open-ended, and grid. Respondents were asked about their preferred mode in a 2008 survey and were recontacted in 2009. In the recontact survey, respondents were randomly assigned to one of two modes such that some responded in their preferred mode and others did not. They were also randomly assigned to one of two questionnaire forms in which the format of individual questions was varied. On the multiple answer and open-ended items, those who answered in a non-preferred mode seemed to take advantage of opportunities to satisfice when the question format allowed or encouraged it (e.g., selecting fewer items in the check-all than the forced-choice format and being more likely to skip the open-ended item when it had a larger answer box, while those who answered in a preferred mode did not. There was no difference on a grid formatted item across those who did and did not respond by their preferred mode, but results indicate that a fully labeled grid reduced item missing rates vis-à-vis a grid with only column heading labels. Results provide insight into the effect of tailoring to mode preference on commonly used questionnaire design features.

  7. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  8. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  9. Sex-related memory recall and talkativeness for emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto eArnone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have evidenced an increasing interest in sex-related brain mechanisms and cerebral lateralization subserving emotional memory, language processing, and conversational behavior. We used event related potentials (ERP to examine the influence of sex and hemisphere on brain responses to emotional stimuli. Given that the P300 component of ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon, we compared left and right hemisphere P300 responses to emotional stimuli in men and women. As indexed by both amplitude and latency measures, emotional stimuli elicited more robust P300 effects in the left hemisphere in women than in men, while a stronger P300 component was elicited in the right hemisphere in men compared to women. Our findings show that the variables of sex and hemisphere interacted significantly to influence the strength of the P300 component to the emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli were also best recalled when given a long-term, incidental memory test, a fact potentially related to the differential P300 waves at encoding. Moreover, taking into account the sex-related differences in language processing and conversational behaviour, in the present study we evaluated possible talkativeness differences between the two genders in the recollection of emotional stimuli. Our data showed that women used a higher number of words, compared to men, to describe both arousal and neutral stories. Moreover, the present results support the view that sex differences in lateralization may not be a general feature of language processing but may be related to the specific condition, such as the emotional content of stimuli.

  10. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin eYuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials were recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN versus neutral pictures in N1 (100-150ms, P2 (130-190ms, N2 (210-290ms and P3 (360-440ms components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2 and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. Keywords: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; Adolescence; Emotion intensity; Negative pictures; Emotional Susceptibility

  11. Synaptic Mechanisms Generating Orientation Selectivity in the ON Pathway of the Rabbit Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Sowmya; Taylor, W Rowland

    2016-03-16

    Neurons that signal the orientation of edges within the visual field have been widely studied in primary visual cortex. Much less is known about the mechanisms of orientation selectivity that arise earlier in the visual stream. Here we examine the synaptic and morphological properties of a subtype of orientation-selective ganglion cell in the rabbit retina. The receptive field has an excitatory ON center, flanked by excitatory OFF regions, a structure similar to simple cell receptive fields in primary visual cortex. Examination of the light-evoked postsynaptic currents in these ON-type orientation-selective ganglion cells (ON-OSGCs) reveals that synaptic input is mediated almost exclusively through the ON pathway. Orientation selectivity is generated by larger excitation for preferred relative to orthogonal stimuli, and conversely larger inhibition for orthogonal relative to preferred stimuli. Excitatory orientation selectivity arises in part from the morphology of the dendritic arbors. Blocking GABAA receptors reduces orientation selectivity of the inhibitory synaptic inputs and the spiking responses. Negative contrast stimuli in the flanking regions produce orientation-selective excitation in part by disinhibition of a tonic NMDA receptor-mediated input arising from ON bipolar cells. Comparison with earlier studies of OFF-type OSGCs indicates that diverse synaptic circuits have evolved in the retina to detect the orientation of edges in the visual input. A core goal for visual neuroscientists is to understand how neural circuits at each stage of the visual system extract and encode features from the visual scene. This study documents a novel type of orientation-selective ganglion cell in the retina and shows that the receptive field structure is remarkably similar to that of simple cells in primary visual cortex. However, the data indicate that, unlike in the cortex, orientation selectivity in the retina depends on the activity of inhibitory interneurons. The

  12. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  13. Distraction by deviance: comparing the effects of auditory and visual deviant stimuli on auditory and visual target processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Alicia; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of oddball experiments in which an irrelevant stimulus (standard, deviant) was presented before a target stimulus and the modality of these stimuli was manipulated orthogonally (visual/auditory). Experiment 1 showed that auditory deviants yielded distraction irrespective of the target's modality while visual deviants did not impact on performance. When participants were forced to attend the distractors in order to detect a rare target ("target-distractor"), auditory deviants yielded distraction irrespective of the target's modality and visual deviants yielded a small distraction effect when targets were auditory (Experiments 2 & 3). Visual deviants only produced distraction for visual targets when deviant stimuli were not visually distinct from the other distractors (Experiment 4). Our results indicate that while auditory deviants yield distraction irrespective of the targets' modality, visual deviants only do so when attended and under selective conditions, at least when irrelevant and target stimuli are temporally and perceptually decoupled.

  14. Lateralized eye use towards video stimuli in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frohnwieser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lateralized eye use is thought to increase brain efficiency, as the two hemispheres process different information perceived by the eyes. It has been observed in a wide variety of vertebrate species and, in general, information about conspecifics appears to elicit a left eye preference whilst information about prey elicits the opposite. In reptiles, this phenomenon has only been investigated using live conspecifics in agonistic contexts, and so it is not clear whether it can be found when using video stimuli. Here, bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps were presented with videos of female conspecifics and prey that either moved or were stationary, along with a control video of an empty background. Females exhibited a left eye bias towards conspecifics but males did not; however, both sexes looked at conspecifics significantly longer than prey. Further, animals used their left eye significantly longer when viewing moving stimuli of both categories. These results suggest that, in lizards, lateralized eye use when viewing conspecifics may be controlled by sex, and strongly influenced by stimulus movement. This study, therefore, provides important insights into the role of lateralized processing in lizard perception, and sets the scene for future work investigating the role of sex on perception of conspecifics and the role of motion in lateralized eye use.

