WorldWideScience

Sample records for select mission galileo

  1. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, C.J.; Hammel, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A significantly improved thermoelectric generator has been developed to provide electric power for NASA's Galileo Mission in 1982. Nominal power requirements for Galileo will be about 450 watts at BOL (Beginning of Life), and this will be furnished by two Selenide Isotope Generators (SIG) each powered by a Multi Hundred Watt (MHW) radioisotopic heat source. A Ground Demonstration System (GDS) of a nominal 100 w(e) features a 3M - produced selenide ring module around a shortened MHW-dimensioned electrical heat source, newly developed axially-grooved heat pipes on a disc-shaped radiator, and other innovations which will allow a full-sized generator's weight to be held at about 90 lbs

  2. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission: SIG/Galileo hermetic receptable test program final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, S.

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of the receptacle test program was to test various types of hermetically sealed electrical receptacles and to select one model as the spaceflight hardware item for SIG/Galileo thermoelectric generators. The design goal of the program was to qualify a hermetic seal integrity of less than or equal to 1 x 10 -9 std cc He/sec -atm at 400 0 F (204 0 C) and verify a reliability of 0.95 at a 50% confidence level for a flight mission in excess of 7 years

  3. Galileo and Ulysses missions safety analysis and launch readiness status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, M.J.; Turi, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft will explore the Jupiter system and Ulysses will fly by Jupiter en route to a polar orbit of the sun. Both spacecraft are powered by general purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). As a result of the Challenger accident and subsequent mission reprogramming, the Galileo and Ulysses missions' safety analysis had to be repeated. In addition to presenting an overview of the safety analysis status for the missions, this paper presents a brief review of the missions' objectives and design approaches, RTG design characteristics and development history, and a description of the safety analysis process. (author)

  4. GPHS-RTG performance on the Galileo mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemler, R.J.; Cockfield, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft, launched in October, 1989, is powered by two General Purpose Heat source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTGs). These RTGs were designed, built, and tested by General Electric under contract from the Office of Special Applications of the Department of Energy (DOE). Isotope heat source installation and additional testing of these RTGs were performed at DOE's EG ampersand G Mound Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio. This paper provides a report on performance of the RTGs during launch and the early phases of the eight year Galileo mission.The effect of long term storage of the RTGs on power output, since the originally scheduled launch data in May, 1986, will be dicussed, including the effects of helium buildup and subsequent purging with xenon. The RTGs performed as expected during the launch transient, met all specified power requirements for Beginning of Mission (BOM), and continue to follow prediced performance characteristics during the first year of the Galileo mission

  5. The GALILEO GALILEI small-satellite mission with FEEP thrusters (G G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobili, A. M.; Bramanti, D.; Catastini, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Equivalence Principle, formulated by Einstein generalizing Galileo's and Newton's work, is a fundamental principle of modern physics. As such it should be tested as accurately as possible. Its most direct consequence, namely the Universality of Free Fall, can be tested in space, in a low Earth orbit, the crucial advantage being that the driving signal is about three orders of magnitude stronger than on Earth. GALILEO GALILEI (G G) is a small space mission designed for such a high-accuracy test. At the time of print, G G has been selected by ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana) as a candidate for the next small Italian mission. Ground tests of the proposed apparatus now indicate that an accuracy of 1 part in 10 17 is within the reach of this small mission

  6. Imaging of volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io by Galileo during the Galileo Europa Mission and the Galileo Millennium Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; McEwen, A.S.; Phillips, C.B.; Milazzo, M.; Geissler, P.; Turtle, E.P.; Radebaugh, J.; Williams, D.A.; Simonelli, D.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Klaasen, K.P.; Levanas, G.; Denk, T.; Alexander, D.D.A.; Capraro, K.; Chang, S.-H.; Chen, A.C.; Clark, J.; Conner, D.L.; Culver, A.; Handley, T.H.; Jensen, D.N.; Knight, D.D.; LaVoie, S.K.; McAuley, M.; Mego, V.; Montoya, O.; Mortensen, H.B.; Noland, S.J.; Patel, R.R.; Pauro, T.M.; Stanley, C.L.; Steinwand, D.J.; Thaller, T.F.; Woncik, P.J.; Yagi, G.M.; Yoshimizu, J.R.; Alvarez, Del; Castillo, E.M.; Belton, M.J.S.; Beyer, R.; Branston, D.; Fishburn, M.B.; Mueller, B.; Ragan, R.; Samarasinha, N.; Anger, C.D.; Cunningham, C.; Little, B.; Arriola, S.; Carr, M.H.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, J.; Morrison, D.; Rages, K.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Burns, J.A.; Carcich, B.; Clark, B.; Currier, N.; Dauber, I.; Gierasch, P.J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mann, M.; Othman, O.; Rossier, L.; Solomon, N.; Sullivan, R.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.; Becker, T.; Edwards, K.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Lee, E.; Rosanova, T.; Sucharski, R.M.; Beebe, R.F.; Simon, A.; Bender, K.; Chuang, F.; Fagents, S.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Homan, K.; Kadel, S.; Kerr, J.; Klemaszewski, J.; Lo, E.; Schwarz, W.; Williams, K.; Bierhaus, E.; Brooks, S.; Chapman, C.R.; Merline, B.; Keller, J.; Schenk, P.; Tamblyn, P.; Bouchez, A.; Dyundian, U.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Showman, A.; Spitale, J.; Stewart, S.; Vasavada, A.; Cunningham, W.F.; Johnson, T.V.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Meredith, M.K.; Orton, G.S.; Senske, D.A.; West, A.; Winther, D.; Collins, G.; Fripp, W.J.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.; Pratt, S.; Procter, L.; Spaun, N.; Colvin, T.; Davies, M.; DeJong, E.M.; Hall, J.; Suzuki, S.; Gorjian, Z.; Giese, B.; Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Tost, W.; Schuster, P.; Wagner, R.; Dieter, N.; Durda, D.; Greenberg, R.J.; Hoppa, G.; Jaeger, W.; Plassman, J.; Tufts, R.; Fanale, F.P.; Gran,

    2001-01-01

    The Solid-State Imaging (SSI) instrument provided the first high- and medium-resolution views of Io as the Galileo spacecraft closed in on the volcanic body in late 1999 and early 2000. While each volcanic center has many unique features, the majority can be placed into one of two broad categories. The "Promethean" eruptions, typified by the volcanic center Prometheus, are characterized by long-lived steady eruptions producing a compound flow field emplaced in an insulating manner over a period of years to decades. In contrast, "Pillanian" eruptions are characterized by large pyroclastic deposits and short-lived but high effusion rate eruptions from fissures feeding open-channel or open-sheet flows. Both types of eruptions commonly have ???100-km-tall, bright, SO2-rich plumes forming near the flow fronts and smaller deposits of red material that mark the vent for the silicate lavas. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Qualification of GPHS-RTG for the Galileo and Ulysses missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockfield, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source - Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG)- was designed and built by General Electric under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Special Nuclear Projects, to power both the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft. Separate STS launches of these two spacecraft were planned for May, l986, but have now been delayed. Galileo will carry two RTGs, providing over 5l0 watts of electrical power at the end of a 4.2 year mission, and Ulysses' single RTG will provide over 250 watts of electrical power at the end of a 4.7 year mission. These power levels and mission durations may differ for delayed launch schedules. To ensure that the GPHS-RTG is qualified for the Galileo and Ulysses missions, a formal program, consisting of extensive analyses, inspections, demonstrations, and tests, was conducted. Requirements for qualification included such categories as electrical performance, life characteristics, dynamic capability, thermal characteristics, active cooling system performance, magnetic properties, nuclear criticality, gas management provisions, electrostatic cleanliness, mass properties, neutron emission rate, and micrometeoroid survivability. This paper addresses selected topics from this list and presents data to show that anticipated performance will meet or exceed design requirements as specified for a May, l986 launch

  8. Surface changes on Io during the Galileo mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.; McEwen, A.; Phillips, C.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.

    2004-01-01

    A careful survey of Galileo SSI global monitoring images revealed more than 80 apparent surface changes that took place on Io during the 5 year period of observation, ranging from giant plume deposits to subtle changes in the color or albedo of Patera surfaces. Explosive volcanic activity was discovered at four previously unrecognized centers: an unnamed patera to the south of Karei that produced a Pele-sized red ring, a patera to the west of Zal that produced a small circular bright deposit, a large orange ring detected near the north pole of Io, and a small bright ring near Io's south pole. Only a handful of Io's many active volcanoes produced large scale explosive eruptions, and several of these erupted repeatedly, leaving at least 83% of Io's surface unaltered throughout the Galileo mission. Most of the hot spots detected from SSI, NIMS and ground-based thermal observations caused no noticeable surface changes greater than 10 km in extent over the five year period. Surface changes were found at every location where active plumes were identified, including Acala which was never seen in sunlight and was only detected through auroral emissions during eclipse. Two types of plumes are distinguished on the basis of the size and color of their deposits, confirming post-Voyager suggestions by McEwen and Soderblom [Icarus 55 (1983) 191]. Smaller plumes produce near-circular rings typically 150-200 km in radius that are white or yellow in color unless contaminated with silicates, and frequently coat their surroundings with frosts of fine-grained SO2. The larger plumes are much less numerous, limited to a half dozen examples, and produce oval, orange or red, sulfur-rich rings with maximum radii in the north-south direction that are typically in the range from 500 to 550 km. Both types of plumes can be either episodic or quasi-continuous over a five year period. Repeated eruptions of the smaller SO2-rich plumes likely contribute significantly to Io's resurfacing rate

  9. On the development of the power sources for the Ulysses and Galileo missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.; Whitmore, C.W.; Amos, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to be used on the Ulysses and Galileo missions is described. This RTG, designed to provide a minimum of 285 We at the beginning of the mission, builds upon the successful thermoelectric technology developed for the RTGs now in operation on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. A total of four flight RTGs, one ground qualification RTG, and one engineering unit have been built and tested for the Galileo and Ulysses missions. The tests have included measurements of functional performance, vibration response, magnetic signature, mass properties, nuclear radiation, and vacuum performance. The RTGs are fully flight qualified for both missions and are ready for launch

  10. Global Distribution of Active Volcanism on Io as Known at the End of the Galileo Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Kamp. Lucas W.; Smythe, W. D.; Radebaugh, J.; Turtle, E.; Perry, J.; Bruno, B.

    2004-01-01

    Hot spots are manifestations of Io s mechanism of internal heating and heat transfer. Therefore, the global distribution of hot spots and their power output has important implications for how Io is losing heat. The end of the Galileo mission is an opportune time to revisit studies of the distribution of hot spots on Io, and to investigate the distribution of their power output.

  11. The General-Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: Power for the Galileo and Ulysses missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.; Lombardo, J.J.; Hemler, R.J.; Peterson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power for NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter and ESA's Ulysses mission to explore the polar regions of the Sun will be provided by General-Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermo-electric Generators (GPHS-RTGs). Building upon the successful RTG technology used in the Voyager program, each GPHS-RTG will provide at least 285 W(e) at beginning-of-mission. The design concept has been proven through extensive tests of an electrically heated Engineering Unit and a nuclear-heated Qualification Unit. Four flight generators have been successfully assembled and tested for use on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft. All indications are that the GPHS-RTGs will meet or exceed the power requirement of the missions

  12. Selenide isotope generators for the Galileo Mission: SIG hermetic bimetal weld transition joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, W.J.

    1979-08-01

    The successful development of the commercial 6061-T651/Silver/304L explosive clad plate material as a bimetal weld transition joint material, as described herein, satisfies all SIG Galileo design requirements for hermetic weld attachment of stainless steel subassemblies to aluminum alloy generator housing or end cover structures. The application of this type weld transition joint to the hermetic attachment of stainless steel shell connectors is well-developed and tested. Based on on-going life tests of stainless steel receptacle/bimetal ring attachment assemblies and metallurgical characterization studies of this transition joint material, it appears evident that this transition joint material has more than adequate capability to meet the 250 to 300 0 F and 50,000 hr. design life of the SIG/Galileo mission. Its extended life temperture capability may well approach 350 to 400 0 F

  13. Far infrared filters for the Galileo-Jupiter and other missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J. S.; Hunneman, R.; Whatley, A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the development of FIR multilayer interference filters for the net flux radiometer and photopolarizing radiometer to be carried on board the Galileo mission to Jupiter is reported. The multilayer interference technique has been extended to the region above 40 microns by the use of PbTe/II-VI materials in hard-coated combination, with the thickest layers composed of CdSe QWOT at 74 microns and PbTe QWOT. Improvements have also been obtained in filters below 20 microns on the basis of the Chebyshev stack design. A composite filter cutting on steeply at 40 microns has been designed which employs a thin crystal quartz substrate, shorter wavelength absorption in ZnS and As2S3 thin films, and supplementary multilayer interference. Finally, absorptive filters have been developed based on II-VI compounds in multilayer combination with KRS-5 (or 6) on a KRS-5 (or 6) substrate

  14. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission. Axially-grooved heat pipe: accelerated life test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    The results through SIG/Galileo contract close-out of accelerated life testing performed from June 1978 to June 1979 on axially-grooved, copper/water heat pipes are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the expected lifetime of axially-grooved copper/water heat pipes. The heat pipe failure rate, due to either a leak or a build-up of non-condensible gas, was determined. The secondary objective of the test was to determine the effects of time and temperature on the thermal performance parameters relevant to long-term (> 50,000 h) operation on a space power generator. The results showed that the gas generation rate appears to be constant with time after an initial sharp rise although there are indications that it drops to approximately zero beyond approx. 2000 h. During the life test, the following pipe-hours were accumulated: 159,000 at 125 0 C, 54,000 at 165 0 C, 48,000 at 185 0 C, and 8500 at 225 0 C. Heated hours per pipe ranged from 1000 to 7500 with an average of 4720. Applying calculated acceleration factors yields the equivalent of 930,000 pipe-h at 125 0 C. Including the accelerated hours on vendor tested pipes raises this number to 1,430,000 pipe-hours at 125 0 C. It was concluded that, for a heat pipe temperature of 125 0 C and a mission time of 50,000 h, the demonstrated heat pipe reliability is between 80% (based on 159,000 actual pipe-h at 125 0 C) and 98% (based on 1,430,000 accelerated pipe-h at 125 0 C). Measurements indicate some degradation of heat transfer with time, but no detectable degradation of heat transport

  15. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo mission: Volume 3 (Book 2), Nuclear risk analysis document: Appendices: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-25

    It is the purpose of the NRAD to provide an analysis of the range of potential consequences of accidents which have been identified that are associated with the launching and deployment of the Galileo mission spacecraft. The specific consequences analyzed are those associated with the possible release of radioactive material (fuel) of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). They are in terms of radiation doses to people and areas of deposition of radioactive material. These consequence analyses can be used in several ways. One way is to identify the potential range of consequences which might have to be dealt with if there were to be an accident with a release of fuel, so as to assure that, given such an accident, the health and safety of the public will be reasonably protected. Another use of the information, in conjunction with accident and release probabilities, is to estimate the risks associated with the mission. That is, most space launches occur without incident. Given an accident, the most probable result relative to the RTGs is complete containment of the radioactive material. Only a small fraction of accidents might result in a release of fuel and subsequent radiological consequences. The combination of probability with consequence is risk, which can be compared to other human and societal risks to assure that no undue risks are implied by undertaking the mission. Book 2 contains eight appendices.

  16. Galileo perceptionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinico, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The present paper focuses on Galileo's conception of perception. I take as my starting point the interpretation of the Galilean text by Piccolino and Wade (2008, Perception 37 1312-1340): Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei. Three points are discussed: the criticism of naive realism, the theoretical role of perceptual laws, and the distinction between different qualities of experience. The conclusions support an alternative interpretation which underscores the crucial role of phenomenology of perception in Galileo's epistemology.

  17. Artist concept of Galileo spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft is illustrated in artist concept. Gallileo, named for the Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician who is credited with construction of the first complete, practical telescope in 1620, will make detailed studies of Jupiter. A cooperative program with the Federal Republic of Germany the Galileo mission will amplify information acquired by two Voyager spacecraft in their brief flybys. Galileo is a two-element system that includes a Jupiter-orbiting observatory and an entry probe. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is Galileo project manager and builder of the main spacecraft. Ames Research Center (ARC) has responsibility for the entry probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company and General Electric. Galileo will be deployed from the payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during mission STS-34.

  18. Galileo: exploration of Jupiter's system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.V.; Yeates, C.M.; Colin, L.; Fanale, F.P.; Frank, L.; Hunten, D.M.

    1985-06-01

    The scientific objectives of the Galileo mission to the Jovian system is presented. Topics discussed include the history of the project, our current knowledge of the system, the objectives of interrelated experiments, mission design, spacecraft, and instruments. The management, scientists, and major contractors for the project are also given

  19. Psyche Mission: Scientific Models and Instrument Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanskey, C. A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Bell, J. F., III; Lawrence, D. J.; Marchi, S.; Park, R. S.; Russell, C. T.; Weiss, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has chosen to explore (16) Psyche with their 14th Discovery-class mission. Psyche is a 226-km diameter metallic asteroid hypothesized to be the exposed core of a planetesimal that was stripped of its rocky mantle by multiple hit and run collisions in the early solar system. The spacecraft launch is planned for 2022 with arrival at the asteroid in 2026 for 21 months of operations. The Psyche investigation has five primary scientific objectives: A. Determine whether Psyche is a core, or if it is unmelted material. B. Determine the relative ages of regions of Psyche's surface. C. Determine whether small metal bodies incorporate the same light elements as are expected in the Earth's high-pressure core. D. Determine whether Psyche was formed under conditions more oxidizing or more reducing than Earth's core. E. Characterize Psyche's topography. The mission's task was to select the appropriate instruments to meet these objectives. However, exploring a metal world, rather than one made of ice, rock, or gas, requires development of new scientific models for Psyche to support the selection of the appropriate instruments for the payload. If Psyche is indeed a planetary core, we expect that it should have a detectable magnetic field. However, the strength of the magnetic field can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the formational history of Psyche. The implications of both the extreme low-end and the high-end predictions impact the magnetometer and mission design. For the imaging experiment, what can the team expect for the morphology of a heavily impacted metal body? Efforts are underway to further investigate the differences in crater morphology between high velocity impacts into metal and rock to be prepared to interpret the images of Psyche when they are returned. Finally, elemental composition measurements at Psyche using nuclear spectroscopy encompass a new and unexplored phase space of gamma-ray and neutron measurements. We will present some end

  20. The Galileo Affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Presented is background material on Galileo and his views on astronomy, religion, and Copernicus. The history of theory development related to the science of astronomy and a review of Galileo's writings are included. (KR)

  1. Selected properties of GPS and Galileo-IOV receiver intersystem biases in multi-GNSS data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paziewski, Jacek; Sieradzki, Rafał; Wielgosz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Two overlapping frequencies—L1/E1 and L5/E5a—in GPS and Galileo systems support the creation of mixed double-differences in a tightly combined relative positioning model. On the other hand, a tightly combined model makes it necessary to take into account receiver intersystem bias, which is the difference in receiver hardware delays. This bias is present in both carrier-phase and pseudorange observations. Earlier research showed that using a priori knowledge of earlier-calibrated ISB to correct GNSS observations has significant impact on ambiguity resolution and, therefore, precise positioning results. In previous research concerning ISB estimation conducted by the authors, small oscillations in phase ISB time series were detected. This paper investigates this effect present in the GPS–Galileo-IOV ISB time series. In particular, ISB short-term temporal stability and its dependence on the number of Galileo satellites used in the ISB estimation was examined. In this contribution we investigate the amplitude and frequency of the detected ISB time series oscillations as well as their potential source. The presented results are based on real observational data collected on a zero baseline with the use of different sets of GNSS receivers. (paper)

  2. Selected properties of GPS and Galileo-IOV receiver intersystem biases in multi-GNSS data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziewski, Jacek; Sieradzki, Rafał; Wielgosz, Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Two overlapping frequencies—L1/E1 and L5/E5a—in GPS and Galileo systems support the creation of mixed double-differences in a tightly combined relative positioning model. On the other hand, a tightly combined model makes it necessary to take into account receiver intersystem bias, which is the difference in receiver hardware delays. This bias is present in both carrier-phase and pseudorange observations. Earlier research showed that using a priori knowledge of earlier-calibrated ISB to correct GNSS observations has significant impact on ambiguity resolution and, therefore, precise positioning results. In previous research concerning ISB estimation conducted by the authors, small oscillations in phase ISB time series were detected. This paper investigates this effect present in the GPS-Galileo-IOV ISB time series. In particular, ISB short-term temporal stability and its dependence on the number of Galileo satellites used in the ISB estimation was examined. In this contribution we investigate the amplitude and frequency of the detected ISB time series oscillations as well as their potential source. The presented results are based on real observational data collected on a zero baseline with the use of different sets of GNSS receivers.

  3. Galileo positioning technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena; Sand, Stephan; Hurskainen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This book covers multi-band Galileo receivers (especially E1-E5 bands of Galileo) and addresses all receiver building blocks, from the antenna and front end, through details of the baseband receiver processing blocks, up to the navigation processing, including the Galileo message structure and Position, Velocity, Time (PVT) computation. Moreover, hybridization solutions with communications systems for improved localization are discussed and an open-source GNSS receiver platform (available for download) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is addressed in detail. • Takes a holistic approach to GALILEO and related systems, such as EGNOS and hybrid solutions on mobile phones; • Provides an invaluable reference to Binary Offset Carrier modulations and related families, which are some of the trademarks of GALILEO; • Includes a detailed survey of GALILEO receiver research in Europe and existing software-defined radio (SDR) GALILEO receiver implementations; • Addresses the multiple challen...

  4. Simulation Facilities and Test Beds for Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarmann, Bernhard Kl.; Leonard, Arian

    2002-01-01

    Galileo is the European satellite navigation system, financed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Commission (EC). The Galileo System, currently under definition phase, will offer seamless global coverage, providing state-of-the-art positioning and timing services. Galileo services will include a standard service targeted at mass market users, an augmented integrity service, providing integrity warnings when fault occur and Public Regulated Services (ensuring a continuity of service for the public users). Other services are under consideration (SAR and integrated communications). Galileo will be interoperable with GPS, and will be complemented by local elements that will enhance the services for specific local users. In the frame of the Galileo definition phase, several system design and simulation facilities and test beds have been defined and developed for the coming phases of the project, respectively they are currently under development. These are mainly the following tools: Galileo Mission Analysis Simulator to design the Space Segment, especially to support constellation design, deployment and replacement. Galileo Service Volume Simulator to analyse the global performance requirements based on a coverage analysis for different service levels and degrades modes. Galileo System Simulation Facility is a sophisticated end-to-end simulation tool to assess the navigation performances for a complete variety of users under different operating conditions and different modes. Galileo Signal Validation Facility to evaluate signal and message structures for Galileo. Galileo System Test Bed (Version 1) to assess and refine the Orbit Determination &Time Synchronisation and Integrity algorithms, through experiments relying on GPS space infrastructure. This paper presents an overview on the so called "G-Facilities" and describes the use of the different system design tools during the project life cycle in order to design the system with respect to

  5. Modern Exploration of Galileo's New Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Torrence V.

    2010-01-01

    Four hundred years ago Galileo turned his telescope to the heavens and changed the way we view the cosmos forever. Among his discoveries in January of 1610 were four new 'stars', following Jupiter in the sky but changing their positions with respect to the giant planet every night. Galileo showed that these 'Medicean stars', as he named them, were moons orbiting Jupiter in the same manner that the Earth and planets revolve about the Sun in the Copernican theory of the solar system. Over the next three centuries these moons, now collectively named the Galilean satellites after their discoverer, remained tiny dots of light in astronomers' telescopes. In the latter portion of the twentieth century Galileo's new worlds became important targets of exploration by robotic spacecraft. This paper reviews the history of this exploration through the discoveries made by the Galileo mission from 1995 to 2003, setting the stage for on-going exploration in the new century.

  6. Galileo spacecraft power management and distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detwiler, R.C.; Smith, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    It has been twelve years since two Voyager spacecraft began the direct route to the outer planets. In October 1989 a single Galileo spacecraft started the return to Jupiter. Conceived as a simple Voyager look-alike, the Galileo power management and distribution (PMAD) system has undergone many iterations in configuration. Major changes to the PMAD resulted from dual spun slip ring limitations, variations in launch vehicle thrust capabilities, and launch delays. Lack of an adequate launch vehicle for an interplanetary mission of Galileo's size has resulted in an extremely long flight duration. A Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA) tour, vital to attain the required energy, results in a 6 year trip to Jupiter and its moons. This paper provides a description of the Galileo PMAD and documents the design drivers that established the final as-built hardware

  7. Io after Galileo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M C; Williams, David A

    2005-01-01

    Io, the volcanically active innermost large moon of Jupiter, was a target of intense study during the recently completed NASA Galileo mission to Jupiter (1989-2003). Galileo's suite of instruments obtained unprecedented observations of Io, including high spatial resolution imaging in the visible and infrared. This paper reviews the insights gained about Io's surface, atmosphere and space environment during the Galileo mission. Io is thought to have a large Fe-FeS core, whose radius is slightly less than half the radius of Io and whose mass is 20% of the moon. The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field implies that the core is either completely solid or completely liquid. The mantle of Io appears to undergo a high degree of partial melting (20-50% molten) that produces ultramafic lavas dominated by Mg-rich orthopyroxene in an apparent 'mushy magma ocean', suggesting an undifferentiated mantle. The crust of Io is thought to be rigid, 20-30 km thick, cold away from volcanic heat sources and composed of mafic to ultramafic silicates. Tidal flexing due to Io's orbital resonance produces ∼100 m tides at the surface, generating heat that powers Io's volcanism. Silicate volcanism appears to be dominant at most hot spots, although secondary sulfur volcanism may be important in some areas. The key discoveries of the Galileo era at Io were: (1) the detection of high-temperature volcanism (ultramafic, superheated mafic or 'ceramic'); (2) the detection of both S 2 and SO 2 gas in Ionian plumes; (3) the distinction between eruption styles, including between Pelean plumes (originating from central vents) and Promethean plumes (originating from silicate lava flow fronts); (4) the relationship between mountains and paterae, which indicates that many paterae are formed as magma preferentially ascends along tectonic faults associated with mountain building; (5) the lack of detection of an intrinsic magnetic field; (6) a new estimate of global heat flow; and (7) increased understanding

  8. SIG Galileo final converter technical summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderman, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The report is primarily concerned with the work performed for DOE on converter development and fabrication for the NASA Galileo Jupiter mission as a DOE prime contractor with interface primarily with Teledyne Energy Systems. The activities reported on were directed toward design, analysis and testing of modules and converters SN-1 thru SN-7 and attendant Quality Control and Reliability effort. Although assembly and testing of SN-1 was not accomplished due to the stop work order, the design was virtually completed and a significant amount of subcontracting and manufacturing of both module and converter components was underway. These subcontracting and manufacturing activities were selectively closed down depending upon degree of completion and material or hardware potential usage in the Technology Program

  9. Galileo and the Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivotto, Cristina; Testa, Antonella

    2010-12-01

    We analyze the character of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), one of the most famous scientists of all time, as portrayed in three significant movies: Luigi Maggi's Galileo Galilei (1909), Liliana Cavani's Galileo (1968), and Joseph Losey's Galileo (1975), the last one of which was based upon Bertolt Brecht's drama, Das Leben des Galilei (1947). We investigate the relationships between the main characteristics of these fictional Galileos and the most important twentieth-century Galilean historiographic models. We also analyze the veracity of the plots of these three movies and the role that historical and scientific consultants played in producing them. We conclude that connections between these three movies and Galilean historiographic models are far from evident, that other factors deeply influenced the representation of Galileo on the screen.

  10. Flight performance of Galileo and Ulysses RTGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemler, R.J.; Kelly, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    Flight performance data of the GPHS-RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source---Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft are reported. Comparison of the flight data with analytical predictions is preformed. Differences between actual flight telemetry data and analytical predictions are addressed including the degree of uncertainty associated with the telemetry data. End of mission power level predictions are included for both missions with an overall assessment of RTG mission performances

  11. [Galileo and his telescope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  12. Galileo's Medicean Moons (IAU S269)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Cesare; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Coradini, Marcello; Lazzarin, Monica

    2010-11-01

    Preface; 1. Galileo's telescopic observations: the marvel and meaning of discovery George V. Coyne, S. J.; 2. Popular perceptions of Galileo Dava Sobel; 3. The slow growth of humility Tobias Owen and Scott Bolton; 4. A new physics to support the Copernican system. Gleanings from Galileo's works Giulio Peruzzi; 5. The telescope in the making, the Galileo first telescopic observations Alberto Righini; 6. The appearance of the Medicean Moons in 17th century charts and books. How long did it take? Michael Mendillo; 7. Navigation, world mapping and astrometry with Galileo's moons Kaare Aksnes; 8. Modern exploration of Galileo's new worlds Torrence V. Johnson; 9. Medicean Moons sailing through plasma seas: challenges in establishing magnetic properties Margaret G. Kivelson, Xianzhe Jia and Krishan K. Khurana; 10. Aurora on Jupiter: a magnetic connection with the Sun and the Medicean Moons Supriya Chakrabarti and Marina Galand; 11. Io's escaping atmosphere: continuing the legacy of surprise Nicholas M. Schneider; 12. The Jovian Rings Wing-Huen Ip; 13. The Juno mission Scott J. Bolton and the Juno Science Team; 14. Seeking Europa's ocean Robert T. Pappalardo; 15. Europa lander mission: a challenge to find traces of alien life Lev Zelenyi, Oleg Korablev, Elena Vorobyova, Maxim Martynov, Efraim L. Akim and Alexander Zakahrov; 16. Atmospheric moons Galileo would have loved Sushil K. Atreya; 17. The study of Mercury Louise M. Prockter and Peter D. Bedini; 18. Jupiter and the other giants: a comparative study Thérèse Encrenaz; 19. Spectroscopic and spectrometric differentiation between abiotic and biogenic material on icy worlds Kevin P. Hand, Chris McKay and Carl Pilcher; 20. Other worlds, other civilizations? Guy Consolmagno, S. J.; 21. Concluding remarks Roger M. Bonnet; Posters; Author index; Object index.

  13. "Galileo Calling Earth..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  14. Intel Galileo essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Grimmett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book is for anyone who has ever been curious about using the Intel Galileo to create electronics projects. Some programming background is useful, but if you know how to use a personal computer, with the aid of the step-by-step instructions in this book, you can construct complex electronics projects that use the Intel Galileo.

  15. A Modern Galileo Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Stefano; Moauro, Francesco; Siccardi, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The year 2014 marked the four-hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary of Galileo's birth, making it the perfect occasion to present and illustrate a GeoGebra applet which reproduces some of Galileo's celebrated experiments on the uniformly accelerated motion, as reported on in "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New…

  16. Officine Galileo for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, E.; Tacconi, M.

    1999-09-01

    The interest for Mars's exploration is continuously increasing. Officine Galileo is engaged in this endeavor with several programmes. The exobiology is, of course, a stimulating field; presently Officine Galileo is leading a team with Dasa and Tecnospazio, under ESA contract, for the definition of a facility for the search of extinct life on Mars through the detection of indicators of life. The system, to be embarked on a Mars lander, is based on a drill to take rock samples underneath the oxidised soil layer, on a sample preparation and distribution system devoted to condition and bring the sample to a set of analytical instruments to carry out in-situ chemical and mineralogical investigations. The facility benefits of the presence of optical microscope, gas chromatograph, several spectrometers (Raman, Mass, Mossbauer, APX-Ray), and further instruments. In the frame of planetology, Officine Galileo is collaborating with several Principal Investigators to the definition of a set of instruments to be integrated on the Mars 2003 Lander (a NASA-ASI cooperation). A drill (by Tecnospazio), with the main task to collect Mars soil samples for the subsequent storage and return to Earth, will have the capability to perform several soil analyses, e.g. temperature and near infrared reflectivity spectra down to 50 cm depth, surface thermal and electrical conductivity, sounding of electromagnetic properties down to a few hundreds meter, radioactivity. Moreover a kit of instruments for in-situ soil samples analyses if foreseen; it is based on a dust analyser, an IR spectrometer, a thermofluorescence sensor, and a radioactivity analyser. The attention to the Red Planet is growing, in parallel with the findings of present and planned missions. In the following years the technology of Officine Galileo will carry a strong contribution to the science of Mars.

  17. SEU immune ICs for project Galileo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, A.E.; Hewlett, F.W.; Treece, R.K.; Nichols, D.K.; Smith, L.S.; Zoutendyk, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tests showed that bipolar chips in the attitude control computer of the Galileo spacecraft would likely cause catastrophic mission failure due to single particle upset. This paper describes the design and testing of CMOS replacements which are speed compatible with the bipolar parts and are immune to upset by 165-MeV krypton ions

  18. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  19. [Galileo and centrifugal force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, Christiane

    This work intends to focus on Galileo's study of what is now called "centrifugal force," within the framework of the Second Day of his Dialogo written in 1632, rather than on the previously published commentaries on the topic. Galileo proposes three geometrical demonstrations in order to prove that gravity will always overcome centrifugalforce, and that the potential rotation of the Earth, whatever its speed, cannot in any case project objects beyond it. Each of these demonstrations must consequently contain an error and it has seemed to us that the first one had not been understood up until now. Our analysis offers an opportunity to return to Galileo's geometrical representation of dynamical questions; actually, we get an insight into the sophistication of Galileo's practices more than into his mistakes. Our second point, concerning the historiography of the problem, shows an evolution from anachronic critics to more contextual considerations, in the course of the second half of the twentieth century.

  20. From Galileo to Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Alfred Rupert

    1982-01-01

    The near century (1630–1720) that separates the important astronomical findings of Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) and the vastly influential mathematical work of Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) represents a pivotal stage of transition in the history of science. Tracing the revolution in physics initiated by Galileo and culminating in Newton's achievements, this book surveys the work of Huygens, Leeuwenhoek, Boyle, Descartes, and others. 35 illustrations.

  1. Changes east of Pele between Galileo's first two orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Detail of changes east of Pele on Jupiter's moon Io as seen by NASA's Galileo spacecraft between June (left) and September (right) 1996. The caldera at the center of the images that changes from bright to dark is approximately 80 kilometers in diameter. Some scientists speculate that this brightness (albedo) change might be due to flooding of the crater floor by lava. The left frame was reprojected and stretched to match the geometry and average colors of the right frame. Before this stretch, the earlier image (left) was significantly redder than the later image (right); this may be due to variations in lighting. Both frames were created with images from the Galileo Solid State Imaging system's near-infrared (756 nm), green, and violet filters. North is to the top of both frames.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Home automation with Intel Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    Dundar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to learn Intel Galileo for home automation and cross-platform software development. No knowledge of programming with Intel Galileo is assumed, but knowledge of the C programming language is essential.

  3. The Cambridge companion to Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    This collection of essays is unparalleled in the depth of its coverage of all facets of Galileo's work. A particular feature of the volume is the treatment of Galileo's relationship with the Church. It will be of particular interest to philosophers, historians of science, cultural historians and those in religious studies. New readers and nonspecialists will find this the most convenient, accessible guide to Galileo available. Advanced students and specialists will find a conspectus of recent developments in the interpretation of Galileo.

  4. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  5. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  6. Galileo and prior philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D; Peijnenburg, J

    Galileo claimed inconsistency in the Aristotelian dogma concerning failing bodies and stated that all bodies must fall at the same rate. However, there is an empirical situation where the speeds of falling bodies are proportional to their weights; and even in vacuo all bodies do not fall at the same

  7. Galileo Avionica's technologies and instruments for planetary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, E; Falciani, P; Magnani, P; Midollini, B; Preti, G; Re, E

    2006-12-01

    Several missions for planetary exploration, including comets and asteroids, are ongoing or planned by the European Space Agencies: Rosetta, Venus Express, Bepi Colombo, Dawn, Aurora and all Mars Programme (in its past and next missions) are good examples. The satisfaction of the scientific request for the mentioned programmes calls for the development of new instruments and facilities devoted to investigate the body (planet, asteroid or comet) both remotely and by in situ measurements. The paper is an overview of some instruments for remote sensing and in situ planetary exploration already developed or under study by Galileo Avionica Space & Electro-Optics B.U. (in the following shortened as Galileo Avionica) for both the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and for the European Space Agency (ESA). Main technologies and specifications are outlined; for more detailed information please refer to Galileo Avionica's web-site at: http://www.galileoavionica.com .

  8. Galileo disposal strategy: stability, chaos and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Daquin, Jérôme; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Alessi, Elisa Maria; Deleflie, Florent; Rossi, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the medium-Earth orbit (MEO) region of the global navigation satellite systems is permeated by a devious network of lunisolar secular resonances, which can interact to produce chaotic and diffusive motions. The precarious state of the four navigation constellations, perched on the threshold of instability, makes it understandable why all past efforts to define stable graveyard orbits, especially in the case of Galileo, were bound to fail; the region is far too complex to allow for an adoption of the simple geosynchronous disposal strategy. We retrace one such recent attempt, funded by ESA's General Studies Programme in the frame of the GreenOPS initiative, that uses a systematic parametric approach and the straightforward maximum-eccentricity method to identify long-term-stable regions, suitable for graveyards, as well as large-scale excursions in eccentricity, which can be used for post-mission deorbiting of constellation satellites. We then apply our new results on the stunningly rich dynamical structure of the MEO region towards the analysis of these disposal strategies for Galileo, and discuss the practical implications of resonances and chaos in this regime. We outline how the identification of the hyperbolic and elliptic fixed points of the resonances near Galileo can lead to explicit criteria for defining optimal disposal strategies.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Galileo's Muse: Renaissance Mathematics and the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark; Sterken, Christiaan

    2013-12-01

    Galileo's Muse is a book that focuses on the life and thought of Galileo Galilei. The Prologue consists of a first chapter on Galileo the humanist and deals with Galileo's influence on his student Vincenzo Viviani (who wrote a biography of Galileo). This introductory chapter is followed by a very nice chapter that describes the classical legacy: Pythagoreanism and Platonism, Euclid and Archimedes, and Plutarch and Ptolemy. The author explicates the distinction between Greek and Roman contributions to the classical legacy, an explanation that is crucial for understanding Galileo and Renaissance mathematics. The following eleven chapters of this book arranged in a kind of quadrivium, viz., Poetry, Painting, Music, Architecture present arguments to support the author's thesis that the driver for Galileo's genius was not Renaissance science as is generally accepted but Renaissance arts brought forth by poets, painters, musicians, and architects. These four sets of chapters describe the underlying mathematics in poetry, visual arts, music and architecture. Likewise, Peterson stresses the impact of the philosophical overtones present in geometry, but absent in algebra and its equations. Basically, the author writes about Galileo, while trying to ignore the Copernican controversy, which he sees as distracting attention from Galileo's scientific legacy. As such, his story deviates from the standard myth on Galileo. But the book also looks at other eminent characters, such as Galileo's father Vincenzo (who cultivated music and music theory), the painter Piero della Francesca (who featured elaborate perspectives in his work), Dante Alighieri (author of the Divina Commedia), Filippo Brunelleschi (who engineered the dome of the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, Johannes Kepler (a strong supporter of Galileo's Copernicanism), etc. This book is very well documented: it offers, for each chapter, a wide selection of excellent biographical notes, and includes a fine

  10. Generalizing Galileo's Passe-Dix Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombas, Vassilios

    2012-01-01

    This article shows a generalization of Galileo's "passe-dix" game. The game was born following one of Galileo's [G. Galileo, "Sopra le Scoperte dei Dadi" (Galileo, Opere, Firenze, Barbera, Vol. 8). Translated by E.H. Thorne, 1898, pp. 591-594] explanations on a paradox that occurred in the experiment of tossing three fair "six-sided" dice.…

  11. Becoming Galileo in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Galileo's contributions are so familiar as to be taken for granted, obscuring the exploratory process by which his discoveries arose. The wonder that Galileo experienced comes alive for undergraduates and teachers that I teach, when they find themselves taking Galileo's role by means of their own explorations. These classroom journeys include: sighting through picture frames to understand perspective, watching the night sky, experimenting with lenses and motion, and responding to Galileo's story. In teaching, I use critical exploration, the research pedagogy developed by Eleanor Duckworth that arose historically from both the clinical interviewing of Jean Piaget and B"arbel Inhelder and the Elementary Science Study of the 1960s. During critical explorations, the teacher supports students' investigations by posing provocative experiences while interactively following students' emergent understandings. In the context of Galileo, students learned to observe carefully, trust their observations, notice things they had never noticed before, and extend their understanding in the midst of pervasive confusion. Personal investment moved students to question assumptions that they had never critically evaluated. By becoming Galileo in today's classroom, we found the ordinary world no less intriguing and unsettling to explore, as the historical world of protagonists in Galileo's Dialogue.

  12. Galileo a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Stillman

    2001-01-01

    In a startling reinterpretation of the evidence, Stillman Drake advances the hypothesis that Galileo's trial and condemnation by the Inquisition was caused not by his defiance of the Church, but by the hostility of contemporary philosophers. Galileo's own beautifully lucid arguments are used to show how his scientific method was utterly divorced from the Aristotelian approach to physics in that it was based on a search not for causes but for laws. Galileo's method was of overwhelming significance for the development of modern physics, and led to a final parting of the ways between science and

  13. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  14. The GalileoMobile Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pilar Becerra, A.&ída; Bhatt, Megha; Kobel, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    GalileoMobile is a traveling science education project by an international team of PhD students and recent graduates (partnering with the Universe Awareness program) that brings astronomy to young people in remote regions of developing countries. Our primary project goals are: (1) to stimulate students' curiosity and interest in learning, (2) to exchange different visions of the cosmos and cultures, and (3) to inspire a feeling of unity "under the same sky" between people from different parts of the world. In 2009, GalileoMobile traveled to 30 schools in Chile, Bolivia and Peru, bringing hands-on activities and Galileoscopes; the team also produced a documentary movie to share the experiences and culture with the world. In 2012, GalileoMobile plans an expedition to India from the 2nd to the 13th of July in villages between Bangalore and Mysore. We will again bring hands-on astronomy activities and telescopes to the schools, and share our experiences with the world via internet resources. GalileoMobile is also collaborating with the Galileo Teacher Training Program to provide workshops for local teachers, to encourage continuation of astronomy education beyond our visit. In this way, we expect to spark sustainable interest in astronomy in remote areas that have little access to science outreach, and to share the culture of these areas with the world -- "under the same sky."

  15. Galileo symmetries in polymer particle representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, D-W

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate the conceptual problems for the low-energy symmetries in the continuum of spacetime emerging from the discrete quantum geometry, Galileo symmetries are investigated in the polymer particle representation of a non-relativistic particle as a simple toy model. The complete Galileo transformations (translation, rotation and Galileo boost) are naturally defined in the polymer particle Hilbert space and Galileo symmetries are recovered with highly suppressed deviations in the low-energy regime from the underlying polymer particle description

  16. GIOVE-A: Two Years of Galileo Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; da Silva Curiel, A.; Rooney, E.; Sweeting, M.; Gattia, G.

