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Sample records for select oil wells

  1. Oil well spill trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigington, J.R. Sr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process involving an oil well and rig having a casing, a platform on the rig extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in pulling the tubing from the casing; disconnecting joints of tubing thereby; and spilling liquids from the casing, catching spilled liquids from the casing in a basin below the platform, draining the basin substantially simultaneously; connecting the drain hole to a tank, and reducing the pressure in the tank to less than atmospheric pressure. This paper also describes an oil well and rig having a casing; the rig having a platform extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in a basin surrounding the casing and connected thereto, the basin below the platform, a drain connection in the lower part of the basin, a conduit connected to the drain, and means for applying a suction to the conduit

  2. Well selection in depleted oil and gas fields for a safe CO2 storage practice: A case study from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and sequestration technology is recognized as a successful approach taken to mitigate the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. However, having a successful storage practice requires wise selection of suitable wells in depleted oil or gas fields to reduce the risk of leakage and contamination of subsurface resources. The aim of this paper is to present a guideline which can be followed to provide a better understanding of sophisticated wells chosen for injection and storage practices. Reviewing recent studies carried out on different aspects of geosequestration indicated that the fracture pressure of seals and borehole conditions such as cement-sheath integrity, distance from faults and fractures together with the depth of wells are important parameters, which should be part of the analysis for well selection in depleted reservoirs. A workflow was then designed covering these aspects and it was applied to a depleted gas field in Malaysia. The results obtained indicated that Well B in the field may have the potential of being a suitable conduit for injection. Although more studies are required to consider other aspects of well selections, it is recommended to employ the formation integrity analysis as part of the caprock assessment before making any decisions.

  3. Radioisotope techniques in oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Prabuddha

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are quite useful in oil exploration and exploitation. Nuclear logging offers a way of gathering information on porosity, permeability, fluid saturations, hydrocarbon types and lithology. Some of the interesting applications in well drilling are determining depth of filtrate invasion, detection of lost circulation, drill-bit erosion control; primary cement measurements and well completions such as permanent tubular markers, perforation position marking, detection of channeling behind casing and gravel pack operations. Radioisotopes have been successfully used in optimizing production processes such as production profiling injection profiling, corrosion measurements and well to well tracer tests. (author)

  4. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P.; Warrick, G.

    1996-01-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C 13 --C 25 ) into the liver tissues. The C 25 --C 35 n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C 27 , C 29 , C 31 , and C 33 hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C 28 and C 29 steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores

  5. Well integrity in heavy oil wells : challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taoutaou, S.; Osman, T.M.; Mjthab, M. [Schlumberger (Syrian Arab Republic); Succar, N. [Oudeh Petroleum, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The Oudeh Petroleum Company (OPC) has used cyclic steam (the Huff and Puff technique) since 2006 to produce heavy oil from its OPC field that has an estimated 79.49 to 95.39 million cubic meters of oil contained in the Jurassic and Triassic reservoirs of the Butmah and Kurachine formations in Syria. Accumulations of oil and gas are present in the main Oudeh structure at depths between 1300 and 2250 meters. The Huff and Puff technique involves 3 phases. In the first phase which lasts about 1 month, steam is injected at 348 degrees C and 17.MPa to melt the wax condensate in the formation in order to decrease heavy oil viscosity. Phase 2 involves 3 soaking days. In phase 3, which lasts 2 to 3 months, the production rate is doubled compared to wells without steam. The cycle is then resumed once the pressure drops. The temperature cycling can compromise the well integrity through loss of hydraulic isolation in the cement sheath and thereby reduce hydrocarbon recovery. This paper described how the OPC has managed to achieved complete well integrity using an advanced cement system in more than 200 wells exposed to steam injection temperatures up to 348 degrees C and the associated high induced thermal stresses. The methodology for risk analysis of the cement sheath failure under steam stimulation was described along with the selection criteria for the advanced cement system to withstand temperature cycling. Two case histories involving a 50 well database were presented. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  6. Marginal Expense Oil Well Wireless Surveillance (MEOWWS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Donald G.

    2002-03-11

    The objective of this study was to identify and field test a new, low cost, wireless oil well surveillance system. A variety of suppliers and technologies were considered. One supplier and system was chosen that was low cost, new to the oil field, and successfully field tested.

  7. Horizontal well impact on heavy oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.; Bielecki, J.; Hu, J.; Wall, B.; Drummond, K.

    1993-01-01

    Horizontal wells can take advantage of gravity drainage mechanisms, which can be important in conventional heavy oil and bitumen recovery. Horizontal drilling will impact on the development of established conventional heavy oil pools by infill drilling and application of enhanced recovery techniques. There will also be an impact on the development of extensions to established and newly discovered heavy oil pools, as well as a major impact on development of bitumen resources. To assess the impact of horizontal drilling on heavy oil supply, high-impact and low-impact scenarios were evaluated under specified oil-price assumptions for four heavy oil areas in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Horizontal well potential for infill drilling, waterflood projects, and thermal projects was assessed and estimates were made of such developments as reserves additions and heavy oil development wells under the two scenarios. In the low case, projected supply of conventional heavy oil and bitumen stabilizes at a level in the 90,000-94,000 m 3 /d after 1994. In the high case, overall supply continuously grows from 80,000 m 3 /d in 1992 to 140,000 m 3 /d in 2002. Through application of horizontal drilling, reserves additions in western Canada could be improved by ca 100 million m 3 by 2002. 14 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Fire-fighting burning oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, Herbert; Risk, Stewart.

    1993-01-01

    A method of extinguishing burning oil wells is presented which involves dispensing liquid nitrogen to the burning site to prevent or inhibit oxygen from fuelling the flames. To carry out the method a remotely operated vehicle is described which is provided with a source of liquid nitrogen and an articulated deployment boom capable of supplying the liquid nitrogen to the site of a burning oil well. (Author)

  9. Selective solvent extraction of oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-04-09

    In the selective solvent extraction of naphthenic base oils, the solvent used consists of the extract obtained by treating a paraffinic base oil with a selective solvent. The extract, or partially spent solvent is less selective than the solvent itself. Selective solvents specified for the extraction of the paraffinic base oil are phenol, sulphur dioxide, cresylic acid, nitrobenzene, B:B/sup 1/-dichlorethyl ether, furfural, nitroaniline and benzaldehyde. Oils treated are Coastal lubricating oils, or naphthenic oils from the cracking, or destructive hydrogenation of coal, tar, lignite, peat, shale, bitumen, or petroleum. The extraction may be effected by a batch or counter-current method, and in the presence of (1) liquefied propane, or butane, or naphtha, or (2) agents which modify the solvent power such as, water, ammonia, acetonitrile, glycerine, glycol, caustic soda or potash. Treatment (2) may form a post-treatment effected on the extract phase. In counter-current treatment in a tower some pure selective solvent may be introduced near the raffinate outlet to wash out any extract therefrom.

  10. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  11. Oil wells and gas wells: aspects of radiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, S.M.V.O.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to present and analyse the main radiological protection problems associated with non destructive inspections of oil wells, with the view of minimizing the dose to members of the public living in nearby urban zones. Problems related to the surveillance of such activities and the need for well formulated procedures are also discussed based on specific Brasilian regulations. Finally, some examples of radiological accidents that have occured in urban zones are described including the methodology employed for the rescue of Iridium-192 sources and for the estimate of radiation doses for workers and general public. (author) [pt

  12. PDVSA INTEVEP Technologies in oil well drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, C.; Rafael, A.; Davila, Manuel A.

    1998-01-01

    The orimulsion, the generation of catalytic technologies and the development of HDH (process which transform heavy crudes in light crudes), are examples of some of the well known technologies developed by PDVSA INTEVEP. But the drilling oil wells technologies developed by the same entreprise, even though are very important, are less known all around the world. This document describes some products developed through those technologies: THIXOGAS T M which is an antimigratory aditive; INTEFLOW T M which is a fluid for drilling, complementation and rehabilitation of oil drills; INTERCAB T M which is an aditive for fluids in drilling; orimatita which is a denser for drilling fluids; CARBOLIG T M which is an aditive for drilling fluids; and many other products and technologies in development, impacted considerably the venezuelan economy by preserving the environment and saving quite an important amount of money in 1997 (Bs. 3.000 M M)

  13. Kuwaiti oil wells blowout - aspects and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jassim, F.

    1992-01-01

    When the Iraqi troops were forced to leave Kuwait, they left behind them the greatest oil catastrophe human beings have ever experienced. Fire plumes of tons of gases of principal pollutants, hydrocarbons, soot and associated metals were ejected up to a height of about 5 km. The retreating forces blew off about 1200 wells all over Kuwait fields. Of these 1200 wells, 614 are on fire. Four firefighting companies were hired to start work immediately after the liberation of Kuwaiti to control these wells. Three of these companies were from the U.S.A. and one from Canada. The number of these companies steadily increased along with logistical support. There are now 28 teams made up of private and multinational companies. This paper will concentrate on two main aspects. The first part will focus on the up-to-date engineering aspects of bringing the blown-out wells under control, focusing on oil well fires and the difficulties encountered, such as equipment availability, ordnance clearance and logistical support. The paper then describes the procedures used to control the wells, and the steps taken to reach this aim are presented. Finally the number of wells controlled, area-wise in different fields, with their original status, is also introduced. The second part will concentrate on the environmental aspects, covering the impact of the plumes on air quality, air pollution and health. The paper then discusses the effect on marine environment, vegetation and the soil. Finally, a forecast, conclusions and recommendations are presented. (author)

  14. Comparison between genetic fuzzy system and neuro fuzzy system to select oil wells for hydraulic fracturing; Comparacao entre genetic fuzzy system e neuro fuzzy system para selecao de pocos de petroleo para fraturamento hidraulico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The hydraulic fracture operation is wide used to increase the oil wells production and to reduce formation damage. Reservoir studies and engineer analysis are made to select the wells for this kind of operation. As the reservoir parameters have some diffuses characteristics, Fuzzy Inference Systems (SIF) have been tested for this selection processes in the last few years. This paper compares the performance of a neuro fuzzy system and a genetic fuzzy system used for hydraulic Fracture well selection, with knowledge acquisition from an operational data base to set the SIF membership functions. The training data and the validation data used were the same for both systems. We concluded that, in despite of the genetic fuzzy system would be a younger process, it got better results than the neuro fuzzy system. Another conclusion was that, as the genetic fuzzy system can work with constraints, the membership functions setting kept the consistency of variables linguistic values. (author)

  15. Prediction of temperature profile in oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laderion, A.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to predict the temperature distribution in well bores either offshore or inshore. It is incorporate the different activities encountered during drilling operations. Furthermore, the effect of drill collar and casings and bit rotating in a well during completion has been considered. The two dimensional approach is presented in the form of a computer program which is adopted for solution of the finite difference equations describing the heat transmission in the well bore in the form of a direct solution technique. The power law model has been selected for drilling mud and its indices have been calculated. Comparing measured data, recorded for a period of 82 hours during different activities in a drilling operation for 15/20 A-4, an exploration well in the Central North Sea with calculated results, show there is a good agreement between the prediction and measured temperatures in the well bore

  16. Alcorn wells bolster Philippines oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, is producing about 16,500 b/d of oil from West Linapacan A field in the South China Sea off the Philippines. The field's current production alone is more than fivefold the Philippines' total average oil flow of 3,000 b/d in 1991. It's part of a string of oil and gas strikes off Palawan Island that has made the region one of the hottest exploration/development plays in the Asia-Pacific theater

  17. Well performance relationships in heavy foamy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Mahadevan, J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Tulsa Univ., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The viscosities and thermodynamic properties of heavy oils are different from conventional oils. Heavy oil reservoirs have foamy behaviour and the gas/oil interface stabilizes in the presence of asphaltenes. In the case of conventional oils, gas evolves from the solution when the formation pressure reaches the bubble point pressure. This study modelled the fluid properties of heavy foamy oils and their influence on the inflow performance relationship (IPR). An expression for inflow performance in heavy oil was developed by including the properties of foamy oil into a space averaged flow equation assuming pseudo-steady state conditions. The unique feature of this study was that the density, formation volume factor and solution gas-oil ratio were modelled as functions of entrained gas fraction. The newly developed expression for inflow performance of foamy oils may also be used to model conventional oil inflow by setting the entrained gas fraction to zero in the fluid property models. The results of the inflow performance of foamy oil and conventional oil were compared and an outflow performance relationship was calculated. The study showed that the inflow performance in foamy oil is influenced by entrained gas. The surface flow rates and bottom-hole flow rates are also influenced by the presence of entrained gas, with heavy foamy oil showing a higher volumetric production rate than conventional oil. The outflow performance curve depended on the fluid properties of the foamy oil. A nodal analysis of the well performance showed that the conventional calculation methods underestimate the production from foamy oil wells because they do not consider the effect of entrained gas which lowers density and improves the mobility of foamy oil. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs., 1 appendix.

  18. The environmental handling in the Oil Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    The oil industry bears environmental impacts related to the resources, soil, air, water, fauna and the socioeconomic aspects of the environment; for this reason the search of the petroleum goes beyond what is believed, it embraces other spheres because, after discovery, it is necessary to extract it, to transport it and to treat it to put it to the service of the humanity's development and in all this long and complex process, is the environmental responsibility, a serious concern as the same discovery of the hydrocarbons. In the beginnings of the oil industry in Colombia this activity was approached without the biggest forecasts as for contamination it refers; however, the environmental laws of the world and the constant concern to preserve the environment, it took to our country to the creation of severe legislations in the matter. In Colombia today in day an environmental legislation exists in all the related with the handling of waters, air and soils inside the oil activity

  19. Radiotracer investigations in oil production and water injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Jain, S.K.; Kirti

    1977-01-01

    Injection of gamma emitting radiotracers into oil wells followed by logging provides information on several aspects such as the identification of zones of seepage of water in the water injection wells and also the location of source of water entering oil producting wells. The experience gained in the application of bromine-82 and rubidium-86 as radiotracers in such studies at the Ankleshwar and Kalol oil fields in Gujarat and Nazira in Assam has been briefly reported. (author)

  20. Feasibility of oil recovery by chemical flooding through horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Abbas, A.M.; El-Sallaly, M. E.; Sayyouh, M. H.; El-Batanony, M. H.; Darwich, T. M.; Desouky, S. M. [Cairo Univ (Egypt)

    1998-12-31

    Crude oil production in the Gulf of Suez by polymer, surfactant, and surfactant/polymer flooding from a horizontal well in a scaled five-spot sandpacked model was studied. The suitability of the enhanced oil recovery predictive models, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy, was investigated for their ability to predict the experimental data and to assess the feasibility of oil recovery by chemical flooding. Good agreement was found between the predicted and experimental values. Experimental results showed that oil recovery was significantly affected by the physical properties of the crude oil and chemical solutions; that oil recovery was higher for a polymer flooding than for a surfactant flooding operation; and that oil recovery was improved by increasing the perforated length ratio up to a value of 0.81. A tendency for oil recovery to decrease was observed when the horizontal well was positioned below or above the central axis path of the formation at the advanced injection stages; and oil recovery by surfactant or polymer flooding was significantly affected by the onset timing of the surfactant or polymer slug injection. The oil-water bank stability in surfactant and polymer flooding processes was found to be dependent on slug size and slug injection time. 23 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  1. Selection and application of microorganisms to improve oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P.F.; Moreira, R.S.; Almeida, R.C.C.; Guimaraes, A.K.; Carvalho, A.S. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Ecologia de Microrganismos da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Avenida Reitor Miguel Calmon, s/n, Vale do Canela, CEP 41.160-100 Salvador BA (Brazil); Quintella, C.; Esperidia, M.C.A. [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Barao de Geremoabo, s/n, Campus Universitario de Ondina, CEP 40.170-290, Salvador BA (Brazil); Taft, C.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-08-01

    conditions could be an interesting alternative for Meor technology because their growth could be easily controlled through the administration of phosphate and inorganic electron acceptors. Bacterial strains selected in this work could be valuable for further application in oil recovery at productive and mature oil well sites as well as for the prevention and control of paraffin deposits. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni, E-mail: melania@physics.its.ac.id; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana [Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    As the world’s oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  3. Expert hierarchical selection of oil and gas distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    Selection and design of oil and gas distribution systems involves a large number of decision makers and interest groups, as well as many alternative technical, financial, network, operating, management and regulatory options. Their objectives and measures of performance are different. Decision models can be effectively represented by hierarchical structures. A simple deterministic analytic hierarchy process is presented with application to oil and gas distribution systems

  4. Radiation incident in oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    On June 4th 1997 equipment failure and violation of approved procedures by a crew of workers initiated a series of events that resulted in the unnecessary exposure to neutron and gamma radiation, from a 666 GBq Am 241 Be source, of forty two workers from a well logging company in Venezuela. Due to the presence of dry mud or drilling fluids inside the logging tool, the nosepiece was screwed off the rest of the source holder; this piece was mistaken for the entire source holder thus leaving the source inside the tool. The tool was labelled for maintenance and electronic laboratory personal worked near the source for seven hours before they identify its presence. As soon as the incident was detected a contingency plan was implemented and the source could be retrieved from the tool and placed in its shipping container. The TLD badges indicate doses well below the annual limit of 20 mSv, and none of the workers involved in the incident seem to show serious health consequences from it. After the incident, in order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, a better source and tool maintenance program was implemented, all the workers were re-trained, and area monitors were installed in all operations bases. (author)

  5. Review of Well Operator Files for Hydraulically Fractured Oil and Gas Production Wells: Well Design and Construction Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA reviewed a statistically representative sample of oil and gas production wells reported by nine service companies to help understand the role of well design and construction practices preventing pathways for subsurface fluid movement.

  6. Geospatial Analysis of Oil and Gas Wells in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riqueros, N. S.; Kang, M.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    California currently ranks third in oil production by U.S. state and more than 200,000 wells have been drilled in the state. Oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration, leading to groundwater contamination and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Here we compile available public databases on oil and gas wells from the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other state and federal sources. We perform geospatial analysis at the county and field levels to characterize depths, producing formations, spud/completion/abandonment dates, land cover, population, and land ownership of active, idle, buried, abandoned, and plugged wells in California. The compiled database is designed to serve as a quantitative platform for developing field-based groundwater and air emission monitoring plans.

  7. Oil and Natural Gas Wells, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Well geospatial dataset contains point features representing permitted locations, most of which have been drilled and completed, or drilled...

  8. Cement for Oil Well Cementing Operations in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    For Portland cement to qualify as oil well cement, the chemical and physical properties must meet ..... Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University,. Stanford, California, pp. ... Construction”, PhD Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah. University of Science ...

  9. Oil, Gas, and Injection Wells in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_wells_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset containing the location of over 230,000 oil and gas and injection wells in the state of Louisiana. It was developed from the DNR Office of...

  10. Anomalies in oil and water wells and the Tangshan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.

    1980-01-01

    Bin County, Shandong Province, has a complicated fault structure resulting from the interaction of a number of fault blocks. An examination of the behavior of oil wells in various oilfields located in faulting areas showed anomalies in 7 of them related to the Tangshan earthquake. Three wells (Nos. 88, 101, and 102) showed sharp peaks in output within a month before the earthquake. One well (No. 278) showed a sharp peak in the oil-gas ratio in April and July of 1976. There was a sharp increase in the water content of the oil produced by one well (No. 285) in July. Finally, one well (4-Xi4-10) showed a decrease in the rate of change of static pressure, starting in March 1976 and achieving a plateau in June which persisted until October before the static pressure again began to change more rapidly.

  11. Performance of high-rate gravel-packed oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneland, Trond

    2001-05-01

    Improved methods for the prediction, evaluation, and monitoring of performance in high-rate cased-hole gravel-packed oil wells are presented in this thesis. The ability to predict well performance prior to the gravel-pack operations, evaluate the results after the operation, and monitor well performance over time has been improved. This lifetime approach to performance analysis of gravel-packed oil wells contributes to increase oil production and field profitability. First, analytical models available for prediction of performance in gravel-packed oil wells are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-velocity flow effects. From the analysis of field data from three North Sea oil fields, improved and calibrated cased-hole gravel-pack performance prediction models are presented. The recommended model is based on serial flow through formation sand and gravel in the perforation tunnels. In addition, new correlations for high-velocity flow in high-rate gravel-packed oil wells are introduced. Combined, this improves the performance prediction for gravel-packed oil wells, and specific areas can be targeted for optimized well design. Next, limitations in the current methods and alternative methods for evaluation and comparison of well performance are presented. The most widely used parameter, the skin factor, remains a convenient and important parameter. However, using the skin concept in direct comparisons between wells with different reservoir properties may result in misleading or even invalid conclusions. A discussion of the parameters affecting the skin value, with a clarification of limitations, is included. A methodology for evaluation and comparison of gravel-packed well performance is presented, and this includes the use of results from production logs and the use of effective perforation tunnel permeability as a parameter. This contributes to optimized operational procedures from well to well and from field to field. Finally, the data sources available for

  12. Sleeving-back of horizontal wells to control downstream oil saturation and improve oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, M.; Saghr, A. M. [Bath Univ (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Air injection has become popular as an enhanced recovery technology, applicable over a wide variety of reservoir conditions including heavy, medium and light oils. One problem observed in light oil reservoirs is the tendency to desaturate the oil layer downstream of the moving front. This is particularly common in the case of thermal recovery processes. In this experiment designed to study ways to restrict the de-saturation of the oil layer, a modified horizontal producer well, incorporating a `sleeve-back` principal was used. The objective was to replicate the `toe-to-heel` displacement process occurring during heavy oil recovery, wherein downstream oil is essentially immobile due to its high viscosity. The `sleeve-back` of the well was achieved using a co-aligned, two-well assembly, so that the upstream section of the horizontal producer well was active, and continuously adjusted during propagation of the combustion front. The use of this continuous `sleeve-back` operation to control the level of de-saturation in the downstream section of a sand pack was successful as confirmed by the very high oil recovery achieved, equivalent to 93.5 per cent of oil in place. The level of CO{sub 2} production was also very high. The `sleeve-back` of the horizontal producer well made the light oil in-situ combustion more efficient compared to what would be expected in a fully-open well. The `sleeve-back` of the well also produced thermal contours in the sand pack that closely resembled those observed with heavy, highly viscous oil. By sealing-off the otherwise open well in the downstream part of the reservoir, the de-saturation of the oil layer was prevented. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. The tidal influence on oil and gas emissions from an abandoned oil well: Nearshore Summerland, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Wilson, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Oil and gas emissions were quantified for natural and human sources in nearshore waters off Summerland, California through deployment of custom designed collection tents. Seepage was measured at a repeatedly abandoned well, on the seabed from a caisson located along the historical location of the Treadwell Wharf, where the world's first off-shore oil wells were drilled at the end of the 19th century. Seepage rates at the capped T-10 Well, located in ∼5 m water, showed high correlation to tides. Site emissions were 2.4 and 38.7 L day -1 oil and gas, respectively. Emissions were measured from two areas of seepage at the T-10 Well Site. Oil and gas ratios were inversely correlated between the two seepage areas, demonstrating connectivity. Data were interpreted in terms of an electronic circuit model of seepage with respect to the time lag between local low tide and peak oil emissions

  14. Composite Coiled Tubing for Extended Reach in Horizontal Oil Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Conventional steel coiled tubing cannot reach along the entire length of very long horizontal oil wells. A lighter and more buoyant coiled tube is made possible using composite materials. The high stiffness to weight ratio of fiber reinforced polymers, coupled with a lower coefficient of friction......, has the potential of greatly extending the reach in horizontal oil wells. This study shows how to design composite coiled tubing and gives a comprehensive discussion about the most influential parameters. Several solutions, using glass-fiber and carbon are considered. Finite element models are used...

  15. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  16. Ecological and technical situation of flooded oil wells in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuterbekov, K. A.; Kabdrakhimova, G. D.; Nurakhmetov, T. N.; Zhaksigulova, A.; Nukenov, D. N.; Kushkimbaev, B. M.; Nurmukhanbetova, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The data of ecological and technical condition of flooded and inundated wells in Atyrau and Mangystau regions of the West of Kazakhstan is given in this abstract. There is necessary to elaborate methods for liquidation, individual plans of conservations, to produce isolating and liquidation procedures on wells and to estimate environment effects. Also we will provide for estimation technical condition of conservation oil wells on territory of flooded by Caspian sea. (Authors)

  17. Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west

  18. Use of surfactants in cleaning paraffin from oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebold, G; Rehberg, W

    1969-05-01

    The use of surfactants is described especially oxethylated alkylphenols, in the cleaning of oil wells from paraffin. Aqueous 1 or 10% solutions of the surfactant were injected into the well through the annulus, partially in combination with demulsifiers (for example Separol-brands of BASF). Injection was accomplished continuously or in intervals; in the beginning of 50 ppm surfactant, afterward 15 to 30 ppm as related to the wet crude was necessary. Efficiency of the treatment could be proved by the decrease of pressure in the pipes, the loosening of paraffin shells, and considerably prolonged operation periods in wells which otherwise would have come to a standstill. In quite a number of wells, treatment with hot oil and electric heating could be completely replaced by injection of surfactants. (11 refs.)

  19. Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Oil well Logging Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcurra, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented.The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively.The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation.The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B.Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation.In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation.Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of neutron oil well logging tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcurra, Mario O.; Zamonsky, Oscar M.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented. The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively. The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation. The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B. Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation. In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation. Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition. (author)

  1. Maximizing probable oil field profit: uncertainties on well spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, J.A.; Lerche, I.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of uncertainties in field development costs, well costs, lifting costs, selling price, discount factor, and oil field reserves are evaluated for their impact on assessing probable ranges of uncertainty on present day worth (PDW), oil field lifetime τ 2/3 , optimum number of wells (OWI), and the minimum (n-) and maximum (n+) number of wells to produce a PDW ≥ O. The relative importance of different factors in contributing to the uncertainties in PDW, τ 2/3 , OWI, nsub(-) and nsub(+) is also analyzed. Numerical illustrations indicate how the maximum PDW depends on the ranges of parameter values, drawn from probability distributions using Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the procedure illustrates the relative importance of contributions of individual factors to the total uncertainty, so that one can assess where to place effort to improve ranges of uncertainty; while the volatility of each estimate allows one to determine when such effort is needful. (author)

  2. OIL WELL REMEDIATION IN CLAY AND WAYNE COUNTIES, IL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter L. Dakuras; Larry Stieber; Dick Young

    2003-07-09

    This is the second progress and final technical report of the remediation of abandoned wells in Clay and Wayne Counties in Illinois. The wells will be identified as the Routt No.3 and No.4 and the Bates Hosselton 1 and 2. Both sites have met all legal, financial and environmental requirements to drill and/or pump oil on both leases. We have also obtained all available information about both leases. All steps were taken to improve access roads, dig the necessary pits, and build the necessary firewalls. This progress and final technical report will address the remediation efforts as well as our results and conclusions.

  3. Selective separation of oil and water with mesh membranes by capillarity

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yuanlie; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yun; Craig, Vincent S.J.; Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    The separation of oil and water from wastewater generated in the oil-production industries, as well as in frequent oil spillage events, is important in mitigating severe environmental and ecological damage. Additionally, a wide arrange of industrial processes require oils or fats to be removed from aqueous systems. The immiscibility of oil and water allows for the wettability of solid surfaces to be engineered to achieve the separation of oil and water through capillarity. Mesh membranes with extreme, selective wettability can efficiently remove oil or water from oil/water mixtures through a simple filtration process using gravity. A wide range of different types of mesh membranes have been successfully rendered with extreme wettability and applied to oil/water separation in the laboratory. These mesh materials have typically shown good durability, stability as well as reusability, which makes them promising candidates for an ever widening range of practical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Selective separation of oil and water with mesh membranes by capillarity

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yuanlie

    2016-05-29

    The separation of oil and water from wastewater generated in the oil-production industries, as well as in frequent oil spillage events, is important in mitigating severe environmental and ecological damage. Additionally, a wide arrange of industrial processes require oils or fats to be removed from aqueous systems. The immiscibility of oil and water allows for the wettability of solid surfaces to be engineered to achieve the separation of oil and water through capillarity. Mesh membranes with extreme, selective wettability can efficiently remove oil or water from oil/water mixtures through a simple filtration process using gravity. A wide range of different types of mesh membranes have been successfully rendered with extreme wettability and applied to oil/water separation in the laboratory. These mesh materials have typically shown good durability, stability as well as reusability, which makes them promising candidates for an ever widening range of practical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Oil flow in the oil well tube annulus of vertical bearing assemblies (leakage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Yinghu

    1997-01-01

    A numerical simulation and experimental flow visualization study was conducted to better understand oil well leakage, particularly in the annular clearance space surrounding the oil well tube. A test rig was developed to simulate the bearing's oil well tube annulus. A major feature of this rig was to allow visual access to the annular clearance space and to the region beneath the rotating runner where strong secondary flow effects are known to exist. The main method for tracing the secondary flow pathlines was a light sheet visualization technique using micro air bubbles as the tracer. The effect of runner speed on the pathlines was studied. The velocity of the oil flow was measured experimentally and the results were compared with numerical data. A numerical technique was developed to trace the micro air bubbles in the oil flow field using a three dimensional CFD code for laminar, axisymmetric flow with a free surface. The buoyancy effects of gravitational and centrifugal forces were considered when determining the pathline of air bubbles. Bubble size, oil viscosity and runner speed were some of the parameters that affect the path of the air bubbles

  6. Nuclear cross section library for oil well logging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.; Kitsos, S.; Aldama, D.L.; Zefran, B.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the IRTMBA (Improved Radiation Transport Modelling for Borehole Applications) Project of the EU Community's 5 th Programme a special purpose multigroup cross section library to be used in the deterministic (as well as Monte Carlo) oil well logging particle transport calculations was prepared. This library is expected to improve the prediction of the neutron and gamma spectra at the detector positions of the logging tool, and their use for the interpretation of the neutron logging measurements was studied. Preparation and testing of this library is described. (author)

  7. A New Well Classification Scheme For The Nigerian Oil Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojoh, K.

    2002-01-01

    Oil was discovered in the Niger Delta Basin in 1956, with Oloibiri 1, after 21 wildcats had been drilled with lack of success. In the 46 years since, 25 companies have discovered 52 Billion barrels, of which 20 Billion has been produced, leaving proven reserves of 32 Billion Barrels.Between now and 2010, the country would like to add 15 billion barrels of oil to these reserves. The target is 40 Billion barrels. The National aspiration is to be able to obtain OPEC quota to produce 4 million barrels of oil per day. A large percentage of the reserves additions will definitely come from the deepwater segment of the basin, where fields of over 500 Million barrels are expected. Exploration also continues on the shelf and on land, but the rate of discovery in these areas is - after 46 years of constant effort - constrained by the relative maturity of the basin.The challenges are that few, small, untested structures remain on shelf and land, whereas most undiscovered reserves are in stratigraphic accumulations within known producing areas. These are only visible on 3-D seismic after it is processed using state-of-the-art, high-technology attribute analyses. In the deepwater province, the stratigraphy throws up problems of reservoir continuity. Channels and lobe fans have complex spatial distribution which systematically require more than the classical two appraisal wells in conventional classification.The industry agrees that the current well classification scheme, which came into place in 1977, needs to be overhauled to take cognisance of these challenges.At a workshop last May, a Well Classification Committee comprising members from OPTS, DEWOG, NAIPEC as well as the DPR was mandated to produce a well classification scheme for the industry. This paper examines the current scheme and comes with a technically sound, widely accepted alternative, complete with exhaustive illustrations

  8. An improved method for predicting brittleness of rocks via well logs in tight oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Sun, Ting; Feng, Cheng; Wang, Wei; Han, Chuang

    2018-06-01

    There can be no industrial oil production in tight oil reservoirs until fracturing is undertaken. Under such conditions, the brittleness of the rocks is a very important factor. However, it has so far been difficult to predict. In this paper, the selected study area is the tight oil reservoirs in Lucaogou formation, Permian, Jimusaer sag, Junggar basin. According to the transformation of dynamic and static rock mechanics parameters and the correction of confining pressure, an improved method is proposed for quantitatively predicting the brittleness of rocks via well logs in tight oil reservoirs. First, 19 typical tight oil core samples are selected in the study area. Their static Young’s modulus, static Poisson’s ratio and petrophysical parameters are measured. In addition, the static brittleness indices of four other tight oil cores are measured under different confining pressure conditions. Second, the dynamic Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and brittleness index are calculated using the compressional and shear wave velocity. With combination of the measured and calculated results, the transformation model of dynamic and static brittleness index is built based on the influence of porosity and clay content. The comparison of the predicted brittleness indices and measured results shows that the model has high accuracy. Third, on the basis of the experimental data under different confining pressure conditions, the amplifying factor of brittleness index is proposed to correct for the influence of confining pressure on the brittleness index. Finally, the above improved models are applied to formation evaluation via well logs. Compared with the results before correction, the results of the improved models agree better with the experimental data, which indicates that the improved models have better application effects. The brittleness index prediction method of tight oil reservoirs is improved in this research. It is of great importance in the optimization of

  9. Utilization of oil wells for electricity generation: Performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Al-Khawaja, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2015-01-01

    There is a general agreement that the climate change, which is the most important challenge facing humanity, is anthropogenic and attributed to fossil fuel consumption. Therefore, deploying more renewable energy resources is an urgent issue to be addressed. Geothermal refers to existing heat energy in deep rock and sedimentary basins. Traditionally, geothermal energy has been exploited in places with plentiful hot water at relatively shallow depth. Unfortunately, the high exploration and drilling costs of boreholes is the main barrier to the commerciality of geothermal worldwide. In oil producing countries, such problems can be overcome by utilizing oil or gas wells. The current study presents thermodynamic and economic analyses of a binary geothermal power generation system for commercial electricity generation. Two different source temperatures (100 and 120 °C) and constant sink temperature (29 °C) were considered. The optimal working fluid and optimal design that improve the performance of the plant are determined. For the current costs in Qatar, the economical analysis of 5 MW geothermal plant shows that the levelized cost of electricity for the plant varies from 5.6 to 5.2 ¢/kW. Whereas, the payback period of such plants lies between 5.8 and 4.8 years. - Highlights: • Utilizing oil well makes geothermal plant competitive with other resources. • R32 seems to be the best working fluid. • The levelized cost of electricity for geothermal plant is less than 5.6 ¢/kWh. • The payback time of geothermal plant is less than 6 years.

  10. Tragacanth gum: an effective oil well drilling fluid additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahto, V.; Sharma, V. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Department of Petroleum Engineering

    2005-02-15

    The low penetration rate, excessive torque and drag, poor hole cleaning and formation damage are major impediments in drilling oil and gas well. These have a major impact on drilling efficiency and well economics. Keeping these in mind, an attempt was made to design a water based drilling fluid system using Indian bentonite clays and tragacanth gum. The effect of tragacanth gum on rheological behavior of three different Indian bentonite water suspensions was studied and a drilling fluid system was developed. The filtrates of these drilling fluids were subjected to formation damage study on the field core using Ruska Liquid Permeameter. The laboratory investigation furnishes that tragacanth gum acts as a good viscosifier and fluid loss control agent. The drilling fluid filtrate also has less effect on formation damage. (author)

  11. Creating potentiometric surfaces from combined water well and oil well data in the midcontinent of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Nelson, Philip H.

    2013-01-01

    For years, hydrologists have defined potentiometric surfaces using measured hydraulic-head values in water wells from aquifers. Down-dip, the oil and gas industry is also interested in the formation pressures of many of the same geologic formations for the purpose of hydrocarbon recovery. In oil and gas exploration, drillstem tests (DSTs) provide the formation pressure for a given depth interval in a well. These DST measurements can be used to calculate hydraulic-head values in deep hydrocarbon-bearing formations in areas where water wells do not exist. Unlike hydraulic-head measurements in water wells, which have a low number of problematic data points (outliers), only a small subset of the DST data measure true formation pressures. Using 3D imaging capabilities to view and clean the data, we have developed a process to estimate potentiometric surfaces from erratic DST data sets of hydrocarbon-bearing formations in the midcontinent of the U.S. The analysis indicates that the potentiometric surface is more readily defined through human interpretation of the chaotic DST data sets rather than through the application of filtering and geostatistical analysis. The data are viewed as a series of narrow, 400-mile-long swaths and a 2D viewer is used to select a subset of hydraulic-head values that represent the potentiometric surface. The user-selected subsets for each swath are then combined into one data set for each formation. These data are then joined with the hydraulic-head values from water wells to define the 3D potentiometric surfaces. The final product is an interactive, 3D digital display containing: (1) the subsurface structure of the formation, (2) the cluster of DST-derived hydraulic head values, (3) the user-selected subset of hydraulic-head values that define the potentiometric surface, (4) the hydraulic-head measurements from the corresponding shallow aquifer, (5) the resulting potentiometric surface encompassing both oil and gas and water wells, and (6

  12. Well-to-refinery emissions and net-energy analysis of China's crude-oil supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; El-Houjeiri, Hassan M.; Schunack, Dominik; Li, Yunpo; Roberts, Samori O.; Przesmitzki, Steven; Brandt, Adam R.; Wang, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Oil is China's second-largest energy source, so it is essential to understand the country's greenhouse gas emissions from crude-oil production. Chinese crude supply is sourced from numerous major global petroleum producers. Here, we use a per-barrel well-to-refinery life-cycle analysis model with data derived from hundreds of public and commercial sources to model the Chinese crude mix and the upstream carbon intensities and energetic productivity of China's crude supply. We generate a carbon-denominated supply curve representing Chinese crude-oil supply from 146 oilfields in 20 countries. The selected fields are estimated to emit between 1.5 and 46.9 g CO2eq MJ-1 of oil, with volume-weighted average emissions of 8.4 g CO2eq MJ-1. These estimates are higher than some existing databases, illustrating the importance of bottom-up models to support life-cycle analysis databases. This study provides quantitative insight into China's energy policy and the economic and environmental implications of China's oil consumption.

  13. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  14. Occurrence, sources and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around oil wells in the border regions between oil fields and suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Wen; Li, Tian-Yuan; Ji, Lei; Wang, Lei-Lei; Zheng, Li-Wen; Wang, Jia-Ning; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-08-15

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical region where oil fields generally overlap cities and towns, leading to complex soil contamination from both the oil fields and human activities. To clarify the distribution, speciation, potential sources and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of border regions between oil fields and suburbs of the YRD, 138 soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected among 12 sampling sites located around oil wells with different extraction histories. The 16 priority control PAHs (16PAHs), as selected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were extracted via an accelerated solvent extraction and detected by GC-MS. The results showed that soils of the study area were generally polluted by the 16PAHs. Among these pollutions, chrysene and phenanthrene were the dominant components, and 4-ring PAHs were the most abundant. A typical temporal distribution pattern of the 16PAHs was revealed in soils from different sampling sites around oil wells with different exploitation histories. The concentrations of total 16PAHs and high-ring PAHs (HPAHs) both increased with the extraction time of the nearby oil wells. Individual PAH ratios and PCA method revealed that the 16PAHs in soil with newly developed oil wells were mainly from petroleum pollutants, whereas PAHs in soils around oil wells with a long exploitation history were probably from petroleum contamination; combustion of petroleum, fuel, and biomass; and degradation and migration of PAHs from petroleum. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the health risks of the 7 carcinogenic PAHs and 9 non-carcinogenic PAHs in the study area. The results indicated that ingestion and dermal contact were the predominant pathways of exposure to PAH residues in soils. Both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic burden of the 16PAHs in soils of the oil field increased significantly with exploitation time of nearby oil wells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Frančáková; Eva Ivanišová; Štefan Dráb; Tomáš Krajčovič; Marián Tokár; Ján Mareček; Janette Musilová

    2015-01-01

    Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA) were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest c...

  16. Selection of progenitors for increase in oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low genetic diversity brings limitation to breeding, because genetically similar genotypes share alleles in common, causing little complementarity and low vigor due to the low levels of heterozygosity in crosses. The objective of this work was to analyze the oil content and genetic diversity of soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill based on QTL regions of this trait for choice of progenitors for increase in oil content. Twenty-two genotypes with wide variation in oil content, including cultivars with high oil contents, were cultivated in different Brazilian conditions and the oil content of the grains was quantified by infrared spectrometry. Microsatellite markers selected based on QTL regions for oil content in soybean were analyzed to estimate the genetic diversity. In these studies, a wide variation in oil content (17.28-23.01% and a reasonable diversity among the genotypes were observed, being PI181544 the most divergent genotype, followed by Suprema. The genotypes PI371610/Suprema and Suprema/CD01RR8384 showed genetic distance and higher oil contents in the grains, while the cultivars Suprema and CD01RR8384 had the highest oil contents and proved to be little genetically related. These genotypes are promising progenitors for selection of high oil content in soybean.

  17. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  18. Quality Attributes of Fresh Palm Oils Produced from Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oils were analyzed for their physical (refractive index, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point) and chemical (moisture, free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification value iodine value and unsaponificable matter) qualities using standard methods. Palm oil processors in the selected communities were ...

  19. Regulation for oil wells logging using ionizing radiation sources. A draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidrowoh, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    A project to regulate logging activities using ionizing radiation sources in oil wells in Ecuador is proposed. Its development is based on basic concepts of energy, radiation protection and characteristics of oil exploitation in Ecuador

  20. Responses of selected biota after biostimulation of a vegetable oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses of selected biota after biostimulation of a vegetable oil spill in the Con Joubert Bird Sanctuary wetland: A pilot study. Mapurunyane C Selala, Paul J Oberholster, Karen AK Surridge, Arno R de Klerk, Anna-Maria Botha ...

  1. Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.

    1989-08-01

    The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Development of a Non-Intrusive Diagnosis Technique for Gas Lifted Oil Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidi, Tawfik; Guellouz, Mohamed Sadok; Harbaoui, Mohamed; Ellejmi, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    In the present study a numerical model, representative of a real gas-lifted oil well, is used to perform flow simulations under different states of the oil reservoir. The simulations results helped to establish correlations between the well state and the measurable parameters at the well head. The uniqueness of these correlations, allows the reliable diagnosis of the state of the well by inferring the anomalies affecting it based on easily measurable parameters with no need to stop the oil production

  3. A plugging solution for cementing deep oil and gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopulo, O K; Bakshutov, V S; Bikbau, M Ya; Danyushevskiy, V S; Ilyukhin, V V; Khydyrov, M B; Lobov, L L; Nikolayeva, M K; Nikulin, V Ya; Nudelman, B I

    1983-01-01

    In order to use the solution in a temperature range of -10 to +250 degrees in conditions of salt agression, a plugging solution for cementing deep oil and gas wells, which contains a ground clinker, a mineral additive, a slaking liquid and a modifier additive, is made up in the following manner: ground chlorosilicate clinker is used as the clinker (alynite portland cement) (100 parts); a mixture of gypsum and limestone with peat or cope in a 1 to 3 to 4 to 3 to 8 ratio is used as the mineral additive (5 to 65 parts); the slaking liquid is water of a 1 to 2.5 percent aqueous solution of electrolytes of CaC/sub 12/ or K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (42 to 115.5 parts), while the modifier additive is an aqueous solution of liquid glass or polyacrylate (0.05 to 17.55 parts). The solution contains an analyte clinker of the following mineral composition, in parts by weight: Ca/sub 3/Si0/sub 4/C1/sub 2/ (alynite), 100; Ca/sub 2/Si0/sub 3/C1/sub 2/, 2.2 to 33.2; 12CuO with 7A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/, 2.2 to 25.0; CuO with 5A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/, 1.1 to 8.3; CuO with 2A10/sub 2/, 1.1 to 8.3; 4CaO with A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/ with Fe/sub 2/0/sub 3/, 15.6 to 25.0; 2CuO with Fe/sub 2/0/sub 3/, 0.1 to 5.0; a glass phase of 0.3 to 25.0 and free CuO, 0.6 to 2.5; and total MgO, 0.3 to 2.5.

  4. Comparative antioxidative properties of selected seed oils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číž, Milan; Gorinstein, S.; Lojek, Antonín; Martin-Belloso, A.; Leontowich, H.; Trakhtenberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 36, Suppl. 1 (2002), s. 64-65 ISSN 1071-5762. [European Research on Functional Effects of Dietary Antioxidants: Benefits and Risks. Cambridge, 25.09.02-28.09.02] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB6004204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : antioxidants * polyphenols * seed oils Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.523, year: 2002

  5. Temperature control of thermal-gas-dynamical installation in cleaning oil-well tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, V. A.; Martemyanov, D. B.; Pshenichnikova, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The article provides the study results of cleaning oil-well tubes, the oil-well tube failure reasons for service by their types have been considered. The chemical method of cleaning oil-well tubes as the least expensive has been reviewed when acid solution moves to the interptube space mixing up with oil and liquidates paraffin and pitches deposits on the internal pipe surface. Except the chemical method of pipes cleaning the mechanical one was considered as well. Also the disadvantages -such as the low productivity of cleaning and design complexity- of this deposits removal method on the internal oil-well tube surface have been considered. An effective method for cleaning oil-well tubing from paraffin and pitches by the thermodynamic plant based on the aircraft engine has been introduced for the first time. The temperature distribution graph in the gas stream at the engine output has been given.

  6. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin-Man; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-04-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean ( Glycine max ) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351 , encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1 , BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2 , 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III , DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1 , and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean ( Glycine soja ) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Toxicities of Selected Essential Oils, Silicone Oils, and Paraffin Oil against the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Li, Andrew

    2018-02-09

    The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs. In this study, we screened 18 essential oils, three silicone oils, and paraffin oil (C5-20 paraffins) for their toxicities against bed bugs. All the oils exhibited insecticidal activity in topical assays. Their toxicities varied significantly; all of the evaluated essential oils were less effective than silicone oils and paraffin oil. The LD50 values of the most effective essential oil (blood orange), paraffin oil, and the most effective silicone oil (dodecamethylpentasiloxane) are 0.184 ± 0.018, 0.069 ± 0.012, and 0.036 ± 0.005 mg per bug, respectively. Direct spray of 1% water solution of 3-[hydroxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] heptamethyltrisiloxane, the only silicone oil that mixes well with water, resulted in 92% bed bug mortality after 1 d. Results of this study indicate silicone oils and paraffin oil have the potential to be used as safer alternative bed bug control materials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Produced Water Treatment Using Geothermal Energy from Oil and Gas Wells: An Appropriateness of Decommissioned Wells Index (ADWI) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaghadi, A.; Rifai, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of harnessing geothermal energy from retrofitted oil and gas decommissioned wells to power desalination units and overcome the produced water treatment energy barrier. Previous studies using heat transfer models have indicated that well depth, geothermal gradient, formation heat conductivity, and produced water salt levels were the most important constraints that affect the achievable volume of treated water. Thus, the challenge of identifying which wells would be best suited for retrofit as geothermal wells was addressed by defining an Appropriateness of Decommissioned Wells Index (ADWI) using a 25 km x 25 km grid over Texas. Heat transfer modeling combined with fuzzy logic methodology were used to estimate the ADWI at each grid cell using the scale of Very Poor, Poor, Average, Good and Excellent. Values for each of the four constraints were extracted from existing databases and were used to select 20 representative values that covered the full range of the data. A heat transfer model was run for all the 160,000 possible combination scenarios and the results were regressed to estimate weighting coefficients that indicate the relative effect of well depth, geothermal gradient, heat conductivity, and produced water salt levels on the volume of treated water in Texas. The results indicated that wells located in cells with ADWI of "Average", "Good" or "Excellent" can potentially deliver 35,000, 106,000, or 240,000 L/day of treated water, respectively. Almost 98% of the cells in the Granite Wash, 97% in Eagle Ford Shale, 90% in Haynesville Shale, 79% in Permian Basin, and 78% in Barnett Shale were identified as better than "Average" locations; whereas, south of the Eagle Ford, southwestern Permian Basin, and the center of Granite Wash were "Excellent". Importantly, most of the locations with better than "Average" ADWI are within drought prone agricultural regions that would benefit from this resilient source of clean water.

  9. Oil-water flows in wells with powerful fracture reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, N.P.

    1979-01-01

    The character of two phase liquid flows from powerful layer fractures to bottom holes in Starogrodnen and Malgobek-Voznesenskiy fields in the Chechen-Ingush ASSR found in the late stage of operation. The studies were done with the electrothermometer TEG-36, the manometer MGN-2, the remote control thermal flow meter T-4, the remote control moisture meter VBST-1, the density meter GGP-1M, whose accuracy class is 1.0 and whose working limits are: temperature, up to 150/sup 0/C and pressure, up to 1000 kGs/cm/sup 2/. The breakdown of the linear filtration law and the gravitational division of the water-oil mixture phase occurred during fieldwork. The oil and water, etc., flow intervals were defined. The data from the moisture meter and the gamma density meter coincided.

  10. Movement of gasified oil in an infinite stratum drained by a single well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomel' gas, V A

    1965-01-01

    This article presents a method of calculating the flow of gas and oil into a well, which drains a reservoir by the solution drive mechanism. The following conditions are assumed: (1) Initially, an infinite homogeneous reservoir is saturated with oil above the bubble point; (2) the well draining the reservoir is operated at constant pressure, below the bubble point; and (3) the reservoir contains 2 zones; the zone fartherest from the well contains only oil at a pressure above the bubble point, while the zone nearest the well contains both oil and gas. The pressure and oil saturation gradients around the well are calculated for a variety of conditions, and the results are shown graphically. As pressure drawdown increases, oil production increases and the gas factor at first decreases and then increases rapidly.