  15. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-04-29

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  16. Human Preferences for Colorful Birds: Vivid Colors or Pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Lišková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern, and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  17. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued to guarantee the controlled release of cargo at a specific time and with an accurate amount. Upon applying different stimuli such as light, magnetic field, heat, pH change, enzymes or redox, functional materials change their physicochemical properties through physical transformation or chemical reactions, allowing the release of payload agents on demand. This dissertation studied three stimuli-responsive membrane systems for controlled release from films of macro sizes to microcapsules of nano sizes. The first membrane system is a polymeric composite film which can decrease and sustain diffusion upon light irradiation. The photo-response of membranes is based on the photoreaction of cinnamic derivatives. The second one is composite membrane which can improve diffusion upon heating. The thermo-response of membranes comes from the volume phase transition ability of hydrogels. The third one is microcapsule which can release encapsulated agents upon light irradiation. The photo-response of capsules results from the photoreaction of nitrobenzyl derivatives. The study on these membrane systems reveals that stimuli-responsive release can be achieved by utilizing different functional materials on either macro or micro level. Based on the abundant family of smart materials, designing and fabricating stimuli-responsive systems shall lead to various advanced release processes on demand for biomedical applications.

  18. Teaching children with autism spectrum disorder to tact olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Tina K; Kisamore, April N; Vladescu, Jason C; Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A; Taylor-Santa, Catherine

    2018-05-28

    Research on tact acquisition by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has often focused on teaching participants to tact visual stimuli. It is important to evaluate procedures for teaching tacts of nonvisual stimuli (e.g., olfactory, tactile). The purpose of the current study was to extend the literature on secondary target instruction and tact training by evaluating the effects of a discrete-trial instruction procedure involving (a) echoic prompts, a constant prompt delay, and error correction for primary targets; (b) inclusion of secondary target stimuli in the consequent portion of learning trials; and (c) multiple exemplar training on the acquisition of item tacts of olfactory stimuli, emergence of category tacts of olfactory stimuli, generalization of category tacts, and emergence of category matching, with three children diagnosed with ASD. Results showed that all participants learned the item and category tacts following teaching, participants demonstrated generalization across category tacts, and category matching emerged for all participants. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Steady-state VEP responses to uncomfortable stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Louise

    2017-02-01

    Periodic stimuli, such as op-art, can evoke a range of aversive sensations included in the term visual discomfort. Illusory motion effects are elicited by fixational eye movements, but the cortex might also contribute to effects of discomfort. To investigate this possibility, steady-state visually evoked responses (SSVEPs) to contrast-matched op-art-based stimuli were measured at the same time as discomfort judgements. On average, discomfort reduced with increasing spatial frequency of the pattern. In contrast, the peak amplitude of the SSVEP response was around the midrange spatial frequencies. Like the discomfort judgements, SSVEP responses to the highest spatial frequencies were lowest amplitude, but the relationship breaks down between discomfort and SSVEP for the lower spatial frequency stimuli. This was not explicable by gross eye movements as measured using the facial electrodes. There was a weak relationship between the peak SSVEP responses and discomfort judgements for some stimuli, suggesting that discomfort can be explained in part by electrophysiological responses measured at the level of the cortex. However, there is a breakdown of this relationship in the case of lower spatial frequency stimuli, which remains unexplained. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Absent Audiovisual Integration Elicited by Peripheral Stimuli in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanna; Suzuki, Keisuke; Yang, Weiping; Ren, Yanling; Wu, Fengxia; Yang, Jiajia; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ejima, Yoshimichi; Wu, Jinglong; Hirata, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    The basal ganglia, which have been shown to be a significant multisensory hub, are disordered in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was to investigate the audiovisual integration of peripheral stimuli in PD patients with/without sleep disturbances. Thirty-six age-matched normal controls (NC) and 30 PD patients were recruited for an auditory/visual discrimination experiment. The mean response times for each participant were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and race model. The results showed that the response to all stimuli was significantly delayed for PD compared to NC (all p audiovisual stimuli was significantly faster than that to unimodal stimuli in both NC and PD ( p audiovisual integration was absent in PD; however, it did occur in NC. Further analysis showed that there was no significant audiovisual integration in PD with/without cognitive impairment or in PD with/without sleep disturbances. Furthermore, audiovisual facilitation was not associated with Hoehn and Yahr stage, disease duration, or the presence of sleep disturbances (all p > 0.05). The current results showed that audiovisual multisensory integration for peripheral stimuli is absent in PD regardless of sleep disturbances and further suggested the abnormal audiovisual integration might be a potential early manifestation of PD.

  1. Protein-surface interactions on stimuli-responsive polymeric biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Michael C; Toomey, Ryan G; Gallant, Nathan D

    2016-03-04

    Responsive surfaces: a review of the dependence of protein adsorption on the reversible volume phase transition in stimuli-responsive polymers. Specifically addressed are a widely studied subset: thermoresponsive polymers. Findings are also generalizable to other materials which undergo a similarly reversible volume phase transition. As of 2015, over 100,000 articles have been published on stimuli-responsive polymers and many more on protein-biomaterial interactions. Significantly, fewer than 100 of these have focused specifically on protein interactions with stimuli-responsive polymers. These report a clear trend of increased protein adsorption in the collapsed state compared to the swollen state. This control over protein interactions makes stimuli-responsive polymers highly useful in biomedical applications such as wound repair scaffolds, on-demand drug delivery, and antifouling surfaces. Outstanding questions are whether the protein adsorption is reversible with the volume phase transition and whether there is a time-dependence. A clear understanding of protein interactions with stimuli-responsive polymers will advance theoretical models, experimental results, and biomedical applications.