    2008-08-01

    During 2007, the GIOVE-A mission has transitioned from an experimental mission into what is effectively an operational mission. The small satellite approach used in the development of the mission, and the lessons learned from this mission, are being applied in the development of SSTL's Geostationary communication satellite platform. Furthermore, ESA has also been considering the lessons learned from small low-cost, rapid-response missions such as GIOVE with a view to a new procurement approach for such "entry-level" missions. On 28 December 2005 the first satellite in the Galileo programme was launched into space. The satellite, GIOVE-A, was developed for the European Space Agency (ESA) under a contract signed in July 2003. Since January 2006 GIOVE-A has broadcast the Galileo signal enabling Europe to claim the ITU frequency filing, to qualify the Galileo payload equipment, to characterise the performance of the Galileo system and to develop ground receiving equipment. The satellite was built for a relatively low-cost, €28M, within a very rapid timescale - from contract signature to flight readiness in 28 months. In order to meet this timescale SSTL used a development approach similar to the one it uses for its range of microsatellites. Further, the GIOVE-A satellite carries many pieces of equipment from the microsatellite range integrated into a larger structure, and in-flight results with the COTS parts are now showing that these are holding up well in the harsh MEO environment. The development approach was very different from a typical ESA operational mission and formed one of the reference inputs to the "Lightsat" approach which ESA will employ on some of its future projects. The paper will cover the main results and lessons learned from the GIOVE-A mission. We will describe the small satellite approach to its development and the main lessons learned from the development phase. We will also cover the main results of the mission since launch concentrating on

  17. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo and the theologians of the Inquisition share the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation. Contends that Galileo and these theologians thought that the Bible contained truths about nature, but Galileo denied what the theologians accepted as scientifically true. Contains 93 references.…

  18. The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's Galileo safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.C.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The safety evaluation report (SER) for Galileo was prepared by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) coordinators in accordance with Presidential directive/National Security Council memorandum 25. The INSRP consists of three coordinators appointed by their respective agencies, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These individuals are independent of the program being evaluated and depend on independent experts drawn from the national technical community to serve on the five INSRP subpanels. The Galileo SER is based on input provided by the NASA Galileo Program Office, review and assessment of the final safety analysis report prepared by the Office of Special Applications of the DOE under a memorandum of understanding between NASA and the DOE, as well as other related data and analyses. The SER was prepared for use by the agencies and the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the Present for use in their launch decision-making process. Although more than 20 nuclear-powered space missions have been previously reviewed via the INSRP process, the Galileo review constituted the first review of a nuclear power source associated with launch aboard the Space Transportation System

  19. The New Galileo Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    ave been developed to get as much data as possible from the Galileo spacecraft even without the high gain antenna. These methods include extensive data compression, a new packetized telemetry format, new error-correcting codes, new modulation, new ground receivers, and antenna arraying. (abstract only).

  20. Galileo quale infrastruttura europea per la navigazione orientata ai servizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lisi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Galileo is a joint initiative of the European Union and the European Space Agency, and is currently the most ambitious service-oriented and technologically advanced that has everbeen developed in Europe.It's a navigation satellite system completely under civil control and has the purpose to distribute radio signals on a global scale for the localization, navigation, and time synchronization.Galileo is based on a constellation of 24 satellites, a worldwide network of ground stations and various control centers, dedicated to the control of the constellation, the management of the mission and the ongoing monitoring of performance.

  1. The Routledge guidebook to Galileo's dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Finocchiaro, Maurice A

    2013-01-01

    The publication in 1632 of Galileo's Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican marked a crucial moment in the 'scientific revolution' and helped Galileo become the 'father of modern science'. The Dialogue contains Galileo's mature synthesis of astronomy, physics, and methodology, and a critical confirmation of Copernicus's hypothesis of the earth's motion. However, the book also led Galileo to stand trial with the Inquisition, in what became known as 'the greatest scandal in Christendom'. In The Routledge Guidebook to Galileo's Dialogue, Maurice A. Finocchiaro introduces and analyzes: the intellectual background and historical context of the Copernican controversy and Inquisition trial; the key arguments and critiques that Galileo presents on both sides of the 'dialogue'; the Dialogue's content and significance from three special points of view: science, methodology, and rhetoric; the enduring legacy of the Dialogue and the ongoing application of its approach to other areas. This...

  2. RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, C. Edward; Klee, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted

  3. RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Performance Analysis of Several GPS/Galileo Precise Point Positioning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-06-19

    This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference.

  5. Year 2000 Compliance of Selected Mission Critical Command, Control, and Communications Systems Managed by The Defense Information Systems Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...) has adequately planned for and managed year 2000 conversion risks to avoid undue disruption to selected mission critical command, control, and communications systems used in support of Unified...

  6. Selected writings

    CERN Document Server

    Galilei, Galileo

    2012-01-01

    'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

  7. Recreating Galileo's 1609 Discovery of Lunar Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Needham, Paul S.; Wright, Ernest T.; Gingerich, Owen

    2014-11-01

    The question of exactly which lunar features persuaded Galileo that there were mountains on the moon has not yet been definitively answered; Galileo was famously more interested in the concepts rather than the topographic mapping in his drawings and the eventual engravings. Since the pioneering work of Ewen Whitaker on trying to identify which specific lunar-terminator features were those that Galileo identified as mountains on the moon in his 1609 observations reported in his Sidereus Nuncius (Venice, 1610), and since the important work on the sequence of Galileo's observations by Owen Gingerich (see "The Mystery of the Missing 2" in Galilaeana IX, 2010, in which he concludes that "the Florentine bifolium sheet [with Galileo's watercolor images] is Galileo's source for the reworked lunar diagrams in Sidereus Nuncius"), there have been advances in lunar topographical measurements that should advance the discussion. In particular, one of us (E.T.W.) at the Scientific Visualization Studio of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has used laser-topography from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to recreate what Galileo would have seen over a sequence of dates in late November and early December 1609, and provided animations both at native resolution and at the degraded resolution that Galileo would have observed with his telescope. The Japanese Kaguya spacecraft also provides modern laser-mapped topographical maps.

  8. Internet of Things with Intel Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    de Sousa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    This book employs an incremental, step-by-step approach to get you familiarized with everything from the basic terms, board components, and development environments to developing real projects. Each project will demonstrate how to use specific board components and tools. Both Galileo and Galileo Gen 2 are covered in this book.

  9. Classroom Explorations: Pendulums, Mirrors, and Galileo's Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    What do you see in a mirror when not looking at yourself? What goes on as a pendulum swings? Undergraduates in a science class supposed that these behaviors were obvious until their explorations exposed questions with no quick answers. While exploring materials, students researched Galileo, his trial, and its aftermath. Galileo came to life both…

  10. The Galileo Legend as Scientific Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessl, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the various ways in which the legend of Galileo's persecution by the Roman Catholic Church diverges from scholarly readings of the Galileo affair. Finds five distinct themes of scientific ideology in the 40 accounts examined. Assesses the part that folklore plays in building and sustaining a professional ideology for the modern scientific…

  11. Galileo and Music: A Family Affair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, D.

    2011-06-01

    According to Viviani, Galileo's first biographer, the scientist was an excellent keyboard and lute player. In turn Vincenzo Galilei, father of the illustrious scientist, had been one of the most influential music theorist of his age and also a great composer and virtuoso of the lute. Galileo and his brother Michelangelo, born in 1575, inherited Vincenzo's duel skills, both in theory and practical music: Galileo's correspondences show indeed his competence in the music and in the lute playing; Michelagnolo, after being educated in part in Galileo's house in Padua, transferred to Germany in Munich, where he became a court lute player. Nevertheless, Galileo helped for the rest of his life not only his brother but also his nephews, as documented in dozen of family letters quite important to establish the central role of the music in Galileo's everyday life, a fact almost ignored by most modern biographers. The importance of music in Galileo's output and life has been first outlined by the historian of sciences Stillman Drake and by the musicologist Claude Palisca. After their studies starting in the 1960s there is a great belief that Vincenzo influenced his son Galileo, directing him towards experimentation. The aim of this paper, following the reconstruction of Galileo's soundscape proposed by Pierluigi Petrobelli, is to reexamine the surviving historical accounts on the musical passion and talent of Galileo and his family in the several houses where they performed music (in Florence, Padua, Munich, etc.) in particular on the lute, the instrument that was an important experimental tool for the scientist.

  12. Galileo spacecraft inertial sensors in-flight calibration design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M. H.; Lai, J. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The successful navigation of Galileo depends on accurate trajectory correction maneuvers (TCM's) performed during the mission. A set of Inertial Sensor (INS) units, comprised of gyros and accelerometers, mounted on the spacecraft, are utilized to control and monitor the performance of the TCM's. To provide the optimum performance, in-flight calibrations of INS are planned. These calibrations will take place on a regular basis. In this paper, a mathematical description is given of the data reduction technique used in analyzing a typical set of calibration data. The design of the calibration and the inertial sensor error models, necessary for the above analysis, are delineated in detail.

  13. Target selection and mass estimation for manned NEO exploration using a baseline mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Ralf C.; Hein, Andreas M.; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    In recent years Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have received an increased amount of interest as a target for human exploration. NEOs offer scientifically interesting targets, and at the same time function as a stepping stone for achieving future Mars missions. The aim of this research is to identify promising targets from the large number of known NEOs that qualify for a manned sample-return mission with a maximum duration of one year. By developing a baseline mission design and a mass estimation model, mission opportunities are evaluated based on on-orbit mass requirements, safety considerations, and the properties of the potential targets. A selection of promising NEOs is presented and the effects of mission requirements and restrictions are discussed. Regarding safety aspects, the use of free-return trajectories provides the lowest on-orbit mass, when compared to an alternative design that uses system redundancies to ensure return of the spacecraft to Earth. It is discovered that, although a number of targets are accessible within the analysed time frame, no NEO offers both easy access and high incentive for its exploration. Under the discussed aspects a first human exploration mission going beyond the vicinity of Earth will require a trade off between targets that provide easy access and those that are of scientific interest. This lack of optimal mission opportunities can be seen in the small number of only 4 NEOs that meet all requirements for a sample-return mission and remain below an on-orbit mass of 500 metric Tons (mT). All of them require a mass between 315 and 492 mT. Even less ideal, smaller asteroids that are better accessible require an on-orbit mass that exceeds the launch capability of future heavy lift vehicles (HLV) such as SLS by at least 30 mT. These mass requirements show that additional efforts are necessary to increase the number of available targets and reduce on-orbit mass requirements through advanced mission architectures. The need for on

  14. Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.

  15. Terrestrial cometary tail and lunar corona induced by small comets: Predictions for Galileo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessler, A.J.; Sandel, B.R.; Vasyliunas, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    A search for small comets near 1 AU is an objective of the Galileo mission. If small comets are as numerous and behave as has been proposed, two near-Earth signatures of small comets should be observable by the UVS experiment on the Earth flybys of Galileo; (1) a comet-like tail of Earth created by small comets that come close to Earth, break up and vaporize, but just miss the atmosphere and proceed back into interplanetary space, and (2) a corona surrounding the Moon induced by lunar impact of small comets

  16. Io After Galileo A New View of Jupiter’s Volcanic Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C

    2007-01-01

    Jupiter’s moon Io is the Solar System’s most exotic satellite. Active volcanism on Io was discovered from observations by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1979, confirming a possibility suggested from theoretical studies of Io’s orbit. Our knowledge of Io’s volcanism, composition, and space environment were significantly increased as a result of observations by the Galileo spacecraft from 1996 through 2001. The end of the Galileo mission in 2003 makes this an ideal time to summarize the new results in a book as no book has ever been written about Jupiter’s volcanic moon, Io.

  17. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

    2014-01-01

    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  18. “Initial Services”, la nuova fase del programma Galileo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lisi

    2017-03-01

    infrastructures and secure services for public authorities. The Declaration of Galileo Initial Services means that the Galileo satellites and ground infrastructure are now operationally ready. These signals will be highly accurate but not available all the time. In the coming years, new satellites will be launched to enlarge the Galileo constellation, which will gradually improve Galileo availability worldwide. The constellation is expected to be completed by 2020 when Galileo will reach full operational capacity.

  19. Europa: Initial Galileo Geological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Klemaszewski, J.; Homan, K.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Veverka, J.; Clark, B.E.; Johnson, T.V.; Klaasen, K.P.; Belton, M.; Moore, J.; Asphaug, E.; Carr, M.H.; Neukum, G.; Denk, T.; Chapman, C.R.; Pilcher, C.B.; Geissler, P.E.; Greenberg, R.; Tufts, R.

    1998-01-01

    Images of Europa from the Galileo spacecraft show a surface with a complex history involving tectonic deformation, impact cratering, and possible emplacement of ice-rich materials and perhaps liquids on the surface. Differences in impact crater distributions suggest that some areas have been resurfaced more recently than others; Europa could experience current cryovolcanic and tectonic activity. Global-scale patterns of tectonic features suggest deformation resulting from non-synchronous rotation of Europa around Jupiter. Some regions of the lithosphere have been fractured, with icy plates separated and rotated into new positions. The dimensions of these plates suggest that the depth to liquid or mobile ice was only a few kilometers at the time of disruption. Some surfaces have also been upwarped, possibly by diapirs, cryomagmatic intrusions, or convective upwelling. In some places, this deformation has led to the development of chaotic terrain in which surface material has collapsed and/or been eroded. ?? 1998 Academic Press.

  20. GALILEO CRUISE POSITION DATA (RTN COORDINATES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the Galileo spacecraft trajectory during the interplanetary cruise. The data have been derived from SPICE kernels at a 1 minute sample rate....

  1. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William E.

    Galileo's understanding of the relationship between science and the Bible has frequently been celebrated as anticipating a modern distinction between the essentially religious nature of scripture and the claims of the natural sciences. Galileo's reference to the remarks of Cardinal Baronius, that the Bible teaches one how to go to heaven and not how the heavens go, has been seem as emblematic of his commitment to the distinction between the Book of Nature and the Book of Scripture. This essay argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo shares with the theologians of the Inquisition the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation: principles which include traditional scriptural hermeneutics enunciated by Augustine and Aquinas, as well as those characteristic of Counter-Reformation Catholicism. Although Galileo argues that one should not begin with biblical passages in order to discover truths about nature, he does think that the Bible contains scientific truths and that it is the function of wise interpreters to discover these truths. The dispute with the theologians of the Inquisition occurred because they thought that it was obviously true scientifically that the earth did not move and, on the basis of this view, they read the Bible as revealing the same thing. They reached this conclusion because, like Galileo, they thought that the Bible contained truths about nature. Of course, what these theologians accepted as scientifically true, Galileo denied.

  2. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  3. Copernicus, Epicurus, Galileo, and Gassendi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoLordo, Antonia

    2015-06-01

    In his Letters on the motion impressed by a moving mover, the theory of the motion of composite bodies put forth by Gassendi is strikingly similar to Galileo's. In other of his writings, however, his description of the motion of individual atoms is understood very differently. In those places, he holds (1) that individual atoms are always in motion, even when the body that contains them is at rest, (2) that atomic motion is discontinuous although the motion of composite bodies is at least apparently continuous, and (3) that atomic motion is grounded in an intrinsic vis motrix, motive power. In contrast, composite bodies simply persist in their state of motion or rest in the absence of outside interference. Unfortunately, Gassendi neglects to explain how his accounts of atomic and composite motion fit together, and it is difficult to see how they could possibly be integrated. My goal is to explain, given this difficulty, why he accepted both the Galilean theory of the motion of composite bodies and the Epicurean theory of atomic motion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  5. Analysis Methodology for Optimal Selection of Ground Station Site in Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, J.; Farjas, M.; Martínez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Optimization of ground station sites is especially important in complex missions that include several small satellites (clusters or constellations) such as the QB50 project, where one ground station would be able to track several spatial vehicles, even simultaneously. In this regard the design of the communication system has to carefully take into account the ground station site and relevant signal phenomena, depending on the frequency band. To propose the optimal location of the ground station, these aspects become even more relevant to establish a trusted communication link due to the ground segment site in urban areas and/or selection of low orbits for the space segment. In addition, updated cartography with high resolution data of the location and its surroundings help to develop recommendations in the design of its location for spatial vehicles tracking and hence to improve effectiveness. The objectives of this analysis methodology are: completion of cartographic information, modelling the obstacles that hinder communication between the ground and space segment and representation in the generated 3D scene of the degree of impairment in the signal/noise of the phenomena that interferes with communication. The integration of new technologies of geographic data capture, such as 3D Laser Scan, determine that increased optimization of the antenna elevation mask, in its AOS and LOS azimuths along the horizon visible, maximizes visibility time with spatial vehicles. Furthermore, from the three-dimensional cloud of points captured, specific information is selected and, using 3D modeling techniques, the 3D scene of the antenna location site and surroundings is generated. The resulting 3D model evidences nearby obstacles related to the cartographic conditions such as mountain formations and buildings, and any additional obstacles that interfere with the operational quality of the antenna (other antennas and electronic devices that emit or receive in the same bandwidth

  6. Galileo's mistake a new look at the epic confrontation between galileo and the church

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, Wade

    2011-01-01

    The modern understanding of the notorious 1633 trial of Galileo is that of Science and Reason persecuted by Ignorance and Superstition-of Galileo as a lonely, courageous freethinker oppressed by a reactionary and anti-intellectual institution fearful of losing its power and influence. But is this an accurate picture? In his provocative reexamination of one of the turning points in the history of science and thought, Wade Rowland contends that the dispute concerned an infinitely more profound question: What is truth and how can we know it? Rowland demonstrates that Galileo's mistak

  7. Galileo's Instruments of Credit Telescopes, Images, Secrecy

    CERN Document Server

    Biagioli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    In six short years, Galileo Galilei went from being a somewhat obscure mathematics professor running a student boarding house in Padua to a star in the court of Florence to the recipient of dangerous attention from the Inquisition for his support of Copernicanism. In that brief period, Galileo made a series of astronomical discoveries that reshaped the debate over the physical nature of the heavens: he deeply modified the practices and status of astronomy with the introduction of the telescope and pictorial evidence, proposed a radical reconfiguration of the relationship between theology and a

  8. Description of the attitude control, guidance and navigation space replaceable units for automated space servicing of selected NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobotov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Control elements such as sensors, momentum exchange devices, and thrusters are described which can be used to define space replaceable units (SRU), in accordance with attitude control, guidance, and navigation performance requirements selected for NASA space serviceable mission spacecraft. A number of SRU's are developed, and their reliability block diagrams are presented. An SRU assignment is given in order to define a set of feasible space serviceable spacecraft for the missions of interest.

  9. Long Term Monitoring of the Io Plasma Torus During the Galileo Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 1999, the Galileo spacecraft made four passes into the Io plasma torus, obtaining the best in situ measurements ever of the particle and field environment in this densest region of the Jovian magnetosphere. Supporting observations from the ground are vital for understanding the global and temporal context of the in situ observations. We conducted a three-month-long Io plasma torus monitoring campaign centered on the time of the Galileo plasma torus passes to support this aspect of the Galileo mission. The almost-daily plasma density and temperature measurements obtained from our campaign allow the much more sparse but also much more detailed Galileo data to be used to address the issues of the structure of the Io plasma torus, the stability mechanism of the Jovian magnetosphere, the transport of material from the source region near Io, and the nature and source of persistent longitudinal variations. Combining the ground-based monitoring data with the detailed in situ data offers the only possibility for answering some of the most fundamental questions about the nature of the Io plasma torus.

  10. Status of the Galileo interim radiation electron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) were used to develop a new model of Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii (1 jovian radius = 71,400 km). 10-minute averages of these data formed an extensive database of observations of the jovian radiation belts between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and 2002. These data were then averaged to provide a differential flux spectrum at 0.174, 0.304, 0.527, 1.5, 2.0, 11.0, and 31 MeV in the jovian equatorial plane as a function of radial distance. This omni-directional, equatorial model was combined with the original Divine model of jovian electron radiation to yield estimates of the out-of-plane radiation environment. That model, referred to here as the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (or GIRE) model, was then used to calculate the Europa mission dose for an average and a 1-sigma worst-case situation. The prediction of the GIRE model is about a factor of 2 lower than the Divine model estimate over the range of 100 to 1000 mils (2.54 to 25.4 mm) of aluminum shielding, but exceeds the Divine model by about 50% for thicker shielding. The model, the steps leading to its creation, and relevant issues and concerns are discussed. While work remains to be done, the GIRE model clearly represents a significant step forward in the study of the jovian radiation environment, and it is a useful and valuable tool for estimating that environment for future space missions.

  11. Survey of Galileo Plasma Observations in Jupiter's Plasma Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagenal, Fran; Wilson, Robert J.; Siler, Scott; Paterson, William R.; Kurth, William S.

    2016-01-01

    The plasma science (PLS) Instrument on the Galileo spacecraft (orbiting Jupiter from December 1995 to September 2003) measured properties of the ions that were trapped in the magnetic field. The PLS data provide a survey of the plasma properties between approx. 5 and 30 Jupiter radii [R(sub J)] in the equatorial region. We present plasma properties derived via two analysis methods: numerical moments and forward modeling. We find that the density decreases with radial distance by nearly 5 orders of magnitude from approx. 2 to 3000 cm(exp.-3) at 6R(sub j) to approx. 0.05cm(sub -3) at 30 R(sub j). The density profile did not show major changes from orbit to orbit, suggesting that the plasma production and transport remained constant within about a factor of 2. The radial profile of ion temperature increased with distance which implied that contrary to the concept of adiabatic cooling on expansion, the plasma heats up as it expands out from Io's orbit (where TI is approx.60-80 eV) at approx. 6R(sub j) to a few keV at 30R(sub j).There does not seem to be a long-term, systematic variation in ion temperature with either local time or longitude. This latter finding differs from earlier analysis of Galileo PLS data from a selection of orbits. Further examination of all data from all Galileo orbits suggests that System Ill variations are transitory on timescales of weeks, consistent with the modeling of Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations. The plasma flow is dominated by azimuthal flow that is between 80% and 100% of corotation out to 25 R(sub j).

  12. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission. Reliability program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The reliability program plan for the Selenide Isotope Generator (SIG) program is presented. It delineates the specific tasks that will be accomplished by Teledyne Energy Systems and its suppliers during design, development, fabrication and test of deliverable Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), Electrical Heated Thermoelectric Generators (ETG) and associated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The Plan is formulated in general accordance with procedures specified in DOE Reliability Engineering Program Requirements Publication No. SNS-2, dated June 17, 1974. The Reliability Program Plan presented herein defines the total reliability effort without further reference to Government Specifications. The reliability tasks to be accomplished are delineated herein and become the basis for contract compliance to the extent specified in the SIG contract Statement of Work

  13. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission. GDS disassembly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The GDS-1 was disassembled to determine the cause for the rapid degradation of the output power. Unfortunately, it was not possible to relate the observations to direct causes for the degradation. However, some positive statements can be made which have an impact on the flight program. First, the outgassing and gas management techniques were shown to be adequate to maintain clean conditions within the generator. Second, the non-modular components within the generator including the receptacles on the housing were not affected by the thermal environment during operation of GDS-1. Third, a significant amount of sublimation of the P-legs has occurred during the relatively short life of 2000 + hours as shown by the bullet nosing of the legs and deposits on the cold end hardware. The fact that the generator atmosphere was not 100% xenon may have some bearing on this observation but the statement is still accurate. Fourth, all exposed N-legs display cracks and/or chips. Fifth, a great deal of misalignment of both N and P-legs was seen both visually and with radiographs. Although no definite conclusions can be made concerning the cause for the rapid degradation of performance, several of the observed conditions within the module could possibly contribute to that fact. They are: cracks in N-legs (increased resistance); deposits on edges of BeO discs (shorting of thermoelectric circuit); and bullet nosing of P-legs (increased resistance). It remains to be shown if any of these effects or the follower hangup described earlier contributed to the poor performance of GDS-1 or if another effect as yet unknown was the important factor

  14. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission: safety test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The intent of this safety test plan is to outline particular kinds of safety tests designed to produce information which would be useful in the safety analysis process. The program deals primarily with the response of the RTG to accident environments; accordingly two criteria were established: (1) safety tests should be performed for environments which are the most critical in terms of risk contribution; and (2) tests should be formulated to determine failure conditions for critical heat source components rather than observe heat source response in reference accident environments. To satisfy criterion 1. results of a recent safety study were used to rank various accidents in terms of expected source terms. Six kinds of tests were then proposed which would provide information meeting the second criterion

  15. Status of Galileo interim radiation electron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EDP) were used to develop a new model of Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii.

  16. Scaling Laws in Galileo: An Educational Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.

    2011-01-01

    In his "Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei deals with the strength of objects, discussing how it changes with size. Our daily life offers many examples of effects due to change of dimensions and sometimes the consequences are unintuitive. This subject is really interesting for secondary school students and it can be presented through simple…

  17. Galileo, Gauss, and the Green Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Dan; Teague, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Galileo dropped cannonballs from the leaning tower of Pisa to demonstrate something about falling bodies. Gauss was a giant of mathematics and physics who made unparalleled contributions to both fields. More contemporary (and not a person), the Green Monster is the left-field wall at the home of the Boston Red Sox, Fenway Park. Measuring 37 feet…

  18. Matematikken bag satellitnavigation. GPS - GLONASS - GALILEO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    2012-01-01

    affyringspositionen. Det kostede 12 milliarder US dollars og er nu tilgængeligt for alle. USSR og Kina har tilsvarende militære systemer GLONASS og COMPASS. GALILEO er et nyt europæisk system under udvikling af EU og European Space Agency (20 mia. Euro) med et kommercielt sigte, der forventes at tages i drift i...

  19. Galileo and the Problems of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Wallace Edd

    Galileo's science of motion changed natural philosophy. His results initiated a broad human awakening to the intricate new world of physical order found in the midst of familiar operations of nature. His thinking was always based squarely on the academic traditions of the spiritual old world. He advanced physics by new standards of judgment drawn from mechanics and geometry, and disciplined observation of the world. My study first determines the order of composition of the earliest essays on motion and physics, ca. 1588 -1592, from internal evidence, and bibliographic evidence. There are clear signs of a Platonist critique of Aristotle, supported by Archimedes, in the Ten Section Version of On Motion, written ca. 1588, and probably the earliest of his treatises on motion or physics. He expanded upon his opening Platonic -Archimedean position by investigating the ideas of scholastic critics of Aristotle, including the Doctores Parisienses, found in his readings of the Jesuit Professors at the Collegio Romano. Their influences surfaced clearly in Galileo's Memoranda on Motion and the Dialogue on Motion, and in On Motion, which followed, ca. 1590-1592. At the end of his sojourn in Pisa, Galileo opened the road to the new physics by solving an important problem in the mechanics of Pappus, concerning motion along inclined planes. My study investigates why Galileo gave up attempts to establish a ratio between speed and weight, and why he began to seek the ratios of time and distance and speed, by 1602. It also reconstructs Galileo's development of the 1604 principle, seeking to outline its invention, elaboration, and abandonment. Then, I try to show that we have a record of Galileo's moment of recognition of the direct relation between the time of fall and the accumulated speed of motion--that great affinity between time and motion and the key to the new science of motion established before 1610. Evidence also ties the discovery of the time affinity directly to Galileo

  20. Post-aerocapture orbit selection and maintenance for the Aerofast mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Aerofast is the abbreviation of “aerocapture for future space transportation” and represents a project aimed at developing aerocapture techniques with regard to an interplanetary mission to Mars, in the context of the 7th Framework Program, with the financial support of the European Union. This paper describes the fundamental characteristics of the operational orbit after aerocapture for the mission of interest, as well as the related maintenance strategy. The final orbit selection depends on the desired lighting conditions, maximum revisit time of specific target regions, and feasibility of the orbit maintenance strategy. A sunsynchronous, frozen, repeating-ground-track orbit is chosen. First, the period of repetition is such that adjacent ascending node crossings (over the Mars surface) have a separation compatible with the swath of the optical payload. Secondly, the sunsynchronism condition ensures that a given latitude is periodically visited at the same local time, which condition is essential for comparing images of the same region at different epochs. Lastly, the fulfillment of the frozen condition guarantees improved orbit stability with respect to perturbations due to the zonal harmonics of Mars gravitational field. These three fundamental features of the operational orbit lead to determining its mean orbital elements. The evaluation of short and long period effects (e.g., those due to the sectorial harmonics of the gravitational field or to the aerodynamic drag) requires the determination of the osculating orbital elements at an initial reference time. This research describes a simple and accurate approach that leads to numerically determining these initial values, without employing complicated analytical developments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the long-period stability of the orbit when a significant number of harmonics of the gravitational field are taken into account. However, aerodynamic drag produces a relatively slow orbital decay at the

  1. The search for active Europa plumes in Galileo plasma particle detector data: the E12 flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrighs, H.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S. V.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of Europa's auroral emissions and transits in front of Jupiter suggest that recurring water vapour plumes originating from Europa's surface might exist. If conclusively proven, the discovery of these plumes would be significant, because Europa's potentially habitable ocean could be studied remotely by taking in-situ samples of these plumes from a flyby mission. The first opportunity to collect in-situ evidence of the plumes will not arise before the early 2030's when ESA's JUICE mission or NASA's Europa Clipper are set to arrive. However, it may be possible that NASA's Galileo mission has already encountered the plumes when it was active in the Jupiter system from 1995 to 2003. It has been suggested that the high plasma densities and anomalous magnetic fields measured during one of the Galileo flybys of Europa (flyby E12) could be connected to plume activity. In the context of the search for Europa plume signatures in Galileo particle data we present an overview of the in-situ plasma particle data obtained by the Galileo spacecraft during the E12 flyby. Focus is in particular on the data obtained with the plasma particle instruments PLS (low energy ions and electrons) and EPD (high energy ions and electrons). We search for signs of an extended exosphere/ionosphere that could be consistent with ongoing plume activity. The PLS data obtained during the E12 flyby show an extended interaction region between Europa and the plasma from Jupiter's magnetosphere, hinting at the existence of an extended ionosphere and exosphere. Furthermore we show how the EPD data are analyzed and modelled in order to evaluate whether a series of energetic ion depletions can be attributed to losses on the moon's surface or its neutral exosphere.

  2. Galileo Measurements of the Jovian Electron Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-12-01

    The Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) has been used to map Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii (1 jovian radius = 71,400 km). The electron count rates from the instrument were averaged into 10-minute intervals over the energy range 0.2 MeV to 11 MeV to form an extensive database of observations of the jovian radiation belts between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and end of mission in 2003. These data were then used to provide differential flux estimates in the jovian equatorial plane as a function of radial distance (organized by magnetic L-shell position). These estimates provide the basis for an omni-directional, equatorial model of the jovian electron radiation environment. The comparison of these results with the original Divine model of jovian electron radiation and their implications for missions to Jupiter will be discussed. In particular, it was found that the electron dose predictions for a representative mission to Europa were about a factor of 2 lower than the Divine model estimates over the range of 100 to 1000 mils (2.54 to 25.4 mm) of aluminum shielding, but exceeded the Divine model by about 50% for thicker shielding for the assumed Europa orbiter trajectories. The findings are a significant step forward in understanding jovian electron radiation and represent a valuable tool for estimating the radiation environment to which jovian science and engineering hardware will be exposed.

  3. The final Galileo SSI observations of Io: Orbits G28-I33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; McEwen, A.S.; Radebaugh, J.; Milazzo, M.; Simonelli, D.P.; Geissler, P.; Williams, D.A.; Perry, J.; Jaeger, W.L.; Klaasen, K.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Denk, T.; Phillips, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    We present the observations of Io acquired by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment during the Galileo Millennium Mission (GMM) and the strategy we used to plan the exploration of Io. Despite Galileo's tight restrictions on data volume and downlink capability and several spacecraft and camera anomalies due to the intense radiation close to Jupiter, there were many successful SSI observations during GMM. Four giant, high-latitude plumes, including the largest plume ever observed on Io, were documented over a period of eight months; only faint evidence of such plumes had been seen since the Voyager 2 encounter, despite monitoring by Galileo during the previous five years. Moreover, the source of one of the plumes was Tvashtar Catena, demonstrating that a single site can exhibit remarkably diverse eruption styles - from a curtain of lava fountains, to extensive surface flows, and finally a ??? 400 km high plume - over a relatively short period of time (??? 13 months between orbits 125 and G29). Despite this substantial activity, no evidence of any truly new volcanic center was seen during the six years of Galileo observations. The recent observations also revealed details of mass wasting processes acting on Io. Slumping and landsliding dominate and occur in close proximity to each other, demonstrating spatial variation in material properties over distances of several kilometers. However, despite the ubiquitous evidence for mass wasting, the rate of volcanic resurfacing seems to dominate; the floors of paterae in proximity to mountains are generally free of debris. Finally, the highest resolution observations obtained during Galileo's final encounters with Io provided further evidence for a wide diversity of surface processes at work on Io. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlations Between Life-Detection Techniques and Implications for Sampling Site Selection in Planetary Analog Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Diana M.; Amador, Elena S.; Cable, Morgan L.; Chaudry, Nosheen; Cullen, Thomas; Jacobsen, Malene B.; Murukesan, Gayathri; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Stevens, Adam H.; Stockton, Amanda; Tan, George; Yin, Chang; Cullen, David C.; Geppert, Wolf

    2017-10-01

    We conducted an analog sampling expedition under simulated mission constraints to areas dominated by basaltic tephra of the Eldfell and Fimmvörðuháls lava fields (Iceland). Sites were selected to be "homogeneous" at a coarse remote sensing resolution (10-100 m) in apparent color, morphology, moisture, and grain size, with best-effort realism in numbers of locations and replicates. Three different biomarker assays (counting of nucleic-acid-stained cells via fluorescent microscopy, a luciferin/luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect DNA associated with bacteria, archaea, and fungi) were characterized at four nested spatial scales (1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and >1 km) by using five common metrics for sample site representativeness (sample mean variance, group F tests, pairwise t tests, and the distribution-free rank sum H and u tests). Correlations between all assays were characterized with Spearman's rank test. The bioluminescence assay showed the most variance across the sites, followed by qPCR for bacterial and archaeal DNA; these results could not be considered representative at the finest resolution tested (1 m). Cell concentration and fungal DNA also had significant local variation, but they were homogeneous over scales of >1 km. These results show that the selection of life detection assays and the number, distribution, and location of sampling sites in a low biomass environment with limited a priori characterization can yield both contrasting and complementary results, and that their interdependence must be given due consideration to maximize science return in future biomarker sampling expeditions.

  5. Active Volcanism on Io as Seen by Galileo SSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Geissler, P.; Simonelli, D.P.; Carr, M.H.; Johnson, T.V.; Klaasen, K.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Senske, D.A.; Belton, M.J.S.; Schubert, G.

    1998-01-01

    Active volcanism on Io has been monitored during the nominal Galileo satellite tour from mid 1996 through late 1997. The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment was able to observe many manifestations of this active volcanism, including (1) changes in the color and albedo of the surface, (2) active airborne plumes, and (3) glowing vents seen in eclipse. About 30 large-scale (tens of kilometers) surface changes are obvious from comparison of the SSI images to those acquired by Voyager in 1979. These include new pyroclastic deposits of several colors, bright and dark flows, and caldera-floor materials. There have also been significant surface changes on Io during the Galileo mission itself, such as a new 400-km-diameter dark pyroclastic deposit around Pillan Patera. While these surface changes are impressive, the number of large-scale changes observed in the four months between the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 flybys in 1979 suggested that over 17 years the cumulative changes would have been much more impressive. There are two reasons why this was not actually the case. First, it appears that the most widespread plume deposits are ephemeral and seem to disappear within a few years. Second, it appears that a large fraction of the volcanic activity is confined to repeated resurfacing of dark calderas and flow fields that cover only a few percent of Io's surface. The plume monitoring has revealed 10 active plumes, comparable to the 9 plumes observed by Voyager. One of these plumes was visible only in the first orbit and three became active in the later orbits. Only the Prometheus plume has been consistently active and easy to detect. Observations of the Pele plume have been particularly intriguing since it was detected only once by SSI, despite repeated attempts, but has been detected several times by the Hubble Space Telescope at 255 nm. Pele's plume is much taller (460 km) than during Voyager 1 (300 km) and much fainter at visible wavelengths. Prometheus-type plumes (50

  6. Calibration of Galileo signals for time metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraigne, Pascale; Aerts, Wim; Cerretto, Giancarlo; Cantoni, Elena; Sleewaegen, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals for accurate timing and time transfer requires the knowledge of all electric delays of the signals inside the receiving system. GNSS stations dedicated to timing or time transfer are classically calibrated only for Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. This paper proposes a procedure to determine the hardware delays of a GNSS receiving station for Galileo signals, once the delays of the GPS signals are known. This approach makes use of the broadcast satellite inter-signal biases, and is based on the ionospheric delay measured from dual-frequency combinations of GPS and Galileo signals. The uncertainty on the so-determined hardware delays is estimated to 3.7 ns for each isolated code in the L5 frequency band, and 4.2 ns for the ionosphere-free combination of E1 with a code of the L5 frequency band. For the calibration of a time transfer link between two stations, another approach can be used, based on the difference between the common-view time transfer results obtained with calibrated GPS data and with uncalibrated Galileo data. It is shown that the results obtained with this approach or with the ionospheric method are equivalent.

  7. GalileoMobile: Astronomical activities in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi Espuig, Maria; Vasquez, Mayte; Kobel, Philippe

    GalileoMobile is an itinerant science education initiative run on a voluntary basis by an international team of astronomers, educators, and science communicators. Our team's main goal is to make astronomy accessible to schools and communities around the globe that have little or no access to outreach actions. We do this by performing teacher workshops, activities with students, and donating educational material. Since the creation of GalileoMobile in 2008, we have travelled to Chile, Bolivia, Peru, India, and Uganda, and worked with 56 schools in total. Our activities are centred on the GalileoMobile Handbook of Activities that comprises around 20 astronomical activities which we adapted from many different sources, and translated into 4 languages. The experience we gained in Chile, Bolivia, Peru, India, and Uganda taught us that (1) bringing experts from other countries was very stimulating for children as they are naturally curious about other cultures and encourages a collaboration beyond borders; (2) high-school students who were already interested in science were always very eager to interact with real astronomers doing research to ask for career advice; (3) inquiry-based methods are important to make the learning process more effective and we have therefore, re-adapted the activities in our Handbook according to these; (4) local teachers and university students involved in our activities have the potential to carry out follow-up activities, and examples are those from Uganda and India.

  8. GPS and Galileo: Friendly Foes? (Walker Paper, Number 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    their data, others employ different techniques. US defense contractor Lockheed Martin developed an anti-jam GPS receiver in 2000 for its joint air...26. Jolis , “Problems Run Rampant for Galileo Project.” 27. Ibid. 28. “Galileo, Involving Europe,” 23. 29. Ibid., 16. 30. Ibid., 17. Assuming that by...Told to Put House in Order.” 38. EC, “Galileo, Involving Europe,” 5. 39. “Galileo Adrift in European Outer Space.” 40. Jolis , “Problems Run Rampant

  9. The Galileo System of Measurement: Preliminary Evidence for Precision, Stability, and Equivalance to Traditional Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, James; Woelfel, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Describes the Galileo system of measurement operations including reliability and validity data. Illustrations of some of the relations between Galileo measures and traditional procedures are provided. (MH)

  10. The Emergent Capabilities of Distributed Satellites and Methods for Selecting Distributed Satellite Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, B. A.; Seager, S.; Ross, A.; Hoffman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Distributed satellite systems (DSS) have emerged as an effective and cheap way to conduct space science, thanks to advances in the small satellite industry. However, relatively few space science missions have utilized multiple assets to achieve their primary scientific goals. Previous research on methods for evaluating mission concepts designs have shown that distributed systems are rarely competitive with monolithic systems, partially because it is difficult to quantify the added value of DSSs over monolithic systems. Comparatively little research has focused on how DSSs can be used to achieve new, fundamental space science goals that cannot be achieved with monolithic systems or how to choose a design from a larger possible tradespace of options. There are seven emergent capabilities of distributed satellites: shared sampling, simultaneous sampling, self-sampling, census sampling, stacked sampling, staged sampling, and sacrifice sampling. These capabilities are either fundamentally, analytically, or operationally unique in their application to distributed science missions, and they can be leveraged to achieve science goals that are either impossible or difficult and costly to achieve with monolithic systems. The Responsive Systems Comparison (RSC) method combines Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration with Epoch-Era Analysis to examine benefits, costs, and flexible options in complex systems over the mission lifecycle. Modifications to the RSC method as it exists in previously published literature were made in order to more accurately characterize how value is derived from space science missions. New metrics help rank designs by the value derived over their entire mission lifecycle and show more accurate cumulative value distributions. The RSC method was applied to four case study science missions that leveraged the emergent capabilities of distributed satellites to achieve their primary science goals. In all four case studies, RSC showed how scientific value was

  11. PHOTOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED, OPTICALLY BRIGHT QUASARS FOR SPACE INTERFEROMETRY MISSION AND OTHER FUTURE CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Zacharias, Norbert; Hennessy, Gregory S.; Gaume, Ralph A.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Photometric observations of 235 extragalactic objects that are potential targets for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) are presented. Mean B, V, R, I magnitudes at the 5% level are obtained at 1-4 epochs between 2005 and 2007 using the 1 m telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. Of the 134 sources that have V magnitudes in the Veron and Veron-Cetty catalog, a difference of over 1.0 mag is found for the observed-catalog magnitudes for about 36% of the common sources, and 10 sources show over 3 mag difference. Our first set of observations presented here form the basis of a long-term photometric variability study of the selected reference frame sources to assist in mission target selection and to support QSO multicolor photometric variability studies in general.

  12. Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the senses, and particularly on vision, permeate the writings of Galileo Galilei, one of the main protagonists of the scientific revolution. This aspect of his work has received scant attention by historians, in spite of its importance for his achievements in astronomy, and also for the significance in the innovative scientific methodology he fostered. Galileo's vision pursued a different path from the main stream of the then contemporary studies in the field; these were concerned with the dioptrics and anatomy of the eye, as elaborated mainly by Johannes Kepler and Christoph Scheiner. Galileo was more concerned with the phenomenology rather than with the mechanisms of the visual process. His general interest in the senses was psychological and philosophical; it reflected the fallacies and limits of the senses and the ways in which scientific knowledge of the world could be gathered from potentially deceptive appearances. Galileo's innovative conception of the relation between the senses and external reality contrasted with the classical tradition dominated by Aristotle; it paved the way for the modern understanding of sensory processing, culminating two centuries later in Johannes Müller's elaboration of the doctrine of specific nerve energies and in Helmholtz's general theory of perception.

  13. Galileo observations of volcanic plumes on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.E.; McMillan, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Io's volcanic plumes erupt in a dazzling variety of sizes, shapes, colors and opacities. In general, the plumes fall into two classes, representing distinct source gas temperatures. Most of the Galileo imaging observations were of the smaller, more numerous Prometheus-type plumes that are produced when hot flows of silicate lava impinge on volatile surface ices of SO2. Few detections were made of the giant, Pele-type plumes that vent high temperature, sulfur-rich gases from the interior of Io; this was partly because of the insensitivity of Galileo's camera to ultraviolet wavelengths. Both gas and dust spout from plumes of each class. Favorably located gas plumes were detected during eclipse, when Io was in Jupiter's shadow. Dense dust columns were imaged in daylight above several Prometheus-type eruptions, reaching heights typically less than 100 km. Comparisons between eclipse observations, sunlit images, and the record of surface changes show that these optically thick dust columns are much smaller in stature than the corresponding gas plumes but are adequate to produce the observed surface deposits. Mie scattering calculations suggest that these conspicuous dust plumes are made up of coarse grained “ash” particles with radii on the order of 100 nm, and total masses on the order of 106 kg per plume. Long exposure images of Thor in sunlight show a faint outer envelope apparently populated by particles small enough to be carried along with the gas flow, perhaps formed by condensation of sulfurous “snowflakes” as suggested by the plasma instrumentation aboard Galileo as it flew through Thor's plume [Frank, L.A., Paterson, W.R., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 107, doi:10.1029/2002JA009240. 31-1]. If so, the total mass of these fine, nearly invisible particles may be comparable to the mass of the gas, and could account for much of Io's rapid resurfacing.