  11. Selecting protective gloves for oil spill response and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill responders and cleanup workers must be provided with gloves that prevent skin contact while permitting them to do their job safely and efficiently. Glove selection is largely based on professional judgment, considering permeation, resistance to puncture and abrasion, and whether the material gets slick when coated with oil. This paper consolidates the most useful information from various studies and presents a selection rationale. In general, we found neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and nitrile to be the glove materials of choice for protection in oil spills. The skin toxicity potential for most petroleum materials encountered in a spill is low. Some fresh crudes may contain hydrocarbon molecules that may penetrate the skin and cause some systemic toxicity with high enough exposure. However, as crude weathers, the more volatile hydrocarbons evaporate rapidly, leaving behind the heavier fraction, which often contains polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. Some PNAs have caused skin cancer in animals after prolonged and repeated contact. As a reference, most weathered crude is similar to used motor oil in skin toxicity; prolonged and repeated skin contact should be avoided, but there is no cause for concern if some gets on the skin. The typical skin problems from excessive skin contact are drying and cracking from the defatting action of the oil itself or from the soap or hand cleaners used to remove the oil, and pustules (similar to boils) if the oil plugs the sweat glands in the skin

  12. Analysis of multicriteria models application for selection of an optimal artificial lift method in oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnogorac Miroslav P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world today for the exploitation of oil reservoirs by artificial lift methods are applied different types of deep pumps (piston, centrifugal, screw, hydraulic, water jet pumps and gas lift (continuous, intermittent and plunger. Maximum values of oil production achieved by these exploitation methods are significantly different. In order to select the optimal exploitation method of oil well, the multicriteria analysis models are used. In this paper is presented an analysis of the multicriteria model's application known as VIKOR, TOPSIS, ELECTRE, AHP and PROMETHEE for selection of optimal exploitation method for typical oil well at Serbian exploration area. Ranking results of applicability of the deep piston pumps, hydraulic pumps, screw pumps, gas lift method and electric submersible centrifugal pumps, indicated that in the all above multicriteria models except in PROMETHEE, the optimal method of exploitation are deep piston pumps and gas lift.

  13. A Simple Physics-Based Model Predicts Oil Production from Thousands of Horizontal Wells in Shales

    KAUST Repository

    Patzek, Tadeusz

    2017-10-18

    Over the last six years, crude oil production from shales and ultra-deep GOM in the United States has accounted for most of the net increase of global oil production. Therefore, it is important to have a good predictive model of oil production and ultimate recovery in shale wells. Here we introduce a simple model of producing oil and solution gas from the horizontal hydrofractured wells. This model is consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. We then apply our model thousands of wells in the Eagle Ford shale. Given well geometry, we obtain a one-dimensional nonlinear pressure diffusion equation that governs flow of mostly oil and solution gas. In principle, solutions of this equation depend on many parameters, but in practice and within a given oil shale, all but three can be fixed at typical values, leading to a nonlinear diffusion problem we linearize and solve exactly with a scaling

  14. An Innovative Oil Pollution Containment Method for Ship Wrecks Proposed for Offshore Well Blow-outs

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRITSOS Fivos; COJINS Hans

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the PRESTIGE disaster, an innovative system for the prompt intervention on oil pollution sources (primarily ship wrecks) at great depths was conceived at the Joint Research Center of the European Commission. This system, with some re-engineering, could also serve for collecting oil and gas leaking after an offshore well blow-out and could constitute a reference method for prompt intervention on deep water oil pollution sources like ship wrecks and blown-out offshore wells....

  15. Seed oil content and selected qualitative parameters of oils from grape seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Mašán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (Oleum vitis viniferae represents promising plant oil, which is used mainly in gastronomy and for pharmaceutical purposes as well as for various technical applications. In this paper, there were examined oil contents and oil quality properties of seeds taken from 8 grape cultivars. Oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 11.5% (Dornfelder to 17.5% (Riesling. The results showed a dependence between the length of the growing season for individual varie-ties and the total content of oil in seeds. Fatty acid concentrations in the evaluated oil samples were in various ranges, while the highest values were determined in linoleic acid 70.10 to 71.55%, oleic acid 15.61 to 17.14%, palmitic acid 6.87 to 8.18% and stearic acid 3.16 to 3.90%. Saturated fatty acid values were lower than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all oil samples. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil ranged between 88.6 - 89.21%. Thanks to its content, grape seed oil can be considered as a food supplement improving the nutri-tional value of the human diet.

  16. Selective hedging strategies for oil stockpiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol

    2006-01-01

    As a feasible option for improving the economics and operational efficiency of stockpiling by public agency, this study suggests simple selective hedging strategies using forward contracts. The main advantage of these selective hedging strategies over the previous ones is not to predict future spot prices, but to utilize the sign and magnitude of basis easily available to the public. Using the weekly spot and forward prices of West Texas Intermediate for the period of October 1997-August 2002, this study adopts an ex ante out-of-sample analysis to examine selective hedging performances compared to no-hedge and minimum-variance routine hedging strategies. To some extent, selective hedging strategies dominate the traditional routine hedging strategy, but do not improve upon the expected returns of no-hedge case, which is mainly due to the data characteristics of out-of-sample period used in this analysis

  17. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2016, a field study was conducted in the Uinta Basin Utah to improve information on oil and natural gas well pad pneumatic controllers (PCs) and emission measurement methods. A total of 80 PC systems at five oil sites (supporting six wells) and three gas sites (sup...

  18. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  19. Groundwater levels for selected wells in Upper Kittitas County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasser, E.T.; Julich, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater levels for selected wells in Upper Kittitas County, Washington, are presented on an interactive, web-based map to document the spatial distribution of groundwater levels in the study area measured during spring 2011. Groundwater-level data and well information were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey using standard techniques and are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, Groundwater Site-Inventory database.

  20. Records of wells drilled for oil and gas in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, G.H.; Baltz, D.H.; Stipp, T.F.; Bieberman, R.A.

    1954-01-01

    Data concerning nearly 3,000 of the more than 13,000 wells drilled in New Mexico, before September 1, 1953, including unsuccessful wildcat and field extension wells and most of the discovery wells, have been compiled and are published in this circular. Although the search for oil and gas has extended to all parts of the State, most of the wells and all the oil and natural gas fields are located in the northwest and southeast quadrants of the State.

  1. The Criteria for the Selection of Wells for Hydraulic Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Salimov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods of selection of wells for hydraulic fracturing are analyzed. It is established that all methods can be divided into three large groups: criteria in the table form of boundary values of parameters, statistical methods of pattern recognition, methods of engineering calculation. The complication or use of additional parameters only leads to a reduction in the number of wells at which hydraulic fracturing is possible. It is shown that the use of reservoir properties of rocks, which are already used by hydraulic fracturing simulators, is not practicable as selection criteria. It is required to include in the selection criteria only those additional factors on which the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing depends directly.

  2. Analytical filtration model for nonlinear viscoplastic oil in the theory of oil production stimulation and heating of oil reservoir in a dual-well system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovich Astafev, Vladimir; Igorevich Gubanov, Sergey; Alexandrovna Olkhovskaya, Valeria; Mikhailovna Sylantyeva, Anastasia; Mikhailovich Zinovyev, Alexey

    2018-02-01

    Production of high-viscosity oil and design of field development systems for such oil is one of the most promising directions in the development of world oil industry. The ability of high-viscosity oil to show in filtration process properties typical for non-Newtonian systems is proven by experimental studies. Nonlinear relationship between the pressure gradient and the rate of oil flow is due to interaction of high-molecular substances, in particular, asphaltenes and tars that form a plastic structure in it. The authors of this article have used the analytical model of stationary influx of nonlinear viscoplastic oil to the well bottom in order to provide rationale for the intensifying impact on a reservoir. They also have analyzed the method of periodic heating of productive reservoir by means of dual-wells. The high-temperature source is placed at the bottom of the vertical well, very close to the reservoir; at the same time the side well, located outside the zone of expected rock damage, is used for production. Suggested method of systemic treatment of reservoirs with dual wells can be useful for small fields of high-viscosity oil. The effect is based on the opportunity to control the structural and mechanical properties of high-viscosity oil and to increase depletion of reserves.

  3. Selection of well labelled insulin fractions for radioimmunoassay use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awh, O D; Kim, J R [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1980-06-01

    Selection methods of well labelled insulin fractions based on two different criteria were compared to establish an efficient low level RIA of insulin and to elucidate the correlation between the immunoreactivity and the charcoal-adsorptivity of the radioiodine labelled insulin. The result indicated that the selection of well labelled insulin fractions by means of a charcoal-adsorption test is inappropriate. Generally, the distribution of radioactivity, antibody-bindability, and charcoal-adsorptivity of the labelled insulin was not consistent with each other. Thus, the selection should be carried out for every labelling batch to get the utmost assay reliability by antibody-bindability but not by charcoal-adsorptivity. By using the well selected labelled insulin fractions based on antibody-binding, a correct assay for a reference serum was possible, and by extending the incubation time up to 96 hrs, a sharp dose response curve could be obtained even in the range of below 5 ..mu..U/ml standard insulin doses.

  4. Proposal for regulation of logging activities in oil wells using ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidrowoh, Jacob R.

    2000-01-01

    It covers general aspects of nuclear energy and the suitable legal frame for its application related to oil industry. Besides, a regulation proposal to control logging activities in Ecuador using ionizing radiation sources in oil wells. It was prepared taking into account the Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission criteria and international regulations

  5. Well and Inflow Performance Relationship for Heavy Oil Reservoir under Heating Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal

    2017-10-17

    Well and Inflow Performance Relationship, termed TPR and IPR, respectively have been the unfailing methods to predict well performance. It is further to determine the schemes on optimising production. The main intention of the study is to explore TPR and IPR under heating treatment for heavy oil well. Klamono is a mature field which mostly has depleted wells, it produces heavy oil within 18.5 °API (>0.95 g/cc oil density), and therefore, artificial lifting method is necessary. Sucker Road Pump (SRP) and Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) are the most deployed artificial lifting method in this reservoir. To boost the heavy oil production, the application of Electric Downhole Heater (EDH) in Well KLO-X1 is being studied. Whole Klamono\\'s production is more than 100,000 blpd within 97-99% water cut. By installing EDH, oil viscosity is decreased hence oil mobility ratio will play a role to decrease water cut. EDH is installed together with the tubing joint to simplify its application in the wellbore. The study shows that EDH application can elevate fluid (mixed oil and brine) temperature. Oil viscosity confirms a reduction from 68 to 46 cP. The gross well production is up to 12.2 bopd due optimising its outflow performance and reducing 97.5 to 96.9% water cut. The field data gives an incremental of 4.9 bopd. The computational results only show an attainment of net oil production up to 8.3 bopd (2 bopd incremental). The EDH works to lessen both density and viscosity as we hypothesised for the mechanism of thermally induced oil production improvement. The evaluation study on its economics aspect exhibits good result that is 1.4 USD/bbl additional profit margin according to field data despite the challenging annual rig rent cost. Following the field data, the expected net income through analytical model revealed that this project is financially promising.

  6. Well and Inflow Performance Relationship for Heavy Oil Reservoir under Heating Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal; Aditya, A.; Ulitha, D. T.; Shidqi, M.; Adi, W. S.; Wibowo, K. H.; Barus, M.

    2017-01-01

    Well and Inflow Performance Relationship, termed TPR and IPR, respectively have been the unfailing methods to predict well performance. It is further to determine the schemes on optimising production. The main intention of the study is to explore TPR and IPR under heating treatment for heavy oil well. Klamono is a mature field which mostly has depleted wells, it produces heavy oil within 18.5 °API (>0.95 g/cc oil density), and therefore, artificial lifting method is necessary. Sucker Road Pump (SRP) and Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) are the most deployed artificial lifting method in this reservoir. To boost the heavy oil production, the application of Electric Downhole Heater (EDH) in Well KLO-X1 is being studied. Whole Klamono's production is more than 100,000 blpd within 97-99% water cut. By installing EDH, oil viscosity is decreased hence oil mobility ratio will play a role to decrease water cut. EDH is installed together with the tubing joint to simplify its application in the wellbore. The study shows that EDH application can elevate fluid (mixed oil and brine) temperature. Oil viscosity confirms a reduction from 68 to 46 cP. The gross well production is up to 12.2 bopd due optimising its outflow performance and reducing 97.5 to 96.9% water cut. The field data gives an incremental of 4.9 bopd. The computational results only show an attainment of net oil production up to 8.3 bopd (2 bopd incremental). The EDH works to lessen both density and viscosity as we hypothesised for the mechanism of thermally induced oil production improvement. The evaluation study on its economics aspect exhibits good result that is 1.4 USD/bbl additional profit margin according to field data despite the challenging annual rig rent cost. Following the field data, the expected net income through analytical model revealed that this project is financially promising.

  7. Performance of Surfactant Methyl Ester Sulphonate solution for Oil Well Stimulation in reservoir sandstone TJ Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, F. R.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Permadi, P.

    2017-05-01

    Asphaltene, paraffin, wax and sludge deposition, emulsion and water blocking are kinds ofprocess that results in a reduction of the fluid flow from the reservoir into formation which causes a decrease of oil wells productivity. Oil well Stimulation can be used as an alternative to solve oil well problems. Oil well stimulation technique requires applying of surfactant. Sodium Methyl Ester Sulphonate (SMES) of palm oil is an anionic surfactant derived from renewable natural resource that environmental friendly is one of potential surfactant types that can be used in oil well stimulation. This study was aimed at formulation SMES as well stimulation agent that can identify phase transitions to phase behavior in a brine-surfactant-oil system and altered the wettability of rock sandstone and limestone. Performance of SMES solution tested by thermal stability test, phase behavioral examination and rocks wettability test. The results showed that SMES solution (SMES 5% + xylene 5% in the diesel with addition of 1% NaCl at TJformation water and SMES 5% + xylene 5% in methyl ester with the addition of NaCl 1% in the TJ formation water) are surfactant that can maintain thermal stability, can mostly altered the wettability toward water-wet in sandstone reservoir, TJ Field.

  8. Slender wells and new subsea solutions for increased oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faanes, Audun; Myhre, Erling; Vinge, Torstein; Stroem, Steinar

    2010-07-01

    Statoil has identified cost effective subsea wells as one of our major challenges. To achieve such solutions it is required to look at all sides of a subsea development. This presentation will cover how a slim wellhead, BOP and riser system will contribute to a less costly subsea development. The focus will be on all aspects of a subsea development. The effect on the drilling rig will be discussed based on the fact that the drilling rig is the major cost driver in subsea well developments. (Author)

  9. Antioxidant and chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blend of selected spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blends of selected Nigerian spices as well as its antioxidant protective potentials against free radical in vitro. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from selected spices blend consisting of Monodora myristica, Myristica fragrans, Tetrapleura tetraptera, and Aframomum sceptrum using a Clevenger type apparatus. Oil obtained was subjected to phytochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis as well as analyzed for antioxidant activity which covers for 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide scavenging activities and reducing property. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis revealed over 50 compoundfs with α-phellandrene being the most predominant compound (27.32%, which was followed by (--β-bourbonene (15.78% and 5-(1-methylethyl-α-phellandrene (11.80%. Phytochemical analysis showed high flavonoid content and a lower phenolic content. The oil showed a dose like dependent effect on the1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging activities, these activities increased with increasing concentration. The same was also observed for the reducing power properties of the oil. Conclusions: The antioxidant activities exhibited by the essential oil in vitro signify its protective potential against free radicals. The chemical constituents, α-phellandrene in particular and the studied phytochemicals may be responsible for these effects. However, in vivo study is needed to further authenticate this potency.

  10. Selection for Oil Content During Soybean Domestication Revealed by X-Ray Tomography of Ancient Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Crawford, Gary W.; Fang, Hui; Lang, Jianfeng; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Xiulan; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Luan, Fengshi; Wang, Qing; Chen, Xuexiang; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-02-01

    When and under what circumstances domestication related traits evolved in soybean (Glycine max) is not well understood. Seed size has been a focus of archaeological attention because increased soybean seed weight/size is a trait that distinguishes most modern soybeans from their ancestors; however, archaeological seed size analysis has had limited success. Modern domesticated soybean has a significantly higher oil content than its wild counterpart so oil content is potentially a source of new insight into soybean domestication. We investigated soybean oil content using X-ray computed tomography (CT; specifically, synchrotron radiation X-ray CT or SRX-CT) of charred, archaeological soybean seeds. CT identified holes in the specimens that are associated with oil content. A high oil content facilitates the development of small holes, whereas a high protein content results in larger holes. The volume of small holes increased slowly from 7,500 to 4,000 cal B.P. We infer that human selection for higher oil content began as early as 7,500 cal B.P. and that high oil content cultivars were well established by 4,000 cal B.P.

  11. Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt

    2011-01-01

    From April 20 through July 15, 2010, an estimated 4.4 million barrels (1 barrel = 42 gallons [~700,000 cu m]) of crude oil spilled into the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) from the ruptured British Petroleum (BP) Macondo-1 (M-1) well after the explosion of the drilling platform Deepwater Horizon. In addition, ~1.84 million gallons (~7,000 cu m) of hydrocarbon-based Corexit dispersants were applied to the oil both on and below the sea surface (Operational Science Advisory Team, 2010). An estimate of the total extent of the surface oil slick, derived from wind, ocean currents, aerial photography, and satellite imagery, was 68,000 square miles (~180,000 sq km; Amos and Norse, 2010). Spilled oil from this event impacted sensitive habitat along the shores of the nGOM. In response to this environmental catastrophe, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected coastal sediment and tarball samples along the shores of the nGOM from Texas to Florida before and after oil made landfall. These sites included priority areas of the nGOM at highest risk for oil contamination. These areas included coastal wetlands, shorelines, and barrier islands that could suffer severe environmental damage if a significant amount of oil came ashore. Samples were collected before oil reached land from 69 sites; 49 were revisited to collect samples after oil landfall. This poster focuses on the samples from locations that were sampled on both occasions. The USGS samples and one M-1 well-oil sample provided by BP were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil was not detected in the samples collected before landfall but have been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida after landfall. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediment is confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the

  12. An additive to well injection water for increasing the oil yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absov, M.T.; Abutalybov, M.G.; Aslanov, S.M.; Movruzov, E.N.; Musaev, R.A.; Tairov, N.D.

    1979-03-05

    This invention relates to oil production using flooding. The goal of this invention is to increase the oil yield of a producing formation. This is achieved by using a saponin solution as an additive to the water injected into the formation (with related organic substances which are complex organic nitrogen-free compounds from the glycoside group; these substances yield solution that foam easily with an agitation). The use of saponin facilitates good solubility in fresh, sea and formation (alkaline and hard) waters, as well as the absence of sediment formation during dissolution, low solid adsorption, and a significant decrease in the surface water tension on the oil-water boundary. The aqueous saponin solution makes it possible to decrease the production cost of oil, as well as to decrease the development time of the fields and the volume of water injected into the formation and to significantly increase the oil yield.

  13. Evaluation the complex lithologies in the oil well using spectral density instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivanov, M.; Martinovic, S.; Jakovljevic, B.

    1991-01-01

    Spectral density instrument for logging in the oil wells, beside density, measure photo electrical cross section. The principles of logging are discussed of modern spectral density. Results of logging are used dor determining the complex lithology in the oil well. With this instrument are obtained the more accurate and reliable logging results and better lithology rate and reliable logging results and better lithology determination in the formations. (author)

  14. 80,000 Inactive Oil Wells: A Blessing or a Curse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Muehlenbachs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For a century, oil and gas wells have been Alberta’s economic pride. That there could be a hidden cost in maintaining these wells past their productive life is difficult to imagine, much less accept. The financial burden of abandoning a well officially is no doubt why Alberta producers delay doing so as long as possible. Turning a blind eye, they routinely keep non-producing wells in a state of “inactive” suspension and refuse to rule out the possibility that someday oil prices or technology, or both, will change significantly enough to make those wells profitable again. In most cases that will never happen, but the province plays along anyway: It enforces no limit on how long a well can be kept inactive before it must be reactivated or abandoned. While a convenience for well owners, there is no benefit to Albertans. They are exposed to the risk of thousands of inactive wells becoming a hazardous threat to public safety. The longer a well is inactive, the higher the likelihood that its owner may no longer be around to arrange and pay for its official abandonment, a process whereby wells are permanently sealed using regulated methods that insure they cause no environmental damage. Oil and gas producers come and go. Periodic price shocks, like the one that recently ravaged the sector, drive companies into insolvency. When the owner of an inactive well is no longer around to pay for its abandonment costs, the well becomes orphaned. Alberta’s permissive policies have led to a situation where there are now more than 80,000 inactive wells in the province. Some have been inactive for decades. If the possibility existed that they could eventually become economical, those wells might be considered a blessing. However, the simulations that model scenarios where prices are substantially higher or where production technology is significantly improved, clearly show that the vast majority of these wells will never be reactivated, no matter how

  15. A history of nuclear well logging in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittle, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Spurred by an interest in logging through steel casing γ-ray logging began in the late 1930s followed soon by neutron logging for porosity. These were the first two nuclear well logs. Gamma-gamma density logging was developed during the 1950s. Pulsed neutron lifetime logging appeared in the 1960s; the slim tools came in the early 1970s. Developments since then have included dual detector devices of several types which offered improved measurements or interpretation, γ-ray spectrometry logging (natural and neutron-induced) which identifies certain chemical elements, induced radioactivity logging, and the photoelectric absorption log, which, combined with the density log in a single tool, is known as litho-density logging. A combination of several γ-ray spectrometers in one tool, designed to determine 10 formation elements, was recently introduced, and a new neutron porosity tool measuring epithermal neutron die-away time has been developed. Digital transmission of logging data was a step forward in about 1975. Also, log interpretation techniques have greatly expanded since the advent of digital computers, and the microcomputer has had a distinct impact. It is now practical and economical to do iterative analysis on a suite of logs to obtain an optimum overall interpretation. (author)

  16. Limitation of the influx of formation water into oil wells. Ogranichenie pritoka plastovykh vod v neftyanye skvazhiny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, R.T.; Gazizov, A.Sh.; Gabdullin, R.G.; Yusupov, I.G.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of limiting the influx of water into oil wells are examined. On the basis of studies, systemization, and generalization of the reasons for the premature flooding of wells, the improvement of strata by polymer-cement solutions with consolidating liquid phases is considered. A detailed description is given of the technology and results of cementing well using solutions based on plugging cement and water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde resins of the TSD-9 type. Results are reported on the study of the properties of selective water-insulating substances based on acrylamide monomers and hydrolyzed polyacrylonitriles. Industrial testing of these materials is generalized. An economic evaluation is made of the efficiency of measures undertaken to prevent water influx into oil wells.

  17. Application of flexible slurries: an alternative for oil wells subject to cyclic steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Paiva, Maria D.M.; Cunha, Marcelo C.S. [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States); Farias, Antonio Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Oil wells that receive cyclic steam injection are subject to high temperature variations during their life cycle. This causes volumetric expansion of the metallic casing which leads to cracks and channels in the formation of the cement. Studies show that volumetric expansion caused by temperature variation may cause wells to rise up to 20-in. at the surface. This paper presents alternative materials that improve the elastic properties of set cement slurries, focusing on maintaining sufficient resilience to maximize the life of the cement. We compare a set of fourteen formulations, some currently in use, selecting those with high flexibility. Analysis was based on the mechanical properties of the set slurries as well as tests according to standards from ABNT and from API Spec 10B. This work contributes new formulations for wells that under-go cyclic steam injection. These new formulations are presented as alternatives to current flexible slurry technology. We can obtain high-quality, more resilient slurries using materials that are more economical, have better cost-benefit, and are easily available in the market. (author)

  18. Monitoring of water quality of selected wells in Brno district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marková Jana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two wells in the country of Brno-district (Brčálka well and Well Olšová. The aim of work was monitoring of elementary parameters of water at regular monthly intervals to measure: water temperature, pH values, solubility oxygen and spring yield. According to the client's requirements (Lesy města Brno laboratory analyzes of selected parameters were done twice a year and their results were compared with Ministry of Health Decree no. 252/2004 Coll.. These parameters: nitrate, chemical oxygen demand (COD, calcium and magnesium and its values are presented in graphs, for ammonium ions and nitrite in the table. Graphical interpretation of spring yields dependence on the monthly total rainfall and dependence of water temperature on ambient temperature was utilized. The most important features of wells include a water source, a landmark in the landscape, aesthetic element or resting and relaxing place. Maintaining wells is important in terms of future generations.

  19. Microbiological techniques for paraffin reduction in producing oil wells: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, C. H.; Hiebert, F. K.

    1989-04-01

    Alpha Environmental has completed an eighteen month field oriented, cooperative research program with the US Department of Energy to demonstrate a new economically viable process using petroleum degrading microorganisms, a biocatalyst, formation water and inorganic nutrients to recover residual oil from reservoirs. Alpha's mixed community of microorganisms decomposes crude oil to produce detergents, CO/sub 2/, and new cells, thus mechanically and chemically releasing oil from reservoir pores. The naturally-occurring bacteria utilized in this project were previously selected by screening and isolating microorganisms from soils contaminated with crude oil and petroleum products. The activity and level of salt tolerance (to 20% salinity) of the bacteria is enhanced by a biocatalyst, previously developed by Alpha Environmental. Field evidence suggests that the biocatalyst provides catalytic oxygen to the microorganisms in the reservoir, which augments low levels of in-situ molecular oxygen. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita, L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  1. Inelastic neutron scattering reactions in fluid saturated rock as exploited in oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, M.C.; Dyos, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Oil saturated sandstone and limestone targets have been irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma-ray spectra were accumulated and the γ-ray intensities arising from inelastic neutron scattering reactions upon carbon and oxygen measured. The results are compared with the predictions of a simple model. They enable some features of the response of (n,γ) tools used in oil well logging to be established and current uncertainties in understanding to be highlighted. (author)

  2. Oil Well Blowout 3D computational modeling: review of methodology and environmental requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Mello Paiva; Alexandre Nunes Barreto; Jader Lugon Junior; Leticia Ferraço de Campos

    2016-01-01

    This literature review aims to present the different methodologies used in the three-dimensional modeling of the hydrocarbons dispersion originated from an oil well blowout. It presents the concepts of coastal environmental sensitivity and vulnerability, their importance for prioritizing the most vulnerable areas in case of contingency, and the relevant legislation. We also discuss some limitations about the methodology currently used in environmental studies of oil drift, which considers sim...

  3. Unconventional Oil Reserves Development in the Viking Play (Western Canada Using Horizontal Wells and Hydraulic Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Baishev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil production from the Viking play in Saskatchewan province started in the 1950s and continues since that time. Horizontal drilling and multistage fracturing have caused resurgence in development of this play. Based on the production data from several fields, the comparative results of the Viking play development using vertical and horizontal wells are presented. Horizontal wells drilling made it possible to increase oil production in those formation zones that were previously considered predominantly gas-saturated, as well as in the zones affected by water injection using vertical wells in order to maintain reservoir pressure. Infill drilling combined with longer lateral completion length also positively affected the development of oil reserves from the Viking play.

  4. Reconnaissance of Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from sediment and tarballs collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coast that is potentially impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. The samples were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil has been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediments are confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and no impact was observed outside of this area.

  5. Well Inventory and Geophysical Logging of Selected Wells in Troup County, Georgia, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael F.; Leeth, David C.; Hamrick, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with the Troup County Board of Commissioners - conducted a well inventory to provide information to help evaluate ground-water resources for Troup County, Georgia. In addition, borehole geophysical logs were collected in selected wells to provide a better understanding of the subsurface geologic and water-bearing characteristics in specific areas of interest. This investigation provides information to help guide future ground-water development and water-management decisions for Troup County while enhancing understanding of the hydrogeology of fractured rocks in the Piedmont physiographic province. This report presents well data compiled from USGS files and from site visits to wells during November and December 2007. Data were entered into the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and made available on the Web at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/inventory. Previous studies of ground-water resources have been conducted in the vicinity, but did not include Troup County. The ground-water resources of Heard and Coweta Counties, located north and northeast, respectively, of Troup County were part of a larger study by Cressler and others (1983) that encompassed the Greater Atlanta Region. That study evaluated the quantity and quality of ground water in the Atlanta region and described the methods that could be used for locating high-yielding wells in the Piedmont Province. The geology underlying the Atlanta area is similar to that underlying Troup County. Clarke and Peck (1990) conducted a similar investigation that included Meriwether and Coweta Counties, located to the east and northeast of Troup County.

  6. Status report No. 8: State uses of Exxon and Stripper Well oil overcharge funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, H.; Claytor, C.P.

    1991-07-01

    From March of 1986 through early January, 1991 (when the report surveying began) state governments received $3.423 billion in funds obtained by the federal government through two major cases, based on price overcharges committed by numerous oil companies during the period of price controls, between 1973 and 1981. Furthermore, about another $1 billion may still be collected from oil companies, with roughly 1/2 to be distributed to the states (and the other 1/2 to the federal government), over the next 5 to 10 years. The role of state governments is to allocate the funds, within the specific case guidelines, to new or existing energy programs, in a way which is designed to benefit (or provide restitution to) the class or classes of purchasers who bore the burden of the overcharges. This report incorporates information collected by NCLC through telephone surveys conducted from January through March 1991. The information we collected on the status and state uses of both Exxon and Stripper Well funds is contained in the state-by-state narrative summary selection and in a series of tables at the end of the report. Each of the quarterly reports tracks final state decisions allocating use of these funds. The terms ''allocated'' and ''designated'' are used interchangeably throughout the document to mean that final state decisions have been made regarding these funds. Tracking state allocations about these funds is the only practical way for us to provide an overview of the actual status of state processes or decisions which have occurred with regard to this money. 9 tabs

  7. A Simple Physics-Based Model Predicts Oil Production from Thousands of Horizontal Wells in Shales

    KAUST Repository

    Patzek, Tadeusz; Saputra, Wardana; Kirati, Wissem

    2017-01-01

    and ultimate recovery in shale wells. Here we introduce a simple model of producing oil and solution gas from the horizontal hydrofractured wells. This model is consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. We then apply our model

  8. The Role of Well Control Training in Developing Safe Onshore and Offshore Oil Drilling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulhassn, Aber

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the role of the International Well Control Forum (IWCF) Rotary Drilling Well Control Training Program in developing safe oil drilling operations from the perspective of onshore and offshore drilling crews. The research methodology is a qualitative case study. A total of 40 IWCF candidates were interviewed, with 10 from…

  9. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  10. An Investigation on Gas Lift Performance Curve in an Oil-Producing Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Saepudin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in oil production system using gas lift technique is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production rate. Relationship between gas injection rate and oil production rate is described by a continuous gas lift performance curve (GLPC. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection will reduce production rate, and also increase the operation cost. In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model for gas lift technique and the characteristics of the GLPC for a production well, for which one phase (liquid is flowing in the reservoir, and two phases (liquid and gas in the tubing. It is shown that in certain physical condition the GLPC exists and is unique. Numerical computations indicate unimodal properties of the GLPC. It is also constructed here a numerical scheme based on genetic algorithm to compute the optimum oil production.

  11. Improving reservoir history matching of EM heated heavy oil reservoirs via cross-well seismic tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery methods have become significant in the industry\\'s drive to increase recovery rates from oil and gas reservoirs. For heavy oil reservoirs, the immobility of the oil at reservoir temperatures, caused by its high viscosity, limits the recovery rates and strains the economic viability of these fields. While thermal recovery methods, such as steam injection or THAI, have extensively been applied in the field, their success has so far been limited due to prohibitive heat losses and the difficulty in controlling the combustion process. Electromagnetic (EM) heating via high-frequency EM radiation has attracted attention due to its wide applicability in different environments, its efficiency, and the improved controllability of the heating process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase recovery rates. Limited research has been undertaken so far to capture the nonlinear reservoir dynamics and significantly varying flow rates for thermally heated heavy oil reservoir that may notably change production rates and render conventional history matching frameworks more challenging. We present a new history matching framework for EM heated heavy oil reservoirs incorporating cross-well seismic imaging. Interfacing an EM heating solver to a reservoir simulator via Andrade’s equation, we couple the system to an ensemble Kalman filter based history matching framework incorporating a cross-well seismic survey module. With increasing power levels and heating applied to the heavy oil reservoirs, reservoir dynamics change considerably and may lead to widely differing production forecasts and increased uncertainty. We have shown that the incorporation of seismic observations into the EnKF framework can significantly enhance reservoir simulations, decrease forecasting

  12. Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.

  13. Process for recovering oil from oil-bearing layers traversed by a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, C W

    1967-09-11

    In this process, pressure is applied to the surface of the strata exposed in the well. The applied pressure is varied between values above and below the pressure of the formation adjacent to the well bore, thus causing fracturing and breaking of the formation under the influence of the internal pressure of the layer.

  14. The Synthesis of 58co-Naphthenate Complex Compound for Evaluation of Oil well Production Capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duyeh Setiawan; Marlina

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear technique using radioisotope as a tracer in oil industry has assisted to solve the degradation of oil production. Usually, the degradation of oil production in well caused by the formation changing of hydrostatic pressure of the oil layer in the well. This problem could be evaluated by injection of water to oil well, for recovering this hydrostatic pressure. The watcher of the water injection success is done by the way of nuclear technique radioactive tracer systems, applied radioisotope having short half life and low gamma radiation energy. Radioisotope cobalt-58 in the complex form with naphthenate ( 58 Co-naphthenate ) often used as the tracer in the water injection technique. The tracer 58 Co-naphthenate relatively easy to synthesis and radioisotope 58 Co has half life 70.86 days and gamma energy was 0.811 Me v. The synthesis method of 58 Co-naphthenate route has been carried out by mixing of 58 CoCl 2 radioisotope solution with sodium naphthenate (C 5 H 9 CH 2 COONa) in the optimum condition. The results shows that the optimal mole ratio of cobalt-58 and naphthenate was 1:6 which produced 87,38 % of ren dement and 82,5 % of efficiency labelling. This synthesis technique was made permanent procedure for making of 58 Co-naphthenate complex as radioactive tracer in service of radioisotope production especially industrial area. (author)

  15. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. [i]Lavandula angustifolia[/i], [i]Carum carvi[/i], [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Mentha piperita[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.,[i] Pinus sylvestris[/i], [i]Satureia hortensis[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L., [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinali[/i]s L., [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L. [i]Rausch[/i], [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. for antifungal activity against five [i]Penicillium[/i] species: [i]Penicillium brevicompactum[/i], [i]Penicillium citrinum[/i], [i]Penicillium crustosum[/i], [i]Penicillium expansum[/i] and [i]Penicillium griseofulvum[/i]. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against [i]Penicillium[/i] fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L., [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i], [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. and [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i]. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.[i] Rausch[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinalis[/i].

  16. Initiating events of accidents in the practice of oil well logging in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alles Leal, A.; Perez Reyes, Y.; Dumenigo Gonzalez, C.

    2013-01-01

    The oil well logging is an extremely important activity within the oil industry, but in turn, brings risks that occasionally result in damage to health, the environment and economic losses. In this context, risk analysis has become an important tool to control them through their prediction and the study of the factors that determine them, enabling substantiated decisions to, first, foresee accidents and, secondly, to minimize their consequences. This paper proposes the elaboration of a list of initiating events of accidents in the practice of oil well logging which is one of the most important aspects for further evaluation of radiation safety of this practice. For its determination the technique employed to identify risks was 'Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)' by applying it to the different stages and processes of practice. (Author)

  17. Application of accelerator sources for pulsed neutron logging of oil and gas wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Dresser Atlas introduced the first commercial pulsed neutron oil well log in the early 1960s. This log had the capability of differentiating oil from salt water in a completed well. In the late 1970s the first continuous carbon/oxygen (C/O) log capable of differentiating oil from fresh water was introduced. The sources used in these commercial logs are radial geometry deuterium-tritium reaction devices with Cockcroft-Walton voltage multipliers providing the accelerator voltage. The commercial logging tools using these accelerators are comprised of scintillators detectors, power supplies, line drivers and receivers, and various timing and communication electronics. They are used to measure either the time decay or energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma events. The time decay information is useful in determining the neutron capture cross section, and the energy spectra is used to characterize inelastic neutron events. (orig.)

  18. Application of accelerator sources for pulsed neutron logging of oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, R. R.

    1985-05-01

    Dresser Atlas introduced the first commercial pulsed neutron oil well log in the early 1960s. This log had the capability of differentiating oil from salt water in a completed well. In the late 1970s the first continuous carbon/oxygen (C/O) log capable of differentiating oil from fresh water was introduced. The sources used in these commercial logs are radial geometry deuterium-tritium reaction devices with Cockcroft-Walton voltage multipliers providing the accelerator voltage. The commercial logging tools using these accelerators are comprised of scintillators detectors, power supplies, line drivers and receivers, and various timing and communications electronics. They are used to measure either the time decay or energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma events. The time decay information is useful in determining the neutron capture cross section, and the energy spectra is used to characterize inelastic neutron events.

  19. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  20. Correlation of the Canol Formation source rock with oil from Norman Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, L.R.; Brooks, P.W.; Williams, G.K.; Goodarzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The source of the oil at Norman Wells has long been assumed to have been the Canol Formation and/or the Bluefish Member of the Hare Indian Formation. These two units are stratigraphically above and below the Kee Scarp Formation reservoir unit respectively, and are both bituminous shales. A wide range of analytical techniques including Rock-Eval pyrolysis, solvent extraction and fractionation, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and white light and fluorescence microscopy has been used to characterize core samples of these two units and two samples of crude oil from the Norman Wells field. Most of the analytical techniques were insufficiently refined to either differentiate the extracts from each other or to make a definitive oil/source rock correlation. Collision activated decomposition coupled with multiple ion detection mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) did provide sufficient chemical compositional detail of the oils and the two potential sources to demonstrate that the Canol Formation has been the effective source of the Normal Wells oil whereas the Bluefish Member has not. The level of thermal maturity of the core samples ranges from immature to moderately mature in the vicinity of the Norman Wells field to overmature for the samples obtained to the west and north of the field. The level of thermal maturity of the oil was observed to be somewhat higher than that of the samples of the source formation directly above the field. It was thus inferred that some lateral migration from more mature areas has occurred but the extent of this migration was not necessarily more than a few to tens of kilometers.

  1. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C.; Ball, J.C.; Stevens, R.

    1995-03-01

    Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 x 10 6 barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ''super'' plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed

  2. Oil well fires of Operation Desert Storm--defining troop exposures and determining health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jack M

    2011-07-01

    During Operation Desert Storm, in February 1991, Iraqi troops began burning Kuwaiti oil wells. Almost immediately there was concern about possible adverse health effects in U.S. personnel exposed to crude oil combustion products. Combustions products were predicted from the known composition of Kuwaiti crude oil. Monitoring sites were established in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; about 5,000 environmental samples were studied. Data collected were used to develop health risk assessments for the geographic areas sampled. This initial approach to assessing risk had to be greatly expanded when Congress passed Public Law 102-190, requiring development of means to calculate environmental exposures for individual U.S. service members. To estimate daily exposure levels for the entire area over 10 months for all U.S. troops, air dispersion modeling was used in conjunction with satellite imagery and geographic information system technology. This methodology made it possible to separate the risk caused by oil fire smoke from the total risk from all sources for each service member. The U.S. military responses to health concerns related to the oil well fires and to Public Law 102-190 were reviewed. Consideration was given to changes in technology, practices, and policies over the last two decades that might impact a similar contemporary response.

  3. Oil Well Blowout 3D computational modeling: review of methodology and environmental requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mello Paiva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to present the different methodologies used in the three-dimensional modeling of the hydrocarbons dispersion originated from an oil well blowout. It presents the concepts of coastal environmental sensitivity and vulnerability, their importance for prioritizing the most vulnerable areas in case of contingency, and the relevant legislation. We also discuss some limitations about the methodology currently used in environmental studies of oil drift, which considers simplification of the spill on the surface, even in the well blowout scenario. Efforts to better understand the oil and gas behavior in the water column and three-dimensional modeling of the trajectory gained strength after the Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. The data collected and the observations made during the accident were widely used for adjustment of the models, incorporating various factors related to hydrodynamic forcing and weathering processes to which the hydrocarbons are subjected during subsurface leaks. The difficulties show to be even more challenging in the case of blowouts in deep waters, where the uncertainties are still larger. The studies addressed different variables to make adjustments of oil and gas dispersion models along the upward trajectory. Factors that exert strong influences include: speed of the subsurface currents;  gas separation from the main plume; hydrate formation, dissolution of oil and gas droplets; variations in droplet diameter; intrusion of the droplets at intermediate depths; biodegradation; and appropriate parametrization of the density, salinity and temperature profiles of water through the column.

  4. Moisture Durability Assessment of Selected Well-insulated Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report presents the results from studying the hygrothermal performance of two well-insulated wall assemblies, both complying with and exceeding international building codes (IECC 2015 2014, IRC 2015). The hygrothermal performance of walls is affected by a large number of influential parameters (e.g., outdoor and indoor climates, workmanship, material properties). This study was based on a probabilistic risk assessment in which a number of these influential parameters were simulated with their natural variability. The purpose of this approach was to generate simulation results based on laboratory chamber measurements that represent a variety of performances and thus better mimic realistic conditions. In total, laboratory measurements and 6,000 simulations were completed for five different US climate zones. A mold growth indicator (MGI) was used to estimate the risk of mold which potentially can cause moisture durability problems in the selected wall assemblies. Analyzing the possible impact on the indoor climate due to mold was not part of this study. The following conclusions can be reached from analyzing the simulation results. In a hot-humid climate, a higher R-value increases the importance of the airtightness because interior wall materials are at lower temperatures. In a cold climate, indoor humidity levels increase with increased airtightness. Air leakage must be considered in a hygrothermal risk assessment, since air efficiently brings moisture into buildings from either the interior or exterior environment. The sensitivity analysis of this study identifies mitigation strategies. Again, it is important to remark that MGI is an indicator of mold, not an indicator of indoor air quality and that mold is the most conservative indicator for moisture durability issues.

  5. chemical as well as biological properties of the oil of Alpinia galanga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bt

    2016-11-30

    Nov 30, 2016 ... Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activities as well as antimicrobial activities of the oils were .... ones (like aldehydes: 7.29%, alcohols: 32.43%, ketones: ... capable of being dissolved in both polar organic and nonpolar ...

  6. High Sensitivity Gravity Measurements in the Adverse Environment of Oil Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfutzner, Harold

    2014-03-01

    Bulk density is a primary measurement within oil and gas reservoirs and is the basis of most reserves calculations by oil companies. The measurement is performed with a gamma-ray source and two scintillation gamma-ray detectors from within newly drilled exploration and production wells. This nuclear density measurement, while very precise is also very shallow and is therefore susceptible to errors due to any alteration of the formation and fluids in the vicinity of the borehole caused by the drilling process. Measuring acceleration due to gravity along a well provides a direct measure of bulk density with a very large depth of investigation that makes it practically immune to errors from near-borehole effects. Advances in gravity sensors and associated mechanics and electronics provide an opportunity for routine borehole gravity measurements with comparable density precision to the nuclear density measurement and with sufficient ruggedness to survive the rough handling and high temperatures experienced in oil well logging. We will describe a borehole gravity meter and its use under very realistic conditions in an oil well in Saudi Arabia. The density measurements will be presented. Alberto Marsala (2), Paul Wanjau (1), Olivier Moyal (1), and Justin Mlcak (1); (1) Schlumberger, (2) Saudi Aramco.

  7. Steam heating of local well bore area in light crude oil horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikerin, B P

    1968-02-01

    Beneficial results were obtained from a series of small steam injection treatments of oil producing wells in Asfaltov field. In this field, spacing between producing wells is 200 m, well depth is about 450 m, formation temperature is 27$C, oil gravity is 0,845 g/cu cm, and oil viscosity is 6-10 Hz. In every treatment, 200 g of ''disolvan'' was added per ton of steam, to minimize clay swelling in the formation. Form treatment results it is concluded that: (1) steam stimulation gives positive results 65% of the time; (2) best results were obtained in compact sand formations, 5-6 m thick; (3) positive results last up to one yr after steam soak; (4) with repeated treatments oil production increases 1.5-2 times; (5) temperature of steam during flow from wellhead to well bottom at 350 m, is decreased by 25%; and (6) about 1.3 million kcal were used per 1 m of net sand thickness.

  8. SENSITIVITY OF MOLDS ISOLATED FROM WAREHOUSES OF FOOD PRODUCTION FACILITY ON SELECTED ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Kręcidło

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Storage of raw materials is one of steps in food production chain. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of selected essential oils on the growth of four fungal strains: Trichoderma viride, Rhizomucor miehei, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium janthinellum. Strains were isolated from warehouses of the food production facility. Selected essential oils: thyme oil, rosewood oil and rosemary oil were used to assess antifungal activity. Chemical composition of essential oils was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. Antifungal activity of essential oils was estimated in relative to peracetic acid (PAA and sterile water with Tween 80 (0,5%. The influence of essential oils on fungal growth was carried by medium poisoning method. Increment of fungal mycelium was measured every day by 10 days. The thyme essential oils totally inhibited fungal growth in the lowest concentration of 1 mm3·cm-3. The most resistant strain was Penicillium janthinellum.

  9. Computer-Based Monitoring and Remote Controlling for Oil Well Pumps Using Scada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Tjiptadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to change manually the monitoring and controlling of oil well pumps into a computer-based system using SCADA (Supervisory and Data Acquisition system. To design the protection system which consists of controller unit and display system, RTU (Remote Terminal Unit and MTU (Master Terminal Unit are used. The research results in a controller unit which is able to communicate to personal computer using RS-232 C and an alarm system to protect oil pump motors by detecting sensors installed at the pumps. 

  10. Bioinspired Diatomite Membrane with Selective Superwettability for Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Ching-Yu; Chang, Haw-Kai; Hung, Wei-Chen; Chen, Po-Yu

    2017-05-03

    Membranes with selective superwettability for oil/water separation have received significant attention during the past decades. Hierarchical structures and surface roughness are believed to improve the oil repellency and the stability of Cassie-Baxter state. Diatoms, unicellular photosynthetic algae, possess sophisticated skeletal shells (called frustules) which are made of hydrated silica. Motivated by the hierarchical micro- and nanoscale features of diatom, we fabricate a hierarchical diatomite membrane which consists of aligned micro-sized channels by the freeze casting process. The fine nano-porous structures of frustules are well preserved after the post sintering process. The bioinspired diatomite membrane performs both underwater superoleophobicity and superhydrophobicity under various oils. Additionally, we demonstrate the highly efficient oil/water separation capabililty of the membranes in various harsh environments. The water flux can be further adjusted by tuning the cooling rates. The eco-friendly and robust bioinspired membranes produced by the simple, cost-effective freeze casting method can be potentially applied for large scale and efficient oil/water separation.

  11. Study on thermal history and oil-generated environment from well CC1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Zhu Jiechen; Zheng Maogong

    1997-01-01

    U-Pb isotope geochronological study of core samples implies that the sedimentary strata are derived from North-China ancient land and the age of the hidden granite derived from the remelted Archean rocks with lower crust signature is 99 Ma. Fluid inclusion investigation indicates that the Ordovician carbonate rocks are rich in organic matters and should be a better set of oil-generated rocks and reservoir. Based on fission track analysis of apatites from different depths and the paleo-geothermal variation, the authors suggest that there be at least three oil-generated stages. The range of annealing belt of apatite tracks and the paleo-geothermal gradient in this well are 1700-3900 m (roughly corresponding to oil-generated belt) and 3.1 degree C/100 m respectively after Tertiary sedimentation

  12. The Optimum Selection and Drawing Output Program Development of Shell and Tube Type Oil Cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. B.; Kim, T. S.; Ko, J. M

    2007-01-01

    Shell and Tube type Oil Cooler is widely used for hydraulic presses, die casting machines, generation equipments, machine tools and construction heavy machinery. Temperature of oil in the hydraulic system changes viscosity and thickness of oil film. They have a bad effect to performance and lubrication of hydraulic machinery, so it is important to know exactly the heat exchanging efficiency of oil cooler for controlling oil temperature. But most Korean manufacturers do not have test equipment for oil cooler, so they cannot carry out the efficiency test of oil cooler and it is impossible to verify its performance. This paper includes information of construction of necessary utilities for oil cooler test and design and manufacture of test equipment. One can select the optimum product by obtaining performance data through tests of various kinds of oil coolers. And also the paper developed a program which can be easily used for design of 2D and 3D drawings of oil cooler

  13. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madawala, S. R. P.; Kochhar, S. P.; Dutta, P. C.

    2012-11-01

    Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O{sub 2}/kg) but AV and Rancimat values at 100 degree centigrade (except for rapeseed oils) varied considerably at (0.5-15.5) and (4.2-37.0 h) respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4%) and walnut oil had the highest (71%) level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27%) compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%). In all the samples, {alpha}- and {gamma}- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 {mu}g/g oil. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol (61-85%) and campesterol (6-20%). Argan oil contained schottenol (35%) and spinasterol (32%). Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study. (Author) 33 refs.

  14. The wells of the Lipinki oil field in the aspect of borehole heat exchangers retrained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gonet

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Geological conditions of the Gorlice-Lipinki structure are presented in the paper. The construction of a well in the Lipinki oil field was characterized on this basis. The authors analysed an adaptability of the wells intothe borehole heat exchangers (BHE with its potential heating power estimation on the basis of an example. In the article, a discussion of the heat consumer choose, which can be buildings by a local communite utilization.

  15. Tritium activities in selected wells on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.F.

    1993-05-01

    Literature and data were reviewed related to radionuclides in groundwater on and near the Nevada Test Site. No elevated tritium activities have been reported outside of the major testing regions of the Nevada Test Site. Three wells were identified as having water with above-background (>50 pCi/l) tritium activities: UE-15d Water Well; USGS Water Well A; and USGS Test Well B Ex. Although none of these wells have tritium activities greater than the Nevada State Drinking Water standard (20,000 pCi/l), their time-series tritium trends may be indicative to potential on-site radionuclide migration

  16. Effect of well network density on economic effectiveness of exploiting oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortunov, I V; Kats, A Ya

    1965-04-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of procedures and reasoning used by Soviet economists to determine the cost of producing a ton of oil. According to some authors the cost of production is at a minimum if less than 1% of the reserve is produced per year. This approach assumes a very large well spacing and that the wells flow. Other authors show that the cost of production does not continuously decrease as well spacing is increased. Data to support each argument are presented. No agreement is reached as to the best method of determining the most economic well spacing.

  17. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mary; Kanno, Cynthia M; Reid, Matthew C; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Celia, Michael A; Chen, Yuheng; Onstott, Tullis C

    2014-12-23

    Abandoned oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Little is known about methane fluxes from the millions of abandoned wells that exist in the United States. Here, we report direct measurements of methane fluxes from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania, using static flux chambers. A total of 42 and 52 direct measurements were made at wells and at locations near the wells ("controls") in forested, wetland, grassland, and river areas in July, August, October 2013 and January 2014, respectively. The mean methane flow rates at these well locations were 0.27 kg/d/well, and the mean methane flow rate at the control locations was 4.5 × 10(-6) kg/d/location. Three out of the 19 measured wells were high emitters that had methane flow rates that were three orders of magnitude larger than the median flow rate of 1.3 × 10(-3) kg/d/well. Assuming the mean flow rate found here is representative of all abandoned wells in Pennsylvania, we scaled the methane emissions to be 4-7% of estimated total anthropogenic methane emissions in Pennsylvania. The presence of ethane, propane, and n-butane, along with the methane isotopic composition, indicate that the emitted methane is predominantly of thermogenic origin. These measurements show that methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells can be significant. The research required to quantify these emissions nationally should be undertaken so they can be accurately described and included in greenhouse gas emissions inventories.