  2. Treatment preference in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Vincent, N; Furer, P; Cox, B; Kjernisted, K

    1999-12-01

    Promising cognitive-behavioral and medication treatments for hypochondriasis are in the early stages of evaluation. Little is known about the treatment preferences and opinions of individuals seeking help for this problem. In this exploratory study, 23 volunteers from the community with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. Participants were presented with a survey which included balanced descriptions of both a medication and a cognitive-behavioral treatment for intense illness concerns (hypochondriasis). The brief descriptions of the treatments discussed the time commitment required as well as the major advantages and disadvantages of each. Results showed that, relative to medication treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment was predicted to be more effective in both the short and long terms and was rated as more acceptable. Psychological treatment was indicated as the first choice by 74% of respondents, medication by 4%, and 22% indicated an equal preference. Forty-eight percent of respondents would only accept the psychological treatment.

  3. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time-differentiated cong......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time...... from the underlying scheduling preferences (Noland and Small, 1995, Bates et al., 2001, Fosgerau and Karlström, 2010). The scheduling preferences can be formally represented as time-dependent rates of utility derived at different locations. Assuming that the travellers are rational and choose departure......’ departure time choice. The assumption underlying the scheduling approach is that the traveller rationally maximises her total utility obtained during a period of time. The total utility depends on time of departure from the origin and time of arrival to the destination. The total utility is usually assumed...

  4. Avoidance of Bereavement-Related Stimuli in Chinese Individuals Experiencing Prolonged Grief: Evidence from a Dot-Probe Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attentional bias refers to a preference for (e.g., vigilance or a shifting away (e.g., avoidance of one’s focus with respect to specific stimuli. Accumulating evidence suggests that an attentional bias toward death/threat-related stimuli exists in bereaved individuals experiencing prolonged grief (PG. Measuring for different processing may reflect different cognitive characteristics. Therefore, this study sought to compare information-processing biases in Chinese individuals with high versus low levels of PG symptomatology at supraliminal and subliminal levels, respectively.Method: A 2 (grief level × 2 (consciousness level × 2 (word type three-factor mixed design with supraliminal and subliminal tasks was utilized in the current study. Based on their Prolonged Grief Questionnaire-13 (PG-13 scores, 38 participants were included in the low-PG group, and 34 individuals were included in the high-PG group. All the participants completed a dot-probe task in which they were primed with death-related and life-related words paired with neutral stimuli.Results: High-PG individuals were slower in reacting to the death-related information in both supraliminal and subliminal tasks. After controlling for other symptoms in the backward deletion regression, PG-13 scores significantly predicted the avoidance tendency to death-related words in the supraliminal task, while anxiety was the best predictor of turning one’s vision away from death-related stimuli in the subliminal trials.Conclusion: The results suggested that high PG is associated with a tendency to avoid death-related words. Future research is needed to explore interventions that address the avoidance of death-related stimuli among individuals with elevated, or diagnosable, levels of PG.

  5. Immediate processing of erotic stimuli in paedophilia and controls: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, Benedikt; Esposito, Fabrizio; Händel, Nadja; Lemoine, Patrick; Klarhöfer, Markus; Mager, Ralph; Dittmann, Volker; Seifritz, Erich; Graf, Marc

    2013-03-19

    Most neuroimaging studies investigating sexual arousal in paedophilia used erotic pictures together with a blocked fMRI design and long stimulus presentation time. While this approach allows the detection of sexual arousal, it does not enable the assessment of the immediate processing of erotically salient stimuli. Our study aimed to identify neuronal networks related to the immediate processing of erotic stimuli in heterosexual male paedophiles and healthy age-matched controls. We presented erotic pictures of prepubescent children and adults in an event related fMRI-design to eight paedophilic subjects and age-matched controls. Erotic pictures of females elicited more activation in the right temporal lobe, the right parietal lobe and both occipital lobes and erotic pictures of children activated the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in both groups. An interaction of sex, age and group was present in the right anteriolateral oribitofrontal cortex. Our event related study design confirmed that erotic pictures activate some of the brain regions already known to be involved in the processing of erotic pictures when these are presented in blocks. In addition, it revealed that erotic pictures of prepubescent children activate brain regions critical for choosing response strategies in both groups, and that erotically salient stimuli selectively activate a brain region in paedophilic subjects that had previously been attributed to reward and punishment, and that had been shown to be implicated in the suppression of erotic response and deception.

  6. Sex Attracts: Investigating Individual Differences in Attentional Bias to Sexual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

  7. Sex attracts: investigating individual differences in attentional bias to sexual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kagerer

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest.

  8. Emotion and attention interaction: a trade-off between stimuli relevance, motivation and individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leticia; Mocaiber, Izabela; David, Isabel A.; Erthal, Fátima; Volchan, Eliane; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the neural processing of emotional stimuli is prioritized. However, whether the processing of emotional stimuli is dependent on attention remains debatable. Several studies have investigated this issue by testing the capacity of emotional distracters to divert processing resources from an attentional main task. The attentional load theory postulates that the perceptual load of the main task determines the selective processing of the distracter. Although we agree with this theory, we also suggest that other factors could be important in determining the association between the load of the main task and distracter processing, namely, (1) the relevance of the to-be ignored stimuli and (2) the engagement in the main task due to motivation. We postulate that these factors function as opposite forces to influence distracter processing. In addition, we propose that this trade-off is modulated by individual differences. In summary, we suggest that the relationship between emotion and attention is flexible rather than rigid and depends on several factors. Considering this perspective may help us to understand the divergence in the results described by several studies in this field. PMID:23874284

  9. Emotion and Attention Interaction: a trade-off between stimuli relevance, motivation and individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia eOliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that the neural processing of emotional stimuli is prioritized. However, whether the processing of emotional stimuli is dependent on attention remains debatable. Several studies have investigated this issue by testing the capacity of emotional distracters to divert processing resources from an attentional main task. The attentional load theory postulates that the perceptual load of the main task determines the selective processing of the distracter. Although we agree with this theory, we also suggest that other factors could be important in determining the association between the load of the main task and distracter processing, namely, (1 the relevance of the to-be ignored stimuli and (2 the engagement in the main task resulting from motivation. We postulate that these factors function as opposite forces to influence distracter processing. In addition, we propose that this trade-off is modulated by individual differences. In summary, we suggest that the relationship between emotion and attention is flexible rather than rigid and depends on several factors. Considering this perspective may help us to understand the divergence in the results described by several studies in this field.