  14. Impact of Galileo on Global Ionosphere Map Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Undetermined, U.

    2006-01-01

    The upcoming GNSS Galileo, with its new satellite geometry and frequency plan, will not only bring many benefits for navigation and positioning but also help to improve ionosphere delay estimation. This paper investigates ionosphere estimation with Galileo and compares it with the results from

  15. PDOP values for simulated GPS/Galileo positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederholm, Jens Peter

    2005-01-01

    The paper illustrates satellite coverage and PDOP values for a simulated combined GPS/Galileo system. The designed GPS satellite constellation and the planned Galileo satellite constellation are presented. The combined system is simulated and the number of visible satellites and PDOP values...

  16. Foundations of an Idea: Galileo and Freedom of Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Beverly

    This paper examines the origins of the principle of free expression as worked out by Galileo. It is intended to supplement standard histories of the development of free expression and to recover its history as part of the political project of postmodernism. The paper resurrects Galileo's encounters with entrenched beliefs in order to position free…

  17. A Galilean Approach to the Galileo Affair, 1609-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Maurice A.

    2011-01-01

    Galileo's telescopic discoveries of 1609-1612 provided a crucial, although not conclusive, confirmation of the Copernican hypothesis of the earth's motion. In Galileo's approach, the Copernican Revolution required that the geokinetic hypothesis be supported not only with new theoretical arguments but also with new observational evidence; that it…

  18. Idealisation and Galileo's Pendulum Discoveries: Historical, Philosophical and Pedagogical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Galileo's discovery of the properties of pendulum motion depended on his adoption of the novel methodology of idealisation. Galileo's laws of pendulum motion could not be accepted until the empiricist methodological constraints placed on science by Aristotle, and by common sense, were overturned. As long as scientific claims were judged by how the…

  19. Galileo's kinematical paradox and the role of resistive forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, C E; Soares, V; Tort, A C

    2014-01-01

    We discuss Galileo's kinematical ‘paradox’ taking into account the effects of sliding friction and of resistive forces proportional to velocity. We show that sliding friction eliminates the paradox but still allows for very simple synchronous curves. Perhaps surprisingly, Galileo's paradox is preserved when the resistive force is proportional to velocity. (paper)

  20. Galileo's Treatment for the Centre of Gravity of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worner, C. H.; Iommi-Amunategui, G.

    2007-01-01

    The appendix on the centres of gravity that appears at the end of Galileo's book, "Two New Sciences", is analysed. It is shown that the method used by Galileo in this work has an interesting reasoning and also shows preliminary ideas about scaling and advances some ideas about series convergence. In addition, we note that the geometrical language…

  1. From Galileo to the Z0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    On 3 May an audience of some of the world's leading physicists gathered in a small theatre on the Italian Riviera greeted Herwig Schopper's announcement of the observation at CERN of a first Z 0 candidate with spontaneous applause. The occasion was an international nuclear physics symposium, one of six meetings under the general title of 'Science for Peace' organized with remarkable flair by Nino Zichichi and a scientific committee of Nobel Laureates and heads of research establishments, as part of linked Alfred Nobel and Galileo commemorations at San Remo and in Rome

  2. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R.W.; Baines, K.H.; Encrenaz, Th.; Taylor, F.W.; Drossart, P.; Kamp, L.W.; Pollack, James B.; Lellouch, E.; Collard, A.D.; Calcutt, S.B.; Grinspoon, D.; Weissman, P.R.; Smythe, W.D.; Ocampo, A.C.; Danielson, G.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kieffer, H.H.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substantial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species.

  3. A reassessment of Galileo radiation exposures in the Jupiter magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Townsend, Lawrence; Miller, Thomas; Campbell, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Earlier particle experiments in the 1970s on Pioneer-10 and -11 and Voyager-1 and -2 provided Jupiter flyby particle data, which were used by Divine and Garrett to develop the first Jupiter trapped radiation environment model. This model was used to establish a baseline radiation effects design limit for the Galileo onboard electronics. Recently, Garrett et al. have developed an updated Galileo Interim Radiation Environment (GIRE) model based on Galileo electron data. In this paper, we have used the GIRE model to reassess the computed radiation exposures and dose effects for Galileo. The 34-orbit 'as flown' Galileo trajectory data and the updated GIRE model were used to compute the electron and proton spectra for each of the 34 orbits. The total ionisation doses of electrons and protons have been computed based on a parametric shielding configuration, and these results are compared with previously published results.

  4. A reassessment of Galileo radiation exposures in the Jupiter magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwell, W.; Townsend, L.; Miller, T.; Campbell, C.

    2005-01-01

    Earlier particle experiments in the 1970's on Pioneer-10 and -11 and Voyager-1 and -2 provided Jupiter flyby particle data, which were used by Divine and Garrett to develop the first Jupiter trapped radiation environment model. This model was used to establish a baseline radiation effects design limit for the Galileo onboard electronics. Recently, Garrett et al. have developed an updated Galileo Interim Radiation Environment (GIRE) model based on Galileo electron data. In this paper, we have used the GIRE model to reassess the computed radiation exposures and dose effects for Galileo. The 34-orbit 'as flown' Galileo trajectory data and the updated GIRE model were used to compute the electron and proton spectra for each of the 34 orbits. The total ionisation doses of electrons and protons have been computed based on a parametric shielding configuration, and these results are compared with previously published results. Published by Oxford Univ. Press. All right reserved. (authors)

  5. Galileo's Lute and the Law of Falling Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark

    2008-05-01

    Galileo's Lute and the Law of Falling Bodies is an excerpt from Galileo 1610. Galileo 1610 is a dramatic, musical and intellectual odyssey back to the life and times of Galileo Galilei, the famous 17th century Italian scientist and philosopher. It commemorates the 400th anniversary of Galileo's discoveries with his telescope in 1610. Dressed in authentic Renaissance attire as Galileo, the author-- a cantorial soloist and amateur astronomer-- tells the fascinating story of "The Father of Modern Science,” drawing from the actual correspondence and writings of Galileo, as well as those of his many biographers. Through his dialogue with the audience on a wide range of discoveries and opinions, "Galileo” shares his wisdom and his life experiences with pathos, wit and humor, lacing his narration with entertaining lute songs from the late Renaissance period, some of which were actually composed by Galileo's father, Vincenzo. Bridging the past to the present, the author breathes life into "Galileo” as he once again frolics and struggles among us. In bringing forth some of life's great issues, we learn something about our own inquisitive nature, as well as that of science and music. The author has appeared as Galileo for over a decade on radio, at community theatres and libraries, public schools, colleges and universities throughout the country. He has performed for civic organizations, astronomy association conventions, marketing and outreach programs as well as private events and parties. Galileo 1610 is suitable for a variety of educational and entertainment programs, for both children and adults. All presentations are tailored to fit the interest, experience and size of the audience.

  6. Galileo and the equations of motion

    CERN Document Server

    Boccaletti, Dino

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended as a historical and critical study on the origin of the equations of motion as established in Newton's Principia. The central question that it aims to answer is whether it is indeed correct to ascribe to Galileo the inertia principle and the law of falling bodies. In order to accomplish this task, the study begins by considering theories on the motion of bodies from classical antiquity, and especially those of Aristotle. The theories developed during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance are then reviewed, with careful analysis of the contributions of, for example, the Merton and Parisian Schools and Galileo’s immediate predecessors, Tartaglia and Benedetti. Finally, Galileo’s work is examined in detail, starting from the early writings.  Excerpts from individual works are presented, to allow the texts to speak for themselves, and then commented upon. The book provides historical evidence both for Galileo's dependence on his forerunners and for the major breakthroughs that he achieved...

  7. Galileo photometry of asteroid 243 Ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.C.; Simonelli, D.P.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Fanale, F.; Granahan, J.; McEwen, A.S.; Belton, M.; Chapman, C.

    1996-01-01

    Galileo imaging observations over phase angles 19.5?? to 109.8?? are combined with near-opposition Earth-based data to derive the photometric properties of Ida. To first order these properties are uniform over the surface and well modeled at ?? = 0.55 ??m by Hapke parameters ????0 = 0.22, h = 0.020, B0 = 1.5, g = -0.33, and ?? = 18?? with corresponding geometric albedo p = 0.21??0.030.01 and Bond albedo AB = 0.081??0.0170.008. Ida's photometric properties are more similar to those of "average S-asteroids" (P. Helfenstein and J. Veverka 1989, Asteroids II, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson) than are those of 951 Gaspra. Two primary color units are identified on Ida: Terrain A exhibits a spectrum with relatively shallower 1-??m absorption and a relatively steeper red spectral slope than average Ida, while Terrain B has a deeper 1-??m absorption and a less steep red slope. The average photometric properties of Ida and Terrain A are similar while those of Terrain B differ mostly in having a slightly higher value of ????0 (0.22 versus 0.21), suggesting that Terrain B consists of slightly brighter, more transparent regolith particles. Galileo observations of Ida's satellite Dactyl over phase angles 19.5?? to 47.6?? suggest photometric characteristics similar to those of Ida, the major difference being Dactyl's slightly lower albedo (0.20 compared to 0.21). ?? 1990 Academic Press, Inc.

  8. Landform Degradation and Slope Processes on Io: The Galileo View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Chuang, Frank C.; Head, James W., III; McEwen, Alfred S.; Milazzo, Moses P.; Nixon, Brian E.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Schenk, Paul M.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; hide

    2001-01-01

    The Galileo mission has revealed remarkable evidence of mass movement and landform degradation on Io. We recognize four major slope types observed on a number of intermediate resolution (250 m/pixel) images and several additional textures on very high resolution (10 m/pixel) images. Slopes and scarps on Io often show evidence of erosion, seen in the simplest form as alcove-carving slumps and slides at all scales. Many of the mass movement deposits on Io are probably mostly the consequence of block release and brittle slope failure. Sputtering plays no significant role. Sapping as envisioned by McCauley et al. remains viable. We speculate that alcove-lined canyons seen in one observation and lobed deposits seen along the bases of scarps in several locations may reflect the plastic deformation and 'glacial' flow of interstitial volatiles (e.g., SO2) heated by locally high geothermal energy to mobilize the volatile. The appearance of some slopes and near-slope surface textures seen in very high resolution images is consistent with erosion from sublimation-degradation. However, a suitable volatile (e.g., H2S) that can sublimate fast enough to alter Io's youthful surface has not been identified. Disaggregation from chemical decomposition of solid S2O and other polysulfur oxides may conceivably operate on Io. This mechanism could degrade landforms in a manner that resembles degradation from sublimation, and at a rate that can compete with resurfacing.

  9. Energetic particles at venus: galileo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J; McEntire, R W; Krimigis, S M; Roelof, E C; Jaskulek, S; Tossman, B; Wilken, B; Stüdemann, W; Armstrong, T P; Fritz, T A; Lanzerotti, L J; Roederer, J G

    1991-09-27

    At Venus the Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) on the Galileo spacecraft measured the differential energy spectra and angular distributions of ions >22 kiloelectron volts (keV) and electrons > 15 keV in energy. The only time particles were observed by EPD was in a series of episodic events [0546 to 0638 universal time (UT)] near closest approach (0559:03 UT). Angular distributions were highly anisotropic, ordered by the magnetic field, and showed ions arriving from the hemisphere containing Venus and its bow shock. The spectra showed a power law form with intensities observed into the 120- to 280-keV range. Comparisons with model bow shock calculations show that these energetic ions are associated with the venusian foreshock-bow shock region. Shock-drift acceleration in the venusian bow shock seems the most likely process responsible for the observed ions.

  10. Galileo Galilei's vision of the senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

    2008-11-01

    Neuroscientists have become increasingly aware of the complexities and subtleties of sensory processing. This applies particularly to the complex elaborations of nerve signals that occur in the sensory circuits, sometimes at the very initial stages of sensory pathways. Sensory processing is now known to be very different from a simple neural copy of the physical signal present in the external world, and this accounts for the intricacy of neural organization that puzzled great investigators of neuroanatomy such as Santiago Ramón Y Cajal a century ago. It will surprise present-day sensory neuroscientists, applying their many modern methods, that the conceptual basis of the contemporary approach to sensory function had been recognized four centuries ago by Galileo Galilei.

  11. Questions of Modern Cosmology Galileo's Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Are we living in the "golden age" of cosmology? Are we close to understanding the nature of the unknown ingredients of the currently most accepted cosmological model and the physics of the early Universe? Or are we instead approaching a paradigm shift? What is dark matter and does it exist? How is it distributed around galaxies and clusters? Is the scientific community open to alternative ideas that may prompt a new scientific revolution - as the Copernican revolution did in Galileo's time? Do other types of supernovae exist that can be of interest for cosmology? Why have quasars never been effectively used as standard candles? Can you tell us about the scientific adventure of COBE? How does the extraction of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy depend on the subtraction of the various astrophysical foregrounds? These, among many others, are the astrophysical, philosophical and sociological questions surrounding modern cosmology and the scientific community that Mauro D'Onofrio and Carlo Burigana pose t...

  12. Cassini RTG acceptance test results and RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, mass properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents the thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F-2, F-6, and F-7. F-5 is the backup RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at the Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on these tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also shown. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over 5% are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission

  13. Cassini RTG acceptance test results and RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents The thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F-2, F-6, and F-7. F-5 is tile back-up RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at die Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on than tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also showing. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over five percent are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission

  14. Selecting Pixels for High-Precision Photometry in the Kepler Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve; Jenkins, J.; Caldwell, D.; Koch, D.; Borucki, W.

    2007-12-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to discover and characterize the frequency of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars by observing 100,000 main-sequence stars in a 100 square degree field of view (FOV). Kepler's transit detection method uses a long photometric time series for each target star. Each data point is created by summing several pixels.The data are co-added and stored at a 30 minute cadence that is stored for monthly downlink. Memory and bandwidth constraints prevent the storage of all 95 million pixels in the photometer, so pixels of interest are assigned to each target. We describe the automated method by which each transit target is assigned a set of pixels that are optimal for high precision photometry. This method relies on synthetic images based on the Kepler input catalog combined with a direct measurement of the Kepler systempoint spread function. We cover the PSF measurement process, the rendering of the synthetic image, and the use of the synthetic image to determine the contribution of each pixel to a target's signal-to-noise ratio. The optimal pixels for a target are defined as those pixels which maximize that target's signal-to-noise ratio. Our method includes models of the noise associated with pixel response variations and for spacecraft motion. We describe the process that is used to identify appropriate pixels for modeling the background as well as pixel management, including the specification of pixels for non-transit targets. Funding for this mission provided by NASA's Discovery Program Office, SMD.

  15. The Cassini-Huygens mission

    CERN Document Server

    The joint NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission promises to return four (and possibly more) years of unparalleled scientific data from the solar system’s most exotic planet, the ringed, gas giant, Saturn. Larger than Galileo with a much greater communication bandwidth, Cassini can accomplish in a single flyby what Galileo returned in a series of passes. Cassini explores the Saturn environment in three dimensions, using gravity assists to climb out of the equatorial plane to look down on the rings from above, to image the aurora and to study polar magnetospheric processes such as field-aligned currents. Since the radiation belt particle fluxes are much more benign than those at Jupiter, Cassini can more safely explore the inner regions of the magnetosphere. The spacecraft approaches the planet closer than Galileo could, and explores the inner moons and the rings much more thoroughly than was possible at Jupiter. This book is the second volume, in a three volume set, that describes the Cassini/Huygens mission. Thi...

  16. Evidence based selection of probiotic strains to promote astronaut health or alleviate symptoms of illness on long duration spaceflight missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, G L; Voorhies, A A

    2017-10-13

    Spaceflight impacts multiple aspects of human physiology, which will require non-invasive countermeasures as mission length and distance from Earth increases and the capability for external medical intervention decreases. Studies on Earth have shown that probiotics have the potential to improve some of the conditions that have manifested during spaceflight, such as gastrointestinal distress, dermatitis, and respiratory infections. The constraints and risks of spaceflight make it imperative that probiotics are carefully selected based on their strain-specific benefits, doses, delivery mechanisms, and relevance to likely crew conditions prior to evaluation in astronauts. This review focuses on probiotics that have been incorporated into healthy human gastrointestinal microbiomes and associated clinically with improvements in inflammatory state or alleviation of symptoms of crew-relevant illness. These studies provide an evidence base for probiotic selection with the greatest potential to support crew health and well-being in spaceflight.

  17. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  18. GALILEO ORBITER V POS VENUS TRAJECTORY V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Galileo Orbiter 60 second sampled trajectory data from the Venus flyby in Venus Solar Orbital (VSO) coordinates. These data cover the interval 1990-02-09 00:00 to...

  19. GNSS global navigation satellite systems : GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and more

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann-Wellenhof, Bernhard; Wasle, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    This book is an extension to the acclaimed scientific bestseller "GPS - Theory and Practice". It covers Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and includes the Russian GLONASS, the European system Galileo, and additional systems.

  20. BATMAN: a DMD-based MOS demonstrator on Galileo Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Spanò, Paolo; Bon, William; Riva, Marco; Lanzoni, Patrick; Nicastro, Luciano; Molinari, Emilio; Cosentino, Rosario; Ghedina, Adriano; Gonzalez, Manuel; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Coretti, Igor; Cirami, Roberto; Manetta, Marco; Zerbi, Filippo; Tresoldi, Daniela; Valenziano, Luca

    2012-09-01

    Multi-Object Spectrographs (MOS) are the major instruments for studying primary galaxies and remote and faint objects. Current object selection systems are limited and/or difficult to implement in next generation MOS for space and groundbased telescopes. A promising solution is the use of MOEMS devices such as micromirror arrays which allow the remote control of the multi-slit configuration in real time. We are developing a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) - based spectrograph demonstrator called BATMAN. We want to access the largest FOV with the highest contrast. The selected component is a DMD chip from Texas Instruments in 2048 x 1080 mirrors format, with a pitch of 13.68μm. Our optical design is an all-reflective spectrograph design with F/4 on the DMD component. This demonstrator permits the study of key parameters such as throughput, contrast and ability to remove unwanted sources in the FOV (background, spoiler sources), PSF effect, new observational modes. This study will be conducted in the visible with possible extension in the IR. A breadboard on an optical bench, ROBIN, has been developed for a preliminary determination of these parameters. The demonstrator on the sky is then of prime importance for characterizing the actual performance of this new family of instruments, as well as investigating the operational procedures on astronomical objects. BATMAN will be placed on the Nasmyth focus of Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) during next year.

  1. Mining potential biomarkers associated with space flight in Caenorhabditis elegans experienced Shenzhou-8 mission with multiple feature selection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lei; Gao, Ying; Mi, Dong; Sun, Yeqing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined algorithm is proposed to mine biomarkers of spaceflight in C. elegans. • This algorithm makes the feature selection more reliable and robust. • Apply this algorithm to predict 17 positive biomarkers to space environment stress. • The strategy can be used as a general method to select important features. - Abstract: To identify the potential biomarkers associated with space flight, a combined algorithm, which integrates the feature selection techniques, was used to deal with the microarray datasets of Caenorhabditis elegans obtained in the Shenzhou-8 mission. Compared with the ground control treatment, a total of 86 differentially expressed (DE) genes in responses to space synthetic environment or space radiation environment were identified by two filter methods. And then the top 30 ranking genes were selected by the random forest algorithm. Gene Ontology annotation and functional enrichment analyses showed that these genes were mainly associated with metabolism process. Furthermore, clustering analysis showed that 17 genes among these are positive, including 9 for space synthetic environment and 8 for space radiation environment only. These genes could be used as the biomarkers to reflect the space environment stresses. In addition, we also found that microgravity is the main stress factor to change the expression patterns of biomarkers for the short-duration spaceflight.

  2. Mining potential biomarkers associated with space flight in Caenorhabditis elegans experienced Shenzhou-8 mission with multiple feature selection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lei [Institute of Environmental Systems Biology, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Gao, Ying [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031 (China); Mi, Dong, E-mail: mid@dlmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Sun, Yeqing, E-mail: yqsun@dlmu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Systems Biology, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A combined algorithm is proposed to mine biomarkers of spaceflight in C. elegans. • This algorithm makes the feature selection more reliable and robust. • Apply this algorithm to predict 17 positive biomarkers to space environment stress. • The strategy can be used as a general method to select important features. - Abstract: To identify the potential biomarkers associated with space flight, a combined algorithm, which integrates the feature selection techniques, was used to deal with the microarray datasets of Caenorhabditis elegans obtained in the Shenzhou-8 mission. Compared with the ground control treatment, a total of 86 differentially expressed (DE) genes in responses to space synthetic environment or space radiation environment were identified by two filter methods. And then the top 30 ranking genes were selected by the random forest algorithm. Gene Ontology annotation and functional enrichment analyses showed that these genes were mainly associated with metabolism process. Furthermore, clustering analysis showed that 17 genes among these are positive, including 9 for space synthetic environment and 8 for space radiation environment only. These genes could be used as the biomarkers to reflect the space environment stresses. In addition, we also found that microgravity is the main stress factor to change the expression patterns of biomarkers for the short-duration spaceflight.

  3. Opportunity Mars Rover mission: Overview and selected results from Purgatory ripple to traverses to Endeavour crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Chojnacki, M.; Cohen, J.; Economou, T.E.; Farrand, W. H.; Fergason, R.; Fleischer, I.; Geissler, P.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Guinness, E.A.; Haberle, R.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Herman, J.A.; Iagnemma, K.D.; Jolliff, B.L.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knoll, A.H.; Knudson, A.T.; Li, R.; McLennan, S.M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Parker, T.J.; Rice, M.S.; Schroder, C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.J.; Wolff, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunity has been traversing the Meridiani plains since 25 January 2004 (sol 1), acquiring numerous observations of the atmosphere, soils, and rocks. This paper provides an overview of key discoveries between sols 511 and 2300, complementing earlier papers covering results from the initial phases of the mission. Key new results include (1) atmospheric argon measurements that demonstrate the importance of atmospheric transport to and from the winter carbon dioxide polar ice caps; (2) observations showing that aeolian ripples covering the plains were generated by easterly winds during an epoch with enhanced Hadley cell circulation; (3) the discovery and characterization of cobbles and boulders that include iron and stony-iron meteorites and Martian impact ejecta; (4) measurements of wall rock strata within Erebus and Victoria craters that provide compelling evidence of formation by aeolian sand deposition, with local reworking within ephemeral lakes; (5) determination that the stratigraphy exposed in the walls of Victoria and Endurance craters show an enrichment of chlorine and depletion of magnesium and sulfur with increasing depth. This result implies that regional-scale aqueous alteration took place before formation of these craters. Most recently, Opportunity has been traversing toward the ancient Endeavour crater. Orbital data show that clay minerals are exposed on its rim. Hydrated sulfate minerals are exposed in plains rocks adjacent to the rim, unlike the surfaces of plains outcrops observed thus far by Opportunity. With continued mechanical health, Opportunity will reach terrains on and around Endeavour's rim that will be markedly different from anything examined to date. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Galileo Photometry of Asteroid 951 Gaspra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.C.; Simonelli, D.P.; Lee, P.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Breneman, H.; Head, J.W.; Murchie, S.; Fanale, F.; Robinson, M.; Clark, B.; Granahan, J.; Garbeil, H.; McEwen, A.S.; Kirk, R.L.; Davies, M.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Wagner, R.; Belton, M.; Chapman, C.; Pilcher, C.

    1994-01-01

    Galileo images of Gaspra make it possible for the first time to determine a main-belt asteroid's photometric properties accurately by providing surface-resolved coverage over a wide range of incidence and emission angles and by extending the phase angle coverage to phases not observable from Earth. We combine Earth-based telescopic photometry over phase angles 2?? ??? ?? ??? 25?? with Galileo whole-disk and disk-resolved data at 33?? ??? ?? ??? 51?? to derive average global photometric properties in terms of Hapke's photometric model. The microscopic texture and particle phase-function behavior of Gaspra's surface are remarkably like those of other airless rocky bodies such as the Moon. The macroscopic surface roughness parameter, ??̄ = 29??, is slightly larger than that reported for typical lunar materials. The particle single scattering albedo, ??́0 = 0.36 ?? 0.07, is significantly larger than for lunar materials, and the opposition surge amplitude, B0 = 1.63 ?? 0.07, is correspondingly smaller. We determine a visual geometric albedo pv = 0.22 ?? 0.06 for Gaspra, in close agreement with pv = 0.22 ?? 0.03 estimated from Earth-based observations. Gaspra's phase integral is 0.47, and the bolometric Bond albedo is estimated to be 0.12 ?? 0.03. An albedo map derived by correcting Galileo images with our average global photometric function reveals subdued albedo contrasts of ??10% or less over Gaspra's northern hemisphere. Several independent classification algorithms confirm the subtle spectral heterogeneity reported earlier (S. Mottola, M. DiMartino, M. Gonano-Beurer, H. Hoffman, and G. Neukum, 1993, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, pp. 421-424; M. J. S. Belton et al., 1992, Science 257, 1647-1652). Whole-disk colors (0.41 ??? ?? ??? 0.99 ??m) vary systematically with longitude by about ??5%, but color differences as large as 30% occur locally. Colors vary continuously between end-member materials whose areal distribution correlates with regional topography. Infrared

  5. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  6. Galileo and 400 Years of Telescopic Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Grego, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Imagine yourself living 400 years ago, right before the telescope was first used by Galileo to look up into the skies and find unforeseen wonders. You probably believed, with most of the known world, that Earth was at the center of the magnificent parade of planets and stars above you, and the Sun’s purpose in journeying across the sky was to give Earth daylight and warmth. Suddenly, though, your world is turned upside down. The Church, all powerful in its doctrines and teachings of the times, continues to support theories that don’t fit the facts presented by scientists. Scientists in their quest for truth must hide their findings or risk the harsh penalties imposed by the Church. We have gone from a comforting Earth-centered universe to a tiny floating spec in a gigantic cosmos, barely a comma in a lengthy treatise. And we have gone there in a blink of an eye. We may have lost our central position in the universe, but Grego and Mannion show us how much we have gained in understanding the universe around...

  7. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  8. Mice in Bion-M 1 Space Mission: Training and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Popova, Anfisa; Boyle, Richard; Alberts, Jeffrey; Shenkman, Boris; Vinogradova, Olga; Dolgov, Oleg; Anokhin, Konstantin; Tsvirkun, Darya; Soldatov, Pavel; Nemirovskaya, Tatyana; Ilyin, Eugeniy; Sychev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    After a 16-year hiatus, Russia has resumed its program of biomedical research in space, with the successful 30-day flight of the Bion-M 1 biosatellite (April 19–May 19, 2013). The principal species for biomedical research in this project was the mouse. This paper presents an overview of the scientific goals, the experimental design and the mouse training/selection program. The aim of mice experiments in the Bion-M 1 project was to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms, underlying the adaptation of key physiological systems to long-term exposure in microgravity. The studies with mice combined in vivo measurements, both in flight and post-flight (including continuous blood pressure measurement), with extensive in vitro studies carried out shortly after return of the mice and in the end of recovery study. Male C57/BL6 mice group housed in space habitats were flown aboard the Bion-M 1 biosatellite, or remained on ground in the control experiment that replicated environmental and housing conditions in the spacecraft. Vivarium control groups were used to account for housing effects and possible seasonal differences. Mice training included the co-adaptation in housing groups and mice adaptation to paste food diet. The measures taken to co-adapt aggressive male mice in housing groups and the peculiarities of “space” paste food are described. The training program for mice designated for in vivo studies was broader and included behavioral/functional test battery and continuous behavioral measurements in the home-cage. The results of the preliminary tests were used for the selection of homogenous groups. After the flight, mice were in good condition for biomedical studies and displayed signs of pronounced disadaptation to Earth's gravity. The outcomes of the training program for the mice welfare are discussed. We conclude that our training program was effective and that male mice can be successfully employed in space biomedical research. PMID:25133741

  9. Count Nicolaus Ludwig Von Zinzendorf’s Theory for Missions Portrayed at Herrnhut and by Selected 18th-20th Century Moravian Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    the progressive methods in advanced missions with churches, schools, gardens, vineyards and orchards, sheep herding, gristmill, cutlery, printing press...pear tree soon became gardens, orchards and vineyards . His success led to Dutch Church and Boer farmer insistence that he leave. Hoping to return, he

  10. The four hundred years of planetary science since Galileo and Kepler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A

    2010-07-29

    For 350 years after Galileo's discoveries, ground-based telescopes and theoretical modelling furnished everything we knew about the Sun's planetary retinue. Over the past five decades, however, spacecraft visits to many targets transformed these early notions, revealing the diversity of Solar System bodies and displaying active planetary processes at work. Violent events have punctuated the histories of many planets and satellites, changing them substantially since their birth. Contemporary knowledge has finally allowed testable models of the Solar System's origin to be developed and potential abodes for extraterrestrial life to be explored. Future planetary research should involve focused studies of selected targets, including exoplanets.

  11. Development and qualification of materials and processes for radiation shielding of Galileo spacecraft electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hribar, F.; Bauer, J.L.; O'Donnell, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    Several materials and processing methods were evaluated for use on the JPL Galileo spacecraft in the area of radiation shielding for electronics. Development and qualification activities involving an aluminum structural laminate are described. These activities included requirements assessment, design tradeoffs, materials selection, adhesive bonding development, mechanical properties measurements, thermal stability assessment, and nondestructive evaluation. This paper presents evaluation of three adhesives for bonding tantalum to aluminum. The concept of combining a thin sheet of tantalum with two outer aluminum face sheets using adhesive bonding was developed successfully. This radiation shield laminate also provides a structural shear plate for mounting electronic assemblies

  12. Four centuries later: how to close the Galileo case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Michael

    The "Galileo case" is still open: John Paul II's 1979 initiative to "recognize wrongs from whatever side they come" was carried out in an unsatisfactory manner. The task would have been easy had the Pontifical Study Commission created for that purpose concentrated on the 1616 decree alone and declared it not in line with the hermeneutical guidelines of the Council of Trent, in agreement with Galileo and not with Saint Robert Bellarmine. A possible avenue to closing the "Galileo case" on the part of the Church of Rome could, thus, be to change its current defensive attitude and declare itself no longer what it was in 1616, since another such "case" is, hopefully, no longer conceivable.

  13. Ultraviolet Studies of Jupiter's Hydrocarbons and Aerosols from Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for this project. The purpose of this project was to support PI Wayne Pryor's effort to reduce and analyze Galileo UVS (Ultraviolet Spectrometer) data under the JSDAP program. The spectral observations made by the Galileo UVS were to be analyzed to determine mixing ratios for important hydrocarbon species (and aerosols) in Jupiter's stratosphere as a function of location on Jupiter. Much of this work is still ongoing. To date, we have concentrated on analyzing the variability of the auroral emissions rather than the absorption signatures of hydrocarbons, although we have done some work in this area with related HST-STIS data.

  14. Galileo as an intellectual heretic and why that matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    What was physics like before Galileo? Five centuries ago physics was taught in universities all over Europe as part of a broader field of knowledge known as natural philosophy. It was neither quantitative, nor experimental, but mostly an a-priori, logical type of inquiry about principles concerning notions such as space, time, and motion, from which deductions could be made about the natural world. Galileo changed all that. He claimed that inquiry about nature should be experimental, and that reasoning in natural philosophy should be mathematical. It was a bold enough move. But Galileo's intellectual heresy was the discovery that knowledge of the natural world could only be achieved by relaxing the requirement that principles be known with absolute certainty. He demonstrated that a new mathematical physics could be built upon principles based on experiment. Thus the new physics could be extended recklessly by starting from less than certain foundations. Galileo's startling insight was that scientific truth need not be localized but can be diffused throughout the structure of science.

  15. Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…

  16. Integrated results from the COPERNICUS and GALILEO studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielen, Amelie; Clark, W Lloyd; Boyer, David S; Ogura, Yuichiro; Holz, Frank G; Korobelnik, Jean-Francois; Stemper, Brigitte; Asmus, Friedrich; Rittenhouse, Kay D; Ahlers, Christiane; Vitti, Robert; Saroj, Namrata; Zeitz, Oliver; Haller, Julia A

    2017-01-01

    To report on the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in an integrated analysis of COPERNICUS and GALILEO. Patients were randomized to receive intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 4 weeks or sham injections until week 24. From week 24 to week 52, all intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients in both studies and sham-treated patients in COPERNICUS were eligible to receive intravitreal aflibercept based on prespecified criteria. In GALILEO, sham-treated patients continued to receive sham treatment through week 52. At week 24, mean gain in best-corrected visual acuity and mean reduction in central retinal thickness were greater for intravitreal aflibercept-treated patients compared with sham, consistent with individual trial results. At week 52, after 6 months of intravitreal aflibercept as-needed treatment in COPERNICUS, patients originally randomized to sham group experienced visual and anatomic improvements but did not improve to the extent of those initially treated with intravitreal aflibercept, while the sham group in GALILEO did not improve over week 24 mean best-corrected visual acuity scores. Ocular serious adverse events occurred in GALILEO confirmed that intravitreal aflibercept is an effective treatment for macular edema following CRVO.

  17. On the potential of Galileo E5 for time transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Belda, Mari Carmen; Defraigne, Pascale; Bruyninx, Carine

    2013-01-01

    The main global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) technique currently used for accurate time and frequency transfer is based on an analysis of the ionosphere-free combinations of dual-frequency code and carrier phase measurements in a precise point positioning (PPP) mode. This technique analyses the observations of one GNSS station using external products for satellite clocks and orbits to determine the position and clock synchronization errors of this station. The frequency stability of this time transfer is limited by the noise and multipath of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) codes. In the near future, Galileo will offer a broadband signal E5, with low noise in the centimeter range and with the lowest multipath error ever observed. This paper investigates new analysis procedures based on the E5 codeplus- carrier (CPC) combination for time transfer. The CPC combination with E5 provides a noise level 10 times lower than the ionosphere-free combination of Galileo E1 and E5, which is very promising for improving GNSS time transfer performances. From some tests with simulated Galileo data, it is shown here that the use of the CPC combination with E5 does not improve, at present, the medium- and long-term stability of time transfer with respect to the ionosphere-free combination of Galileo E1 and E5 codes, because of the need for a second frequency signal to correct for the ionospheric delays and ambiguities.

  18. Galileo ootab eestlaste osavõttu / Marko Saaret

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saaret, Marko

    2003-01-01

    Euroopa Liit käivitas eelmisel aastal uuesti mitu miljardit krooni maksva iseseisva satelliitnavigatsiooni süsteemi väljatöötamise, milles võivad osaleda ka kandidaatriikide ettevõtjad. Kommenteerib AS-i Regio juht Teet Jagomägi, kelle hinnangul ei võimalda Eesti tehnoloogiaettevõtete tase Galileo ehitamises osaleda.

  19. Galileo and the Pendulum: Latching on to Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machamer, Peter; Hepburn, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Galileo changed the very concepts or categories by which natural philosophy could deal with matter and motion. Central to these changes was his introduction of time as a fundamental concept. He worked with the pendulum and with the inclined plane to discover his new concept of motion. Both of these showed him that acceleration and time were…

  20. Conceptual design of a crewed reusable space transportation system aimed at parabolic flights: stakeholder analysis, mission concept selection, and spacecraft architecture definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Roberta; Viola, Nicole; Fenoglio, Franco; Santoro, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to derive architectures and operational concepts for future earth-to-orbit and sub-orbital transportation systems. In particular, at first, it describes the activity flow, methods, and tools leading to the generation of a wide range of alternative solutions to meet the established goal. Subsequently, the methodology allows selecting a small number of feasible options among which the optimal solution can be found. For the sake of clarity, the first part of the paper describes the methodology from a theoretical point of view, while the second part proposes the selection of mission concepts and of a proper transportation system aimed at sub-orbital parabolic flights. Starting from a detailed analysis of the stakeholders and their needs, the major objectives of the mission have been derived. Then, following a system engineering approach, functional analysis tools as well as concept of operations techniques allowed generating a very high number of possible ways to accomplish the envisaged goals. After a preliminary pruning activity, aimed at defining the feasibility of these concepts, more detailed analyses have been carried out. Going on through the procedure, the designer should move from qualitative to quantitative evaluations, and for this reason, to support the trade-off analysis, an ad-hoc built-in mission simulation software has been exploited. This support tool aims at estimating major mission drivers (mass, heat loads, manoeuverability, earth visibility, and volumetric efficiency) as well as proving the feasibility of the concepts. Other crucial and multi-domain mission drivers, such as complexity, innovation level, and safety have been evaluated through the other appropriate analyses. Eventually, one single mission concept has been selected and detailed in terms of layout, systems, and sub-systems, highlighting also logistic, safety, and maintainability aspects.

  1. Integrating the GalileoScope into Successful Outreach Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Peter D.; Slater, S.; Goldstein, J.; Harvey, J.; Garcia, A.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004, the Gemini Observatory’s week-long Journey Through the Universe (JTtU) program has successfully shared the excitement of scientific research with teachers, students and the public on Hawaii’s Big Island. Based on the national JTtU program started in 1999, the Hawai‘i version reaches an average of 7,000 students annually and each year features a different theme shared with a diverse set of learners. In 2010, the theme includes the integration of the GalileoScope-produced as a keystone project for the International Year of Astronomy. In preparation, a pilot teacher workshop (held in October 2009) introduced local island teachers to the GalileoScope and a 128-page educator’s activity resource book coordinated by the University of Wyoming. Response from this initial teacher’s workshop has been strong and evaluations plus follow-up actions by participating teachers illustrate that the integration of the GalileoScope has been successful based upon this diverse sample. Integrating GalileoScopes into Chilean schools in 2010 is also underway at Gemini South. This program will solicit informal proposals from educators who wish to use the telescopes in classrooms and a Spanish version of the teacher resource book is planned. The authors conclude that integration of the GalileoScope into an existing outreach program is an effective way to keep content fresh, relevant and engaging for both educators and students. This initiative is funded by Gemini Observatory outreach program. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (US), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva

  2. Volcanism on Io: The Galileo NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.

    2011-12-01

    In order to determine the magnitude of thermal emission from Io's volcanoes and variability with time at local, regional and global scales, we have calculated the 4.7 or 5 μm radiant flux for every hot spot in every Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observation obtained during the Galileo mission between June 1996 and October 2001. The resulting database contains over 1000 measurements of radiant flux, corrected for emission angle, range to target, and, where necessary, incident sunlight. Io's volcanoes produce the most voluminous and most powerful eruptions in the Solar System [1] and NIMS was the ideal instrument for measuring thermal emission from these volcanoes (see [1, 2]). NIMS covered the infrared from 0.7 to 5.2 μm, so measurement of hot spot thermal emission at ~5 μm was possible even in daytime observations. As part of a campaign to quantify magnitude and variability of volcanic thermal emission [1, 3-5] we examined the entire NIMS dataset (196 observations). The resulting NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED) allows the charting of 5-μm thermal emission at individual volcanoes, identifying individual eruption episodes, and enabling the comparison of activity at different hot spots [e.g., 6] and different regions of Io. Some ionian hot spots were detected only once or twice by NIMS (e.g., Ah Peku Patera, seen during I32), but most were detected many times (e.g., Culann, Tupan and Zamama, [6]). For example, the database contains over 40 observations of Loki Patera (some at high emission angle, and two partial observations). There are 55 observations of Pele. The 27 nighttime observations of Pele show a remarkably steady 5-μm radiant flux of 35 ± 12 GW/μm. There are 34 observations of Pillan, which erupted violently in 1997. Although in many observations low spatial resolution makes it difficult to separate hot spot pairs such as Susanoo Patera and Mulungu Patera; Tawhaki Patera and Hi'iaka Patera; and Janus Patera and Kanehekili

  3. Mapping the Topography of Europa: The Galileo-Clipper Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    2014-11-01

    The renewed effort to return to Europa for global mapping and landing site selection raises the question: What do we know about Europa topography and how do we know it? The question relates to geologic questions of feature formation, to the issue of ice shell thickness, mechanical strength, and internal activity, and to landing hazards. Our topographic data base for Europa is sparse indeed (no global map is possible), but we are not without hope. Two prime methods have been employed in our mapping program are stereo image and shape-from-shading (PC) slope analyses. On Europa, we are fortunate that many PC-DEM areas are also controlled by stereo-DEMs, mitigating the long-wavelength uncertainties in the PC data. Due to the Galileo antenna malfunction, mapping is limited to no more than 20% of the surface, far less than for any of the inner planets. Thirty-seven individual mapping sites have been identified, scattered across the globe, and all have now been mapped. Excellent stereo mapping is possible at all Sun angles, if resolution is below ~350 m. PC mapping is possible at Sun angles greater than ~60 degrees, if emission angles are less than ~40 degrees. The only extended contiguous areas of topographic mapping larger than 150 km across are the two narrow REGMAP mapping mosaics extending pole-to-pole along longitudes 85 and 240 W. These are PC-only and subject to long-wavelength uncertainties and errors, especially in the north/south where oblique imaging produces layover. Key findings include the mean slopes of individual terrain types (Schenk, 2009), topography across chaos (Schenk and Pappalardo, 2004), topography of craters and inferences for ice shell thickness (Schenk, 2002; Schenk and Turtle, 2009), among others. A key discovery, despite the limited data, is that Europan terrains rarely have topographic amplitude greater than 250 meters, but that regionally Europa has imprinted on it topographic amplitudes of +/- 1 km, in the form of raised plateaus and

  4. A post-Galileo view of Io's interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.L.; Turtle, E.P.; Milazzo, M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a self-consistent model for the interior of Io, taking the recent Galileo data into account. In this model, Io has a completely molten core, substantially molten mantle, and a very cold lithosphere. Heat from magmatic activity can mobilize volatile compounds such as SO2 in the lithosphere, and the movement of such cryogenic fluids may be important in the formation of surface features including sapping scarps and paterae. ?? Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Unified derivation of the Galileo and the Lorentz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardelis, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    By using the principle of relativity together with the general assumptions of space-time homogeneity and space isotropy underlying the principle of inertia, a most general transformation is constructed connecting any two inertial frames. The Galileo and the Lorentz transformations are then deduced by constraining these general inertial transformations through the corresponding two physical principles: the (classical) principle of acceleration invariance and the (relativistic) principle that all interactions propagate with the same finite and invariant speed. (author)

  6. Galileo SSI Observations of Volcanic Activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Keszthely, L. P.; Radebaugh, J.; Davies, A. G.; Turtle, E. P.; Geissler, P.; Klaasen, K. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on the analysis of the Galileo SSI's observations of the volcanic activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io as discussed by Milazzo et al. Galileo's Solid State Imager (SSI) observed Tvashtar Catena (63 deg N, 120 deg W) four times between November 1999 and October 2001, providing a unique look at the distinctive high latitude volcanism on Io. The November 1999 observation spatially resolved, for the first time, an active extraterrestrial fissure eruption. The brightness temperature of the lavas at the November 1999 fissure eruption was 1300 K. The second observation (orbit I27, February 2000) showed a large (approx. 500 sq km) region with many, small spots of hot, active lava. The third observation was taken in conjunction with a Cassini observation in December 2000 and showed a Pele-like plume deposition ring, while the Cassini images revealed a 400 km high Pele-type plume above the Catena. The final Galileo SSI observation of Tvashtar was acquired in October 2001, and all obvious (to SSI) activity had ceased, although data from Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) indicated that there was still significant thermal emission from the Tvashtar region. We have concentrated on analyzing the style of eruption during orbit I27 (February 2000). Comparison with a lava flow cooling model indicates that the behavior of the Tvashtar eruption during I27 does not match that of "simple" advancing lava flows. Instead, it may be an active lava lake or a complex set of lava flows with episodic, overlapping (in time and space) eruptions.