  18. Behavior and dynamics of bubble breakup in gas pipeline leaks and accidental subsea oil well blowouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Socolofsky, Scott A; Lai, Chris C K; Adams, E Eric; Boufadel, Michel C

    2018-06-01

    Subsea oil well blowouts and pipeline leaks release oil and gas to the environment through vigorous jets. Predicting the breakup of the released fluids in oil droplets and gas bubbles is critical to predict the fate of petroleum compounds in the marine water column. To predict the gas bubble size in oil well blowouts and pipeline leaks, we observed and quantified the flow behavior and breakup process of gas for a wide range of orifice diameters and flow rates. Flow behavior at the orifice transitions from pulsing flow to continuous discharge as the jet crosses the sonic point. Breakup dynamics transition from laminar to turbulent at a critical value of the Weber number. Very strong pure gas jets and most gas/liquid co-flowing jets exhibit atomization breakup. Bubble sizes in the atomization regime scale with the jet-to-plume transition length scale and follow -3/5 power-law scaling for a mixture Weber number. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups

  20. 75 FR 75995 - Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... manufacture neutron detectors used by the well logging industry or wireline or Logging-While-Drilling tools... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging... of Helium-3 by the oil and gas well logging industry. DATES: Written comments and information are...

  1. Selectively placing many fractures in openhole horizontal wells improves production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, T. G.; McCarty, R. A. [Chevron USA Inc (United States); Suraatmadja, J. B.; Chambers, R. W.; Grundmann, S. R.

    1998-12-31

    Result of a simulation of an openhole horizontal well that was treated with hydrajet fracturing, a new fracturing process wherein fractures are placed at different locations in a horizontal well without using sectional isolation techniques, are discussed. The process uses high-pressure jetting to concentrate fracturing energy at a precise fracture location, and data is obtained by means of surface and downhole pressure recorders, flow recorders, and tracers. This technique was used in a substantially depleted horizontal well in New Mexico with good results. The new process is reported to be expensive to implement which prevents widespread application at the present time. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  3. Digital representation of oil and natural gas well pad scars in southwest Wyoming: 2012 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The recent proliferation of oil and natural gas energy development in the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming has accentuated the need to understand wildlife responses to this development. The location and extent of surface disturbance that is created by oil and natural gas well pad scars are key pieces of information used to assess the effects of energy infrastructure on wildlife populations and habitat. A digital database of oil and natural gas pad scars had previously been generated from 1-meter (m) National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery (NAIP) acquired in 2009 for a 7.7-million hectare (ha) (19,026,700 acres) region of southwest Wyoming. Scars included the pad area where wellheads, pumps, and storage facilities reside and the surrounding area that was scraped and denuded of vegetation during the establishment of the pad. Scars containing tanks, compressors, the storage of oil and gas related equipment, and produced-water ponds were also collected on occasion. This report updates the digital database for the five counties of southwest Wyoming (Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, Uinta) within the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area and for a limited portion of Fremont, Natrona, and Albany Counties using 2012 1-m NAIP imagery and 2012 oil and natural gas well permit information. This report adds pad scars created since 2009, and updates attributes of all pad scars using the 2012 well permit information. These attributes include the origination year of the pad scar, the number of active and inactive wells on or near each pad scar in 2012, and the overall status of the pad scar (active or inactive). The new 2012 database contains 17,404 pad scars of which 15,532 are attributed as oil and natural gas well pads. Digital data are stored as shapefiles projected to the Universal Transverse Mercator (zones 12 and 13) coordinate system. These data are available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://dx.doi.org/10

  4. Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine

  5. New technological developments in oil well fire fighting equipment and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, B.; Matthews, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Since Drake`s first oil well in 1859, well fires have been frequent and disastrous. Hardly a year has passed in over a century without a well fire somewhere in the world. In the 1920`s the classic method of fire fighting using explosives to starve the fire of oxygen was developed and it has been used extensively ever since. While explosives are still one of the most frequently used methods today, several other methods are used to supplement it where special conditions exist. Tunneling at an angle from a safe distance is used in some cases, especially where the fire is too hot for a close approach on the ground surface. Pumping drilling muds into a well to plug it is another method that has been used successfully for some time. Diverter wells are occasionally used, and sometimes simply pumping enough water on a well fire is sufficient to extinguish it. Of course, prevention is always the best solution. Many advances in blow-out prevention devices have been developed in the last 50 years and the number of fires has been substantially reduced compared to the number of wells drilled. However, very little in new technology has been applied to oil well fire fighting in the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s. Overall technological progress has accelerated tremendously in this period, of course, but new materials and equipment were not applied to this field for some reason. Saddam Hussein`s environmental holocaust in Kuwait changed that by causing many people throughout the world to focus their creative energy on more efficient oil well fire fighting methods.

  6. Superoleophillic electrospun polystrene/exofoliated graphite fibre for selective removal of crude oil from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, Enock O.; Olorundare, F. O. Grace; Nkosi, D.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, B. B.

    2016-04-01

    During oil spills, the aquatic environment is greatly endangered because oil floats on water making the penetration of sunlight difficult therefore primary productivity is compromised, birds and aquatic organisms are totally eliminated within a short period. It is therefore essential to remove the oil from the water bodies after the spillage. This work reports on the fabrication of oil loving electrospun polystyrene-exofoliated graphite fibre with hydrophobic and oleophillic surface properties. The fibre was applied for the selective adsorption of crude oil from simulated crude oil spillage on water. The maximum oil adsorption capacity of the EPS/EG was 1.15 kg/g in 20 min while the lowest oil adsorption capacity was 0.81 kg/g in 10 min. Cheap oil adsorbent was developed with superoleophillic and superhydrophobic properties.

  7. Some problems in exploitation of deep-pumping wells in Tatarian oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishemguzhin, S B

    1970-01-01

    Difficulty has been experienced in pumping paraffinic oil with rod pumps. The rods have scrapers to remove paraffin from tubing walls, however this method does not work well. In an effort to improve pumping efficiency, gas anchors of various types were tried. Best results were obtained when the pumps, equipped with gas anchors, were placed about 300 m under the dynamic liquid level, and separated gas was steadily removed through the annulus. With this arrangement, more complete filling of the pump was achieved. Experience has shown that with separate production of gas from wells, the useful stroke of the pump plunger is increased as well as productivity of deep-pumping equipment.

  8. Application of a non-equilibrium reaction model for describing horizontal well performance in foamy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luigi, A.; Saputelli, B.; Carlas, M.; Canache, P.; Lopez, E. [DPVS Exploracion y Produccion (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    This study was designed to determine the activation energy ranges and frequency factor ranges in chemical reactions in heavy oils of the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela, in order to account for the kinetics of physical changes that occur in the morphology of gas-oil dispersion. A non-equilibrium reaction model was used to model foamy oil behaviour observed at SDZ-182 horizontal well in the Zuata field. Results showed that activation energy for the first reaction ranged from 0 to 0.01 BTU/lb-mol and frequency factor from 0.001 to 1000 l/day. For the second reaction the activation energy was 50x10{sub 3} BTU/lb-mol and the frequency factor 2.75x10{sub 1}2 l/day. The second reaction was highly sensitive to the modifications in activation energy and frequency factor. However, both the activation energy and frequency factor were independent of variations for the first reaction. In the case of the activation energy, the results showed that the high sensitivity of this parameter reflected the impact that temperature has on the representation of foamy oil behaviour. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Selection of candidate wells and optimization of conformance treatment design in the Barrancas Field using a 3D conformance simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosta, Dante; Elitseche, Luis [Repsol YPF (Argentina); Gutierrez, Mauricio; Ansah, Joe; Everett, Don [Halliburton Argentina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    Minimizing the amount of unwanted water production is an important goal at the Barrancas field. This paper describes a selection process for candidate injection wells that is part of a pilot conformance project aimed at improving vertical injection profiles, reducing water cut in producing wells, and improving ultimate oil recovery from this field. The well selection process is based on a review of limited reservoir information available for this field to determine inter-well communications. The methodology focuses on the best use of available information, such as production and injection history, well intervention files, open hole logs and injectivity surveys. After the candidate wells were selected and potential water injection channels were identified, conformance treatment design and future performance of wells in the selected pilot area were evaluated using a new 3 -D conformance simulator, developed specifically for optimization of the design and placement of unwanted fluid shut-off treatments. Thus, when acceptable history match ing of the pilot area production was obtained, the 3 -D simulator was used to: evaluate the required volume of selected conformance treatment fluid; review expected pressures and rates during placement;. model temperature behavior; evaluate placement techniques, and forecast water cut reduction and incremental oil recovery from the producers in this simulated section of the pilot area. This paper outlines a methodology for selecting candidate wells for conformance treatments. The method involves application of several engineering tools, an integral component of which is a user-friendly conformance simulator. The use of the simulator has minimized data preparation time and allows the running of sensitivity cases quickly to explore different possible scenarios that best represent the reservoir. The proposed methodology provides an efficient means of identifying conformance problems and designing optimized solutions for these individual

  10. Asphalts tests using onshore drilling oil wells residues; Ensaios asfalticos utilizando residuos de perfuracao onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Adriano Elisio de F.L.; Rodrigues, John Kennedy G.; Ferreira, Heber Carlos; Lucena, Leda Christiane de F.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Lucena, Luciana de F.L. [Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais Aplicada (FACISA), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The drilling cuttings are one of the residues produced by the oils industries in large amounts during the drilling of oil wells. An alternative of final disposal of the drilling cutting residue is its utilization in asphalt mixtures. Based on this alternative, it was realized chemical and granulometric analysis and tests (Marshall and indirect tensile strength), on the asphaltic mixture using the residue from the oil drilling wells (well: 1-POTI-4-RN, located at Governador DIX-Sept Rosado - RN - Brazil). The achieved results to Marshall test indicated that for the analyzed mixture, the ideal content of residue that can be incorporated to the asphaltic composition and attend at the DNIT-ES 31 (2006) is 5%. To the indirect tensile strength test, the results showed a strength value higher than the minimum limit requested by the DNIT (0,65 MPa). The achieved results indicated the possibility of the utilization of the drilling cuttings in asphaltic pavements as fine aggregate, obeying the percentage limits, as an alternative to the final disposal. (author)

  11. Productivity Analysis of Volume Fractured Vertical Well Model in Tight Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a semianalytical model to simulate the productivity of a volume fractured vertical well in tight oil reservoirs. In the proposed model, the reservoir is a composite system which contains two regions. The inner region is described as formation with finite conductivity hydraulic fracture network and the flow in fracture is assumed to be linear, while the outer region is simulated by the classical Warren-Root model where radial flow is applied. The transient rate is calculated, and flow patterns and characteristic flowing periods caused by volume fractured vertical well are analyzed. Combining the calculated results with actual production data at the decline stage shows a good fitting performance. Finally, the effects of some sensitive parameters on the type curves are also analyzed extensively. The results demonstrate that the effect of fracture length is more obvious than that of fracture conductivity on improving production in tight oil reservoirs. When the length and conductivity of main fracture are constant, the contribution of stimulated reservoir volume (SRV to the cumulative oil production is not obvious. When the SRV is constant, the length of fracture should also be increased so as to improve the fracture penetration and well production.

  12. A new flooding scheme by horizontal well in thin heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.; Zhang, H.; Wang, M. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering ; Wang, Z. [Shengli Oil Field Co. (China). Dept. of Science and Technology]|[SINOPEC, Shengli (China)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presented a new flooding scheme for single horizontal wells that could improve recovery from thin marginal heavy oil reservoirs or from offshore reservoirs. The scheme involved the use of a multiple tubing string completion in a single wellbore. Special packers were installed within the long completion horizontal interval to establish an injection zone and a production zone. The new flooding scheme also involved simultaneous injection and production. Numerical simulation of the reservoir was used to determine the thickness of the formation and the lower limitation for different viscosities and the optimum time to start steam flooding after steam soaking by economic oil/steam ratio. The peak recovery efficiency of steam flooding was shown to occur when the length of separation section ratio is 0.15 to 0.2. It was concluded that high thermal efficiency in horizontal wells with long completion intervals can be maintained by alternating between steam soaking and steam flooding. Suitable alternation time to steam flooding is a seventh cycle for horizontal wells. Water cut and pressure difference will increase the steam injection rate, and thereby improve the oil production rate. The suitable injection rate for steam flooding is 2.4 t/d.ha.h because of its slow pressure change. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Statistical properties of country risk ratings under oil price volatility: Evidence from selected oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Jianming; Li, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of panel models for identification and analysis of influence of oil price volatility on statistical properties of country risk ratings which stem from uncertainty of macroeconomic fluctuations. Firstly, two statistical properties of country risk ratings, volatility clustering and asymmetrical revision were identified in a theoretical framework based on Cruces (2006). Secondly, considering the oil price volatility, numerical experiments were conducted based on extended models to test and verify specific properties of country risk ratings in selected oil-exporting countries. Empirical results suggest that properties of country risk remain comparatively steady despite oil price volatility. It is also found that the oil price volatility can obviously exaggerate the country risk volatility, as it happened during 2007–2009. Country clustering based on the properties of country risk ratings shows that the selected countries maintain a significant clustering tendency. These features are of great importance for estimating risk exposure of international trade and investments in oil export during extreme situations. - Highlights: •Relationship between oil price volatility and country risk is the focus. •An extended model based on Cruces (2006) is proposed. •Volatility clustering and asymmetrical revision of country risk ratings is explored. •Oil price volatility can obviously exaggerate properties of country risk volatility.

  14. Polymers for enhanced oil recovery: fundamentals and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellegadla, Sandeep; Prajapat, Ganshyam; Agrawal, Akhil

    2017-06-01

    With a rising population, the demand for energy has increased over the years. As per the projections, both fossil fuel and renewables will remain as major energy source (678 quadrillion BTU) till 2030 with fossil fuel contributing 78% of total energy consumption. Hence, attempts are continuously made to make fossil fuel production more sustainable and cheaper. From the past 40 years, polymer flooding has been carried out in marginal oil fields and have proved to be successful in many cases. The common expectation from polymer flooding is to obtain 50% ultimate recovery with 15 to 20% incremental recovery over secondary water flooding. Both naturally derived polymers like xanthan gum and synthetic polymers like partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) have been used for this purpose. Earlier laboratory and field trials revealed that salinity and temperature are the major issues with the synthetic polymers that lead to polymer degradation and adsorption on the rock surface. Microbial degradation and concentration are major issues with naturally derived polymers leading to loss of viscosity and pore throat plugging. Earlier studies also revealed that polymer flooding is successful in the fields where oil viscosity is quite higher (up to 126 cp) than injection water due to improvement in mobility ratio during polymer flooding. The largest successful polymer flood was reported in China in 1990 where both synthetic and naturally derived polymers were used in nearly 20 projects. The implementation of these projects provides valuable suggestions for further improving the available processes in future. This paper examines the selection criteria of polymer, field characteristics that support polymer floods and recommendation to design a large producing polymer flooding.

  15. A Novel Terpolymer as Fluid Loss Additive for Oil Well Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A terpolymer comprised of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS, fumaric acid (FA, and acrylamide (AM was synthesized by aqueous free radical copolymerization and evaluated as fluid loss additive for oil well cement. The chemical structure and performance of the terpolymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA; the molecular weight and its distribution were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The optimum reaction conditions of polymerization were obtained: a reaction temperature of 50°C, a mass ratio of SSS/FA/AM 4 : 2 : 14, initiator 0.1%, and reaction time of 4 h; characterization indicated that the SSS/FA/AM had a certain molecular weight and excellent temperature-resistant and salt-resistant properties. The results show that SSS/FA/AM has a good fluid loss performance, in which the API fluid loss of the oil cement slurry could be controlled within 100 mL at 160°C. In addition, it had little effect on the cement compressive strength. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the filter cake showed that SSS/FA/AM could be adsorbed on the surface of the cement particles and produce a hydrated layer to prevent fluid loss from the oil well cement.

  16. Well test mathematical model for fractures network in tight oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwu, Pengxiang; Liu, Tongjing; Jiang, Baoyi; Wang, Rui; Yang, Peidie; Yang, Jiping; Wang, Zhaoming

    2018-02-01

    Well test, especially build-up test, has been applied widely in the development of tight oil reservoirs, since it is the only available low cost way to directly quantify flow ability and formation heterogeneity parameters. However, because of the fractures network near wellbore, generated from artificial fracturing linking up natural factures, traditional infinite and finite conductivity fracture models usually result in significantly deviation in field application. In this work, considering the random distribution of natural fractures, physical model of fractures network is proposed, and it shows a composite model feature in the large scale. Consequently, a nonhomogeneous composite mathematical model is established with threshold pressure gradient. To solve this model semi-analytically, we proposed a solution approach including Laplace transform and virtual argument Bessel function, and this method is verified by comparing with existing analytical solution. The matching data of typical type curves generated from semi-analytical solution indicates that the proposed physical and mathematical model can describe the type curves characteristic in typical tight oil reservoirs, which have up warping in late-term rather than parallel lines with slope 1/2 or 1/4. It means the composite model could be used into pressure interpretation of artificial fracturing wells in tight oil reservoir.

  17. Decision support tool for used oil regeneration technologies assessment and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelifi, Olfa; Dalla Giovanna, Fabio; Vranes, Sanja; Lodolo, Andrea; Miertus, Stanislav

    2006-09-01

    Regeneration is the most efficient way of managing used oil. It saves money by preventing costly cleanups and liabilities that are associated with mismanagement of used oil, it helps to protect the environment and it produces a technically renewable resource by enabling an indefinite recycling potential. There are a variety of processes and licensors currently offering ways to deal with used oils. Selecting a regeneration technology for used oil involves "cross-matching" key criteria. Therefore, the first prototype of spent oil regeneration (SPORE), a decision support tool, has been developed to help decision-makers to assess the available technologies and select the preferred used oil regeneration options. The analysis is based on technical, economical and environmental criteria. These criteria are ranked to determine their relative importance for a particular used oil regeneration project. The multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is the core of the SPORE using the PROMETHEE II algorithm.

  18. Horizontal single-trip gravel pack and selective simulation system for deep water extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Most of the reservoirs located in the deep water and ultra-deep water offshore South America are described as unconsolidated sandstone that require sand control on both producers and water injection wells. Horizontal Open Hole Gravel Pack completions are the preferred method of development. If completing heavy oil reservoirs, there is a necessity of longer horizontal open hole sections. Low fracture gradients may limit the length of gravel pack in the open hole section because of the pressure increase during the Beta wave proppant deposition phase. This system allows the gravel pack assembly to be installed and the gravel pack to be pumped during the alpha and beta wave deposition phases without the limitation of high pressures that could fracture the well. The benefits of the Horizontal Single-Trip Gravel Pack and Selective Stimulation System (HSTSSS) using the differential valve include the ability to complete longer horizontal intervals, valuable rig-time savings and, efficient mechanical diversion of the stimulation fluid. This paper outlines the application of the HSTSSS system using a differential valve to complete a horizontal well in offshore deep waters. The need for a differential valve is primarily in horizontal gravel packing operations when normal circulating rates and pressures around the open hole would exceed formation break down pressure. The valve is intended to be easily spaced out and run in the wash pipe. At a predetermined differential pressure the valve opens and the return flow path distance around the bottom of the tailpipe is shortened, thus reducing back pressure preventing filter cake damage without slowing the pump rate. In addition the said valve has to close to allow the selective stimulation to take place. Economic considerations along with completion efficiencies are especially important on deep water, subsea completions. The utilization of differential valves allows completion of extended-reach open hole wells and/or low fracture

  19. Water Pollution, and Treatments Part III: Biodegradation of Oil in Refineries Waste Water and Oils Adsorbed in Agricultural Wastes by Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Emary, M.M.; Ali, N.A.; Naguib, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the biological degradation of oil hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds of Marine Balayim crude oil and its refined products by selected indigenous Cyanobacteria strains. The oils used were Marine Balayim crude oil, skimmed oil and some refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, fuel oil and petroleum coke. The selected organisms in the current study are the Blue-Green Algae Cyanobacteria, Oscillatoria limentica. This organism was collected from the hyper saline environment of the solar lake in Taba, Sinai, Egypt. The results obtained revealed that the utilization of such strains can be used for the bioremediation of oily waste water.

  20. Selective retardation of perfume oil evaporation from oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by either surfactant or nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Holt, Benjamin L; Beaussoubre, Pascal; Wong, Kenneth

    2010-12-07

    We have used dynamic headspace analysis to investigate the evaporation rates of perfume oils from stirred oil-in-water emulsions into a flowing gas stream. We compare the behavior of an oil of low water solubility (limonene) and one of high water solubility (benzyl acetate). It is shown how the evaporation of an oil of low water solubility is selectively retarded and how the retardation effect depends on the oil volume fraction in the emulsion. We compare how the evaporation retardation depends on the nature of the adsorbed film stabilizing the emulsion. Surfactant films are less effective than adsorbed films of nanoparticles, and the retardation can be further enhanced by compression of the adsorbed nanoparticle films by preshrinking the emulsion drops.

  1. Real time, real fast : drilling horizontal wells in a heavy oil environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balke, S.C.; Rosauer, M.S. [Petrolera Ameriven/Phillips Petroleum, Caracas, (Venezuela)

    2002-07-01

    Eastern Venezuela's Orinoco Tar Belt or the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco is one of the largest heavy oil fields in the world, containing more than 1.2 trillion barrels of heavy and extra heavy oil with API gravity of 10 to 6. The field is 320 miles long by 40 miles wide and is divided into the Machete, Zuata, Hamaca and Cerro Negro. It has been under production since the 1970s by Venezuela's national oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela SA. The region is only marginally cost effective because of the high costs associated with development. It is expected that the Hamaca Project, which is centrally located in the Orinoco Tar Belt can be effectively and economically developed by applying the latest technology and innovative techniques. Petrolera Ameriven has committed to develop the 250 square mile Hamaca area. The objective is to produce 165,000 acres at rate of 190,000 BOPD for the life of the project. The challenge is that when the oil is cooled and degasified it looks more like a tar or asphalt for paving roads. In addition, the major reservoirs within the field were deposited in low stand and transgressive system tracks consisting of meandering fluvial to fluvial-tidal deltaic deposits. Methods such as logging while drilling (LWD), satellite links and continuous updating and real-time visualization were applied to assess and mitigate risks. These methods made it possible to accurately place the shoe of the build sections for control of well directions. The methods also made it possible to identify sand/shale interfaces, determine the redirection of the drill bit, locate non-pay zones and help plan well paths to optimize production. The technologies developed were also effective in minimizing development costs, thereby improving the financial viability of the project. 1 ref., 16 figs.

  2. Characterization of Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Oils: The Importance of Solvent Selection for Analytical Method Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ware, Anne E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-25

    Two catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) oils (bottom/heavy fraction) were analyzed in various solvents that are used in common analytical methods (nuclear magnetic resonance - NMR, gas chromatography - GC, gel permeation chromatography - GPC, thermogravimetric analysis - TGA) for oil characterization and speciation. A more accurate analysis of the CFP oils can be obtained by identification and exploitation of solvent miscibility characteristics. Acetone and tetrahydrofuran can be used to completely solubilize CFP oils for analysis by GC and tetrahydrofuran can be used for traditional organic GPC analysis of the oils. DMSO-d6 can be used to solubilize CFP oils for analysis by 13C NMR. The fractionation of oils into solvents that did not completely solubilize the whole oils showed that miscibility can be related to the oil properties. This allows for solvent selection based on physico-chemical properties of the oils. However, based on semi-quantitative comparisons of the GC chromatograms, the organic solvent fractionation schemes did not speciate the oils based on specific analyte type. On the other hand, chlorinated solvents did fractionate the oils based on analyte size to a certain degree. Unfortunately, like raw pyrolysis oil, the matrix of the CFP oils is complicated and is not amenable to simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solvent fractionation to separate the oils based on the chemical and/or physical properties of individual components. For reliable analyses, for each analytical method used, it is critical that the bio-oil sample is both completely soluble and also not likely to react with the chosen solvent. The adoption of the standardized solvent selection protocols presented here will allow for greater reproducibility of analysis across different users and facilities.

  3. Process for selectivity lowering the water permeability of a crude oil deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katser, M F

    1966-10-20

    In this process for selectively reducing the water permeability of oil-bearing formations, especially during waterflooding, an aqueous solution is injected into the producing well. This solution contains a hydrolyzed acryl amide polymer, polyacrylamide or a copolymer, the greater part of which is acrylamide and the smaller part a polymerizable monomer, e.g., vinyl alcohol, vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile or vinyl acryl ether. About 0.5-67.0% of the carboxy amide groups of the acrylamide polymer are hydrolyzed to carboxilic groups. The concentration of the hydrolyzed acrylamide polymer in the solution is about 0.01-1.0%. (3 claims)

  4. Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Plant Extracts and Their Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the screening of some selected aromatic plants very popular in Greece, with respect to their total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, reducing activity, and oxidative stability. All plants were extracted with the conventional method, reflux with methanol. The essential oils of the plants were also analyzed for their antioxidant properties. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method using gallic acid as the standard, while the phenolic substances were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC coupled with a multi-wavelength ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis detector. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extracts was measured by their ability to scavenge free radicals such as (a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and, (b ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiaziline-6- sulfonate. The Folin-Ciocalteu method proved the existence of antioxidants in the aromatic plant extracts. Taking into account the results of the DPPH and ABTS methods, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. Eventually, all plants exhibited low but noticeable protection levels against lipid oxidation, as determined by the Rancimat test.

  5. Machine Learning for Mapping Groundwater Salinity with Oil Well Log Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W. H.; Shimabukuro, D.; Gillespie, J. M.; Stephens, M.

    2016-12-01

    An oil field may have thousands of wells with detailed petrophysical logs, and far fewer direct measurements of groundwater salinity. Can the former be used to extrapolate the latter into a detailed map of groundwater salinity? California Senate Bill 4, with its requirement to identify Underground Sources of Drinking Water, makes this a question worth answering. A well-known obstacle is that the basic petrophysical equations describe ideal scenarios ("clean wet sand") and even these equations contain many parameters that may vary with location and depth. Accounting for other common scenarios such as high-conductivity shaly sands or low-permeability diatomite (both characteristic of California's Central Valley) causes parameters to proliferate to the point where the model is underdetermined by the data. When parameters outnumber data points, however, is when machine learning methods are most advantageous. We present a method for modeling a generic oil field, where groundwater salinity and lithology are depth series parameters, and the constants in petrophysical equations are scalar parameters. The data are well log measurements (resistivity, porosity, spontaneous potential, and gamma ray) and a small number of direct groundwater salinity measurements. Embedded in the model are petrophysical equations that account for shaly sand and diatomite formations. As a proof of concept, we feed in well logs and salinity measurements from the Lost Hills Oil Field in Kern County, California, and show that with proper regularization and validation the model makes reasonable predictions of groundwater salinity despite the large number of parameters. The model is implemented using Tensorflow, which is an open-source software released by Google in November, 2015 that has been rapidly and widely adopted by machine learning researchers. The code will be made available on Github, and we encourage scrutiny and modification by machine learning researchers and hydrogeologists alike.

  6. Control of waste well casing vent gas from a thermal enhanced oil recovery operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peavy, M.A.; Braun, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a waste gas treatment system designed to control emissions from thermally enhanced oil recovery wells. This case study discusses the need, design, installation and operations of the system. Oryx Energy Company (Oryx) operates approximately 940 wells in the Midway-Sunset (MWSS) field under casing vapor recovery systems. The emissions collected from well casing vent gas cotaining hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide that are collected and processed through casing vapor recovery skids. These skids are composed of condensers, compressors, and pumps that separate fluids from the waste gas stream. The non-condensible gas is then disposed of in incinerators that reduce the hydrocarbon and sulfur emissions into the atmosphere. Approximately 91,000 lbs/day of hydrocarbon and 10,116 lbs/day of sulfur dioxide are removed from the atmosphere from wells contained within these systems operated by Oryx. These hydrocarbons yield approximately 550 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). The system helps manage the pressure differential from the reservoir into each wellbore and contributes to improved ambient air quality in Kern County, California

  7. Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard specifications for biodiesel production. In actual fact, the iodine values of palm kernel, groundnut, bambara groundnut, pumpkin, African oil bean and sesame, show that they could be used as lubricants and hydraulic brake fluid. Key words: Oil seeds, biodiesel, properties, extraction.

  8. Influence of the mineral composition of clay rocks on the stability of oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorocho, P. R; Badillo, Juan

    2012-01-01

    In the oil companies, the operation of drilling well bore could be more expensive if the composition of the rocks is clay, the cost could increase between 10 and 15% from the starting budget. In order to decrease this problem, the oil industry has spent too much money for developing mechanisms that can provide better control and stability in clay formations during the drilling. The Society Petroleum Engineers (SPE) in some researches have published that the main chemical effects that are involved in the interaction of perforation fluids and the clay formation are: 1) chemical osmosis; and 2) hydration stresses, although, there are others like: Capillary effects, dehydration, differences in pressure and cationic exchange. These factors are not present generally in independent form. At Piedemonte Llanero the problem of the well bore stability represents a high spending of money for oil companies, caused in this region by chemical factors between fluid/rock and mechanical factors as resulted of the stresses in the area. Metil Blue Testing (MBT) and X-ray Diffraction (DR-X) were made in samples of clay; these were taken from cuts extracted of boreholes drilled in some places of the Colombian Llanos. It was found that these samples had a moderate content of reactive and low content of swell minerals.The samples main component was kaolinite, this mineral does not let the rock get swell, but it produces caving in the hole. However, it is necessary to do other tests to quantify the damages and evaluate the influence of there gime of the stress during the perforation of well bore.

  9. Factors affecting bond cement across casing leak zones in oil and gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Mohamed; Edbeib, Said [Al-Fateh University, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Casing leaks have been a major concern to the oil industry because of their effect on lowering the production rate in many oil and gas wells. The leaks are the result of deterioration of the casing in the well, which is caused by severe corrosion due to the contact of the casing with high salinity foreign fluid. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing the mechanical properties of the hardened cement opposite the casing leak zones. This study is conducted by laboratory measurements of the compressive strength of the hardened cement when the cement slurry was mixed with different percentages of formation water and different concentrations of different cement additives. The results of this study indicate that the compressive strength readings obtained from the cement bond log and the cement evaluation tool against the casing leak zones are lower than those readings recorded in adjacent formations. The low cement compressive strength values observed across casing leak zones are due to the contamination of the cement with saline water present in these formations which, in turn, effects the hardening properties of the cement. The experimental results indicated that the salinity of the formation water when mixed with the cement slurry in the presence of cement additives, decreased the compressive strength of the bond cement and also decreased the thickening time of the cement slurry. It is concluded that casing leaks found in many wells observed in oil fields in Libya were due to the mixing of the cement with high salinity formation water present in the lost circulation zones. The high water salinity in these zones effects the setting time of the cement slurry which, therefore, decreased the hardening properties of the bond cement and caused cracks and channels in the hardened cement across lost circulation zones. (author)

  10. Procedure for recovering embanked bases of oil wells in Carmopolis - state of Sergipe - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Mara R.F.V.

    2000-01-01

    This present work objective was to elaborate a procedure to deal with degraded areas due to petroleum mining, seeking the recovery of embanked bases of razed oil wells, in Carmopolis/SE. This procedure was a result from studies upon soil recovery and several works performed by Mining Companies, adapted to local conditions. Once defined the objectives and the future soil use, this procedure will take place in four phases: landscape re composition; soil preparation for revegetation; revegetation and management of the area. The suggested procedure application can prove its effectiveness on recovering previous soil uses (farming or local Atlantic Rain Forest). (author)

  11. Determining optimal preventive maintenance interval for component of Well Barrier Element in an Oil & Gas Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, A.; Kurniati, N.

    2018-04-01

    An oil and gas company has 2,268 oil and gas wells. Well Barrier Element (WBE) is installed in a well to protect human, prevent asset damage and minimize harm to the environment. The primary WBE component is Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve (SCSSV). The secondary WBE component is Christmas Tree Valves that consist of four valves i.e. Lower Master Valve (LMV), Upper Master Valve (UMV), Swab Valve (SV) and Wing Valve (WV). Current practice on WBE Preventive Maintenance (PM) program is conducted by considering the suggested schedule as stated on manual. Corrective Maintenance (CM) program is conducted when the component fails unexpectedly. Both PM and CM need cost and may cause production loss. This paper attempts to analyze the failure data and reliability based on historical data. Optimal PM interval is determined in order to minimize the total cost of maintenance per unit time. The optimal PM interval for SCSSV is 730 days, LMV is 985 days, UMV is 910 days, SV is 900 days and WV is 780 days. In average of all components, the cost reduction by implementing the suggested interval is 52%, while the reliability is improved by 4% and the availability is increased by 5%.

  12. Experience in North America Tight Oil Reserves Development. Horizontal Wells and Multistage Hydraulic Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Ibatullin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated development of horizontal drilling technology in combination with the multistage hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir has expanded the geological conditions for commercial oil production from tight reservoirs in North America. Geological and physical characteristics of tight reservoirs in North America are presented, as well as a comparison of the geological and physical properties of the reservoirs of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and the Volga-Ural oil and gas province, in particular, in the territory of Tatarstan. The similarity of these basins is shown in terms of formation and deposition. New drilling technologies for horizontal wells (HW and multistage hydraulic fracturing are considered. The drilling in tight reservoirs is carried out exclusively on hydrocarbon-based muds The multi-stage fracturing technology with the use of sliding sleeves, and also slick water – a low-viscous carrier for proppant is the most effective solution for conditions similar to tight reservoirs in the Devonian formation of Tatarstan. Tax incentives which are actively used for the development of HW and multistage fracturing technologies in Canada are described. wells, multistage fracturing

  13. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  14. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis of selected fatty acid biosynthesis genes and CNL disease resistance genes in oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Rozana; Amiruddin, Nadzirah; Ab Halim, Mohd Amin; Chan, Pek-Lan; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Azizi, Norazah; Morris, Priscilla E.; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2018-01-01

    Comparative genomics and transcriptomic analyses were performed on two agronomically important groups of genes from oil palm versus other major crop species and the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. The first analysis was of two gene families with key roles in regulation of oil quality and in particular the accumulation of oleic acid, namely stearoyl ACP desaturases (SAD) and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (FAT). In both cases, these were found to be large gene families with complex expression profiles across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages. The detailed classification of the oil palm SAD and FAT genes has enabled the updating of the latest version of the oil palm gene model. The second analysis focused on disease resistance (R) genes in order to elucidate possible candidates for breeding of pathogen tolerance/resistance. Ortholog analysis showed that 141 out of the 210 putative oil palm R genes had homologs in banana and rice. These genes formed 37 clusters with 634 orthologous genes. Classification of the 141 oil palm R genes showed that the genes belong to the Kinase (7), CNL (95), MLO-like (8), RLK (3) and Others (28) categories. The CNL R genes formed eight clusters. Expression data for selected R genes also identified potential candidates for breeding of disease resistance traits. Furthermore, these findings can provide information about the species evolution as well as the identification of agronomically important genes in oil palm and other major crops. PMID:29672525

  15. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis of selected fatty acid biosynthesis genes and CNL disease resistance genes in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Rozana; Amiruddin, Nadzirah; Ab Halim, Mohd Amin; Chan, Pek-Lan; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Azizi, Norazah; Morris, Priscilla E; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder; Murphy, Denis J

    2018-01-01

    Comparative genomics and transcriptomic analyses were performed on two agronomically important groups of genes from oil palm versus other major crop species and the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. The first analysis was of two gene families with key roles in regulation of oil quality and in particular the accumulation of oleic acid, namely stearoyl ACP desaturases (SAD) and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (FAT). In both cases, these were found to be large gene families with complex expression profiles across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages. The detailed classification of the oil palm SAD and FAT genes has enabled the updating of the latest version of the oil palm gene model. The second analysis focused on disease resistance (R) genes in order to elucidate possible candidates for breeding of pathogen tolerance/resistance. Ortholog analysis showed that 141 out of the 210 putative oil palm R genes had homologs in banana and rice. These genes formed 37 clusters with 634 orthologous genes. Classification of the 141 oil palm R genes showed that the genes belong to the Kinase (7), CNL (95), MLO-like (8), RLK (3) and Others (28) categories. The CNL R genes formed eight clusters. Expression data for selected R genes also identified potential candidates for breeding of disease resistance traits. Furthermore, these findings can provide information about the species evolution as well as the identification of agronomically important genes in oil palm and other major crops.

  16. Site Selection and Resource Allocation of Oil Spill Emergency Base for Offshore Oil Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunbin; Liu, Jingxian; Wei, Lei; Wu, Weihuang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the analysis of the historical data about oil spill accidents in the Bohai Sea, this paper discretizes oil spilled source into a limited number of spill points. According to the probability of oil spill risk, the demand for salvage forces at each oil spill point is evaluated. Aiming at the specific location of the rescue base around the Bohai Sea, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted to determine the total cost of disasters for each rescue base. Based on the relationship between the oil spill point and the rescue site, a multi-objective optimization location model for the oil spill rescue base in the Bohai Sea region is established. And the genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem, and determine the emergency rescue base optimization program and emergency resources allocation ratio.

  17. Theoretical analysis of multiphase flow during oil-well drilling by a conservative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Lopez, Ruben

    2005-11-01

    In order to decrease cost and improve drilling operations is necessary a better understood of the flow mechanisms. Therefore, it was carried out a multiphase conservative model that includes three mass equations and a momentum equation. Also, the measured geothermal gradient is utilized by state equations for estimating physical properties of the phases flowing. The mathematical model is solved by numerical conservative schemes. It is used to analyze the interaction among solid-liquid-gas phases. The circulating system consists as follow, the circulating fluid is pumped downward into the drilling pipe until the bottom of the open hole then it flows through the drill bit, and at this point formation cuttings are incorporated to the circulating fluid and carried upward to the surface. The mixture returns up to the surface by an annular flow area. The real operational conditions are fed to conservative model and the results are matched up to field measurements in several oil wells. Mainly, flow rates, drilling rate, well and tool geometries are data to estimate the profiles of pressure, mixture density, equivalent circulating density, gas fraction and solid carrying capacity. Even though the problem is very complex, the model describes, properly, the hydrodynamics of drilling techniques applied at oil fields. *Authors want to thank to Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo and Petroleos Mexicanos for supporting this research.

  18. Elasticity and expansion test performance of geopolymer as oil well cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridha, S.; Hamid, A. I. Abd; Halim, A. H. Abdul; Zamzuri, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    History has shown that geopolymer cement provides high compressive strength as compared to Class G cement. However, the research had been done at ambient temperature, not at elevated condition which is the common oil well situation. In this research, the physical and mechanical properties performance of the oil well cement were investigated by laboratory work for two types of cement that are geopolymer and Class G cement. The cement samples were produced by mixing the cement according to the API standards. Class C fly ash was used in this study. The alkaline solution was prepared by mixing sodium silicate with NaOH solution. The NaOH solution was prepared by diluting NaOH pellets with distilled water to 8M. The cement samples were cured at a pressure of 3000 psi and a temperature of 130 °C to simulate the downhole condition. After curing, the physical properties of the cement samples were investigated using OYO Sonic Viewer to determine their elastic properties. Autoclave expansion test and compressive strength tests were conducted to determine the expansion value and the strength of the cement samples, respectively. The results showed that the geopolymer cement has a better physical and mechanical properties as compared with Class G cement at elevated condition.

  19. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uintah Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and for short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas well pads with collection and dehydration on the well pad were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas well pads showed that gas well pads without dehydration on the well pad compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool, and that oil well pads compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil well pads on average emit heavier compounds than gas well pads. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  20. Technical standardization of oil well abandonment: a review of current standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Pessoa, Laudemar; Paiva, Maria [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a new methodology for well abandonment. This practice is becoming more and more important because of the increasing number of production fields being abandoned. We strongly recommend a study of cement slurries properties for specific use in temporary and permanent abandonment plugs based on the estimation of the cement slurry hardened when placed in the well. By using specific additives, it is possible to achieve very stable slurries. For example, when permeability is reduced, formation fluid migration can be blocked and chemical reactions between the fluid and the slurry may be inhibited. With this objective, we present a laboratory investigation model and an example of slurry testing recommendation. During the abandonment operation, all records of the well characteristics should be maintained to include the reason for the abandonment, and location of fresh water, brine, and hydrocarbon zones that may exist. This documentation will also allow the analysis of solutions for the problems that originally caused the abandonment of the well. This data could be important for future use by environmental protection commissions to reopen or to drill an adjacent well. Given the high price of oil, it may now be economically feasible to reopen the well, if the reason for abandonment was low productivity. This way, a critical analysis of the current conditions of well and field abandonment in the country is presented. Based on this information, a review of the current standards is suggested. (author)

  1. Decision Support Model for Selection Technologies in Processing of Palm Oil Industrial Liquid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Aulia; Ali, Amir Yazid bin

    2017-12-01

    The palm oil industry continues to grow from year to year. Processing of the palm oil industry into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). The ratio of the amount of oil produced by both products is 30% of the raw material. This means that 70% is palm oil waste. The amount of palm oil waste will increase in line with the development of the palm oil industry. The amount of waste generated by the palm oil industry if it is not handled properly and effectively will contribute significantly to environmental damage. Industrial activities ranging from raw materials to produce products will disrupt the lives of people around the factory. There are many alternative technologies available to process other industries, but problems that often occur are difficult to implement the most appropriate technology. The purpose of this research is to develop a database of waste processing technology, looking for qualitative and quantitative criteria to select technology and develop Decision Support System (DSS) that can help make decisions. The method used to achieve the objective of this research is to develop a questionnaire to identify waste processing technology and develop the questionnaire to find appropriate database technology. Methods of data analysis performed on the system by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and to build the model by using the MySQL Software that can be used as a tool in the evaluation and selection of palm oil mill processing technology.

  2. Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    cancer cell death. While frankincense essential oil elicited selective cancer cell death via NRF-2-mediated oxidative stress, sandalwood essential oil induced non-selective cell death via DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. PMID:25006348

  3. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  4. A Computation Fluid Dynamic Model for Gas Lift Process Simulation in a Vertical Oil Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadivar Arash

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous gas-lift in a typical oil well was simulated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD technique. A multi fluid model based on the momentum transfer between liquid and gas bubbles was employed to simulate two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. The accuracy of the model was investigated through comparison of numerical predictions with experimental data. The model then was used to study the dynamic behaviour of the two-phase flow around injection point in details. The predictions by the model were compared with other empirical correlations, as well. To obtain an optimum condition of gas-lift, the influence of the effective parameters including the quantity of injected gas, tubing diameter and bubble size distribution were investigated. The results revealed that increasing tubing diameter, the injected gas rate and decreasing bubble diameter improve gas-lift performance.

  5. MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF TOWER INTERVENTION EQUIPMENT OF OIL & GAS WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Chagoyén-Méndez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the modeling and analysis of one tower Workover Rig belonging to a maintenance facility for oil and gas wells is presented. When performing the maintenance of this tower, it is detected that one of the elements of the structure has some deformation. It was decided not to put it into operation and submit it to research. The modeling of invariants as well as ways of modeling soil structure interaction is discussed. It was necessary to determine the material properties with the performing of test of some samples taken on two components of the tower. The structural behavior of the tower to operating loads are then studied, proving that the effect of the deformed element in the structure is not significant for the stresses to which are subject.

  6. Comparative Risk Assessment of spill response options for a deepwater oil well blowout: Part 1. Oil spill modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French-McCay, Deborah; Crowley, Deborah; Rowe, Jill J; Bock, Michael; Robinson, Hilary; Wenning, Richard; Walker, Ann Hayward; Joeckel, John; Nedwed, Tim J; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2018-05-31

    Oil spill model simulations of a deepwater blowout in the Gulf of Mexico De Soto Canyon, assuming no intervention and various response options (i.e., subsea dispersant injection SSDI, in addition to mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, and surface dispersant application) were compared. Predicted oil fate, amount and area of surfaced oil, and exposure concentrations in the water column above potential effects thresholds were used as inputs to a Comparative Risk Assessment to identify response strategies that minimize long-term impacts. SSDI reduced human and wildlife exposure to volatile organic compounds; dispersed oil into a large water volume at depth; enhanced biodegradation; and reduced surface water, nearshore and shoreline exposure to floating oil and entrained/dissolved oil in the upper water column. Tradeoffs included increased oil exposures at depth. However, since organisms are less abundant below 200 m, results indicate that overall exposure of valued ecosystem components was minimized by use of SSDI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Movement of the water-oil contact during operation of a single well in an inclined stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazymov, A Sh

    1965-01-01

    In this theoretical study the author develops equations which describe the movement of an oil-water interface toward a single well in an inclined stratum. The equations apply even if viscosities, densities, and permeabilities vary from place to place.

  8. Improving reservoir history matching of EM heated heavy oil reservoirs via cross-well seismic tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase

  9. Two-phase flow in volatile oil reservoir using two-phase pseudo-pressure well test method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, M.; Ahmadi, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    A study was conducted to better understand the behaviour of volatile oil reservoirs. Retrograde condensation occurs in gas-condensate reservoirs when the flowing bottomhole pressure (BHP) lowers below the dewpoint pressure, thus creating 4 regions in the reservoir with different liquid saturations. Similarly, when the BHP of volatile oil reservoirs falls below the bubblepoint pressure, two phases are created in the region around the wellbore, and a single phase (oil) appears in regions away from the well. In turn, higher gas saturation causes the oil relative permeability to decrease towards the near-wellbore region. Reservoir compositional simulations were used in this study to predict the fluid behaviour below the bubblepoint. The flowing bottomhole pressure was then exported to a well test package to diagnose the occurrence of different mobility regions. The study also investigated the use of a two-phase pseudo-pressure method on volatile and highly volatile oil reservoirs. It was concluded that this method can successfully predict the true permeability and mechanical skin. It can also distinguish between mechanical skin and condensate bank skin. As such, the two-phase pseudo-pressure method is particularly useful for developing after-drilling well treatment and enhanced oil recovery process designs. However, accurate relative permeability and PVT data must be available for reliable interpretation of the well test in volatile oil reservoirs. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. Casing Pipe Damage Detection with Optical Fiber Sensors: A Case Study in Oil Well Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Casing pipes in oil well constructions may suddenly buckle inward as their inside and outside hydrostatic pressure difference increases. For the safety of construction workers and the steady development of oil industries, it is critically important to measure the stress state of a casing pipe. This study develops a rugged, real-time monitoring, and warning system that combines the distributed Brillouin Scattering Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR and the discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG measurement. The BOTDR optical fiber sensors were embedded with no optical fiber splice joints in a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP rebar and the FBG sensors were wrapped in epoxy resins and glass clothes, both installed during the segmental construction of casing pipes. In situ tests indicate that the proposed sensing system and installation technique can survive the downhole driving process of casing pipes, withstand a harsh service environment, and remain intact with the casing pipes for compatible strain measurements. The relative error of the measured strains between the distributed and discrete sensors is less than 12%. The FBG sensors successfully measured the maximum horizontal principal stress with a relative error of 6.7% in comparison with a cross multipole array acoustic instrument.

  11. Well blowout rates in California Oil and Gas District 4--Update and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2009-10-01

    Well blowouts are one type of event in hydrocarbon exploration and production that generates health, safety, environmental and financial risk. Well blowouts are variously defined as 'uncontrolled flow of well fluids and/or formation fluids from the wellbore' or 'uncontrolled flow of reservoir fluids into the wellbore'. Theoretically this is irrespective of flux rate and so would include low fluxes, often termed 'leakage'. In practice, such low-flux events are not considered well blowouts. Rather, the term well blowout applies to higher fluxes that rise to attention more acutely, typically in the order of seconds to days after the event commences. It is not unusual for insurance claims for well blowouts to exceed US$10 million. This does not imply that all blowouts are this costly, as it is likely claims are filed only for the most catastrophic events. Still, insuring against the risk of loss of well control is the costliest in the industry. The risk of well blowouts was recently quantified from an assembled database of 102 events occurring in California Oil and Gas District 4 during the period 1991 to 2005, inclusive. This article reviews those findings, updates them to a certain extent and compares them with other well blowout risk study results. It also provides an improved perspective on some of the findings. In short, this update finds that blowout rates have remained constant from 2005 to 2008 within the limits of resolution and that the decline in blowout rates from 1991 to 2005 was likely due to improved industry practice.

  12. Enhancing oil rate in solvent vapour extraction processes through tee-well pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, F.; Knorr, K.D.; Wilton, R.R. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In order for the vapour extraction (VAPEX) process to be considered commercially viable, the production flow rate in classical VAPEX must be increased. The low flow rate can be attributed to the fact that the classical VAPEX process uses forces of buoyancy to distribute the solvent and gravity to drain the diluted oil to the producer. This paper presented a new well pattern, referred to as the tee-SVX process, that may enhance the oil flow rate two to ten times over the classical approach. Additional horizontal injectors, perpendicular to the injector and the producer in classical VAPEX were placed in the top-most region of the reservoir in the new well pattern. The paper described the model development which involved conducting a series of simulation runs in order to evaluate the performance of the new well pattern. The paper also presented a comparison of the performance of the tee-SVX and the classical VAPEX and lateral-SVX. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to further evaluate the performance of tee-SVX and provide the boundaries of the application of the process. Two types of factors affecting the performance of tee-SVX were outlined, notably design factors; and formation and fluid uncertainties. The performance of tee-SVX in thinner reservoirs and in reservoirs with a gas cap were also examined. It was concluded that compared with the lateral-SVX process, the tee-SVX process could significantly reduce the time to solvent breakthrough. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 30 figs.

  13. Estimation of volatility of selected oil production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lima, Gabriel A.; Suslick, Saul B.