  10. Avoiding stimulus confounds in Implicit Association Tests by using the concepts as stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C; Kirschbaum, Michael; Glados, Petra

    2008-06-01

    Implicit Association Tests (IATs) are supposed to measure associations between concepts. In order to achieve that aim, participants are required to assign individual stimuli to those concepts under time pressure in two different tasks. Previous research has shown that not only the associations of the concepts with each other, but also the stimuli's cross-category associations influence the observed reaction time difference between these tasks (i.e. the IAT effect). Little is known about adequate stimulus selection. In this article, we introduce a variant of the IAT, the Concept Association Task (CAT) in which the concepts themselves or synonyms of them are used as stimuli. Three experiments on Germans' attitudes towards foreigners yielded evidence for the convergent validity of the CAT: (1) it correlated well with other IAT versions; (2) it correlated higher with spontaneous attitude-related judgements than other IAT versions; and (3) it correlated with response-window priming, another implicit measure based on reaction times. Furthermore, we showed that the CAT yielded reasonable findings when other IAT versions appear to yield distorted ones.

  11. Emotion and attention interaction: a trade-off between stimuli relevance, motivation and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leticia; Mocaiber, Izabela; David, Isabel A; Erthal, Fátima; Volchan, Eliane; Pereira, Mirtes G

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the neural processing of emotional stimuli is prioritized. However, whether the processing of emotional stimuli is dependent on attention remains debatable. Several studies have investigated this issue by testing the capacity of emotional distracters to divert processing resources from an attentional main task. The attentional load theory postulates that the perceptual load of the main task determines the selective processing of the distracter. Although we agree with this theory, we also suggest that other factors could be important in determining the association between the load of the main task and distracter processing, namely, (1) the relevance of the to-be ignored stimuli and (2) the engagement in the main task due to motivation. We postulate that these factors function as opposite forces to influence distracter processing. In addition, we propose that this trade-off is modulated by individual differences. In summary, we suggest that the relationship between emotion and attention is flexible rather than rigid and depends on several factors. Considering this perspective may help us to understand the divergence in the results described by several studies in this field.

  12. Exploring combinations of auditory and visual stimuli for gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei An

    Full Text Available For Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems that are designed for users with severe impairments of the oculomotor system, an appropriate mode of presenting stimuli to the user is crucial. To investigate whether multi-sensory integration can be exploited in the gaze-independent event-related potentials (ERP speller and to enhance BCI performance, we designed a visual-auditory speller. We investigate the possibility to enhance stimulus presentation by combining visual and auditory stimuli within gaze-independent spellers. In this study with N = 15 healthy users, two different ways of combining the two sensory modalities are proposed: simultaneous redundant streams (Combined-Speller and interleaved independent streams (Parallel-Speller. Unimodal stimuli were applied as control conditions. The workload, ERP components, classification accuracy and resulting spelling speed were analyzed for each condition. The Combined-speller showed a lower workload than uni-modal paradigms, without the sacrifice of spelling performance. Besides, shorter latencies, lower amplitudes, as well as a shift of the temporal and spatial distribution of discriminative information were observed for Combined-speller. These results are important and are inspirations for future studies to search the reason for these differences. For the more innovative and demanding Parallel-Speller, where the auditory and visual domains are independent from each other, a proof of concept was obtained: fifteen users could spell online with a mean accuracy of 87.7% (chance level <3% showing a competitive average speed of 1.65 symbols per minute. The fact that it requires only one selection period per symbol makes it a good candidate for a fast communication channel. It brings a new insight into the true multisensory stimuli paradigms. Novel approaches for combining two sensory modalities were designed here, which are valuable for the development of ERP-based BCI paradigms.

  13. Response to various periods of mechanical stimuli in Physarum plasmodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Ito, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Response to mechanical stimuli is a fundamental and critical ability for living cells to survive in hazardous conditions or to form adaptive and functional structures against force(s) from the environment. Although this ability has been extensively studied by molecular biology strategies, it is also important to investigate the ability from the viewpoint of biological rhythm phenomena so as to reveal the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Here, we use the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum as the experimental system for investigating this ability. The plasmodium was repetitively stretched for various periods during which its locomotion speed was observed. Since the plasmodium has inherent oscillation cycles of protoplasmic streaming and thickness variation, how the plasmodium responds to various periods of external stretching stimuli can shed light on the other biological rhythm phenomena. The experimental results show that the plasmodium exhibits response to periodic mechanical stimulation and changes its locomotion speed depending on the period of the stretching stimuli. (paper)

  14. Emotional conditioning to masked stimuli and modulation of visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, John D; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P

    2005-03-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of conditioning to masked stimuli on visuospatial attention. During the conditioning phase, masked snakes and spiders were paired with a burst of white noise, or paired with an innocuous tone, in the conditioned stimulus (CS)+ and CS- conditions, respectively. Attentional allocation to the CSs was then assessed with a visual probe task, in which the CSs were presented unmasked (Experiment 1) or both unmasked and masked (Experiment 2), together with fear-irrelevant control stimuli (flowers and mushrooms). In Experiment 1, participants preferentially allocated attention to CS+ relative to control stimuli. Experiment 2 suggested that this attentional bias depended on the perceived aversiveness of the unconditioned stimulus and did not require conscious recognition of the CSs during both acquisition and expression. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Generating Stimuli for Neuroscience Using PsychoPy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Jonathan W

    2008-01-01

    PsychoPy is a software library written in Python, using OpenGL to generate very precise visual stimuli on standard personal computers. It is designed to allow the construction of as wide a variety of neuroscience experiments as possible, with the least effort. By writing scripts in standard Python syntax users can generate an enormous variety of visual and auditory stimuli and can interact with a wide range of external hardware (enabling its use in fMRI, EEG, MEG etc.). The structure of scripts is simple and intuitive. As a result, new experiments can be written very quickly, and trying to understand a previously written script is easy, even with minimal code comments. PsychoPy can also generate movies and image sequences to be used in demos or simulated neuroscience experiments. This paper describes the range of tools and stimuli that it provides and the environment in which experiments are conducted.