  7. Galileo battery testing and the impact of test automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuch, W. T.; Dils, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Test complexity, changes of test specifications, and the demand for tight control of tests led to the development of automated testing used for Galileo and other projects. The use of standardized interfacing, i.e., IEEE-488, with desktop computers and test instruments, resulted in greater reliability, repeatability, and accuracy of both control and data reporting. Increased flexibility of test programming has reduced costs by permitting a wide spectrum of test requirements at one station rather than many stations.

  8. Curbing "Math Anxiety" with Galileo While Teaching Physicists, too

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian P.

    2006-12-01

    Carthage College's introductory physics course caters to both freshmen in our program and students in general education. While "Understandings of Physics" is a conceptual overview of our discipline, physical science is necessarily quantitative. Galileo's "Dialogue Concerning the Two New Sciences" provides us with a novel way to teach the fundamentals of motion both to students who "fear" mathematics, as well as those who are adept at solving algebraic equations.

  9. "Life of Galileo" Théâtre de Carouge

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Special offer for CERN personnel CERN personnel and their spouses have until Tuesday, 18 March 2008 to buy tickets for « Vie de Galilée » ("Life of Galileo") at the Théâtre de Carouge at the special discount rate of 28 CHF (instead of 35 CHF). This play, by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht, is directed by Manfred Karge and recounts the life of the father of modern physics in fifteen tableaux. The wily, impassioned teacher Galileo is about to substantiate Copernicus’ theory that the Earth is not a static object but revolves around the sun, a discovery that revolutionised mankind’s view of itself and the world. When hauled before the Inquisition, he recants. "Life of Galileo" is the first major dramatic work after the invention of the atom bomb to address the issues of freedom of thought and ethics in the context of scientific discoveries. Special performances on 3, 10, 15 and 22 April will be followed by organised debat...

  10. Jovian atmospheric dynamics: an update after Galileo and Cassini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R; Showman, Adam P

    2005-01-01

    The Galileo and Cassini spacecrafts have greatly enhanced the observational record of Jupiter's tropospheric dynamics, particularly through returning high spatial resolution, multi-spectral and global imaging data with episodic coverage over periods of months to years. These data, along with those from Earth-based telescopes, have revealed the stability of Jupiter's zonal jets, captured the evolution of vortices and equatorial waves, and mapped the distributions of lightning and moist convection. Because no observations of Jupiter's interior exist, a forward modelling approach has been used to relate observations at cloud level to models of shallow or deep jet structure, shallow or deep jet forcing and energy transfer between turbulence, vortices and jets. A range of observed phenomena can be reproduced in shallow models, though the Galileo probe winds and jet stability arguments hint at the presence of deep jets. Many deep models, however, fail to reproduce Jupiter-like non-zonal features (e.g. vortices). Jupiter's dynamics likely include both deep and shallow processes, requiring an integrated approach to future modelling-an important goal for the post-Galileo and Cassini era

  11. A new Icimauna Martins & Galileo, 1991, from the Bolivian orocline (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Hemilophini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Perger, Robert

    2017-04-07

    The Neotropical longhorned beetle tribe Hemilophini has been reviewed by Martins & Galileo (2014a, b) and currently contains 542 species (Monné 2017). Some of the most conspicuous longhorned beetle taxa are found in this tribe, for example species with a pair of cephalic horns (Phoebe Audinet-Serville, 1835), or others that strongly resemble to noxious Lycidae (Coleoptera) (e.g. Apeba Martins & Galileo, 1991, Calocosmus Chevrolat, 1862, or Lycidola Thomson, 1864) (see Lingafelter 2013; Martins & Galileo 2014a, b).

  12. Galileo, measurement of the velocity of light, and the reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Leone, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    According to the commonly accepted view, Galileo Galilei devised in 1638 an experiment that seemed able to show that the velocity of light is finite. An analysis of archival material shows that two decades later members of the Florence scientific society Accademia del Cimento followed Galileo guidelines by actually attempting to measure the velocity of light and suggesting improvements. This analysis also reveals a fundamental difference between Galileo's and Florence academy's methodologies and that Galileo's experiment was, in some respects, a pioneering work affecting also the history of the psychology of perception.

  13. Studying Galileo at Secondary School: A Reconstruction of His "Jumping-Hill" Experiment and the Process of Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    Finds that interpretation of Galileo's only known experimental manuscript produces some interesting questions that offer pedagogical applications. Promotes classroom "research games" consisting of reconstructed experiments with Galileo's inclined plane and with other instruments to allow further speculation. (Author/WRM)

  14. Galileo SSI Observations of Io During Orbits C30 I33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Turtle, E.; McEwen, A.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Williams, D.; Milazzo, M.; Radebaugh, J.; Jaeger, W.; Klaasen, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    New Galileo SSI imaging of Io from orbits C30 I33 will be presented. The aging Galileo spacecraft continues to produce spectacular new results, including the tallest volcanic plume yet found on Io. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Learning from the Starry Message: Using Galileo's "Sidereus Nuncius" in Introductory Astronomy Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Every introductory astronomy class encounters Galileo during the course as the first man to systematically study the sky with a telescope. Every Astronomy 101 student meets Galileo as one of the major catalysts behind the shift from the Ptolemaic to the Copernican system and as one of the great minds behind the scientific method. But most of the…

  16. Great experiments in physics firsthand accounts from Galileo to Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    1959-01-01

    From Galileo's famous experiments in accelerated motion to Einstein's revolutionary theory of relativity, the experiments recorded here trace the evolution of modern physics from its beginnings to the mid-20th century. Brought together for the first time in one volume are important source readings on 25 epochal discoveries that changed man's understanding of the physical world. The accounts, written by the physicists who made them, include:Issac Newton: The Laws of MotionHenry Cavendish: The Law of GravitationAugustin Fresnel: The Diffraction of LightHans Christian Oersted: ElecromagnetismH

  17. Bruno, Galileo, Einstein: The Value of Myths in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    Usually, historical myths are portrayed as something to be avoided in a physics classroom. Instead, I will discuss the positive function of myths and how they can be used to improve physics education. First, on the basis of historical research from primary sources and significant new findings about the Catholic Inquisition, I will discuss how to use the inspirational story of Giordano Bruno when discussing cosmology. Next, I will discuss the recurring story about Galileo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Finally, I will discuss how neglected stories about the young Albert Einstein can help to inspire students.

  18. Diseño de un cabezal RF para Galileo

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Mateo, José Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo final de este Proyecto Fin de Carrera es la construcción de una antena impresa activa que funcione como receptora de la señal del sistema de posicionamiento Galileo. Debido a que la información útil en este sistema se ubica en dos bandas del espectro radioeléctrico separadas entre sí 300 MHz, el diseño de la antena (elementos radiantes y circuitería necesaria) tendrá como objetivo una respuesta en frecuencia en recepción ‘dual’. Esta característica tendrá una ...

  19. Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica was taken during its first encounter with the Earth. This color picture of Antarctica is part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent showing the Ross Ice Shelf and its border with the sea and mountains poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica. View provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P-37297.

  20. Galileo's Religion Versus the Church's Science? Rethinking the History of Science and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. B.

    Galileo's conflict with the Catholic Church is well recognized as a key episode in the history of physics and in the history of science and religion. This paper applies a new, historiographical approach to that specific episode. It advocates eliminating the science and religion. The Church concluded that the plainest facts of human experience agreed perfectly with an omniscient God's revealed word to proclaim the earth at rest. Supported by the Bible, Galileo, God-like, linked the elegance of mathematics to truths about nature. The Church, in effect, resisted Galileo's claim to be able to think like God, instead listening to God himself - and paying close attention to what man himself observed. We can thus see that the phrase ``Galileo's religion versus the Church's science'' is as meaningful (or meaningless) as the usual designation ``Galileo's science versus the Church's religion.''

  1. Structural and sequence diversity of the transposon Galileo in the Drosophila willistoni genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliana W; Valiati, Victor Hugo; Delprat, Alejandra; Valente, Vera L S; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2014-09-13

    Galileo is one of three members of the P superfamily of DNA transposons. It was originally discovered in Drosophila buzzatii, in which three segregating chromosomal inversions were shown to have been generated by ectopic recombination between Galileo copies. Subsequently, Galileo was identified in six of 12 sequenced Drosophila genomes, indicating its widespread distribution within this genus. Galileo is strikingly abundant in Drosophila willistoni, a neotropical species that is highly polymorphic for chromosomal inversions, suggesting a role for this transposon in the evolution of its genome. We carried out a detailed characterization of all Galileo copies present in the D. willistoni genome. A total of 191 copies, including 133 with two terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), were classified according to structure in six groups. The TIRs exhibited remarkable variation in their length and structure compared to the most complete copy. Three copies showed extended TIRs due to internal tandem repeats, the insertion of other transposable elements (TEs), or the incorporation of non-TIR sequences into the TIRs. Phylogenetic analyses of the transposase (TPase)-encoding and TIR segments yielded two divergent clades, which we termed Galileo subfamilies V and W. Target-site duplications (TSDs) in D. willistoni Galileo copies were 7- or 8-bp in length, with the consensus sequence GTATTAC. Analysis of the region around the TSDs revealed a target site motif (TSM) with a 15-bp palindrome that may give rise to a stem-loop secondary structure. There is a remarkable abundance and diversity of Galileo copies in the D. willistoni genome, although no functional copies were found. The TIRs in particular have a dynamic structure and extend in different ways, but their ends (required for transposition) are more conserved than the rest of the element. The D. willistoni genome harbors two Galileo subfamilies (V and W) that diverged ~9 million years ago and may have descended from an ancestral

  2. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 11: Analysis of selected orbit propagation models for the SeaWiFS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Frederick S.; Hoisington, Charles M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Indest, A. W. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of orbit propagation models was performed by the Mission Operations element of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project, which has overall responsibility for the instrument scheduling. The orbit propagators selected for this analysis are widely available general perturbations models. The analysis includes both absolute accuracy determination and comparisons of different versions of the models. The results show that all of the models tested meet accuracy requirements for scheduling and data acquisition purposes. For internal Project use the SGP4 propagator, developed by the North American Air Defense (NORAD) Command, has been selected. This model includes atmospheric drag effects and, therefore, provides better accuracy. For High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) ground stations, which have less stringent accuracy requirements, the publicly available Brouwer-Lyddane models are recommended. The SeaWiFS Project will make available portable source code for a version of this model developed by the Data Capture Facility (DCF).

  3. Galileo: The Added Value for Integrity in Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borio, Daniele; Gioia, Ciro

    2016-01-16

    A global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based navigation is a challenging task in a signal-degraded environments where GNSS signals are distorted by multipath and attenuated by fading effects: the navigation solution may be inaccurate or unavailable. A possible approach to improve accuracy and availability is the joint use of measurements from different GNSSs and quality check algorithms; this approach is investigated here using live GPS and Galileo signals. A modified receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) algorithm, including geometry and separability checks, is proposed to detect and exclude erroneous measurements: the multi-constellation approach provides redundant measurements, and RAIM exploits them to exclude distorted observations. The synergy between combined GPS/Galileo navigation and RAIM is analyzed using live data; the performance is compared to the accuracy and availability of a GPS-only solution. The tests performed demonstrate that the methods developed are effective techniques for GNSS-based navigation in signal-degraded environments. The joint use of the multi-constellation approach and of modified RAIM algorithms improves the performance of the navigation system in terms of both accuracy and availability.

  4. On systems having Poincaré and Galileo symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Using the wave equation in d≥1 space dimensions it is illustrated how dynamical equations may be simultaneously Poincaré and Galileo covariant with respect to different sets of independent variables. This provides a method to obtain dynamics-dependent representations of the kinematical symmetries. When the field is a displacement function both symmetries have a physical interpretation. For d=1 the Lorentz structure is utilized to reveal hitherto unnoticed features of the non-relativistic Chaplygin gas including a relativistic structure with a limiting case that exhibits the Carroll group, and field-dependent symmetries and associated Noether charges. The Lorentz transformations of the potentials naturally associated with the Chaplygin system are given. These results prompt the search for further symmetries and it is shown that the Chaplygin equations support a nonlinear superposition principle. A known spacetime mixing symmetry is shown to decompose into label-time and superposition symmetries. It is shown that a quantum mechanical system in a stationary state behaves as a Chaplygin gas. The extension to d>1 is used to illustrate how the physical significance of the dual symmetries is contingent on the context by showing that Maxwell’s equations exhibit an exact Galileo covariant formulation where Lorentz and gauge transformations are represented by field-dependent symmetries. A natural conceptual and formal framework is provided by the Lagrangian and Eulerian pictures of continuum mechanics

  5. DMD-based multi-object spectrograph on Galileo telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Spano, Paolo; Lanzoni, Patrick; Bon, William; Riva, Marco; Nicastro, Luciano; Molinari, Emilio; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Zerbi, Filippo; Valenziano, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Next-generation infrared astronomical instrumentation for ground-based and space telescopes could be based on MOEMS programmable slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy (MOS). This astronomical technique is used extensively to investigate the formation and evolution of galaxies. We propose to develop a 2048x1080 DMD-based MOS instrument to be mounted on the Galileo telescope and called BATMAN. A two-arm instrument has been designed for providing in parallel imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. The two arms with F/4 on the DMD are mounted on a common bench, and an upper bench supports the detectors thanks to two independent hexapods. Very good optical quality on the DMD and the detectors will be reached. ROBIN, a BATMAN demonstrator, has been designed, realized and integrated. It permits to determine the instrument integration procedure, including optics and mechanics integration, alignment procedure and optical quality. First images have been obtained and measured. A DMD pattern manager has been developed in order to generate any slit mask according to the list of objects to be observed; spectra have been generated and measured. Observation strategies will be studied and demonstrated for the scientific optimization strategy over the whole FOV. BATMAN on the sky is of prime importance for characterizing the actual performance of this new family of MOS instruments, as well as investigating the operational procedures on astronomical objects. This instrument will be placed on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo at the beginning of next year, in 2014.

  6. Galileo: The Added Value for Integrity in Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Borio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A global navigation satellite system (GNSS-based navigation is a challenging task in a signal-degraded environments where GNSS signals are distorted by multipath and attenuated by fading effects: the navigation solution may be inaccurate or unavailable. A possible approach to improve accuracy and availability is the joint use of measurements from different GNSSs and quality check algorithms; this approach is investigated here using live GPS and Galileo signals. A modified receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM algorithm, including geometry and separability checks, is proposed to detect and exclude erroneous measurements: the multi-constellation approach provides redundant measurements, and RAIM exploits them to exclude distorted observations. The synergy between combined GPS/Galileo navigation and RAIM is analyzed using live data; the performance is compared to the accuracy and availability of a GPS-only solution. The tests performed demonstrate that the methods developed are effective techniques for GNSS-based navigation in signal-degraded environments. The joint use of the multi-constellation approach and of modified RAIM algorithms improves the performance of the navigation system in terms of both accuracy and availability.

  7. Experimenting Galileo on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinato, Samuele; Pozzobon, Oscar; Sands, Obed S.; Welch, Bryan W.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; Miller, James J.; Gamba, Giovanni; Chiara, Andrea; Montagner, Stefano; Giordano, Pietro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SCaN Testbed is an advanced integrated communications system and laboratory facility installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012. The testbed incorporates a set of new generation of Software Defined Radio (SDR) technologies intended to allow researchers to develop, test, and demonstrate new communications, networking, and navigation capabilities in the actual environment of space. Qascom, in cooperation with ESA and NASA, is designing a Software Defined Radio GalileoGPS Receiver capable to provide accurate positioning and timing to be installed on the ISS SCaN Testbed. The GalileoGPS waveform will be operated in the JPL SDR that is constituted by several hardware components that can be used for experimentations in L-Band and S-Band. The JPL SDR includes an L-Band Dorne Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The antenna is connected to a radio front end capable to provide one bit samples for the three GNSS frequencies (L1, L2 and L5) at 38 MHz, exploiting the subharmonic sampling. The baseband processing is then performed by an ATMEL AT697 processor (100 MIPS) and two Virtex 2 FPGAs. The JPL SDR supports the STRS (Space Telecommunications Radio System) that provides common waveform software interfaces, methods of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. The standard foresees the development of applications that are modular, portable, reconfigurable, and reusable. The developed waveform uses the STRS infrastructure-provided application program interfaces (APIs) and services to load, verify, execute, change parameters, terminate, or unload an application. The project is divided in three main phases. 1)Design and Development of the GalileoGPS waveform for the SCaN Testbed starting from Qascom existing GNSS SDR receiver. The baseline design is limited to the implementation of the single frequency Galileo and GPS L1E1 receiver even if as part of the activity it will be to assess the

  8. 'Galileo Galilei-GG': design, requirements, error budget and significance of the ground prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobili, A.M.; Bramanti, D.; Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Polacco, E.; Chiofalo, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    'Galileo Galilei-GG' is a proposed experiment in low orbit around the Earth aiming to test the equivalence principle to the level of 1 part in 10 17 at room temperature. A unique feature of GG, which is pivotal to achieve high accuracy at room temperature, is fast rotation in supercritical regime around the symmetry axis of the test cylinders, with very weak coupling in the plane perpendicular to it. Another unique feature of GG is the possibility to fly 2 concentric pairs of test cylinders, the outer pair being made of the same material for detection of spurious effects. GG was originally designed for an equatorial orbit. The much lower launching cost for higher inclinations has made it worth redesigning the experiment for a sun-synchronous orbit. We report the main conclusions of this study, which confirms the feasibility of the original goal of the mission also at high inclination, and conclude by stressing the significance of the ground based prototype of the apparatus proposed for space

  9. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  10. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission: SIG thermal insulation evaluaion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    Since the SIG program required the use of very high performance thermal insulation materials in rather severe thermal and environmental conditions, a thorough screening and testing program was performed. Several types of materials were included in the preliminary survey. Most promising were oxide and carbonaceous fibrous insulations, oxide and carbonaceous foamed materials, and multilayer materials with both powder and cloth spacers. The latter were only viable for the vacuum option. In all, over one hundred materials from more than sixty manufacturers were evaluated from literature and manufacturers' data. The list was pared to eighteen candidates in seven basic types, i.e., fibrous microporous SiO 2 , fibrous SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 , fibrous ZrO 2 , fibrous carbon, foamed SiO 2 , foamed carbon, and multilayer. Test results are presented

  11. MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.

    2008-08-01

    MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is <0,02° for the axis normal to the boresight and 0,04° for the boresight. This paper deals with MIOSAT mission scenario and definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission

  12. Results of the ESA study on psychological selection of astronaut applicants for Columbus missions I: Aptitude testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Christoph; Goeters, Klaus-Martin

    European participation in the Space Station Freedom brought about new challenges for the psychological selection of astronaut candidates, particularly in respect to specific demands of long duration space flights. For this reason existing selection criteria and methods were reassessed. On these grounds a study was undertaken applying a unique composition of aptitude tests to a group of 97 ESA scientists and engineers who are highly comparable to the expected astronaut applicants with respect to age and education. The tests assessed operational aptitudes such as logical reasoning, memory function, perception, spatial orientation, attention, psychomotor function, and multiple task capacity. The study goals were: 1) Verification of psychometric qualities and applicability of tests in a normative group; 2) Search for culture-fair tests by which multi-national groups can be examined; 3) Identification of test methods which consider general and special operational demands of long duration space flights. Based on the empirical findings a test battery was arranged for use in the selection of ESA astronaut applicants. Results showed that 16 out of the 18 employed tests have good psychometric qualities and differentiate reliably in the special group of testees. The meta structure of the test battery as described by a factorial analysis is presented. Applicability of tests was generally high. Tests were culture-fair, however, a relation between English language skills and test results was identified. Since most item material was language-free, this was explained with the importance of English language skills for the understanding of test instructions. Solutions to this effect are suggested.

  13. System Engineering Infrastructure Evolution Galileo IOV and the Steps Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, J.; Herpel, H.-J.; Steinle, T.; Birn, R.; Steiner, W.-D.; Eisenmann, H.; Ludwig, T.

    2009-05-01

    The trends to more and more constrained financial budgets in satellite engineering require a permanent optimization of the S/C system engineering processes and infrastructure. Astrium in the recent years already has built up a system simulation infrastructure - the "Model-based Development & Verification Environment" - which meanwhile is well known all over Europe and is established as Astrium's standard approach for ESA, DLR projects and now even the EU/ESA-Project Galileo IOV. The key feature of the MDVE / FVE approach is to provide entire S/C simulation (with full featured OBC simulation) already in early phases to start OBSW code tests on a simulated S/C and to later add hardware in the loop step by step up to an entire "Engineering Functional Model (EFM)" or "FlatSat". The subsequent enhancements to this simulator infrastructure w.r.t. spacecraft design data handling are reported in the following sections.

  14. On the quantum analogue of Galileo's leaning tower experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Md Manirul; Majumdar, A S; Home, Dipankar; Pan, Alok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The quantum analogue of Galileo's leaning tower experiment is revisited using wave packets evolving under the gravitational potential. We first calculate the position detection probabilities for particles projected upwards against gravity around the classical turning point and also around the point of initial projection, which exhibit mass dependence at both these points. We then compute the mean arrival time of freely falling particles using the quantum probability current, which also turns out to be mass dependent. The mass dependence of both the position detection probabilities and the mean arrival time vanish in the limit of large mass. Thus, compatibility between the weak equivalence principle and quantum mechanics is recovered in the macroscopic limit of the latter

  15. Galileo's first images of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R.; Collins, G.; Vasavada, A.R.; Sullivan, R.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Anger, C.; Greenberg, R.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Beebe, R.F.; Burns, J.A.; Fanale, F.; Ip, W.; Johnson, T.V.; Morrison, D.; Moore, J.; Orton, G.S.; Thomas, P.; West, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features similar to clusters of thunderstorms were found in the GRS. Nearby wave structures suggest that the GRS may be a shallow atmospheric feature. Changes in surface color and plume distribution indicate differences in resurfacing processes near hot spots on lo. Patchy emissions were seen while Io was in eclipse by Jupiter. The outer margins of prominent linear markings (triple bands) on Europa are diffuse, suggesting that material has been vented from fractures. Numerous small circular craters indicate localized areas of relatively old surface. Pervasive brittle deformation of an ice layer appears to have formed grooves on Ganymede. Dark terrain unexpectedly shows distinctive albedo variations to the limit of resolution.

  16. Galileo encounter with 951 Gaspra: First pictures of an asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Helfenstein, P.; Simonelli, D.; Chapman, C.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J.; Murchie, S.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; McEwen, A.; Morrison, D.; Neukum, G.; Fanale, F.; Anger, C.; Carr, M.; Pilcher, C.

    1992-01-01

    Galileo images of Gaspra reveal it to be an irregularly shaped object (19 by 12 by 11 kilometers) that appears to have been created by a catastrophic collisional disruption of a precursor parent body. The cratering age of the surface is about 200 million years. Subtle albedo and color variations appear to correlate with morphological features: Brighter materials are associated with craters especially along the crests of ridges, have a stronger 1-micrometer absorption, and may represent freshly excavated mafic materials; darker materials exhibiting a significantly weaker 1-micrometer absorption appear concentrated in interridge areas. One explanation of these patterns is that Gaspra is covered with a thin regolith and that some of this material has migrated downslope in some areas.

  17. Axiomatics of Galileo-invariant quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadashev, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to construct the axiomatics of Galileo-invariant quantum field theory. The importance of this problem is demonstrated from various points of view: general properties that the fields and observables must satisfy are considered; S-matrix nontriviality of one such model is proved; and the differences from the relativistic case are discussed. The proposed system of axioms is in many respects analogous to Wightman axiomatics, but is less general. The main result is contained in theorems which describe the admissible set of initial fields and total Hamiltonians, i.e., precisely the two entities that completely determine interacting fields. The author considers fields that prove the independence of some axioms

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of the Galileo energetic particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, I.; Ratliff, J.M.; Garrett, H.B.; McEntire, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo radiation transport studies have been performed for the Galileo spacecraft energetic particle detector (EPD) in order to study its response to energetic electrons and protons. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, MCNP version 4B (for electrons) and MCNPX version 2.2.3 (for protons), were used throughout the study. The results are presented in the form of 'geometric factors' for the high-energy channels studied in this paper: B1, DC2, and DC3 for electrons and B0, DC0, and DC1 for protons. The geometric factor is the energy-dependent detector response function that relates the incident particle fluxes to instrument count rates. The trend of actual data measured by the EPD was successfully reproduced using the geometric factors obtained in this study

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of the Galileo energetic particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, I; Garrett, H B; McEntire, R W

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo radiation transport studies have been performed for the Galileo spacecraft energetic particle detector (EPD) in order to study its response to energetic electrons and protons. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, MCNP version 4B (for electrons) and MCNPX version 2.2.3 (for protons), were used throughout the study. The results are presented in the form of 'geometric factors' for the high-energy channels studied in this paper: B1, DC2, and DC3 for electrons and B0, DC0, and DC1 for protons. The geometric factor is the energy-dependent detector response function that relates the incident particle fluxes to instrument count rates. The trend of actual data measured by the EPD was successfully reproduced using the geometric factors obtained in this study.

  20. Il dito di Galileo le dieci grandi idee della scienza

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Domande e risposte per dieci idee che hanno plasmato il mondo di oggi. Possiamo rintracciare l'origine e il divenire del cosmo? Perché spazio e tempo formano una cosa sola? Che cosa significa l'evoluzione del vivente? Perché il DNA è così importante? Perché il mondo ha bisogno di energia? E com'è che l'aumento dell'entropia scandisce il cambiamento dell'intero universo? Cosa sono gli atomi e cosa c'è di più piccolo di essi? Perché la simmetria della natura e dell'arte cattura il nostro senso della bellezza? Cosa sono quegli elusivi quanti alla base della fisica contemporanea? Siamo sicuri che l'aritmetica non ci inganni? Peter Atkins offre una guida chiara e completa all'impresa scientifica, seguendo la via indicata dal dito di Galileo.

  1. [The mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Blanch Mon, A

    2000-01-01

    After having made a historical review of the concept of mission statement, of evaluating its importance (See Part I), of describing the bases to create a mission statement from a strategic perspective and of analyzing the advantages of this concept, probably more important as a business policy (See Parts I and II), the authors proceed to analyze the mission statement in health organizations. Due to the fact that a mission statement is lacking in the majority of health organizations, the strategy of health organizations are not exactly favored; as a consequence, neither are its competitive advantage nor the development of its essential competencies. After presenting a series of mission statements corresponding to Anglo-Saxon health organizations, the authors highlight two mission statements corresponding to our social context. The article finishes by suggesting an adequate sequence for developing a mission statement in those health organizations having a strategic sense.

  2. GEO-6 project for Galileo data scientific utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresova, Dalia; Lastovicka, Jan; Boska, Josef; Sauli, Petra; Kouba, Daniel; Mosna, Zbysek

    The future GNSS Galileo system offer a number of benefits (e.g. availability of better accuracy positioning, new frequencies bands allowing the implementation of specific techniques, provable time-stamp and location data using SIS authorisation, integrity, better support ad-hoc algorithms for data analysis and other service guarantee for liability and regulated applications) are widely spread among different disciplines. Also applications which are less interesting from the commercial and market point of view could successfully contribute to the numerous social benefits and support the innovation in the international research. The aim of the GEO-6 project "Scientific research Using GNSS" is to propose and broaden scientific utilization of future GNSS Galileo system data in research. It is a joint project of seven institutions from six countries led by the Atos Origin Company from Spain. The core of the project consists from six projects in five priority areas: PA-1 Remote sensing of the ocean using GNSS reflections, PA-2a Investigating GNSS ionospheric data assimilation, PA-2b 3-D gravity wave detection and determination (both PA-2a and PA-2b are ionospheric topics), PA-3 Demonstration of capability for operational forecasting of atmospheric delays, PA-4 GNSS seismometer, PA-5 Spacecraft formation flying using global navigation satellite systems. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Prague, Czech Republic is responsible for the project PA-2b, where we developed and tested (to the extent allowed by available data) an algorithm and computer code for the 3-D detection of gravity waves and determination of their characteristics. The main drivers of the GEO-6 project are: high levels of accuracy even with the support of local elements, sharing of solutions and results for the worldwide scientific community. The paper will present basic description of the project with more details concerning Czech participation in it.

  3. Results of the ESA study on psychological selection of astronaut candidates for Columbus missions II: Personality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeters, Klaus-Martin; Fassbender, Christoph

    A unique composition of personality assessment methods was applied to a group of 97 ESA scientists and engineers. This group is highly comparable to real astronaut candidates with respect to age and education. The list of used tests includes personality questionnaires, problem solving in groups as well as a projective technique. The study goals were: 1. Verification of psychometric qualities and applicability of tests to the target group; 2. Search for culture-fair tests by which multi-national European groups can be examined; 3. Identification of test methods by which the adaptability of the candidates to the psycho-social stress of long-duration space flights can be assessed. Based on the empirical findings, a test battery was defined which can be used in the selection of ESA space personnel.

  4. New Topographic Maps of Io Using Voyager and Galileo Stereo Imaging and Photoclinometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, O. L.; Schenk, P. M.; Hoogenboom, T.

    2012-03-01

    Stereo and photoclinometry processing have been applied to Voyager and Galileo images of Io in order to derive regional- and local-scale topographic maps of 20% of the moon’s surface to date. We present initial mapping results.

  5. GALILEO ORBITER A POS IDA FLYBY TRAJ V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Galileo Orbiter 60 second sampled trajectory data from the Ida flyby in Ida-centric Solar Ecliptic (ISE) and RTN coordinates. These data cover the interval...

  6. Peter Paul Rubens, Galileo Galilei und die Schlacht am Weißen Berg

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Lubomír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 52 (2005), s. 85-91 ISSN 0391-9064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Peter Paul Rubens * Galileo Galilei * moon Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  7. GALILEO ORBITER EARTH POS EARTH2 FLYBY TRAJ V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Galileo Orbiter 60 second sampled trajectory data from the Earth-2 flyby in GSE and GSM coordinates. These data cover the interval 1992-11-03 to 1992-12-20.

  8. GALILEO ORBITER EARTH POS EARTH1 FLYBY TRAJ V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Galileo Orbiter 60 second sampled trajectory data from the Earth-1 flyby in GSE and GSM coordinates. These data cover the interval 1990-11-05 to 1990-12-31.

  9. GALILEO ORBITER A POS GASPRA FLYBY TRAJ V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Galileo Orbiter 60 second sampled trajectory data from the Gaspra flyby in Gaspra-centric Solar Ecliptic (GaSE) and RTN coordinates. These data cover the interval...

  10. Euroliidu Galileo süsteem astub kandadele USA GPS-ile / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu uue navigatsioonisüsteemi Galileo esimene satelliit saadeti eile kosmosesse. Satelliit GIOVE-A kujutab endast esimest ülekandemajakat, millega saab hakata looma kuni 30 satelliidist koosnevat globaalset navigatsioonivõrgustikku

  11. Silicon germanium (SiGe) radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) program for space missions. Nineteenth technical progress report, December 1980-January 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Work accomplished during the reporting period on the DOE Silicon Germanium RTG Program, Contract DE-AC01-79ET-32043 is described. This program consists of the following three tasks: multi-hundred watt RTG for the Galileo probe mission; reestablishment of silicon germanium unicouple capability; and general purpose heat source RTG for the international solar polar and Galileo orbiter missions. Details of program progress for each task, including a milestone schedule and a discussion of current problem areas (if any) are presented

  12. Galileo-satelliittipaikannusjärjestelmä ja sen mahdollisuudet yrityksen näkökulmasta

    OpenAIRE

    Vaarakallio, Joonas

    2010-01-01

    Euroopan komissio ja Euroopan avaruusjärjestö toteuttavat Galileo-hanketta uuden eurooppalaisen satelliittipaikannusjärjestelmän rakentamiseksi. Galileo-satelliittipaikannusjärjestelmän on tarkoitus olla tarkempi ja tarjota kattavampia palveluita kuin aikaisemmat järjestelmät. Se tulee olemaan vaihtoehto sekä täydennys olemassa oleville GPS- ja GLONASS-satelliittipaikannusjärjestelmille. Galileossa perustason signaalintarkkuus on kaikkien saatavilla ja tarkempi signaali on rajoitettu maksulli...

  13. [Myanmar mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandari, B; Persichetti, P; Pelissier, P; Martin, D; Baudet, J

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the accomplishment of humanitarian missions in plastic surgery performed by a small team in town practice in Yangon, about their 3 years experience in Myanmar with 300 consultations and 120 surgery cases. They underline the interest of this type of mission and provide us their reflexion about team training, the type of relation with the country where the mission is conducted and the type of right team.

  14. Mission science value-cost savings from the Advanced Imaging Communication System (AICS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    An Advanced Imaging Communication System (AICS) was proposed in the mid-1970s as an alternative to the Voyager data/communication system architecture. The AICS achieved virtually error free communication with little loss in the downlink data rate by concatenating a powerful Reed-Solomon block code with the Voyager convolutionally coded, Viterbi decoded downlink channel. The clean channel allowed AICS sophisticated adaptive data compression techniques. Both Voyager and the Galileo mission have implemented AICS components, and the concatenated channel itself is heading for international standardization. An analysis that assigns a dollar value/cost savings to AICS mission performance gains is presented. A conservative value or savings of $3 million for Voyager, $4.5 million for Galileo, and as much as $7 to 9.5 million per mission for future projects such as the proposed Mariner Mar 2 series is shown.

  15. The GalileoMobile Project: sharing astronomy with students and teachers around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez Herrera, Sandra; Del Sordo, Fabio; Spinelli, Patricia; Ntormousi, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy is an inspiring tool that can be used to motivate children to learn more about the world, to encourage critical thinking, and engage them in different scientific disciplines. Although many outreach programs bring astronomy to the classroom, most of them act in developed countries and rely heavily on internet connection. This leaves pupils and teachers in remote areas with little access to the latest space missions and the modern astronomical advances. GalileoMobile is an itinerant astronomy education initiative aiming to bridge this gap by donating educational material and organizing activities, experiments and teacher workshops at schools in rural areas. The initiative is run on a voluntary basis by an international team of astronomers, educators, and science communicators, working together to stimulate curiosity and interest in learning, to exchange different visions of the cosmos and to inspire a feeling of unity "under the same sky" between people from different cultures. Since the creation of the project in 2008, we have travelled to Chile, Bolivia, Peru, India, Uganda, Brazil and Colombia, and worked with about 70 schools. From our experiences, we learnt that 1) bringing experts from other countries is very stimulating for children and encourages a collaboration beyond borders; 2) inquiry-based methods are important for making the learning process more effective; 3) involving local educators in our activities helps the longstanding continuation of the project. We are incorporating these lessons learned into a new concept of the project. Constellation 2015, aims to establish a South American network of schools committed to the long-term organisation of astronomical outreach activities amongst their pupils and local communities. Constellation was declared Cosmic Light Project by the International Year of Light 2015 and awarded funding by the OAD. At this Focus Meeting, we will present the outcomes from our latest expeditions in Brazil and Colombia in

  16. Optical identifications of celestial high energy sources with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turriziani, Sara

    2012-01-01

    To ascertain the nature of celestial high energy sources, it is crucial to identify their optical counterparts. However, the currently available astronomical public optical databases do not provide an adequate support for a systematic high energy sources identification work. In particular, the optical limiting magnitude represents a severe limitation since the deepest flux limits reached by X-ray surveys require of course similarly deeper optical catalogs to homogeneously sample the available parameter space. Nonetheless, dedicated spectroscopic campaigns are being carried out successfully with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), a 4-m class telescope. To set up a winning observational campaign, the first and most important step is to define a strong science case, as it will allow for selections of good targets for observations: the key is to increase the identification efficiency while keeping down the required telescope time. In this context, as the Principal Investigator, I will give an overview of the first spectroscopic campaign carried out at the TNG to identify Swift X-ray serendipitous sources, and I will show the valuable results achieved with only one night of observations. As a second example, I will review the strategy for the northern-sky classification of candidate blazars associated to unidentified Fermi γ-ray sources, and I will show the results coming from the related observational campaign at TNG I have been involved during the last two years.

  17. Optimal Earth's reentry disposal of the Galileo constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellin, Roberto; San-Juan, Juan F.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays there is international consensus that space activities must be managed to minimize debris generation and risk. The paper presents a method for the end-of-life (EoL) disposal of spacecraft in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). The problem is formulated as a multiobjective optimisation one, which is solved with an evolutionary algorithm. An impulsive manoeuvre is optimised to reenter the spacecraft in Earth's atmosphere within 100 years. Pareto optimal solutions are obtained using the manoeuvre Δv and the time-to-reentry as objective functions to be minimised. To explore at the best the search space a semi-analytical orbit propagator, which can propagate an orbit for 100 years in few seconds, is adopted. An in-depth analysis of the results is carried out to understand the conditions leading to a fast reentry with minimum propellant. For this aim a new way of representing the disposal solutions is introduced. With a single 2D plot we are able to fully describe the time evolution of all the relevant orbital parameters as well as identify the conditions that enables the eccentricity build-up. The EoL disposal of the Galileo constellation is used as test case.

  18. The ionosphere of Europa from Galileo radio occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliore, A. J.; Hinson, D. P.; Flasar, F. M.; Nagy, A. F.; Cravens, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft performed six radio occultation observations of Jupiter's Galilean satellite Europa during its tour of the jovian system. In five of the six instances, these occultations revealed the presence of a tenuous ionosphere on Europa, with an average maximum electron density of nearly 10(4) per cubic centimeter near the surface and a plasma scale height of about 240 +/- 40 kilometers from the surface to 300 kilometers and of 440 +/- 60 kilometers above 300 kilometers. Such an ionosphere could be produced by solar photoionization and jovian magnetospheric particle impact in an atmosphere having a surface density of about 10(8) electrons per cubic centimeter. If this atmosphere is composed primarily of O2, then the principal ion is O2+ and the neutral atmosphere temperature implied by the 240-kilometer scale height is about 600 kelvin. If it is composed of H2O, the principal ion is H3O+ and the neutral temperature is about 340 kelvin. In either case, these temperatures are much higher than those observed on Europa's surface, and an external heating source from the jovian magnetosphere is required.

  19. 308 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 308 Building (Fuels Development Laboratory) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  20. 309 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 309 Building (Plutonium Fuels Utilization Program) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  1. GPS and Galileo Developments on Board the International Space Station With the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, Oscar; Fantinato, Samuele; Dalla Chiara, Andrea; Gamba, Giovanni; Crisci, Massimo; Giordana, Pietro; Enderle, Werner; Chelmins, David; Sands, Obed S.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) is a facility developed by NASA and hosted on board the International Space Station (ISS) on an external truss since 2013.It has the objective of testing navigation and communication experimentations with a Software Defined Radio (SDR) approach, which permits software updates for testing new experimentations.NASA has developed the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard for SDRs used in space and ground-based platforms to provide commonality among radio developments to provide enhanced capability. The hardware is equipped with both L band front-end radios and the NASA space network communicates with it using S-band, Ku-band and Ka-band links.In May 2016 Qascom started GARISS (GPS and Galileo Receiver for the ISS), an activity of experimentation in collaboration with ESA and NASA that has the objective to develop and validate the acquisition and processing of combined GPS and Galileo signals on board the ISS SCaN testbed. This paper has the objective to present the mission, and provide preliminary details about the challenges in the design, development and verification of the waveform that will be installed on equipment with limited resources. GARISS is also the first attempt to develop a waveform for the ISS as part of an international collaboration between US and Europe. Although the final mission objective is to target dual frequency processing, initial operations will foresee a single frequency processing. Initial results and trade-off between the two options, as well as the final decision will be presented and discussed. The limited resources on board the SCaN with respect to the challenging requirements to acquire and track contemporaneously two satellite navigation systems, with different modulations and data structure, led to the need to assess the possibility of aiding from ground through the S-band. This option would allow assistance to the space receiver in order to provide

  2. Mission operations technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, Giulio

    In the last decade, the operation of a spacecraft after launch has emerged as a major component of the total cost of the mission. This trend is sustained by the increasing complexity, flexibility, and data gathering capability of the space assets and by their greater reliability and consequent longevity. The trend can, however, be moderated by the progressive transfer of selected functions from the ground to the spacecraft and by application, on the ground, of new technology. Advances in ground operations derive from the introduction in the mission operations environment of advanced microprocessor-based workstations in the class of a few million instructions per second and from the selective application of artificial intelligence technology. In the last few years a number of these applications have been developed, tested in operational settings and successfully demonstrated to users. Some are now being integrated in mission operations facilities. An analysis of mission operations indicates that the key areas are: concurrent control of multiple missions; automated/interactive production of command sequences of high integrity at low cost; automated monitoring of spacecraft health and automated aides for fault diagnosis; automated allocation of resources; automated processing of science data; and high-fidelity, high-speed spacecraft simulation. Examples of major advances in selected areas are described.

  3. Precise orbit determination and point positioning using GPS, Glonass, Galileo and BeiDou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegedor J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available State of the art Precise Point Positioning (PPP is currently based on dual-frequency processing of GPS and Glonass navigation systems. The International GNSS Service (IGS is routinely providing the most accurate orbit and clock products for these constellations, allowing point positioning at centimeter-level accuracy. At the same time, the GNSS landscape is evolving rapidly, with the deployment of new constellations, such as Galileo and BeiDou. The BeiDou constellation currently consists of 14 operational satellites, and the 4 Galileo In-Orbit Validation (IOV satellites are transmitting initial Galileo signals. This paper focuses on the integration of Galileo and BeiDou in PPP, together with GPS and Glonass. Satellite orbits and clocks for all constellations are generated using a network adjustment with observation data collected by the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX, as well as from Fugro proprietary reference station network. The orbit processing strategy is described, and orbit accuracy for Galileo and BeiDou is assessed via orbit overlaps, for different arc lengths. Kinematic post-processed multi-GNSS positioning results are presented. The benefits of multiconstellation PPP are discussed in terms of enhanced availability and positioning accuracy.