    2006-01-01

    In oil project valuation and investment decision-making, volatility is a key parameter, but it is difficult to estimate. From a traditional investment viewpoint, volatility reduces project value because it increases its discount rate via a higher risk premium. Contrarily, according to the real-option pricing theory, volatility may aggregate value to the project, since the downside potential is limited whereas the upside is theoretically unbounded. However, the estimation of project volatility is very complicated since there is not a historical series of project values. In such cases, many analysts assume that oil price volatility is equal to that of project. In order to overcome such problems, in this paper an alternative numerical method based on present value of future cash flows and Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to estimate the volatility of projects. This method is applied to estimate the volatility of 12 deep-water offshore oil projects considering that oil price will evolve according to one of two stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion and Mean-Reverting Motion. Results indicate that the volatility of commodity usually undervalue that of project. For the set of offshore projects analyzed in this paper, project volatility is at least 79% higher than that of oil prices and increases dramatically in those cases of high capital expenditures and low price. (author)

  14. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Madawala, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O₂/kg but AV and Rancimat values at 100 °C (except for rapeseed oils varied considerably at (0.5-15.5 and (4.2-37.0 h respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4% and walnut oil had the highest (71% level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27% compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%. In all the samples, α- and γ- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 μg/g oil. The major sterols were β-sitosterol (61-85% and campesterol (6-20%. Argan oil contained schottenol (35% and spinasterol (32%. Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study.

    Muchos aceites vegetales se venden como aceites especiales debido a su flavor, gusto y características distintas. Muestras de aceites especiales de almendra, avellana, nuez, nuez de macadamia, argán, aguacate, semillas de uva, de sésamo tostadas, salvado de arroz, y aceites orgánico de semillas de colza prensado en frío y, prensado caliente, y refinados que se producen y comercializan al por menor, se obtuvieron en

  15. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Historical Oil and Gas Wells in Pennsylvania: Implications for New Shale Gas Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmore, Robert M; Sams, James I; Glosser, Deborah; Carter, Kristin M; Bain, Daniel J

    2015-10-20

    Recent large-scale development of oil and gas from low-permeability unconventional formations (e.g., shales, tight sands, and coal seams) has raised concern about potential environmental impacts. If left improperly sealed, legacy oil and gas wells colocated with that new development represent a potential pathway for unwanted migration of fluids (brine, drilling and stimulation fluids, oil, and gas). Uncertainty in the number, location, and abandonment state of legacy wells hinders environmental assessment of exploration and production activity. The objective of this study is to apply publicly available information on Pennsylvania oil and gas wells to better understand their potential to serve as pathways for unwanted fluid migration. This study presents a synthesis of historical reports and digital well records to provide insights into spatial and temporal trends in oil and gas development. Areas with a higher density of wells abandoned prior to the mid-20th century, when more modern well-sealing requirements took effect in Pennsylvania, and areas where conventional oil and gas production penetrated to or through intervals that may be affected by new Marcellus shale development are identified. This information may help to address questions of environmental risk related to new extraction activities.

  17. Interval ridge regression (iRR) as a fast and robust method for quantitative prediction and variable selection applied to edible oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Ozren; Smrečki, Neven; Popović, Zora

    2016-04-01

    A novel quantitative prediction and variable selection method called interval ridge regression (iRR) is studied in this work. The method is performed on six data sets of FTIR, two data sets of UV-vis and one data set of DSC. The obtained results show that models built with ridge regression on optimal variables selected with iRR significantly outperfom models built with ridge regression on all variables in both calibration (6 out of 9 cases) and validation (2 out of 9 cases). In this study, iRR is also compared with interval partial least squares regression (iPLS). iRR outperfomed iPLS in validation (insignificantly in 6 out of 9 cases and significantly in one out of 9 cases for poil, a well known health beneficial nutrient, is studied in this work by mixing it with cheap and widely used oils such as soybean (So) oil, rapeseed (R) oil and sunflower (Su) oil. Binary mixture sets of hempseed oil with these three oils (HSo, HR and HSu) and a ternary mixture set of H oil, R oil and Su oil (HRSu) were considered. The obtained accuracy indicates that using iRR on FTIR and UV-vis data, each particular oil can be very successfully quantified (in all 8 cases RMSEPoil (R(2)>0.99). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of carbonate reservoirs based on well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukhalikov, Ya.N; Serebrennikov, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiment on carbonate reservoir identification according to well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds is described. Pulse neutron-neutron logging (PNNL) was widely used at the territory of Pripyat' hole to solve the task. To evaluate volumetric clayiness of carbonate rocks the dependence of gamma-logging, that is data of gamma-logging against clayey rocks built for every hollow, is used. Quantitative estimation of clayiness of dense and clayey carbonate rocks-non-reservoirs is carried out on the basis of the data of neutron-gamma and acoustic logging. Porosity coefficient and lithological characteristic of rocks are also determined according to the data of acoustic and neutron gamma-logging

  19. Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 2 9Si and 2 7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

  20. High-performance computing on GPUs for resistivity logging of oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinskikh, V.; Dudaev, A.; Nechaev, O.; Surodina, I.

    2017-10-01

    We developed and implemented into software an algorithm for high-performance simulation of electrical logs from oil and gas wells using high-performance heterogeneous computing. The numerical solution of the 2D forward problem is based on the finite-element method and the Cholesky decomposition for solving a system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE). Software implementations of the algorithm used the NVIDIA CUDA technology and computing libraries are made, allowing us to perform decomposition of SLAE and find its solution on central processor unit (CPU) and graphics processor unit (GPU). The calculation time is analyzed depending on the matrix size and number of its non-zero elements. We estimated the computing speed on CPU and GPU, including high-performance heterogeneous CPU-GPU computing. Using the developed algorithm, we simulated resistivity data in realistic models.

  1. Cement for oil well developed from ordinary cement: characterization physical, chemical and mineralogical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D.N.S.; Neves, G. de A.; Chaves, A.C.; Mendonca, A.M.G.D.; Lima, M.S. de; Bezerra, U.T.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to characterize a new type of cement produced from the mixture of ordinary Portland cement, which can be used as an option in the cementing of oil wells. To enable this work we used the method of lineal programming for the new cement composition, then conducted tests to characterize through particle size analysis by laser diffraction, chemical analysis by EDX, TGA, X-ray diffraction, time grip, resistance to compression. The overall result showed that the new cement had made low-C3A, takes more time to the CPP, thermal stability up to 500 ° C, the kinetics of hydration and low levels of major components consistent with the specifications of ABNT. (author)

  2. The effect of gas and oil well blowout emissions on livestock in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    Poisoning caused by emissions from sour gas well or oil well blowouts is not acute because the gases are diluted by the atmosphere before they reach livestock. Exposure may last a month or more and may produce a syndrome indistinguishable from common disorders of flu, malaise, mood change, and in the case of animals, lack of production or decreased production. Little information is available on the composition of releases from well blowouts, which may change due to concurrent reactions with oxygen and photodecomposition. Effects on livestock observed to results from sour gas plant emissions (mostly sulfur dioxide) include runny eyes in cattle, loss of production, diarrhea and abortion. Blowout emissions may contain oxidant gases as well as hydrogen sulfides. These products irritate mucous membranes, and can lead to pink eye. Respiratory problems may include upper respiratory tract infections, and may produce susceptibility to secondary pneumonia. Abortion, infertility and congenital effects are areas of concern. It is considered unlikely that hydrogen sulfide can cause such effects, however carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide, both present in sour gas blowouts, are known to have effects on the fetus. Effects on production and performance are unknown, and it is postulated that amounts of sulfur deposition are insufficient to cause nutrient deficiencies. Psychological reactions are suggested to explain some of the adverse effects of exposure to sour gas. 1 ref

  3. Low parameter model to monitor bottom hole pressure in vertical multiphase flow in oil production wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the flow patterns through petroleum production wells proved for upstream experts to provide robust production schemes based on the knowledge about flow behavior. To provide accurate flow pattern distribution through production wells, accurate prediction/representation of bottom hole pressure (BHP for determining pressure drop from bottom to surface play important and vital role. Nevertheless enormous efforts have been made to develop mechanistic approach, most of the mechanistic and conventional models or correlations unable to estimate or represent the BHP with high accuracy and low uncertainty. To defeat the mentioned hurdle and monitor BHP in vertical multiphase flow through petroleum production wells, inventive intelligent based solution like as least square support vector machine (LSSVM method was utilized. The evolved first-break approach is examined by applying precise real field data illustrated in open previous surveys. Thanks to the statistical criteria gained from the outcomes obtained from LSSVM approach, the proposed least support vector machine (LSSVM model has high integrity and performance. Moreover, very low relative deviation between the model estimations and the relevant actual BHP data is figured out to be less than 6%. The output gained from LSSVM model are closed the BHP while other mechanistic models fails to predict BHP through petroleum production wells. Provided solutions of this study explicated that implies of LSSVM in monitoring bottom-hole pressure can indicate more accurate monitoring of the referred target which can lead to robust design with high level of reliability for oil and gas production operation facilities.

  4. In vitro screening of selected essential oils from medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enteric methane production lowers the efficiency of feed utilization in ruminants and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions which are responsible for global climate change. This study examined the effects of nine essential oils (EO) from Citrus aurantifolia, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Laurus nobilis, ...

  5. The selection exerted by oil contamination on mangrove fungal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Rigonato, Janaina; Fiore, Marli de Fatima; Soares, Fabio Lino; Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Dini Andreote, Fernando

    Mangrove ecosystems are tropical environments that are characterized by the interaction between the land and the sea. As such, this ecosystem is vulnerable to oil spills. Here, we show a culture-independent survey of fungal communities that are found in the sediments of the following two mangroves

  6. The effect of an essential oil combination derived from selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One thousand two hundred and fifty sexed day-old broiler chicks obtained from a commercial hatchery were divided randomly into five treatment groups (negative control, antibiotic and essential oil combination (EOC) at three levels) of 250 birds each. Each treatment group was further sub-divided into five replicates of 50 ...

  7. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a major constrain to production of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Control of bacterial wilt is very difficult as there are no effective curative chemicals. This study was aimed at investigating the potential roles of essential oil plants in control of the disease.

  8. Comparative effects of oil palm and selective logging on erosion, river channels and water chemistry in Malaysian steeplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Nainar, Anand; Nurhidayu, Siti; Higton, Sam; Annammala, Kogilavani; Wall, Katy; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Darling, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm land-use has expanded greatly in recent decades in SE Asia and other parts of the wet tropics, including to steepland areas, where bench-terraced landscaping is involved. Retaining (and sometimes restoring) riparian forest strips and rainforest fragments on the steepest slopes have been adopted as elements of strategies designed to reduce adverse effects on runoff generation, erosion, downstream sedimentation, flooding and pollutional problems - as well as biodiversity and emissions. Results of catchment monitoring, soil erosion and sediment fingerprinting research in oil palm and selectively logged steeplands of eastern Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia are presented. The evidence indicates the greater scale and temporal persistence of effects that oil palm land-use (compared with selective logging) has had on suspended sediment dynamics, soil erosion, downstream sedimentation, channel geometry and dynamics and river pollution. The importance of (1) high densities of roads and tracks and (2) relatively impermeable bench-terraced terrain in enhancing runoff, sediment and nutrient outputs in storm events is stressed. Influences of oil palm management practices including riparian forest strips in increasing or reducing these effects are critically reviewed and ways of increasing the effectiveness of riparian forest strips are proposed. The design and rationale of current projects exploring and testing consequences of existing and proposed improved land management practices are briefly described. The key importance of involvement of people from the oil palm industry (including multinational companies, smallholders and their organizations) and Government bodies that are responsible for land-use policies and land management practices is stressed.

  9. Effect of rheology on flow displacement during cementing process in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghini, Andre; Naccache, Monica F.; Fonseca, Marcos I. [Dept. Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUR-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: mnaccache@puc-rio.br; Miranda, Cristiane R. de; Martins, Andre L.; Aranha, Pedro E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: crisrichard@petrobras.com.br, aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br, pearanha@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a set of numerical simulations of the displacement flow of three non-Newtonian fluids through annular eccentric wells. The main application of this work is the studying of drilling and completion processes of oil wells where a cement slurry pushes the drilling mud, used in the drilling process to lubricate the drill and to remove the produced drilling cuts. To avoid contamination, a spacer fluid is usually inserted between them. Both drilling mud and cement slurry behave as non-Newtonian fluids, and the spacer fluid can be Newtonian or non-Newtonian. The analysis of flow and interface configuration between these fluids helps to determine contamination, and is an important tool for the process optimization. The numerical solution of the governing conservation equations of mass and momentum is obtained with the Fluent software, using the finite volume technique and the volume of fluid method. The effects of rheological parameters, density ratios and pumped volume of the spacer fluid are investigated. The results obtained show that the displacement is better when a more viscous spacer fluid is used. The results also show that using lower amounts of the spacer fluid can lead to contamination, which is worse in the smaller gap region of the annular space, in the case of non-rectilinear well. It was also observed that the density ratios play a major role in the cementing operation. (author)

  10. PEMANFAATAN METIL ESTER JARAK PAGAR MENJADI SURFAKTAN MES UNTUK APLIKASI SEBAGAI OIL WELL STIMULATION AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erliza Hambali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Year by year, globally the production of petroleum decreases but its demand increases. The world will get the energy crisis including Indonesia if that condition happens continously. Because of that, Indonesia starts to develop IOR (improved oil recovery method for their oil fields. IOR method is an improvement of the secondary phase in which the oil recovery is expected to increase oil production. One method of IOR is chemical injection with surfactant for injection. Surfactant is dissolved with injection water and injected to reservoir. Generally, surfactant of petroleum sulphonates is used for oil recovery. Due to the weaknesses of petroleum suphonates such as not resistant in high salinity and high hardness water, therefore it triggers to get surfactant substitute like MES (methyl ester sulphonates that is synthesized by bio-oil from Jatropha curcas L. The study was aimed to know the performance of MES surfactant formula from jatropha oil for IOR in fluid sample of oil field and synthetic sandstone core. The best condition from this research was surfactant 0.2 PV with the soaking time of 12 hours. This formula gave the highest of incremental total oil recovery 61%. The number were resulted from 48% waterflooding and 13% surfactant injection.

  11. Screening of Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oils from Selected Medicinal Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phyo, Le Le; Thwe, Moe Moe; Than, Mar Lar

    2010-12-15

    Essential oils were extracted from the five medicinal plants (Syzygium aromaticum Linn, Cinnamoum tamala. Nees, Piper betle. Linn, Ocimum sanctum, Clausena exacavata Burn) by steam distillation method and percolation method with petroleum ether. These plants do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to phytochemical tests. Essential oils from these plants were also tested on antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that essential oils extracted from these five plants have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Among them, essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum possess the highest antimicrobial activity aganist all test organisms. B. pumalis and Calbican are the most susceptible to the five plants.

  12. Screening of Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oils from Selected Medicinal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Le Phyo; Moe Moe Thwe; Mar Lar Than

    2010-12-01

    Essential oils were extracted from the five medicinal plants (Syzygium aromaticum Linn, Cinnamoum tamala. Nees, Piper betle. Linn, Ocimum sanctum, Clausena exacavata Burn) by steam distillation method and percolation method with petroleum ether. These plants do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to phytochemical tests. Essential oils from these plants were also tested on antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that essential oils extracted from these five plants have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Among them, essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum possess the highest antimicrobial activity aganist all test organisms. B. pumalis and Calbican are the most susceptible to the five plants.

  13. Interactive optimization of biosurfactant production by Paenibacillus alvei ARN63 isolated from an Iranian oil well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, A R; Rahimpour, M R; Jahanmiri, A H; Roostaazad, R; Arabian, D; Soleimani, M; Jamshidnejad, Z

    2011-01-01

    The potential of an indigenous bacterial strain isolated from an Iranian oil field for the production of biosurfactant was investigated in this study. After isolation, the bacterium was characterized to be Paenibacillus alvei by biochemical tests and 16S ribotyping. The biosurfactant, which was produced by this bacterium, was able to lower the surface tension of media to 35 mN/m. Accordingly, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and FT-IR has been carried out to determine compositional analysis of the produced biosurfactant. After all the tests related to characterization of the biosurfactant produced by the isolated bacterium, it was characterized as lipopeptide derivative. The combination of central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM) was exploited to optimize biosurfactant production. Therefore, variations of four impressive parameters, pH, temperature, glucose and salinity concentrations were selected for optimization of growth conditions. The empirical model developed through RSM in terms of effective operational factors mentioned above was found to be adequate to describe the biosurfactant production. A maximum reduction in surface tension was obtained under the optimal conditions of 13.03 g/l glucose concentration, 34.76 °C, 51.39 g/l total salt concentration and medium pH 6.89. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  15. Kinetic modeling of cement slurry synthesized with Henna extract in oil well acidizing treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Aghajafari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in petroleum reservoirs is a short-term and viable strategy to preserve the productivity of a well. There is a major concern for the degradation of cement sheath integrity, leading to poor zonal isolation and environmental issues. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the cement behaves when attacked by hydrochloric acid. In this study, a cement slurry by incorporation of the Henna extract, as an environmentally friendly cement additive, was synthesized as a potential solution to solve this problem. The characteristics of the treated cement slurry were compared with a reference slurry (w/c = 0.44 which is composed of only cement and water. A kinetic study was carried out to evaluate the adsorption behavior of the cement slurries exposed to an acid solution with 0.1 M HCl in a range of 25 to 55 °C conditions. The features of the cement slurries were evaluated by multiple analytical techniques such as XRD, FTIR, TG, and DSC analysis. From the experimental data, it is concluded that the second-order Lagergren kinetic model revealed to be the best in describing kinetic isotherms taken, because the margin between experimental and calculated values was minor for this model. The results of the characterization and HCl interaction kinetic studies underlined the prominent protective role of Henna extract-modified cement slurry in the enhancement of the cement resistance against acid attack and utilization in environmentally favorable oil well acidizing treatments.

  16. Oil release from Macondo well MC252 following the Deepwater Horizon accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stewart K

    2012-05-15

    Oil flow rates and cumulative discharge from the BP Macondo Prospect well in the Gulf of Mexico are calculated using a physically based model along with wellhead pressures measured at the blowout preventer (BOP) over the 86-day period following the Deepwater Horizon accident. Parameters appearing in the model are determined empirically from pressures measured during well shut-in and from pressures and flow rates measured the preceding day. This methodology rigorously accounts for ill-characterized evolution of the marine riser, installation and removal of collection caps, and any erosion at the wellhead. The calculated initial flow rate is 67,100 stock-tank barrels per day (stbd), which decays to 54,400 stbd just prior to installation of the capping stack and subsequent shut-in. The calculated cumulative discharge is 5.4 million stock-tank barrels, of which 4.6 million barrels entered the Gulf. Quantifiable uncertainties in these values are -9.3% and +7.5%, yielding a likely total discharge in the range from 4.9 to 5.8 million barrels. Minimum and maximum credible values of this discharge are 4.6 and 6.2 million barrels. Alternative calculations using the reservoir and sea-floor pressures indicate that any erosion within the BOP had little affect on cumulative discharge.

  17. SMART MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR REGULATING ANNULUS BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE WHILE DRILLING OIL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vega

    Full Text Available Abstract Real time measurements and development of sensor technology are research issues associated with robustness and safety during oil well drilling operations, making feasible the diagnosis of problems and the development of a regulatory strategy. The major objective of this paper is to use an experimental plant and also field data, collected from a basin operation, offshore Brazil, for implementing smart monitoring and decision making, in order to assure drilling inside operational window, despite the commonly observed disturbances that produce fluctuations in the well annulus bottom hole pressure. Using real time measurements, the performance of a continuous automated drilling unit is analyzed under a scenario of varying levels of rate of penetration; aiming pressure set point tracking (inside the operational drilling window and also rejecting kick, a phenomenon that occurs when the annulus bottom hole pressure is inferior to the porous pressure, producing the migration of reservoir fluids into the annulus region. Finally, an empirical model was built, using real experimental data from offshore Brazil basins, enabling diagnosing and regulating a real drilling site by employing classic and advanced control strategies.

  18. Numerical investigation of the prospects of high energy laser in drilling oil and gas wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, K.R.; Belhaj, H.A.; Mustafiz, S.; Islam, M.R.; Bjorndalen, N.

    2004-01-01

    Rotary drilling is the primary method used to reach oil and gas formations that was developed over a century ago. Many problems persist with this method, including downtime due to dull bits, the lack of precise vertical or horizontal wells and formation fluid leakage during drilling due to the lack of a seal around the hole. Laser drilling is a new technology that has been proposed as a method to eliminate the current problems while drilling and provide a less expensive alternative to conventional methods. This paper discussed the development of a numerical model based on the fundamental heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena including conduction, melting and vaporization responsible for material removal by laser drilling process. The paper addressed the thermal process involved in laser drilling of sandstone and limestone rocks as well as aluminum and mild steel. The paper outlined the parametric study and discussed the design considerations for a field application. Economical and environmental impacts were also included. It was concluded that more experimental investigation is needed to fully understand the laser operation and to enhance the integrity of the numerical models. In addition, it was concluded that field equipment must be designed to meet the changes in drilling requirements. 19 refs., 10 figs

  19. Comparison of the effectiveness of Basta, Bialaphos and Glufosinate Ammonium for selecting Transformed Oil Palm Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Rahman Nurfahisza; Md Aman Rafiqah; Ghulam Kadir Ahmad Parveez; Omar Abdul Rashid

    2016-01-01

    One of the important requirements for producing transgenic plants is the ability to isolate true transformed cells and regenerate into complete plants without chimera and escapes. Therefore, an efficient selection process is essential. In this study, three different selection agents, namely Basta, bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium were evaluated on embryogenic calli and embryoids, for their effectiveness on selecting transformed oil palm tissues. Un transformed tissues were used in this study as the minimal concentrations which inhibit the growth of the tissues would be the optimum concentrations for selecting the transformed cells. Based on this study, the growth of embryogenic calli was shown to be fully inhibited at 10 mg litre -1 of Basta. Meanwhile, only 3 mg litre -1 of bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium are needed to inhibit the embryogenic calli. For oil palm embryo id cultures, the minimal concentration for Basta was determined at 20 mg litre -1 as compared to 5 mg litre -1 for bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium. This result indicated that a higher concentration of Basta is needed to completely inhibit the growth of oil palm tissues as compared to bialaphos and glufosinate ammonium. Furthermore, these observations revealed that embryogenic calli are more sensitive to the three selection agents as compared to embryoids. The information gained from this study will be used as a guideline to increase the efficiency for selecting transformed oil palm cells and producing transgenic oil palm. (author)

  20. 78 FR 17835 - Approval and Promulgation of Federal Implementation Plan for Oil and Natural Gas Well Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...: One commenter stated that the EPA needs to control air quality because hydraulic fracturing (``fracking'') is under-regulated. Response: The majority of oil and natural gas wells drilled today are hydraulically fractured. Hydraulic fracturing occurs when wells are being completed and recompleted. NSPS OOOO...

  1. Chicxulub Impact Crater and Yucatan Carbonate Platform - PEMEX Oil Exploratory Wells Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Drago, G.; Gutierrez-Cirlos, A. G.; Pérez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysical oil exploration surveys carried out by PEMEX in the 1940's revealed occurrence of an anomalous pattern of semi-circular concentric gravity anomalies. The Bouguer gravity anomalies covered an extensive area over the flat carbonate platform in the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula; strong density contrasts were suggestive of a buried igneous complex or basement uplift beneath the carbonates, which was referred as the Chicxulub structure. The exploration program carried out afterwards included a drilling program, starting with Chicxulub-1 well in 1952 and comprising eight deep boreholes through the 1970s. An aeromagnetic survey in late 1970's showed high amplitude anomalies in the gravity anomaly central sector. Thus, research showing Chicxulub as a large complex impact crater formed at the K/T boundary was built on the PEMEX decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to PEMEX information and samples, original data and cores have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and integration with results from recent investigations. Core samples largely remain to be analyzed and interpreted in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we report on the stratigraphy and paleontological data for PEMEX wells: Chicxulub- 1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m), Ticul-1 (3575m) Yucatan-4 (2398m), Yucatan-2 (3474m), Yucatan-5A (3003m) and Yucatan-1 (3221m). These wells remain the deepest drilled in Chicxulub, providing samples of impact lithologies, carbonate sequences and basement, which give information on post- and pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on stratigraphic columns, lateral correlations and integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater target the peak ring and central sector, with offshore and onshore boreholes proposed to the IODP and ICDP

  2. Zinc availability in relation to selected soil properties in a crude oil polluted eutric tropofluvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwuma, M.C.; Eshett, E.T.; Onweremadu, E.U.; Okon, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined zinc availability in crude oil-polluted soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of zinc on the physiochemical properties of soils in relation to remediation activities. The study was located at a site in Nigeria where crude oil spillage had occurred over a period of 2 months. The region was characterized by quarternary, alluvium, meander belt, wooded back swamps as well as fresh water swamps and Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plains with large deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Three different land units were studied, notably (1) unpolluted, (2) polluted without vegetation and (3) polluted with vegetation. Soil sampling was conducted using a transect method. Hydrometer analyses were conducted to determine particle size distribution, while a core method was used to determine bulk density. Soil pH, total carbon, phosphorus, and total nitrogen were also measured. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to correlate and regress zinc availability against the selected soil properties. The study showed that zinc availability increased with increases in the value of the effective carbon cation exchange capacity in the unpolluted and polluted samples without vegetation. Zinc decreased with increased clay and organic matter content. Results suggested that soils must be reclaimed quickly in order to prevent additional degradation. 48 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. Zinc availability in relation to selected soil properties in a crude oil polluted eutric tropofluvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukwuma, M.C.; Eshett, E.T.; Onweremadu, E.U.; Okon, M.A. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria). Dept. of Soil Science and Technology

    2010-04-01

    This study examined zinc availability in crude oil-polluted soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of zinc on the physiochemical properties of soils in relation to remediation activities. The study was located at a site in Nigeria where crude oil spillage had occurred over a period of 2 months. The region was characterized by quarternary, alluvium, meander belt, wooded back swamps as well as fresh water swamps and Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plains with large deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Three different land units were studied, notably (1) unpolluted, (2) polluted without vegetation and (3) polluted with vegetation. Soil sampling was conducted using a transect method. Hydrometer analyses were conducted to determine particle size distribution, while a core method was used to determine bulk density. Soil pH, total carbon, phosphorus, and total nitrogen were also measured. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to correlate and regress zinc availability against the selected soil properties. The study showed that zinc availability increased with increases in the value of the effective carbon cation exchange capacity in the unpolluted and polluted samples without vegetation. Zinc decreased with increased clay and organic matter content. Results suggested that soils must be reclaimed quickly in order to prevent additional degradation. 48 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Radiological impact of oil and Gas Activities in selected oil fields in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A study of the radiological impact of oil and gas exploration activities in the production land area of Delta ... the public and non-nuclear industrial environment, while the levels for the fields at Otorogu, Ughelli West, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Cross-well 4-D resistivity tomography localizes the oil-water encroachment front during water flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Revil, A.

    2015-04-01

    The early detection of the oil-water encroachment front is of prime interest during the water flooding of an oil reservoir to maximize the production of oil and to avoid the oil-water encroachment front to come too close to production wells. We propose a new 4-D inversion approach based on the Gauss-Newton approach to invert cross-well resistance data. The goal of this study is to image the position of the oil-water encroachment front in a heterogeneous clayey sand reservoir. This approach is based on explicitly connecting the change of resistivity to the petrophysical properties controlling the position of the front (porosity and permeability) and to the saturation of the water phase through a petrophysical resistivity model accounting for bulk and surface conductivity contributions and saturation. The distributions of the permeability and porosity are also inverted using the time-lapse resistivity data in order to better reconstruct the position of the oil water encroachment front. In our synthetic test case, we get a better position of the front with the by-products of porosity and permeability inferences near the flow trajectory and close to the wells. The numerical simulations show that the position of the front is recovered well but the distribution of the recovered porosity and permeability is only fair. A comparison with a commercial code based on a classical Gauss-Newton approach with no information provided by the two-phase flow model fails to recover the position of the front. The new approach could be used for the time-lapse monitoring of various processes in both geothermal fields and oil and gas reservoirs using a combination of geophysical methods.

  6. A New Way to Calculate Flow Pressure for Low Permeability Oil Well with Partially Penetrating Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Ping

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the validity of the previous models on calculating flow pressure for oil well with partially perforating fracture, a new physical model that obeys the actual heterogeneous reservoir characteristics was built. Different conditions, including reservoir with impermeable top and bottom borders or the reservoir top which has constant pressure, were considered. Through dimensionless transformation, Laplace transformation, Fourier cosine transformation, separation of variables, and other mathematical methods, the analytical solution of Laplace domain was obtained. By using Stephenson numerical methods, the numerical solution pressure in a real domain was obtained. The results of this method agree with the numerical simulations, suggesting that this new method is reliable. The following sensitivity analysis showed that the pressure dynamic linear flow curve can be divided into four flow streams of early linear flow, midradial flow, advanced spherical flow, and border controlling flow. Fracture length controls the early linear flow. Permeability anisotropy significantly affects the midradial flow. The degree of penetration and fracture orientation dominantly affect the late spherical flow. The boundary conditions and reservoir boundary width mainly affect the border controlling flow. The method can be used to determine the optimal degree of opening shot, vertical permeability, and other useful parameters, providing theoretical guidance for reservoir engineering analysis.

  7. New reclamation standards for oil and gas well sites and pipelines in the agricultural land reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.

    1995-01-01

    Reclamation standards are a necessity because of increasing density of oil and gas developments, and the number of wells which may be abandoned over the next few years. All petroleum industry users of land are subject to the Agricultural Land Commission Act and require the approval of the Commission. The new General Order 293/95 was discussed, the purpose of which is to streamline existing regulations and to clarify reclamation standards. The new standards are similar to requirements currently in place in northwestern Alberta because landforms, soils, and land there are similar to those that exist in the Peace River region of B.C. Adopting similar requirements also has the added benefit of providing consistency for the industry between adjacent jurisdictions. In essence, the official view is that petroleum developments are temporary activities as long as the land is restored to its original or better condition, and the disruption to farm operations is minimal. Major provisions of General Order 293/95 were reviewed. It was noted that site contamination and the disposal of wastes were not addressed in the General Order. The reason for this is that these matters fall under the jurisdiction of other government agencies. 7 refs

  8. Sedimentary petrology of oil well rock cores; Petrologia sedimentaria de nucleos de rocas de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo M, Georgina; Paredes S, Adriana [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    At the request of PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP), in the area of Geology of the Gerencia de Geotermia, the necessary methodology has been integrated to carry out the geologic characterization of cores obtained during the oil well drilling. The integrated studies have been of utility for PEMEX, because they provide detailed information on the processes, conditions of deposition and diagenesis that occur in sedimentary rocks. On the other hand, this geologic information contributes to the update of the geologic model of the field in study. [Spanish] A solicitud de PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion (PEP), en el area de Geologia de la Gerencia de Geotermia, se ha integrado la metodologia necesaria para llevar a cabo la caracterizacion geologica de nucleos obtenidos durante la perforacion de pozos petroleros. Los estudios integrados han sido de utilidad para PEMEX, pues proporcionan informacion detallada sobre los procesos, condiciones de depositacion y diagenesis que ocurren en rocas sedimentarias. Por otro lado, esta informacion geologica contribuye a la actualizacion del modelo geologico del campo en estudio.

  9. Lapland longspur mortality at an oil well drilling rig site, Laramie County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pedro; Dickerson, Kimberly K.; Lindstrom, Jim; Meteyer, Carol U.; Darrah, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred fifty-one Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) carcasses were recovered around an oil well drilling rig in Laramie County, Wyoming, USA, on December 13–14, 2010, apparent victims of a winter storm and “light entrapment” from the lights on the drilling rig during foggy conditions. We found Lapland longspur carcasses distributed around the drilling rig from 33 m to 171 m. Investigators did not find evidence of bird carcasses on the drilling rig deck or equipment immediately adjacent to the drilling rig. We ruled out chemical toxins and disease as a cause of mortality. Weather conditions, the circular depositional pattern of carcasses around the drilling rig, and bird necropsy results led investigators to conclude that the Lapland longspur mortality was the result of the migrating birds entering the area illuminated by the drilling rig lights in freezing fog and the birds repeatedly circling the drilling rig until they fell to the ground in exhaustion and dying from subsequent trauma. Further research is needed to understand how to most effectively adjust lighting of onshore drilling rigs to reduce the potential for avian light entrapment. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Toxicity of selected essential oils, silicone oils, and paraffino oil against the common bed bug, cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) resurged in the U.S. and many other countries over the past decade. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous “green pesticides”, mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic ...

  11. The development and testing of a fieldworthy system of improved fluid pumping device and liquid sensor for oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckman, W.G.

    1991-12-31

    A major expenditure to maintain oil and gas leases is the support of pumpers, those individuals who maintain the pumping systems on wells to achieve optimum production. Many leases are marginal and are in remote areas and this requires considerable driving time for the pumper. The Air Pulse Oil Pump System is designed to be an economical system for the shallow stripper wells. To improve on the economics of this system, we have designed a Remote Oil Field Monitor and Controller to enable us to acquire data from the lease to our central office at anytime and to control the pumping activities from the central office by using a personal computer. The advent and economics of low-power microcontrollers have made it feasible to use this type of system for numerous remote control systems. We can also adapt this economical system to monitor and control the production of gas wells and/or pump jacks.

  12. Marker Assisted Selection can Reduce True as well as Pedigree Estimated Inbreeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L D; Sørensen, A C; Berg, P

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether selection using genotype information reduced the rate and level of true inbreeding, that is, identity by descent, at a selectively neutral locus as well as a locus under selection compared with traditional BLUP selection. In addition, the founder representation...... each of 40 herds. Selection was performed using BLUP, marker-assisted, or gene-assisted selection for a trait with low heritability (h2 = 0.04) only expressed in females, mimicking a health trait. The simulated genome consisted of 2 chromosomes. One biallelic quantitative trait loci (QTL......) with an initial frequency of the favorable allele of 0.1, and initially explaining 25% of the genetic variance as well as 4 markers were simulated in linkage disequilibrium, all positioned at chromosome 1. Chromosome 2 was selectively neutral, and consisted of a single neutral locus. The results showed...

  13. Neutron control of well debit increasing by acoustic influence on oil formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanovich, B.Yu.; Nesterovich, A.V.; Khasaya, D.R.; Shikanov, A.E.; Shikanov, E.A.; Il'inskiy, A.V.; Mihailov, L.V.; Kolomiets, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of the A E direction in oil reservoirs can be improved by controlling the parameters of the processes occurring before and after acoustic effect in oil reservoirs, followed by a choice of intervals stimulation of oil. Measurements of changes in these processes in the reservoir are made remotely via a metal pipe casing that requires the use of transparent methods of control. In implementing the method of pulse neutron-neutron logging in the study area provide periodic field impulse of fast neutrons emitted by the accelerating tube, resulting in leakage to its target nuclear reaction T (d, n) 4He

  14. Ionic interactions in the water zone at oil well-sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleven, R.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this doctoral thesis has been to obtain a better understanding of ionic behaviour in a water zone of sedimentary rock exposed to sea-water based drilling fluid and completion fluid. Interaction processes addressed have been ion exchange on the surface of the reservoir rocks and precipitation of divalent cations with sulphate ions from the sea water. Clay minerals are focused on because of their ability to conduct electricity through ion-exchange reactions. The most important parameters that the distribution of ions around a borehole depends upon are suggested to be (1) the ability of the sedimentary rocks to sorb/desorb ions, (2) the effect of added solutions on the sorption/desorption processes, (3) the mobility of ions. The first of four enclosed papers studies ionic interaction, mainly on homo-ionic clay mineral - salt solution, in batch experiments under pH, ionic strength and temperature conditions likely to occur in the field. Paper II investigates the use of tritiated water as a reference tracer in miscible displacement processes in porous sandstone cores. Ionic interaction processes during drilling of oil wells with conventional KCl bentonite mud tagged with HTO were studied by means of measured ionic and HTO concentration of water sampled in the near well-bore region. A tracer method was developed and ``tracer diagrams`` illustrate sorption/desorption processes. The water analyses, sampling procedure, and tracer techniques are presented in the third paper. Paper IV compares the interpretation of laboratory data and field data. 173 refs., 47 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Development of Induction Logging Technology for Non-Stationary Conditions While Drilling Subhorozontal Sections of Oil and Gas Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Teplukhin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of development of the induction logging module designed for resistivity measurements while drilling horizontal and directional wells for oil and gas. Materials of the tool testing during the drilling of wells in the oil field in the Republic of Bashkortostan are shown. We introduce the comparative analysis of resistivity data obtained after completion of the drilling, and the results obtained with developed complex as part of the LWD telemetry system TARGET during the drilling. The technical characteristics of complex MIR are presented.

  16. Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Rafique, M.; Tariq, J.A; Choudhry, M.A.; Hussain, Q.M.

    2008-10-01

    Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

  17. Selection and evaluation of technologies for oil rim preparation of Zapolyarnoye oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhenina, L. V.

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with various technologies for the oil rims preparation of Zapolyarnoye oil and gas condensate field. The following circuits were considered for the selection of the technology of preparation of extracted fluid: low-temperature separation (STC); low-temperature condensation (LTC); a low-temperature rectification (NTR); low-temperature absorption (LTA); membrane technology (Mt). Diagrams of these processes were collected and tested in the system HYSYS process simulation. Efficiency analysis of hydrocarbon raw materials preparation on the basis of functions, selection of components and narrow fractions.

  18. Prenatal sex selection and girls' well-being: Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Luojia; Schlosser, Analia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the impact of prenatal sex selection on the well-being of girls by analyzing changes in children's nutritional status and mortality during the years since the diffusion of prenatal sex determination technologies in India. We further examine various channels through which prenatal sex selection might affect girls’ outcomes. Using repeated cross-sections from a rich survey dataset, we show that high sex ratios at birth reflect the practice of sex selective abortion. We t...

  19. Super-Hydrophobic High Throughput Electrospun Cellulose Acetate (CA) Nanofibrous Mats as Oil Selective Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao

    The threat of oil pollution increases with the expansion of oil exploration and production activities, as well as the industrial growth around the world. Use of sorbents is a common method to deal with the oil spills. In this work, an advanced sorbent technology is described. A series of non-woven Cellulose Acetate (CA) nanofibrous mats with a 3D fibrous structure were synthesized by a novel high-throughput electrospinning technique. The precursor was solutions of CA/ acetic acid-acetone in various concentrations. Among them, 15.0% CA exhibits a superhydrophobic surface property, with a water contact angle of 128.95°. Its oil sorption capacity is many times higher the oil sorption capacity of the best commercial sorbent available in the market. Also, it showed good buoyancy properties on the water both as dry-mat and oil-saturated mat. In addition, it is biodegradable, easily available, easily manufactured, so the CA nanofibrous mat is an excellent candidate as oil sorbent for oil spill in water treatment.

  20. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  1. Subsurface waste disposal by means of wells - A selective annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rima, Donald Robert; Chase, Edith B.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1971-01-01

    Subsurface waste disposal by means of wells is the practice of using drilled wells to inject unwanted substances into underground rock formations. The use of wells for this purpose is not a new idea. As long ago as the end of the last century, it was common practice to drill wells for the express purpose of draining swamps and small lakes to reclaim the land for agricultural purposes. A few decades later in the 1920's and 1930's many oil companies began using injection wells to dispose of oil-field brines and to repressurize oil reservoirs. During World War II, the Atomic Energy Commission began using injection wells to dispose of certain types of radioactive wastes. More recently, injection wells have been drilled to dispose of a variety of byproducts of industrial processes. The number of such wells has increased rapidly since Congress passed the Clean Streams Act of 1966, which restricted the discharge of waste into surface waters.Many scientists and public officials question the propriety of using the term "disposal" when referring to the underground injection of wastes. Their reasons are that underground injection is not, as many advocates claim, "a complete and final answer" to the waste-disposal problem. Rather, it is merely a process wherein the injected wastes are committed to the subsurface with uncertainty as to their ultimate fate or limits of confinement. In effect, the wastes, undiminished and unchanged, are removed from the custody of man and placed in the custody of nature.Although the concept of waste-injection wells is relatively simple, the effects of waste injection can be very complex, particularly when dealing with the exotic and complex components of some industrial wastes. Besides the physical forces of injection, there are many varied interactions between the injected wastes and the materials within the injection zone. Because these changes occur out of sight in the subsurface, they are difficult to assess and not generally understood. In

  2. Assessment of technologies for the remediation of oil-contaminated soil resulting from exploded oil wells and burning oil fires in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Awadhi, N.M.; Abdal, M.S.; Briskey, E.J.; Williamson, K.

    1992-01-01

    Large quantities of Kuwait desert soils have been contaminated by oil-lakes and by serial deposition of particulates and non-combusted petroleum products. The oil content of these soils must be reduced substantially in order to restore the potential of Kuwait's land for plant and animal production and to guard against long-term adverse implications to human health. Extensive world-wide research and development for the treatment of soils contaminated with hazardous wastes have results in a number of different types of technologies that might be used to remediate soils in Kuwait. These types of technologies, include incineration, thermal volatilization and steam leaching (oil recovery) and direct bioremediation, amongst others. The dimensions and technical aspects of the problem will be presented and applicable technology will be reviewed

  3. Prediction of critical transport velocity for preventing sand deposition in gas-oil multiphase production and well systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, O.O.; Reinicke, K.M. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering; Teodoriu, C. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-10-23

    The critical transport velocity is one of the key parameters for gas-oil-sand multiphase production and well system design and safe operation. Existing American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 14E (API RP 14E) for the sizing of multiphase flow systems suggests an equation to calculate threshold transport velocity. This equation only considers mixture density and does not account for factors such as fluid properties, gas-liquid flow patterns, sand loading, sand particle size, size distributions, shape factor and density. This work presents an improved computational methodology, which can be applied to estimate the critical transport velocity required to ensure efficient performance of gas-oil-sand multiphase production and well systems. The improved method is based on the modelling of three-phase gas-oil-sand pipe flow physics from first principle. Computations of the critical transport velocities show reasonable agreement with values calculated from mechanistic model (Danielson, 2007) for a relatively wide range of design and operating conditions. Compared with the mechanistic model (Danielson, 2007), the present method has no imposed limitations to the range of applicability. It is also takes into adequate account the effects of operating pressure, flow geometry, sand particle size, size distribution and shape factor, which have considerable influence on the critical transport velocity in gas-oil-sand multiphase production and well systems. (orig.)

  4. Hydraulic Fracturing of 403 Shallow Diatomite Wells in South Belridge Oil Field, Kern County, California, in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, D. B.; Agusiegbe, V.

    2015-12-01

    We examine all 403 Hydraulic Fracture (HF) jobs performed by Aera Energy, LLC, in the South Belridge oil field, Kern County, CA in 2014. HFs in the South Belridge oil field are atypical amongst North American plays because the reservoir is shallow and produced via vertical wells. Our data set constitutes 88% of all HF jobs performed in CA oil fields in calendar-2014. The South Belridge field produces 11% of California's oil and the shallow HFs performed here differ from most HFs performed elsewhere. We discuss fracture modeling and methods and summary statistics, and modelled dimensions of fractures and their relationships to depth and reservoir properties. The 403 HFs were made in the diatomite-dominated Reef Ridge member of the Monterey Formation. The HFs began at an average depth of 1047 feet below ground (ft TVD) and extended an average of 626 ft vertically downward. The deepest initiation of HF was at 2380 ft and the shallowest cessation was at 639 ft TVD. The average HF was performed using 1488 BBL (62,496 gallons) of water. The HFs were performed in no more than 6 stages and nearly all were completed within one day. We (1) compare metrics of the South Belridge sample group with recent, larger "all-CA" and nationwide samples; and (2) conclude that if relationships of reservoir properties, well completion and HF are well understood, shallow diatomite HF may be optimized to enhance production while minimizing environmental impact.

  5. Comparative risk assessment of spill response options for a deepwater oil well blowout: Part III. Stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann Hayward; Scholz, Debra; McPeek, Melinda; French-McCay, Deborah; Rowe, Jill; Bock, Michael; Robinson, Hilary; Wenning, Richard

    2018-05-25

    This paper describes oil spill stakeholder engagement in a recent comparative risk assessment (CRA) project that examined the tradeoffs associated with a hypothetical offshore well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, with a specific focus on subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) at the wellhead. SSDI is a new technology deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill response. Oil spill stakeholders include decision makers, who will consider whether to integrate SSDI into future tradeoff decisions. This CRA considered the tradeoffs associated with three sets of response strategies: (1) no intervention; (2) mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, and surface dispersants; and, (3) SSDI in addition to responses in (2). For context, the paper begins with a historical review of U.S. policy and engagement with oil spill stakeholders regarding dispersants. Stakeholder activities throughout the project involved decision-maker representatives and their advisors to inform the approach and consider CRA utility in future oil spill preparedness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and Selection of Microalgal Strains from Natural Water Sources in Viet Nam with Potential for Edible Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Tran Yen; Linh, Dinh Thi Nhat; Si, Vo Chi; Carter, Taylor W; Hill, Russell T

    2017-06-23

    Industrial vegetable oil production in Viet Nam depends on oil seeds and crude plant oils that are currently more than 90% imported. As the first step in investigating the feasibility of using microalgae to provide Viet Nam with a domestic source of oil for food and edible oil industries, fifty lipid-producing microalgae were isolated and characterized. The microalgae were isolated from water sources ranging from freshwater to brackish and marine waters from a wide geographic distribution in Viet Nam. Initial analyses showed that 20 of the 50 strains had good growth rates, produced high biomass and had high lipid content, ranging up to 50% of dry weight biomass. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the 50 strains showed a great diversity in this assemblage of microalgae, comprising at least 38 species and representatives of 25 genera : Chlamydomonas , Poterioochromonas , Scenedesmus , Desmodesmus , Chlorella , Bracteacoccus , Monoraphidium , Selenastrum , Acutodesmus , Mychonastes , Ankistrodesmus , Kirchneriella , Raphidocelis , Dictyosphaerium , Coelastrella , Schizochlamydella , Oocystidium , Nannochloris , Auxenochlorella , Chlorosarcinopsis , Stichococcus , Picochlorum , Prasinoderma , Chlorococcum , and Marvania. Some of the species are closely related to well-known lipid producers such as Chlorella sorokiniana , but some other strains are not closely related to the strains found in public sequence databases and likely represent new species. Analysis of oil quality showed that fatty acid profiles of the microalgal strains were very diverse and strain-dependent. Fatty acids in the microalgal oils comprised saturated fatty acids (SFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The main SFA was palmitic acid. MUFAs and PUFAs were dominated by oleic acid, and linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. Some strains were especially rich in the essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which comprised more than 20% of the

  7. Inventory of orphan oil and natural gas wells in the Dover and Gautreau Village areas of Westmorland County, New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of New Brunswick conducted an inventory of orphan wells in the vicinity of Dover and Gautreau Village in Westmorland County. The term orphan wells refers to those oil and natural gas wells which have been abandoned and have no owner. An abandoned well refers to those wells that are no longer active and have been properly plugged. A total of 19 orphan wells were discovered with the help of landowners and historical maps. These wells are believed to have dated from 1860 to 1906. The locations of the wells were determined digitally using the Global Positioning System. The environmental conditions around the orphan wells were evaluated and classified according to a proposed system used by the State of Michigan. The wells were separated into three categories based on the amount of petroleum contamination of soil and water. Water contamination was further divided into contamination of groundwater and surface water. 7 refs., 34 figs

  8. Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the C-S-H gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la activación alcalina de cementos Pórtland con incorporación de escoria de horno alto (20% y 30% con respecto al peso de cemento para su posible aplicación en la construcción de pozos petrolíferos. Los estudios de hidratación realizados indican que en mezclas cemento/escoria, la disolución activadora de silicato sódico inhibe parcialmente la disolución de las fases silicato del cemento Pórtland originando un retraso de su hidratación así como la menor precipitación de productos de reacción. Dicha parcial inhibición de los procesos reactivos en las mezclas cemento/escoria originan resistencias mecánicas significativamente inferiores a las pastas de cemento Portland hidratadas con agua. Finalmente, los estudios de 29Si y 27Al RMN MAS y BSE/EDX indican que el gel C-S-H formado en pastas de mezcla cemento/escoria activadas alcalinamente presenta Al en posiciones tetraédricas y bajas relaciones Ca/Si.

  9. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Hussain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa, Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium, and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods: Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc. were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results: The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II, α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions: J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  10. In vitro susceptibility of Trypanosoma brucei brucei to selected essential oils and their major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sonya; Cavadas, Cláudia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; do Céu Sousa, Maria

    2018-07-01

    Aiming for discovering effective and harmless antitrypanosomal agents, 17 essential oils and nine major components were screened for their effects on T. b. brucei. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh plant material and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The trypanocidal activity was assessed using blood stream trypomastigotes cultures of T. b. brucei and the colorimetric resazurin method. The MTT test was used to assess the cytotoxicity of essential oils on macrophage cells and Selectivity Indexes were calculated. Of the 17 essential oils screened three showed high trypanocidal activity (IC 50  oils had no cytotoxic effects on macrophage cells showing the highest values of Selectivity Index (63.4, 9.0 and 11.8, respectively). The oils of Distichoselinum tenuifolium, Lavandula viridis, Origanum virens, Seseli tortuosom, Syzygium aromaticum, and Thymbra capitata also exhibited activity (IC 50 of 10-25 μg/mL) but showed cytotoxicity on macrophages. Of the nine compounds tested, α-pinene (IC 50 of 2.9 μg/mL) and citral (IC 50 of 18.9 μg/mL) exhibited the highest anti-trypanosomal activities. Citral is likely the active component of C. citratus and α-pinene is responsible for the antitrypanosomal effects of J. oxycedrus. The present work leads us to propose the J. oxycedrus, C. citratus and L. luisieri oils as valuable sources of new molecules for African Sleeping Sickness treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening.