  16. Generating stimuli for neuroscience using PsychoPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Peirce

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PsychoPy is a software library written in Python, using OpenGL to generate very precise visual stimuli on standard personal computers. It is designed to allow the construction of as wide a variety of neuroscience experiments as possible, with the least effort. By writing scripts in standard Python syntax users can generate an enormous variety of visual and auditory stimuli and can interact with a wide range of external hardware (enabling its use in fMRI, EEG, MEG etc.. The structure of scripts is simple and intuitive. As a result, new experiments can be written very quickly, and trying to understand a previously written script is easy, even with minimal code comments. PsychoPy can also generate movies and image sequences to be used in demos or simulated neuroscience experiments. This paper describes the range of tools and stimuli that it provides and the environment in which experiments are conducted.

  17. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Sun, Wujin; Gu, Zhen

    2014-11-28

    Protein therapeutics have emerged as a significant role in treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancer, metabolic disorders and autoimmune diseases. The efficacy of protein therapeutics, however, is limited by their instability, immunogenicity and short half-life. In order to overcome these barriers, tremendous efforts have recently been made in developing controlled protein delivery systems. Stimuli-triggered release is an appealing and promising approach for protein delivery and has made protein delivery with both spatiotemporal- and dosage-controlled manners possible. This review surveys recent advances in controlled protein delivery of proteins or peptides using stimuli-responsive nanomaterials. Strategies utilizing both physiological and external stimuli are introduced and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attentional capture by social stimuli in young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxie eGluckman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility that a range of social stimuli capture the attention of 6-month-old infants when in competition with other non-face objects. Infants viewed a series of six-item arrays in which one target item was a face, body part, or animal as their eye movements were recorded. Stimulus arrays were also processed for relative salience of each item in terms of color, luminance, and amount of contour. Targets were rarely the most visually salient items in the arrays, yet infants’ first looks toward all three target types were above chance, and dwell times for targets exceeded other stimulus types. Girls looked longer at faces than did boys, but there were no sex differences for other stimuli. These results are interpreted in a context of learning to discriminate between different classes of animate stimuli, perhaps in line with affordances for social interaction, and origins of sex differences in social attention.

  19. Effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on acoustic change complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth N. Shetty

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on the latency and amplitude of acoustic change complex (ACC. ACC is a multiple overlapping P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting acoustic changes across the entire stimulus. Fifteen males and 15 females, in the age range of 18 to 25 (mean=21.67 years, having normal hearing participated in the study. The ACC was recorded using the vertical montage. The naturally produced stimuli /sa/ and /si/ were presented through the insert earphone/loud speaker to record the ACC. The ACC obtained from different stimuli presented through different transducers from male/female participants were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Dependent t-test and independent t-test were performed when indicated. There was a significant difference in latency of 2N1 at the transition, with latency for /sa/ being earlier; but not at the onset portions of ACC. There was no significant difference in amplitude of ACC between the stimuli. Among the transducers, there was no significant difference in latency and amplitude of ACC, for both /sa/ and /si/ stimuli. Female participants showed earlier latency for 2N1 and larger amplitude of N1 and 2P2 than male participants, which was significant. ACC provides important insight in detecting the subtle spectral changes in each stimulus. Among the transducers, no difference in ACC was noted as the spectra of stimuli delivered were within the frequency response of the transducers. The earlier 2N1 latency and larger N1 and 2P2 amplitudes noticed in female participants could be due to smaller head circumference. The findings of this study will be useful in determining the capacity of the auditory pathway in detecting subtle spectral changes in the stimulus at the level of the auditory cortex.

  20. Generating Stimuli for Neuroscience Using PsychoPy

    OpenAIRE

    Peirce, Jonathan W.

    2009-01-01

    PsychoPy is a software library written in Python, using OpenGL to generate very precise visual stimuli on standard personal computers. It is designed to allow the construction of as wide a variety of neuroscience experiments as possible, with the least effort. By writing scripts in standard Python syntax users can generate an enormous variety of visual and auditory stimuli and can interact with a wide range of external hardware (enabling its use in fMRI, EEG, MEG etc.). The structure of scrip...

  1. Heritability of food preferences in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Fiona M; Plomin, Robert; Wardle, Jane

    2006-07-30

    There is persisting interest in the idea that taste preferences are heritable characteristics, but few twin studies have found evidence for a significant genetic component. Small sample sizes and idiosyncratic selection of foods may have contributed to the negative results. We hypothesized that using a larger twin sample and empirical groupings of food types, would give stronger evidence for the heritability of food preferences. We examined the heritability of preferences for four food groups in a sample of young twins. We administered a food preference questionnaire with 95 foods to 214 mothers of same-sex twin pairs (103 monozygotic and 111 dizygotic pairs) aged 4 to 5. 18 foods were excluded because they had been tried by fewer than 25% of the children. Foods were grouped into 'Vegetables', 'Fruits', 'Desserts' and 'Meat and Fish' on the basis of a factor analysis of the preference data. Genetic analyses were carried out on mean liking across these four groups, using model fitting techniques. Over all 77 foods, MZ correlations were higher than DZ correlations for 72 of them, with a higher mean MZ correlation (r = 0.76) than DZ correlation (r = 0.56). Using model fitting techniques with the factor scores, significant heritability estimates were obtained for all four food groups. Heritability was modest for dessert foods (0.20), moderate for vegetables (0.37) and fruits (0.51), and high for liking for protein foods (0.78). Shared environmental effects were strong for desserts, fruits and vegetables, while non-shared environmental influences were low for all four food groups. These results provide strong evidence for modest heritability of food preferences when using empirically-derived groupings of foods.