  4. The dark side of the Scientific Revolution. The Biblical interpretation in Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fiorentino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates a hidden and surely singular – but far from marginal – aspect of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, in other words the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. First of all, this work analyzes the situation immediately before the advent of the fathers of the 17th Century Scientific Revolution like Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton, starting from the Council of Trent. This reconstruction aims to throw light on the particular way that Galileo and Newton intended to approach the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures with respect to the main tendencies of the Catholic Reformation of biblical hermeneutics. Their way is important both in itself and in relation to the Scientific Revolution. In itself because Galileo and Newton elaborate original theories that are not entirely in agreement with the predominant views and that are decidedly no less interesting than their pure scientific theories. In relation to the Scientific Revolution because the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures is addressed in an original fashion by both Galileo and Newton, also with the intent of facilitating the spread and approval of their own scientific theories in their respective socio-cultural environments. The primacy of nature is not manifested only in contrast to and outside the book of Scriptures, but conditions the Book of Scriptures, locating it within a precise cultural perspective and religious sense that are by no means contrary to Galileo and Newton’s views.

  5. Earth-based and Galileo SSI multispectral observations of eastern mare serenitatis and the Apollo 17 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesinger, H.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both the Apollo 17 and the Mare Serenitatis region were observed by Galileo during its fly-by in December 1992. We used earth-based multispectral data to define mare units which then can be compared with the results of the Galileo SSI data evaluation.

  6. Transformational Leadership & Professional Development for Digitally Rich Learning Environments: A Case Study of the Galileo Educational Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Michele; Clifford, Pat; Friesen, Sharon

    The Galileo Educational Network is an innovative educational reform initiative that brings learning to learners. Expert teachers work alongside teachers and students in schools to create new images of engaged learning, technology integration and professional development. This case study is based on the nine schools involved with Galileo in…

  7. Galileo and Descartes on Copernicanism and the cause of the tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaltz, Tad M

    2015-06-01

    Galileo and Descartes were on the front lines of the defense of Copernicanism against theological objections that took on special importance during the seventeenth century. Galileo attempted to overcome opposition to Copernicanism within the Catholic Church by offering a demonstration of this theory that appeals to the fact that the double motion of the earth is necessary as a cause of the tides. It turns out, however, that the details of Galileo's tidal theory compromise his demonstration. Far from attempting to provide a demonstration of the earth's motion, Descartes ultimately argued that his system is compatible with the determination of the Church that the earth is at rest. Nonetheless, Descartes's account of the cause of the tides creates difficulty for this argument. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Missions to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, D. V.; Baines, K. H.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Chassefiere, E.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Esposito, L. W.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lellouch, E.; Moroz, V. I.; Nagy, A. F.; Owen, T. C.; Oyama, K.-I.; Russell, C. T.; Taylor, F. W.; Young, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    Venus has always been a fascinating objective for planetary studies. At the beginning of the space era Venus became one of the first targets for spacecraft missions. Our neighbour in the solar system and, in size, the twin sister of Earth, Venus was expected to be very similar to our planet. However, the first phase of Venus spacecraft exploration in 1962-1992 by the family of Soviet Venera and Vega spacecraft and US Mariner, Pioneer Venus, and Magellan missions discovered an entirely different, exotic world hidden behind a curtain of dense clouds. These studies gave us a basic knowledge of the conditions on the planet, but generated many more questions concerning the atmospheric composition, chemistry, structure, dynamics, surface-atmosphere interactions, atmospheric and geological evolution, and the plasma environment. Despite all of this exploration by more than 20 spacecraft, the "morning star" still remains a mysterious world. But for more than a decade Venus has been a "forgotten" planet with no new missions featuring in the plans of the world space agencies. Now we are witnessing the revival of interest in this planet: the Venus Orbiter mission is approved in Japan, Venus Express - a European orbiter mission - has successfully passed the selection procedure in ESA, and several Venus Discovery proposals are knocking at the doors of NASA. The paper presents an exciting story of Venus spacecraft exploration, summarizes open scientific problems, and builds a bridge to the future missions.

  9. Validation of Galileo orbits using SLR with a focus on satellites launched into incorrect orbital planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Prange, Lars; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Bury, Grzegorz; Drożdżewski, Mateusz; Zajdel, Radosław; Hadas, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    The space segment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo consists of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft. The first pair of FOC satellites was launched into an incorrect, highly eccentric orbital plane with a lower than nominal inclination angle. All Galileo satellites are equipped with satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors which allow, for example, for the assessment of the orbit quality or for the SLR-GNSS co-location in space. The number of SLR observations to Galileo satellites has been continuously increasing thanks to a series of intensive campaigns devoted to SLR tracking of GNSS satellites initiated by the International Laser Ranging Service. This paper assesses systematic effects and quality of Galileo orbits using SLR data with a main focus on Galileo satellites launched into incorrect orbits. We compare the SLR observations with respect to microwave-based Galileo orbits generated by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) in the framework of the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment for the period 2014.0-2016.5. We analyze the SLR signature effect, which is characterized by the dependency of SLR residuals with respect to various incidence angles of laser beams for stations equipped with single-photon and multi-photon detectors. Surprisingly, the CODE orbit quality of satellites in the incorrect orbital planes is not worse than that of nominal FOC and IOV orbits. The RMS of SLR residuals is even lower by 5.0 and 1.5 mm for satellites in the incorrect orbital planes than for FOC and IOV satellites, respectively. The mean SLR offsets equal -44.9, -35.0, and -22.4 mm for IOV, FOC, and satellites in the incorrect orbital plane. Finally, we found that the empirical orbit models, which were originally designed for precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites in circular orbits, provide fully appropriate results also for highly eccentric orbits with variable linear

  10. The enigma of Galileo's eyesight: some novel observations on Galileo Galilei's vision and his progression to blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Galileo Galilei became blind. Before this happened he revealed that his left eye had always had less than perfect vision. A study of his written works, his handwriting, and the originals of the portraits undertaken during his lifetime indicate that this probably was the case. These portraits suggest that his left eye tended to lose fixation and that, at the age of 60, he suffered from a mucocoele of the right frontal sinus; but these conditions would not have caused blindness. Considering the systemic diseases from which he suffered over his lifetime, he could possibly have had a long standing uveitis with secondary pupillary block glaucoma, common in those with the group of conditions classified as sero-negative arthropathies. Posterior scleritis with secondary glaucoma is less likely. If either of these were the cause, then the disease was probably triggered by a well-documented, severe acute illness as a young adult, the inflammation being localized to the eye as a result of severe recurrent conjunctival infections in his youth. The intermittent nature of the visual loss, the normal appearance of the cornea and pupils in his portraits, the absence of any evidence of inflammatory joint disease, the presence of halos, and the severe nature of the pain-combined with the high level of visual acuity in between attacks and its persistence until the last few weeks of vision means that angle-closure glaucoma must also be considered. These suggestions might be confirmed or refuted by studying his remains. Application has been made for this to be done.

  11. An Eoetvoes versus a Galileo experiment: A study in two versus three-dimensional physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.J.; Nieto, M.M.; Goldman, T.

    1988-01-01

    We show how the net effect of two new approximately cancelling (vector and scalar) gravitational forces could produce a measureable effect from a horizontal thin slab in an Eoetvoes experiment, yet yield a null result at the same level for a Galileo experiment. The resolution is an example of two-versus three-dimensional physics and the cancelling nature of the two forces. Using two different earth models, we apply this result to the Australian mine gravity data of Stacey et al., the Brookhaven Eoetvoes experiment of Thieberger, and the Colorado Galileo experiment of Niebauer et al. (orig.)

  12. From Archimedean Hydrostatics to Post-Aristotelian Mechanics: Galileo's Early Manuscripts De motu antiquiora (ca. 1590)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    Galileo's early inquiries on motion and free fall in Pisa (1588-1592) can be regarded as a case study of multiple knowledge transfer at the very basic roots of modern mechanics. The treatise De motu, unpublished until 1890, is an original but unsuccessful attempt to go beyond Aristotelian physics by extending Archimedean hydrostatics to the dynamics of natural motion and reappraising the late-medieval impetus theory to account for violent motion and acceleration. I will discuss in particular why Galileo was forced to abandon his project before moving to Padua and how the manuscripts De motu provided him with a "research agenda" for further theoretical and experimental investigation.

  13. Between Copernicus and Galileo Christoph Clavius and the Collapse of Ptolemaic Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lattis, James M

    1994-01-01

    Between Copernicus and Galileo is the story of Christoph Clavius, the Jesuit astronomer and teacher whose work helped set the standards by which Galileo's famous claims appeared so radical, and whose teachings guided the intellectual and scientific agenda of the Church in the central years of the Scientific Revolution. Though relatively unknown today, Clavius was enormously influential throughout Europe in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries through his astronomy books—the standard texts used in many colleges and universities, and the tools with which Descartes, Gassendi, and Me

  14. Striking structural dynamism and nucleotide sequence variation of the transposon Galileo in the genome of Drosophila mojavensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Mar; Bello, Xabier; Puig, Marta; Maside, Xulio; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2013-02-04

    Galileo is a transposable element responsible for the generation of three chromosomal inversions in natural populations of Drosophila buzzatii. Although the most characteristic feature of Galileo is the long internally-repetitive terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), which resemble the Drosophila Foldback element, its transposase-coding sequence has led to its classification as a member of the P-element superfamily (Class II, subclass 1, TIR order). Furthermore, Galileo has a wide distribution in the genus Drosophila, since it has been found in 6 of the 12 Drosophila sequenced genomes. Among these species, D. mojavensis, the one closest to D. buzzatii, presented the highest diversity in sequence and structure of Galileo elements. In the present work, we carried out a thorough search and annotation of all the Galileo copies present in the D. mojavensis sequenced genome. In our set of 170 Galileo copies we have detected 5 Galileo subfamilies (C, D, E, F, and X) with different structures ranging from nearly complete, to only 2 TIR or solo TIR copies. Finally, we have explored the structural and length variation of the Galileo copies that point out the relatively frequent rearrangements within and between Galileo elements. Different mechanisms responsible for these rearrangements are discussed. Although Galileo is a transposable element with an ancient history in the D. mojavensis genome, our data indicate a recent transpositional activity. Furthermore, the dynamism in sequence and structure, mainly affecting the TIRs, suggests an active exchange of sequences among the copies. This exchange could lead to new subfamilies of the transposon, which could be crucial for the long-term survival of the element in the genome.

  15. The Galileo Probe: How it Has Changed Our Understanding of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    The Galileo Mission to Jupiter, which arrived in December of 1995, provided the first study by an orbiter, and the first in-situ sampling via an entry probe, of an outer planet atmosphere. The rationale for an entry probe is that, even from an orbiter, remote sensing of the jovian atmosphere could not adequately retrieve the information desired. This paper provides a current summary of the most significant aspects of the data returned from the Galileo entry probe. As a result of the probe measurements, there has been a reassessment of our understanding of outer planet formation and evolution of the solar system. The primary scientific objective of the Galileo probe was to determine the composition of the jovian atmosphere, which from remote sensing remained either very uncertain, or completely unknown, with respect to several key elements. The probe found that the global He mass fraction is. significantly above the value reported from the Voyager Jupiter flybys but is slightly below the protosolar value, implying that there has been some settling of He to the deep jovian interior. The probe He measurements have also led to a reevaluation of the Voyager He mass fraction for Saturn, which is now determined to be much closer to that of Jupiter. The elements C, N, S, Ar, Kr, Xe were all found to have global abundances approximately 3 times their respective solar abundances. This result has raised a number of fundamental issues with regard to properties of planetesimals and the solar nebula at the time of giant planet formation. Ne, on the other hand, was found to be highly depleted, probably as the result of it being carried along with helium as helium settles towards the deep interior. The global abundance of O was not obtained by the probe because of the influence of local processes at the probe entry site (PES), processes which depleted condensible species, in this case H2O, well below condensation levels. Other condensible species, namely NH3 and H2S, were

  16. Experimental Galileo System Time (E-GST): One Year of Real-Time Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    operations at the E-PTS in the current configuration. The frequency output of the H-maser is fed to a high-accuracy phase micro -stepper (namely an...turn, GaIn is a joint company consisting of Alenia Spazio, Alcatel Industries, Astrium GmbH, Astrium Ltd., and GSS (Galileo Sistemas y Servicios

  17. Galileo SSI and Cassini ISS Observations of Io's Pele Hotspot: Temperatures, Areas, and Variation with Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, J.; McEwen, A. S.; Milazzo, M.; Davies, A. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Geissler, P.

    2002-01-01

    Temperatures of Io's Pele hotspot were found using dual-filter observations from Galileo and Cassini. Temperatures average 1375 K, but vary widely over tens of minutes. Dropoff in emission with rotation consistent with lava fountaining at a lava lake. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Rolling and slipping down Galileo close-quote s inclined plane: Rhythms of the spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    In ''Two New Sciences'' (TNS) Galileo presents a number of theorems and propositions for smooth solid spheres released from rest and rolling a distance d in time t down an incline of height H and length L. We collect and summarize his results in a single grand proportionality P: d 1 /d 2 =(t 2 1 /t 2 2 )(H/L) 1 /(H/L) 2 . (P) From TNS it is clear that what we call P is assumed by Galileo to hold for all inclinations including vertical free fall with H/L=1. But in TNS he describes only experiments with gentle inclinations H/L 1 while rolling down a gentle incline is deflected so as to be launched horizontally with speed v 1 into a free fall orbit discovered by Galileo to be a parabola. The measured horizontal distance X 2 traveled in this parabolic orbit (for a given vertical distance fallen to the floor) was smaller than he expected, by a factor 0.84. But that is exactly what we (moderns) expect, since we know that Galileo did not appreciate the difference between rolling without slipping, and slipping on a frictionless surface

  19. Galileo's Last Fly-Bys of Io: NIMS Observations of Loki, Tupan, and Emakong Calderas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Kamp, L. W.; Davies, A. G.; Smythe, W. D.; Carlson, R. W.; Doute, S.; McEwen, A.; Turtle, E. P.; Leader, F.; Mehlman, R.

    2002-01-01

    NIMS results from the 2001 Galileo fly-bys of Io will be presented, focusing on three calderas that may contain lava lakes. Preliminary results from the January 2002 Io fly-by will be presented. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Jovian discoveries; how Galileo explored the Jovian system fifteen years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, T.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the famous astronomer Galileo Galilei improved his telescope making it possible to look further into space, people have been staring through telescopes into the far distance in search of new worlds. In January 1610 Galilei discovered the four biggest satellites of Jupiter: Io, Europa,

  1. On physical complementarity of Galileo and Lorentz groups in the electrodynamics of isotropic inertial moving media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barykin, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    A physical interpretation of the early detected ambiguity of the electrodynamic material equations of isotropic, inertially moving media which mathematically manifests itself through complementarity of the equations invariant under the Galileo group in some cases and in other ones - under the Lorentz group that can be experimentally discovered in the aberration phenomenon and Doppler effect

  2. Galileo's 'Jumping-Hill' Experiment in the Classroom--A Constructivist's Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Fritz

    2001-01-01

    Uses Galileo's 'jumping-hill' experiment as an historical element to improve science teaching in the classroom. Illustrates that the experiment can stimulate an animated discussion in the classroom, even if precise historic circumstances are not mentioned. The historical dimensions bring some color into the lesson, which increases attention. (SAH)

  3. Application of high-precision two-way ranging to Galileo Earth-1 encounter navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmeier, V. M.; Thurman, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    The application of precision two-way ranging to orbit determination with relatively short data arcs is investigated for the Galileo spacecraft's approach to its first Earth encounter (December 8, 1990). Analysis of previous S-band (2.3-GHz) ranging data acquired from Galileo indicated that under good signal conditions submeter precision and 10-m ranging accuracy were achieved. It is shown that ranging data of sufficient accuracy, when acquired from multiple stations, can sense the geocentric angular position of a distant spacecraft. A range data filtering technique, in which explicit modeling of range measurement bias parameters for each station pass is utilized, is shown to largely remove the systematic ground system calibration errors and transmission media effects from the Galileo range measurements, which would otherwise corrupt the angle-finding capabilities of the data. The accuracy of the Galileo orbit solutions obtained with S-band Doppler and precision ranging were found to be consistent with simple theoretical calculations, which predicted that angular accuracies of 0.26-0.34 microrad were achievable. In addition, the navigation accuracy achieved with precision ranging was marginally better than that obtained using delta-differenced one-way range (delta DOR), the principal data type that was previously used to obtain spacecraft angular position measurements operationally.

  4. William Whewell, Galileo, and reconceptualizing the history of science and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David B

    2011-12-20

    This paper advocates a reconceptualization of the history of science and religion. It is an approach to the subject that would aid research by historians of science as well as their message to others, both academic and non-academic. The approach is perfectly illustrated by the life and ideas of William Whewell and Galileo.

  5. Identification of multiple binding sites for the THAP domain of the Galileo transposase in the long terminal inverted-repeats☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Mar; Liu, Danxu; Ruiz, Alfredo; Chalmers, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Galileo is a DNA transposon responsible for the generation of several chromosomal inversions in Drosophila. In contrast to other members of the P-element superfamily, it has unusually long terminal inverted-repeats (TIRs) that resemble those of Foldback elements. To investigate the function of the long TIRs we derived consensus and ancestral sequences for the Galileo transposase in three species of Drosophilids. Following gene synthesis, we expressed and purified their constituent THAP domains and tested their binding activity towards the respective Galileo TIRs. DNase I footprinting located the most proximal DNA binding site about 70 bp from the transposon end. Using this sequence we identified further binding sites in the tandem repeats that are found within the long TIRs. This suggests that the synaptic complex between Galileo ends may be a complicated structure containing higher-order multimers of the transposase. We also attempted to reconstitute Galileo transposition in Drosophila embryos but no events were detected. Thus, although the limited numbers of Galileo copies in each genome were sufficient to provide functional consensus sequences for the THAP domains, they do not specify a fully active transposase. Since the THAP recognition sequence is short, and will occur many times in a large genome, it seems likely that the multiple binding sites within the long, internally repetitive, TIRs of Galileo and other Foldback-like elements may provide the transposase with its binding specificity. PMID:23648487

  6. Identification of multiple binding sites for the THAP domain of the Galileo transposase in the long terminal inverted-repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Mar; Liu, Danxu; Ruiz, Alfredo; Chalmers, Ronald

    2013-08-01

    Galileo is a DNA transposon responsible for the generation of several chromosomal inversions in Drosophila. In contrast to other members of the P-element superfamily, it has unusually long terminal inverted-repeats (TIRs) that resemble those of Foldback elements. To investigate the function of the long TIRs we derived consensus and ancestral sequences for the Galileo transposase in three species of Drosophilids. Following gene synthesis, we expressed and purified their constituent THAP domains and tested their binding activity towards the respective Galileo TIRs. DNase I footprinting located the most proximal DNA binding site about 70 bp from the transposon end. Using this sequence we identified further binding sites in the tandem repeats that are found within the long TIRs. This suggests that the synaptic complex between Galileo ends may be a complicated structure containing higher-order multimers of the transposase. We also attempted to reconstitute Galileo transposition in Drosophila embryos but no events were detected. Thus, although the limited numbers of Galileo copies in each genome were sufficient to provide functional consensus sequences for the THAP domains, they do not specify a fully active transposase. Since the THAP recognition sequence is short, and will occur many times in a large genome, it seems likely that the multiple binding sites within the long, internally repetitive, TIRs of Galileo and other Foldback-like elements may provide the transposase with its binding specificity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Gaia mission

    OpenAIRE

    Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia wa...

  8. Mission requirements for a manned earth observatory. Task 2: Reference mission definition and analyiss, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The mission requirements and conceptual design of manned earth observatory payloads for the 1980 time period are discussed. Projections of 1980 sensor technology and user data requirements were used to formulate typical basic criteria pertaining to experiments, sensor complements, and reference missions. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission selection and prioritization, (2) baseline mission analysis, (3) earth observation data handling and contingency plans, and (4) analysis of low cost mission definition and rationale.

  9. Spacelab life sciences 2 post mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckey, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Jay C. Buckey, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas served as an alternate payload specialist astronaut for the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Space Shuttle Mission from January 1992 through December 1993. This report summarizes his opinions on the mission and offers suggestions in the areas of selection, training, simulations, baseline data collection and mission operations. The report recognizes the contributions of the commander, payload commander and mission management team to the success of the mission. Dr. Buckey's main accomplishments during the mission are listed.

  10. Processing of the GALILEO fuel rod code model uncertainties within the AREVA LWR realistic thermal-mechanical analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailhe, P.; Barbier, B.; Garnier, C.; Landskron, H.; Sedlacek, R.; Arimescu, I.; Smith, M.; Bellanger, P.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of reliable tools and associated methodology able to accurately predict the LWR fuel behavior in all conditions is of great importance for safe and economic fuel usage. For that purpose, AREVA has developed its new global fuel rod performance code GALILEO along with its associated realistic thermal-mechanical analysis methodology. This realistic methodology is based on a Monte Carlo type random sampling of all relevant input variables. After having outlined the AREVA realistic methodology, this paper will be focused on the GALILEO code benchmarking process, on its extended experimental database and on the GALILEO model uncertainties assessment. The propagation of these model uncertainties through the AREVA realistic methodology is also presented. This GALILEO model uncertainties processing is of the utmost importance for accurate fuel design margin evaluation as illustrated on some application examples. With the submittal of Topical Report GALILEO to the U.S. NRC in 2013, GALILEO and its methodology are on the way to be industrially used in a wide range of irradiation conditions. (authors)

  11. The Role of Public Interaction with the Juno Mission: Contextual Information about the Atmosphere and Target Selection for the JunoCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. S.; Hansen, C. J.; Momary, T.; Bolton, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Among the many "firsts" of the Juno mission is the open enlistment of the public in the operation of its visible camera, JunoCam. Although the scientific thrust of the Juno mission is largely focused on innovative approaches to understanding the structure and composition of the interior of Jupiter, JunoCam was added to the payload largely to function in the role of education and public outreach (E/PO). For the first time, the public will be able to engage in the discussion and choice of targets for a major NASA mission, other than two images of Jupiter's polar regions that will be made on each orbit. The discussion about which "electable" features to image is enabled by a continuously updated map of Jupiter's cloud system while Jupiter is far enough from the sun to be observable by the amateur community. This map is created bi-weekly from a set of images uploaded by a world-wide network of amateur astronomers, ranging from very devoted astrophotographers to telescope and video `hobbyists'. Juno therefore engages the world-wide amateur-astronomy community as a vast network of co-investigators, whose products stimulate conversation and global public awareness of Jupiter and Juno's investigative role. Contributed images also provide a temporal context to inform the Juno atmospheric investigation team of the state and evolution of the atmosphere. These bi-weekly maps provide the focus for ongoing discussion about various planetary features over a long time frame. Approximately two weeks before Juno's closest approach to Jupiter on each orbit, starting in mid-November of 2016, the atmospheric features that have been under discussion and will be in the field of view of the instrument nominated for voting, and the public will vote on where to point JunoCam's "elective" features (each orbit will otherwise image the north polar region and south polar region from a non-oblique viewpoint for the first time in over 40 years since the passage of Pioneer 11. The Juno mission

  12. Galileo's new universe the revolution in our understanding of the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Maran, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The historical and social implications of the telescope and that instrument's modern-day significance are brought into startling focus in this fascinating account. When Galileo looked to the sky with his perspicillum, or spyglass, roughly 400 years ago, he could not have fathomed the amount of change his astonishing findings—a seemingly flat moon magically transformed into a dynamic, crater-filled orb and a large, black sky suddenly held millions of galaxies—would have on civilizations. Reflecting on how Galileo's world compares with contemporary society, this insightful analysis deftly moves from the cutting-edge technology available in 17th-century Europe to the unbelievable phenomena discovered during the last 50 years, documenting important astronomical advances and the effects they have had over the years.

  13. The stars of Galileo Galilei and the universal knowledge of Athanasius Kircher

    CERN Document Server

    Buonanno, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this fascinating book, the author traces the careers, ideas, discoveries, and inventions of two renowned scientists, Athanasius Kircher and Galileo Galilei, one a Jesuit, the other a sincere man of faith whose relations with the Jesuits deteriorated badly. The Author documents Kircher’s often intuitive work in many areas, including translating the hieroglyphs, developing sundials, and inventing the magic lantern, and explains how Kircher was a forerunner of Darwin in suggesting that animal species evolve. Galileo’s work on scales, telescopes, and sun spots is mapped and discussed, and care is taken to place his discoveries within their cultural environment. While Galileo is without doubt the “winner” in the comparison with Kircher, the latter achieved extraordinary insights by unconventional means. For all Galileo’s fine work, the author believes that scientists do need to regain the power of dreaming, vindicating Kirchner’s view.

  14. GPS, BDS and Galileo ionospheric correction models: An evaluation in range delay and position domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zishen; Li, Min; Yuan, Yunbin; Huo, Xingliang

    2018-05-01

    The performance of GPS Klobuchar (GPSKlob), BDS Klobuchar (BDSKlob) and NeQuick Galileo (NeQuickG) ionospheric correction models are evaluated in the range delay and position domains over China. The post-processed Klobuchar-style (CODKlob) coefficients provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) and our own fitted NeQuick coefficients (NeQuickC) are also included for comparison. In the range delay domain, BDS total electrons contents (TEC) derived from 20 international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) stations and GPS TEC obtained from 35 Crust Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC) stations are used as references. Compared to BDS TEC during the short period (doy 010-020, 2015), GPSKlob, BDSKlob and NeQuickG can correct 58.4, 66.7 and 54.7% of the ionospheric delay. Compared to GPS TEC for the long period (doy 001-180, 2015), the three ionospheric models can mitigate the ionospheric delay by 64.8, 65.4 and 68.1%, respectively. For the two comparison cases, CODKlob shows the worst performance, which only reduces 57.9% of the ionospheric range errors. NeQuickC exhibits the best performance, which outperforms GPSKlob, BDSKlob and NeQuickG by 6.7, 2.1 and 6.9%, respectively. In the position domain, single-frequency stand point positioning (SPP) was conducted at the selected 35 CMONC sites using GPS C/A pseudorange with and without ionospheric corrections. The vertical position error of the uncorrected case drops significantly from 10.3 m to 4.8, 4.6, 4.4 and 4.2 m for GPSKlob, CODKlob, BDSKlob and NeQuickG, however, the horizontal position error (3.2) merely decreases to 3.1, 2.7, 2.4 and 2.3 m, respectively. NeQuickG outperforms GPSKlob and BDSKlob by 5.8 and 1.9% in vertical component, and by 25.0 and 3.2% in horizontal component.

  15. The Faces of Saturn: Images and Texts from Augustus through Dürer to Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, M. H.

    2013-04-01

    This paper follows the thread(s) of Saturn in astrology and art from the Babylonians to Galileo, paying special attention to the planet's political importance from Augustus to the Medici and to its medical/psychological significance from Ficino through Dürer. In passing, I extend David Pingree's astrological interpretation of Dürer's Melencholia I and propose a very personal rationale for the engraving, namely as a memorial to his mother.

  16. The transposon Galileo generates natural chromosomal inversions in Drosophila by ectopic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delprat, Alejandra; Negre, Bàrbara; Puig, Marta; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2009-11-18

    Transposable elements (TEs) are responsible for the generation of chromosomal inversions in several groups of organisms. However, in Drosophila and other Dipterans, where inversions are abundant both as intraspecific polymorphisms and interspecific fixed differences, the evidence for a role of TEs is scarce. Previous work revealed that the transposon Galileo was involved in the generation of two polymorphic inversions of Drosophila buzzatii. To assess the impact of TEs in Drosophila chromosomal evolution and shed light on the mechanism involved, we isolated and sequenced the two breakpoints of another widespread polymorphic inversion from D. buzzatii, 2z(3). In the non inverted chromosome, the 2z(3) distal breakpoint was located between genes CG2046 and CG10326 whereas the proximal breakpoint lies between two novel genes that we have named Dlh and Mdp. In the inverted chromosome, the analysis of the breakpoint sequences revealed relatively large insertions (2,870-bp and 4,786-bp long) including two copies of the transposon Galileo (subfamily Newton), one at each breakpoint, plus several other TEs. The two Galileo copies: (i) are inserted in opposite orientation; (ii) present exchanged target site duplications; and (iii) are both chimeric. Our observations provide the best evidence gathered so far for the role of TEs in the generation of Drosophila inversions. In addition, they show unequivocally that ectopic recombination is the causative mechanism. The fact that the three polymorphic D. buzzatii inversions investigated so far were generated by the same transposon family is remarkable and is conceivably due to Galileo's unusual structure and current (or recent) transpositional activity.

  17. The Role of Public Interaction with the Juno Mission: Documentation, Discussion, Selection and Processing of JunoCam Images of Jovian Cloud Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Hansen, Candice; Momary, Thomas; Bolton, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Among the many "firsts" of the Juno mission is the open enlistment of the public in the operation of its visible camera, JunoCam. Although the scientific thrust of the Juno mission is largely focused on innovative approaches to understanding the structure and composition of Jupiter's interior, JunoCam was added to the payload largely to function in the role of education and public outreach (E/PO). For the first time, the public was able to engage in the discussion and choice of targets for a major NASA mission. The discussion about which features to image is enabled by a continuously updated map of Jupiter's cloud system while Jupiter is far enough from the sun to be observable by non-professional astronomers. Contributors range from very devoted astrophotographers to telescope and video 'hobbyists'. Juno therefore engages the world-wide amateur-astronomy community as a vast network of co-investigators, whose products stimulate conversation and global public awareness of Jupiter and Juno's investigative role. Contributed images also provide a temporal context to inform the Juno atmospheric investigation team of the state and evolution of the atmosphere. The contributed images are used to create s global map on a bi-weekly basis. These bi-weekly maps provide the focus for ongoing discussion about various planetary features over a long time frame. Approximately two weeks before Juno's closest approach to Jupiter on each orbit ("perijove" or PJ), starting in mid-November of 2016 in preparation for PJ3 on December 11, the atmospheric features that have been under discussion and available to JunoCam on that perijove were nominated for voting, and the public at large voted on where to point JunoCam's "elective" features. In addition, JunoCam provides the first close-up images of Jupiter's polar regions from a non-oblique viewpoint for the first time in over 40 years since the passage of Pioneer 11 over Jupiter's north pole. The Juno mission science team also provides

  18. Observations and temperatures of Io's Pele Patera from Cassini and Galileo spacecraft images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, J.; McEwen, A.S.; Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Davies, A.G.; Turtle, E.P.; Dawson, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Pele has been the most intense high-temperature hotspot on Io to be continuously active during the Galileo monitoring from 1996-2001. A suite of characteristics suggests that Pele is an active lava lake inside a volcanic depression. In 2000-2001, Pele was observed by two spacecraft, Cassini and Galileo. The Cassini observations revealed that Pele is variable in activity over timescales of minutes, typical of active lava lakes in Hawaii and Ethiopia. These observations also revealed that the short-wavelength thermal emission from Pele decreases with rotation of Io by a factor significantly greater than the cosine of the emission angle, and that the color temperature becomes more variable and hotter at high emission angles. This behavior suggests that a significant portion of the visible thermal emission from Pele comes from lava fountains within a topographically confined lava body. High spatial resolution, nightside images from a Galileo flyby in October 2001 revealed a large, relatively cool (Pele has lavas with ultramafic compositions. The long-lived, vigorous activity of what is most likely an actively overturning lava lake in Pele Patera indicates that there is a strong connection to a large, stable magma source region. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What Does Galileo's Discovery of Jupiter's Moons Tell Us About the Process of Scientific Discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered Jupiter''smoons with the aid of a new morepowerful telescope of his invention. Analysisof his report reveals that his discoveryinvolved the use of at least three cycles ofhypothetico-deductive reasoning. Galileofirst used hypothetico-deductive reasoning to generateand reject a fixed star hypothesis.He then generated and rejected an ad hocastronomers-made-a-mistake hypothesis.Finally, he generated, tested, and accepted a moonhypothesis. Galileo''s reasoningis modeled in terms of Piaget''s equilibration theory,Grossberg''s theory of neurologicalactivity, a neural network model proposed by Levine &Prueitt, and another proposedby Kosslyn & Koenig. Given that hypothetico-deductivereasoning has played a rolein other important scientific discoveries, thequestion is asked whether it plays a rolein all important scientific discoveries. In otherwords, is hypothetico-deductive reasoningthe essence of the scientific method? Possiblealternative scientific methods, such asBaconian induction and combinatorial analysis,are explored and rejected as viablealternatives. Educational implications of thishypothetico-deductive view of scienceare discussed.

  20. Perspectives for the gamma-ray spectroscopy at LNL: the GALILEO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ur, Calin A

    2012-01-01

    GALILEO is a new 4π high-resolution γ-ray array in which GASP tapered detectors and Gammapool Cluster detectors will be used together. The array will be located at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and it will make use of the stable beams provided by the Tandem-ALPI-PIAVE accelerator complex and, in the future, of the exotic radioactive ion beams provided by SPES. The project requires the transformation of the original EUROBALL 7-capsules cluster detectors into triple cluster detectors and several R and D activities are ongoing for the development of a triple cluster cryostat and for building the corresponding anti-Compton shields. The development of the front-end, digital sampling, preprocessing and readout electronics is taking advantage of the most recent advances obtained within the AGATA project. A strong physics case was made for the building of the GALILEO array based on Letters of Intent submitted by several research groups from all over the world. In the present paper a brief summary of the status and the perspectives of the GALILEO project is given.

  1. Global Ionospheric Modelling using Multi-GNSS: BeiDou, Galileo, GLONASS and GPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xie, Weiliang; Zhang, Keke; Yuan, Yongqiang; Li, Xingxing

    2016-09-15

    The emergence of China's Beidou, Europe's Galileo and Russia's GLONASS satellites has multiplied the number of ionospheric piercing points (IPP) offered by GPS alone. This provides great opportunities for deriving precise global ionospheric maps (GIMs) with high resolution to improve positioning accuracy and ionospheric monitoring capabilities. In this paper, the GIM is developed based on multi-GNSS (GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo) observations in the current multi-constellation condition. The performance and contribution of multi-GNSS for ionospheric modelling are carefully analysed and evaluated. Multi-GNSS observations of over 300 stations from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and International GNSS Service (IGS) networks for two months are processed. The results show that the multi-GNSS GIM products are better than those of GIM products based on GPS-only. Differential code biases (DCB) are by-products of the multi-GNSS ionosphere modelling, the corresponding standard deviations (STDs) are 0.06 ns, 0.10 ns, 0.18 ns and 0.15 ns for GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo, respectively in satellite, and the STDs for the receiver are approximately 0.2~0.4 ns. The single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) results indicate that the ionospheric modelling accuracy of the proposed method based on multi-GNSS observations is better than that of the current dual-system GIM in specific areas.

  2. GalileoMobile, sharing astronomy with students and teachers around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Herrera, S.; GalileoMobile Team

    2017-03-01

    GalileoMobile is a non-profit itinerant science outreach initiative that brings Astronomy closer to young people in areas with little or no access to outreach programs. We perform astronomy-related activities in schools and communities we visit and encourage follow-up activities through teacher training workshops and the donation of telescopes and other educational resources. GalileoMobile is an unprecedented initiative promoting science knowledge and the interaction beyond borders through Astronomy while raising awareness for the diversity of human cultures, conveying the message of unity under the same sky. We take advantage of the local astronomical culture of the visited communities to establish a dialogue between different ways of understanding the world and to share different types of knowledge (historic, scientific, anthropological...), encouraging a process of mutual learning. GalileoMobile is composed of 15 volunteer team members and more than 40 collaborators from different countries. Since its creation in 2008, we have organised expeditions in Chile, Bolivia and Peru (2009), Bolivia (2012), India (2012) and Uganda (2013), Brazil and Bolivia (2014), Colombia (2014) and extended actions in Portugal (2012, 2013), Nepal (2013), Guatemala (2013), Dominican Republic (2013), the United States (2013) and Haiti (2014). Our initiative for 2015, Constellation (www.constellationproject.org), aimed to establish a South American network of schools committed to the long-term organisation of astronomical outreach activities amongst their pupils and local communities. This project was supported by the Cosmic Light Project of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and partially funded by the Office for Astronomy Development. In total, we have reached over 15,000 students; 1,400 teachers and 6,000 people in different communities over the past eight years. Our efforts and activities have been shared with the public in over 80 conferences and talks, including a TEDx talk

  3. Let's Repair the Broken Galileo Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireš, Marián

    2018-01-01

    We have developed and verified laboratory work as guided inquiry for upper secondary level students, focusing on conceptual understanding of the physical principle that forms the basis of temperature measurement, and on improvement of selected skills. Conceptual pre-test questions initiate the students' interest and help identify input…

  4. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission: copper/water axially-grooved heat pipe topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazza, N.P.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the major accomplishments for the development, fabrication, and testing of axially-grooved copper/water heat pipes for Selenide Isotopic Generator (SIG) applications. The early development consisted of chemical, physical, and analytical studies to define an axially-grooved tube geometry that could be successfully fabricated and provide the desired long term (up to seven years) performance is presented. Heat pipe fabrication procedures, measured performance and accelerated life testing of heat pipes S/Ns AL-5 and LT-57 conducted at B and K Engineering are discussed. S/N AL-5 was the first axially-grooved copper/water heat pipe that was fabricated with the new internal coating process for cupric oxide (CuO) and the cleaning and water preparation methods developed by Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Heat pipe S/N LT-57 was fabricated along with sixty other axially-grooved heat pipes allocated for life testing at Teledyne Energy Systems. As of June 25, 1979, heat pipes S/Ns AL-5 and LT-57 have been accelerated life tested for 13,310 and 6,292 respectively, at a nominal operating temperature of 225 0 C without any signs of thermal performance degradation

  5. Favelleran di te sempre le stelle Galileo, i primi Lincei e l'astronomia : Biblioteca dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei e Corsiniana, Roma 6 aprile - 30 giugno 2009

    CERN Document Server

    Romanello, Alessandro; Trentini, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Catalogo dell'esposizione del prezioso patrimonio custodito nella Biblioteca dell'Accademia dei Lincei, costituito da documenti manoscritti riguardanti gli esordi e da libri stampati di Galileo e su Galileo.

  6. Agricultural biogas. Intermediate assessment - Biogas Mission. The Energivie Program - Projects of development of farm-based methanization. Site selection, Visits of installations, Consultation of installers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Michel

    2005-06-01

    A first document presents Alsace pilot projects: technical and economic recalls, site pre-selection, project leader, description of the mobilisation of lipid co-substrates (interest of fats, modalities), regulatory context (for biogas production, electric energy supply and digestate use). It also presents installer companies which have been consulted for these projects. Another document proposes technical and economical analyses of proposals made by installers, and an analysis of deadlocking points for these pilot projects. Technical, economic, and environmental elements, as well as those dealing with installation management, costs and construction delays to be provided by the consulted company are indicated and commented

  7. Flight of a UV spectrophotometer aboard Galileo 2, the NASA Convair 990 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, B.; Hunderwadel, J. L.; Hanser, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    An ultraviolet interference-filter spectrophotometer (UVS) fabricated for aircraft-borne use on the DOT Climatic Impact Assessment Program (CIAP) has been successfully tested in a series of flights on the NASA Convair 990, Galileo II. UV flux data and the calculated total ozone above the flight path are reported for several of the flights. Good agreement is obtained with the total ozone as deducted by integration of an ozone sonde vertical profile obtained at Wallops Island, Virginia near the time of a CV-990 underpass. Possible advantages of use of the UVS in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program are discussed.

  8. Galileo-invariant theory of low energy pion-nucleus scattering. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, R.

    1983-01-01

    Using two versions of the Galileo-invariant optical model, π - - 4 He elastic scattering cross sections were calculated in the energy interval 50 to 260 MeV. Level shifts and widths of several light π-mesoatoms were estimated in the Born approximation. Whereas the (A+1)-body model appears to be more suitable in the resonance region, the two-body model yields surprisingly good results for both the low-energy scattering and the characteristics of π-mesoatoms. (author)

  9. Galileo-invariant theory of low energy pion-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, R.

    1980-01-01

    Two classes of Galileo-invariant optical models are constructed for pion elastic scattering by nuclei. The first, the two-body model, has been obtained assuming that the pion-bound nucleon dynamics is determined by the pion-nucleon kinetic energy. In deriving the second model, the (A+1)-body dynamics has been taken into account. The technique of effective nucleon momenta maintains the nonlocal propagation of the pion-target nucleon subsystem through the nucleus in contrast with the standard static approximation

  10. Galileo-invariant theory of low energy pion-nucleus scattering. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, R.

    1983-01-01

    Two classes of Galileo-invariant optical models are constructed for pion elastic scattering by nuclei. The former, the two-body model, was obtained assuming that the pion-bound nucleon dynamics is determined by the pion-nucleon kinetic energy. In deriving the latter model, the (A+1)-body dynamics was taken into account. The technique of effective nucleon momenta maintains the nonlocal propagation of the pion-target nucleon subsystem through the nucleus in contrast with the standard static approximation. (author)

  11. Positioning performance improvements with European multiple-frequency satellite navigation - Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shengyue

    2008-10-01

    The rapid development of Global Positioning System has demonstrated the advantages of satellite based navigation systems. In near future, there will be a number of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) available, i.e. modernized GPS, Galileo, restored GLONASS, BeiDou and many other regional GNSS augmentation systems. Undoubtedly, the new GNSS systems will significantly improve navigation performance over current GPS, with a better satellite coverage and multiple satellite signal bands. In this dissertation, the positioning performance improvement of new GNSS has been investigated based on both theoretical analysis and numerical study. First of all, the navigation performance of new GNSS systems has been analyzed, particularly for urban applications. The study has demonstrated that Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) performance can be significantly improved with multiple satellite constellations, although the position accuracy improvement is limited. Based on a three-dimensional urban building model in Hong Kong streets, it is found that positioning availability is still very low in high-rising urban areas, even with three GNSS systems. On the other hand, the discontinuity of navigation solutions is significantly reduced with the combined constellations. Therefore, it is possible to use cheap DR systems to bridge the gaps of GNSS positioning, with high accuracy. Secondly, the ambiguity resolution performance has been investigated with Galileo multiple frequency band signals. The ambiguity resolution performance of three different algorithms is compared, including CAR, ILS and improved CAR methods (a new method proposed in this study). For short baselines, with four frequency Galileo data, it is highly possible to achieve reliable single epoch ambiguity resolution, when the carrier phase noise level is reasonably low (i.e. less than 6mm). For long baselines (up to 800 km), the integer ambiguity can be determined within 1 min on average. Ambiguity

  12. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Architecture and Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundas, David

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses some of the key trades that have been completed, including the selection of the Core Observatory s orbit, orbit maintenance trades, and design issues related to meeting orbital debris requirements.

  13. NASA's Discovery Mission to (16) Psyche: Visiting a Metal World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Bell, J. F., III

    2017-09-01

    The Psyche mission is one of NASA's most recent Discovery mission selections. It is designed to explore the large metallic Main Belt asteroid (16) Psyche and test the hypothesis that it is the exposed core of an ancient differentiated planetesimal.

  14. KEPLER Mission: development and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borucki, William J

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170 000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many ‘blind alleys’ before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170 000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth. (review article)

  15. GAUDI: A Preparatory Archive for the COROT Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.; Catala, C.; Garrido, R.; Poretti, E.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Gutiérrez, R.; González, R.; Mantegazza, L.; Neiner, C.; Fremat, Y.; Charpinet, S.; Weiss, W.; Amado, P. J.; Rainer, M.; Tsymbal, V.; Lyashko, D.; Ballereau, D.; Bouret, J. C.; Hua, T.; Katz, D.; Lignières, F.; Lüftinger, T.; Mittermayer, P.; Nesvacil, N.; Soubiran, C.; van't Veer-Menneret, C.; Goupil, M. J.; Costa, V.; Rolland, A.; Antonello, E.; Bossi, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Rodrigo, C.; Aerts, C.; Butler, C. J.; Guenther, E.; Hatzes, A.