  12. Proceedings of the 2002 Petroleum Society of CIM/SPE/CHOA International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, International Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, and Canadian Heavy Oil Association Business Conference : Resources 2 Reserves 2 Results. CD ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This three day conference combined the Petroleum Society's International Horizontal Well and Technology Conference, the Society of Petroleum Engineer's (SPE) International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, and the Canadian Heavy Oil Association's (CHOA) Annual Business Meeting. The 87 presentations covered all aspects of heavy oil, thermal, and horizontal well technology from geosciences and drilling to economics and environment. The themes included financing, turning projects into results, eliminating the downstream barriers to oil sand development in North America and the world, and emerging technologies for horizontal or heavy oil applications. The conference included the following 20 sessions: (1) thermal operations/engineering, (2) well testing/productivity of horizontal wells, (3) heavy oil operations, (4) environmental aspects of heavy oil projects, (5) upgrading/pipelines, (6) economics and project appraisal, (7) simulation studies of thermal projects, (8) multilaterals, (9) horizontal wells in conventional reservoirs, (10) cold production of heavy oil, (11) horizontal drilling in thermal projects, (12) simulation studies of horizontal wells, (13) horizontal drilling technology, (14) thermal field studies and horizontal wells in heavy oil, (15) completion/production technology of horizontal and thermal wells, (16) physics and PVT of heavy oil recovery processes, (17) reservoir characterization/geosciences, (18) horizontal injectors/produced water technology, (19) emerging technologies, and (20) reservoir geomechanics/fracturing. Tutorials were also organized to provide opportunity to review areas that have undergone major changes. A total of 73 papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Effect of bioactive substances found in rapeseed, raspberry and strawberry seed oils on blood lipid profile and selected parameters of oxidative status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieszka, Marek; Tombarkiewicz, Barbara; Roman, Adam; Migdał, Władysław; Niedziółka, Jerzy

    2013-11-01

    Rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils are a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants such as tocols, bioflavonoids and phytosterols. The aim of the study was to determine changes in the blood lipid profile of rats fed with rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils and their effects on selected parameters of oxidative status. The experiment was carried out on male Wistar rats. The oils were administered by oral gavage for 5 weeks once daily at the dose of about 0.8 ml per rat. Blood samples were taken before and after supplementation period. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (cGPx) was assessed in erythrocytes and contents of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, low-density fraction of cholesterol (LDL) and high-density fraction of cholesterol (HDL) were assessed in plasma. The experiment shows that oils supplemented in the diet for 5 weeks had no significant effect on the level of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol as well as HDL and LDL fractions. Reduced activity of cGPX and SOD in the group of rats receiving raspberry and strawberry seed oils suggests that these native oils may contribute to oxidative stability (improves antioxidant status). Thus, strawberry and raspberry seed oils can be considered as special biological oils, which constitute potential nutraceuticals reducing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High performance nature of biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for oil-well drilling fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Madkour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT and graphene nanoplatelet reinforced thermoplastic poly(lactic acid (PLA biodegradable nanocomposites were designed and prepared using solution casting techniques. The prepared biodegradable polymers are expected to provide an environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum-based polymers. Both nanocomposite systems exhibited better thermal stability and improved mechanical performance over the unreinforced polymer exhibiting excellent strength and degradability. The addition of graphene nanofiller in varied amounts was aimed to enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites even further and incorporate the outstanding characteristics of graphene nanoplatelets into the nanocomposites. The polymeric nanocomposites showed also superior advantages for oil drilling relevances, automotive lubricating purposes, membrane technology and food packaging. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated a homogeneous dispersion of the nanofiller within the polymeric matrix at low filler loadings and a cluster formation at higher loadings that could be responsible for the polymeric matrix movement restrictions. The enthalpy of mixing (the polymer and the nanofiller measured could explain the cause of the repulsive interactions between the nanoparticles and the polymeric chains, which created an additional excluded volume that the polymeric segments were restricted to occupy, thus forcing the conformational characteristics of the polymeric chains to deviate away from those of the bulk chains. The prepared polymeric nano composites (poly lactic acid carbon nano tube and poly lactic acid graphene nanoplatelets were utilized in the formulation of oil-base mud as a viscosifier. The rheological, filtration properties and electrical stability of the oil based mud formulation with the new polymeric nanocomposite were studied and the result compared to the oil-based mud formulation with commercial viscosifier.

  15. Does sex-selective abortion improve girls' well-being? Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Luojia; Schlosser, Analía

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the impact of prenatal sex selection on the well-being of girls by analyzing changes in children's nutritional status and mortality during the years since the diffusion of prenatal sex determination technologies in India. We use the ratio of male to female births in the year and state in which a child was born as a proxy for parental access to prenatal sex-selection. We find that an increase in the practice of prenatal sex selection appears to be associated with a reduction ...

  16. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  17. Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of selected essential oils against candida albicans: microscopic observations and chemical characterization of cymbopogon citratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Anushree

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of essential oils for controlling Candida albicans growth has gained significance due to the resistance acquired by pathogens towards a number of widely-used drugs. The aim of this study was to test the antifungal activity of selected essential oils against Candida albicans in liquid and vapour phase and to determine the chemical composition and mechanism of action of most potent essential oil. Methods Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC of different essential oils in liquid phase, assayed through agar plate dilution, broth dilution & 96-well micro plate dilution method and vapour phase activity evaluated through disc volatilization method. Reduction of C. albicans cells with vapour exposure was estimated by kill time assay. Morphological alteration in treated/untreated C. albicans cells was observed by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM/Atomic force microscopy (AFM and chemical analysis of the strongest antifungal agent/essential oil has been done by GC, GC-MS. Results Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal effect followed by mentha (Mentha piperita and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus essential oil. The MIC of lemon grass essential oil in liquid phase (288 mg/l was significantly higher than that in the vapour phase (32.7 mg/l and a 4 h exposure was sufficient to cause 100% loss in viability of C. albicans cells. SEM/AFM of C. albicans cells treated with lemon grass essential oil at MIC level in liquid and vapour phase showed prominent shrinkage and partial degradation, respectively, confirming higher efficacy of vapour phase. GC-MS analysis revealed that lemon grass essential oil was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.2%; α-citral or geranial (36.2% and β-citral or neral (26.5%, monoterpene hydrocarbons (7.9% and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.8%. Conclusion Lemon grass essential oil is highly effective in vapour phase against C. albicans, leading to deleterious

  18. Selective retention of oils in aqueous mixtures using palygorskite treated with waterproof materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matesanz, J.M.; Aisa, C.; Aragues, J.L.; Ovelleiro, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    An oil-selective absorbent has been developed from clay materials that is easy to manufacture and use, and provides good results in different working conditions, compared to conventional water treatment methods. The absorbent can be used in fixed beds in a column or spread directly onto an oil spill. The absorbent is a palygorskite (attapulgite) coated with a silicone. The silicone coating reduces the water absorption capacity of the palygorskite to near zero, but affects oil absorption capacity very little. The Westinghouse method was used to evaluate the absorption capacity of the silicone-coated palygorskite. The results indicate that the material could be a good choice for reducing the organic matter content of drinking water. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Arpiwi; I Made Sutha Negara; I Nengah Simpen

    2017-01-01

    Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field. The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to e...

  20. Groundwater Levels for Selected Wells in the Chehalis River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasser, E.T.; Julich, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater levels for selected wells in the Chehalis River basin, Washington, are presented on an interactive web-based map to document the spatial distribution of groundwater levels in the study area during late summer 2009. Groundwater level data and well information were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey using standard techniques. The data are stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), Ground-Water Site-Inventory (GWSI) System.

  1. Nano-chemo-mechanical signature of conventional oil-well cement systems: Effects of elevated temperature and curing time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowiak, Konrad J., E-mail: kjkrak@mit.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Thomas, Jeffrey J., E-mail: JThomas39@slb.com [Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, 1 Hampshire St., Cambridge, MA 02139-1578 (United States); Musso, Simone, E-mail: SMusso@slb.com [Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, 1 Hampshire St., Cambridge, MA 02139-1578 (United States); James, Simon, E-mail: james6@slb.com [Schlumberger Riboud Product Center, 1 rue Henri Becquerel, Clamart 92140 (France); Akono, Ange-Therese, E-mail: aakono@illinois.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Ulm, Franz-Josef, E-mail: ulm@mit.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    With ever more challenging (T,p) environments for cementing applications in oil and gas wells, there is a need to identify the fundamental mechanisms of fracture resistant oil well cements. We report results from a multi-technique investigation of behavior and properties of API class G cement and silica-enriched cement systems subjected to hydrothermal curing from 30 °C to 200 °C; including electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, electron microscopy, neutron scattering (SANS), and fracture scratch testing. The results provide a new insight into the link between system chemistry, micro-texture and micro-fracture toughness. We suggest that the strong correlation found between chemically modulated specific surface and fracture resistance can explain the drop in fracture properties of neat oil-well cements at elevated temperatures; the fracture property enhancement in silica-rich cement systems, between 110° and 175 °C; and the drop in fracture properties of such systems through prolonged curing over 1 year at 200 °C.

  2. Contrast based band selection for optimized weathered oil detection in hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaux, Florian; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Neyt, Xavier

    2012-09-01

    Hyperspectral imagery offers unique benefits for detection of land and water features due to the information contained in reflectance signatures such as the bi-directional reflectance distribution function or BRDF. The reflectance signature directly shows the relative absorption and backscattering features of targets. These features can be very useful in shoreline monitoring or surveillance applications, for example to detect weathered oil. In real-time detection applications, processing of hyperspectral data can be an important tool and Optimal band selection is thus important in real time applications in order to select the essential bands using the absorption and backscatter information. In the present paper, band selection is based upon the optimization of target detection using contrast algorithms. The common definition of the contrast (using only one band out of all possible combinations available within a hyperspectral image) is generalized in order to consider all the possible combinations of wavelength dependent contrasts using hyperspectral images. The inflection (defined here as an approximation of the second derivative) is also used in order to enhance the variations in the reflectance spectra as well as in the contrast spectrua in order to assist in optimal band selection. The results of the selection in term of target detection (false alarms and missed detection) are also compared with a previous method to perform feature detection, namely the matched filter. In this paper, imagery is acquired using a pushbroom hyperspectral sensor mounted at the bow of a small vessel. The sensor is mechanically rotated using an optical rotation stage. This opto-mechanical scanning system produces hyperspectral images with pixel sizes on the order of mm to cm scales, depending upon the distance between the sensor and the shoreline being monitored. The motion of the platform during the acquisition induces distortions in the collected HSI imagery. It is therefore

  3. INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON SELECTIVE ATTENTION IN WELL-RESTED AND FATIGUED SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LORIST, MM; SNEL, J; KOK, A; MULDER, G

    1994-01-01

    Effects of caffeine were studied in a visual focused selective search task in well-rested and fatigued subjects. A dose of 200 + 50 mg caffeine or placebo, dissolved in decaffeinated coffee, was administered in a double-blind and deceptive fashion. The task was to detect a target letter on one

  4. Social capital and employee well-being : Disentangling intrapersonal and interpersonal selection and influence mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, F.; Wittek, R.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    We argue that sociological explanations proposed within the social capital framework to explain individual well-being are incomplete because they do not differentiate between interpersonal influence and selection mechanisms, on the one hand, and cognitive intra-personal processes. on the other. To

  5. Selective separation of oil and water with special wettability mesh membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Defei

    2017-02-24

    Due to the different interfacial effects of oil and water, utilizing the special wettability of solid surfaces to design an oil and water separation process has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for oil/water separation. In this report, a simple process has been developed to fabricate special surface wettability mesh membranes. The carbon nanoparticles with diameters of 10 nm were first coated onto the surface of steel wires based on a candle soot coating process. These templates of carbon nanoparticles were then coated with a more stable layer of silica (SiO2) particles via a facile chemical vapor deposition route. After being modified by two separate methods, a superhydrophobic/superoleophilic membrane was obtained by the use of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTS) and a oleophobic/superhydrophilic membrane was obtained by using poly(diallyldimethylammonium-perfluorooctanoate) (PDDA–PFO). Separation experiments show that these superhydrophobic/superoleophilic or oleophobic/superhydrophilic mesh membranes can be used to selectively separate oil/water with a high flux of more than 930 L m−2 h−1 and a collecting efficiency of over 97%. Furthermore, the repetitions of the separation experiments demonstrate that these superhydrophobic/superoleophilic or oleophobic/superhydrophilic mesh membranes are durable, stable and reusable, making them encouraging candidates for practical oil-polluted water treatment.

  6. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Li, Haoyu; Liu, Xingbin; Zhang, Yuhui; Xie, Ronghua; Huang, Chunhui; Hu, Jinhai; Deng, Gang

    2016-10-14

    First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  7. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  8. Two-fluid model for transient analysis of slug flow in oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazarez-Candia, O.; Benitez-Centeno, O.C.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this work it is presented a transient, one-dimensional, adiabatic model for slug flow simulation, which appears when liquid (mixture of oil and water) and gas flow simultaneously through pipes. The model is formed by space and time averaged conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy for each phase, the numerical solution is based on the finite difference technique in the implicit scheme. Velocity, pressure, volumetric fraction and temperature profiles for both phases were predicted for inclination angles from the horizontal to the vertical position (unified model) and ascendant flow. Predictions from the model were validated using field data and ten correlations commonly used in the oil industry. The effects of gas heating or cooling, due to compression and expansion processes, on the predictions and numerical stability, were studied. It was found that when these effects are taken into account, a good behavior of temperature predictions and numerical stability are obtained. The model presents deviations lower than 14% regarding field data and it presents better predictions than most of the correlations.

  9. Two-fluid model for transient analysis of slug flow in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazarez-Candia, O., E-mail: ocazarez@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Zacatepec, Depto. de Metal-Mecanica, Calzada Tecnologico, No. 27, Zacatepec, Morelos 62780 (Mexico); Benitez-Centeno, O.C. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Depto. de Mecanica, Interior Internado Palmira s/n, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62490 (Mexico); Espinosa-Paredes, G. [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av San Rafael Atlixco No 186, Col. Vicentina 55-534, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    In this work it is presented a transient, one-dimensional, adiabatic model for slug flow simulation, which appears when liquid (mixture of oil and water) and gas flow simultaneously through pipes. The model is formed by space and time averaged conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy for each phase, the numerical solution is based on the finite difference technique in the implicit scheme. Velocity, pressure, volumetric fraction and temperature profiles for both phases were predicted for inclination angles from the horizontal to the vertical position (unified model) and ascendant flow. Predictions from the model were validated using field data and ten correlations commonly used in the oil industry. The effects of gas heating or cooling, due to compression and expansion processes, on the predictions and numerical stability, were studied. It was found that when these effects are taken into account, a good behavior of temperature predictions and numerical stability are obtained. The model presents deviations lower than 14% regarding field data and it presents better predictions than most of the correlations.

  10. Chemical analyses for selected wells in San Joaquin County and part of Contra Costa County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeter, Gail L.

    1980-01-01

    The study area of this report includes the eastern valley area of Contra Costa County and all of San Joaquin County, an area of approximately 1,600 square miles in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. Between December 1977 and December 1978, 1,489 wells were selectively canvassed. During May and June in 1978 and 1979, water samples were collected for chemical analysis from 321 of these wells. Field determinations of alkalinity, conductance, pH, and temperature were made, and individual constituents were analyzed. This report is the fourth in a series of baseline data reports on wells in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. (USGS)

  11. High selectivity and stability of Mg-doped Al-MCM-41 for in-situ catalytic upgrading fast pyrolysis bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnjanakom, Surachai; Suriya-umporn, Thanyamai; Bayu, Asep; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Samart, Chanatip; Fushimi, Chihiro; Abudula, Abuliti; Guan, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Mg-doped Al-MCM-41 was developed for in-situ catalytic upgrading of bio-oils. • Mg/Al-MCM-41 exhibited high selectivity to aromatic hydrocarbons. • The ratio of produced hydrocarbon reached up to 80% in upgraded bio-oil. • 1 wt.% Mg/Al-MCM-41 showed the highest catalytic activity. • Mg/Al-MCM-41 had stable reusability due to its coking inhabitation ability. - Abstract: In-situ catalytic upgrading of bio-oils derived from the fast pyrolysis of cellulose, lignin or sunflower stalk over Mg-doped Al-MCM-41 was investigated in details. It is found that Mg species with doping amounts ranged between 0.25 and 10 wt.% was well dispersed on Al-MCM-41, and that doping Mg on Al-MCM-41 effectively adjusted the acidity and basicity of the catalysts, resulting in significant improvement of bio-oil quality. Mg/Al-MCM-41 exhibited high selective conversion of bio-oils derived from cellulose, lignin or sunflower stalk to high value-added aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic cracking, deoxygenation and aromatization. In the upgraded bio-oil, the relative total hydrocarbon amount reached up to approximately ≥80%, which consisted of aromatic hydrocarbon approximately 76% and aliphatic hydrocarbon approximately 4% for all feedstocks. The selectivity to the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) such as benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTXs) increased while the coke formed on the catalyst decreased with the increase in Mg doping amount. 1 wt.% Mg/Al-MCM-41 resulted in the highest relative total hydrocarbon amount in the upgraded bio-oil at lower catalytic deoxygenation temperature, and showed stable reusability for at least 5 cycles. It is expected that Mg/Al-MCM-41 can be widely applied for bio-oil upgrading in a practical process.

  12. Genomic selection prediction accuracy in a perennial crop: case study of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, David; Denis, Marie; Sánchez, Leopoldo; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Nouy, Bruno; Omoré, Alphonse; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Suryana, Edyana; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2015-03-01

    Genomic selection empirically appeared valuable for reciprocal recurrent selection in oil palm as it could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms, despite small populations and low marker density. Genomic selection (GS) can increase the genetic gain in plants. In perennial crops, this is expected mainly through shortened breeding cycles and increased selection intensity, which requires sufficient GS accuracy in selection candidates, despite often small training populations. Our objective was to obtain the first empirical estimate of GS accuracy in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), the major world oil crop. We used two parental populations involved in conventional reciprocal recurrent selection (Deli and Group B) with 131 individuals each, genotyped with 265 SSR. We estimated within-population GS accuracies when predicting breeding values of non-progeny-tested individuals for eight yield traits. We used three methods to sample training sets and five statistical methods to estimate genomic breeding values. The results showed that GS could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms in Group B but only for family effects in Deli. Presumably, this difference between populations originated from their contrasting breeding history. The GS accuracy ranged from -0.41 to 0.94 and was positively correlated with the relationship between training and test sets. Training sets optimized with the so-called CDmean criterion gave the highest accuracies, ranging from 0.49 (pulp to fruit ratio in Group B) to 0.94 (fruit weight in Group B). The statistical methods did not affect the accuracy. Finally, Group B could be preselected for progeny tests by applying GS to key yield traits, therefore increasing the selection intensity. Our results should be valuable for breeding programs with small populations, long breeding cycles, or reduced effective size.

  13. Hydrogeologic correlations for selected wells on Long Island, New York; a data base with retrieval program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, H.T.; Shernoff, P.K.; Smolensky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate delineation of the internal hydrogeologic structure of Long Island, NY is integral to the understanding and management of the groundwater system. This report presents a computerized data base of hydrogeologic correlations for 3,146 wells on Long Island and adjacent parts of New York City. The data base includes the well identification number, the latitude-longitude of the well location, the altitude of land surface at the well and of the bottom of the drilled hole, and the altitude of the top of the major hydrogeologic units penetrated by the well. A computer program is included that allows retrieval of selected types of data for all of, or any local area of, Long Island. These data retrievals are a valuable aid to the construction of hydrogeologic surface maps. (USGS)

  14. GPU-Based Computation of Formation Pressure for Multistage Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Wells in Tight Oil and Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongwang Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for multistage hydraulically fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs in tight oil and gas reservoirs was derived by considering the variations in the permeability and porosity of tight oil and gas reservoirs that depend on formation pressure and mixed fluid properties and introducing the pseudo-pressure; analytical solutions were presented using the Newman superposition principle. The CPU-GPU asynchronous computing model was designed based on the CUDA platform, and the analytic solution was decomposed into infinite summation and integral forms for parallel computation. Implementation of this algorithm on an Intel i5 4590 CPU and NVIDIA GT 730 GPU demonstrates that computation speed increased by almost 80 times, which meets the requirement for real-time calculation of the formation pressure of MFHWs.

  15. Robust technology and system for management of sucker rod pumping units in oil wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, T. A.; Rzayev, A. H.; Guluyev, G. A.; Alizada, T. A.; Rzayeva, N. E.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a technology for calculating the robust, normalized correlation functions of the signal from the force sensor on the rod string attached to the hanger of the sucker rod pumping unit. The robust normalized correlation functions are used to form sets of informative attribute combinations, each of which corresponds to a technical condition of the sucker rod pumping unit. We demonstrate how these sets can be used to solve identification and management problems in the oil production process in real time using inexpensive controllers. The results obtained from using the system on real objects are also presented in this paper. It was determined that the energy saved and prolonged overhaul period substantially increased the cost-effectiveness.

  16. Heat-resistant agent used for control sand of steam huff and puff heavy oil well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F. S.; Liu, G. L.; Lu, Y. J.; Xiong, X. C.; Ma, J. H.; Su, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    Heat-resistant agent containing hydroxymethyl group was synthesized from coal tar, which has similar structure with phenolic resin and could improve the heat resistance of phenolic resin sand control agent. The results showed that the heat resistance of the sand control agent was improved by adding 10% to 30% heat-resistant agent, after 280°C high temperature treatment for 7d, the compressive strength of consolidated core was increased to more than 5MPa. The compressive strength of consolidation core was not decreased after immersion in formation water, crude oil, acid or alkaline medium, which showed good resistance to medium immersion. The sand control agent had small core damage and the core permeability damage ratio of sand control agent consolidation was only 18.7%.

  17. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  18. Effects of mycorrhiza on growth and essential oil production in selected aromatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waed Tarraf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis is widely investigated in aromatic herbs. Several studies have shown different effects on secondary metabolites, biomass production, as well as oil quantitative and qualitative aspects. The seeking to increase the yield of plants and their oils is an interesting topic in the world of medicinal and aromatic plant production. In tune with that, this study evaluated the effectiveness of two mycorrhiza fungi, Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae and Septoglomus viscosum (syn. Glomus viscosum, on three species from Lamiaceae family: Salvia officinalis L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. besides untreated control. It was found that the effect of symbiosis on growth was more favourable with S. viscosum than other AM fungus. The S. viscosum inoculation raised the yield of essential oil in oregano. Analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that manool obtained the highest abundance in leaf essential oil of inoculated sage; thymol was the major component whatever the treatment in thyme and lower relative content of carvacrol was reported with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation in oregano. The results suggest the mycorrhizal inoculation as a promising technology in sustainable agricultural system to improve the plant productivity performance. Specific inocula are strategic to enhance the chemical profile of essential oils.

  19. 78 FR 48895 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations; Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... event of encountering H 2 S. Review well-workover diagrams and procedures to ensure the safety of well... chart details the individual components and respective hour burden estimates of this ICR. In calculating... during BOP and coiled tubing tests for well- workovers on a pressure chart or with a digital recorder...

  20. SAGD pilot project, wells MFB-772 (producer) / MFB-773 (injector), U1,3 MFB-53 reservoir, Bare Field. Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Armas, F.; Vasquez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil and extra heavy oil fields, steam assisted gravity drainage is a thermal recovery method used to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil recovery. For SAGD to be successfully applied in deep reservoirs, drilling and completion of the producer and injector wells are critical. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently assessing the feasibility of SAGD in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and this paper aims at presenting the methodology used to ensure optimal drilling and completion of the project. This method was divided in several stages: planning, drilling and completion of the producer, injector and then of the observer wells and cold information capture. It was found that the use of magnetic guidance tools, injection pipe pre-insulated and pressure and temperature sensors helps optimize the drilling and completion process. A methodology was presented to standardize operational procedures in the drilling and completion of SAGD projects in the Orinoco oil belt.

  1. Ultrafast and band-selective Auger recombination in InGaN quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kristopher W.; Monahan, Nicholas R.; Zhu, X.-Y.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Crawford, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    In InGaN quantum well based light-emitting diodes, Auger recombination is believed to limit the quantum efficiency at high injection currents. Here, we report the direct observation of carrier loss from Auger recombination on a sub-picosecond timescale in a single InGaN quantum well using time-resolved photoemission. Selective excitations of different valence sub-bands reveal that the Auger rate constant decreases by two orders of magnitude as the effective hole mass decreases, confirming the critical role of momentum conservation.

  2. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT, MOCANE-LAVERNE FIELD, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Reeves; Buckley Walsh

    2003-08-01

    In 1996, Advanced Resources International (ARI) began performing R&D targeted at enhancing production and reserves from natural gas fields. The impetus for the effort was a series of field R&D projects in the early-to-mid 1990's, in eastern coalbed methane and gas shales plays, where well remediation and production enhancement had been successfully demonstrated. As a first step in the R&D effort, an assessment was made of the potential for restimulation to provide meaningful reserve additions to the U.S. gas resource base, and what technologies were needed to do so. That work concluded that: (1) A significant resource base did exist via restimulation (multiples of Tcf). (2) The greatest opportunities existed in non-conventional plays where completion practices were (relatively) complex and technology advancement was rapid. (3) Accurate candidate selection is the greatest single factor that contributes to a successful restimulation program. With these findings, a field-oriented program targeted at tight sand formations was initiated to develop and demonstrate successful candidate recognition technology. In that program, which concluded in 2001, nine wells were restimulated in the Green River, Piceance and East Texas basins, which in total added 2.9 Bcf of reserves at an average cost of $0.26/Mcf. In addition, it was found that in complex and heterogeneous reservoirs (such as tight sand formations), candidate selection procedures should involve a combination of fundamental engineering and advanced pattern recognition approaches, and that simple statistical methods for identifying candidate wells are not effective. In mid-2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded ARI an R&D contract to determine if the methods employed in that project could also be applied to stripper gas wells. In addition, the ability of those approaches to identify more general production enhancement opportunities (beyond only restimulation), such as via artificial lift and compression

  3. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Ranjan Moharana

    Full Text Available Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1, which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL, as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  4. Mechanisms of mineral scaling in oil and geothermal wells studied in laboratory experiments by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Stamatakis, E.

    2006-01-01

    Two independent nuclear methods have been developed and tested for studies of mineral scaling mechanisms and kinetics related to the oil and geothermal industry. The first is a gamma transmission method to measure mass increase with a 30 MBq source of 133 Ba. The other method applies radioactive tracers of one or more of the scaling components. CaCO 3 -precipitation has been used as an example here where the main tracer has been 47 Ca 2+ . While the transmission method is an indirect method, the latter is a direct method where the reactions of specific components may be studied. Both methods are on-line, continuous and non-destructive, and capable to study scaling of liquids with saturation ratios approaching the solubility product. A lower limit for detection of CaCO 3 with the transmission method in sand-packed columns with otherwise reasonable experimental parameters is estimated to be < 1 mg in a 1 cm section of the tube packed with silica sand while the lower limit of detection for the tracer method with reasonable experimental parameters is estimated to < 1 μg in the same tube section. (author)

  5. Analysis of Bacterial Diversity in Different Heavy Oil Wells of a Reservoir in South Oman with Alkaline pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biji Shibulal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of potential hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria is an essential requirement in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR. Molecular approaches like proteomic and genomic characterization of the isolates are replacing the traditional method of identification with systemic classification. Genotypic profiling of the isolates includes fingerprint or pattern-based technique and sequence-based technique. Understanding community structure and dynamics is essential for studying diversity profiles and is challenging in the case of microbial analysis. The present study aims to understand the bacterial community composition from different heavy oil contaminated soil samples collected from geographically related oil well areas in Oman and to identify spore-forming hydrocarbon utilizing cultivable bacteria. V4 region of 16S rDNA gene was the target for Ion PGM™. A total of 825081 raw sequences were obtained from Ion torrent from all the 10 soil samples. The species richness and evenness were found to be moderate in all the samples with four main phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria, the most abundant being Firmicutes. Bacillus sp. ubiquitously dominated in all samples followed by Paenibacillus, which was followed by Brevibacillus, Planococcus, and Flavobacterium. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA and UPGMA dendrogram clustered the 10 soil samples into four main groups. Weighted UniFrac significance test determined that there was significant difference in the communities present in soil samples examined. It can be concluded that the microbial community was different in all the 10 soil samples with Bacillus and Paenibacillus sp. as predominating genus. The 16S rDNA sequencing of cultivable spore-forming bacteria identified the hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria as Bacillus and Paenibacillus sp. and the nucleotide sequences were submitted to NCBI GenBank under accession numbers KP119097–KP119115. Bacillus and

  6. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  7. 78 FR 68079 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations; Submitted for Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... view all related materials. We will post all comments. Email [email protected] : cheryl... personnel, property, and natural resources; (d) well- completion operations are conducted on well casings... hours. The following chart details the individual components and estimated hour burdens. In calculating...

  8. 17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... properties, wells, operations, and acreage. 229.1208 Section 229.1208 Commodity and Securities Exchanges..., operations, and acreage. (a) Disclose, as of a reasonably current date or as of the end of the fiscal year... interests owned in gross wells or acres expressed as whole numbers and fractions of whole numbers. (3...

  9. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  10. Understanding the selection of core head design features to match precisely challenging well applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrana, Roberto; Sousa, J. Tadeu V. de; Antunes, Ricardo [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Reliable rock mechanical information is very important for optimum reservoir development. This information can help specialists to accurately estimate reserves, reservoir compaction, sand production, stress field orientation, etc. In all cases, the solutions to problems involving rock mechanics lead to significant cost savings. Consequently, it is important that the decisions be based on the most accurate information possible. For the describing rock mechanics, cores represent the major source of data and therefore should be of good quality. However, there are several well conditions that cause coring and core recovery to be difficult, for example: unconsolidated formations; laminated and fractured rocks; critical mud losses, etc. The problem becomes even worse in high-inclination wells with long horizontal sections. In such situations, the optimum selections of core heads become critical. This paper will discuss the most important design features that enable core heads to be matched precisely to various challenging applications. Cases histories will be used to illustrate the superior performance of selected core heads. They include coring in horizontal wells and in harsh well conditions with critical mud losses. (author)

  11. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowei, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Sheng, Huang [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Xiaoyang, Guo, E-mail: guoxiaoyangswpi@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Wenhui, Duan, E-mail: wenhui.duan@monash.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne 3800 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was modified by plasma polymerization of ethanol. • Hydrophilic groups were introduced onto WTR surface and improved its hydrophilia. • The functionalized crumb WTR was applied in oil-well cement. • The mechanical properties of modified oil-well cement were intensively enhanced. - Abstract: Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as –COOH, C–OH, and –CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization

  12. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaowei, Cheng; Sheng, Huang; Xiaoyang, Guo; Wenhui, Duan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was modified by plasma polymerization of ethanol. • Hydrophilic groups were introduced onto WTR surface and improved its hydrophilia. • The functionalized crumb WTR was applied in oil-well cement. • The mechanical properties of modified oil-well cement were intensively enhanced. - Abstract: Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as –COOH, C–OH, and –CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization

  13. Study of waste generation in the drilling and cementing operations during construction of offshore oil and gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Ferraço de Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to present drilling and cementing activities which take place during the construction of offshore oil and gas wells, listing the waste generated in each step. IBAMA, the environmental agency that regulates the activity, allows two disposal options for these wastes: disposal in open sea or treatment followed by disposal on shore. The documentary research applied in this article details the destination options showing that the monitoring required by the environmental agency is a way to track the actual results of the activities described.

  14. Towards a Quantitative Framework for Evaluating Vulnerability of Drinking Water Wells to Contamination from Unconventional Oil & Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, M., Jr.; Deziel, N. C.; Saiers, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) production, made possible by advances in hydraulic fracturing (fracking), has triggered concerns over risks this extraction poses to water resources and public health. Concerns are particularly acute within communities that host UO&G development and rely heavily on shallow aquifers as sources of drinking water. This research aims to develop a quantitative framework to evaluate the vulnerability of drinking water wells to contamination from UO&G activities. The concept of well vulnerability is explored through application of backwards travel time probability modeling to estimate the likelihood that capture zones of drinking water wells circumscribe source locations of UO&G contamination. Sources of UO&G contamination considered in this analysis include gas well pads and documented sites of UO&G wastewater and chemical spills. The modeling approach is illustrated for a portion of Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, where more than one thousand shale gas wells have been completed since 2005. Data from a network of eight multi-level groundwater monitoring wells installed in the study site in 2015 are used to evaluate the model. The well vulnerability concept is proposed as a physically based quantitative tool for policy-makers dealing with the management of contamination risks of drinking water wells. In particular, the model can be used to identify adequate setback distances of UO&G activities from drinking water wells and other critical receptors.

  15. Device for selective culturing of bacteria used to increase oil bed output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, J; Zamfirescu, I

    1982-12-15

    The device is patented for selective culturing of bacteria which can be used for increasing oil bed output in order to adapt them to conditions of the field. Development and reproduction of the bacteria are recorded by increase in pressure indicated by the manometer. When the pressure in the container reaches 0.5-0.5 MPa, the gases formed in it are released into the atmosphere through the reverse valve and the hose. Slow rise in pressure in the vessel (usually within 5-10 days) indicates that the nutrient carrier is approaching depletion. After removal of the gases formed because of bacterial activity, the cover is opened and a sample is taken for microbiological analysis and establishment of bacterial growth required for increasing oil output in the given field. When it is established that the developing populations of bacteria correspond to the requirements, then the necessary quantity of bacteria are grown under the same conditions in a battery of similar devices.

  16. Farmers’ decision analysis to select certified palm oil seedlings in Lampung, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utoyo, Bambang; Yolandika, Clara

    2018-03-01

    This research aimed to analyse (1) decission making process of certified and uncertified palm oil seedlings and (2) factors that influence farmer decision to select certified and uncertified palm oil seedlings. This research was conducted in some districts in Lampung, such as Mesuji, Central Lampung, Tulang Bawang, North Lampung, Way Kanan and South Lampung. The respondents consisted of 30 farmers using certified seeds and 30 farmers using uncertified seeds. The study was conducted from January to May 2017. In addition, factors that influence farmer decision was analysed by logistic regression model. The results showed that decision making on the use of certified or uncertified palm seeds by farmers through the stages: introduction of problems or needs, searching of information, alternative evaluation, purchasing decisions, and post-purchase behaviour. Factors that significantly influence farmer's decision to use certified seeds were land area, seeds price, external influenced, and farmers’ perception.

  17. Profiles of Reservoir Properties of Oil-Bearing Plays for Selected Petroleum Provinces in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, P.A.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2015-11-05

    Profiles of reservoir properties of oil-bearing plays for selected petroleum provinces in the United States were developed to characterize the database to be used for a potential assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of oil that would be technically recoverable by the application of enhanced oil recovery methods using injection of carbon dioxide (CO2-EOR). The USGS assessment methodology may require reservoir-level data for the purposes of screening conventional oil reservoirs and projecting CO2-EOR performance in terms of the incremental recoverable oil. The information used in this report is based on reservoir properties from the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012). As described by Nehring Associates, Inc., the database “covers all producing provinces (basins) in the United States except the Appalachian Basin and the Cincinnati Arch.”

  18. A multi-criteria analysis approach for ranking and selection of microorganisms for the production of oils for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farah B; Zhang, Zhanying; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2015-08-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms have potential to be used to produce oils as alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Microalgae (Chlorella protothecoides and Chlorella zofingiensis), yeasts (Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa), and fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Mucor plumbeus) were investigated for their ability to produce oil from glucose, xylose and glycerol. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and preference ranking organization method for the enrichment of evaluations (PROMETHEE) with graphical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), was used to rank and select the preferred microorganisms for oil production for biodiesel application. This was based on a number of criteria viz., oil concentration, content, production rate and yield, substrate consumption rate, fatty acids composition, biomass harvesting and nutrient costs. PROMETHEE selected A. oryzae, M. plumbeus and R. mucilaginosa as the most prospective species for oil production. However, further analysis by GAIA Webs identified A. oryzae and M. plumbeus as the best performing microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Semi-Analytical Methodology for Multiwell Productivity Index of Well-Industry-Production-Scheme in Tight Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfeng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the well-industry-production-scheme (WIPS has attracted more and more attention to improve tight oil recovery. However, multi-well pressure interference (MWPI induced by well-industry-production-scheme (WIPS strongly challenges the traditional transient pressure analysis methods, which focus on single multi-fractured horizontal wells (SMFHWs without MWPI. Therefore, a semi-analytical methodology for multiwell productivity index (MPI was proposed to study well performance of WIPS scheme in tight reservoir. To facilitate methodology development, the conceptual models of tight formation and WIPS scheme were firstly described. Secondly, seepage models of tight reservoir and hydraulic fractures (HFs were sequentially established and then dynamically coupled. Numerical simulation was utilized to validate our model. Finally, identification of flow regimes and sensitivity analysis were conducted. Our results showed that there was good agreement between our proposed model and numerical simulation; moreover, our approach also gave promising calculation speed over numerical simulation. Some expected flow regimes were significantly distorted due to WIPS. The slope of type curves which characterize the linear or bi-linear flow regime is bigger than 0.5 or 0.25. The horizontal line which characterize radial flow regime is also bigger 0.5. The smaller the oil rate, the more severely flow regimes were distorted. Well rate mainly determines the distortion of MPI curves, while fracture length, well spacing, fracture spacing mainly determine when the distortion of the MPI curves occurs. The bigger the well rate, the more severely the MPI curves are distorted. While as the well spacing decreases, fracture length increases, fracture spacing increases, occurrence of MWPI become earlier. Stress sensitivity coefficient mainly affects the MPI at the formation pseudo-radial flow stage, almost has no influence on the occurrence of MWPI. This work gains some

  20. 78 FR 48893 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations; Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... comments and view all related materials. We will post all comments. Email [email protected] . Mail or... correct and provides adequate protection for personnel, property, and natural resources; (d) well... reporting burden for this collection is 46,859 hours. The following chart details the individual components...

  1. 77 FR 27691 - Oil and Gas; Well Stimulation, Including Hydraulic Fracturing, on Federal and Indian Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... generally generate flow of hydrocarbons to well bores unless mechanical changes to the properties of the..., Division Chief, Fluid Minerals Division, 202-912-7143 for information regarding the substance of the rule or information about the BLM's Fluid Minerals Program. Persons who use a telecommunications device...

  2. Evaluation of cement thixotropy for the cement of oil wells in areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... economical for cementing job operations in wells with loss zones. The results also show that the effect of LHF is positive, since in addition to his contribution to long term performances, especially the durability of hardened concrete, it improves the thixotropy of cement made of plaster. Keywords: cementing; lost circulation; ...

  3. Health and wellness trends in the oil and gas sector : insights from the Shepell-fgi Research Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report discussed health and wellness trends in the oil and gas sector in relation to employee assistance program (EAP) data. The data were derived from oil and gas client organizations across Canada for 2008, and represented a population base of 14,685 employees. The data demonstrated that EAP utilization in the petroleum industry increased by approximately 5 per cent from 2006 to 2008. The sector's utilization was 34 per cent higher than the Canadian norm in 2006, and 40 per cent higher than in 2007 and 2008. Females used the EAP to a greater extent than males. A higher proportion of the spouses of workers accessed EAP than the national norm. Employees accessed EAP for assistance with work-life issues; family support services; and substance abuse interventions. Weight management and dietary consultations in relation to disease control were also of concern within the sector. A 66 per cent increase in childcare issues was noted, as well as a 148 per cent increase in eldercare issues, and a 112 per cent increase in addiction issues. The findings indicated that the EAP is being effectively communicated as a relevant and accessible tool. As the industry continues to develop in remote regions, new services and resources will be required to retain existing workforces and attract new employees. Prevention-focused training and services and program for at-risk groups are needed to ensure that employee health and productivity is maintained. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  4. A new experimental method to prevent paraffin - wax formation on the crude oil wells: A field case study in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhaddad Elnori E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wax formation and deposition is one of the most common problems in oil producing wells. This problem occurs as a result of the reduction of the produced fluid temperature below the wax appearance temperature (range between 46°C and 50°C and the pour point temperature (range between 42°C and 44°C. In this study, two new methods for preventing wax formation were implemented on three oil wells in Libya, where the surface temperature is, normally, 29°C. In the first method, the gas was injected at a pressure of 83.3 bar and a temperature of 65°C (greater than the pour point temperature during the gas-lift operation. In the second method, wax inhibitors (Trichloroethylene-xylene (TEX, Ethylene copolymers, and Comb polymers were injected down the casings together with the gas. Field observations confirmed that by applying these techniques, the production string was kept clean and no wax was formed. The obtained results show that the wax formation could be prevented by both methods.

  5. Investigation of prospects for forecasting non-linear time series by example of drilling oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, A. V.; Sizonenko, A. B.; Zhdanov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Discrete time series or mappings are proposed for describing the dynamics of a nonlinear system. The article considers the problems of forecasting the dynamics of the system from the time series generated by it. In particular, the commercial rate of drilling oil and gas wells can be considered as a series where each next value depends on the previous one. The main parameter here is the technical drilling speed. With the aim of eliminating the measurement error and presenting the commercial speed of the object to the current with a good accuracy, future or any of the elapsed time points, the use of the Kalman filter is suggested. For the transition from a deterministic model to a probabilistic one, the use of ensemble modeling is suggested. Ensemble systems can provide a wide range of visual output, which helps the user to evaluate the measure of confidence in the model. In particular, the availability of information on the estimated calendar duration of the construction of oil and gas wells will allow drilling companies to optimize production planning by rationalizing the approach to loading drilling rigs, which ultimately leads to maximization of profit and an increase of their competitiveness.

  6. Evaluation of polymers and polymergels for water shutoff in oil and gas wells. Literature study; Beurteilung von Gelen und Polymeren fuer Absperrmassnahmen im Bohrloch. Literaturrecherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubenau, U.; Rockmann, R.; Schmitz, S.; Kretzschmar, H.J. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this project is compilation and consolidation of knowledge about polymer technologies for water control of defined zones in wells. The first part of this review is the presentation of the best available technology together with summary and evaluation of published field test data. About 200 references of the last 20 years were included in this report. The selected references describe 80 different polymer treatments, mainly in oil wells. In this study the basic chemistry of published polymers and polymergels is described and the results of laboratory investigations are presented. The dominating systems use polyacrylamid compounds, whose properties are modified by selection of copolymers and cross-linkers. Investigations of resistance of the polymers and gels to low pH-value and high salinity are seldom published. The cited references contain almost fragmentary data that describe the geological structure, the main chemical composition and details of the handling procedure. Nevertheless viscosity and temperature behaviour of polymers are adjustable over a wide range. So the composition of the polymer system can be varied in order to fit the requirements of the field conditions. The success rate of polymer treatments correlates with the knowledge of geological and geochemical field conditions as well as the extent of preliminary investigations. It was about 75 % in the considered literature. (orig.)

  7. Capillary electrophoretic determination of selected phenolic compounds in humic substances of well waters and fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ying; Chang, Yan-Zin; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chen, Jian-Lian

    2010-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) from well waters, fertilizers, and synthetic phenolic polymers were characterized by elemental and UV-VIS spectroscopic analyses. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with UV absorption detection was used to analyze the lignin-derived phenolic distribution in the degradation residues after alkaline CuO oxidation of HS samples. Eleven phenols with p-acetyl, vanillyl and syringyl substituents were selected to optimize the CZE parameters. For well waters and fertilizers, the content of phenolic fragments was in agreement with the findings of the elemental and spectroscopic measurements. Additionally, parameters derived from the vanillic acid/vanilline, syringyl acid/syringaldehyde, p-hydroxyl/vanillyl and syringyl/vanillyl ratios matched analogous studies on dissolved organic matter from natural waters and on humic acids from terrestrial substances. The amount of phenolic monomer bonded within two synthetic HS polymers was found to be 25.9% protocatechuic acid and 71.3% gallic acid.

  8. EPR and EOM studies in well samples from some Venezuelan oil fields: correlation with magnetic authigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M.; Aldana, M.; Sequera, P.; Costanzo A, V.; Jimenez, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), magnetic susceptibility (MS) and extractable organic matter (EOM) measurements were carried out in drilling fines, from near-surface levels, from producer and non-producer wells, with the purpose of examining a possible causal relationship between magnetic contrasts and underlying hydrocarbons. Organic matter free radical concentration (OMFRC) and EOM anomalies were found only at the producer wells, in the same zone where MS anomalies were observed. The EOM anomalies coincide in depth with the MS ones, while the OMFRC anomalies lie close to them. The results could be explained if a net transfer of electrons from reduced organic matter, possible induced by the underlying reservoir, to Fe(lII) (e.g. hematite) occurs. This process alters the original organic matter and produces the formation of EOM and Fe(ll) magnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite), with both anomalies coexisting. (Author)

  9. Selecting the Best Version of SHALOM to Assess Spiritual Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fisher

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the reporting of contemporary use of the Spiritual Health and Life-Orientation Measure (SHALOM, which provides flexibility to researchers, enabling them to choose the version of the instrument that best suits the cohort under investigation. SHALOM was built on a solid theoretical foundation, provided by the Four Domains Model of Spiritual Health/Well-Being. It comprises 20 items that assess spiritual well-being, as reflected in the quality of relationships that each person has with themselves, others, the environment, and/or with God. Summary results are reported from 30 recent studies. SHALOM provides a unique form of assessment that is statistically stronger than just assessing lived experiences, in that spiritual harmony/dissonance is studied by comparing each person’s “lived experiences” with her/his “ideals” for spiritual well-being. SHALOM has been sought for use with hundreds of studies in 29 languages, in education, healthcare and wider community. A generic form of SHALOM was developed to expand the Transcendental domain to include more than God. However, recent studies have shown that relating with God is most important for spiritual well-being. The best version of SHALOM to assess spiritual well-being depends on the needs of the clients/participants and the project goals of the researcher. This will involve a selection between the original form of Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire-SHALOM for comparison with other measures and investigation of characteristics influencing spiritual well-being; or the dissonance method for spiritual care; and either the original or the generic version of SHALOM for use with non-religious/secular participants.

  10. Effect of chemically reduced palladium supported catalyst on sunflower oil hydrogenation conversion and selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Alshaibani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of sunflower oil was studied in order to improve the conversion and to reduce the trans-isomerization selectivity. The hydrogenation was performed using Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst and Pd/Al2O3 commercial catalyst under similar conditions. The Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation and chemical reduction processes. It was characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis (BET, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The result of sunflower oil hydrogenation on Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst showed a 17% higher conversion and a 23% lower trans-isomerization selectivity compared to the commercial Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The chemical reduction of palladium supported catalyst using potassium borohydride (KBH4 has affected the Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst’s structure and particle size. These most likely influenced its catalytic performance toward higher conversion and lower trans-isomerization selectivity.

  11. Model for determining the completion and production policy in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acurero S, L A

    1983-12-01

    An optimization scheme for reservoir development was examined considering the value of the resource, choice of completion and production techniques, and boundary conditions for the reservoir. A 3-phase semi-analytic single-well model was formulated to determine the reservoir response for any completion and production policy. Second, an optimization scheme based on the discrete version of the maximum principle of Pontryagin and the Fibonacci search method was formulated to determine the optimal production and completion policy. Both models are combined in a general algorithm of solution proposed to solve the optimization problem, and a computer code was developed and tested.

  12. Remote sensing and GIS approach for water-well site selection, southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangzan, K.; Charchi, A.; Abshirini, E.; Dinger, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Pabdeh-Lali Anticline of northern Khuzestan province is located in southwestern Iran and occupies 790 km2. This structure is situated in the Zagros folded belt. As a result of well-developed karst systems in the anticlinal axis, the water supply potential is high and is drained by many peripheral springs. However, there is a scarcity of water for agriculture and population centers on the anticlinal flanks, which imposes a severe problem in terms of area development. This study combines remotely sensed (RS) data and a geographical information system (GIS) into a RSGIS technique to delineate new areas for groundwater development and specific sites for drilling productive water wells. Toward these goals, RS data were used to develop GIS layers for lithology, structural geology, topographic slope, elevation, and drainage density. Field measurements were made to create spring-location and groundwater-quality GIS layers. Subsequently, expert choice and relational methods were used in a GIS environment to conjunctively analyze all layers to delineate preferable regions and 43 individual sites in which to drill water wells. Results indicate that the most preferred areas are, in preferential order, within recent alluvial deposits, the Bakhtiyari Conglomerates, and the Aghajari Sandstone. The Asmari Limestone and other units have much lower potential for groundwater supplies. Potential usefulness of the RSGIS method was indicated when six out of nine producing wells recently drilled by the Khozestan Water and Power Authority (which had no knowledge of this study) were located in areas preferentially selected by this technique.

  13. Selective internalization of self-assembled artificial oil bodies by HER2/neu-positive cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Lin, Che-Chin; Lin, Li-Jen; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2011-01-01

    A novel delivery carrier was developed using artificial oil bodies (AOBs). Plant seed oil bodies (OBs) consist of a triacylglycerol matrix surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with the storage protein oleosin (Ole). Ole consists of a central hydrophobic domain with two amphiphatic arms that extrude from the surface of OBs. In this study, a bivalent anti-HER2/neu affibody domain (ZH2) was fused with Ole at the C terminus. After overproduction in Escherichia coli, the fusion protein (Ole-ZH2) was recovered to assemble AOBs. The size of self-assembled AOBs was tailored by varying the oil/Ole-ZH2 ratio and pH to reach a nanoscale. Upon co-incubation with tumor cells, the nanoscale AOBs encapsulated with a hydrophobic fluorescence dye were selectively internalized by HER2/neu-overexpressing cells and displayed biocompatibility with the cells. In addition, the ZH2-mediated endosomal entry of AOBs occurred in a time- and AOB dose-dependent manner. The internalization efficiency was as high as 90%. The internalized AOBs disintegrated at the non-permissive pH (e.g. in acidic endosomes) and the cargo dye was released. Results of in vitro study revealed a sustained and prolonged release profile. Taken together, our findings indicate the potential of AOBs as a delivery carrier.

  14. Enhanced Coagulation Efficiency of Moringa Oleifera Seeds Through Selective Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman A. Muyibi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this laboratory based study, varying quantities of oil, corresponding to 20 % w/w, 25 % w/w and 30 % w/w kernel weight extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds ( S1, S2, S3 respectively  were applied in the coagulation of model turbid water (kaolin suspension and turbid river water samples from River Batang Kali and River Selangor in Malaysia to determine the percentage oil removed which gave the best coagulation efficiency. For model turbid water (kaolin suspension coagulation of low turbidity of 35 NTU, medium turbidity of 100 NTU and high turbidity of 300 NTU, sample S2  gave the best turbidity removal corresponding to 91.7%, 95.5% and 99% respectively. Application of sample S2 to River Batang Kali with low initial turbidity of 32 NTU and high initial turbidity of 502 NTU gave a highest turbidity removal of 69% and 99% respectively. Application to River Selangor with medium initial turbidity- of 87 NTU and high initial turbidity of 466 NTU gave a highest residual turbidity' of 94% and 98.9%,  respectively.Key words: Moringa oleifera seed, selective oil extraction, coagulation, model turbid water (kaolin suspension, river water, turbidity removal.