  2. Preferred practice location at medical school commencement strongly determines graduates' rural preferences and work locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Marie S; Bulsara, Max K; Jones, Michael P; Mak, Donna B

    2017-02-01

    To identify factors influencing whether Australian medical graduates prefer to, or actually, work rurally. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data from Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Twenty Australian medical schools. Australian or New Zealand citizens and Australian permanent residents who completed MSOD questionnaires between 2006 and 2013. Preferred and actual work locations 1 (PGY1) and 3 (PGY3) years postgraduation. Of 20 784 participants, 4028 completed a PGY1 or PGY3 questionnaire. Self-reported preference for rural practice location at medical school commencement was the most consistent independent predictor of whether a graduate would have a rural location preference at PGY1 (odds ratio (OR) 6.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.91-7.51) and PGY3 (OR 7.95, 95% CI 4.93-12.84), and work rurally during PGY1 (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.01-1.88) and PGY3 (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.30-2.64). The effect of preferred practice location at medical school commencement is independent of, and enhances the effect of, rural background. Graduates of graduate-entry programs or with dependent children were less likely to have worked rurally during PGY1 and PGY3 respectively. The most consistent factor associated with rural preferences and work location was students' preferred location of practice at medical school commencement; this association is independent of, and enhances the effect of, rural background. Better understanding of what determines rural preference at medical school commencement and its influence on rural workplace outcomes beyond PGY3 is required to inform Australian medical school selection policies and rural health curricula. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  3. The effect of Ramadan fasting on spatial attention through emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molavi M

    2016-05-01

    tended to react faster and prefer to relay on the type of facial emotions than to gaze direction while doing the task. Because of happy facial expression stimuli, right hemisphere activation was more than that of the left hemisphere. It indicated the consistency of the emotional lateralization concept rather than the valence concept of emotional processing.Keywords: fasting, emotion, spatial attention, ERP, hemisphere lateralization

  4. Treatment preferences of patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Michelle L; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2005-05-01

    The current study examined the treatment preferences of obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were 103 consecutive patients with BED who responded to advertisements for treatment studies looking for persons who wanted to "stop binge eating and lose weight." In addition to completing comprehensive assessment batteries, participants were provided descriptions of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss therapy (BWL) after which they were asked to choose and rate their preferred treatment. Sixty-three percent of participants stated they preferred CBT. Treatment preferences were not associated with (1) histories of obesity, dieting, binge eating, or weight cycling, (2) current obesity or eating disorder features, or (3) psychological features such as depression or self-esteem levels. In contrast, participants' stated treatment preferences were aligned with their perception of their primary problem (eating disorder vs. obesity) and their primary goals for treatment (stop binge eating vs. lose weight). The patients who preferred CBT based their treatment selection more on their problem perception than on their primary treatment goal, whereas the patients who preferred BWL selected treatment based more on their primary treatment goal (weight loss) than on their problem perception. Obese patients with BED express treatment preferences that are not associated with variability in their clinical characteristics but are aligned with their perception of their primary problem and with their primary goals for treatment. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  5. Integrating Dimensional and Discrete Theories of Emotions: A New Set of Anger- and Fear-Eliciting Stimuli for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, Simona; Rancoita, Paola M V; Martoni, Riccardo M; Omero, Micol; Ogliari, Anna; Brombin, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The selection of appropriate stimuli for inducing specific emotional states has become one of the most challenging topics in psychological research. In the literature there is a lack of affective picture database specifically suited to investigate emotional response in children. Here the authors present the methodology that led us to create a new database (called Anger- and Fear-Eliciting Stimuli for Children) of affective stimuli inducing experiences of 3 target emotions (neutral, anger, and fear) to use in experimental session involving children. A total of 84 children were asked to (a) indicate the perceived emotion and its intensity and (b) rate the three affective dimensions of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Based on concordance between labeled and expected target emotion, the authors decided to select 15 stimuli to be included in Multivariate modeling techniques were applied to evaluate the association between expected target emotion and SAM ratings. The authors found that the hit rate for the neutral pictures was good (greater than 81%), for fear-eliciting pictures it was greater than 64%, and for anger-eliciting pictures it was moderate (between 45% and 56%). The study results reveal also an age effect only in the arousal scale. However, the authors did not find significant gender-related differences in SAM ratings.

  6. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. A typology of preferences for participation in healthcare decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kathryn E; Smith, Maureen A; Vanness, David

    2006-09-01

    Classifying patients as "active" or "passive" with regard to healthcare decision making is misleading, since patients have different desires for different components of the decision-making process. Distinguishing patients' desired roles is an essential step towards promoting care that respects and responds to individual patients' preferences. We included items on the 2004 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study mail survey measuring preferences for four components of the decision-making process: physician knowledge of patient medical history, physician disclosure of treatment choices, discussion of treatment choices, and selection of treatment choice. We characterized preference types for 5199 older adults using cluster analysis. Ninety-six percent of respondents are represented by four preference types, all of which prefer maximal information exchange with physicians. Fifty-seven percent of respondents wanted to retain personal control over important medical decisions ("autonomists"). Among the autonomists, 81% preferred to discuss treatment choices with their physician. Thirty-nine percent of respondents wanted their physician to make important medical decisions ("delegators"). Among the delegators, 41% preferred to discuss treatment choices. Female gender, higher educational attainment, better self-rated health, fewer prescription medications, and having a shorter duration at a usual place of care predicted a significantly higher probability of the most active involvement in discussing and selecting treatment choices. The overwhelming majority of older adults want to be given treatment options and have their physician know everything about their medical history; however, there are substantial differences in how they want to be involved in discussing and selecting treatments.