    2005-01-01

    The GAUDI database (Ground-based Asteroseismology Uniform Database Interface) is a preparatory archive for the COROT (Convection, Rotation, and Planetary Transits) mission developed at the Laboratorio de Astrofísica Espacial y Física Fundamental (Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics, Spain). Its intention is to make the ground-based observations obtained in preparation of the asteroseismology program available in a simple and efficient way. It contains spectroscopic and photometric data together with inferred physical parameters for more than 1500 objects gathered since 1998 January 1998 in 6 years of observational campaigns. In this paper, the main functions and characteristics of the system are described. Based on observations collected at La Silla (ESO proposals 67.D-0169, 69.D-0166, and 70.D-0110), Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (proposal 6-20-068), Observatoire de Haute-Provence, the South African Astronomical Observatory, Tautenburg Observatory, and Sierra Nevada Observatory.

  16. Galileo multispectral imaging of the north polar and eastern limb regions of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A.; Klaasen, K.P.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C.; Neukum, G.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Heffernan, C.; Breneman, H.; Anger, C.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Gierasch, P.J.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Pilcher, C.B.; Thompson, W.R.; Veverka, J.; Sagan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.

  17. Comparison of Ultra-Rapid Orbit Prediction Strategies for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wei; Xie, Xin

    2018-02-06

    Currently, ultra-rapid orbits play an important role in the high-speed development of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) real-time applications. This contribution focuses on the impact of the fitting arc length of observed orbits and solar radiation pressure (SRP) on the orbit prediction performance for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. One full year's precise ephemerides during 2015 were used as fitted observed orbits and then as references to be compared with predicted orbits, together with known earth rotation parameters. The full nine-parameter Empirical Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) Orbit Model (ECOM) and its reduced version were chosen in our study. The arc lengths of observed fitted orbits that showed the smallest weighted root mean squares (WRMSs) and medians of the orbit differences after a Helmert transformation fell between 40 and 45 h for GPS and GLONASS and between 42 and 48 h for Galileo, while the WRMS values and medians become flat after a 42 h arc length for BeiDou. The stability of the Helmert transformation and SRP parameters also confirmed the similar optimal arc lengths. The range around 42-45 h is suggested to be the optimal arc length interval of the fitted observed orbits for the multi-GNSS joint solution of ultra-rapid orbits.

  18. Comparison of Ultra-Rapid Orbit Prediction Strategies for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Geng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ultra-rapid orbits play an important role in the high-speed development of global navigation satellite system (GNSS real-time applications. This contribution focuses on the impact of the fitting arc length of observed orbits and solar radiation pressure (SRP on the orbit prediction performance for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. One full year’s precise ephemerides during 2015 were used as fitted observed orbits and then as references to be compared with predicted orbits, together with known earth rotation parameters. The full nine-parameter Empirical Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE Orbit Model (ECOM and its reduced version were chosen in our study. The arc lengths of observed fitted orbits that showed the smallest weighted root mean squares (WRMSs and medians of the orbit differences after a Helmert transformation fell between 40 and 45 h for GPS and GLONASS and between 42 and 48 h for Galileo, while the WRMS values and medians become flat after a 42 h arc length for BeiDou. The stability of the Helmert transformation and SRP parameters also confirmed the similar optimal arc lengths. The range around 42–45 h is suggested to be the optimal arc length interval of the fitted observed orbits for the multi-GNSS joint solution of ultra-rapid orbits.

  19. On the use of history of mathematics: an introduction to Galileo's study of free fall motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce Campuzano, Juan Carlos; Matthews, Kelly E.; Adams, Peter

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report on an experimental activity for discussing the concepts of speed, instantaneous speed and acceleration, generally introduced in first year university courses of calculus or physics. Rather than developing the ideas of calculus and using them to explain these basic concepts for the study of motion, we led 82 first year university students through Galileo's experiments designed to investigate the motion of falling bodies, and his geometrical explanation of his results, via simple dynamic geometric applets designed with GeoGebra. Our goal was to enhance the students' development of mathematical thinking. Through a scholarship of teaching and learning study design, we captured data from students before, during and after the activity. Findings suggest that the historical development presented to the students helped to show the growth and evolution of the ideas and made visible authentic ways of thinking mathematically. Importantly, the activity prompted students to question and rethink what they knew about speed and acceleration, and also to appreciate the novel concepts of instantaneous speed and acceleration at which Galileo arrived.

  20. Possible concepts for an in situ Saturn probe mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Mousis, Olivier; Atkinson, David H.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Reh, Kim R.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Atreya, Sushil; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cavalie, Thibault; Colaprete, Anthony; Gautier, Daniel; Guillot, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Marty, Bernard; Morse, Andy; Sims, Jon; Spilker, Tom; Spilker, Linda

    2014-05-01

    In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere would bring insights in two broad themes: the formation history of our solar system and the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. The science case for in situ measurements at Saturn are developed in [1] and two companion abstracts (see Mousis et al., and Atkinson et al.). They are summarized here. Measurements of Saturn's bulk chemical and isotopic composition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula and hence on the formation mechanisms. An in situ probe, penetrating from the upper atmosphere (μbar level) into the convective weather layer to a minimum depth of 10 bar, would also contribute to our knowledge of Saturn's atmospheric structure, dynamics, composition, chemistry and cloud-forming processes. Different mission architectures are envisaged, all based on an entry probe that would descend through Saturn's stratosphere and troposphere under parachute down to a minimum of 10 bars [1]. Future studies will focus on the trade-offs between science return and the added design complexity of a probe that could operate at pressures larger than 10 bars. Accelerometry measurements may also be performed during the entry phase in the higher part of the stratosphere prior to starting measurements under parachute. A carrier system would be required to deliver the probe along its interplanetary trajectory to the desired atmospheric entry point at Saturn. The entry site would be carefully selected. Three possible mission configurations are currently under study (with different risk/cost trades): • Configuration 1: Probe + Carrier. After probe delivery, the carrier would follow its path and be destroyed during atmospheric entry, but could perform pre-entry science. The carrier would not be used as a radio relay, but the probe would transmit its data to the ground system via a direct-to-Earth (DTE) RF link; • Configuration 2: Probe + Carrier/Relay. The probe would detach from the

  1. Planning For Multiple NASA Missions With Use Of Enabling Radioisotope Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2013-02-01

    Since the early 1960’s the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have provided radioisotope power systems (RPS) to NASA as an enabling technology for deep space and various planetary missions. They provide reliable power in situations where solar and/or battery power sources are either untenable or would place an undue mass burden on the mission. In the modern era of the past twenty years there has been no time that multiple missions have been considered for launching from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during the same year. The closest proximity of missions that involved radioisotope power systems would be that of Galileo (October 1989) and Ulysses (October 1990). The closest that involved radioisotope heater units would be the small rovers Spirit and Opportunity (May and July 2003) used in the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission. It can be argued that the rovers sent to Mars in 2003 were essentially a special case since they staged in the same facility and used a pair of small launch vehicles (Delta II). This paper examines constraints on the frequency of use of radioisotope power systems with regard to launching them from Kennedy Space Center using currently available launch vehicles. This knowledge may be useful as NASA plans for its future deep space or planetary missions where radioisotope power systems are used as an enabling technology. Previous descriptions have focused on single mission chronologies and not analyzed the timelines with an emphasis on multiple missions.

  2. Cryogenic propulsion for lunar and Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Larry

    1988-01-01

    Future missions to the moon and Mars have been investigated with regard to propulsion system selection. The results of this analysis show that near state-of-the-art LO2/LH2 propulsion technology provides a feasible means of performing lunar missions and trans-Mars injections. In other words, existing cryogenic space engines with certain modifications and product improvements would be suitable for these missions. In addition, present day cryogenic system tankage and structural weights appear to scale reasonably when sizing for large payload and high energy missions such as sending men to Mars.

  3. LISA Mission and System architectures and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gath, Peter F; Weise, Dennis; Schulte, Hans-Reiner; Johann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the LISA Mission Formulation Study, the LISA System was studied in detail and a new baseline architecture for the whole mission was established. This new baseline is the result of trade-offs on both, mission and system level. The paper gives an overview of the different mission scenarios and configurations that were studied in connection with their corresponding advantages and disadvantages as well as performance estimates. Differences in the required technologies and their influence on the overall performance budgets are highlighted for all configurations. For the selected baseline concept, a more detailed description of the configuration is given and open issues in the technologies involved are discussed.

  4. LISA Mission and System architectures and performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gath, Peter F; Weise, Dennis; Schulte, Hans-Reiner; Johann, Ulrich, E-mail: peter.gath@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium GmbH Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    In the context of the LISA Mission Formulation Study, the LISA System was studied in detail and a new baseline architecture for the whole mission was established. This new baseline is the result of trade-offs on both, mission and system level. The paper gives an overview of the different mission scenarios and configurations that were studied in connection with their corresponding advantages and disadvantages as well as performance estimates. Differences in the required technologies and their influence on the overall performance budgets are highlighted for all configurations. For the selected baseline concept, a more detailed description of the configuration is given and open issues in the technologies involved are discussed.

  5. Possible LISA Technology Applications for Other Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has been selected as the third large class mission launch opportunity of the Cosmic Visions Program by the European Space Agency (ESA). LISA science will explore a rich spectrum of astrophysical gravitational-wave sources expected at frequencies between 0.0001 and 0.1 Hz and complement the work of other observatories and missions, both space and ground-based, electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic. Similarly, LISA technology may find applications for other missions. This paper will describe the capabilities of some of the key technologies and discuss possible contributions to other missions.

  6. The Galileo Bias: A Naive Conceptual Belief That Influences People's Perceptions and Performance in a Ball-Dropping Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D.; McBeath, Michael K.; Madigan, Sean C.; Sugar, Thomas G.

    2005-01-01

    This research introduces a new naive physics belief, the Galileo bias, whereby people ignore air resistance and falsely believe that all objects fall at the same rate. Survey results revealed that this bias is held by many and is surprisingly strongest for those with formal physics instruction. In 2 experiments, 98 participants dropped ball pairs…

  7. Fisica per poeti lo scienziato come uomo e artista : storia della fisica da Galileo ai giorni nostri

    CERN Document Server

    March, Robert H

    1994-01-01

    Un'intensa lezione di oggettività scientifica attraverso i secoli, alla ricerca delle verità ultime della natura. Da Galileo ad oggi, intuizioni, errori, grandi scoperte dei massimi protagonisti della fisica classica e moderna: la scienza vissuta come un'appassionante avventura.

  8. The Foldback-like element Galileo belongs to the P superfamily of DNA transposons and is widespread within the Drosophila genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Mar; Puig, Marta; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2008-02-26

    Galileo is the only transposable element (TE) known to have generated natural chromosomal inversions in the genus Drosophila. It was discovered in Drosophila buzzatii and classified as a Foldback-like element because of its long, internally repetitive, terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and lack of coding capacity. Here, we characterized a seemingly complete copy of Galileo from the D. buzzatii genome. It is 5,406 bp long, possesses 1,229-bp TIRs, and encodes a 912-aa transposase similar to those of the Drosophila melanogaster 1360 (Hoppel) and P elements. We also searched the recently available genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species for elements similar to Dbuz\\Galileo by using bioinformatic tools. Galileo was found in six species (ananassae, willistoni, peudoobscura, persimilis, virilis, and mojavensis) from the two main lineages within the Drosophila genus. Our observations place Galileo within the P superfamily of cut-and-paste transposons and extend considerably its phylogenetic distribution. The interspecific distribution of Galileo indicates an ancient presence in the genus, but the phylogenetic tree built with the transposase amino acid sequences contrasts significantly with that of the species, indicating lineage sorting and/or horizontal transfer events. Our results also suggest that Foldback-like elements such as Galileo may evolve from DNA-based transposon ancestors by loss of the transposase gene and disproportionate elongation of TIRs.

  9. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  10. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  11. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouklik, I [NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future.

  12. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    1996-01-01

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future

  13. Multi-GNSS phase delay estimation and PPP ambiguity resolution: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Keke; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wickert, Jens

    2018-06-01

    This paper focuses on the precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR) using the observations acquired from four systems: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo (GCRE). A GCRE four-system uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation model and multi-GNSS undifferenced PPP AR method were developed in order to utilize the observations from all systems. For UPD estimation, the GCRE-combined PPP solutions of the globally distributed MGEX and IGS stations are performed to obtain four-system float ambiguities and then UPDs of GCRE satellites can be precisely estimated from these ambiguities. The quality of UPD products in terms of temporal stability and residual distributions is investigated for GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo satellites, respectively. The BDS satellite-induced code biases were corrected for GEO, IGSO, and MEO satellites before the UPD estimation. The UPD results of global and regional networks were also evaluated for Galileo and BDS, respectively. As a result of the frequency-division multiple-access strategy of GLONASS, the UPD estimation was performed using a network of homogeneous receivers including three commonly used GNSS receivers (TRIMBLE NETR9, JAVAD TRE_G3TH DELTA, and LEICA). Data recorded from 140 MGEX and IGS stations for a 30-day period in January in 2017 were used to validate the proposed GCRE UPD estimation and multi-GNSS dual-frequency PPP AR. Our results show that GCRE four-system PPP AR enables the fastest time to first fix (TTFF) solutions and the highest accuracy for all three coordinate components compared to the single and dual system. An average TTFF of 9.21 min with 7{°} cutoff elevation angle can be achieved for GCRE PPP AR, which is much shorter than that of GPS (18.07 min), GR (12.10 min), GE (15.36 min) and GC (13.21 min). With observations length of 10 min, the positioning accuracy of the GCRE fixed solution is 1.84, 1.11, and 1.53 cm, while the GPS-only result is 2.25, 1.29, and 9.73 cm for the east, north, and vertical

  14. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  15. Radiation analysis for manned missions to the Jupiter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, G; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Tripathi, R K; Wilson, J W

    2004-01-01

    An analysis for manned missions targeted to the Jovian system has been performed in the framework of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program on Human Exploration beyond Mars. The missions were targeted to the Jupiter satellite Callisto. The mission analysis has been divided into three main phases, namely the interplanetary cruise, the Jupiter orbital insertion, and the surface landing and exploration phases. The interplanetary phase is based on departure from the Earth-Moon L1 point. Interplanetary trajectories based on the use of different propulsion systems have been considered, with resulting overall cruise phase duration varying between two and five years. The Jupiter-approach and the orbital insertion trajectories are considered in detail, with the spacecraft crossing the Jupiter radiation belts and staying around the landing target. In the surface exploration phase the stay on the Callisto surface is considered. The satellite surface composition has been modeled based on the most recent results from the GALILEO spacecraft. In the transport computations the surface backscattering has been duly taken into account. Particle transport has been performed with the HZETRN heavy ion code for hadrons and with an in-house developed transport code for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons. The obtained doses have been compared to dose exposure limits. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  17. Lessons learned from the Galileo and Ulysses flight safety review experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    In preparation for the launches of the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft, a very comprehensive aerospace nuclear safety program and flight safety review were conducted. A review of this work has highlighted a number of important lessons which should be considered in the safety analysis and review of future space nuclear systems. These lessons have been grouped into six general categories: (1) establishment of the purpose, objectives and scope of the safety process; (2) establishment of charters defining the roles of the various participants; (3) provision of adequate resources; (4) provision of timely peer-reviewed information to support the safety program; (5) establishment of general ground rules for the safety review; and (6) agreement on the kinds of information to be provided from the safety review process

  18. Lunar impact basins and crustal heterogeneity: New western limb and far side data from galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C.M.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Neukum, G.; Klaasen, K.P.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Gierasch, P.J.; Greenberg, R.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.; Paczkowski, B.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral images of the lunar western limb and far side obtained from Galileo reveal the compositional nature of several prominent lunar features and provide new information on lunar evolution. The data reveal that the ejecta from the Orientale impact basin (900 kilometers in diameter) lying outside the Cordillera Mountains was excavated from the crust, not the mantle, and covers pre-Orientale terrain that consisted of both highland materials and relatively large expanses of ancient mare basalts. The inside of the far side South Pole-Aitken basin (>2000 kilometers in diameter) has low albedo, red color, and a relatively high abundance of iron- and magnesium-rich materials. These features suggest that the impact may have penetrated into the deep crust or lunar mantle or that the basin contains ancient mare basalts that were later covered by highlands ejecta.

  19. Galileo PPR at Io: High Resolution Scans Taken in Conjunction with SSA and NIMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, J. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Tamppari, L. K.; Martin, T. Z.; Barnard, L.; Travis, L. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Galileo Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR), when used in the radiometry mode which is most often used at Io, is a long-wavelength infrared single-aperture photometer. It is sensitive to temperatures from about 60 to several hundred K, and is thus useful for studying the volcanoes and background temperatures on Io. PPR can take raster scan images when it is the primary instrument being used (these data were discussed last year, see Rathbun et al., 2002). It can also take data in ride-along mode in conjunction with another remote sensing instrument (either SSI or NIMS) producing one-dimensional temperature scans. The best data of this type were taken during the close approach flybys during orbits I24, I25, I27, I31, I32, and I33 and include measurements of the volcanoes Pele, Prometheus, Pillan, Zamama, Tvashtar, Daedalus, Amarani, Gish Bar, Isum, Emakong, Tupan, and Tohil.

  20. The Tuscan Artist - Images of Galileo in Milton’s works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toscano Fabio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In The Areopagitica, his most important work of prose, John Milton mentions Galileo as the illustrious martyr who fought for the freedom of thought. The name of the great scientist is repeated several times in the English poet’s epic masterpiece: Paradise Lost. In three different passages of the poem, Milton in fact celebrates the “Tuscan Artist” and his crucial achievements in astronomy. Nevertheless, in a subsequent passage, the poet addresses the Copernican issue without openly defending the heliocentric theory confirmed by Galileo’s discoveries. In fact, he neither embraces the Copernican system nor the Ptolemaic one, but instead compares them, following a dialectic method where one cannot fail to notice an echo of Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the two Chief World Systems. Milton’s literary work presents images of astronomy at that time, thus offering a valuable historical example of scientific communication through art.

  1. Further results from PIXE analysis of inks in Galileo's notes on motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmine, P.; Giuntini, L.; Hooper, W.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    We have recently analysed the inks in some of the folios of Vol. 72 of Manoscritti galileiani, kept at the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, which contains a collection of loose handwritten sheets containing undated notes, data from experiments and propositions on the problems of motion from different periods of Galileo's life. This paper reports specific results obtained from the analysis of some of these propositions, which allowed to make a contribution to their chronological attribution and therefore to the solution of some historical controversies. Even in the case where the "absolute" chronological attributions could not be made on the basis of comparison with dated documents, the PIXE results provided useful information to deny or confirm the hypothesis that different propositions were written in the same or in different periods.

  2. An enhanced sine dwell method as applied to the Galileo core structure modal survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth S.; Trubert, Marc

    1990-01-01

    An incremental modal survey performed in 1988 on the core structure of the Galileo spacecraft with its adapters with the purpose of assessing the dynamics of the new portions of the structure is considered. Emphasis is placed on the enhancements of the sine dwell method employed in the test. For each mode, response data is acquired at 32 frequencies in a narrow band enclosing the resonance, utilizing the SWIFT technique. It is pointed out that due to the simplicity of the data processing involved, the diagnostic and modal-parameter data is available within several minutes after data acquisition; however, compared with straight curve-fitting approaches, the method requires more time for data acquisition.

  3. The Argument Form "Appeal to Galileo": A Critical Appreciation of Doury’s Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice A Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Following a linguistic-descriptivist approach, Marianne Doury has studied debates about “parasciences” (e.g. astrology, discovering that “parascientists” frequently argue by “appeal to Galileo” (i.e., defend their views by comparing themselves to Galileo and their opponents to the Inquisition; opponents object by criticizing the analogy, charging fallacy, and appealing to counter-examples. I argue that Galilean appeals are much more widely used, by creationists, global-warming skeptics, advocates of “settled science”, great scientists, and great philosophers. Moreover, several subtypes should be distinguished; critiques questioning the analogy are proper; fallacy charges are problematic; and appeals to counter-examples are really indirect critiques of the analogy.

  4. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    ARM concept would leverage several key ongoing activities in human exploration, space technology, and planetary defense. The ARRM is planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026. Mission Objectives: The Asteroid Redirect Mission is designed to address the need for flight experience in cis-lunar space and provide opportunities for testing the systems, technologies, and capabilities that will be required for future human operations in deep space. A principle objective of the ARM is the development of a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle, and the demonstration that it can operate for many years in interplanetary space, which is critical for deep-space exploration missions. A second prime objective of ARM is to conduct a human spaceflight mission involving in-space inter-action with a natural object, in order to provide the systems and operational experience that will be required for eventual human exploration of the Mars system, including the moons Phobos and Deimos. The ARCM provides a focus for the early flights of the Orion program. Astronauts will participate in the scientific in-space investigation of nearly pristine asteroid material, at most only minimally altered by the capture process. The ARCM will provide the opportunity for human explorers to work in space with asteroid material, testing the activities that would be performed and tools that would be needed for later exploration of primitive body surfaces in deep space. The operational experience would be gained close to our home planet, making it a significantly more affordable approach to obtaining this experience. Target Asteroid Candidates: NASA has identified the NEA (341843) 2008 EV5 as the reference target for the ARRM, but is also carrying three other NEAs as potential options [(25143) Itokawa, (162173) Ryugu, and (101955) Bennu]. NASA is continuing to search for additional candidate asteroid targets for ARM. The final target selection for the ARRM will

  5. IMP - INTEGRATED MISSION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauro, V. A.

    1994-01-01

    IMP is a simulation language that is used to model missions around the Earth, Moon, Mars, or other planets. It has been used to model missions for the Saturn Program, Apollo Program, Space Transportation System, Space Exploration Initiative, and Space Station Freedom. IMP allows a user to control the mission being simulated through a large event/maneuver menu. Up to three spacecraft may be used: a main, a target and an observer. The simulation may begin at liftoff, suborbital, or orbital. IMP incorporates a Fehlberg seventh order, thirteen evaluation Runge-Kutta integrator with error and step-size control to numerically integrate the equations of motion. The user may choose oblate or spherical gravity for the central body (Earth, Mars, Moon or other) while a spherical model is used for the gravity of an additional perturbing body. Sun gravity and pressure and Moon gravity effects are user-selectable. Earth/Mars atmospheric effects can be included. The optimum thrust guidance parameters are calculated automatically. Events/maneuvers may involve many velocity changes, and these velocity changes may be impulsive or of finite duration. Aerobraking to orbit is also an option. Other simulation options include line-of-sight communication guidelines, a choice of propulsion systems, a soft landing on the Earth or Mars, and rendezvous with a target vehicle. The input/output is in metric units, with the exception of thrust and weight which are in English units. Input is read from the user's input file to minimize real-time keyboard input. Output includes vehicle state, orbital and guide parameters, event and total velocity changes, and propellant usage. The main output is to the user defined print file, but during execution, part of the input/output is also displayed on the screen. An included FORTRAN program, TEKPLOT, will display plots on the VDT as well as generating a graphic file suitable for output on most laser printers. The code is double precision. IMP is written in

  6. Return to Galileo? The Inquisition of the International Narcotic Control Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2008-05-07

    Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition), the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time) the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs--particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver--supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms--along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research.

  7. BATMAN: a DMD-based multi-object spectrograph on Galileo telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Spano, Paolo; Lanzoni, Patrick; Ramarijaona, Harald; Moschetti, Manuele; Riva, Marco; Bon, William; Nicastro, Luciano; Molinari, Emilio; Cosentino, Rosario; Ghedina, Adriano; Gonzalez, Manuel; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Coretti, Igor; Cirami, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo; Valenziano, Luca

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation infrared astronomical instrumentation for ground-based and space telescopes could be based on MOEMS programmable slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy (MOS). This astronomical technique is used extensively to investigate the formation and evolution of galaxies. We are developing a 2048x1080 Digital-Micromirror-Device-based (DMD) MOS instrument to be mounted on the Galileo telescope and called BATMAN. A two-arm instrument has been designed for providing in parallel imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. The field of view (FOV) is 6.8 arcmin x 3.6 arcmin with a plate scale of 0.2 arcsec per micromirror. The wavelength range is in the visible and the spectral resolution is R=560 for 1 arcsec object (typical slit size). The two arms will have 2k x 4k CCD detectors. ROBIN, a BATMAN demonstrator, has been designed, realized and integrated. It permits to determine the instrument integration procedure, including optics and mechanics integration, alignment procedure and optical quality. First images and spectra have been obtained and measured: typical spot diameters are within 1.5 detector pixels, and spectra generated by one micro-mirror slits are displayed with this optical quality over the whole visible wavelength range. Observation strategies are studied and demonstrated for the scientific optimization strategy over the whole FOV. BATMAN on the sky is of prime importance for characterizing the actual performance of this new family of MOS instruments, as well as investigating the operational procedures on astronomical objects. This instrument will be placed on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo mid-2015.

  8. Return to Galileo? The Inquisition of the International Narcotic Control Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs – particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver – supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms – along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research.

  9. Simulation of Mission Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  10. Mission Reliability Estimation for Repairable Robot Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Dolan, John; Stancliff, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A mission reliability estimation method has been designed to translate mission requirements into choices of robot modules in order to configure a multi-robot team to have high reliability at minimal cost. In order to build cost-effective robot teams for long-term missions, one must be able to compare alternative design paradigms in a principled way by comparing the reliability of different robot models and robot team configurations. Core modules have been created including: a probabilistic module with reliability-cost characteristics, a method for combining the characteristics of multiple modules to determine an overall reliability-cost characteristic, and a method for the generation of legitimate module combinations based on mission specifications and the selection of the best of the resulting combinations from a cost-reliability standpoint. The developed methodology can be used to predict the probability of a mission being completed, given information about the components used to build the robots, as well as information about the mission tasks. In the research for this innovation, sample robot missions were examined and compared to the performance of robot teams with different numbers of robots and different numbers of spare components. Data that a mission designer would need was factored in, such as whether it would be better to have a spare robot versus an equivalent number of spare parts, or if mission cost can be reduced while maintaining reliability using spares. This analytical model was applied to an example robot mission, examining the cost-reliability tradeoffs among different team configurations. Particularly scrutinized were teams using either redundancy (spare robots) or repairability (spare components). Using conservative estimates of the cost-reliability relationship, results show that it is possible to significantly reduce the cost of a robotic mission by using cheaper, lower-reliability components and providing spares. This suggests that the

  11. The GalileoMobile starts its South American voyage - Astronomy education goes on tour through the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Today marks the beginning of the GalileoMobile Project, a two-month expedition to bring the wonder and excitement of astronomy to young people in Chile, Bolivia and Peru. Supported by ESO and partners, a group of astronomers and educators will travel through a region of the Andes Mountains aboard the GalileoMobile, offering astronomical activities, such as workshops for students and star parties for the general public. Professional filmmakers on the trip will produce a multilingual documentary capturing the thrill of discovery through science, culture and travel. The GalileoMobile is a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), which is a global celebration commemorating the first use of a telescope to view the Universe by the Italian astronomer Galileo four hundred years ago. The project will promote basic science education through astronomy by visiting schools and communities that have limited access to outreach programmes. The GalileoMobile will provide these underserved groups with hands-on activities and educational material from international partners. The van is fully equipped to offer unique sky-observing opportunities for young students and other locals, with star parties at night and solar observations during the day. The team will use various tools including IYA2009's handy Galileoscopes, which will be donated to the schools after the visits. By stimulating curiosity, critical thinking and a sense of wonder and discovery for the Universe and our planet, the GalileoMobile Project aims to encourage interest in astronomy and science, and exchange culturally different visions of the cosmos. Spearheading the initiative is a group of enthusiastic Latin American and European PhD students from the European Southern Observatory, the Max Planck Society, the University Observatory Munich, and the Stockholm University Observatory. This itinerant educational programme is intended to reach about 20 000 people during eight weeks in October

  12. Trial design: Rivaroxaban for the prevention of major cardiovascular events after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: Rationale and design of the GALILEO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windecker, Stephan; Tijssen, Jan; Giustino, Gennaro; Guimarães, Ana H. C.; Mehran, Roxana; Valgimigli, Marco; Vranckx, Pascal; Welsh, Robert C.; Baber, Usman; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Wildgoose, Peter; Volkl, Albert A.; Zazula, Ana; Thomitzek, Karen; Hemmrich, Melanie; Dangas, George D.

    2017-01-01

    Optimal antithrombotic treatment after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is unknown and determined empirically. The direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban may potentially reduce TAVR-related thrombotic complications and premature valve failure. GALILEO is an international, randomized,

  13. Il compasso geometrico e militare di Galileo Galilei testi, annotazioni e disputa negli scritti di G. Galilei, M. Bernegger e B. Capra

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    Il compasso geometrico e militare / di Roberto Vergara Caffarelli - Le operazioni del compasso geometrico e militare / Galileo Galilei - Annotazioni / Mattia Bernaggeri - Usus et fabrica circini cuiusdam proportionis / Baldassarre Capra - Difesa contro alle calunnie ed imposture di Baldassar Capra.

  14. Mission analysis for the Martian Moons Explorer (MMX) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Yam, Chit Hong; Tsuda, Yuichi; Ogawa, Naoko; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro

    2018-05-01

    Mars Moon eXplorer (MMX) is JAXA's next candidate flagship mission to be launched in the early 2020s. MMX will explore the Martian moons and return a sample from Phobos. This paper presents the mission analysis work, focusing on the transfer legs and comparing several architectures, such as hybrid options with chemical and electric propulsion modules. The selected baseline is a chemical-propulsion Phobos sample return, which is discussed in detail with the launch- and return-window analysis. The trajectories are optimized with the jTOP software, using planetary ephemerides for Mars and the Earth; Earth re-entry constraints are modeled with simple analytical equations. Finally, we introduce an analytical approximation of the three-burn capture strategy used in the Mars system. The approximation can be used together with a Lambert solver to quickly determine the transfer Δ v costs.

  15. The STEREO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  16. VEGA Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    VEGA (mission) is a combined spacecraft mission to VENUS and COMET HALLEY. It was launched in the USSR at the end of 1984. The mission consisted of two identical spacecraft VEGA 1 and VEGA 2. VEGA is an acronym built from the words `Venus' and `Halley' (`Galley' in Russian spelling). The basic design of the spacecraft was the same as has been used many times to deliver Soviet landers and orbiter...

  17. A Venus/Saturn Mission Study: 45deg Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Allen, Gary A.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina

    2012-01-01

    The present study considers ballistic entries into the atmospheres of Saturn and Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell (a legacy shape that has been successfully used in the Pioneer Venus and Galileo missions). For a number of entry mass and diameter combinations (i.e., various entries ballistic coefficients), entry velocities, and heading angles, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DOF trajectory code, TRAJ. Assuming that the thermal protection material of choice is carbon phenolic of flight heritage, the entry flight path angle space is constrained a posteriori by the mechanical and thermal performance parameters of the material. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is place on the peak deceleration load and 10 bar is assumed as the spallation pressure threshold for the legacy material. It is shown that both constraints cannot be active simultaneously. For thermal performance, a minimum margined heat flux threshold of 2.5 kW/sq cm is assumed for the heritage material. Using these constraints, viable entry flight path angle corridors are determined. Analysis of the results also hints at the existence of a "critical" ballistic coefficient beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the spallation pressure threshold. The results are verified against known performance of the various probes used in the Galileo and Pioneer Venus missions. It is hoped that the results presented here will serve as a baseline in the development of a new class of ablative materials for Venus and Saturn missions being considered in a future New Frontiers class of NASA missions.

  18. Novas espécies de Lamiinae (Cerambycidae neotropicais e transferência de Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas do Brasil: Nesozineus amazonicus sp. nov. (Amazonas, Xenofrea diagonalis sp. nov. (Rondônia. Mauesia submetallica sp. nov. (Amazonas; da Bolívia: Psapharochrus nearnsi sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Adetus basalis, sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, La Paz, Palpicrassus inexpectatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Cyrtinus meridialis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz.. Do Panamá: Aerenea panamensis sp. nov. (Chiriqui. O gênero Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007, originalmente descrito em Pteropliini é transferido para Apomecynini.New species described from Brazil: Nesozineus amazonicus sp. nov. (Amazonas, Xenofrea diagonalis sp. nov. (Rondônia, Mauesia submetallica sp. nov. (Amazonas; from Bolivia: Psapharochrus nearnsi sp. nov. (Santa Cruz; Adetus basalis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, La Paz, Palpicrassus inexpectatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz, Cyrtinus meridialis sp. nov. (Santa Cruz., Aerenea panamensis sp. nov. from Panama (Chiriqui. The genus Palpicrassus Galileo & Martins, 2007, originally described in Pteropliini, is transferred to Apomecynini.

  19. Long-range planning cost model for support of future space missions by the deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, J. S.; Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    A simple model is suggested to do long-range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSP) support of future space missions. The model estimates total DSN preparation costs and the annual distribution of these costs for long-range budgetary planning. The cost model is based on actual DSN preparation costs from four space missions: Galileo, Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. The model was tested against the four projects and gave cost estimates that range from 18 percent above the actual total preparation costs of the projects to 25 percent below. The model was also compared to two other independent projects: Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS later became Voyager). The model gave cost estimates that range from 2 percent (for Viking) to 10 percent (for MJS) below the actual total preparation costs of these missions.

  20. Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Turyshev, S.G.; Laing, P.A.; Liu, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Radio metric data from the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude ∼8.5x10 -8 cm/s 2 , directed towards the Sun. Two independent codes and physical strategies have been used to analyze the data. A number of potential causes have been ruled out. We discuss future kinematic tests and possible origins of the signal. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Application of high precision two-way S-band ranging to the navigation of the Galileo Earth encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmeier, Vincent M.; Kallemeyn, Pieter H.; Thurman, Sam W.

    1993-01-01

    The application of high-accuracy S/S-band (2.1 GHz uplink/2.3 GHz downlink) ranging to orbit determination with relatively short data arcs is investigated for the approach phase of each of the Galileo spacecraft's two Earth encounters (8 December 1990 and 8 December 1992). Analysis of S-band ranging data from Galileo indicated that under favorable signal levels, meter-level precision was attainable. It is shown that ranginging data of sufficient accuracy, when acquired from multiple stations, can sense the geocentric angular position of a distant spacecraft. Explicit modeling of ranging bias parameters for each station pass is used to largely remove systematic ground system calibration errors and transmission media effects from the Galileo range measurements, which would otherwise corrupt the angle finding capabilities of the data. The accuracy achieved using the precision range filtering strategy proved markedly better when compared to post-flyby reconstructions than did solutions utilizing a traditional Doppler/range filter strategy. In addition, the navigation accuracy achieved with precision ranging was comparable to that obtained using delta-Differenced One-Way Range, an interferometric measurement of spacecraft angular position relative to a natural radio source, which was also used operationally.

  2. Mission of Mercy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Some dentists prefer solo charity work, but there is much to be said for collaboration within the profession in reaching out to those who are dentally underserved. Mission of Mercy (MOM) programs are regularly organized across the country for this purpose. This article describes the structure, reach, and personal satisfaction to be gained from such missions.

  3. New Style of Volcanic Eruption Activity Identified in Galileo NIMS data at Marduk Fluctus, Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Davies, R. L.; Veeder, G. J.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Matson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of observations of Marduk Fluctus, Io, by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) reveals a style of volcanic activity not previously seen on Io - a very short-duration, highly-changeable, powerful thermal event, similar to what might be expected from a strombolian-like explosion. Marduk Fluctus is a persistent active volcano characterised by ≈3600 km2 of silicate flows [1]. Between 1996 and 2001, NIMS obtained 44 observations of Marduk Fluctus at a wide variety of spatial and spectral resolutions. Six observations were obtained during Galileo orbit E4, with five nighttime observations obtained on 1996 Dec 19 in the space of less than three hours. Three of these observations were each separated by one minute. Compared to the previous observation obtained a few hours earlier, the first two of these three observations show an order of magnitude increase in spectral radiance (corrected for emission angle). Spectral radiance then dropped back to the background level one minute later. The emission angles for these five E4 observations are large (>70°), but even without the emission angle radiance correction the spike in activity is still a factor of five larger than the pre- and post-spike radiances. The NIMS spectrum of the central observation shows a shift in peak of thermal emission to short wavelengths characteristic of the exposure of a large area of incandescent lava. The rapid increase and decrease in activity suggests an equally rapid physical process, the most likely being a large strombolian explosion that generated small clasts that cooled rapidly. The presence of such events provide an additional volcanic process that can be imaged with the intent of determining lava composition from eruption temperature, an important constraint on internal composition and state. For this particular eruption type, eruption temperature can be constrained if non-saturated, multiple-wavelength IR observations are obtained simultaneously and with very

  4. 'Galileo Galilei (GG) on the Ground-GGG': experimental results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comandi, G.L.; Nobili, A.M.; Bramanti, D.; Toncelli, R.; Polacco, E.; Chiofalo, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The GGG differential accelerometer is made of concentric coaxial test cylinders weakly coupled in the horizontal plane and spinning in supercritical regime around their symmetry axis. GGG is built as a full scale ground based prototype for the proposed 'Galileo Galilei-GG' space experiment aiming to test the equivalence principle (EP) to 10 -17 at room temperature. We report measured Q values of 95000 at 1.4 Hz, and expect even better ones at typical spin frequencies of a few Hz. An EP violation signal in the field of the Sun would appear as a low frequency displacement in the horizontal plane of the laboratory, and it can be separated out from a much larger whirl motion of the test masses at their natural differential frequency. So far we have managed to reduce the amplitude of this whirl to about 0.1 μm. We discuss how to improve these results in view of the very high accuracy GG experiment in space, and/or to reach a 10 -13 sensitivity in the lab which would allow us to either confirm or rule out recent predictions of violation to this level

  5. Chemical composition measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter with the Galileo Probe mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Hartle, R. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere were obtained by the mass spectrometer during the descent over the 0.5 to 21 bar pressure region over a time period of approximately 1 hour. The sampling was either of atmospheric gases directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer through capillary leaks or of gas, which had been chemically processed to enhance the sensitivity of the measurement to trace species or noble gases. The analysis of this data set continues to be refined based on supporting laboratory studies on an engineering unit. The mixing ratios of the major constituents of the atmosphere hydrogen and helium have been determined as well as mixing ratios or upper limits for several less abundant species including: methane, water, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, propane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Analysis also suggests the presence of trace levels of other 3 and 4 carbon hydrocarbons, or carbon and nitrogen containing species, phosphine, hydrogen chloride, and of benzene. The data set also allows upper limits to be set for many species of interest which were not detected. Isotope ratios were measured for 3He/4He, D/H, 13C/12C, 20Ne/22Ne, 38Ar/36Ar and for isotopes of both Kr and Xe.

  6. Great Physicists - The Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Here is a lively history of modern physics, as seen through the lives of thirty men and women from the pantheon of physics. William H. Cropper vividly portrays the life and accomplishments of such giants as Galileo and Isaac Newton, Marie Curie and Ernest Rutherford, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, right up to contemporary figures such as Richard Feynman, Murray Gell-Mann, and Stephen Hawking. We meet scientists--all geniuses--who could be gregarious, aloof, unpretentious, friendly, dogged, imperious, generous to colleagues or contentious rivals. As Cropper captures their personalities, he also offers vivid portraits of their great moments of discovery, their bitter feuds, their relations with family and friends, their religious beliefs and education. In addition, Cropper has grouped these biographies by discipline--mechanics, thermodynamics, particle physics, and others--each section beginning with a historical overview. Thus in the section on quantum mechanics, readers can see how the work of Max Planck influenced Niels Bohr, and how Bohr in turn influenced Werner Heisenberg. Our understanding of the physical world has increased dramatically in the last four centuries. With Great Physicists , readers can retrace the footsteps of the men and women who led the way.

  7. Lbs Augmented Reality Assistive System for Utilities Infrastructure Management Through Galileo and Egnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianidis, E.; Valaria, E.; Smagas, K.; Pagani, A.; Henriques, J.; Garca, A.; Jimeno, E.; Carrillo, I.; Patias, P.; Georgiadis, C.; Kounoudes, A.; Michail, K.

    2016-06-01

    There is a continuous and increasing demand for solutions, both software and hardware-based, that are able to productively handle underground utilities geospatial data. Innovative approaches that are based on the use of the European GNSS, Galileo and EGNOS, sensor technologies and LBS, are able to monitor, document and manage utility infrastructures' data with an intuitive 3D augmented visualisation and navigation/positioning technology. A software and hardware-based system called LARA, currently under develop- ment through a H2020 co-funded project, aims at meeting that demand. The concept of LARA is to integrate the different innovative components of existing technologies in order to design and develop an integrated navigation/positioning and information system which coordinates GNSS, AR, 3D GIS and geodatabases on a mobile platform for monitoring, documenting and managing utility infrastruc- tures on-site. The LARA system will guide utility field workers to locate the working area by helping them see beneath the ground, rendering the complexity of the 3D models of the underground grid such as water, gas and electricity. The capacity and benefits of LARA are scheduled to be tested in two case studies located in Greece and the United Kingdom with various underground utilities. The paper aspires to present the first results from this initiative. The project leading to this application has received funding from the European GNSS Agency under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 641460.

  8. LBS AUGMENTED REALITY ASSISTIVE SYSTEM FOR UTILITIES INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT THROUGH GALILEO AND EGNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stylianidis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a continuous and increasing demand for solutions, both software and hardware-based, that are able to productively handle underground utilities geospatial data. Innovative approaches that are based on the use of the European GNSS, Galileo and EGNOS, sensor technologies and LBS, are able to monitor, document and manage utility infrastructures’ data with an intuitive 3D augmented visualisation and navigation/positioning technology. A software and hardware-based system called LARA, currently under develop- ment through a H2020 co-funded project, aims at meeting that demand. The concept of LARA is to integrate the different innovative components of existing technologies in order to design and develop an integrated navigation/positioning and information system which coordinates GNSS, AR, 3D GIS and geodatabases on a mobile platform for monitoring, documenting and managing utility infrastruc- tures on-site. The LARA system will guide utility field workers to locate the working area by helping them see beneath the ground, rendering the complexity of the 3D models of the underground grid such as water, gas and electricity. The capacity and benefits of LARA are scheduled to be tested in two case studies located in Greece and the United Kingdom with various underground utilities. The paper aspires to present the first results from this initiative. The project leading to this application has received funding from the European GNSS Agency under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 641460.

  9. Evidence of a plume on Europa from Galileo magnetic and plasma wave signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianzhe; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Khurana, Krishan K.; Kurth, William S.