  15. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC 50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of methods and marker Systems in Genomic Selection of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Qi Bin; Teh, Chee Keng; Ong, Ai Ling; Chew, Fook Tim; Mayes, Sean; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Tammi, Martti; Yeoh, Suat Hui; Appleton, David Ross; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2017-12-11

    Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide markers as an attempt to accelerate genetic gain in breeding programs of both animals and plants. This approach is particularly useful for perennial crops such as oil palm, which have long breeding cycles, and for which the optimal method for GS is still under debate. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different marker systems and modeling methods for implementing GS in an introgressed dura family derived from a Deli dura x Nigerian dura (Deli x Nigerian) with 112 individuals. This family is an important breeding source for developing new mother palms for superior oil yield and bunch characters. The traits of interest selected for this study were fruit-to-bunch (F/B), shell-to-fruit (S/F), kernel-to-fruit (K/F), mesocarp-to-fruit (M/F), oil per palm (O/P) and oil-to-dry mesocarp (O/DM). The marker systems evaluated were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RR-BLUP, Bayesian A, B, Cπ, LASSO, Ridge Regression and two machine learning methods (SVM and Random Forest) were used to evaluate GS accuracy of the traits. The kinship coefficient between individuals in this family ranged from 0.35 to 0.62. S/F and O/DM had the highest genomic heritability, whereas F/B and O/P had the lowest. The accuracies using 135 SSRs were low, with accuracies of the traits around 0.20. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.24, as compared to 0.20 achieved by other methods. The trait with the highest mean accuracy was F/B (0.28), while the lowest were both M/F and O/P (0.18). By using whole genomic SNPs, the accuracies for all traits, especially for O/DM (0.43), S/F (0.39) and M/F (0.30) were improved. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.32, compared to 0.31 achieved by other methods. Due to high genomic resolution, the use of whole-genome SNPs improved the efficiency of GS dramatically for oil palm and is recommended for dura breeding programs. Machine learning slightly

  17. Selection and use of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids for underground mining equipment. [Oil-in-water emulsions; water-in-oil emulsions; phosphate esters; chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A J

    1981-02-01

    During the initial introduction of fire-resistant fluids to the Canadian underground mining industry, all hydraulic systems for which they were being considered were originally designed for operation with mineral oil. This meant that each system had to be individually examined and assessed with regard to its suitability in terms of acceptable component life and operation, at the same time as the selection of a fluid was being undertaken. Fluid selection by cost differential, toxicity content and fire resistancy was narrowed to types HFB and HFC, with HFB water-in-oil emulsion being the preferred fluid based on performance characteristics. By incorporating British mining industry experience and superior fluid types with practical trials, it was found that by modifing the design of some systems and slightly derating the operational parameters of individual components, it was possible to obtain a system performance comparable to that obtained when mineral oil was being used.

  18. Barium and sodium in sunflower plants cultivated in soil treated with wastes of drilling of oil well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jésus Sampaio Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of two types of oil drilling wastes on the development and absorption of barium (Ba and sodium (Na by sunflower plants. The waste materials were generated during the drilling of the 7-MGP-98D-BA oil well, located in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: Control – without Ba application, comprising only its natural levels in the soil; Corrected control – with fertilization and without wastes; and the Ba doses of 300, 3000 and 6000 mg kg-1, which were equivalent to the applications of 16.6, 165.9 and 331.8 Mg ha-1 of waste from the dryer, and 2.6, 25.7 and 51.3 Mg ha-1 of waste from the centrifugal. Plants cultivated using the first dose of dryer waste and the second dose of centrifugal waste showed growth and dry matter accumulation equal to those of plants under ideal conditions of cultivation (corrected control. The highest doses of dryer and centrifugal wastes affected the development of the plants. The absorption of Ba by sunflower plants was not affected by the increase in the doses. Na proved to be the most critical element present in the residues, interfering with sunflower development.

  19. Ultra high-temperature solids-free insulating packer fluid for oil and gas production, steam injection and geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezell, R.G.; Harrison, D.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Uncontrolled heat transfer from production/injection tubing during thermal oil recovery via steam injection can be detrimental to the integrity of the casing and to the quality of the steam that is injected into the reservoir. An aqueous-based insulating packer fluid (IPF) was introduced to improve the steam injection process by controlling the total heat loss from the produced fluids to the surrounding wellbore, internal annuli and formation. The IPF was developed for elevated temperature environments through extensive investigation across multidisciplinary technology. The innovative system delivers performance beyond conventional systems of comparable thermal conductivity. Its density range and conductivity measurements were presented in this paper. High-temperature static aging tests showed superior gel integrity without any phase separation after exposure to temperatures higher than 260 degrees C. The new fluids are hydrate inhibitive, non-corrosive and pass oil and grease testing. They are considered to be environmentally sound by Gulf of Mexico standards. It was concluded that the new ultra high-performance insulating packer fluid (HTIPF) reduced the heat loss significantly by both conduction and convection. Heat transfer within the aqueous-based HTIPF was 97 per cent less than that of pure water. It was concluded that the HTIPF can be substituted for conventional packer fluids without compromising any well control issues. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  20. Parametric analysis applied to perforating procedures of oil wells; Analise parametrica aplicada a procedimentos de canhoneio de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioco, Juliana Souza; Seckler, Carolina dos Santos; Silva, Karinna Freitas da; Jacob, Breno Pinheiro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Metodos Computacionais e Sistemas Offshore; Silvestre, Jose Roberto; Soares, Antonio Claudio; Freitas, Sergio Murilo Santos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2008-07-01

    The perforation process is an important in well construction. It provides contact between the reservoir rock and the well, allowing oil production. The procedure consists in using explosive charges to bore a hole into the casing and the rock, so that the reservoir fluid can flow to the well. Therefore, the right choice of both the gun and the charge type is extremely important, knowing that many factors influence on the process, affecting the productivity, such as shot density, penetration depth, hole diameter, etc. The objective of this paper is to present the results of some parametric study to evaluate the influence of some parameters related to the explosive charges on well productivity, since there are many types of charges with different properties, which provide specific characteristics to the perforated area. For that purpose, a commercial program will be used, which allows the simulation of the flow problem, along with a finite element mesh generator that uses a pre-processor and a program that enables the construction of reservoir, well and perforation models. It can be observed that the penetration depth has bigger influence than the hole diameter, being an important factor when choosing the charge to be used in the project. (author)

  1. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV–visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, M.; Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C.; Sinelli, N.; Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. ► Comparison between non-selective (UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. ► Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. ► Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV–visible (UV–vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV–vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico.

  2. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, M., E-mail: monica@dictfa.unige.it [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Sinelli, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Science and Technology, Via Celoria, 2 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between non-selective (UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil

  3. Lacunarity of geophysical well logs in the Cantarell oil field, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizabalo, Ruben Dario [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oleschko, Klavdia [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico); Korvin, Gabor [King Fahd University, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Lozada, Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castrejon, Ricardo [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ronquillo, Gerardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    Lacunarity and fractal variations in geophysical well logs are associated with stratigraphic and petrophysical properties of the naturally fractured Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico. Neutron porosity (NPHI), density (RHOB, DRHO, PEF), resistivity (LLD, LLS, MSFL), natural radioactivity (GR, CGR, URAN, POTA, THOR) and caliper (CALI) logs are studied. The resistivity logs yielded remarkably high lacunarity values, especially in the hydrocarbon source- and reservoir rocks. Lacunarity {delta} was found to depend on the resolution and radial depth of penetration of the logging method. It systematically increased in the following order: {delta}(RHOB) < {delta}(CALI) < {delta}(PEF) < {delta}(URAN) < {delta}(GR) < {delta}(NPHI) < {delta}(POTA) < {delta}(CGR) < {delta}(THOR) < {delta}(MSFL) < {delta}(DRHO) < {delta}(LLS) < {delta}(LLD). [Spanish] En este trabajo fueron analizadas las variaciones fractales y de lagunaridad de los registros geofisicos de pozo, con el fin de asociarlos con las propiedades estratigraficas y petrofisicas del yacimiento naturalmente fracturado de Cantarell, en el Golfo de Mexico. Los registros considerados fueron: porosidad neutron (NPHI), densidad (RHOB, DRHO, PEF), resistividad (LLD, LLS, MSFL), radiactividad natural (GR, CGR, URAN, POTA, THOR) y caliper (CALI). Los registros de resistividad produjeron valores de lagunaridad notablemente altos, especialmente en las rocas generadoras y almacenadoras, a diferencia de los demas registros, cuya homogeneidad de traza implico una baja lagunaridad. Los resultados indican que la lagunaridad observada depende de la resolucion y profundidad radial de penetracion del metodo geofisico estudiado y aumenta sistematicamente en el siguiente orden: {delta}(RHOB) < {delta}(CALI) < {delta}(PEF) < {delta}(URAN) < {delta}(GR) < {delta}(NPHI) < {delta}(POTA) < {delta}(CGR) < {delta}(THOR) < {delta}(MSFL) < {delta}(DRHO) < {delta}(LLS) < {delta}(LLD).

  4. Integrated 3D geology modeling constrained by facies and horizontal well data for Block M of the Orinoco heavy oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longxin, M.; Baojun, X.; Shancheng, Z.; Guoqing, H. [CNPC America Ltd., Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-10-15

    Horizontal well drilling with cold production were used to develop most of heavy oil fields in Venezuela's Orinoco heavy oil belt. This study interpreted the horizontal well logs of Block M of the Orinoco heavy oil belt in an effort to improve production from this highly porous and permeable reservoir. The reservoir is comprised primarily of non-consolidated sandstones. A porosity calculation formula for the horizontal well without porosity logs was established based on the study of horizontal well logging data of block M in the Orinoco heavy oil belt. A high quality 3-D simulation tool was used to separate the block into several different sections. A set of methods were presented in order to identify if the well track was approaching an adjacent formation, to estimate the distance between the well track and the adjacent formation, and to correct the deep resistivity of the horizontal section affected by the adjacent formation. A set of interpretation techniques were established, based on the combination of well logging data, seismic data and the oilfield development performance data. It was concluded that the development of the precise 3D geological model helped to establish a solid foundation for guiding the well position design and the drilling of the horizontal well. It also contributed to the reservoir numerical simulation and the effective development of the oil field. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  5. Selecting and training a panel to evaluate the rancid defect in soybean oil and fish hamburgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marques

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its composition of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, oils and fats are very susceptible to oxidation, with rancidity being one of the main defects. Among the several existing methodologies to monitor oxidation in foods, sensory analysis stands out because of the sensitivity of responses. Accordingly, this study aimed to select and train a panel of expert assessors to identify the rancid flavor, showing the statistical steps in the process. Assessors were selected according to their individual performance, statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s mean comparison, Wald Sequential Analysis and chi-square test. The validation of the trained panel was carried out with the sensory analysis of fish burgers and soybean oil. F Value and box-plot graphic methods were effective for better visualization of results when used along with the mean and standard deviation tables. The final trained panel consisted of seven assessors, who have been able to identify and differentiate rancid taste in both samples used for validation.

  6. Selecting and training a panel to evaluate the rancid defect in soybean oil and fish hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, C.; Dos Reis, A.S.; Da Silva, L.D.; Carpes, S.T.; Mitterer-Daltoé, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Due to its composition of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, oils and fats are very susceptible to oxidation, with rancidity being one of the main defects. Among the several existing methodologies to monitor oxidation in foods, sensory analysis stands out because of the sensitivity of responses. Accordingly, this study aimed to select and train a panel of expert assessors to identify the rancid flavor, showing the statistical steps in the process. Assessors were selected according to their individual performance, statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s mean comparison, Wald Sequential Analysis and chi-square test. The validation of the trained panel was carried out with the sensory analysis of fish burgers and soybean oil. F Value and box-plot graphic methods were effective for better visualization of results when used along with the mean and standard deviation tables. The final trained panel consisted of seven assessors, who have been able to identify and differentiate rancid taste in both samples used for validation. [es

  7. Natural and bioremediated selective degradation of polycyclic aromatic alkyl isomers in oil-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; McCarthy, K.; Uhler, A.; Porta, A.

    1995-01-01

    In studies where 2- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are determined as part of characterizing released oil constituents in environmental samples, the changes in composition of PAHs from weathering (e.g., evaporation, dissolution) and biodegradation are most often represented by PAH alkyl homologue distributions. Concentrations of PAH alkyl groups are the sum of individual PAH isomers of similar carbon number; such as for C2-naphthalenes, the C2 alkyl group consists of dimethyl and ethyl substitutions on the parent naphthalene. In weathering and degradation studies, the changes in relative concentration of the individual isomers within an alkyl group are rarely reported. In a field study of oiled soils, the authors looked at the selective losses, for a period of a year, of individual PAH alkyl isomers that occur both naturally by weathering processes and through the use of bioremediation technology. Results showed that decreases in alkyl group concentrations were not always represented by similar losses of each isomer in the alkyl group, but were often due to the preferential or selective loss of certain isomers in the group

  8. The selective partitioning of the oligomers of polyethoxylated surfactant mixtures between interface and oil and water bulk phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciaa, Alain; Andérez, José; Bracho, Carlos; Lachaise, Jean; Salager, Jean-Louis; Tolosa, Laura; Ysambertt, Fredy

    2006-11-16

    Because their affinities for the oil and water phases vary considerably with the number of ethylene oxide units in their hydrophilic group, the ethoxylated nonionic species occurring in commercial products tend to behave in a non-collective way, with the low ethoxylation oligomers partitioning mostly in the oil phase. This results in a surfactant mixture at the interface which is more hydrophilic than the one which was introduced in the system in the first place. The pseudophase model is used to study the partitioning in Winsor III type systems, and to estimate the deviation of the interfacial mixture composition from the overall one. New results indicate that the selective partitioning into the oil phase increases when the oil phase becomes aromatic, when the total surfactant concentration decreases and when the water-to-oil ratio decreases.

  9. Methodologies, solutions, and lessons learned from heavy oil well testing with an ESP, offshore UK in the Bentley field, block 9/3b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Barny; Lucas-Clements, Charles; Kew, Steve [Xcite Energy Resources (United Kingdom); Shumakov, Yakov; Camilleri, Lawrence; Akuanyionwu, Obinna; Tonoglu, Ahmet [Schlumberger (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in hydrocarbon demand that led to the production of heavy oil fields in the United Kingdom continental shelf (UKCS). Most of the activity has been confined to exploration and appraisal drilling, the reason being the high uncertainty of the reservoir and fluid properties. Due to the operational complexity inherent to heavy oil, the use of conventional appraisal-well testing technology is limited. A novel technique developed to determine the most appropriate technology for testing wells with heavy oil using an electrical submersible pump (ESP) is presented in this paper. This technique was applied in the Bentley field. Some of the technical challenges include, maintaining fluid mobility using a surface-testing equipment, obtaining accurate flow measurements, a short weather window, and oil and gas separation for metering. Combining technologies such as dual-energy gamma ray venturi multiphase flowmeter, realtime monitoring, and ESP completion made it possible to execute the well test.

  10. Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Kimmel, David G.; Snyder, Jessica; Scalise, Kimberly; McGlaughon, Benjamin D.; Roman, Michael R.; Jahn, Ginger L.; Pierson, James J.; Brandt, Stephen B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Wong, Florence L.; Campbell, Pamela L.

    2012-01-01

    Mesozooplankton (>200 μm) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that distributions of PAHs extracted from mesozooplankton were related to the oil released from the ruptured British Petroleum Macondo-1 (M-1) well associated with the R/VDeepwater Horizon blowout. Mesozooplankton contained 0.03–97.9 ng g−1 of total PAHs and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene + pyrene less than 0.44, indicating a liquid fossil fuel source. The distribution of PAHs isolated from mesozooplankton extracted in this study shows that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill may have contributed to contamination in the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  11. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowei, Cheng; Sheng, Huang; Xiaoyang, Guo; Wenhui, Duan

    2017-07-01

    Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as -COOH, C-OH, and -CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization treated WTR increased 11.03% and 13.36%, and the flexural strength increased 9.65% and 7.31%, respectively. A decrease in the compressive strength also occurred but was inconspicuous. A tight interface bonding for ethanol LTP polymerization treated WTR with cement matrix was observed via an SEM image.

  12. Evolution of the Macondo well blowout: simulating the effects of the circulation and synthetic dispersants on the subsea oil transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B; Hénaff, Matthieu Le; Aman, Zachary M; Subramaniam, Ajit; Helgers, Judith; Wang, Dong-Ping; Kourafalou, Vassiliki H; Srinivasan, Ashwanth

    2012-12-18

    During the Deepwater Horizon incident, crude oil flowed into the Gulf of Mexico from 1522 m underwater. In an effort to prevent the oil from rising to the surface, synthetic dispersants were applied at the wellhead. However, uncertainties in the formation of oil droplets and difficulties in measuring their size in the water column, complicated further assessment of the potential effect of the dispersant on the subsea-to-surface oil partition. We adapted a coupled hydrodynamic and stochastic buoyant particle-tracking model to the transport and fate of hydrocarbon fractions and simulated the far-field transport of the oil from the intrusion depth. The evaluated model represented a baseline for numerical experiments where we varied the distributions of particle sizes and thus oil mass. The experiments allowed to quantify the relative effects of chemical dispersion, vertical currents, and inertial buoyancy motion on oil rise velocities. We present a plausible model scenario, where some oil is trapped at depth through shear emulsification due to the particular conditions of the Macondo blowout. Assuming effective mixing of the synthetic dispersants at the wellhead, the model indicates that the submerged oil mass is shifted deeper, decreasing only marginally the amount of oil surfacing. In this scenario, the oil rises slowly to the surface or stays immersed. This suggests that other mechanisms may have contributed to the rapid surfacing of oil-gas mixture observed initially. The study also reveals local topographic and hydrodynamic processes that influence the oil transport in eddies and multiple layers. This numerical approach provides novel insights on oil transport mechanisms from deep blowouts and on gauging the subsea use of synthetic dispersant in mitigating coastal damage.

  13. Review of Selected Army-Funded Research on Fog Oil Smoke Characteristics as Related to Clean Air Act Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chester, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    The endurance of fog oil (FO) as a choice training smoke is credited to its advantageous characteristics, which lead to optimum obscuration of troops and mechanized equipment as well as its cost efficiency, safety, and ease of handling...

  14. Structural analysis of expandable tubes for oil wells; Analise estrutural de tubos expansiveis para pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Ana Carolina Caldas; Antoun Netto, Theodoro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], e-mails: carolinaaguiar@lts.coppe.ufrj.br, tanetto@lts.coppe.ufrj.br

    2009-06-15

    Solid expandable tube technology has many advantages when compared to conventional well bores. The tube expansion in situ assists the development of reservoirs in many challenging scenarios facing the oil industry today, such as in the pre-salt layer, HPHT wells, deep reservoirs, or ultra-deep water. Furthermore, this procedure has good compatibility with directional and horizontal wells and facilitates side-track operations. Although tube expansion is an attractive approach, there is a necessity to better understand its influence on the tube mechanical strength. This study carried out tests and numerical analyses to determine the effect of parameters such as diameter-to-thickness ratio and expansion rate on the collapse resistance of expandable tubes. An experimental apparatus was designed and built to reproduce full-scale tube expansion. Three, 2-meter long specimens were expanded 10% of their original diameters and subjected to hydrostatic pressure inside a vessel until collapse. Three non-expanded tubes were also tested for comparison. At the same time, non-linear numerical models were developed using the finite element method. After calibration, they were used to further analyze the mechanical behavior of solid expandable tubes and the influence of expansion on their resistance to collapse. (author)

  15. Smart cement modified with iron oxide nanoparticles to enhance the piezoresistive behavior and compressive strength for oil well applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C; Mohammed, A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, smart cement with a 0.38 water-to-cement ratio was modified with iron oxide nanoparticles (NanoFe 2 O 3 ) to have better sensing properties, so that the behavior can be monitored at various stages of construction and during the service life of wells. A series of experiments evaluated the piezoresistive smart cement behavior with and without NanoFe 2 O 3 in order to identify the most reliable sensing properties that can also be relatively easily monitored. Tests were performed on the smart cement from the time of mixing to a hardened state behavior. When oil well cement (Class H) was modified with 0.1% of conductive filler, the piezoresistive behavior of the hardened smart cement was substantially improved without affecting the setting properties of the cement. During the initial setting the electrical resistivity changed with time based on the amount of NanoFe 2 O 3 used to modify the smart oil well cement. A new quantification concept has been developed to characterize the smart cement curing based on electrical resistivity changes in the first 24 h of curing. Addition of 1% NanoFe 2 O 3 increased the compressive strength of the smart cement by 26% and 40% after 1 day and 28 days of curing respectively. The modulus of elasticity of the smart cement increased with the addition of 1% NanoFe 2 O 3 by 29% and 28% after 1 day and 28 days of curing respectively. A nonlinear curing model was used to predict the changes in electrical resistivity with curing time. The piezoresistivity of smart cement with NanoFe 2 O 3 was over 750 times higher than the unmodified cement depending on the curing time and nanoparticle content. Also the nonlinear stress–strain and stress–change in resistivity relationships predicated the experimental results very well. Effects of curing time and NanoFe 2 O 3 content on the model parameters have been quantified using a nonlinear model. (paper)

  16. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Oliveri, P; Casolino, C; Sinelli, N; Zunin, P; Armanino, C; Forina, M; Lanteri, S

    2012-01-27

    An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Accompaniment of the biomass growth and synthesis of biosurfactants by microorganism isolated in oil wells; Acompanhamento do crescimento da biomassa e sintese de biosurfactantes por microorganismos isolados de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Araujo, Manuelle Meike Silva de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: manuelle@eq.ufrn.br; Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2003-07-01

    Biosurfactants are structurally diversified groups of active surface molecules synthesized by microorganisms as bacteria and fungi, cultivated in several carbon sources such as sucrose and hydrocarbons. These molecules, composed by a part hydrophilic and other hydrophobic one, they act preferentially in the interface among the flowing phases with different polarities linking interfaces oil/water or water/oil reducing the superficial tensions and interfacial among these phases. They have been used in environmental applications, such as bioremediation of soils, treatment of contaminated water fountains and in cleaning process of tanks and equipment. Oil reservoirs present conditions where some microorganisms can grow. These microorganisms when isolated and cultivated at laboratory can be characterized with relation to surfactants production. In this work, microorganisms were isolated of oil wells and the biosurfactants producers were selected, among the isolated ones, to form a culture bank with potential application in environmental pollution treatment and advanced oil recovery. A microorganism stump of the developed bank was cultivated in sucrose and hydrocarbon medium and the biosurfactant production was evaluated by superficial tension measurement. The microorganism biomass production was evaluated by optical density using a spectrophotometer and the substratum consumption by Dns method. (author)

  18. Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole

  19. Drilling and geophysical logs of the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site, Central Venango County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.; Anderson, J. Alton

    2014-01-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, drilling and geophysical logs were used to characterize the geohydrologic framework and the freshwater and saline-water zones penetrated by the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site in central Venango County, Pennsylvania. The geohydrologic setting of the well site is typical of the dissected Appalachian Plateau underlain by Pennsylvanian and Mississippian sandstone and shale. The drilling, gamma, and acoustic-televiewer logs collected from the 575-foot deep tophole define the penetrated Pennsylvanian and Mississippian stratigraphic units and their lithology. The caliper, video, and acoustic-televiewer logs delineate multiple bedding-related and high-angle fractures in the lower Pottsville Group and Shenango Formation from 22 to 249 feet below land surface. The caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs indicate a sparsity of fractures below 249 feet below land surface in the lowermost Shenango Formation, Cuyahoga Group, Corry Sandstone, “Drake Well” formation, and upper Riceville Formation.

  20. Antifungal activity of plant essential oils and selected Pseudomonas strains against Phomopsis theicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starović Mira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of natural plant protection products as an alternative to synthetic fungicides is of significant importance regarding the environment. This study was carried out with an objective to investigate in vitro antifungal activities of several essential oils extracted from oregano, basil, myrtle and Turkish pickling herb, and the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in the genus Pseudomonas, against the phytopathogenic fungus Phomopsis theicola. Microdilution methods were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of selected antimicrobial essential oils (EOs. All EOs exhibited significant levels of antifungal activity against the tested fungal isolates. The oregano EO was found the most potent one (MIC - 5.5 µg/mL, followed by basil (MIC - 75.0µg/mL, myrtle (MIC - 775 µg/mL and Turkish pickling herb (MIC - 7750 µg/mL. Inhibition of Ph. theicola mycelial growth was observed for all tested Pseudomonas spp. strains. K113 and L1 strains were highly effective and achieved more than 60% of fungal growth inhibition using the overnight culture and more than 57% inhibition by applying cell-free supernatants of both strains. A future field trial with K113 and L1 cultures and cell-free supernatants, containing extracellular metabolites toward Ph. theicola, will estimate their effectiveness and applicability as an alternative to chemical protection of apple trees.

  1. Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S A; Reinders, R D

    2003-01-01

    To quantify the antibacterial properties of five essential oils (EO) on a non-toxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the presence and absence of a stabilizer and an emulsifier and at three different temperatures. Five EOs known to exhibit antibacterial properties were screened by disc diffusion assay and the most active were selected for further study in microdilution colorimetric assays. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris; light and red varieties) EO had the strongest bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, followed by bay (Pimenta racemosa) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata synonym: Syzygium aromaticum) EO. Oregano oil was colicidal at 625 microl l(-1) at 10, 20 and 37 degrees C. The addition of 0.05% (w/v) agar as stabilizer reinforced the antibacterial properties, particularly at 10 degrees C, whereas 0.25% (w/v) lecithin reduced antibacterial activity. Scanning electron micrographs showed extensive morphological changes to treated cells. Oregano and thyme EO possess significant in vitro colicidal and colistatic properties, which are exhibited in a broad temperature range and substantially improved by the addition of agar as stabilizer. Bay and clove bud EO are less active. Lecithin diminished antibacterial properties. The bactericidal concentration of oregano EO irreversibly damaged E. coli O157:H7 cells within 1 min. Oregano and light thyme EO, particularly when enhanced by agar stabilizer, may be effective in reducing the number or preventing the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in foods.

  2. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  3. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field.  The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to evaluate the survival and growth of budded plants in the field. Pods were collected from 30 trees in Lovina Beach, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Oil was extracted from seeds using soxhlet with hexane as a solvent.  The high oil yielding trees were propagated by budding using root stocks grown from M. pinnata seeds.  Scions were taken from young branches of selected trees. Incision was made on rootstock and the same size of cut was made on a scion containing a single bud.  The scion was inserted to the incision of rootstock then closed tightly using plastic strips.   The plastic was removed when the scion grew into a little green shoot. One month after plastic removal, the scion union grew into a single shoot and then the budded plants were removed to polybags. Budded plants were planted in the field of Bukit Jimbaran, Badung Regency, Bali with 4 × 4 spacing. Results showed all budded plants successfully grow new shoots. Two months after planting the survival of budded plants was 100%. Plant height increased by 22.13 cm, stem diameter increased by 2.43 mm and the number of compound leaf increased by 2.08.  It can be concluded that four high oil yielding trees were selected from Lovina Beach and successfully propagated by budding. Survival of budded plants was 100% with vigorous growth.

  4. Reclamation of oil and gas well sites on privately-owned land in Alberta: An evaluation of benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    In Alberta, ca 24,000 oil/gas well sites will be abandoned over the next 10 years. There is concern that the expense to reclaim the surface lands at these sites to current standards represents a substantial opportunity cost to industry and the provincial economy. The economic costs and benefits associated with regulation of such reclamation activity are examined and the impacts of surface access regulations on the reclamation process are discussed. Cost benefit analysis is not easily applied to environmental regulation where some extra-market benefits and costs are intangible and/or unmeasurable. Although this qualifies the results, it appears that the costs of wellsite reclamation exceed the benefits. Costs are defined as reclamation expenses; benefits are defined as the real estate value of the land, or the net present value of agricultural land rentals. An effort has been made to provide a proxy for the extra-market value of the land to the landowner. The continuation of full surface access compensation for nonproducing wells can result in negative incentive effects that reduce allocative efficiency of reclamation regulation. Reclamation costs are correlated with well age and surface access payments, but not with agricultural land use or geographic region. This suggests that reclamation standards designed to reclaim well sites to the same productive capacity as site-adjacent land is not driving reclamation effort. Rather, landowners have negotiated substantial annual surface lease payments and may also be demanding greater reclamation effort, either to maximize compensation due to higher expectations. Methods of reducing these negative incentive effects to better achieve reclamation goals are suggested. 49 refs., 9 figs., 17 tabs

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as mutagenic evaluation of essential oil from turmeric (Curcuma longa L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liju, Vijayasteltar B; Jeena, Kottarapat; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the acute, subchronic and genotoxicity of turmeric essential oil (TEO) from Curcuma longa L. Acute administration of TEO was done as single dose up to 5 g of TEO per kg body weight and subchronic toxicity study for thirteen weeks was done by daily oral administration of TEO at doses 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt. in Wistar rats. There were no mortality, adverse clinical signs or changes in body weight; water and food consumption during acute as well as subchronic toxicity studies. Indicators of hepatic function such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were unchanged in treated animals compared to untreated animals. Oral administration of TEO for 13 weeks did not alter total cholesterol, triglycerides, markers of renal function, serum electrolyte parameters and histopathology of tissues. TEO did not produce any mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA-98, TA-100, TA-102 and TA-1535 with or without metabolic activation. Administration of TEO to rats (1 g/kg b.wt.) for 14 days did not produce any chromosome aberration or micronuclei in rat bone marrow cells and did not produce any DNA damage as seen by comet assay confirming the non toxicity of TEO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on properties and testing methods of thermo-responsive cementing system for well cementing in heavy oil thermal recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianjiang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, thermo-responsive cement slurry system were being developed, the properties of conventional cement slurry, compressive strength high temperature of cement sheath, mechanical properties of cement sheath and thermal properties of cement sheath were being tested. Results were being used and simulated by Well-Life Software, Thermo-responsive cement slurry system can meet the requirements of heavy oil thermal recovery production. Mechanical and thermal properties of thermo-responsive cement sheath were being tested. Tensile fracture energy of the thermo-responsive cement sheath is larger than conventional cement. The heat absorption capacity of conventional cement sheath is larger than that of thermo-responsive cement sheath, this means more heat is needed for the unit mass once increasing 1.0 °C, which also indicates that thermo-responsive cement own good heat insulating and preservation effects. The heat conductivity coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient of thermo-responsive cement is less than and conventional cement, this means that thermo-responsive cement have good heat preservation and insulation effects with good thermal expansion stabilities.

  7. The development and testing of a fieldworthy system of improved fluid pumping device and liquid sensor for oil wells. Fourth quarter technical progress report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckman, W.G.

    1991-12-31

    A major expenditure to maintain oil and gas leases is the support of pumpers, those individuals who maintain the pumping systems on wells to achieve optimum production. Many leases are marginal and are in remote areas and this requires considerable driving time for the pumper. The Air Pulse Oil Pump System is designed to be an economical system for the shallow stripper wells. To improve on the economics of this system, we have designed a Remote Oil Field Monitor and Controller to enable us to acquire data from the lease to our central office at anytime and to control the pumping activities from the central office by using a personal computer. The advent and economics of low-power microcontrollers have made it feasible to use this type of system for numerous remote control systems. We can also adapt this economical system to monitor and control the production of gas wells and/or pump jacks.

  8. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  9. Identifying and Allocating Geodetic Systems to historical oil gas wells by using high-resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gabriel O.

    2018-05-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in Argentina started long before the IGM created a single, high-precision geodetic reference network for the whole country. Several geodetic surveys were conducted in every producing basin, which have ever since then supported well placement. Currently, every basin has a huge amount of information referenced to the so-called "local" geodetic systems, such as Chos Malal - Quiñi Huao in the Neuquén Basin, and Pampa del Castillo in the San Jorge Basin, which differ to a greater or lesser extent from the national Campo Inchauspe datum established by the IGM in 1969 as the official geodetic network. However, technology development over the last few years and the expansion of satellite positioning systems such as GPS resulted in a new world geodetic order. Argentina rapidly joined this new geodetic order through the implementation of a new national geodetic system by the IGM: POSGAR network, which replaced the old national Campo Inchauspe system. However, this only helped to worsen the data georeferencing issue for oil companies, as a third reference system was added to each basin. Now every basin has a local system, the national system until 1997 (Campo Inchauspe), and finally the newly created POSGAR network national satellite system, which is geocentric unlike the former two planimetric datums. The purpose of this paper is to identify and allocate geodetic systems of coordinates to historical wells, whose geodetic system is missing or has been erroneously allocated, by using currently available technological resources such as geographic information systems and high-resolution satellite imagery.

  10. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of oil price shocks on selected macroeconomic variables in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwayemi, Akin; Fowowe, Babajide

    2011-01-01

    The impact of oil price shocks on the macroeconomy has received a great deal of attention since the 1970 s. Initially, many empirical studies found a significant negative effect between oil price shocks and GDP but more recently, empirical studies have reported an insignificant relationship between oil shocks and the macroeconomy. A key feature of existing research is that it applies predominantly to advanced, oil-importing countries. For oil-exporting countries, different conclusions are expected but this can only be ascertained empirically. This study conducts an empirical analysis of the effects of oil price shocks on a developing country oil-exporter - Nigeria. Our findings showed that oil price shocks do not have a major impact on most macroeconomic variables in Nigeria. The results of the Granger-causality tests, impulse response functions, and variance decomposition analysis all showed that different measures of linear and positive oil shocks have not caused output, government expenditure, inflation, and the real exchange rate. The tests support the existence of asymmetric effects of oil price shocks because we find that negative oil shocks significantly cause output and the real exchange rate. (author)

  12. Design approach to sealant selection for the life of the well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, M.; Ravi, K.; Driel, W.D. van; Schreppers, G.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Recent experience in the field has demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the annular sealant are a critical factor in the success of a well. A demanding operational regime of the well such as High Pressure/High Temperature (HP/HT) and well interventions, e.g. pressure testing stimulation,

  13. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  14. Antibacterial Effect of Carvacrol and Coconut Oil on Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božik M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils play a prominent role as flavouring agents and fragrances in the food and perfume industries. Carvacrol is a major component of various essential oils, such as oregano and thyme oils, and is responsible for their antimicrobial activity. Lauric acid is a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA with a high antibacterial potential. Both carvacrol and MCFAs have been used empirically as antimicrobial agents. Here, we tested the inhibitory properties of carvacrol and coconut (Cocos nucifera L. oil containing a high percentage of MCFAs against 5 harmful bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus cecorum. Gas chromatography (GC-FID analysis of coconut oil showed a high concentration of lauric acid (41%. Microdilution antimicrobial assays showed that the combination of carvacrol and coconut oil had a stronger antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria than both agents separately. We conclude that carvacrol could significantly improve the antibacterial effect of coconut oil.

  15. Salinity impacts on water solubility and n-octanol/water partition coefficients of selected pesticides and oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranjampour, Parichehr; Vebrosky, Emily N; Armbrust, Kevin L

    2017-09-01

    Salinity has been reported to influence the water solubility of organic chemicals entering marine ecosystems. However, limited data are available on salinity impacts for chemicals potentially entering seawater. Impacts on water solubility would correspondingly impact chemical sorption as well as overall bioavailability and exposure estimates used in the regulatory assessment. The pesticides atrazine, fipronil, bifenthrin, and cypermethrin, as well as the crude oil constituent dibenzothiophene together with 3 of its alkyl derivatives, all have different polarities and were selected as model compounds to demonstrate the impact of salinity on their solubility and partitioning behavior. The n-octanol/water partition coefficient (K OW ) was measured in both distilled-deionized water and artificial seawater (3.2%). All compounds had diminished solubility and increased K OW values in artificial seawater compared with distilled-deionized water. A linear correlation curve estimated salinity may increase the log K OW value by 2.6%/1 log unit increase in distilled water (R 2  = 0.97). Salinity appears to generally decrease the water solubility and increase the partitioning potential. Environmental fate estimates based on these parameters indicate elevated chemical sorption to sediment, overall bioavailability, and toxicity in artificial seawater. These dramatic differences suggest that salinity should be taken into account when exposure estimates are made for marine organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2274-2280. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Reduction of light cycle oil in catalytic cracking of bitumen-derived crude HGOs through catalyst selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fuchen; Xu, Chunming [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum Beijing, 102200 (China); Ng, Siauw H. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, 1 Oil Patch Drive, Suite A202, Devon, Alberta (Canada); Yui, Sok [Syncrude Research Centre, 9421-17 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    In an attempt to reduce the production of light cycle oil (LCO), a non-premium fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) product in North America, a large-pore catalyst containing rare-earth-exchanged Y (REY) zeolite, was used to crack two Canadian bitumen-derived crude heavy gas oils (HGOs) hydrotreated to different extents. For comparison, a regular equilibrium FCC catalyst with ultra-stable Y (USY) zeolite and a conventional western Canadian crude HGO were also included in the study. Cracking experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed microactivity test (MAT) reactor at 510 C, 30 s oil injection time, and varying catalyst-to-oil ratios for different conversions. The results show that pre-cracking of heavy molecules with wide-pore matrix, followed by zeolite cracking, enhanced conversion at the expense of light and heavy cycle oils at a constant catalyst-to-oil ratio, giving improved product selectivities (e.g., higher gasoline and lower dry gas, LCO, and coke yields, in general, at a given conversion). To systematically assess the benefits of employing the specialty catalyst over the regular catalyst in cracking Canadian HGOs, individual product yields were compared at common bases, including constant catalyst-to-oil ratios, conversions, and coke yields for three feeds, and at maximum gasoline yield for one feed. In most cases, the preferred choice of large-pore zeolite-rich catalyst over its counterpart was evident. The observed cracking phenomena were explained based on properties of catalysts and characterization data of feedstocks, including their hydrocarbon type analyses by gas chromatograph with a mass-selective detector (GC-MSD). (author)

  17. Improvement in genetic characteristics and oil yield of selected soybean progenies from octuple crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamawaki Osvaldo Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate 44 soybean octuple crosses in the F4:3[8] and F5:3[8] generations in order to select progenies superior for seed oil yield (OY and other important agronomic characteristics. Octuple crosses were hybridized in a chain mating system. In one group, crosses were carried out for three generations with the adapted x exotic parents until octuple crosses with 75% adapted genes and 25% exotic genes were obtained. In a second group, hybridization of adapted x adapted parents originated crosses with 100% adapted genes. During the growing season 1994/95, the progenies F4:3[8] were evaluated by using the augmented block design. The progenies F5:3[8] were evaluated during the growing season 1995/96 in three experiments using augmented block design without repetition. The octuple crosses gave origin to superior progenies for all the characters studied. In the C22 cross, OY values were 707 kg/ha. The estimates of heritability in relation to the crosses average resulted in the following mean, minimum and maximum values, respectively: number of days to maturity (52.35%, 3.71%, 84.23%; agronomic value (26.69%, 1.62%, 61.28% and grain yield (29.28%, 1.52%, 61.06%. The observed genetic gains for grain yield in the early, intermediate and late F5:3[8] progenies were superior to the expected genetic gains and the observed genetic gains for OY were more expressive in the early and late F5:[8] progenies. The genetic variability remaining in the selected progenies of some crosses suggests that further genetic gains for grain yield and OY might be possible with advanced selection cycles.

  18. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  19. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  20. Fluvoxamine-based corrosion inhibitors for J55 steel in aggressive oil and gas well treatment fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Ituen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluvoxamine (FLU, a non-toxic compound was investigated as an alternative anti-corrosive additive for inhibition of J55 steel corrosion in acidic oil well treatment fluids. The aggressive fluid was simulated using 15% and 1 M HCl. Corrosion of the steel was monitored by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, Potentiodynamic Polarization (PDP, Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR, Electrochemical Frequency Modulation (EFM and Weight Loss (WL techniques. UV–Vis spectroscopy provided evidence of formation of a complex surface film due to adsorption of FLU on the J55 steel surface. The adsorption process was both physical and chemical in mechanism as best approximated by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption was also spontaneous and exothermic in the direction of increase in entropy of the bulk phase. Maximum inhibition efficiency was obtained with 1.0 μM FLU and decreased from 91.5% to 78.0% when concentration of HCl was increased from 1 M to 15% at 30 °C. Effectiveness of FLU declined with an increase in temperature and improved with an increase in concentration of FLU. Blending of FLU with some intensifiers improved the efficiency from 68% and 40% to 88% and 72% in 1 M and 15% HCl respectively at 90 °C. EIS measurement reveals that the corrosion process was controlled by charge transfer process. PDP measurements showed that FLU acts as a mixed type inhibitor. Inhibition efficiency values obtained from the different techniques were comparable. SEM micrographs of J55 steel surface indicate good surface protection of FLU. Theoretical calculations were performed using Material Studio Acceryls 7.0 to relate electronic properties of FLU with its structure.

  1. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  2. Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

  3. Design of distributed systems of hydrolithospere processes management. Selection of optimal number of extracting wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershin, I. M.; Pervukhin, D. A.; Ilyushin, Y. V.; Afanaseva, O. V.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the important issue of designing the distributed systems of hydrolithospere processes management. Control effects on the hydrolithospere processes are implemented by a set of extractive wells. The article shows how to determine the optimal number of extractive wells that provide a distributed control impact on the management object.

  4. Hydration kinetics study of class G oil-well cement and olivine nano-silica mixtures at 20–60 °C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia Bianchi, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Sobolev, K.; Shah, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the heat evolution of standard density slurries (1.89 g/cm3) of Class G oil-well cement and olivine nano-silica additions (0.5–2.0 % bwoc), cured under different temperatures (20–60 °C) and atmospheric pressure, were examined by isothermal calorimetry. Under isothermal and isobaric

  5. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sharopov, Farukh; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Gulmurodov, Isomiddin; Khalifaev, Davlat; Isupov, Salomiddin; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagan...

  6. Evaluation of the aging of polymeric drilling fluids to oil wells; Avaliacao do envelhecimento de fluidos de perfuracao polimericos para pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, K.V.; Amorim, L.V. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Mecanica, UAEM/CCT - UFCG], e-mail: kassie@dem.ufcg.edu.br; Leite, R.S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Graduacao Engenharia de Materiais; Lira, H.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, UAEMa/ CCT - UFCG

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the aging of polymeric drilling fluids to oil wells, from the rheological, filtration and lubricity properties in the temperatures 100 degree F ({approx} 38 degree C) and 150 degree F ({approx} 66 degree C). The results had been compared with a standard fluid used for the oil industry and had evidenced that the polymeric fluids had presented good thermal stability, presenting a small reduction in the rheological properties and better values of lubricity coefficient that a reference fluid. (author)

  7. Selective separation of oil and water with special wettability mesh membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Defei; Yu, Yuanlie; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yuying

    2017-01-01

    that these superhydrophobic/superoleophilic or oleophobic/superhydrophilic mesh membranes are durable, stable and reusable, making them encouraging candidates for practical oil-polluted water treatment.

  8. Sea, sun, sand and …. selecting surgery: an exploration of health, medical and wellness tourist's mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Bristow; Wen-Tsann Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mass tourism facilities depend on repeat visitors as well as attracting new first time tourists. As these traditional sun and sand holiday destinations mature, tourism promoters are bundling opportunities to attract a different kind of tourist. Since many of these resorts are all-inclusive facilities and include a Spa, one potential expansion may be to market to health, medical or wellness tourists. Geographic research in travel and tourism has found that individuals either repeat visits to t...

  9. Adsorption affinity and selectivity of 3-ureidopropyltriethoxysilane grafted oil palm empty fruit bunches towards mercury ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjirama, Magendran; Saman, Norasikin; Johari, Khairiraihanna; Song, Shiow-Tien; Kong, Helen; Cheu, Siew-Chin; Lye, Jimmy Wei Ping; Mat, Hanapi

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the potential application of oil palm empty fruit branches (OPEFB) as adsorbents to remove organic methylmercurry, MeHg(II), and inorganic Hg(II) from aqueous solution. The OPEFB was functionalized with amine containing ligand namely 3-ureidopropyltriethoxysilane (UPTES) aiming for better adsorption performance towards both mercury ions. The adsorption was found to be dependent on initial pH, initial concentraton, temperatures, and contact time. The maximum adsorption capacities (Q m.exp ) of Hg(II) adsorption onto OPEFB and UPTES-OPEFB were 0.226 and 0.773 mmol/g, respectively. The Q m.exp of MeHg(II) onto OPEFB, however, was higher than UPTES-OPEFB. The adsorption kinetic data obeyed the Elovich model and the adsorption was controlled by the film-diffusion step. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicate an endothermic adsorption process. Adsorption data analysis indicates that the adsorption mechanism may include ion-exchange, complexation, and physisorption interactions. The potential applications of adsorbents were demonstrated using oilfield produced water and natural gas condensate. The UPTES-OPEFB offered higher selectivity towards both mercury ions than OPEFB. The regenerability studies indicated that the adsorbent could be reused for multiple cycles.

  10. Sea, sun, sand and …. selecting surgery: an exploration of health, medical and wellness tourist's mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Bristow

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass tourism facilities depend on repeat visitors as well as attracting new first time tourists. As these traditional sun and sand holiday destinations mature, tourism promoters are bundling opportunities to attract a different kind of tourist. Since many of these resorts are all-inclusive facilities and include a Spa, one potential expansion may be to market to health, medical or wellness tourists. Geographic research in travel and tourism has found that individuals either repeat visits to the same destination or diversify their choices. This paper highlights the decision-making process of tourists and how it may be related to the niche market of health, wellness, and medical tourism. It uses data from a survey that gathered the travel patterns and motivations, and socio-demographics of medical tourists. Consumers who exhibit different travel behavior rank hospital accreditation and American hospital affiliation more important than those who repeat travel behavior

  11. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-07-14

    Heavy oil recovery has been a major focus in the oil and gas industry to counter the rapid depletion of conventional reservoirs. Various techniques for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil were developed and pilot-tested, with steam drive techniques proven in most circumstances to be successful and economically viable. The Wafra field in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of utilizing steam recovery for carbonate heavy oil reservoirs in the Middle East. With growing injection volumes, tracking the steam evolution within the reservoir and characterizing the formation, especially in terms of its porosity and permeability heterogeneity, are key objectives for sound economic decisions and enhanced production forecasts. We have developed an integrated reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could demonstrate the improved characterization of the reservoir formation, determining more accurately the position of the steam chambers and obtaining more reliable forecasts of the reservoir’s recovery potential. History matching results are fairly robust even for noise levels up to 30%. The results demonstrate the potential of the integration of full-waveform seismic data for steam drive reservoir characterization and increased recovery efficiency.

  12. Interventional Decentralized Telemonitoring: Bridging the Gap Between Patient's Device and Physician's Needs in Well Selected Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbert G. Schulz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine comprises different concepts aiming to close a spatial distance between practitioner, medical staff and patient. It's functionality can include mere data transmission but extend as well to triggering alarms or enable consultation and therapy suggestions. A special form of telemedicinal application is interventional decentralized telemonitoring. Here practitioner-patient communication is characterized by telemedicinial data collection driven therapy-control and -optimization. To identify feasible indications for the employment of telemonitoring a detailed definition of communicated parameters, alarm rules and algorithms of intervention are required as well as a benefit-cost analysis. The quality of the telemedical application is determined by the medical quality of the resulting actions.

  13. Artesunate-induced testicular injury: Oil from selected spices blend modulates redox homeostasis and exacerbates steroidogenesis in rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Ajiboye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of oil from blends of selected culinary spices against artesunate-induced testicular injury in albino rats was investigated. Two groups of rats each were pretreated with the oil at 1.5 and 3.00 mL respectively for seven days and after which administered artesunate (100 mg/kg bw for seven days; two other groups were administered artesunate for seven days and after which post treated with the oil at both doses respectively for another seven days; another groups were co-administered artesunate and the oil for seven days. A group was administered artesunate only for seven days, while another was fed chows only. After sacrifice, the testicular homogenates of the rats were analysed for GSH, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT, Lipid peroxidation (LPO, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities. LPO and GSH levels, SOD and CAT activities were significantly (p < 0.05 higher in rats administered artesunate only, these were significantly lowered in all treatment groups. Administration of artesunate significantly suppressed steroidogenesis, this was attenuated in all treatment groups. The antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidative and steriodogenetic effects of the oil indicate its protective potential against artesunate-induced oxidative testicular damage.

  14. LOWERING UNCERTAINTY IN CRUDE OIL MEASUREMENT BY SELECTING OPTIMIZED ENVELOPE COLOR OF A PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Saadat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowering uncertainty in crude oil volume measurement has been widely considered as one of main purposes in an oil export terminal. It is found that crude oil temperature at metering station has big effects on measured volume and may cause big uncertainty at the metering point. As crude oil flows through an aboveground pipeline, pick up the solar radiation and heat up. This causes the oil temperature at the metering point to rise and higher uncertainty to be created. The amount of temperature rise is depended on exterior surface paint color. In the Kharg Island, there is about 3 km distance between the oil storage tanks and the metering point. The oil flows through the pipeline due to gravity effects as storage tanks are located 60m higher than the metering point. In this study, an analytical model has been conducted for predicting oil temperature at the pipeline exit (the metering point based on climate and geographical conditions of the Kharg Island. The temperature at the metering point has been calculated and the effects of envelope color have been investigated. Further, the uncertainty in the measurement system due to temperature rise has been studied.

  15. Preparatory selection of sterilization regime for canned Natural Atlantic Mackerel with oil based on developed mathematical models of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslov A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Definition of preparatory parameters for sterilization regime of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" is the aim of current study. PRSC software developed at the department of automation and computer engineering is used for preparatory selection. To determine the parameters of process model, in laboratory autoclave AVK-30M the pre-trial process of sterilization and cooling in water with backpressure of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" in can N 3 has been performed. Gathering information about the temperature in the autoclave sterilization chamber and the can with product has been carried out using Ellab TrackSense PRO loggers. Due to the obtained information three transfer functions for the product model have been identified: in the least heated area of autoclave, the average heated and the most heated. In PRSC programme temporary temperature dependences in the sterilization chamber have been built using this information. The model of sterilization process of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been received after the pre-trial process. Then in the automatic mode the sterilization regime of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been selected using the value of actual effect close to normative sterilizing effect (5.9 conditional minutes. Furthermore, in this study step-mode sterilization of canned "Natural Atlantic Mackerel with Oil" has been selected. Utilization of step-mode sterilization with the maximum temperature equal to 125 °C in the sterilization chamber allows reduce process duration by 10 %. However, the application of this regime in practice requires additional research. Using the described approach based on the developed mathematical models of the process allows receive optimal step and variable canned food sterilization regimes with high energy efficiency and product quality.