  8. Breaking bad news: patients' preferences and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Raquel Gomes; Carvalho, Irene Palmares

    2013-07-01

    To identify patients' preferences for models of communicating bad news and to explore how such preferences, and the reasons for the preferences, relate with personality characteristics, specifically patients' health locus of control (HLC): internal/external and 'powerful others' (PO). Seventy-two patients from an oncology clinic watched videotaped scenarios of a breaking bad news moment, selected the model they preferred, filled an HLC scale and were interviewed about their choices. Data were analyzed with Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Interviews were content-analyzed. 77.8% preferred an "empathic professional", 12.5% a "distanced expert" and 9.7% an "emotionally burdened expert". Preferences varied significantly with HLC scores (patients with higher internal locus of control (ILC) and lower PO preferred the empathic model), presence of cancer, age and education. Patients explained their preferences through aspects of Caring, Professionalism, Wording, Time and Hope. ILC registered significant differences in regards to Wording and Time, whereas PO was associated with Hope and Time. HLC is an important dimension that can help doctors to better know their patients. Knowing whether patients attribute their health to their own behaviors or to chance/others can help tailor the disclosure of bad news to their specific preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Colour preferences in nest-building zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D

    2013-10-01

    Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one colour to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular colours of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one colour of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material colour with their preferences for food of the same colours. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular colours of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one colour over the other colours. It appears, then, that a preference for one colour or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Subject Characteristics and Preferences for Different Approaches to Psychotherapy: A Multivariate Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helweg, Gregory C.; Gaines, Lawrence S.

    1977-01-01

    Selected personality variables, sex, age, interpersonal values, and educational level, were examined as antecedents to preferences for a nondirective (Carl Rogers) or directive (Albert Ellis) therapist. Individuals who preferred the Ellis presentation proved to more dogmatic and externalized than individuals preferring the Rogers presentation.…

  11. Children's Preference for Sequenced Accompaniments: The Influence of Style and Perceived Tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Ruth V.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the influence of tempo on musical preference for students in grades 2-6, focusing on the effects of various styles using a MIDI keyboard. Explains that the students listened to 10 musical selections identifying their preferences and perceptions of tempo. Reveals that the preferred styles were Hip-Hop, Heavy Rock Shuffle, Samba, and Funk2.…

  12. Assessment of Preference for Edible and Leisure Items in Individuals with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Javier Virues; Iwata, Brian A.; Nogales-Gonzalez, Celia; Frades, Belen

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies on reinforcer preference in patients with dementia. Results of preference assessments yielded differential selections by 14 participants. Unlike prior studies with individuals with intellectual disabilities, all participants showed a noticeable preference for leisure items over edible items. Results of a subsequent analysis…

  13. Shape-Morphing Materials from Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Hybrids.

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    Jeon, Seog-Jin; Hauser, Adam W; Hayward, Ryan C

    2017-02-21

    The formation of well-defined and functional three-dimensional (3D) structures by buckling of thin sheets subjected to spatially nonuniform stresses is common in biological morphogenesis and has become a subject of great interest in synthetic systems, as such programmable shape-morphing materials hold promise in areas including drug delivery, biomedical devices, soft robotics, and biomimetic systems. Given their ability to undergo large changes in swelling in response to a wide variety of stimuli, hydrogels have naturally emerged as a key type of material in this field. Of particular interest are hybrid systems containing rigid inclusions that can define both the anisotropy and spatial nonuniformity of swelling as well as nanoparticulate additives that can enhance the responsiveness and functionality of the material. In this Account, we discuss recent progress in approaches to achieve well-defined shape morphing in hydrogel hybrids. First, we provide an overview of materials and methods that facilitate fabrication of such systems and outline the geometry and mechanics behind shape morphing of thin sheets. We then discuss how patterning of stiff inclusions within soft responsive hydrogels can be used to program both bending and swelling, thereby providing access to a wide array of complex 3D forms. The use of discretely patterned stiff regions to provide an effective composite response offers distinct advantages in terms of scalability and ease of fabrication compared with approaches based on smooth gradients within a single layer of responsive material. We discuss a number of recent advances wherein control of the mechanical properties and geometric characteristics of patterned stiff elements enables the formation of 3D shapes, including origami-inspired structures, concatenated helical frameworks, and surfaces with nonzero Gaussian curvature. Next, we outline how the inclusion of functional elements such as nanoparticles can enable unique pathways to programmable

  14. Innate colour preferences of the Australian native stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria Sm.

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    Dyer, Adrian G; Boyd-Gerny, Skye; Shrestha, Mani; Lunau, Klaus; Garcia, Jair E; Koethe, Sebastian; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-10-01

    Innate preferences promote the capacity of pollinators to find flowers. Honeybees and bumblebees have strong preferences for 'blue' stimuli, and flowers of this colour typically present higher nectar rewards. Interestingly, flowers from multiple different locations around the world independently have the same distribution in bee colour space. Currently, however, there is a paucity of data on the innate colour preferences of stingless bees that are often implicated as being key pollinators in many parts of the world. In Australia, the endemic stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria is widely distributed and known to be an efficient pollinator of both native plants and agricultural crops. In controlled laboratory conditions, we tested the innate colour responses of naïve bees using standard broadband reflectance stimuli representative of common flower colours. Colorimetric analyses considering hymenopteran vision and a hexagon colour space revealed a difference between test colonies, and a significant effect of green contrast and an interaction effect of green contrast with spectral purity on bee choices. We also observed colour preferences for stimuli from the blue and blue-green categorical regions of colour space. Our results are discussed in relation to the similar distribution of flower colours observed from bee pollination around the world.