    2018-05-01

    The icy surface of Jupiter's moon, Europa, is thought to lie on top of a global ocean1-4. Signatures in some Hubble Space Telescope images have been associated with putative water plumes rising above Europa's surface5,6, providing support for the ocean theory. However, all telescopic detections reported were made at the limit of sensitivity of the data5-7, thereby calling for a search for plume signatures in in-situ measurements. Here, we report in-situ evidence of a plume on Europa from the magnetic field and plasma wave observations acquired on Galileo's closest encounter with the moon. During this flyby, which dropped below 400 km altitude, the magnetometer8 recorded an approximately 1,000-kilometre-scale field rotation and a decrease of over 200 nT in field magnitude, and the Plasma Wave Spectrometer9 registered intense localized wave emissions indicative of a brief but substantial increase in plasma density. We show that the location, duration and variations of the magnetic field and plasma wave measurements are consistent with the interaction of Jupiter's corotating plasma with Europa if a plume with characteristics inferred from Hubble images were erupting from the region of Europa's thermal anomalies. These results provide strong independent evidence of the presence of plumes at Europa.

  10. From Comparison Between Scientists to Gaining Cultural Scientific Knowledge. Leonardo and Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal

    2016-03-01

    Physics textbooks often present items of disciplinary knowledge in a sequential order of topics of the theory under instruction. Such presentation is usually univocal, that is, isolated from alternative claims and contributions regarding the subject matter in the pertinent scientific discourse. We argue that comparing and contrasting the contributions of scientists addressing similar or the same subject could not only enrich the picture of scientific enterprise, but also possess a special appealing power promoting genuine understanding of the concept considered. This approach draws on the historical tradition from Plutarch in distant past and Koyré in the recent history and philosophy of science. It gains a new support in the discipline-culture structuring of the physics curriculum, seeking cultural content knowledge (CCK) of the subject matter. Here, we address two prominent individuals of Italian Renaissance, Leonardo and Galileo, in their dealing with issues relevant for introductory science courses. Although both figures addressed similar subjects of scientific content, their products were essentially different. Considering this difference is educationally valuable, illustrating the meaning of what students presently learn in the content knowledge of mechanics, optics and astronomy, as well as the nature of science and scientific knowledge.

  11. Mountains on Io: High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; McEwen, A.S.; Milazzo, M.; Moore, J.; Phillips, C.B.; Radebaugh, J.; Simonelli, D.; Chuang, F.; Schuster, P.; Alexander, D.D.A.; Capraro, K.; Chang, S.-H.; Chen, A.C.; Clark, J.; Conner, D.L.; Culver, A.; Handley, T.H.; Jensen, D.N.; Knight, D.D.; LaVoie, S.K.; McAuley, M.; Mego, V.; Montoya, O.; Mortensen, H.B.; Noland, S.J.; Patel, R.R.; Pauro, T.M.; Stanley, C.L.; Steinwand, D.J.; Thaller, T.F.; Woncik, P.J.; Yagi, G.M.; Yoshimizu, J.R.; Alvarez Del Castillo, E.M.; Beyer, R.; Branston, D.; Fishburn, M.B.; Muller, Birgit; Ragan, R.; Samarasinha, N.; Anger, C.D.; Cunningham, C.; Little, B.; Arriola, S.; Carr, M.H.; Asphaug, E.; Morrison, D.; Rages, K.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Burns, J.A.; Carcich, B.; Clark, B.; Currier, N.; Dauber, I.; Gierasch, P.J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mann, M.; Othman, O.; Rossier, L.; Solomon, N.; Sullivan, R.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.; Becker, T.; Edwards, K.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Lee, E.; Rosanova, T.; Sucharski, R.M.; Beebe, R.F.; Simon, A.; Belton, M.J.S.; Bender, K.; Fagents, S.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Homan, K.; Kadel, S.; Kerr, J.; Klemaszewski, J.; Lo, E.; Schwarz, W.; Williams, D.; Williams, K.; Bierhaus, B.; Brooks, S.; Chapman, C.R.; Merline, B.; Keller, J.; Tamblyn, P.; Bouchez, A.; Dyundian, U.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Showman, A.; Spitale, J.; Stewart, S.; Vasavada, A.; Breneman, H.H.; Cunningham, W.F.; Johnson, T.V.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Klaasen, K.P.; Levanas, G.; Magee, K.P.; Meredith, M.K.; Orton, G.S.; Senske, D.A.; West, A.; Winther, D.; Collins, G.; Fripp, W.J.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.; Pratt, S.; Prockter, L.; Spaun, N.; Colvin, T.; Davies, M.; DeJong, E.M.; Hall, J.; Suzuki, S.; Gorjian, Z.; Denk, T.; Giese, B.; Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Tost, W.; Wagner, R.; Dieter, N.; Durda, D.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.J.; Hoppa, G.; Plassman, J.; Tufts, R.; Fanale, F.P.; Granahan, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    During three close flybys in late 1999 and early 2000 the Galileo spacecraft ac-quired new observations of the mountains that tower above Io's surface. These images have revealed surprising variety in the mountains' morphologies. They range from jagged peaks several kilometers high to lower, rounded structures. Some are very smooth, others are covered by numerous parallel ridges. Many mountains have margins that are collapsing outward in large landslides or series of slump blocks, but a few have steep, scalloped scarps. From these observations we can gain insight into the structure and material properties of Io's crust as well as into the erosional processes acting on Io. We have also investigated formation mechanisms proposed for these structures using finite-element analysis. Mountain formation might be initiated by global compression due to the high rate of global subsidence associated with Io's high resurfacing rate; however, our models demonstrate that this hypothesis lacks a mechanism for isolating the mountains. The large fraction (???40%) of mountains that are associated with paterae suggests that in some cases these features are tectonically related. Therefore we have also simulated the stresses induced in Io's crust by a combination of a thermal upwelling in the mantle with global lithospheric compression and have shown that this can focus compressional stresses. If this mechanism is responsible for some of Io's mountains, it could also explain the common association of mountains with paterae. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Evolutionary Aspects for Technology Policy: the Case of Galileo Public-Private Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervos, Vasilis

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of strategic interactions on Private-Public Partnerships (PPPs) in space. Though there is substantial business and economics literature on PPPs, it is traditionally focused on the relationships within the partnerships (low level) and the respective factors affecting its success. The contribution of this paper is that it examines the political economy of PPPs, analysing how `high-level' strategic interactions across public-private sectors in Europe and the US determine their behaviour and success. Within this context, the European case of Galileo and other national space projects, such as the US plans for a space-based anti- missile defence, are each based on different types of PPPs, confined within the geographical borders of the two areas. The security and commercial benefits of such programmes for the respective space industries and economies have a direct impact on the other area's industry and sense of security. The paper shows that trans- Atlantic cooperation at public policy level is essential to allow the respective industries to explore the benefits of cross-border strategic research partnerships (SRPs). This will reduce the costs of the respective programmes, addressing security concerns.

  13. Evidence of a plume on Europa from Galileo magnetic and plasma wave signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianzhe; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Khurana, Krishan K.; Kurth, William S.

    2018-06-01

    The icy surface of Jupiter's moon, Europa, is thought to lie on top of a global ocean1-4. Signatures in some Hubble Space Telescope images have been associated with putative water plumes rising above Europa's surface5,6, providing support for the ocean theory. However, all telescopic detections reported were made at the limit of sensitivity of the data5-7, thereby calling for a search for plume signatures in in-situ measurements. Here, we report in-situ evidence of a plume on Europa from the magnetic field and plasma wave observations acquired on Galileo's closest encounter with the moon. During this flyby, which dropped below 400 km altitude, the magnetometer8 recorded an approximately 1,000-kilometre-scale field rotation and a decrease of over 200 nT in field magnitude, and the Plasma Wave Spectrometer9 registered intense localized wave emissions indicative of a brief but substantial increase in plasma density. We show that the location, duration and variations of the magnetic field and plasma wave measurements are consistent with the interaction of Jupiter's corotating plasma with Europa if a plume with characteristics inferred from Hubble images were erupting from the region of Europa's thermal anomalies. These results provide strong independent evidence of the presence of plumes at Europa.

  14. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, James

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in November 2014, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. Among the important questions about reconnection that will be addressed are the following: Under what conditions can magnetic-field energy be converted to plasma energy by the annihilation of magnetic field through reconnection? How does reconnection vary with time, and what factors influence its temporal behavior? What microscale processes are responsible for reconnection? What determines the rate of reconnection? In order to accomplish its goals the MMS spacecraft must probe both those regions in which the magnetic fields are very nearly antiparallel and regions where a significant guide field exists. From previous missions we know the approximate speeds with which reconnection layers move through space to be from tens to hundreds of km/s. For electron skin depths of 5 to 10 km, the full 3D electron population (10 eV to above 20 keV) has to be sampled at rates greater than 10/s. The MMS Fast-Plasma Instrument (FPI) will sample electrons at greater than 30/s. Because the ion skin depth is larger, FPI will make full ion measurements at rates of greater than 6/s. 3D E-field measurements will be made by MMS once every ms. MMS will use an Active Spacecraft Potential Control device (ASPOC), which emits indium ions to neutralize the photoelectron current and keep the spacecraft from charging to more than +4 V. Because ion dynamics in Hall reconnection depend sensitively on ion mass, MMS includes a new-generation Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) that corrects problems with high proton fluxes that have prevented accurate ion-composition measurements near the dayside magnetospheric boundary. Finally, Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) measurements of electrons and

  15. EUCLID mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Oswald; Ergenzinger, Klaus; Tuttle, Sean; Vaillon, L.; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    EUCLID, a medium-class mission candidate of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Program, currently in Definition Phase (Phase A/B1), shall map the geometry of the Dark Universe by investigating dark matter distributions, the distance-redshift relationship, and the evolution of cosmic structures. EUCLID consists of a 1.2 m telescope and two scientific instruments for ellipticity and redshift measurements in the visible and nearinfrared wavelength regime. We present a design concept of the EUCLID mission which is fully compliant with the mission requirements. Preliminary concepts of the spacecraft and of the payload including the scientific instruments are discussed.

  16. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  17. PLA Missions Beyond Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Marc

    2008-01-01

    KEY INSIGHTS: *The PLA is being assigned and training for an increasing variety of missions, including nontraditional battlefields such as outer space and cyber space, as well as nontraditional functions...

  18. Human exploration mission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  19. Understanding NEOs: The Role of Characterization Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    2007-10-01

    NEOs are important from multiple perspectives, including science, hazard mitigation, space resources, and as targets for human missions. Much can be learned from ground-based studies, especially with radar, but the unique value of in situ investigation has been shown by missions such as NEAR-Shoemaker and Hayabusa to asteroids Eros and Itokawa, and Deep Impact and Stardust to comets. The next mission targets are likely to be NEAs in the subkilometer size range. Because these smaller objects are much more numerous, they are the objects we most need to understand from a defense perspective, and they are also the most likely targets for early human missions. However, there are unique challenges in sending spacecraft to investigate sub-km asteroids. Reconnaissance flybys are of little use, orbiting requires active control, and landing on such a low-gravity surface is perhaps better described as docking. Yet we need to operate close to the target, and probably to land, to obtain crucial information about interior structure. This paper deals primarily with small landers like the Near Earth Asteroid Trailblazer Mission (NEAT) studied at Ames Research Center. The NEAT objectives are to provide global reconnaissance (shape, mass, density, dynamical state), in situ surface characterization, and long-term precision tracking. Alternative approaches use deep-penetrating radar and electromagnetic sounding to probe interior structure. A third class of missions is ballistic impactors such as the ESA Don Quijote, which test one of the technologies for deflecting small asteroids. If the targets are selected for their accessibility, such missions could be implemented with low-cost launchers such as Pegasus, Falcon, or Minotaur. Such missions will have high science return. But from the perspective of defense, we have not yet developed a consensus strategy for the role of such characterization missions.

  20. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  1. Geometrical Model of Solar Radiation Pressure Based on High-Performing Galileo Clocks - First Geometrical Mapping of the Yarkowsky effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehla, Drazen; Rothacher, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs; Steigenberger, Peter; Ziebart, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Solar radiation pressure is the main source of errors in the precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites. All deficiencies in the modeling of Solar radiation pressure map into estimated terrestrial reference frame parameters as well as into derived gravity field coefficients and altimetry results when LEO orbits are determined using GPS. Here we introduce a new approach to geometrically map radial orbit perturbations of GNSS satellites using highly-performing clocks on board the first Galileo satellites. Only a linear model (time bias and time drift) needs to be removed from the estimated clock parameters and the remaining clock residuals map all radial orbit perturbations along the orbit. With the independent SLR measurements, we show that a Galileo clock is stable enough to map radial orbit perturbations continuously along the orbit with a negative sign in comparison to SLR residuals. Agreement between the SLR residuals and the clock residuals is at the 1 cm RMS for an orbit arc of 24 h. Looking at the clock parameters determined along one orbit revolution over a period of one year, we show that the so-called SLR bias in Galileo and GPS orbits can be explained by the translation of the determined orbit in the orbital plane towards the Sun. This orbit translation is due to thermal re-radiation and not accounting for the Sun elevation in the parameterization of the estimated Solar radiation pressure parameters. SLR ranging to GNSS satellites takes place typically at night, e.g. between 6 pm and 6 am local time when the Sun is in opposition to the satellite. Therefore, SLR observes only one part of the GNSS orbit with a negative radial orbit error that is mapped as an artificial bias in SLR observables. The Galileo clocks clearly show orbit translation for all Sun elevations: the radial orbit error is positive when the Sun is in conjuction (orbit noon) and negative when the Sun is in opposition (orbit midnight). The magnitude of this artificial negative SLR bias

  2. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Wolf, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993) noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis) as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position) which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  3. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Doughty

    Full Text Available Sagan et al. (1993 used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993 could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993 noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  4. US Decadal Survey Outer Solar System Missions: Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Strange, N. J.; Landau, D.

    2012-04-01

    The report of the US Planetary Science Decadal Survey (PSDS), released in draft form March 7, 2011, identifies several mission concepts involving travel to high-priority outer solar system (OSS) destinations. These include missions to Europa and Jupiter, Saturn and two of its satellites, and Uranus. Because travel to the OSS involves much larger distances and larger excursions out of the sun's gravitational potential well than inner solar system (ISS) missions, transfer trajectories for OSS missions are stronger drivers of mission schedule and resource requirements than for ISS missions. Various characteristics of each planet system, such as obliquity, radiation belts, rings, deep gravity wells, etc., carry ramifications for approach trajectories or trajectories within the systems. The maturity of trajectory studies for each of these destinations varies significantly. Europa has been the focus of studies for well over a decade. Transfer trajectory options from Earth to Jupiter are well understood. Current studies focus on trajectories within the Jovian system that could reduce the total mission cost of a Europa orbiter mission. Three missions to the Saturn system received high priority ratings in the PSDS report: two flagship orbital missions, one to Titan and one to Enceladus, and a Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission for NASA's New Frontiers Program. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) studies of 2007-2009 advanced our understanding of trajectory options for transfers to Saturn, including solar electric propulsion (SEP) trajectories. But SEP trajectories depend more on details of spacecraft and propulsion system characteristics than chemical trajectories, and the maturity of SEP trajectory search tools has not yet caught up with chemical trajectory tools, so there is still more useful research to be done on Saturn transfers. The TSSM studies revealed much about Saturn-orbiting trajectories that yield efficient and timely delivery to Titan or Enceladus

  5. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  6. Mission to the comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.

    1980-01-01

    The plans of space agencies in the United States and Europe for an exploratory comet mission including a one year rendezvous with comet Temple-2 and a fast fly-by of comet Halley are discussed. The mission provides an opportunity to make comparative measurements on the two different types of comets and also satisfies the three major scientific objectives of cometary missions namely: (1) To determine the chemical nature and the physical structure of cometary nuclei, and the changes that occur with time and orbital position. (2) To study the chemical and physical nature of the atmospheres and ionospheres of comets, the processes that occur in them, and their development with time and orbital position. (3) To determine the nature of the tails of comets and the processes by which they are formed, and to characterise the interaction of comets with solar wind. (UK)

  7. Country programming mission. Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Government of Namibia conveyed in a letter dated 29 November 1990 IAEA provided a multi-disciplinary Programming Mission which visited Namibia from 15 - 19 July 1991. The terms of reference of the Mission were: 1. To assess the possibilities and benefits of nuclear energy applications in Namibia's development; 2. To advise on the infrastructure required for nuclear energy projects; 3. To assist in the formulation of project proposals which could be submitted for Agency assistance. This report is based on the findings of the Mission and falls into 3 sections with 8 appendices. The first section is a country profile providing background information, the second section deals with sectorial needs and institutional review of the sectors of agriculture including animal production, life sciences (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and radiation protection. The third section includes possible future technical co-operation activities

  8. CHEOPS: A transit photometry mission for ESA's small mission programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground based radial velocity (RV searches continue to discover exoplanets below Neptune mass down to Earth mass. Furthermore, ground based transit searches now reach milli-mag photometric precision and can discover Neptune size planets around bright stars. These searches will find exoplanets around bright stars anywhere on the sky, their discoveries representing prime science targets for further study due to the proximity and brightness of their host stars. A mission for transit follow-up measurements of these prime targets is currently lacking. The first ESA S-class mission CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExoPlanet Satellite will fill this gap. It will perform ultra-high precision photometric monitoring of selected bright target stars almost anywhere on the sky with sufficient precision to detect Earth sized transits. It will be able to detect transits of RV-planets by photometric monitoring if the geometric configuration results in a transit. For Hot Neptunes discovered from the ground, CHEOPS will be able to improve the transit light curve so that the radius can be determined precisely. Because of the host stars' brightness, high precision RV measurements will be possible for all targets. All planets observed in transit by CHEOPS will be validated and their masses will be known. This will provide valuable data for constraining the mass-radius relation of exoplanets, especially in the Neptune-mass regime. During the planned 3.5 year mission, about 500 targets will be observed. There will be 20% of open time available for the community to develop new science programmes.

  9. FINESSE & CASE: Two Proposed Transiting Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellem, Robert Thomas; FINESSE and CASE Science Team

    2018-01-01

    The FINESSE mission concept and the proposed CASE Mission of Opportunity, both recently selected by NASA’s Explorer program to proceed to Step 2, would conduct the first characterizations of exoplanet atmospheres for a statistically significant population. FINESSE would determine whether our Solar System is typical or exceptional, the key characteristics of the planet formation mechanism, and what establishes global planetary climate by spectroscopically surveying 500 exoplanets, ranging from terrestrials with extended atmospheres to sub-Neptunes to gas giants. FINESSE’s broad, instantaneous spectral coverage from 0.5-5 microns and capability to survey hundreds of exoplanets would enable follow-up exploration of TESS discoveries and provide a broader context for interpreting detailed JWST observations. Similarly, CASE, a NASA Mission of Opportunity contribution to ESA’s dedicated transiting exoplanet spectroscopy mission ARIEL, would observe 1000 warm transiting gas giants, Neptunes, and super-Earths, using visible to near-IR photometry and spectroscopy. CASE would quantify the occurrence rate of atmospheric aerosols (clouds and hazes) and measure the geometric albedos of the targets in the ARIEL survey. Thus, with the selection of either of these two missions, NASA would ensure access to critical data for the U.S. exoplanet science community.

  10. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  11. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  12. The OICETS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jono, Takashi; Arai, Katsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    The Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS) was successfully launched on 23th August 2005 and thrown into a circular orbit at the altitude of 610 km. The main mission is to demonstrate the free-space inter satellite laser communications with the cooperation of the Advanced Relay and Technology Mission (ARTEMIS) geostationary satellite developed by the European Space Agency. This paper presents the overview of the OICETS and laser terminal, a history of international cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and ESA and typical results of the inter-orbit laser communication experiment carried out with ARTEMIS.

  13. Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Botero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The male of Eburella pinima Martins, 1997 is described and illustrated for the first time. Information on Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins, 2006, previously known only from the female holotype, which lacked locality label, is herein complemented. This species is recorded from Brazil and the male is depicted for the first time. The geographical distribution of Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw, 1958 is further restricted here as some previous records are confirmed to result from misidentifications of E. aenigma.

  14. The Ionospheric Connection Explorer Mission: Mission Goals and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, T. J.; England, S. L.; Mende, S. B.; Heelis, R. A.; Englert, C. R.; Edelstein, J.; Frey, H. U.; Korpela, E. J.; Taylor, E. R.; Craig, W. W.; Harris, S. E.; Bester, M.; Bust, G. S.; Crowley, G.; Forbes, J. M.; Gérard, J.-C.; Harlander, J. M.; Huba, J. D.; Hubert, B.; Kamalabadi, F.; Makela, J. J.; Maute, A. I.; Meier, R. R.; Raftery, C.; Rochus, P.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Stephan, A. W.; Swenson, G. R.; Frey, S.; Hysell, D. L.; Saito, A.; Rider, K. A.; Sirk, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    The Ionospheric Connection Explorer, or ICON, is a new NASA Explorer mission that will explore the boundary between Earth and space to understand the physical connection between our world and our space environment. This connection is made in the ionosphere, which has long been known to exhibit variability associated with the sun and solar wind. However, it has been recognized in the 21st century that equally significant changes in ionospheric conditions are apparently associated with energy and momentum propagating upward from our own atmosphere. ICON's goal is to weigh the competing impacts of these two drivers as they influence our space environment. Here we describe the specific science objectives that address this goal, as well as the means by which they will be achieved. The instruments selected, the overall performance requirements of the science payload and the operational requirements are also described. ICON's development began in 2013 and the mission is on track for launch in 2018. ICON is developed and managed by the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, with key contributions from several partner institutions.

  15. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Doris; Green, James L.

    2017-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. The PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of another

  16. The NASA X-Ray Mission Concepts Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Robert; Ptak, A.; Bookbinder, J.; Garcia, M.; Smith, R.; Bautz, M.; Bregman, J.; Burrows, D.; Cash, W.; Jones-Forman, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Astrophysics Decadal Survey recommended a significant technology development program towards realizing the scientific goals of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). NASA has undertaken an X-ray mission concepts study to determine alternative approaches to accomplishing IXO's high ranking scientific objectives over the next decade given the budget realities, which make a flagship mission challenging to implement. The goal of the study is to determine the degree to which missions in various cost ranges from $300M to $2B could fulfill these objectives. The study process involved several steps. NASA released a Request for Information in October 2011, seeking mission concepts and enabling technology ideas from the community. The responses included a total of 14 mission concepts and 13 enabling technologies. NASA also solicited membership for and selected a Community Science Team (CST) to guide the process. A workshop was held in December 2011 in which the mission concepts and technology were presented and discussed. Based on the RFI responses and the workshop, the CST then chose a small group of notional mission concepts, representing a range of cost points, for further study. These notional missions concepts were developed through mission design laboratory activities in early 2012. The results of all these activities were captured in the final X-ray mission concepts study report, submitted to NASA in July 2012. In this presentation, we summarize the outcome of the study. We discuss background, methodology, the notional missions, and the conclusions of the study report.

  17. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  18. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  19. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  20. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  1. The Lobster Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  2. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...... on a shared mission aiming at value creation (in the broadest interpretation). One important aspect of choosing value as the cornerstone of the mission of universities is to stress that the outcome is measured by external stakeholders and by their standards. Most of the paper is devoted to discussing value...... it possible to lead through processes that engage and excite while creating transparency and accountability. The paper will be illustrated with examples from Denmark and the Helios initiative taken by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV) under the headline “The value creating university – courage...

  3. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter.The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper (paper)

  5. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by

  6. El caso Galileo o las Paradojas de una Racionalidad Científica Positivista según Paul Karl Feyerabend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Gargiulo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Galilean case meant for Feyerabend the opportunity to prove methodological and historically the paradoxes and limitations of a positivist notion of science. Feyerabend demonstrates the contradictions that suppose the different attempts of neo-positivism logical to establish a demarcation criterion that defines what science is. He realizes how in the case of Galileo Galilei those elements against which the logical positivism tries to delimit a negative definition of science, paradoxically constitute the heart of the scientific endeavor. Now this does not mean –as a considerable number of critics have pointed out– that Feyerabend uphold an anarchic, irrational or relativist view about science. Conversely, in a positive sense it is possible to say that the emblematic case of Galileo not only offered to Feyerabend the occasion to formulate a negative and sceptical argumentation with regard to that notion of science but, at the same time, it represented for him a chance to rethink the science from a broader perspective or rationality.

  7. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  8. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  9. Review on abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Abort trajectory is a passage that ensures the astronauts to return safely to the earth when an emergency occurs. Firstly,the essential elements of mission abort are analyzed entirely based on summarizing the existing studies. Then,abort trajectory requirement and rational selection for different flight phases of typical manned lunar mission are discussed specifically. Considering a trade-off between the two primary constrains of an abort,the return time of flight and energy requirement,a general optimizing method for mission abort is proposed. Finally,some suggestions are given for China’s future manned lunar landing mission.

  10. A novel emergency system for low earth orbit satellites using Galileo GNSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, E.K.A.; Helderweirt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites have a limited direct contact time with the stations of their ground segment. This fundamentally constraints a timeliness reaction of the mission control center in case of emergency situations onboard the LEO spacecraft. To enable such a rapid reaction to emergency

  11. Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Robotic Science Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — C3 Propulsion's Hybrid Propulsion Technology will be applied to a NASA selected Sample Return Mission. Phase I will demonstrate Proof-of-Principle and Phase II will...

  12. SWARM - An earth Observation Mission investigating Geospace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, H.; Knudsen, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission was selected as the 5th mission in ESA's Earth Explorer Programme in 2004. This mission aims at measuring the Earth's magnetic field with unprecedented accuracy. This will be done by a constellation of three satellites, where two will fly at lower altitude, measuring the gradient...... of the magnetic field, and one satellite will fly at higher altitude. The measured magnetic field is the sum of many contributions including both magnetic fields and currents in the Earth's interior and electrical currents in Geospace. In order to separate all these sources electric field and plasma measurements...... will also be made to complement the primary magnetic field measurements. Together these will allow the deduction of information on a series of solid earth processes responsible for the creation of the fields measured. The completeness of the measurements on each satellite and the constellation aspect...

  13. B plant mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ''System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.'' The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline

  14. Applications of nuclear reactor power systems to electric propulsion missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaupp, R. W.; Sawyer, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    The performance of nuclear electric propulsion systems (NEP) has been evaluated for a wide variety of missions in an attempt to establish the commonality of NEP system requirements. Emphasis was given to those requirements and system characteristics that serve as guidelines for current technology development programs. Various interactions and tradeoffs between NEP system and mission parameters are described. The results show that the most significant factors in selecting NEP system size are launch mode (direct or spiral escape) and, to a weaker extent, launch vehicle capability. Other factors such as mission, payload, and thrust time constraints, have little influence, thus allowing one NEP system to be used for many missions. The results indicated that a 100 kWe NEP would be suitable for most direct escape missions and a 250 kWe NEP system would be suitable for more demanding missions that use the spiral escape mode.

  15. Preliminary design of an asteroid hopping mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheppa, Michael D.

    In 2010, NASA announced that its new vision is to support private space launch operations. It is anticipated that this new direction will create the need for new and innovative ideas that push the current boundaries of space exploration and contain the promise of substantial gain, both in research and capital. The purpose of the study is to plan and estimate the feasibility of a mission to visit a number of near Earth asteroids (NEAs). The mission would take place before the end of the 21st century, and would only use commercially available technology. Throughout the mission design process, while holding astronaut safety paramount, it was the goal to maximize the return while keeping the cost to a minimum. A mission of the nature would appeal to the private space industry because it could be easily adapted and set into motion. The mission design was divided into three main parts; mission timeline, vehicle design and power sources, with emphasis on nuclear and solar electric power, were investigated. The timeline and associated trajectories were initially selected using a numerical estimation and then optimized using Satellite Tool Kit (STK) 9.s's Design Explorer Optimizer [1]. Next, the spacecraft was design using commercially available parts that would support the mission requirements. The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) was and instrumental piece in maximizing the number of NEAs visited. Once the spacecraft was designed, acceptable power supply options were investigated. The VASIMR VX-200 requires 200 kilowatts of power to maintain thrust. This creates the need for a substantial power supply that consists of either a nuclear reactor of massive solar arrays. STK 9.1's Design Explorer Optimizer was able to create a mission time line that allowed for the exploration of seven NEAs in under two years, while keeping the total mission DeltaV under 71 kilometers per second. Based on these initial findings, it is determined that a mission of this

  16. Spacelab 3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.

    1990-01-01

    Spacelab-3 (SL-3) was the first microgravity mission of extended duration involving crew interaction with animal experiments. This interaction involved sharing the Spacelab environmental system, changing animal food, and changing animal waste trays by the crew. Extensive microbial testing was conducted on the animal specimens and crew and on their ground and flight facilities during all phases of the mission to determine the potential for cross contamination. Macroparticulate sampling was attempted but was unsuccessful due to the unforseen particulate contamination occurring during the flight. Particulate debris of varying size (250 micron to several inches) and composition was recovered post flight from the Spacelab floor, end cones, overhead areas, avionics fan filter, cabin fan filters, tunnel adaptor, and from the crew module. These data are discussed along with solutions, which were implemented, for particulate and microbial containment for future flight facilities.

  17. The THEMIS Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, J. L

    2009-01-01

    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  18. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    leak paths”) and determine if firewalls and router access control lists are violating network policy. Visualization tools are provided to help analysts...with which a supply agent may not be familiar. In this environment, errors in requisition are easy to make, and they are costly : an incomplete cyber...establishing an email network and recommend a firewall and additional laptops. YMAL would also match mission details like the deployment location with

  19. A Somalia mission experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  20. The money mission matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Cuperus, Mirthe

    2017-01-01

    Social entrepreneurship is popular in current academics and other media. This thesis adds to this literature by discovering what the drivers are for sustainable social entrepreneurship. Several stakeholders were identified, creating profiles of the key players in social entrepreneurship. These stakeholders uncovered key factors that represent the drivers for sustainable social entrepreneurship. Key factors were then aligned along the two dimensions: Money and Mission. This crea...

  1. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  2. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, P.; Huet, Ph.; Mingasson, J.

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  3. Nanosatellite missions - the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Kuschnig, R.; Wenger, M.; Romano, P.

    2017-09-01

    In the beginning, nanosatellite projects were focused on educational aspects. In the meantime, the technology matured and now allows to test, demonstrate and validate new systems, operational procedures and services in space at low cost and within much shorter timescales than traditional space endeavors. The number of spacecraft developed and launched has been increasing exponentially in the last years. The constellation of BRITE nanosatellites is demonstrating impressively that demanding scientific requirements can be met with small, low-cost satellites. Industry and space agencies are now embracing small satellite technology. Particularly in the USA, companies have been established to provide commercial services based on CubeSats. The approach is in general different from traditional space projects with their strict product/quality assurance and documentation requirements. The paper gives an overview of nanosatellite missions in different areas of application. Based on lessons learnt from the BRITE mission and recent developments at TU Graz (in particular the implementation of the OPS-SAT nanosatellite for ESA), enhanced technical possibilities for a future astronomy mission after BRITE will be discussed. Powerful on-board computers will allow on-board data pre-processing. A state-of-the-art telemetry system with high data rates would facilitate interference-free operations and increase science data return.

  4. Dawn Mission Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, M. V.; Russell, C. T.; Coradini, A.; Christensen, U.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Jaumann, R.; Keller, U.; Konopliv, A. S.; McCord, T. B.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Mottola, S.; Neukum, G.; Pieters, C. M.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Smith, D. E.; Williams, B. G.; Wise, J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2004-11-01

    Dawn, the ninth Discovery mission, will be the first spacecraft to rendezvous with two solar system bodies, the main belt asteroids Vesta and Ceres. This is made possible by utilizing ion propulsion to reach its targets and to maneuver into (and depart) orbits about these bodies. Vesta and Ceres are two terrestrial protoplanets that have survived since the earliest epoch of the solar system and will provide important insights into planet building processes and their evolution under very different circumstances, with and without water. Dawn carries a double framing camera, a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer, and a gamma ray and neutron detector. At Vesta our studies will include the volcanic emplacement of basalts, its differentiation, the possible exposure of its interior near the south pole. At Ceres our studies will include the role of water in its evolution, hydration processes on its surface, and the possible existence of a subsurface ocean. The mission has passed its critical design review and is scheduled to be launched in June 2006 with arrival at Vesta in 2011 and Ceres in 2015. Operation strategies will be presented. Groundbased observations of Vesta, Ceres, and Vesta family members over broad wavelengths, periods and phases will play an important role in detailed mission planning.

  5. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  6. The Spartan 1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruddace, Raymond G.; Fritz, G. G.; Shrewsberry, D. J.; Brandenstein, D. J.; Creighton, D. C.; Gutschewski, G.; Lucid, S. W.; Nagel, J. M.; Fabian, J. M.; Zimmerman, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first Spartan mission is documented. The Spartan program, an outgrowth of a joint Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) development effort, was instituted by NASA for launching autonomous, recoverable payloads from the space shuttle. These payloads have a precise pointing system and are intended to support a wide range of space-science observations and experiments. The first Spartan, carrying an NRL X-ray astronomy instrument, was launched by the orbiter Discovery (STS51G) on June 20, 1985 and recovered successfully 45 h later, on June 22. During this period, Spartan 1 conducted a preprogrammed series of observations of two X-ray sources: the Perseus cluster of galaxies and the center of our galaxy. The mission was successful from both on engineering and a scientific viewpoint. Only one problem was encountered, the attitude control system (ACS) shut down earlier than planned because of high attitude control system gas consumption. A preplanned emergency mode then placed Spartan 1 into a stable, safe condition and allowed a safe recovery. The events are described of the mission and presents X-ray maps of the two observed sources, which were produced from the flight data.

  7. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  8. SPICE for ESA Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M.

    2018-04-01

    The ESA SPICE Service leads the SPICE operations for ESA missions and is responsible for the generation of the SPICE Kernel Dataset for ESA missions. This contribution will describe the status of these datasets and outline the future developments.

  9. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  10. AGILE: A gamma-ray mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavani, M.; Caraveo, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Perotti, F.; Vercellone, S.; Barbiellini, G.; Budini, G.; Longo, F.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Cocco, V.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Pittori, C.; Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Lapshov, I.; Morelli, E.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.

    2000-01-01

    AGILE is an innovative, cost-effective gamma-ray mission selected by the Italian Space Agency for a Program of Small Scientific Missions. The AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID, made of a Silicon tracker and CsI Mini-Calorimeter) is designed to detect and image photons in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band with good sensitivity and very large field of view (FOV ∼3 sr). The X-ray detector, Super-AGILE, sensitive in the 10-40 keV band and integrated on top of the GRID gamma-ray tracker will provide imaging (1-3 arcmin) and moderate spectroscopy. For selected sky areas, AGILE might achieve a flux sensitivity (above 100 MeV) better than 5x10 -8 ph cm 2 s -1 at the completion of its scientific program. AGILE will operate as an Observatory open to the international community and is planned to be operational during the year 2002 for a nominal 2-year mission. It will be an ideal 'bridge' between EGRET and GLAST, and the only mission entirely dedicated to high-energy astrophysics above 30 MeV during that period

  11. Description of the male of Antodice quadrimaculata Martins Galileo, 2003 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae), with new country record for the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Rafael C de; Silva, Bianca Piraccini; Julio, Carlos E de Alvarenga

    2018-02-05

    The genus Antodice Thomson, 1864 was revised by Martins Galileo (1998) and currently includes 27 species (Tavakilian Chevillotte 2017), distributed from Mexico to southern South America. Based on a single female specimen collected in Arroyo Cristal, Ka'azapá, Paraguay, the species Antodice quadrimaculata was first described by Martins Galileo in 2003. The holotype specimen was collected on 20 November 1999 by J. Jensen and is deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. With the help of Carlos Aguilar, from Paraguay's National Museum of Natural History, we were able to determine the exact location where the holotype was collected. With the collection and the description of the male, presented herein, we describe the male of this species record its occurrence in Brazil, a new country record.We identified this species as belonging to the group of Antodice species with yellowish flagellomeres and a black apex, resembling Antodice venustula Lane, 1973 in its elytral color pattern. In A. venustula, the elytra are covered with whitish pubescence and exhibit only two patches of compact white pubescence. In A. quadrimaculata, according to Martins Galileo (2003), the elytra are of a reddish color with whitish pubescence on the dorsal anterior area and close to the apexes, and they also have three patches of compact white pubescence. The specimens of A. quadrimaculata cited herein were collected in the Iguaçu National Park (Parque Nacional do Iguaçu-PNI), the largest fragment of Atlantic forest in southern Brazil, located in the western region of the state of Paraná. The insects were collected using light traps, set up on nights with a new moon. The artificial light source was a 500-Watt incandescent lamp powered by a Honda EP 2500 generator. Sampling began at 6 p.m., ending between midnight and 3 a.m. the next day. The studied material was deposited in the entomological collection of the Museum of Zoology at the State University of

  12. 75 FR 9578 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... not considered during the selection process. Timeframe for Recruitment and Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner. Outreach will include publication in the Federal..., symposia, conferences, and trade shows. Recruitment will begin immediately and conclude no later than...

  13. The Bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning

    2004-01-01

    targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus....... Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected......The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target...

  14. NASA Technology Demonstrations Missions Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan

    2011-01-01

    , more than 70% of the TDM funds will be competitively awarded as a result of yearly calls for proposed flight demonstrators and selected based on possible payoff to NASA, technology maturity, customer interest, cost, and technical risk reduction. This paper will give an overview of the TDM Program s mission and organization, as well as its current status in delivering advanced space technologies that will enable more flexible and robust future missions. It also will provide several examples of missions that fit within these parameters and expected outcomes.

  15. Precise positioning with current multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Fritsche, Mathias; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-02-09

    The world of satellite navigation is undergoing dramatic changes with the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). At the moment more than 70 satellites are already in view, and about 120 satellites will be available once all four systems (BeiDou + Galileo + GLONASS + GPS) are fully deployed in the next few years. This will bring great opportunities and challenges for both scientific and engineering applications. In this paper we develop a four-system positioning model to make full use of all available observations from different GNSSs. The significant improvement of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision, convergence, accuracy, continuity and reliability that a combining utilization of multi-GNSS brings to precise positioning are carefully analyzed and evaluated, especially in constrained environments.

  16. Design of a Circularly Polarized Galileo E6-Band Textile Antenna by Dedicated Multiobjective Constrained Pareto Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaut Dierck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing textile antennas for real-life applications requires a design strategy that is able to produce antennas that are optimized over a wide bandwidth for often conflicting characteristics, such as impedance matching, axial ratio, efficiency, and gain, and, moreover, that is able to account for the variations that apply for the characteristics of the unconventional materials used in smart textile systems. In this paper, such a strategy, incorporating a multiobjective constrained Pareto optimization, is presented and applied to the design of a Galileo E6-band antenna with optimal return loss and wide-band axial ratio characteristics. Subsequently, different prototypes of the optimized antenna are fabricated and measured to validate the proposed design strategy.

  17. Mission to Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  18. The ARTEMIS mission

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    The ARTEMIS mission was initiated by skillfully moving the two outermost Earth-orbiting THEMIS spacecraft into lunar orbit to conduct unprecedented dual spacecraft observations of the lunar environment. ARTEMIS stands for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun. Indeed, this volume discusses initial findings related to the Moon’s magnetic and plasma environments and the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior. This work is aimed at researchers and graduate students in both heliophysics and planetary physics. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol. 165/1-4, 2011.

  19. The solar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Anderson, J.; Bohlin, J.D.; Burlaga, L.F.; Farquhar, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Goldstein, B.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Holzer, T.E.; Jones, W.V.; Kellogg, P.J.; Krimigis, S.M.; Kundu, M.R.; Lazarus, A.J.; Mellott, M.M.; Parker, E.N.; Rosner, R.; Rottman, G.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Suess, S.T.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Woo, R.T.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Solar Probe will deliver a 133.5 kg science payload into a 4 R s perihelion solar polar orbit (with the first perihelion passage in 2004) to explore in situ one of the last frontiers in the solar system---the solar corona. This mission is both affordable and technologically feasible. Using a payload of 12 (predominantly particles and fields) scientific experiments, it will be possible to answer many long-standing, fundamental problems concerning the structure and dynamics of the outer solar atmosphere, including the acceleration, storage, and transport of energetic particles near the Sun and in the inner ( s ) heliosphere

  20. Mission to Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  1. Evaluation of an automated microplate technique in the Galileo system for ABO and Rh(D) blood grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiyi; Wan, Feng; Lou, Yufeng; Jin, Jiali; Mao, Weilin

    2014-01-01

    A number of automated devices for pretransfusion testing have recently become available. This study evaluated the Immucor Galileo System, a fully automated device based on the microplate hemagglutination technique for ABO/Rh (D) determinations. Routine ABO/Rh typing tests were performed on 13,045 samples using the Immucor automated instruments. Manual tube method was used to resolve ABO forward and reverse grouping discrepancies. D-negative test results were investigated and confirmed manually by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). The system rejected 70 tests for sample inadequacy. 87 samples were read as "No-type-determined" due to forward and reverse grouping discrepancies. 25 tests gave these results because of sample hemolysis. After further tests, we found 34 tests were caused by weakened RBC antibodies, 5 tests were attributable to weak A and/or B antigens, 4 tests were due to mixed-field reactions, and 8 tests had high titer cold agglutinin with blood qualifications which react only at temperatures below 34 degrees C. In the remaining 11 cases, irregular RBC antibodies were identified in 9 samples (seven anti-M and two anti-P) and two subgroups were identified in 2 samples (one A1 and one A2) by a reference laboratory. As for D typing, 2 weak D+ samples missed by automated systems gave negative results, but weak-positive reactions were observed in the IAT. The Immucor Galileo System is reliable and suited for ABO and D blood groups, some reasons may cause a discrepancy in ABO/D typing using a fully automated system. It is suggested that standardization of sample collection may improve the performance of the fully automated system.

  2. Preparing to Live the Institutional Mission: An Evaluation of a Pilot Program with Engaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperato, John R.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated how a select group of mission-engaged, upper division students (n = 7) compared to a random sample of junior- (n = 20) and senior- (n = 20) year students in their perception of an urban, Catholic, and religious-order-sponsored university's identity. Across two years, we assessed mission identity and mission-driven…

  3. STS-61 mission director's post-mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    To ensure the success of the complex Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, STS-61, NASA established a number of independent review groups to assess management, design, planning, and preparation for the mission. One of the resulting recommendations for mission success was that an overall Mission Director be appointed to coordinate management activities of the Space Shuttle and Hubble programs and to consolidate results of the team reviews and expedite responses to recommendations. This report presents pre-mission events important to the experience base of mission management, with related Mission Director's recommendations following the event(s) to which they apply. All Mission Director's recommendations are presented collectively in an appendix. Other appendixes contain recommendations from the various review groups, including Payload Officers, the JSC Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Section, JSC EVA Management Office, JSC Crew and Thermal Systems Division, and the STS-61 crew itself. This report also lists mission events in chronological order and includes as an appendix a post-mission summary by the lead Payload Deployment and Retrieval System Officer. Recommendations range from those pertaining to specific component use or operating techniques to those for improved management, review, planning, and safety procedures.

  4. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  5. The Euclid mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.; Laureijs, René; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Lorenzo Alvarez, José; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Gaspar Venancio, Luis; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Bönke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jérôme; Berthé, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the scientific objectives. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. All sensor data are downlinked using K-band transmission and processed by a dedicated ground segment for science data processing. The Euclid data and catalogues will be made available to the public at the ESA Science Data Centre.