  16. Antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from Satureja hortensis against selected clinical pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görmez, Arzu; Yanmiş, Derya; Bozari, Sedat; Gürkök, Sumeyra

    2017-04-01

    The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic microorganisms has become a worldwide concern to public health. To overcome the current resistance problem, new antimicrobial agents are extremely needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Satureja hortensis essential oils against seven clinical pathogens. Chemical compositions of hydro distillated essential oils from S. hortensis were analyzed by GS-MS. The antibacterial activity was investigated against Corynebacterium diphtheria, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia plymuthica Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Vibrio cholerae by the use of disc diffusion method and broth micro dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of essential oils were found as low as 7.81 µg/mL. Notably, essential oils of S. hortensis exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activities against the tested clinical pathogens. The results indicate that these essential oils can be used in treatment of different infectious diseases.

  17. A Hybrid Approach Based on the Combination of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Imperialist Competitive Algorithm: Oil Flow Rate of the Wells Prediction Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mollaiy Berneti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel hybrid approach composed of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and imperialist competitive algorithm is proposed. The imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA is used in this methodology to determine the most suitable initial membership functions of the ANFIS. The proposed model combines the global search ability of ICA with local search ability of gradient descent method. To illustrate the suitability and capability of the proposed model, this model is applied to predict oil flow rate of the wells utilizing data set of 31 wells in one of the northern Persian Gulf oil fields of Iran. The data set collected in a three month period for each well from Dec. 2002 to Nov. 2010. For the sake of performance evaluation, the results of the proposed model are compared with the conventional ANFIS model. The results show that the significant improvements are achievable using the proposed model in comparison with the results obtained by conventional ANFIS.

  18. Optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in surface and pore waters adjacent to an oil well in a southern California salt marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Jennifer C; Clark, Catherine D; Keller, Jason K; De Bruyn, Warren J

    2017-01-15

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) optical properties were measured in surface and pore waters as a function of depth and distance from an oil well in a southern California salt marsh. Higher fluorescence and absorbances in pore vs. surface waters suggest soil pore water is a reservoir of CDOM in the marsh. Protein-like fluorophores in pore waters at distinct depths corresponded to variations in sulfate depletion and Fe(II) concentrations from anaerobic microbial activity. These variations were supported by fluorescence indexes and are consistent with differences in optical molecular weight and aromaticity indicators. Fluorescence indices were consistent with autochthonous material of aquatic origin in surface waters, with more terrestrial, humified allochthonous material in deeper pore waters. CDOM optical properties were consistent with significantly enhanced microbial activity in regions closest to the oil well, along with a three-dimensional excitation/emission matrix fluorescence spectrum peak attributable to oil, suggesting anaerobic microbial degradation of oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Particle tracking for selected groundwater wells in the lower Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Matthew P.

    2015-10-21

    The Yakima River Basin in south-central Washington has a long history of irrigated agriculture and a more recent history of large-scale livestock operations, both of which may contribute nutrients to the groundwater system. Nitrate concentrations in water samples from shallow groundwater wells in the lower Yakima River Basin exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard, generating concerns that current applications of fertilizer and animal waste may be exceeding the rate at which plants can uptake nutrients, and thus contributing to groundwater contamination.

  20. Hydrographs Showing Ground-Water Level Changes for Selected Wells in the Lower Skagit River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasser, E.T.; Julich, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrographs for selected wells in the Lower Skagit River basin, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate monthly and seasonal changes in ground-water levels in the study area. Ground-water level data and well information were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey using standard techniques and were stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), Ground-Water Site-Inventory (GWSI) System.

  1. Hydrographs showing groundwater levels for selected wells in the Puyallup River watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R.C.; Julich, R.J.; Justin, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrographs of groundwater levels for selected wells in and adjacent to the Puyallup River watershed in Pierce and King Counties, Washington, are presented using an interactive Web-based map of the study area to illustrate changes in groundwater levels on a monthly and seasonal basis. The interactive map displays well locations that link to the hydrographs, which in turn link to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, Groundwater Site Inventory System.

  2. Oil Well Bottom Hole Locations, This GIS data set was produced as a general reference for the Department of Natural Resources, the oil and gas industry, environmental and regulatory agencies, landowners, and the public., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Oil Well Bottom Hole Locations dataset current as of 2007. This GIS data set was produced as a general reference for the Department of Natural Resources, the oil and...

  3. Religiousness, well-being and ageing – selected explanations of positive relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to research that have been conducted in the field of gerontology, sociology and psychology of ageing, there is a relationship between the level of religious involvement and health status/ well-being/quality of life in older age. How does religiousness influence aging process and health status? The aim of the article is to review explanations of a positive relationship between religiousness and health that are discussed in the literature. Those explanations may be grouped in three broad categories reflecting three functions of religion that play a role for well-being in older age. Those functions are: (1 religiousness as a source of coherence and the role of religious coping and provision of meaning in dealing with stressful life events (including ageing losses (2 religiousness as a source of positive self-perception and a sense of personal control, (3 provision of social resources (i.e. social ties and social support within religious community and emphasis on interpersonal relations (with special focus on forgiveness as a norm in interpersonal relations. Those functions of religion are discussed in the context of their potential role in successful ageing, as determined by - among others - active engagement in life.

  4. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  5. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years and old age (75-90 years. However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory of socio-emotional selectivity (Socioemotional Selectivity Theory L.L. Carstensen, who makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the specificity and mechanisms of selection in social interaction in elderly and old age. Central mechanisms of socio-emotional selection in the later ages are the awareness of time and limited future time perspective, which enhances the awareness of mortality.

  6. Natural radioactivity in selected waterworks and private wells in Sweden. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestergren, I.; Falk, R.; Mjoenes, L.; Ek, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive elements are present in all ground waters. Groundwater from rock aquifers can contain relatively high concentrations of natural radionuclides, especially in areas with uranium-rich granites and pegmatite. Sweden has relatively high levels of natural radioactive elements in the groundwater. In this investigation we have carried out measurements in order to estimate alpha- and beta-emitting natural radionuclides. The alphaemitting nuclides are primarily 238 U, 234 U, 226 Ra and 210 Po. The most important beta-emitting nuclides are 210 Pb and 228 Ra. In the European Drinking Water Directive, 98/83/EC, a reference value of 0.1 millisievert, mSv, per year for Total Indicative Dose, TID, from consumption of drinking water is given. TID includes all radionuclides in drinking water, both artificial and natural, with the exception of radon, radon progeny, 40 K and tritium. A first indication of that TID might exceed 0.1 mSv is that the gross alpha activity concentration exceeds 0.1 Bq/l or that the gross beta activity concentration exceeds 1 Bq/l. A new Swedish Drinking Water Ordinance implementing the new directive has come into force but will not be put into practice until December 2003 (SLV FS 2001:30). Sweden has had action levels for radon in drinking water since 1997 (SLV FS 1997:32). The action level for radon in water from public water supplies is 100 Bq/l. For private wells the recommended maximum level is 1,000 Bq/l. Sweden has about 2,100 public water supplies and 200,000 private drilled wells used permanently and another 100,000 used in summerhouses. Altogether about 1.2 million of the Swedish population rely on private water supplies. (orig.)

  7. Computational and experimental investigation of molecular imprinted polymers for selective extraction of dimethoate and its metabolite omethoate from olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Idriss; Oujji, Najwa Ben; Moczko, Ewa; Istamboulie, Georges; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena; Ait-Addi, Elhabib; Ait-Ichou, Ihya; Noguer, Thierry; Rouillon, Régis

    2013-01-25

    This work presents the development of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective extraction of dimethoate from olive oil. Computational simulations allowed selecting itaconic acid as the monomer showing the highest affinity towards dimethoate. Experimental validation confirmed modelling predictions and showed that the polymer based on IA as functional monomer and omethoate as template molecule displays the highest selectivity for the structurally similar pesticides dimethoate, omethoate and monocrotophos. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method was developed and applied to the clean-up of olive oil extracts. It was found that the most suitable solvents for loading, washing and elution step were respectively hexane, hexane-dichloromethane (85:15%) and methanol. The developed MIPSE was successfully applied to extraction of dimethoate from olive oil, with recovery rates up to 94%. The limits of detection and quantification of the described method were respectively 0.012 and 0.05 μg g(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A pattern of contractor selection for oil and gas industries in a safety approach using ANP-DEMATEL in a Grey environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharedaghi, Gholamreza; Omidvari, Manouchehr

    2018-01-11

    Contractor selection is one of the major concerns of industry managers such as those in the oil industry. The objective of this study was to determine a contractor selection pattern for oil and gas industries in a safety approach. Assessment of contractors based on specific criteria and ultimately selecting an eligible contractor preserves the organizational resources. Due to the safety risks involved in the oil industry, one of the major criteria of contractor selection considered by managers today is safety. The results indicated that the most important safety criterion of contractor selection was safety records and safety investments. This represented the industry's risks and the impact of safety training and investment on the performance of other sectors and the overall organization. The output of this model could be useful in the safety risk assessment process in the oil industry and other industries.

  9. Influence of environmental pollution with creosote oil or its vapors on biomass and selected physiological groups of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyśko-Łupicka, Teresa; Cybulska, Krystyna; Kołosowski, Paweł; Telesiński, Arkadiusz; Sudoł, Adam

    2017-11-01

    Survival of microorganisms in soils from treatment facility and landfill of wooden railway sleepers contaminated with creosote oil as well as in two types of soils with different content of organic carbon, treated with creosote oil vapors, was assessed. Microbiological assays including determination of: the biomass of living microorganisms method and the number of proteolytic, lipolytic and amylolytic microorganisms were carried out under laboratory conditions. Chromatography analysis of the soil extract from railway sleepers treatment facility was performed using GC/MS. The highest biomass and the number of tested microorganisms were determined in soils from wooden railway sleepers landfill, while the lowest in soil from the railway sleepers treatment facility. Vapors of creosote oil, regardless of the soil type, significantly increased only the number of lipolytic bacteria.

  10. Development of Nutrition Education Using support tools to select a well-balanced diet in the Homemaking in Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Itou, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Nami; Ishida, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The implementation plan of the nutrition education for children of 5th graders of the elementary school using the support tools to select a well-balanced diet was developed and practiced. The children’ behavior in the learning process were recorded and analyzed to empirically examine the effect of the nutrition education on the students in their learning process of nutrition knowledge as well as in their acquiring process of behavior to arrange a well-balanced diet.   The results were as ...

  11. Development and characterization of high collapse boron alloys heat treated pipes for oil wells; Tubos de aco TiB para aplicacao em revestimento de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Fabio A.; Silva, Ronaldo; Chad, Luis [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba SP (Brazil); Fritz, Marcelo C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia do Produto

    2008-07-01

    The utilization of OCTG (Oil Country Tubular Goods) pipes will increase with the discovery of new oil wells in ultra deep waters. This study aims to evaluate the mechanical and microstructural performance of welded and heat treated pipes through quenching and tempering using a steel project based in titanium/boron for casing pipes. The objective of this development is to present a set of techniques used during the manufacturing of heated treated ERW pipes boron allowing, discussing mechanical and metallurgical aspects of the steel project, coil conformation, heat treatment and test procedures. The results are within the limits set by the API 5CT standard. It was found that the pipes obtained good geometry and uniformity of mechanical properties, showing that this product can be applied safely and reliability as wells' casing. (author)

  12. Artificial lifting supervision: successes solutions apply for 3.000 oil wells; Supervisao na elevacao artificial: uma solucao aplicada com sucesso em 3.000 pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rutacio O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo B. [RN TECNOLOGIA, Natal, RN (Brazil); Maitelli, Andre L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The gathering of information in industrial automation is essential to maintain and control the industrial processes. In the automation of oil wells, each artificial elevation method has its own variables to be monitored. Thus, several automation companies have developed specific controllers with its own communication protocol and supervisory software. However, in an ideal case, all information about oil elevation should be available in one single application. The SISAL is a SCADA system able to collect processes data and deliver them to the users or other system, regardless of the technique used for artificial elevation, controllers and connecting devices to the wells. This paper is about the application, progress and results using this software in PETROBRAS. (author)

  13. Comparison of chemical profiles of selected gaharu oils from peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazah, M.A.; Chang, Y.S.; Mailina, J.; Abu, S.A.; Abdul Majid, J.; Saidatul, H.S.; Norhasnida, H.; Nik Yasmin, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Gaharu (agar wood) is a fragrant wood that is usually derived from the diseased timber of the genus Aquilaria (Thymelaeceae) and often occurs as dark coloured patches or streaks in the tree. Due to its strong, unique scent and medicinal properties, gaharu oil is greatly valued as perfumery ingredient and incense. Gaharu may be classified into various grades; Grade A, B, C and D and they are often graded according to the physical properties, gaharu formation and its unique scent. The lower grades such as Grade C are often distilled to obtain gaharu oils. As part of an on-going research on the chemical profiling of some Malaysian gaharu oils and evaluation of their potential beneficial properties; gaharu oils obtained from different sources were analysed and compared by GC and GC-MS. Identification of the chemical components was based on comparison of calculated retention indices and mass spectral data with literature values. Examination of the oils showed some variations and differences in terms of GC profiles, concentration and chemical components. Majority of the essential oil profiles were complex and made up of sesquiterpenoids and their oxygenated derivatives. However, common occurrences of chemical compounds such as 3-phenyl-butanone, α-guaiene, β-agar ofuran, α-agar ofuran, agarospirol and jinkoh-eremol were detected. (author)

  14. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farukh Sharopov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC and 1250 µg/mL (MBC for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  15. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Gulmurodov, Isomiddin; Khalifaev, Davlat; Isupov, Salomiddin; Wink, Michael

    2015-11-02

    Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli , 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC 50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) . Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC 50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  16. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  17. Linalool, a Piper aduncum essential oil component, has selective activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote forms at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamizar, Luz Helena; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Andrade, Juliana de; Teixeira, Maria Luisa; Soares, Maurilio José

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies showed that essential oils from different pepper species (Piper spp.) have promising leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. In search for natural compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, different forms of the parasite were incubated for 24 h at 28ºC or 4ºC with Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) or its main constituents linalool and nerolidol. PaEO chemical composition was obtained by GC-MS. Drug activity assays were based on cell counting, MTT data or infection index values. The effect of PaEO on the T. cruzi cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by flow cytometry. PaEO was effective against cell-derived (IC50/24 h: 2.8 μg/mL) and metacyclic (IC50/24 h: 12.1 μg/mL) trypomastigotes, as well as intracellular amastigotes (IC50/24 h: 9 μg/mL). At 4ºC - the temperature of red blood cells (RBCs) storage in blood banks - cell-derived trypomastigotes were more sensitive to PaEO (IC50/24 h = 3.8 μg/mL) than to gentian violet (IC50/24 h = 24.7 mg/mL). Cytotoxicity assays using Vero cells (37ºC) and RBCs (4ºC) showed that PaEO has increased selectivity for cell-derived trypomastigotes. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PaEO does not affect the cell cycle of T. cruzi epimastigotes, but decreases their mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS data identified nerolidol and linalool as major components of PaEO, and linalool had trypanocidal effect (IC50/24 h: 306 ng/mL) at 4ºC. The trypanocidal effect of PaEO is likely due to the presence of linalool, which may represent an interesting candidate for use in the treatment of potentially contaminated RBCs bags at low temperature.

  18. Linalool, a Piper aduncum essential oil component, has selective activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote forms at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Villamizar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Recent studies showed that essential oils from different pepper species (Piper spp. have promising leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. OBJECTIVES In search for natural compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, different forms of the parasite were incubated for 24 h at 28ºC or 4ºC with Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO or its main constituents linalool and nerolidol. METHODS PaEO chemical composition was obtained by GC-MS. Drug activity assays were based on cell counting, MTT data or infection index values. The effect of PaEO on the T. cruzi cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by flow cytometry. FINDINGS PaEO was effective against cell-derived (IC50/24 h: 2.8 μg/mL and metacyclic (IC50/24 h: 12.1 μg/mL trypomastigotes, as well as intracellular amastigotes (IC50/24 h: 9 μg/mL. At 4ºC - the temperature of red blood cells (RBCs storage in blood banks - cell-derived trypomastigotes were more sensitive to PaEO (IC50/24 h = 3.8 μg/mL than to gentian violet (IC50/24 h = 24.7 mg/mL. Cytotoxicity assays using Vero cells (37ºC and RBCs (4ºC showed that PaEO has increased selectivity for cell-derived trypomastigotes. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PaEO does not affect the cell cycle of T. cruzi epimastigotes, but decreases their mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS data identified nerolidol and linalool as major components of PaEO, and linalool had trypanocidal effect (IC50/24 h: 306 ng/mL at 4ºC. MAIN CONCLUSION The trypanocidal effect of PaEO is likely due to the presence of linalool, which may represent an interesting candidate for use in the treatment of potentially contaminated RBCs bags at low temperature.

  19. Synthesis and application of molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanouar, Sara; Combès, Audrey; Mezzache, Sakina; Pichon, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    The increasing use of pesticides in agriculture causes environmental issues and possible serious health risks to humans and animals. Their determination at trace concentrations in vegetable oils constitutes a significant analytical challenge. Therefore, their analysis often requires both an extraction and a purification step prior to separation with liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. This work aimed at developing sorbents that are able to selectively extract from vegetable oil samples several organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides presenting a wide range of physico-chemical properties. Therefore, different conditions were screened to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by a non-covalent approach. The selectivity of the resulting polymers was evaluated by studying the OPs retention in pure media on both MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIP) used as control. The most promising MIP sorbent was obtained using monocrotophos (MCP) as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker with a molar ratio of 1/4/20 respectively. The repeatability of the extraction procedure and of the synthesis procedure was demonstrated in pure media. The capacity of this MIP was 1mg/g for malathion. This MIP was also able to selectively extract three OPs from almond oil by applying the optimized SPE procedure. Recoveries were between 73 and 99% with SD values between 4 and 6% in this oil sample. The calculated LOQs (between 0.3 and 2μg/kg) in almond seeds with a SD between 0.1 and 0.4μg/kg were lower than the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) established for the corresponding compounds in almond seed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Selection of nutrients to enhance biodegradation for the remediation of oil spilled on beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safferman, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the fate of fertilizers proposed for application to the Alaska shoreline in support of the Alaskan Oil Spill EPA Bioremediation Project. Fertilizer application is theorized to provide indigenous organisms with nutrients that appear to be limited on ocean beaches. The experiments were developed strictly to test the durability, release rates, and application procedures of a variety of fertilizer types. The effects of tidal movement on a beach was simulated by two separate conditions, static and dynamic. The static condition represented periods when the beach material was under water and turbulence was at a minimum. This condition was simulated in the laboratory by submerging the nutrient in a beaker of simulated sea water (with or without beach material depending on the nutrients). These experiments ran continuously over a 3-month period with water exchanges in accordance with a planned schedule. Nutrient concentrations were measured in the exchanged water. Dynamic conditions represented the forces on beach material as the water moved from the low to high tide and then back to the low tide. In the laboratory, the condition was simulated by applying the nutrients to beach material, which was piled in one end of a long narrow trayplaced on a rocker table. When the rocker table was operating and sufficient quantities of sea water had been added to cover the beach material, a gentle sloshing of the water over the materials resulted. These experiments generally lasted 1 to 2 hours during which time liquid samples were collected for nutrient analyses. Durability of the fertilizers was measured by visual observation and freeze/thaw determinations. The experimental setup was economical and performed well

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) levels in transformer oils from selected transformers in sensitive areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buah-Kwofie, A.

    2009-02-01

    Knowledge of PCBs and the adverse effects on humans and the environment have been assessed among Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) staff members, Volta River Authority (VRA) staff members and the general public. Evidence obtained shows that, Staff members of the technical departments of ECG/VRA (71.4 %) as well as a few welders (16.7 %) have come in contact with the transformer oil that may possibly contain PCBs. About fifty six percent (55.6 %) of the ECG/VRA staff members do not wear any protective gears when working on these transformers thus exposing themselves to PCBs. About twenty seven percent (27.3 %) of the management staff members of ECG/VRA are not aware of the adverse health effects caused by PCBs. Using PCB test kits (CLOR-N-OIL) developed by Dexsil Company of USA, 17 out of the 80 transformers screened for PCB contaminated oils, tested positive as containing PCBs levels greater than 50 ppm. Neutron Activation Analysis and gamma ray spectroscopy using Canberra HPGe detector coupled to MAESTRO 32 software has been used to determine the total chlorine content in 22 of the transformer oil samples screened using the test kits, including the 17 samples that tested positive using the test kits. The total chlorine content measured in the transformer oils that tested positive by the test kit was in the range of 71.34 ± 8.63 with 6 - 7.5 % accuracy. This being deduced that using NAA, total chlorine greater than 71.34 ppm is an indication of PCB contamination. NAA thus provides a faster and efficient way of analyzing transformer oil samples for possible PCB contamination

  2. Transient model for free fall effect during cementing operations in oil wells; Modelo transiente para o efeito de queda livre durante operacoes de cimentacao em pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggio, Junior, Ademar; Lage, Antonio Carlos V.M.; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Perfuracao

    1990-12-31

    This paper presents a mathematical model for the simulation of cementing operations in oil wells. The downward flow of fluids in the casing and the upward flow of fluids in the annulus is further complicated by fluid free fall, which creates a vacuum at the well head. The basic equations were derived from the mass and momentum conservation laws by means of a macroscopic balance. The simulator is used to predict pressures and flow rates during the operation. (author) 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Transient model for free fall effect during cementing operations in oil wells; Modelo transiente para o efeito de queda livre durante operacoes de cimentacao em pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggio Junior, Ademar; Lage, Antonio Carlos V.M.; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Perfuracao

    1989-12-31

    This paper presents a mathematical model for the simulation of cementing operations in oil wells. The downward flow of fluids in the casing and the upward flow of fluids in the annulus is further complicated by fluid free fall, which creates a vacuum at the well head. The basic equations were derived from the mass and momentum conservation laws by means of a macroscopic balance. The simulator is used to predict pressures and flow rates during the operation. (author) 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Chitosan encapsulation of essential oil "cocktails" with well-defined binary Zn(II)-Schiff base species targeting antibacterial medicinal nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevas, Eleftherios; Nday, Christiane M; Chatzigeorgiou, Evanthia; Varsamis, Vasileios; Eleftheriadou, Despoina; Jackson, Graham E; Litsardakis, Georgios; Lazari, Diamanto; Ypsilantis, Konstantinos; Salifoglou, Athanasios

    2017-11-01

    The advent of biodegradable nanomaterials with enhanced antibacterial activity stands as a challenge to the global research community. In an attempt to pursue the development of novel antibacterial medicinal nanotechnology, we herein a) synthesized ionic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles, b) compared and evaluated the antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from nine different herbs (Greek origin) and their combinations with a well-defined antibacterial Zn(II)-Schiff base compound, and c) encapsulated the most effective hybrid combination of Zn(II)-essential oils inside the chitosan matrix, thereby targeting well-formulated nanoparticles of distinct biological impact. The empty and loaded chitosan nanoparticles were physicochemically characterized by FT-IR, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), with the entrapment and drug release studies being conducted through UV-Visible and atomic absorption techniques. The antimicrobial properties of the novel hybrid materials were demonstrated against Gram positive (S. aureus, B. subtilis, and B. cereus) and Gram negative (E. coli and X. campestris) bacteria using modified agar diffusion methods. The collective physicochemical profile of the hybrid Zn(II)-essential oil cocktails, formulated so as to achieve optimal activity when loaded to chitosan nanoparticles, signifies the importance of design in the development of efficient nanomedicinal pharmaceuticals a) based on both natural products and biogenic metal ionic cofactors, and b) targeting bacterial infections and drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maximizing Wellness in Successful Aging and Cancer Coping: The Importance of Family Communication from a Socioemotional Selectivity Theoretical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Carla L.; Nussbaum, Jon F.

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal communication is a fundamental part of being and key to health. Interactions within family are especially critical to wellness across time. Family communication is a central means of adaptation to stress, coping, and successful aging. Still, no theoretical argument in the discipline exists that prioritizes kin communication in health. Theoretical advances can enhance interventions and policies that improve family life. This article explores socioemotional selectivity theory (SST...

  6. Hydrographs Showing Groundwater Level Changes for Selected Wells in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed and Vicinity, Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, G.B.; Julich, R.; Payne, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Selected groundwater level hydrographs for the Chambers-Clover Creek watershed (CCCW) and vicinity, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate changes in groundwater levels in and near the CCCW on a monthly and seasonal basis. Hydrographs are linked to points corresponding to the well location on an interactive map of the study area. Groundwater level data and well information from Federal, State, and local agencies were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS), Groundwater Site Inventory (GWSI) System.

  7. Factors affecting the abundance of selected fishes near oil and gas platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, D.R.; Wilson, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    A logbook program was initiated to determine the relative abundance of selected fish species around oil and gas platforms off the Louisiana coast. Logbooks were maintained by 55 anglers and 10 charterboat operators from March 1987 to March 1988. A total of 36,839 fish were caught representing over 46 different species. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped the seventeen most abundant species into reef fish, pelagic fish, bluefish-red drum, Atlantic croaker-silver/sand seatrout, and cobia-shark-blue runner associations. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare PCA groupings to physical platform, temporal, geological, and angler characteristic variables and their interactions. Reef fish, Atlantic croaker, and silver/sand seatrout abundances were highest near large, structurally complex platforms in relatively deep water. High spotted seatrout abundances were correlated with small, unmanned oil and gas platforms in shallow water. Pelagic fish, bluefish, red drum, cobia, and shark abundances were not related to the physical parameters of the platforms

  8. Factors affecting the abundance of selected fishes near oil and gas platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, D.R.; Wilson, C.A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A logbook program was initiated to determine the relative abundance of selected fish species around oil and gas platforms off the Louisiana coast. Logbooks were maintained by 55 anglers and 10 charterboat operators from March 1987 to March 1988. A total of 36,839 fish were caught representing over 46 different species. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped the seventeen most abundant species into reef fish, pelagic fish, bluefish-red drum, Atlantic croaker-silver/sand seatrout, and cobia-shark-blue runner associations. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare PCA groupings to physical platform, temporal, geological, and angler characteristic variables and their interactions. Reef fish, Atlantic croaker, and silver/sand seatrout abundances were highest near large, structurally complex platforms in relatively deep water. High spotted seatrout abundances were correlated with small, unmanned oil and gas platforms in shallow water. Pelagic fish, bluefish, red drum, cobia, and shark abundances were not related to the physical parameters of the platforms.

  9. The Antibacterial Activity of Selected Labiatae (Lamiaceae) Essential Oils against Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Safi, Mazen

    2013-03-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. The major cause of brucellosis worldwide is brucella melitensis. Medicinal plants are considered as new antibacterial sources that could replace conventional antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of some native plants, alone and in combination with some antibiotics, in the treatment of brucellosis. The present experimental in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the anti-brucella activities of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Origanum syriacum, Thymus syriacus, Salvia palaestina Benth, Mentha piperia, and Lavandula stoechas L., alone and in combination with some antibiotics. The activity against 16 tetracycline-resistant B. melitensis isolates was determined by disc diffusion method incorporating a concentration of 5%. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Microdilution brucella broth susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the MICs of essential oils and five antibiotics. Among all the herbs evaluated, only the essential oils of O. syriacum and T. syriacus plants demonstrated most effective anti-brucella activity, and were then chosen for MIC study. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC50) of essential oils of O. syriacum and T. syriacus against tetracycline-resistant B. melitensis were 3.125 µl/ml and 6.25 µl/ml, respectively. Among the essential oils studied, those of O. syriacum and T. syriacus were most effective. Since a combination of levofloxacin and Thymus syriacus essential oil increased the efficacy of this antibiotic, O. syriacum and T. syriacus are recommended to be used as bactericidal agents against B. melitensis.

  10. The Antibacterial Activity of Selected Labiatae (Lamiaceae Essential Oils against Brucella melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. The major cause of brucellosis worldwide is brucella melitensis. Medicinal plants are considered as new antibacterial sources that could replace conventional antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of some native plants, alone and in combination with some antibiotics, in the treatment of brucellosis.Methods: The present experimental in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the anti-brucella activities of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Origanum syriacum, Thymus syriacus, Salvia palaestina Benth, Mentha piperia, and Lavandula stoechas L., alone and in combination with some antibiotics. The activity against 16 tetracycline-resistant B. melitensis isolates was determined by disc diffusion method incorporating a concentration of 5%. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Microdilution brucella broth susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the MICs of essential oils and five antibiotics.Results: Among all the herbs evaluated, only the essential oils of O. syriacum and T. syriacus plants demonstrated most effective anti-brucella activity, and were then chosen for MIC study. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 of essential oils of O. syriacum and T. syriacus against tetracycline-resistant B. melitensis were 3.125 µl/ml and 6.25 µl/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Among the essential oils studied, those of O. syriacum and T. syriacus were most effective. Since a combination of levofloxacin and Thymus syriacus essential oil increased the efficacy of this antibiotic, O. syriacum and T. syriacus are recommended to be used as bactericidal agents against B. melitensis.

  11. Effects of Mineral Oils on Host Selection Behavior of Diaphorina citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofit Eko Poerwanto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Response of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on citrus leaves treated with horticultural and agricultural mineral oil (HMO & AMO was evaluated under laboratory condition in choice and non-choice trials. Combination of HMO and AMO at concentration of 0 up to 2% was applied to citrus leaves. Mineral oil applications significantly reduced the proportion of D. citri stayed on citrus leaves for feeding with the proposed mechanisms: 1 oils covered leaves thus hampered it for releasing volatile compounds, 2 oil film preventing the direct contact of tarsus or palpus to leaf surfaces, and 3 the volatile compounds produced by mineral oils also blended with plant volatiles in the atmosphere and reduced the probability of olfactory receptors capturing the olfactory cues for locating the feeding site. Mineral oils also increased the mortality of D. citri due to the refusion for feeding on the treated citrus leaves. The effect of AMO was more prominent than HMO.   Tanggapan Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pada daun jeruk yang diperlakukan dengan minyak mineral (HMO dan AMO dievaluasi dengan metode pilihan maupun tanpa pilihan di laboratorium. Kombinasi antara HMO dan AMO pada konsentrasi 0% sampai dengan 2% diaplikasikan pada daun jeruk. Minyak mineral secara nyata menurunkan proporsi D. citri hinggap untuk makan pada daun jeruk, yang mungkin disebabkan oleh mekanisme: 1 minyak melapisi daun sehingga tidak mampu melepaskan senyawa volatil, 2 lapisan minyak menghalangi kontak langsung antara tarsus atau palpus pada permukaan daun, dan 3 senyawa volatil dari minyak bercampur dengan volatil tanaman di udara sehingga menurunkan probabilitas reseptor olfaktori menangkap sinyal penanda lokasi inang. Minyak mineral juga meningkatkan mortalitas, akibat dari penolakan makan pada daun jeruk yang diperlakukan. Pengaruh AMO lebih besar dari pada HMO.

  12. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

    2014-07-16

    Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists.

  13. Radioprotection guidelines to the elaboration of a specific standard for the licensing of radioactive facilities on the practice of oil and gas well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Rogerio dos Santos; Gomes, Joana D'Arc Ramos Lopes; Costa, Mara Lucia de Lara; Miranda, Marcia Valeria F.E. Sa

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory process in oil and gas well logging has shown the need for specific standard for the issuance of a license authorizing the use of sealed sources in well logging activities, in order to guarantee the quality of many factors from the point of view of radiation protection. Currently, have been used only generic radiation protection standards, but are not comprehensive or technically suitable for a well logging licensing purpose. The lack of a specific standard for licensing in radioactive well logging operations in Brazil, weakens the nuclear regulatory body in your aim of regulate and licensing the activity. This work establish, as main objective, a guideline for the future Brazilian radioprotection code in well logging operations, presenting relevant aspects not covered by generic radiation protection standards. (author)

  14. Radioprotection guidelines to the elaboration of a specific standard for the licensing of radioactive facilities on the practice of oil and gas well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Rogerio dos Santos; Gomes, Joana D'Arc Ramos Lopes; Costa, Mara Lucia de Lara; Miranda, Marcia Valeria F.E. Sa

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory process in oil and gas well logging has shown the need for specific standard for the issuance of a license authorizing the use of sealed sources in well logging activities, in order to guarantee the quality of many factors from the point of view of radiation protection. Currently, have been used only generic radiation protection standards, but are not comprehensive or technically suitable for a well logging licensing purpose. The lack of a specific standard for licensing in radioactive well logging operations in Brazil, weakens the nuclear regulatory body in your aim of regulate and licensing the activity. This work establish, as main objective, a guideline for the future Brazilian radioprotection code in well logging operations, presenting relevant aspects not covered by genetic radiation protection standards. (author)

  15. The Oil Point Method - A tool for indicative environmental evaluation in material and process selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2000-01-01

    to three essential assessment steps, the method enables rough environmental evaluations and supports in this way material- and process-related decision-making in the early stages of design. In its overall structure, the Oil Point Method is related to Life Cycle Assessment - except for two main differences...... of environmental evaluation and only approximate information about the product and its life cycle. This dissertation addresses this challenge in presenting a method, which is tailored to these requirements of designers - the Oil Point Method (OPM). In providing environmental key information and confining itself...

  16. Selecting and calculating joint operation of oil and petroleum gas collection systems, and mechanized production methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, L S; D' yachuk, A I; Davydova, L V; Maslov, V P; Salyautdinova, R M; Suslov, V M

    1979-01-01

    The possibility is examined of formalizing the indicated procedure in the process of performing step by step calculations. At the first step, considering limitations imposed by the dominating parameters, preliminary selection is performed of the acceptable combination of the type of collection system and methods of mechanized production for the development conditions examined. The second step provides for physical simulation at a well of an experimental section of time-variable conditions of field development. The values of the technological indices thus defined are then considered to be reliable information for technico-economic calculations. Parallel research is done on the technological features of operation of the collection systems chosen and their individual elements (pipeline system, separation units, etc.), which the experimental section is fitted with beforehand. Material is given which illustrates in detail the basic assumptions of the technique proposed and the calculation procedure.

  17. 75 FR 66776 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0043, Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    .... Review well-workover diagrams and procedures to ensure the safety of well-workover operations. Verify... burden for this information collection is a total of 24,719 hours. The following chart details the... for well-workovers on a pressure chart or with a digital recorder; certify the information is correct...

  18. Sol-gel derived flexible silica aerogel as selective adsorbent for water decontamination from crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi Mahani, A; Motahari, S; Mohebbi, A

    2018-04-01

    Oil spills are the most important threat to the sea ecosystem. The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of sol-gel parameters on seawater decontamination from crude oil by use of flexible silica aerogel. To this goal, methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) based silica aerogels were prepared by two-step acid-base catalyzed sol-gel process, involving ambient pressure drying (APD) method. To investigate the effects of sol-gel parameters, the aerogels were prepared under two different acidic and basic pH values (i.e. 4 and 8) and varied ethanol/MTMS molar ratios from 5 to 15. The adsorption capacity of the prepared aerogels was evaluated for two heavy and light commercial crude oils under multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. To reduce process time, desorption cycles were carried out by using roll milling for the first time. At optimum condition, silica aerogels are able to uptake heavy and light crude oils with the order of 16.7 and 13.7, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selection and production of oregano rich in essential oil and carvacrol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mheen, van der H.J.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in oregano essential oil and its component carvacrol for the use as a feed additive with antimicrobial properties, enhancing the health of poultry and pigs. This chapter describes the initial agronomic attempts (in the years 2001-2004) to acquire and develop Origanum

  20. Dietary linseed oil and selenate affect the concentration of fatty acids in selected tissues of sheep

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 9 (2012), s. 389-401 ISSN 1212-1819 Grant - others:State Committee for Scientific Research(PL) 3PO6Z 034 22 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : selenium * linseed oil * fatty acid Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2012

  1. Interesterification reaction activity, fatty acid composition and selectivity ratio of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The interesterification reaction was carried out by adding oleic acid to soybean oil by ratio 1:2 w/w under different conditions of temperature, stirring and catalyst percentages. Assessment of the interesterification of oils was reported by determination of saponification value, iodine value and fatty acids composition. This study showed that linolenic acid which is responsible for flavour instability of soybean oil and consider as primary factor contributing to deterioration of this oil could be reduced to less than or equals 3%.

    Se han llevado a cabo reacciones de interesterificación mediante la adición de ácido oleico a aceite de soja en la relación 1:2 w/w bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura, agitación y porcentaje de catalizador. La evaluación de la interesterificación de los aceites se realizó por determinación del índice de saponificación, el índice de iodo y la composición en ácidos grasos. Este estudio mostró que el ácido linolénico, que es responsable de la inestabilidad del flavor del aceite de soja y considerado como factor primario que contribuye a la deterioración de este aceite, podría ser reducido a cantidades menores o iguales al 3%.

  2. Gasifier selection, design and gasification of oil palm fronds with preheated and unheated gasifying air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, Fiseha M; Sulaiman, Shaharin A; Ramli, Anita

    2012-12-01

    Oil palm frond biomass is abundantly available in Malaysia, but underutilized. In this study, gasifiers were evaluated based on the available literature data and downdraft gasifiers were found to be the best option for the study of oil palm fronds gasification. A downdraft gasifier was constructed with a novel height adjustment mechanism for changing the position of gasifying air and steam inlet. The oil palm fronds gasification results showed that preheating the gasifying air improved the volumetric percentage of H(2) from 8.47% to 10.53%, CO from 22.87% to 24.94%, CH(4) from 2.02% to 2.03%, and higher heating value from 4.66 to 5.31 MJ/Nm(3) of the syngas. In general, the results of the current study demonstrated that oil palm fronds can be used as an alternative energy source in the energy diversification plan of Malaysia through gasification, along with, the resulting syngas quality can be improved by preheating the gasifying air. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. INFLUENCE OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS ON SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta ARPÁŠOVÁ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was designed to investigate the effects of feed supplementation with essential oils on egg weight and body mass of laying hens. Hens of the laying breed Isa Brown were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 3 groups (n=26 and fed for 45 weeks on diets which differed in kind of essential oil supplemented. Hens were fed from day 1 by the standard feed mixture. Laying hens accepted fodder ad libitum. In the control group hens took feed mixture without additions, in the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with 0.25 ml/kg thyme essential oil and in the second one hens got hyssop essential oil in the same dose of 0.25 ml/kg. The housing system satisfied enriched cage requirements specified by the Directive 1999/74 EC. The useful area provided for one laying hen presented 943.2 cm2. The equipment of cage consisted of roosts, place for rooting in ashes – synthetic grass, nest and equipment for shortening of clutches. The results showed that the average body weight for a rearing period was in order groups: 736.15±523.49; 747.20±541.6 and 721.95±522.57 (g±SD. Differences between groups were not significant (P>0.05. The average body weight during the laying period was 1763.85±171.46; 1786.08±192.09 and 1729.73±129.12 g for control, thyme oil and hyssop oil supplementation respectively. During the laying period there were significant differences in body weight between control and experimental group with hyssop essential oil supplementation (P<0.05 and between both experimental groups (P<0.01. No significant differences were found out between control group and experimental groups (P>0.05 in egg weight (58.36±4.91; 58.82±4.95 and 58.26±5.33 g respectively.

  4. Field-scale evidence for biogeophysical signatures resulting from natural attenuation of a well characterized crude oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, L. D.; Revil, A.; Atekwana, E. A.; Mewafy, F.; Bekins, B. A.; Cozzarelli, I.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Skold, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Trost, J.; Erickson, M.; Heenan, J. W.; Lane, J. W.; Werkema, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent biogeophysical research has indicated that unique geophysical signatures are associated with the long-term biodegradation of organic contaminants. However, field-scale demonstrations of the presence of these signatures at sites of organic contamination are lacking. For the last three years, we have performed geophysical measurements at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site, a unique field laboratory situated just outside of Bemidji, MN. At this site, a ruptured pipeline spilled 1,700,000 L of crude oil into an uninhabited area in 1979. Natural attenuation of the spill has been extensively documented and a geochemical database extending back over 20 years is available to constrain interpretation of the geophysical signatures. We report compelling evidence of a transient geobattery associated with biodegradation of this mature hydrocarbon spill. Using an array of boreholes, self-potential measurements acquired from land surface, passing through the smear zone, capture a diagnostic dipole (peak to peak voltages up to 64 mV) indicating a current source centered on the smear zone, with anodic and cathodic reactions below and above the smear zone respectively. Down borehole measurements reveal that the smear zone is characterized by high magnetic susceptibility (MS); laboratory measurements show that this MS enhancement results from precipitation of iron mineral byproducts of biodegradation. These iron minerals presumably facilitate the electron transport between anode and cathode required to support a geobattery. Furthermore, laboratory and field-scale complex resistivity measurements reveal an enhancement in the complex surface conductivity within the smear zone most likely due to these biodegradation byproducts. The geobattery is not permanent, but instead periodically shuts down, presumably due to changes in the gradient of the redox species driving anodic and cathodic reactions. Gas samples show that conditions are anaerobic

  5. Using Oil and Gas Well Log Records to Understand Possible Connections Between Wastewater Injection Zones and Usable Groundwater Aquifers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, D.; Haugen, E. A.; Battistella, C.; Treguboff, E. W.; Kale, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although the disposal of produced water in wastewater injection wells has been occurring in California for decades, it is not clear whether injected fluids may be migrating into usable groundwater aquifers. One problem is the poor characterization of federally-protected (oil and gas well records collected by the California Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR). These scanned records contain two useful sources of information. First, geophysical well logs, such those measuring resistivity and porosity, can be used to determine aquifer salinity. This allows a three-dimensional understanding of the distribution of protected groundwater. Second, driller's logs contain lithological descriptions at depth. These lithologies can be used to construct a three-dimensional texture model, which can then be used in a groundwater flow model. A large number of undergraduate researchers at CSU Sacramento and CSU Long Beach have been collecting information on well records in the Ventura Basin and the Southern San Joaquin Valley. Each well record is examined with basic metadata entered into an online database in an effort to identify appropriate geophysical well logs and driller's logs. High-quality driller's logs are coded and used to create three-dimensional framework models for each well field. The geophysical logs are digitized and will be used to determine aquifer salinity. In addition, we are using information from the DOGGR well records to investigate wellbore integrity, waste disposal and waterflood injection volumes, and the possibility of induced seismicity. This project is part of the broader effort of the California State Water Resources Control Board to implement Senate Bill 4.

  6. Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ► Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ► Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ► Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ► In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ► Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

  7. Bubble point pressures of the selected model system for CatLiq® bio-oil process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Baig, Muhammad Noman

    2010-01-01

    . In this work, the bubble point pressures of a selected model mixture (CO2 + H2O + Ethanol + Acetic acid + Octanoic acid) were measured to investigate the phase boundaries of the CatLiq® process. The bubble points were measured in the JEFRI-DBR high pressure PVT phase behavior system. The experimental results......The CatLiq® process is a second generation catalytic liquefaction process for the production of bio-oil from WDGS (Wet Distillers Grains with Solubles) at subcritical conditions (280-350 oC and 225-250 bar) in the presence of a homogeneous alkaline and a heterogeneous Zirconia catalyst...

  8. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasan, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, and 0.26 ± 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used.

    Cuatro aceites vegetales refinados comerciales diferentes fueron analizados por cromatografía de gases para determinar el contenido en ácidos grasos trans. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el contenido total de los FA trans de aceites refinados de girasol, maíz, soja y avellana fueron 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, y 0.26 ± 0.07% de FA totales, respetivamente. Los ácidos grasos totales trans comprenden a isómeros de FA C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3. Cinco marcas de aceites de girasol refinado y dos marcas de aceite de avellana contenían cantidades no medibles de ácidos trans C18:3 totales. Los ácidos C18:2 trans totales fueron los FA trans predominantes en el aceite de girasol y ma

  9. Selective Metallization of Well Aligned PS-b-P2VP Block Copolymers in Thin Films and in Confined Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, James D.; Watkins, James J.; Russell, Thomas P.

    2006-03-01

    Well aligned, microphase-separated structures of styrene-2-vinylpyridine block copolymers are being used as templates for macromolecule-metal nanocomposites. These composites are either prepared as thin films or confined in nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes. Under optimal conditions, templates are prepared as thin films or confined nanorods and metallized without disturbing the ordered structure. We have developed a procedure that deposits metal within the polymer using supercritical carbon dioxide-soluble metal precursors. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide allows for selective metallization of the polymer at or below the glass transition, without disrupting the morphology. In addition, similar procedures have been investigated using metal salts and acids. Using these techniques, metals and metal-sulfides including silver, gold, platinum and zinc sulfide have been selectively deposited.

  10. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-10-01

    So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment.

  11. Decision 99-28: Mobil Oil Canada, Ltd., and Mobil Resources Ltd., - application for a well licence to drill a critical sour gas well LSD 4-36-27-28 W4, Crossfield Field, application No. 1037560

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On 12 February 1999, Mobil submitted Application No. 1037560 to the Alberta Energy and Utilities (EUB) Board on a routine basis, pursuant to Section 2.020 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations, for a well licence to drill a critical sour gas well. The well would be drilled from a surface location in Legal Subdivision (LSD) 4 of Section 36, Township 27, Range 28, West of the 4th Meridian to a bottomhole location in LDS 7-36-27-28 W4M, with an 1100 m horizontal section. The aim of the 4-36 well was to obtain gas production from the Crossfield member. On 17 February 1999, the EUB issued Well Licence No. 221575 on the understanding that there were no outstanding objections to the 4-36 well. Mobil spudded the 4-36 well on 3 March 1999, drilled to 363 m and set surface casing. The EUB subsequently received objections to the application from area residents near the proposed well location. Accordingly, pursuant to Section 43 of the Energy Resources Conservation Act, the EUB directed that a public hearing be held to consider the application. The Board assessed in detail the effects that would likely result and the mitigative measures that would have to be taken to reduce any negative effects considering: the proposed well location, impacts of the proposed well, safety of the well, and public notification and consultation. Having carefully considered all the evidence, the EUB Board determined that Application No. 1037560 met all the EUB's regulatory requirements and was satisfied that appropriate measures were taken to ensure that public safety risks and impacts were minimized

  12. 78 FR 68082 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations; Submitted for Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... crew in the event of encountering H 2 S. Review well-workover diagrams and procedures to ensure the... this information collection is a total of 53,156 hours. The following chart details the individual... and coiled tubing tests for well-workovers on a pressure chart or with a digital recorder; certify the...

  13. FLAX OIL FROM TRANSGENIC LINUM USITATISSIMUM SELECTIVELY INHIBITS IN VITRO PROLIFERATION OF HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebarowski, Tomasz; Gebczak, Katarzyna; Wiatrak, Benita; Kulma, Anna; Pelc, Katarzyna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan; Gasiorowski, Kazimierz

    2017-03-01

    Emulsions made of oils from transgenic flaxseeds significantly decreased in vitro proliferation of six tested human cancer cell lines in 48-h cultures, as assessed with the standard sulforhodamine assay. However, the emulsions also increased proliferation rate of normal human dermal fibroblasts and, to a lower extend, of keratinocytes. Both inhibition of in vitro proliferation of human cancer cell lines and stimulation of proliferation of normal dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were especially strong with the emulsion type B and with emulsion type M. Oils from seeds of transgenic flax type B and M should be considered as valuable adjunct to standard cytostatic therapy of human cancers and also could be applied to improve the treatment of skin lesions in wound healing.

  14. Effect of soil contamination with oil substances on the growth of selected plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sara, V.; Kult, L.; Vavra, J.

    1993-12-01

    The growth of barley, maize, wheat and alfalfa was studied in dependence on the level of soil pollution with crude oil. Attention was also paid to the effect of such contamination on the vanadium and nickel contents of the above-ground parts of the plants. Experiments revealed that, with the exception of alfalfa, the vanadium content of plants which had been grown in the contaminated soil was about one-half with respect to the values observed in plants grown in uncontaminated soil, and the nickel content was also lower than in control plants. Introduced into the soil by injection in concentrations of 180 to 500 ppm, crude oil was found to induce local damage in the plants, resulting in a smaller size of the plants and a delayed or missing earing phase, with repercussions on the grain size and quantity. (J.B.). 2 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Experimental investigation on emission reduction in neem oil biodiesel using selective catalytic reduction and catalytic converter techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Karthickeyan

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, non-edible seed oil namely raw neem oil was converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. In the experimentation, two biodiesel blends were prepared namely B25 (25% neem oil methyl ester with 75% of diesel) and B50 (50% neem oil methyl ester with 50% diesel). Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technique with catalytic converter (CC) was fixed in the exhaust tail pipe of the engine for the reduction of engine exhaust emissions. Initially, the engine was operated with diesel as a working fluid and followed by refilling of biodiesel blends B25 and B50 to obtain the baseline readings without SCR and CC. Then, the same procedure was repeated with SCR and CC technique for emission reduction measurement in diesel, B25 and B50 sample. The experimental results revealed that the B25 blend showed higher break thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) with lower break-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than B50 blend at all loads. On comparing with biodiesel blends, diesel experiences increased BTE of 31.9% with reduced BSFC of 0.29 kg/kWh at full load. A notable emission reduction was noticed for all test fuels in SCR and CC setup. At full load, B25 showed lower carbon monoxide (CO) of 0.09% volume, hydrocarbon (HC) of 24 ppm, and smoke of 14 HSU and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of 735 ppm than diesel and B50 in SCR and CC setup. On the whole, the engine with SCR and CC setup showed better performance and emission characteristics than standard engine operation.