  15. Which characteristic of Natto: appearance, odor, or taste most affects preference for Natto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura Yuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, consumption of Natto, a fermented bean dish, is recommended because of its high quality protein, digestibility in the gut and its preventive effect on blood clot formation due to high vitamin K content. However, consumption of Natto in Kansai and the Chugoku area (the western part of Honshu is less than that in the other areas of Japan probably because of a “food related cultural inhibition”. In this study, we determined which characteristic of Natto (appearance, odor or taste most affect subjects’ perception of sensory attributes by observation of brain hemodynamics in relation to subjects’ preference for Natto. Findings In this experiment, we defined each subject’s changes in brain hemodynamics as (+ or (− corresponding to an increase or a decrease in total hemoglobin concentration after stimuli compared to that before stimuli. As a result, there was no relation between preference for Natto and change in brain hemodynamics by the stimuli of “looking at” or “smelling”, while there was a significant relationship between preference and stimulus of “ingestion”; (+ : (− = 21:15 in the subjects of the “favorite” group and (+:(− = 30:7 in the subjects of the “non-favorite” group (P = 0.034. Conclusion This result indicated that characteristic “taste” of Natto most affects preference for Natto.

  16. Which characteristic of Natto: appearance, odor, or taste most affects preference for Natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yuki; Ohyane, Aki; Yamashita, Kuniko; Sone, Yoshiaki

    2012-05-28

    In Japan, consumption of Natto, a fermented bean dish, is recommended because of its high quality protein, digestibility in the gut and its preventive effect on blood clot formation due to high vitamin K content. However, consumption of Natto in Kansai and the Chugoku area (the western part of Honshu) is less than that in the other areas of Japan probably because of a "food related cultural inhibition". In this study, we determined which characteristic of Natto (appearance, odor or taste) most affect subjects' perception of sensory attributes by observation of brain hemodynamics in relation to subjects' preference for Natto. In this experiment, we defined each subject's changes in brain hemodynamics as (+) or (-) corresponding to an increase or a decrease in total hemoglobin concentration after stimuli compared to that before stimuli. As a result, there was no relation between preference for Natto and change in brain hemodynamics by the stimuli of "looking at" or "smelling", while there was a significant relationship between preference and stimulus of "ingestion"; (+) : (-) = 21:15 in the subjects of the "favorite" group and (+):(-) = 30:7 in the subjects of the "non-favorite" group (P = 0.034). This result indicated that characteristic "taste" of Natto most affects preference for Natto.

  17. Mate choice and human stature: homogamy as a unified framework for understanding mating preferences.

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    Courtiol, Alexandre; Raymond, Michel; Godelle, Bernard; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-08-01

    Assortative mating for human height has long attracted interest in evolutionary biology, and the phenomenon has been demonstrated in numerous human populations. It is often argued that mating preferences generate this pattern, but other processes can also induce trait correlations between mates. Here, we present a methodology tailored to quantify continuous preferences based on choice experiments between pairs of stimuli. In particular, it is possible to explore determinants of interindividual variations in preferences, such as the height of the chooser. We collected data from a sample of 200 individuals from France. Measurements obtained show that the perception of attractiveness depends on both the height of the stimuli and the stature of the individual who judged them. Therefore, this study demonstrates that homogamy is present at the level of preferences for both sexes. We also show that measurements of the function describing this homogamy are concordant with several distinct mating rules proposed in the literature. In addition, the quantitative approach introduced here fulfills metrics that can be used to compare groups of individuals. In particular, our results reveal an important disagreement between sexes regarding height preferences in the context of mutual mate choice. Finally, both women and men prefer individuals who are significantly taller than average. All major findings are confirmed by a reanalysis of previously published data.

  18. Preferences of Moravian consumers when buying food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Turčínková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research of preferences of Moravian consumers when buying food. The research focuses on characteristics of consumer behavior on the market with food, the preferences of product characteristics, price characteristics, convenient distribution and influence of selected marketing communication tools. The data collection was conducted via questionnaire in April through June 2010 on a sample of 2017 respondents by a research team of Department of Marketing and Trade at FBE MENDELU in Brno. The results suggest that Moravian consumers prefer retail stores with fresh food (mean = 7.99 and wider assortment (7.71, their choice of outlet is also influenced by the convenience of its location – the most preferred are the ones nearest to respondents’ homes or job (7.31, nevertheless, there is greater variability in level of agreement with this behavior among respondents. Respondents develop a certain level of loyalty, most of them have their favorite store and do no alternate much (7.26. However, they tend to be as savvy as possible (6.89 and take their time to consider their final choice (6.52.

  19. Preference Versus Choice in Online Dating.

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    Whyte, Stephen; Torgler, Benno

    2017-03-01

    This study explores factors that influence matches of online dating participants' stated preference for particular characteristics in a potential partner and compares these with the characteristics of the online daters actually contacted. The nature of online dating facilitates exploration of the differences between stated preference and actual choice by participants, as online daters willingly provide a range of demographics on their ideal partner. Using data from the Australian dating website RSVP, we analyze 219,013 contact decisions. We conduct a multivariate analysis using the number of matched variables between the participants' stated preference and the characteristics of the individuals contacted. We find that factors such as a person's age, their education level, and a more social personality all increase the number of factors they choose in a potential partner that match their original stated preference. Males (relative to females) appear to match fewer characteristics when contacting potential love interests. Conversely, age interaction effects demonstrate that males in their late 60's are increasingly more selective (than females) regarding who they contact. An understanding of how technology (the Internet) is impacting human mating patterns and the psychology behind the participants informs the wider social science of human behavior in large-scale decision settings.

  20. Heightened attentional capture by visual food stimuli in anorexia nervosa.

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    Neimeijer, Renate A M; Roefs, Anne; de Jong, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients are relatively insensitive to the attentional capture of visual food stimuli. Attentional avoidance of food might help AN patients to prevent more elaborate processing of food stimuli and the subsequent generation of craving, which might enable AN patients to maintain their strict diet. Participants were 66 restrictive AN spectrum patients and 55 healthy controls. A single-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used with food and disorder-neutral cues as critical distracter stimuli and disorder-neutral pictures as target stimuli. AN spectrum patients showed diminished task performance when visual food cues were presented in close temporal proximity of the to-be-identified target. In contrast to our hypothesis, results indicate that food cues automatically capture AN spectrum patients' attention. One explanation could be that the enhanced attentional capture of food cues in AN is driven by the relatively high threat value of food items in AN. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).