  16. Comparison of Ecological Impacts of Postulated Oil Spills at Selected Alaskan Locations. Volume 2, Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    DISCUSSION TaMe 2-22 presents the results of the oil spill scenarios examined at St. Matthew Island without cleanup. 2-485 DIESEL-2 CRUDE BUNKER...include red fox, Arctic ground squirrel, lemmings, shrews , and voles. The Arctic fox, an inhabitant of both the terrestrial area and the pack ice, is... the time you ordered this report— which is only one of the hundreds of thou- sands in the NTIS information collection avail- able to you—and the

  17. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula L. Vieira-Brock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils (EOs are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products–air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray–for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay. The new EO blend significantly inhibited the growth of the four microorganisms. The zones of inhibition of new EO blend were greater than the air freshener and similar to the liquid soap and body spray, with the exception of Str. pneumoniae in which the body spray provided greater inhibitory zone. The new EO blend and the single oils, with the exception of peppermint, equally inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Str. pneumoniae suggesting no additive effect. P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis showed variable susceptibility to all EOs except for no susceptibility to orange and limonene. No difference was found between (− and (+-limonene; whereas, (+-menthol showed greater effect than (−-menthol. In conclusion, blending the EO of orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was beneficial in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, Str. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. brasiliensis providing a natural antimicrobial fragrance option over synthetics fragrances used in soaps, body sprays, and air fresheners. Keywords: Essential oils, Soap, Body spray, Air freshener

  18. Extraction of Phytosterols from Tall Oil Soap Using Selected Organic Solvents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rousková, Milena; Heyberger, Aleš; Tříska, Jan; Krtička, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2011), s. 805-812 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS400720504; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : liquid - liquid extraction * tall oil soap * phytosterols Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.096, year: 2011

  19. Genotoxic studies of selected plant oil extracts on Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer H. Qari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the genotoxic effects of various concentrations of plant oils from Eruca sativa (Brassicaceae, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae and Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae to the conventional organophosphate insecticide (Chlorpyrifos against Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius. The R. dominica population was reared for several generations without exposure to any insecticide. Wheat grains were sterilized at 55 °C for 6 h in order to eliminate any hidden infestation, treated with serial dilutions of Chlorpyrifos and plant oil extracts, and subsequently fed to R. dominica for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 8 days. The results indicated that the LC50 values of oils from E. sativa, Z. officinale and O. Majorana were 0.14, 0.23 and 0.32%, respectively, after 2 days. Genetic variations in DNA fragments after treatment with LC50 and LC25 concentrations of E. sativa, Z. officinale and O. majorana were detected by RAPD-PCR analysis using five primers. The results exhibited distinct DNA polymorphisms or alterations in DNA bands. These alterations varied depending on the substance being examined. Chlorpyrifos causes the highest level of DNA alterations (based on the appearance and disappearance DNA bands followed by E. sativa, Z. officinale and O. majorana. These results were in direct correlation with the differences in mortality rates between extracts. It could be concluded that the plant oil extracts can be used as one of the integrated pest management tools to control R. dominica in stored products, as they are safer than chemical insecticides.

  20. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the eff...

  1. Partition of selected food preservatives in fish oil-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan; Leth, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The partition coefficients (Kow) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in systems of fish oil (sand eel)–water, fish oil–buffer solution, rape oil–water and olive oil–water were experimentally determined in a temperature range from 5 to 43 °C and pH from 4.5 to 6.5 °C. The dimerization of benzoic acid...... in fish oil–water system was observed at 25 °C. Two modifications have been made to the Nordic Food Analysis Standard for the determination of sorbic acid by HPLC. The experimental results show that the Kow of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil–buffer system is ca. 100 times lower than that in fish...... oil–water system. The Kow values of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil and water system decrease with increasing system pH values. The partition coefficients of plant origin and fish origin oils are in the same order of magnitude even though their molecular structures are very different....

  2. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Vaughan, Brent M; Vollmer, David L

    2017-12-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products-air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray-for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay. The new EO blend significantly inhibited the growth of the four microorganisms. The zones of inhibition of new EO blend were greater than the air freshener and similar to the liquid soap and body spray, with the exception of Str. pneumoniae in which the body spray provided greater inhibitory zone. The new EO blend and the single oils, with the exception of peppermint, equally inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Str. pneumoniae suggesting no additive effect. P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis showed variable susceptibility to all EOs except for no susceptibility to orange and limonene. No difference was found between (-) and (+)-limonene; whereas, (+)-menthol showed greater effect than (-)-menthol. In conclusion, blending the EO of orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was beneficial in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, Str. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. brasiliensis providing a natural antimicrobial fragrance option over synthetics fragrances used in soaps, body sprays, and air fresheners.

  3. Molecular imprinting solid phase extraction for selective detection of methidathion in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Idriss; Oujji, Najwa Ben; Moczko, Ewa; Istamboulie, Georges; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena; Ait-Ichou, Ihya; Ait-Addi, Elhabib; Noguer, Thierry; Rouillon, Régis

    2012-07-13

    A specific adsorbent for extraction of methidathion from olive oil was developed. The design of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was based on the results of the computational screening of the library of polymerisable functional monomers. MIP was prepared by thermal polymerisation using N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) as a functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker. The polymers based on the itaconic acid (IA), methacrylic acid (MAA) and 2-(trifluoromethyl)acryl acid (TFMAA) functional monomers and one control polymer which was made without functional monomers with cross-linker EGDMA were also synthesised and tested. The performance of each polymer was compared using corresponding imprinting factor. As it was predicted by molecular modelling the best results were obtained for the MIP prepared with MBAA. The obtained MIP was optimised in solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (MISPE-HPLC-UV) and tested for the rapid screening of methidathion in olive oil. The proposed method allowed the efficient extraction of methidathion for concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 9 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.996). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) in olive oil were 0.02 mg L(-1) and 0.1 mg L(-1), respectively. MIPs extraction was much more effective than traditional C18 reverse-phase solid phase extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of selected biorenewable resources: solubilization of lignocellulosics and conjugation of soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshel, Reed E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, concern has risen over the use of fossil fuels due to their contribution to global warming, and to our dependence on imports of petroleum from nations that could pose a threat to national security. As a result, it has become increasingly important to develop technologies to replace fossil fuel based products with biorenewable alternatives. In this thesis nearly quantitative solubilization of lignocellulosic materials using phosphite esters has been realized, and is presented as a potential pretreatment for production of fermentable sugars for use in manufacturing commodity chemicals, specifically ethanol. Water solubilization of lignocellulosics using phosphite esters will enhance digestibility by disrupting the lignocellulose structure, changing cellulose morphology, and cleaving some glycosidic bonds. In a second project, soybean oil, which contains un-conjugated polyunsaturated fatty acid esters, is isomerized into oil containing conjugated polyunsaturates. The process is carried out under photochemical conditions using iodine as a catalyst in a hexanes solution to achieve 99% conjugation. The resulting conjugated soybean oil is demonstrated to have enhanced drying properties for use in alkyd resins.

  5. 75 FR 60800 - Discharge of Oil From Deepwater Horizon/Macondo Well, Gulf of Mexico; Intent To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 403.161, Fla. Statutes; the Mississippi Air and Water Pollution Control Law, Miss. Code Ann. Sec... Horizon/Macondo Well, Gulf of Mexico; Intent To Conduct Restoration Planning ACTION: Notice of intent. [[Page 60801

  6. Micro Facies Analysis and Development of Diagenetic Processes in Khasib Formation in Selected Oil Wells, South East of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sattam

    2018-02-01

    Many digenesis processes which effect on the texture also had been detected, some of them were constructive which played positive role in enhancement the porosity while the other represented negative role.

  7. The coalification profile of the Grambach 1 exploration well - first indication of an oil kitchen in the molasse basin. Das Inkohlungsprofil der Bohrung Grambach 1 - erster Hinweis auf eine ''Oelkueche'' im Molassebecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltmann, W.; Wehner, H. (Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)); Kuckelkorn, K. (Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany))

    1999-06-01

    For the first time an exploration well beneath the German part of the Alpine overthrust zone met vitrinite reflectance values raising up to 1,6% R[sub r] - and this in a widespread tectonic high position. The interpretation as an oil and gas kitchen is confirmed by oil maturity (derived by biomarkers and carbon isotope ratios). (orig.)

  8. An automatic optimum number of well-distributed ground control lines selection procedure based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Somayeh; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Bahram

    2018-05-01

    The procedure of selecting an optimum number and best distribution of ground control information is important in order to reach accurate and robust registration results. This paper proposes a new general procedure based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applicable for all kinds of features (point, line, and areal features). However, linear features due to their unique characteristics are of interest in this investigation. This method is called Optimum number of Well-Distributed ground control Information Selection (OWDIS) procedure. Using this method, a population of binary chromosomes is randomly initialized. The ones indicate the presence of a pair of conjugate lines as a GCL and zeros specify the absence. The chromosome length is considered equal to the number of all conjugate lines. For each chromosome, the unknown parameters of a proper mathematical model can be calculated using the selected GCLs (ones in each chromosome). Then, a limited number of Check Points (CPs) are used to evaluate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each chromosome as its fitness value. The procedure continues until reaching a stopping criterion. The number and position of ones in the best chromosome indicate the selected GCLs among all conjugate lines. To evaluate the proposed method, a GeoEye and an Ikonos Images are used over different areas of Iran. Comparing the obtained results by the proposed method in a traditional RFM with conventional methods that use all conjugate lines as GCLs shows five times the accuracy improvement (pixel level accuracy) as well as the strength of the proposed method. To prevent an over-parametrization error in a traditional RFM due to the selection of a high number of improper correlated terms, an optimized line-based RFM is also proposed. The results show the superiority of the combination of the proposed OWDIS method with an optimized line-based RFM in terms of increasing the accuracy to better than 0.7 pixel, reliability, and reducing systematic

  9. Multi-Population Selective Genotyping to Identify Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed Protein and Oil QTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansak, Piyaporn; Soonsuwon, Watcharin; Hyten, David L; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B; Graef, George L; Specht, James E

    2016-06-01

    Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which is mainly protein and oil, in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort. Though genome-wide association offers one such approach, selective genotyping of multiple biparental populations offers a complementary alternative, and was evaluated here, using 48 F2:3 populations (n = ∼224 plants) created by mating 48 high protein germplasm accessions to cultivars of similar maturity, but with normal seed protein content. All F2:3 progeny were phenotyped for seed protein and oil, but only 22 high and 22 low extreme progeny in each F2:3 phenotypic distribution were genotyped with a 1536-SNP chip (ca 450 bimorphic SNPs detected per mating). A significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) on one or more chromosomes was detected for protein in 35 (73%), and for oil in 25 (52%), of the 48 matings, and these QTL exhibited additive effects of ≥ 4 g kg(-1) and R(2) values of 0.07 or more. These results demonstrated that a multiple-population selective genotyping strategy, when focused on matings between parental phenotype extremes, can be used successfully to identify germplasm accessions possessing large-effect QTL alleles. Such accessions would be of interest to breeders to serve as parental donors of those alleles in cultivar development programs, though 17 of the 48 accessions were not unique in terms of SNP genotype, indicating that diversity among high protein accessions in the germplasm collection is less than what might ordinarily be assumed. Copyright © 2016 Phansak et al.

  10. Selective component degradation of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) using high-pressure steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi; Kim, Dong Hee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito; Nishida, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    In order to accelerate the bioconversion process of press-shredded empty fruit bunches (EFB), the effect of high-pressure steam pre-treatment (HPST) in degrading the lignocellulosic structure was investigated. HPST was carried out under various sets of temperature/pressure conditions such as 170/0.82, 190/1.32, 210/2.03, and 230 °C/3.00 MPa. It was noted that after HPST, the surface texture, color, and mechanical properties of the treated EFB had obviously altered. Scanning electron micrographs of the treated EFB exhibited effective surface erosion that had occurred along the structure. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetric analyses showed the removal of silica bodies and hemicellulose ingredients. X-ray diffraction profiles of the treated EFB indicated significant increases in crystallinity. These results reveal that HPST is an effective pre-treatment method for altering the physicochemical properties of the EFB and enhancing its biodegradability characteristics for the bioconversion process. -- Highlights: ► Bioconversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was accelerated by high-pressure steam pre-treatment. ► Scanning electron micrographs exhibited surface erosion as well as composting over 20 days. ► FT-IR and TG data showed the selective removal of silica bodies and hemicellulose ingredient. ► X-ray diffraction profiles of the treated EFB indicated significant increases in crystallinity

  11. Design of Highly Selective Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts for the Aerobic Oxidation of KA-Oil using Continuous-Flow Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Arran M; Hinde, Christopher S; Leary, Rowan K; Potter, Matthew E; Jouve, Andrea; Wells, Peter P; Midgley, Paul A; Thomas, John M; Raja, Robert

    2016-03-08

    Highly active and selective aerobic oxidation of KA-oil to cyclohexanone (precursor for adipic acid and ɛ-caprolactam) has been achieved in high yields using continuous-flow chemistry by utilizing uncapped noble-metal (Au, Pt & Pd) nanoparticle catalysts. These are prepared using a one-step in situ methodology, within three-dimensional porous molecular architectures, to afford robust heterogeneous catalysts. Detailed spectroscopic characterization of the nature of the active sites at the molecular level, coupled with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, reveals that the synthetic methodology and associated activation procedures play a vital role in regulating the morphology, shape and size of the metal nanoparticles. These active centers have a profound influence on the activation of molecular oxygen for selective catalytic oxidations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Evidence for porphyrins bound, via ester bonds, to the Messel oil shale kerogen by selective chemical degradation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseby, B.; Ocampo, R.

    1997-09-01

    High amounts of nickel mono- and di-acid porphyrins were released from Messel oil shale kerogen (Eocene, Germany) by selective chemical degradation (acid and base hydrolysis). The released porphyrin fractions were quantified (UV-vis) and their constituents isolated and characterized at the molecular level (UV-vis, MS, NMR). The mono-acid porphyrin fraction released contained four compounds of similar abundance which arise from an obvious chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll precursor. The di-acid porphyrin fraction was, however, dominated by far by one compound, mesoporphyrin IX, which must have originated from heme-like precursors (heme, cytochromes, etc.). These results show unambigously that the released mono- and di-acid porphyrins were linked to the macromolecular kerogen network via ester bonds and suggest that precursor heme-like pigments could be selectively and/or more readily incorporated into the macromolecular kerogen network than precursor chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls.

  13. In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-Defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Laskin, Julia

    2014-06-16

    Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.

  14. A geoprocessing model for the selection of populations most affected by diffuse industrial contamination: the case of oil refinery plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pasetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. A method to select populations living in areas affected by diffuse environmental contamination is presented, with particular regard to oil refineries, in the Italian context. The reasons to use municipality instead of census tract populations for environment and health small-area studies of contaminated sites are discussed. METHODS. Populations most affected by diffuse environmental contamination are identified through a geoprocessing model. Data from the national census 2001 were used to estimate census tract level populations. A geodatabase was developed using the municipality and census tract layers provided by the Italian National Bureau of Statistics (ISTAT. The orthophotos of the Italian territory - year 2006 - available on the geographic information systems (GIS of the National Cartographic Portal, were considered. The area within 2 km from the plant border was used as an operational definition to identify the area at major contamination. RESULTS. The geoprocessing model architecture is presented. The results of its application to the selection of municipality populations in a case study are shown. CONCLUSIONS. The application of the proposed geoprocessing model, the availability of long time series of mortality and morbidity data, and a quali-quantitative estimate of contamination over time, could allow an appraisal of the health status of populations affected by oil refinery emissions.

  15. Selected water-quality data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids well fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 2006-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer approximately 40 to 80 feet below land surface. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality of the aquifer since 1992. Cooperative reports between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, surface-water-groundwater interaction, and pesticides in groundwater and surface water. Water-quality analyses were conducted for major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. Physical characteristics (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were measured in the field and recorded for each water sample collected. This report presents the results of routine water-quality data-collection activities from January 2006 through December 2010. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance, and water-quality analyses are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  16. Selected Water-Quality Data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids Well Fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer at approximately 40 to 80 feet deep. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality near the well fields since 1992. Previous cooperative studies between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, evaluation of surface and ground-water interaction, assessment of pesticides in groundwater and surface water, and to evaluate water quality near a wetland area in the Seminole well field. Typical water-quality analyses included major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. In addition, two synoptic samplings included analyses of additional pesticide degradates in water samples. Physical field parameters (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were recorded with each water sample collected. This report presents the results of water quality data-collection activities from January 1999 through December 2005. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance samples, water-quality analyses, and statistical summaries are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly and synoptic sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  17. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  18. 26 CFR 1.611-2 - Rules applicable to mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prospective mineral, account should be taken of probable increases or decreases as indicated by the operating..., segregate and have readily available at his principal place of business, all the supporting data (listed in... productivity to the end of the taxable year, the average number of wells producing during each year, and the...

  19. 75 FR 61624 - Promotion of Development, Reduction of Royalty Rates for Stripper Well and Heavy Oil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-241A.00] RIN 1004-AE04 Promotion of Development, Reduction of Royalty Rates for Stripper Well and Heavy... economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or..., investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based...

  20. Natural gas as an alternative to crude oil in automotive fuel chains well-to-wheel analysis and transition strategy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekkert, M.P.; Hendriks, F.H.J.F.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Neelis, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Road transport produces significant amounts of CO 2 by using crude oil as primary energy source. A reduction of CO 2 emissions can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains. This article studies CO 2 emissions and energy efficiencies by means of a well to wheel analysis of alternative automotive fuel chains, using natural gas (NG) as an alternative primary energy source to replace crude oil. The results indicate that NG-based hydrogen applied in fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) lead to largest CO 2 emission reductions (up to 40% compared to current practice). However, large implementation barriers for this option are foreseen, both technically and in terms of network change. Two different transition strategies are discussed to gradually make the transition to these preferred fuel chains. Important transition technologies that are the backbone of these routes are traditional engine technology fuelled by compressed NG and a FCV fuelled by gasoline. The first is preferred in terms of carbon emissions. The results furthermore indicate that an innovation in the conventional chain, the diesel hybrid vehicle, is more efficient than many NG-based chains. This option scores well in terms of carbon emissions and implementation barriers and is a very strong option for the future

  1. Characterization of Acorn Fruit Oils Extracted from Selected Mediterranean Quercus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rousan, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to identifying the acorn fruit oil composition of three Mediterranean white oak group species, Quercus aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI, and Quercus calliprinus (QC. Samples were estimated for the oil contents of acorn fruits, oil chemical and physical constants, fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and sterols.The oil content, expressed as dry weight, was found to be 3.40-7.51%. The physical and chemical constants included specific gravity 0.912-0.922, refractive index 1.4529-1.4645, specific extinction at 232 nm 2.497-2.536 and at 270 nm 1.495-2.037, iodine value 75.2-87.6, and saponification value 192.6-219.4. The fatty acid compositions were determined by GC as methyl esters. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (53.3-56.1%, linoleic 21.3-23.4%, palmitic 17.8-18.7%, linolenic 1.5-1.6% and stearic acid 1.02-1.60%. The Tocopherol content was high in the range of 1440-1783 mg kg-1, γ-tocopherol constituted 84-91% of total tocopherols. Phenolic compounds were in remarkable amounts in all the three species 84-109 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil. Total sterol contents were between 2040-2480 mg kg-1 oil, with β-sitosterol being the main component comprising of 77.20-84.61%, followed by ∆5-avenasterol (5.8-11.4%, campesterol (3.6-4.5%, and stigmasterol (2.6-3.8. The cholesterol content was relatively high (0.42-0.55%.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la composición de aceites de bellota de tres especies del grupo del roble blanco del Mediterráneo, Quercus Aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI y Quercus calliprinus (QC. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por el contenido de aceite, parámetros físico-químicos del aceite, perfil de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, compuestos fenólicos y esteroles. El contenido de aceite, expresado en peso seco encontrado fue de 3,40 a 7,51%. Las constantes físico-químicas fueron: densidad 0,912-0,922, índice de refracción 1,4529 a 1,4645, extinción espec

  2. Use of crop selection and cattle manure to bioremediate a heavy-oil polluted loamy sand for grain production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederbeck, V. O.; Selles, F.; Hanson, K. G.; Geissler, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    As as initially unintended part of a study to assess the feasibility of utilizing heavy oil production waste to improve erodible sandy cropland by stabilizing soil aggregation and by microbial conversion of hydrocarbon into humus, it was discovered that by amending the highly polluted soil in one of the plots with an application of 63 tonnes /hectare of old cattle manure, it was possible to assess the restorative ability of manure for soil properties critical to plant growth as well as to measure manuring benefits for grain production for more oil-tolerant crops. Oat was identified by greenhouse and field tests as the least sensitive toward oily residues in soil, followed by wheat as a distant second, with barley and rye following a long way back. Marked improvements in soil properties were observed in unfertilized plots within four months, although the effectiveness of manure to improve soil conditions declined with increasing rates of previous fertilization. Two years after the addition of manure all plots were seeded to oats; manuring resulted in a 55 per cent increase in plant density, 70 per cent increase in crop biomass and an 82 per cent increase in grain yield. Manuring was also found to improve grain quality by maintaining protein levels and a marked increase in kernel size and test weight. The study demonstrated the restorative properties of old manure in improving soil properties, and its ability to restoring oil-polluted topsoil to full productivity within a relatively short time (one to two years). 10 refs., 5 tabs

  3. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M., E-mail: limdiaz@uprrp.edu; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico Río Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Jena, Umakanta [Bioenergy Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States); Das, K. C. [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  4. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  5. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. macroalgae biomass: selective hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz M Díaz-Vázquez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared - Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment, was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5-21 MPa. Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46% to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4±0.1 % and 22.2±0.1 % (ash free dry basis, respectively.

  6. Bayesian Estimation and Selection of Nonlinear Vector Error Correction Models: The Case of the Sugar-Ethanol-Oil Nexus in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Kelvin Balcombe; George Rapsomanikis

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear adjustment toward long-run price equilibrium relationships in the sugar-ethanol-oil nexus in Brazil is examined. We develop generalized bivariate error correction models that allow for cointegration between sugar, ethanol, and oil prices, where dynamic adjustments are potentially nonlinear functions of the disequilibrium errors. A range of models are estimated using Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithms and compared using Bayesian model selection methods. The results suggest ...

  7. A Review of the Evaluation, Control, and Application Technologies for Drill String Vibrations and Shocks in Oil and Gas Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drill string vibrations and shocks (V&S can limit the optimization of drilling performance, which is a key problem for trajectory optimizing, wellbore design, increasing drill tools life, rate of penetration, and intelligent drilling. The directional wells and other special trajectory drilling technologies are often used in deep water, deep well, hard rock, and brittle shale formations. In drilling these complex wells, the cost caused by V&S increases. According to past theories, indoor experiments, and field studies, the relations among ten kinds of V&S, which contain basic forms, response frequency, and amplitude, are summarized and discussed. Two evaluation methods are compared systematically, such as theoretical and measurement methods. Typical vibration measurement tools are investigated and discussed. The control technologies for drill string V&S are divided into passive control, active control, and semiactive control. Key methods for and critical equipment of three control types are compared. Based on the past development, a controlling program of drill string V&S is devised. Application technologies of the drill string V&S are discussed, such as improving the rate of penetration, controlling borehole trajectory, finding source of seismic while drilling, and reducing the friction of drill string. Related discussions and recommendations for evaluating, controlling, and applying the drill string V&S are made.

  8. Heterogeneous OH oxidation of motor oil particles causes selective depletion of branched and less cyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacman, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Nah, Theodora; Worton, David R; Ruehl, Chris R; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2012-10-02

    Motor oil serves as a useful model system for atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures typical of anthropogenic atmospheric particulate matter, but its complexity often prevents comprehensive chemical speciation. In this work we fully characterize this formerly "unresolved complex mixture" at the molecular level using recently developed soft ionization gas chromatography techniques. Nucleated motor oil particles are oxidized in a flow tube reactor to investigate the relative reaction rates of observed hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, bicycloalkanes, tricycloalkanes, and steranes. Oxidation of hydrocarbons in a complex aerosol is found to be efficient, with approximately three-quarters (0.72 ± 0.06) of OH collisions yielding a reaction. Reaction rates of individual hydrocarbons are structurally dependent: compared to normal alkanes, reaction rates increased by 20-50% with branching, while rates decreased ∼20% per nonaromatic ring present. These differences in rates are expected to alter particle composition as a function of oxidation, with depletion of branched and enrichment of cyclic hydrocarbons. Due to this expected shift toward ring-opening reactions heterogeneous oxidation of the unreacted hydrocarbon mixture is less likely to proceed through fragmentation pathways in more oxidized particles. Based on the observed oxidation-induced changes in composition, isomer-resolved analysis has potential utility for determining the photochemical age of atmospheric particulate matter with respect to heterogeneous oxidation.

  9. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, MINERAL CONTENT AND ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION FROM SELECT ALGERIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjira Guenane1

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the total antioxidant capacity, minerals contents of four plants (Juniperus oxycedrus, Thymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis and Eruca vesicaria and chemical composition of the essential oils of the aerial parts of T. capitatus. Their antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAPS assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were also determined. The results showed that the L. nobilis extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoids contents (19.11 ± 0.22 mg GAE•g-1 dw, 4.47 ± 0.12 mg QE•g-1 dw, respectively. The extract of E. vesicaria had the highest value of TEAC for scavenging DPPH, whereas L. nobilis extract was active for ABTS and FRAP. GC/MS analysis revealed that the essential oil from the aerial parts of T. capitatus contained thirty-seven compounds; thymol was the major constituent (82.79 %. Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed high levels of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, and trace amounts of Zn, Cu and Mn in all four extracts.

  10. Phytotoxicology section investigation in the vicinity of Riddell Hanna No. 1 oil well, Lot 11, Conc 13, Chatham Twp., Kent County, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    A survey was conducted around the Riddell Hanna No.1 oil well in the Windsor district of Ontario to determine the degree and extent of damage that may have been caused to a farm field in the vicinity of the well. The well has been operating for decades, and occasionally has been purged by pumping out brine. In the past (possibly up to ten years ago) the brine was not contained but was deposited directly onto the field adjacent the well. Large patches of bare soil were evident in the soybean field immediately south of the well. Effects of the contaminant on the soybeans were clearly evident in all adjacent areas up to 3 m from the bare patches. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from affected areas and a control site. Results of analyses of electrical conductivity and sodium and chloride concentrations in soils in the vicinity of the well are presented. In the affected area, conductivity reaches six times the level expected to cause severe damage to most plants. Both Na and Cl concentrations in the plants were higher in the affected area than in the control area. The total affected area was estimated at 7,600 m 2 , of which 4,000 m 2 does not support any plant life. 3 refs., 2 figs

  11. Maximizing Wellness in Successful Aging and Cancer Coping: The Importance of Family Communication from a Socioemotional Selectivity Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla L.; Nussbaum, Jon F.

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal communication is a fundamental part of being and key to health. Interactions within family are especially critical to wellness across time. Family communication is a central means of adaptation to stress, coping, and successful aging. Still, no theoretical argument in the discipline exists that prioritizes kin communication in health. Theoretical advances can enhance interventions and policies that improve family life. This article explores socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), which highlights communication in our survival. Communication partner choice is based on one's time perspective, which affects our prioritization of goals to survive—goals sought socially. This is a first test of SST in a family communication study on women's health and aging. More than 300 women of varying ages and health status participated. Two time factors, later adulthood and late-stage breast cancer, lead women to prioritize family communication. Findings provide a theoretical basis for prioritizing family communication issues in health reform. PMID:26997920

  12. Maximizing Wellness in Successful Aging and Cancer Coping: The Importance of Family Communication from a Socioemotional Selectivity Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla L; Nussbaum, Jon F

    Interpersonal communication is a fundamental part of being and key to health. Interactions within family are especially critical to wellness across time. Family communication is a central means of adaptation to stress, coping, and successful aging. Still, no theoretical argument in the discipline exists that prioritizes kin communication in health. Theoretical advances can enhance interventions and policies that improve family life. This article explores socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), which highlights communication in our survival. Communication partner choice is based on one's time perspective, which affects our prioritization of goals to survive-goals sought socially. This is a first test of SST in a family communication study on women's health and aging. More than 300 women of varying ages and health status participated. Two time factors, later adulthood and late-stage breast cancer, lead women to prioritize family communication. Findings provide a theoretical basis for prioritizing family communication issues in health reform.

  13. Development and application of a new biotechnology of the molasses in-situ method; detailed evaluation for selected wells in the Romashkino carbonate reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Lungerhausen, D. [Erdoel-Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Murtada, H.; Rosenthal, G. [VEBA OEL AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of different laboratory studies, by which special strains of the type Clostridium tyrobutyricum were found, the application of molasses in-situ method for the enhanced recovery of oil in Romashkino oil field was executed. In an anaerobic, 6%-molasses medium the strains produce about 11,400 mg/l of organic acids (especially butyric acid), 3,200 mg/l ethanol, butanol, etc., and more than 350 ml/g of molasses biogas with a content of 80% C0{sub 2} and 20% H{sub 2}. The metabolics of Clostridium tyrobutyricum depress the growth of SRB, whereas methanogenic bacteria grow in an undiluted fermented molasses medium very well. In this way the dominant final fermentation process is methanogenesis. By laboratory studies with original cores under the conditions of the carbonate reservoir in Bashkir, the recovery of oil increased from 15% after waterflooding to 29% OOIP during the treatment with molasses and bacteria. We developed a new biotechnological method for a self-regulated, automatic continuous culture and constructed a special pilot plant with a high technical standard. The plant produced during the pilot on Romashkino field (September 1992 to August 1994) about 1,000 m{sup 3} of clean inoculum with a content of 3-4 billion cells per ml. This inoculum was injected in slugs together with 15,000 m{sup 3} of molasses medium, first in one, later in five wells. We will demonstrate for two example wells the complex microbiological and chemical changes in the oil, gas, and water phases, and their influences on the recover of oil.

  14. Water and clay based drilling fluids for oil wells; Fluidos hidroargilosos para perfuracao de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, R.C.A. de; Amorim, L.V.; Santana, L.N. de L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)], e-mail: nalealves@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    In the onshore drilling of wells are commonly used aqueous fluids containing bentonite clays. However, to perform their functions generally there is the necessity of additives to drilling fluids, like viscositying, filtered reducer and lubricant. Thus, this work aims to develop water and clay base drilling fluids with low solid text, and with polymeric and lubricants additives. Were studied a sample of industrialized sodium bentonite clays, three polymeric compounds in the ternary form and a sample of lubricant, in different concentrations. Were determined the flow curves, the apparent and plastic viscosities, the yield limit and gel force in Fann 35A viscometer, the filtered volume in API filter-press and the lubricity coefficient in Ofite lubricimeter. The results showed that the fluid had pseudoplastic behavior, the polymeric additives adjusts their rheological properties and filtration and the addition of 1% of lubricant is sufficient to improve the lubricity of fluids. (author)

  15. Contribution to the analytical and numerical evaluation of oil well equilibrium for any cross section under a uniform pressure and an anisotropic stress field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouziane, A.

    1989-09-01

    The integral equation, the finite element and an analytical method are used and compared to compute the state of equilibrium of an oil well. This well is of whatever cross section and is subjected to a uniform pressure and an anisotropic stress field at the infinity. In the first part, the equations of the Mechanics of deformable solids are recalled using dual vectorial spaces theory. These equations are briefly introduced by using a four spaces diagram. In the second part, an analytical method using the complex potentials developed by Muskhelishvili is used to solve the problem. In the third part, three methods of integral equations are developed (direct and indirect). The stress boundary conditions at infinity are taken into account by superimposing a particular solution to the fundamental solution. With such a method, both displacements and stresses are correctly represented as well on the boundary as inside the domain. The finite element method is developed in the fourth part. For complicate shapes of well cross section the used automatic mesh generator does not seem well adapted. In conclusion, the integral equation method gives the results which are in the best agreement with the analytical solutions.

  16. Selective Production of Aromatic Aldehydes from Heavy Fraction of Bio-oil via Catalytic Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Chang, Jie; Ouyang, Yong; Zheng, Xianwei

    2014-01-01

    High value-added aromatic aldehydes (e. g. vanillin and syringaldehyde) were produced from heavy fraction of bio-oil (HFBO) via catalytic oxidation. The concept is based on the use of metalloporphyin as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as oxidant under alkaline condition. The biomimetic catalyst cobalt(II)-sulfonated tetraphenylporphyrin (Co(TPPS 4 )) was prepared and characterized. It exhibited relative high activity in the catalytic oxidation of HFBO. 4.57 wt % vanillin and 1.58 wt % syringaldehyde were obtained from catalytic oxidation of HFBO, compared to 2.6 wt % vanillin and 0.86 wt % syringaldehyde without Co(TPPS 4 ). Moreover, a possible mechanism of HFBO oxidation using Co(TPPS 4 )/H 2 O 2 was proposed by the research of model compounds. The results showed that this is a promising and environmentally friendly method for production of aromatic aldehydes from HFBO under Co(TPPS 4 )/H 2 O 2 system

  17. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Luís

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs, together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods: The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results: It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities.

  18. Cyclonic multiphase flow measurement system GLCC{copyright}1 for oil well capacity evaluation; Sistema de medicion de flujo multifasico mediante tecnologia ciclonica GLCC{copyright}1 para aforo de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy-Alcantar, J. M; Cervantes-Martinez, G; Cruz-Maya, J. A; Hernandez-Buenfil, M. A; Ramirez-Antonio, I [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F, (Mexico)]. E-mail: mgodoy@imp.mx

    2008-10-15

    This paper shows the development of a portable multiphase flow measurement system based in cyclonic separation technology GLCC{copyright}1. This system is aimed for oil well measurement and was developed in three phases; the first devoted to the geometric design of a cyclonic separator by means of designs sofware GLCCV7.8 and the selection of measurement instrumentation and flux control valves. In the second phase, the automatic control system was designed for the implementation of four control strategies each one related with a possible scenario of the well behavior. The third constitutes the integration of the measurement and control devices through a user interface aimed for visualization, information processing and system's operation and control. Experimental results in oil well measurements show the efficiency and workability of the integrated system. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestra el desarrollo de un sistema portatil para la medicion de flujo multifasico, basado en la tecnologia de separacion ciclonica GLCC{copyright}1 y su utilizacion el aforo de pozos petroleros. El desarrollo del sistema se compone de tres fases, la primera se orienta hacia el diseno geometrico de un separador tipo ciclonico por medio del simulador GLCCV 7.8, asi como el dimensionamiento y la seleccion de los instrumentos de medicion y valvulas de control de flujo. En la segunda fase, se lleva a cabo la etapa de diseno del control automatico del sistema, el cual se fundamenta en el desarrollo e implantacion de cuatro estrategias de control basadas en el comportamiento dinamico de las variables de produccion del pozo; la tercera fase, la constituye el desarrollo de una interfaz para la integracion y operacion conjunta de los componentes de medicion y control del sistema, asi como de visualizacion, procesamiento y almacenamiento de la informacion. Se muestran los resultados experimentales de una prueba de medicion realizada en campo, las mediciones obtenidas muestran la

  19. Antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities of selected plant oils on black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antifeedant, insecticidal and insect growth inhibitory activities of eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globules and gaultheria oil (Gaultheria procumbens L. against black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon. Methods: Antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities of eucalyptus oil and gaultheria oil were tested against black cutworm, A. ipsilon. Results: Significant antifeedant activity was found in eucalyptus oil (96.24% where as the highest insecticidal activity was noticed in gaultheria oil (86.92%. Percentages of deformities were highest on gaultheria oil treated larvae and percentage of adult emergence was deteriorated also by gaultheria oil. Conclusions: These plants oil has potential to serve as an alternative eco-friendly control of insect pest.

  20. The Selective Interaction of Pistacia lentiscus Oil vs. Human Streptococci, an Old Functional Food Revisited with New Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Orrù

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus berry oil (LBO represents a typical vegetal product of the Mediterranean basin that has been formally used in traditional cuisine for 100s of years. In addition to its interesting alimentary properties, this product could represent an interesting candidate in the field of research on the study of new anti-infective agents. In fact, in Mediterranean countries, lentisk oil still continues to be widely used in folk medicine for oral and skin affections, in particular, acute gingivitis, pediatric skin infections such as impetigo and foot plaques, and biofilm related infections often associated with Streptococcus spp. Following these observations, we have hypothesized a “lentisk oil-bacteria” interaction, placing particular emphasis on the different Streptococcal species involved in these oral and skin diseases. In accordance with this hypothesis, the use of standard antimicrobial-antibiofilm methods (MIC, MBC, MBIC allowed the interesting behavior of these bacteria to be observed and, in this context, the response to lentisk oil appears to be correlated with the pathogenic profile of the considered microorganism. Two probiotic strains of S. salivarius K12/M18 appeared to be non-sensitive to this product, while a set of five different pathogenic strains (S. agalactiae, S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. pyogenes showed a response that was correlated to the fatty acid metabolic pathway of the considered species. In fact, at different times of bacteria development, selective High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis of the growth medium containing LBO detected a significant increase in free unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs in particular oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids, which are already known for their antibacterial activity. In this context, we have hypothesized that LBO could be able to modulate the pathogen/probiotic rate in a Streptococcal population using the fatty acid metabolic pathway to help the probiotic

  1. Enhanced detection of aldehydes in Extra-Virgin Olive Oil by means of band selective NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, Giacomo; Rotondo, Archimede; Mallamace, Domenico; Cicero, Nicola; Salvo, Andrea; Rotondo, Enrico; Corsaro, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    High resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a very powerful tool for comprehensive food analyses and especially for Extra-Virgin Olive Oils (EVOOs). We use the NMR technique to study the spectral region of aldehydes (8-10 ppm) for EVOOs coming from the south part of Italy. We perform novel experiments by using mono and bidimensional band selective spin-echo pulse sequences and identify four structural classes of aldehydes in EVOOs. For the first time such species are identified in EVOOs without any chemical treatment; only dilution with CDCl3 is employed. This would allow the discrimination of different EVOOs for the aldehydes content increasing the potentiality of the NMR technique in the screening of metabolites for geographical characterization of EVOOs.

  2. Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag; Cementos petroleros con adicion de escoria de horno alto. Caracteristicas y propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. {sup 2}9Si and {sup 2}7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

  3. Methods for the control of fracgel degradation in oil and gas wells; Methoden zur Kontrolle der Fracgelzerstoerung in Oel- und Gasbohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzke, B.; Storz, J.; Clasen, C.; Kulicke, W.M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie

    2007-04-15

    Previous experience in face operation demonstrated that the use of fracgels often leads to an incomplete fracgel recovery and therefore to a decreased productivity of the stimulated well. It is assumed that insufficient degradation of the fracgel caused by poor activity of the breakers leads to a decrease in productivity. The aim of this work was the determination of effective breakers for the use in oil and gas wells to enhance the degradation of polymer fracgels. The investigations were carried out with Guar-based fracgels. These gels consisted of Guar or Hydroxypropyl-Guar both crosslinked with Borax (low temperature fracgels) as well as Zirconium-crosslinked Carboxymethyl-Hydroxypropyl-Guar (CMHPG; high temperature fracgel). The work covered polymer analytical investigations, comprehensive rheological investigations of fracgels i.e. variation of pH-value, temperature, electrolytes (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) as well as degradation studies with different breakers. The decrease of the pH-value led to a total destruction of the low temperature fracgel network. The presence of electrolytes led to a rapid contraction of the gel forming a solid phase (syneresis). In degradation experiments, contracted Guar-Borax gels were successfully treated with acids, enzymes and high concentrated oxidative breakers at T=60 C. High temperature fracgels (CMHPG/Zirconium) were only partially degraded at increased temperatures with an oxidative breaker, whereas at T=150 C a complete thermal degradation was observed. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of selected physicochemical parameters of extra virgin olive oil commercialized in the Czech market and stored during a period of 5 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardos Nikolaos Salek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this work was to evaluate the development of selected physicochemical parameters (free acidity, peroxide value and specific extinction coefficients in ultraviolet of extra virgin olive oil, commercialized in the Czech market and stored for a time period of 5 months (at 20 ±5 °C. The tested extra virgin olive oil samples were stored under conditions simulating domestic and commercial storage environment, in which the impact of light and headspace volume were also examined. Moreover, all the analyzed samples fell within the established "extra virgin olive oil category", thus proving their legitimacy, authentication and excellent quality. Furthermore, all the monitored physicochemical parameters were affected by the progress of the storage period, the rising volume of headspace (due to more available oxygen in the container and exposition to light, resulting in decreasing quality of the examined extra virgin olive oil samples. In addition, the storage of extra virgin olive oil samples in dark containers reported sufficient resistance to oxidation processes up to a period of 3 months, however, after this period signs of oil quality deterioration were reported. Nevertheless, if exposition to light occurred, accelerated decrease in the quality of the extra virgin olive oil samples was observed.

  5. Composition, quality and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils from some selected wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the characterization of virgin olive oils from wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster was conducted in order to define new cultivars which are welladapted to the Tunisian environment and yield high quality oils. The study was done during the crop years 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06. The main analytical parameters of the oils were evaluated: fatty acid compositions, chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds as well as their relationship with oxidative stability. The fatty acid composition of all the wild olive trees tested produced virgin olive oil which complies with commercial standards, as well as for their appreciable amounts of tocopherols and phenolic compounds. Tocopherol analysis by HPLC revealed the presence of α, β, γ and δ tocopherols in all the studied olive oils. Total tocopherol content was significantly influenced by the varietal factor. It ranged from 310 (SB12 to 780 mg/kg (H3. As for total tocopherols, the amount of each tocopherol varied according to genotype. α tocopherol is the most prominent, whereas β, γ and δ tocopherols are less represented. Results showed a clear influence of total phenols and o-diphenols on virgin olive oil stability (R = 0.905, 0.963 P En este trabajo se han caracterizado los aceites obtenidos a partir de siete acebuches previamente seleccionados entre varias poblaciones de Olea europea L. Subsp. oleaster. El estudio se llevó a cabo durante las campañas de producción 2003/04, 2004/05 y 2005/06.Varios parámetros analíticos fueron evaluados: composiciones en ácidos grasos, pigmentos, tocoferoles, fenoles; así mismo, se investigó la relación de estos parámetros con la estabilidad de los aceites. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que todas las muestras de frutos de acebuche produjeron aceites cuya composición de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y compuestos fenólicos cumplió las normas comerciales para aceite de oliva virgen del Comit

  6. Selective Production of Aromatic Aldehydes from Heavy Fraction of Bio-oil via Catalytic Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Chang, Jie; Ouyang, Yong; Zheng, Xianwei [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    High value-added aromatic aldehydes (e. g. vanillin and syringaldehyde) were produced from heavy fraction of bio-oil (HFBO) via catalytic oxidation. The concept is based on the use of metalloporphyin as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) as oxidant under alkaline condition. The biomimetic catalyst cobalt(II)-sulfonated tetraphenylporphyrin (Co(TPPS{sub 4})) was prepared and characterized. It exhibited relative high activity in the catalytic oxidation of HFBO. 4.57 wt % vanillin and 1.58 wt % syringaldehyde were obtained from catalytic oxidation of HFBO, compared to 2.6 wt % vanillin and 0.86 wt % syringaldehyde without Co(TPPS{sub 4}). Moreover, a possible mechanism of HFBO oxidation using Co(TPPS{sub 4})/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was proposed by the research of model compounds. The results showed that this is a promising and environmentally friendly method for production of aromatic aldehydes from HFBO under Co(TPPS{sub 4})/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system.

  7. Amazing wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.; Leschart, M.; Mahoney, J.; Smith, M.

    2002-02-01

    Six wells and a drilling rig, setting company, national and world records such as deepest well, longest horizontal well, and record setting completion technology are described. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is mainly responsible for these outstanding successes. Discovered more than 20 years ago by a then Imperial oil scientist (Dr. Roger Butler) SAGD promises recovery rates of about 70 per cent for the right reservoir; more than twice the 25 to 30 per cent recovery rate with cyclic stimulation at Cold Lake and an average recovery rate of about 28 per cent for all Alberta light, medium and heavy oil wells. The seven facilities discussed in this article are : (1) Alberta Energy Company's Forest Hill oil sands project near Cold Lake, the first commercial SAGD operation where well pairs are producing 1,200-1,500 bbls per day; (2) Talisman Energy's Lovett River wells, which hold the company's depth record for a horizontal well in the Alberta Foothills; (3) Also owned by Talisman Energy in the Buchan Field in the North Sea, this well is famous for the fact that it was drilled with coiled tubing from a floating production vessel; : (4) in the Peco Field, south of Edson Alberta and owned by EOG Resources Canada, this well holds the Canadian offshore record for a single run using rotary steerable technology; (5) Burlington Resources Canada 's Burlington HZ Hinton 2-34-52-26 W5M well is best known for its record setting extended reach open hole coiled tubing job; (6) another Burlington Resources well holds the record for the deepest one-trip whipstock system ever run in Canada and milled successfully in one trip; and (7) a drilling rig in the Wabasca-Brintnell area of northern Alberta, owned by Canadian Natural Resources Limited, holds the record for drilling the largest number of horizontal holes in one year with the same rig.

  8. The effect of pomegranate seed oil and grapeseed oil on cis-9, trans-11 CLA (rumenic acid), n-3 and n-6 fatty acids deposition in selected tissues of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, A; Białek, M; Lepionka, T; Kaszperuk, K; Banaszkiewicz, T; Tokarz, A

    2018-04-23

    The aim of this study was to determine whether diet modification with different doses of grapeseed oil or pomegranate seed oil will improve the nutritive value of poultry meat in terms of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, as well as rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid) content in tissues diversified in lipid composition and roles in lipid metabolism. To evaluate the influence of applied diet modification comprehensively, two chemometric methods were used. Results of cluster analysis demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil modifies fatty acids profile in the most potent way, mainly by an increase in rumenic acid content. Principal component analysis showed that regardless of type of tissue first principal component is strongly associated with type of deposited fatty acid, while second principal component enables identification of place of deposition-type of tissue. Pomegranate seed oil seems to be a valuable feed additive in chickens' feeding. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. EVALUATION OF CEMENT THIXOTROPY FOR THE CEMENT OF OIL WELLS IN AREAS WITH LOSSES: EFFECT OF PLASTER AND DAIRY OF HIGH FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bouziani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing of oil and gas wells can be a very delicate operation. Among the concerns of service companies, during this operation are the nature and conditions of the formations in well. This is the case of cementing operations in southern Algeria, specifically on the fields of In-Amen, where the formations in lost zones are naturally weak and highly permeable. In these areas, drilling fluids (muds and cements pumped will be, completely or partially lost, what we call "lost circulation". Thixotropic cements are useful to overcome lost circulation problems. They are characterized by a special rheological behavior, allowing it to plug lost zones when they are pumped. Our work aims to assess the thixotropy of cements perapred with two types of cement (class G Asland cement and CEM I 42.5 portland cement with the plaster, using a viscometer with coaxial cylinder (couette type. Moreover, the effect of blast furnace slag (LHF on the properties and thixotropic mixtures prepared was also studied. The results show that portland cement (available locally can produce mixes with higher and more stable thixotropy than the class G cement (from importation, which is a practical and economical for cementing job operations in wells with loss zones. The results also show that the effect of LHF is positive, since in addition to his contribution to long term performances, especially the durability of hardened concrete, it improves the thixotropy of cement made of plaster.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE THIXOTROPY OF OIL-WELL CEMENTS USED FOR CEMENTING LOST CIRCULATION ZONES: EFFECT OF PLASTER AND BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bouziani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cementing of oil and gas wells can be a very delicate operation. Among the concerns of service companies, during this operation are the nature and conditions of the formations in well. This is the case of cementing operations in southern Algeria, specifically on the fields of In-Amen, where the formations in lost zones are naturally weak and highly permeable. In these areas, drilling fluids (muds and cements pumped will be, completely or partially lost, what we call "lost circulation". Thixotropic cements are useful to overcome lost circulation problems. They are characterized by a special rheological behavior, allowing it to plug lost zones when they are pumped.Our work aims to assess the thixotropy of cements perapred with two types of cement (class G Asland cement and CEM I 42.5 portland cement with the plaster, using a viscometer with coaxial cylinder (couette type. Moreover, the effect of blast furnace slag (LHF on the properties and thixotropic mixtures prepared was also studied. The results show that portland cement (available locally can produce mixes with higher and more stable thixotropy than the class G cement (from importation, which is a practical and economical for cementing job operations in wells with loss zones. The results also show that the effect of LHF is positive, since in addition to his contribution to long term performances, especially the durability of hardened concrete, it improves the thixotropy of cement made of plaster.

  11. Modeling of cumulative release on long term leaching behaviour of selected oil sludge from crude oil terminal and petroleum refining plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fadzil, S.; Khoo, K.S.; Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.Ab.; Hamzah, A.

    2013-01-01

    Management of oil sludge containing environmentally toxic elements is a major problem in crude oil processing industry. Oil sludge samples from the petroleum refinery plant in Melaka and crude oil terminal in Sarawak were analysed. The aim of present work is to study long term leaching behaviour of arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) from oil sludge. Tank leaching test was carried out and the samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were studied using LeachXS software to plot the graphs of elements concentration in order to study the leaching behaviour of toxic elements in oil sludge. The long term leaching (100 years) modeling was calculated using equations referred to National Institute of Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven (RIVM) and the results were plotted for cumulative release in different areas of oil sludge. Tank leaching test of the oil sludge samples from petroleum refinery plant in Melaka showed concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Zn ranging from 0.205 to 1.102, 0.031-0.454, 0.016-0.086 and 0.409-8.238 mg/l, respectively while the concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Zn in oil sludge samples from crude oil terminal in Sarawak were in the range of 0.002-0.089, 0.001-0.033, 0.006-1.016 and 0.100-2.744 mg/l, respectively. On the other hand, results on cumulative release from the modeling of long term leaching (100 years) showed that As, Co, Cr and Zn concentrations were proportional to the quantity of oil sludge. In conclusion, during extrapolation of release of toxic elements using the data in the laboratory, several other factors were taken into account to suit environmental conditions such as soil moisture, the negative logarithm of the effective diffusion coefficient (pD e ) and temperature, while the long-term behaviour of As, Co, Cr and Zn was proportional to the quantity of oil sludge to be disposed off. (author)

  12. Comparative analysis of fiscal terms for Alberta oil sands and international heavy and conventional oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    There are considerable differences between international heavy oil and Alberta oil sands projects, notably the high viscosity of the bitumen in the oil sands reservoirs. The oil sands bitumen do not flow to wells without heating the bitumen, thereby adding to the already high cost of Alberta oil sand operations. This report provided an economic comparison of Alberta oil sands and international heavy oil projects. It also included a brief scoping review to compare with conventional