  6. EU Universities’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Arcimaviciene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years, a highly productive space of metaphor analysis has been established in the discourse studies of media, politics, business, and education. In the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis, the restored metaphorical patterns are especially valued for their implied ideological value as realized both conceptually and linguistically. By using the analytical framework of Critical Metaphor Analysis and procedurally employing Pragglejaz Group’s Metaphor Identification Procedure, this study aims at analyzing the implied value of the evoked metaphors in the mission statements of the first 20 European Universities, according to the Webometrics ranking. In this article, it is proposed that Universities’ mission statements are based on the positive evaluation of the COMMERCE metaphor, which does not fully correlate with the ideological framework of sustainability education but is rather oriented toward consumerism in both education and society. Despite this overall trend, there are some traceable features of the conceptualization reflecting the sustainability approach to higher education, as related to freedom of speech, tolerance, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, these are suppressed by the metaphoric usages evoking traditional dogmas of the conservative ideology grounded in the concepts of the transactional approach to relationship, competitiveness for superiority, the importance of self-interest and strength, and quantifiable quality.

  7. OMV mission simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Keith E.

    1989-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will be remotely piloted during rendezvous, docking, or proximity operations with target spacecraft from a ground control console (GCC). The real-time mission simulator and graphics being used to design a console pilot-machine interface are discussed. A real-time orbital dynamics simulator drives the visual displays. The dynamics simulator includes a J2 oblate earth gravity model and a generalized 1962 rotating atmospheric and drag model. The simulator also provides a variable-length communication delay to represent use of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and NASA Communications (NASCOM). Input parameter files determine the graphics display. This feature allows rapid prototyping since displays can be easily modified from pilot recommendations. A series of pilot reviews are being held to determine an effective pilot-machine interface. Pilots fly missions with nominal to 3-sigma dispersions in translational or rotational axes. Console dimensions, switch type and layout, hand controllers, and graphic interfaces are evaluated by the pilots and the GCC simulator is modified for subsequent runs. Initial results indicate a pilot preference for analog versus digital displays and for two 3-degree-of-freedom hand controllers.

  8. STS-78 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  9. Instrument demonstration effort for the CLARREO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandmont, Frédéric; Moreau, Louis; Bourque, Hugo; Taylor, Joe; Girard, Frédéric; Larouche, Martin; Veilleux, James

    2017-11-01

    the DS conclusion, and considering the early development stage of the mission, NASA funded three Instrument Incubator Programs (IIP) to push instrument concepts to a higher level of maturity. A joint proposal between University of Wisconsin (UW) and Harvard University was selected to address the first above objective and part of the fourth one in the corresponding spectral region. In order to achieve this goal, four complementary technologies are to be developed [2]: (1) On-orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS), a high emissivity blackbody source that uses multiple miniature phase-change cells to provide a revolutionary on-orbit standard with absolute temperature accuracy proven over a wide range of temperatures. (2) On-orbit Cavity Emissivity Modules (OCEMs), providing a source (quantum cascade laser, QCL, or "Heated Halo") to measure any change in the cavity emissivity of the OARS. (3) On-orbit Spectral Response Module (OSRM), a source for spectral response measurements using a nearly monochromatic QCL source configured to uniformly fill the sensor field-of-view. (4) Dual Absolute Radiance Interferometers (DARI), providing spectral coverage from 3.3 to 50 μm that can be inter-compared to dissect any unexpected systematic errors in overlapping spectral regions. ABB's GFI (Generic Flight Interferometer) has been selected as the favoured architecture for the DARI, mainly due to the maturity of the design and its space heritage. A GFI with commercial grade components was optimised for the selected spectral range. The architecture of the GFI will ensure a high response stability between calibrations.

  10. The Stellar Imager (SI)"Vision Mission"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Ken; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Karovska, M.; Allen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a "Vision" mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar magnetic activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, at ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and thus baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (less than 20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. SI's resolution will make it an invaluable resource for many other areas of astrophysics, including studies of AGN s, supernovae, cataclysmic variables, young stellar objects, QSO's, and stellar black holes. ongoing mission concept and technology development studies for SI. These studies are designed to refine the mission requirements for the science goals, define a Design Reference Mission, perform trade studies of selected major technical and architectural issues, improve the existing technology roadmap, and explore the details of deployment and operations, as well as the possible roles of astronauts and/or robots in construction and servicing of the facility.

  11. Managing the Perception of Advanced Technology Risks in Mission Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisario, Sebastian Nickolai

    2012-01-01

    Through my work in the project proposal office I became interested in how technology advancement efforts affect competitive mission proposals. Technology development allows for new instruments and functionality. However, including technology advancement in a mission proposal often increases perceived risk. Risk mitigation has a major impact on the overall evaluation of the proposal and whether the mission is selected. In order to evaluate the different approaches proposals took I compared the proposals claims of heritage and technology advancement to the sponsor feedback provided in the NASA debriefs. I examined a set of Discovery 2010 Mission proposals to draw patterns in how they were evaluated and come up with a set of recommendations for future mission proposals in how they should approach technology advancement to reduce the perceived risk.

  12. The Waste Negotiator's mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Christian

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Waste Negotiator is to seek out sites for deep underground laboratories to study their potential for disposal of high level radioactive waste. Although appointed by the government, he acts independently. In 1990, faced by severe public criticism at the way that the waste disposal was being handled, and under increasing pressure to find an acceptable solution, the government stopped the work being carried out by ANDRA (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs) and initiated a full review of the issues involved. At the same time, parliament also started its own extensive investigation to find a way forward. These efforts finally led to the provision of a detailed framework for the management of long lived radioactive waste, including the construction of two laboratories to investigate possible repository sites. The Waste Negotiator was appointed to carry out a full consultative process in the communities which are considering accepting an underground laboratory. (Author)

  13. STS-40 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.

  14. NASA CYGNSS Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, C. S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gleason, S.; McKague, D. S.; O'Brien, A.

    2017-12-01

    The CYGNSS constellation of eight satellites was successfully launched on 15 December 2016 into a low inclination (tropical) Earth orbit. Each satellite carries a four-channel bi-static radar receiver that measures GPS signals scattered by the ocean, from which ocean surface roughness, near surface wind speed, and air-sea latent heat flux are estimated. The measurements are unique in several respects, most notably in their ability to penetrate through all levels of precipitation, made possible by the low frequency at which GPS operates, and in the frequent sampling of tropical cyclone intensification and of the diurnal cycle of winds, made possible by the large number of satellites. Engineering commissioning of the constellation was successfully completed in March 2017 and the mission is currently in the early phase of science operations. Level 2 science data products have been developed for near surface (10 m referenced) ocean wind speed, ocean surface roughness (mean square slope) and latent heat flux. Level 3 gridded versions of the L2 products have also been developed. A set of Level 4 products have also been developed specifically for direct tropical cyclone overpasses. These include the storm intensity (peak sustained winds) and size (radius of maximum winds), its extent (34, 50 and 64 knot wind radii), and its integrated kinetic energy. Assimilation of CYGNSS L2 wind speed data into the HWRF hurricane weather prediction model has also been developed. An overview and the current status of the mission will be presented, together with highlights of early on-orbit performance and scientific results.

  15. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  16. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) on The Europa Clipper Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, J. H.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Kasper, J. C.; Battista, C.; Case, A. W.; Cochrane, C.; Grey, M.; Jia, X.; Kivelson, M.; Kim, C.; Korth, H.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Paty, C. S.; Roussos, E.; Rymer, A. M.; Stevens, M. L.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, H. T.; Saur, J.; Coren, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Europa Clipper mission is equipped with a sophisticated suite of 9 instruments to study Europa's interior and ocean, geology, chemistry, and habitability from a Jupiter orbiting spacecraft. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) on Europa Clipper is a Faraday Cup based plasma instrument whose heritage dates back to the Voyager spacecraft. PIMS will measure the plasma that populates Jupiter's magnetosphere and Europa's ionosphere. The science goals of PIMS are to: 1) estimate the ocean salinity and thickness by determining Europa's magnetic induction response, corrected for plasma contributions; 2) assess mechanisms responsible for weathering and releasing material from Europa's surface into the atmosphere and ionosphere; and 3) understand how Europa influences its local space environment and Jupiter's magnetosphere and vice versa. Europa is embedded in a complex Jovian magnetospheric plasma, which rotates with the tilted planetary field and interacts dynamically with Europa's ionosphere affecting the magnetic induction signal. Plasma from Io's temporally varying torus diffuses outward and mixes with the charged particles in Europa's own torus producing highly variable plasma conditions at Europa. PIMS works in conjunction with the Interior Characterization of Europa using Magnetometry (ICEMAG) investigation to probe Europa's subsurface ocean. This investigation exploits currents induced in Europa's interior by the moon's exposure to variable magnetic fields in the Jovian system to infer properties of Europa's subsurface ocean such as its depth, thickness, and conductivity. This technique was successfully applied to Galileo observations and demonstrated that Europa indeed has a subsurface ocean. While these Galileo observations contributed to the renewed interest in Europa, due to limitations in the observations the results raised major questions that remain unanswered. PIMS will greatly refine our understanding of Europa's global liquid ocean by

  17. 75 FR 28547 - Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... name of a U.S. firm and have at least 51 percent U.S. content of the value of the finished product or service. Selection Criteria for Participation Selection will be based on the following criteria.... Timeframe for Recruitment and Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public...

  18. A ballistic mission to fly by Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boain, R. J.; Hastrup, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the available options, ballistic trajectory opportunities, and a preliminary reference trajectory that were selected as a basis for spacecraft design studies and programmatic planning for a Halley ballistic intercept mission in 1986. The paper also presents trajectory, performance, and navigation data which support the preliminary selection.

  19. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  20. IRIS Mission Operations Director's Colloquium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Robert; Mazmanian, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Mission. Flight controllers from the IRIS mission will present their individual experiences on IRIS from development through the first year of flight. This will begin with a discussion of the unique nature of IRISs mission and science, and how it fits into NASA's fleet of solar observatories. Next will be a discussion of the critical roles Ames contributed in the mission including spacecraft and flight software development, ground system development, and training for launch. This will be followed by experiences from launch, early operations, ongoing operations, and unusual operations experiences. The presentation will close with IRIS science imagery and questions.

  1. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report; Mission collegiale de concertation Granite. Rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisson, P; Huet, Ph; Mingasson, J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  2. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report; Mission collegiale de concertation Granite. Rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisson, P.; Huet, Ph.; Mingasson, J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  3. Bomber Deterrence Missions: Criteria To Evaluate Mission Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    international security, the practice of general deterrence usually occurs when nations feel insecure , suspicious or even hostility towards them but...both a deterrence and assurance mission even though it was not planned or advertised as such. Since the intent of this mission was partly perceived

  4. Predictive Modeling for NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Modeling and Simulation (MS) is an enabling capability for complex NASA entry missions such as MSL and Orion. MS is used in every mission phase to define mission concepts, select appropriate architectures, design EDL systems, quantify margin and risk, ensure correct system operation, and analyze data returned from the entry. In an environment where it is impossible to fully test EDL concepts on the ground prior to use, accurate MS capability is required to extrapolate ground test results to expected flight performance.

  5. UV Spectrophotometry of the Galilean Satellites, Saturnian Satellites & Selected Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert M.

    We propose a series of ultraviolet spectral observations of solid surfaces of selected solar system objects, specifically the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, several atmosphereless satellites of Saturn, and the asteroids, 5 Astraea, 18 Melpomene, 532 Herculina, 68 Leto, 31 Euphmsyne, 80 Sappho, 3 Juno, and 39 Laetitia. Historically such spectral observations have allowed for the Identification of spectrally active solid state materials on planetary surfaces. Furthermore, because the rotational properties are known for all the objects proposed for study, this technique will provide a longitude map of such materials on the objects' surfaces. The study of asteroid surface mineralogy is an important method of constraining solar system formation models. The asteroid spectra we have previously acquired with IUE have created unique subdivisions within the existent asteroid types. The new spectra will provide more sophisticated mineralogical characterizations of asteroid surface materials. Our other accomplishments with IUE include mapping of the distribution of condensed S02 on Io, identification of a longitudinal asymmetry on Europa associated with magnetospheric particle bombardment of the surface, and establishing the ultraviolet geometric albedo variation as a function of longitude for all the Galilean satellites. Because Io is the most volcanically active body In the solar system, and short tern variations in selected regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are known to occur, it is important to periodically check for temporal variations in the spectra of the Galilean satellites that may be due to variations n Io tectonic/volcanic activity, or magnetosphere changes. These proposed UV observations are critical to the design and operation of several instruments on Project Galileo, NASA's Jupiter Orbiter and Probe Mission. Spectra of Iapetus, Rhea and Dione have been acquired during the previous year; however, only at orbital locations near elongation. In addition, the dark

  6. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  7. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  8. The Impact of Mission Duration on a Mars Orbital Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale; Earle, Kevin; Cirillo, Bill; Jones, Christopher; Klovstad, Jordan; Grande, Melanie; Stromgren, Chel

    2017-01-01

    Performance alone is insufficient to assess the total impact of changing mission parameters on a space mission concept, architecture, or campaign; the benefit, cost, and risk must also be understood. This paper examines the impact to benefit, cost, and risk of changing the total mission duration of a human Mars orbital mission. The changes in the sizing of the crew habitat, including consumables and spares, was assessed as a function of duration, including trades of different life support strategies; this was used to assess the impact on transportation system requirements. The impact to benefit is minimal, while the impact on cost is dominated by the increases in transportation costs to achieve shorter total durations. The risk is expected to be reduced by decreasing total mission duration; however, large uncertainty exists around the magnitude of that reduction.

  9. New species of Cerambycinae from the Neotropical Region, and nomen novum for Anelaphus maculatus Galileo, Martins, and Santos-Silva, 2014 (Elaphidiini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-17

    Six new species and one new genus are described: Criodion spinosum sp. nov. (Cerambycini), from Bolivia; Eburodacrys wappesi sp. nov. and Eburodacrys skillmani sp. nov. (Eburiini), from Bolivia; Eupempelus rileyorum sp. nov. (Heteropsini) from Panama; Sphalloeme mexicana sp. nov. (Oemini), from Mexico; Wappesoeme camiri sp. nov., new genus (Oemini), from Bolivia. Wappesoeme, Eburodacrys wappesi, E. skillmani, Eupempelus rileyorum, and Criodion spinosum are included in previously published keys. Anelaphus erakyra nomen novum for A. maculatus Galileo et al., 2014 is established.

  10. The AGILE Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Chen, A.W.; Cocco, V.; Costa, E.; D'Ammando, F.; Del Monte, E.; De Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorini, M.; Fornari, F.; Fuschino, F.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Liello, F.; Lipari, P.; Longo, F.; Mattaini, E.; Marisaldi, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Mauri, A.; Mauri, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Morselli, A.; Pacciani, L.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pontoni, C.; Porrovecchio, G.; Prest, M.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Rossi, E.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.; Traci, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.; Vittorini, V.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Pittori, C.; Preger, B.; Santolamazza, P.; Verrecchia, F.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Antonelli, A.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Stellato, S.; Fanari, G.; Primavera, R.; Tamburelli, F.; Viola, F.; Guarrera, G.; Salotti, L.; D'Amico, F.; Marchetti, E.; Crisconio, M.; Sabatini, P.; Annoni, G.; Alia, S.; Longoni, A.; Sanquerin, R.; Battilana, M.; Concari, P.; Dessimone, E.; Grossi, R.; Parise, A.; Monzani, F.; Artina, E.; Pavesi, R.; Marseguerra, G.; Nicolini, L.; Scandelli, L.; Soli, L.; Vettorello, V.; Zardetto, E.; Bonati, A.; Maltecca, L.; D'Alba, E.; Patane, M.; Babini, G.; Onorati, F.; Acquaroli, L.; Angelucci, M.; Morelli, B.; Agostara, C.; Cerone, M.; Michetti, A.; Tempesta, P.; D'Eramo, S.; Rocca, F.; Giannini, F.; Borghi, G.; Garavelli, B.; Conte, M.; Balasini, M.; Ferrario, I.; Vanotti, M.; Collavo, E.; Giacomazzo, M.

    2008-01-01

    AGILE is an Italian Space Agency mission dedicated to the observation of the gamma-ray Universe. The AGILE very innovative instrumentation combines for the first time a gamma-ray imager (sensitive in the energy range 30 MeV - 50 GeV), a hard X-ray imager (sensitive in the range 18-60 keV) together with a Calorimeter (sensitive in the range 300 keV - 100 MeV) and an anticoincidence system. AGILE was successfully launched on April 23, 2007 from the Indian base of Sriharikota and was inserted in an equatorial orbit with a very low particle background. AGILE provides crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, pulsars, unidentified gamma-ray sources, Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. An optimal angular resolution (reaching 0.1-0.2 degrees in gamma-rays, 1-2 arcminutes in hard X-rays) and very large fields of view (2.5 sr and 1 sr, respectively) are obtained by the use of Silicon detectors integrated in a very compa...

  11. STS-68 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This STS-68 patch was designed by artist Sean Collins. Exploration of Earth from space is the focus of the design of the insignia, the second flight of the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2). SRL-2 was part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) project. The world's land masses and oceans dominate the center field, with the Space Shuttle Endeavour circling the globe. The SRL-2 letters span the width and breadth of planet Earth, symbolizing worldwide coverage of the two prime experiments of STS-68: The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) instruments; and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) sensor. The red, blue, and black colors of the insignia represent the three operating wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR, and the gold band surrounding the globe symbolizes the atmospheric envelope examined by MAPS. The flags of international partners Germany and Italy are shown opposite Endeavour. The relationship of the Orbiter to Earth highlights the usefulness of human space flights in understanding Earth's environment, and the monitoring of its changing surface and atmosphere. In the words of the crew members, the soaring Orbiter also typifies the excellence of the NASA team in exploring our own world, using the tools which the Space Program developed to explore the other planets in the solar system.

  12. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  13. NASA's interstellar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Ayon, J.A.; Wallace, R.A.; Mewaldt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Interstellar Probe will be the first spacecraft designed to explore the nearby interstellar medium and its interaction with our solar system. As envisioned by NASA's Interstellar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team, the spacecraft will be propelled by a solar sail to reach >200 AU in 15 years. Interstellar Probe will investigate how the Sun interacts with its environment and will directly measure the properties and composition of the dust, neutrals and plasma of the local interstellar material which surrounds the solar system. In the mission concept developed in the spring of 1999, a 400-m diameter solar sail accelerates the spacecraft to ∼15 AU/year, roughly 5 times the speed of Voyager 1 and 2. The sail is used to first bring the spacecraft to ∼0.25 AU to increase the radiation pressure before heading out in the interstellar upwind direction. After jettisoning the sail at ∼5 AU, the spacecraft coasts to 200-400 AU, exploring the Kuiper Belt, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and the nearby interstellar medium

  14. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs

  15. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan

  16. STS-51J Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The 51-J mission insignia, designed by Atlantis's first crew, pays tribute to the Statue of Liberty and the ideas it symbolizes. The historical gateway figure bears additional significance for Astronauts Karol J. Bobko, mission commander; and Ronald J. Grabe, pilot, both New Your Natives.

  17. The Cassini-Huygens visit to Saturn an historic mission to the ringed planet

    CERN Document Server

    Meltzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cassini-Huygens was the most ambitious and successful space journey ever launched to the outer Solar System. This book examines all aspects of the journey: its conception and planning; the lengthy political processes needed to make it a reality; the engineering and development required to build the spacecraft; its 2.2-billion mile journey from Earth to the Ringed Planet; and the amazing discoveries from the mission. The author traces how the visions of a few brilliant scientists matured, gained popularity, and eventually became a reality. Innovative technical leaps were necessary to assemble such a multifaceted spacecraft and reliably operate it while it orbited a planet so far from our own. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft design evolved from other deep space efforts, most notably the Galileo mission to Jupiter, enabling the voluminous, paradigm-shifting scientific data collected by the spacecraft.  Some of these discoveries are absolute gems. A small satellite that scientists once thought of as a dead pi...

  18. GRACE Status at Mission End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, B. D.; Flechtner, F. M.; Watkins, M. M.; Bettadpur, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The twin satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were launched on March 17, 2002 and have operated for nearly 16 years. The mission objectives are to observe the spatial and temporal variations of the Earth's mass through its effects on the gravity field at the GRACE satellite altitude. The mass changes observed are related to both the changes within the solid earth and the change within and between the Erath system components. A significant cause of the time varying mass is water motion and the GRACE mission has provided a continuous decade long measurement sequence which characterizes the seasonal cycle of mass transport between the oceans, land, cryosphere and atmosphere; its inter-annual variability; and the climate driven secular, or long period, mass transport signals. The fifth reanalysis on the mission data set, the RL05 data, were released in mid-2013. With the planned launch of GRACE Follow-On in early 2018, plans are underway for a reanalysis that will be consistent with the GRACE FO processing standards. The mission is entering the final phases of its operation life with mission end expected to occur in early 2018. The current mission operations strategy emphasizes extending the mission lifetime to obtain an overlap with the GRACE FO. This presentation will review the mission status and the projections for mission lifetime, describe the current operations philosophy and its impact on the science data, discuss the issues related to achieving the GRACE and GRACE FO connection and discuss issues related to science data products during this phase of the mission period.

  19. Mission operations for unmanned nuclear electric propulsion outer planet exploration with a thermionic reactor spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, R. J.; Prickett, W. Z.; Garate, J. A.; Firth, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration NEP spacecraft employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference missions are the Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. The characteristics of the baseline multi-mission NEP spacecraft are presented and its performance in other outer planet missions, such as Saturn and Uranus orbiters and a Neptune flyby, are discussed. Candidate mission operations are defined from spacecraft assembly to mission completion. Pre-launch operations are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur D-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and the heliocentric mission phases. The sequence and type of operations are basically identical for all missions investigated.

  20. The SCOPE Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, M.; Tsuda, Y.; Saito, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Takashima, T.; Matsuoka, A.; Kojima, H.; Kasaba, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In order to reach the new horizon of the space physics research, the Plasma Universe, via in-situ measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere, SCOPE will perform formation flying observations combined with high-time resolution electron measurements. The simultaneous multi-scale observations by SCOPE of various plasma dynamical phenomena will enable data-based study of the key space plasma processes from the cross-scale coupling point of view. Key physical processes to be studied are magnetic reconnection under various boundary conditions, shocks in space plasma, collisionless plasma mixing at the boundaries, and physics of current sheets embedded in complex magnetic geometries. The SCOPE formation is made up of 5 spacecraft and is put into the equatorial orbit with the apogee at 30 Re (Re: earth radius). One of the spacecraft is a large mother ship which is equipped with a full suite of particle detectors including ultra-high time resolution electron detector. Among other 4 small spacecraft, one remains near (∼10 km) the mother ship and the spacecraft-pair will focus on the electron-scale physics. Others at the distance of 100∼3000 km(electron∼ion spatial scales) from the mother ship will monitor plasma dynamics surrounding the mother-daughter pair. There is lively on-going discussion on Japan-Europe international collaboration (ESA's Cross-Scale), which would certainly make better the coverage over the scales of interest and thus make the success of the mission, i.e., clarifying the multi-scale nature of the Plasma Universe, to be attained at an even higher level.

  1. Near real-time PPP-based monitoring of the ionosphere using dual-frequency GPS/BDS/Galileo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhinmin; Li, Yangyang; Li, Fei; Guo, Jinyun

    2018-03-01

    Ionosphere delay is very important to GNSS observations, since it is one of the main error sources which have to be mitigated even eliminated in order to determine reliable and precise positions. The ionosphere is a dispersive medium to radio signal, so the value of the group delay or phase advance of GNSS radio signal depends on the signal frequency. Ground-based GNSS stations have been used for ionosphere monitoring and modeling for a long time. In this paper we will introduce a novel approach suitable for single-receiver operation based on the precise point positioning (PPP) technique. One of the main characteristic is that only carrier-phase observations are used to avoid particular effects of pseudorange observations. The technique consists of introducing ionosphere ambiguity parameters obtained from PPP filter into the geometry-free combination of observations to estimate ionospheric delays. Observational data from stations that are capable of tracking the GPS/BDS/GALILEO from the International GNSS Service (IGS) Multi-GNSS Experiments (MGEX) network are processed. For the purpose of performance validation, ionospheric delays series derived from the novel approach are compared with the global ionospheric map (GIM) from Ionospheric Associate Analysis Centers (IAACs). The results are encouraging and offer potential solutions to the near real-time ionosphere monitoring.

  2. A Centaur Reconnaissance Mission: a NASA JPL Planetary Science Summer Seminar mission design experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, L.; Howell, S. M.; Bhattaru, S.; Blalock, J. J.; Bouchard, M.; Brueshaber, S.; Cusson, S.; Eggl, S.; Jawin, E.; Marcus, M.; Miller, K.; Rizzo, M.; Smith, H. B.; Steakley, K.; Thomas, N. H.; Thompson, M.; Trent, K.; Ugelow, M.; Budney, C. J.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Planetary Science Summer Seminar (PSSS), sponsored by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), offers advanced graduate students and recent doctoral graduates the unique opportunity to develop a robotic planetary exploration mission that answers NASA's Science Mission Directorate's Announcement of Opportunity for the New Frontiers Program. Preceded by a series of 10 weekly webinars, the seminar is an intensive one-week exercise at JPL, where students work directly with JPL's project design team "TeamX" on the process behind developing mission concepts through concurrent engineering, project design sessions, instrument selection, science traceability matrix development, and risks and cost management. The 2017 NASA PSSS team included 18 participants from various U.S. institutions with a diverse background in science and engineering. We proposed a Centaur Reconnaissance Mission, named CAMILLA, designed to investigate the geologic state, surface evolution, composition, and ring systems through a flyby and impact of Chariklo. Centaurs are defined as minor planets with semi-major axis that lies between Jupiter and Neptune's orbit. Chariklo is both the largest Centaur and the only known minor planet with rings. CAMILLA was designed to address high priority cross-cutting themes defined in National Research Council's Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. At the end of the seminar, a final presentation was given by the participants to a review board of JPL scientists and engineers as well as NASA headquarters executives. The feedback received on the strengths and weaknesses of our proposal provided a rich and valuable learning experience in how to design a successful NASA planetary exploration mission and generate a successful New Frontiers proposal. The NASA PSSS is an educational experience that trains the next generation of NASA's planetary explorers by bridging the gap between scientists and engineers, allowing for participants to learn

  3. Mars Trek: An Interactive Web Portal for Current and Future Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B.

    2017-09-01

    NASA's Mars Trek (https://marstrek.jpl.nasa.gov) provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped data products from past and current missions to Mars. During the past year, the capabilities and data served by Mars Trek have been significantly expanded beyond its original design as a public outreach tool. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate, Mars Trek's technology and capabilities are now being extended to support site selection and analysis activities for the first human missions to Mars.

  4. Mars Trek: An Interactive Web Portal for Current and Future Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Mars Trek (https://marstrek.jpl.nasa.gov) provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped data products from past and current missions to Mars. During the past year, the capabilities and data served by Mars Trek have been significantly expanded beyond its original design as a public outreach tool. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate, Mars Trek's technology and capabilities are now being extended to support site selection and analysis activities for the first human missions to Mars.

  5. New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-08

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

  6. Executive Summary - Our mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    On September 1 st 2003, the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow joined the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), founded in 1952, is a state-sponsored scientific institution acting through an elected corporation of leading scholars, their research organizations and through numerous scientific establishments. PAN is a major national scientific advisory body acting via its scientific committees which represent all disciplines of science. There are currently 79 PAN research establishments (institutes and research centers, research stations, botanical gardens and other research units) and a number of auxiliary scientific units (such as archives, libraries, museums, and PAN stations abroad). Our Institute is currently one of the largest research institutions of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The research activity of the Academy is financed mainly from the State budget via the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology. The mission of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, IFJ is stated in its Charter. According to Paragraphs 5, 6, and 7 of the 2004 Charter, the Institute's duty is to carry out research activities in the following areas:1. High energy and elementary particle physics (including astrophysics), 2. Nuclear physics and physics of mechanisms of nuclear interaction, 3. Condensed matter physics, 4. Interdisciplinary research, and in particular: in radiation and environmental biology, environmental physics, medical physics, dosimetry, nuclear geophysics, radiochemistry and material engineering. The main tasks of the Institute are: 1. To perform research in the above disciplines, 2. To promote the development of scientists and of specialists qualified to carry out research in these disciplines, 3. To organize a Post-Doctoral Study Course, 4. To permit, through agreements with national and foreign research institutions, external scholars to train and gain academic qualifications in the Institute

  7. The Ulysses mission: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    On 30 September 1995, Ulysses completed its initial, highly successful, survey of the polar regions of the heliosphere in both southern and northern hemispheres, thereby fulfilling its prime mission. The results obtained to date are leading to a revision of many earlier ideas concerning the solar wind and the heliosphere. Now embarking on the second phase of the mission, Ulysses will continue along its out-of-ecliptic flight path for another complete orbit of the Sun. In contrast to the high-latitude phase of the prime mission, which occurred near solar minimum, the next polar passes (in 2000 and 2001) will take place when the Sun is at its most active

  8. The comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.; Neugebauer, M.; Weissman, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission is designed to answer the many questions raised by the Halley missions by exploring a cometary nucleus in detail, following it around its orbit and studying its changing activity as it moves closer to and then away from the Sun. In addition, on its way to rendezvous with the comet, CRAF will fly by a large, primitive class main belt asteroid and will return valuable data for comparison with the comet results. The selected asteroid is 449 Hamburga with a diameter of 88 km and a surface composition of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The expected flyby date is January, 1998. The CRAF spacecraft will continue to make measurements in orbit around the cometary nucleus as they both move closer to the Sun, until the dust and gas hazard becomes unsafe. At that point the spacecraft will move in and out between 50 and 2,500 kilometers to study the inner coma and the cometary ionosphere, and to collect dust and gas samples for onboard analysis. Following perihelion, the spacecraft will make a 50,000 km excursion down the comet's tail, further investigating the solar wind interaction with the cometary atmosphere. The spacecraft will return to the vicinity of the nucleus about four months after perihelion to observe the changes that have taken place. If the spacecraft remains healthy and adequate fuel is still onboard, an extended mission to follow the comet nucleus out to aphelion is anticipated

  9. Mission-driven marketing: a rural example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, J E; Vaughn, T; Westermann, J

    1999-01-01

    Marketing receives little attention in the academic healthcare management literature, possibly because it is associated with pursuit of profit rather than community benefit. However, a marketing perspective can be applied to the pursuit of the traditional missions of healthcare delivery organizations. Mission-oriented market selection criteria could include characteristics such as relevance to mission, underserved or vulnerable population status, resistance to care, limited resources, and low accessibility. A survey conducted in a rural county is used to demonstrate ways that underserved market segments can be identified and targeted. In the market surveyed, men used less medical care than women; depressed people and those with low levels of education used less medical care than people without these characteristics. Consumers were more likely to defer care because of cost if they lacked health insurance coverage, were female, were under age 55, had fair health status, were depressed, and were chronically ill. Marketing strategies worthy of consideration relate to price (e.g., free care, coupons and sales for eligible individuals), distribution (e.g., visiting nurses, malls and fairs, occupational medicine programs), product (e.g., satisfaction, waiting time, attractiveness, assertive follow-up), and promotion (education about insurance benefits, facilitating development of regular sources of care, health education).

  10. MILITARY MISSION COMBAT EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ighoyota B. AJENAGHUGHRURE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  11. Micro-Pressure Sensors for Future Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, David C.

    1996-01-01

    The joint research interchange effort was directed at the following principal areas: u further development of NASA-Ames' Mars Micro-meteorology mission concept as a viable NASA space mission especially with regard to the science and instrument specifications u interaction with the flight team from NASA's New Millennium 'Deep-Space 2' (DS-2) mission with regard to selection and design of micro-pressure sensors for Mars u further development of micro-pressure sensors suitable for Mars The research work undertaken in the course of the Joint Research Interchange should be placed in the context of an ongoing planetary exploration objective to characterize the climate system on Mars. In particular, a network of small probes globally-distributed on the surface of the planet has often been cited as the only way to address this particular science goal. A team from NASA Ames has proposed such a mission called the Micrometeorology mission, or 'Micro-met' for short. Surface pressure data are all that are required, in principle, to calculate the Martian atmospheric circulation, provided that simultaneous orbital measurements of the atmosphere are also obtained. Consequently, in the proposed Micro-met mission a large number of landers would measure barometric pressure at various locations around Mars, each equipped with a micro-pressure sensor. Much of the time on the JRI was therefore spent working with the engineers and scientists concerned with Micro-met to develop this particular mission concept into a more realistic proposition.

  12. The Long, Bumpy Road to a Mars Aeronomy Mission (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Bougher, S. W.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    With the advent of the space age, early focus was put into characterizing the Earth's upper atmosphere with aeronomy missions. These missions were designed to study the upper atmosphere region of a planet where the ionosphere is produced with particular attention given to the composition, properties and motion of atmosphere constituents. In particular a very successful US series of Atmosphere Explorer aeronomy spacecraft (1963-1977) was implemented. This upper atmosphere region is the envelope that all energy from the sun must penetrate and is recognized as an inseparable part of a planet's entire atmosphere. Venus was the next planet to have its upper atmosphere/ionosphere deeply probed via the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (1978-1986) that carried a complement of instruments similar to some flown on the Atmosphere Explorers. The planet which humans have long set their imagination on, Mars, has yet to be subjected to the same detailed upper atmosphere perusal until now, with MAVEN. Not that attempts have been wanting. More than 30 spacecraft launches to Mars were attempted, but half were not successful and those that attained orbit came far short of attaining the same level of knowledge of the Martian upper atmosphere. Other countries had planned Mars aeronomy missions that didn't bear fruit - e.g. Mars-96 and Nozomi and the US did studies for two missions, Mars Aeronomy Orbiter and MUADEE, that never were implemented. This is about to change. NASA's Scout Program singled out two aeronomy missions in its final competition and the selected mission, MAVEN, will fly with the needed sophistication of instruments to finally probe and understand the top of Mars' atmosphere. Was this late selection of a NASA aeronomy mission to Mars a philosophy change in US priorities or was it an accident of planning and budget constraints? Was it driven by the developing knowledge that Mars really had an early atmosphere environment conducive to life and that an aeronomy mission is indeed

  13. Scientific Challenges for a New X-ray Timing Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Frederick K.

    2004-01-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) is an immensely successful mission of exploration and discovery. It has discovered a wealth of rapid X-ray variability phenomena that can be used to address fundamental questions concerning the properties of dense matter and strong gravitational fields as well as important astrophysical questions. It has answered many questions and is likely to answer many more, but to follow up fully on the major discoveries RXTE has made will require a new X-ray timing mission with greater capabilities. This introduction to the present volume describes briefly the advantages of X-ray timing measurements for determining the properties of dense matter and strong gravitational fields, indicates some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed using X-ray timing, and summarizes selected achievements of the RXTE mission. It concludes by citing some of the scientific capabilities a proposed follow-on mission will need in order to be successful

  14. Robotic planetary mission benefits from nuclear electric propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.H.; Yen, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Several interesting planetary missions are either enabled or significantly enhanced by nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) in the 50 to 100 kW power range. These missions include a Pluto Orbiter/Probe with an 11-year flight time and several years of operational life in orbit versus a ballistic very fast (13 km/s) flyby which would take longer to get to Pluto and would have a very short time to observe the planet. (A ballistic orbiter would take about 40 years to get to Pluto.) Other missions include a Neptune Orbiter/Probe, a Jupiter Grand Tour orbiting each of the major moons in order, a Uranus Orbiter/Probe, a Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous orbiting six selected asteroids, and a Comet Nucleus Sample Return. This paper discusses potential missions and compares the nuclear electric propulsion option to the conventional ballistic approach on a parametric basis

  15. International partnership in lunar missions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference. .... flight. The studies in India suggest that an 'aerobic' space transportation vehicle can indeed have a ... space from Earth at very, very low cost first before.

  16. Telepresence for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incorporating telepresence technologies into deep space mission operations can give the crew and ground personnel the impression that they are in a location at time...

  17. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  18. Green Propellant Infusion Mission Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The mission is architected as a collaboration of NASA, Industry, and Air Force partners with the objective to advance the technology for propulsion components using...

  19. Hierarchthis: An Interactive Interface for Identifying Mission-Relevant Components of the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litomisky, Krystof

    2012-01-01

    Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System, or AMMOS, is a collection of multimission tools and services, whose development and maintenance are funded by NASA. I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. HierarchThis automatically creates diagrams of the AMMOS database, and then allows users to show/hide specific details through a graphical interface. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components, along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission-specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

  20. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  1. TRISTAN - mission complete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The high energy physics mission of the TRISTAN electron-positron collider at the Japanese KEK Laboratory ended in May. TRISTAN was the first accelerator in Japan at the high energy frontier, and its success owes a great deal to help and encouragement from the world high energy physics community. Its success also marks the first step toward the KEKB project now underway and the subsequent Linear Collider scheme. TRISTAN began operation in November 1986 with a collision energy of 50 GeV, the world's highest electron-positron collision energy at that time. With the addition of superconducting radiofrequency cavities, the energy was continuously increased, reaching a maximum of 64 GeV in 1989. In this exploratory era, the three large detectors - AMY,TOPAZ and VENUS - together with the smaller SHIP group made a rapid survey of particle phenomena in this new energy range. The sixth ('top') quark was first on the list of wanted particles, but the three large groups concluded that there were no new quarks below 32 GeV. The CDF and DO Collaborations at Fermilab's Tevatron recently reported the top quark as being six times as heavy as TRISTAN'S physics reach. Although initial experimental results suggested that the event-shape distributions of multi-hadron events were broadly consistent with the production of the five known quarks, the production rate of hadrons, compared to muons, was seen to rise with energy. The increased energy reach of TRISTAN increased the visibility of the subtle virtual effects of the Z (the electrically neutral carrier of the weak force) produced through the interference of weak and electromagnetic interactions. The rise was found to be slightly larger than expected from five quarks and a Z mass of 92 or 93 GeV, the accepted value at that time. This hinted that the Z mass had to be smaller, as later verified when the SLC and LEP electron-positron colliders at SLAC (Stanford) and CERN respectively came into operation in 1989

  2. Executive Summary - Our mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej im. Henryka Niewodniczanskiego, IFJ PAN) is currently the largest research institution of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk). The research activity of the Academy is financed mainly from the State budget via the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The mission of IFJ PAN is stated in its Charter. According to Paragraphs 5, 6, and 7 of the 2004 Charter, the Institute's duty is to carry out research activities in the following areas: 1. High energy and elementary particle physics (including astrophysics), 2. Nuclear physics and strong interaction, 3. Condensed matter physics, 4. Interdisciplinary research, in particular: in radiation and environmental biology, environmental physics, medical physics, dosimetry, nuclear geophysics, radiochemistry and material engineering. The main tasks of the Institute are: 1. To perform research in the above disciplines, 2. To promote the development of scientists and of specialists qualified to carry out research in these disciplines, 3. To organize a Post-Graduate Study Course, 4. To permit, through agreements with national and foreign research institutions, external scholars to train and gain academic qualifications in the Institute's laboratories, 5. To collaborate with national and local authorities in providing them with expertise in the Institute's research topics, especially concerning radiation protection. These tasks are fulfilled by: 1. Performing individual and coordinated research through individual and collective research grant projects, 2. Initiating and maintaining cooperation with laboratories, organizations and institutions performing similar activities, in Poland and abroad, 3. Conferring scientific degrees and titles, 4. Distributing research results obtained, through peer-reviewed publications and other public media, 5. Organizing scientific meetings, conferences, symposia, training workshops, etc

  3. Psychosocial interactions during ISS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2007-02-01

    Based on anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies of space analog environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station, a number of psychosocial issues have been identified that can lead to problems during long-duration space expeditions. Several of these issues were studied during a series of missions to the International Space Station. Using a mood and group climate questionnaire that was completed weekly by crewmembers in space and personnel in mission control, we found no evidence to support the presence of predicted decrements in well-being during the second half or in any specific quarter of the missions. The results did support the predicted displacement of negative feelings to outside supervisors among both crew and ground subjects. There were several significant differences in mood and group perceptions between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Crewmembers related cohesion to the support role of their leader, and mission control personnel related cohesion to both the task and support roles of their leader. These findings are discussed with reference to future space missions.

  4. Social Tagging of Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  5. CEO Sites Mission Management System (SMMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Late in fiscal year 2011, the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) team was tasked to upgrade its science site database management tool, which at the time was integrated with the Automated Mission Planning System (AMPS) originally developed for Earth Observations mission planning in the 1980s. Although AMPS had been adapted and was reliably used by CEO for International Space Station (ISS) payload operations support, the database structure was dated, and the compiler required for modifications would not be supported in the Windows 7 64-bit operating system scheduled for implementation the following year. The Sites Mission Management System (SMMS) is now the tool used by CEO to manage a heritage Structured Query Language (SQL) database of more than 2,000 records for Earth science sites. SMMS is a carefully designed and crafted in-house software package with complete and detailed help files available for the user and meticulous internal documentation for future modifications. It was delivered in February 2012 for test and evaluation. Following acceptance, it was implemented for CEO mission operations support in April 2012. The database spans the period from the earliest systematic requests for astronaut photography during the shuttle era to current ISS mission support of the CEO science payload. Besides logging basic image information (site names, locations, broad application categories, and mission requests), the upgraded database management tool now tracks dates of creation, modification, and activation; imagery acquired in response to requests; the status and location of ancillary site information; and affiliations with studies, their sponsors, and collaborators. SMMS was designed to facilitate overall mission planning in terms of site selection and activation and provide the necessary site parameters for the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE), which is used by CEO operations to perform daily ISS mission planning. The CEO team

  6. Low Thrust Trajectory Design for GSFC Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is a global trajectory optimization tool. EMTG is intended for use in designing interplanetary missions which...

  7. A review of Spacelab mission management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.

  8. The Saturn Probe Interior and aTmosphere Explorer (SPRITE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy; Banfield, Donald; Atkinson, David; SPRITE Science Team

    2018-01-01

    A key question in planetary science is how the planets formed in our Solar System, and, by extension, in exoplanet systems. The abundances of the noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), heavy elements (C, N, O, S), and their isotopes provide important forensic clues as to location and time of formation in the early Solar System. Jupiter and Saturn contain most of the planetary mass in our solar system, and their chemical fingerprints will distinguish between competing models of the formation of all the planets. After the end of the Cassini mission, some of these elements have only ambiguous values above the cloud tops, while others (particularly the noble gases) have not been measured at all. Resolving this requires direct in situ measurements. The proposed NASA New Frontiers Saturn PRobe Interior and aTmosphere Explorer (SPRITE) mission delivers an instrumented entry probe from a carrier relay spacecraft that also provides context imaging. The powerful probe instrument suite is comprised of a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer, a Tunable Laser Spectrometer, and an Atmospheric Structure Instrument including a Doppler Wind Experiment and a simple backscatter nephelometer. These instruments measure the elemental and isotopic abundances of helium, the heavier noble gases, and the major elements, as well as constraining cloud properties, 3-D atmospheric dynamics, and disequilibrium chemistry to at least 10 bars in Saturn's troposphere. In situ measurements of Saturn's atmosphere by SPRITE will provide a significantly improved context for interpreting the results from the Galileo probe, Juno, and Cassini missions. SPRITE will revolutionize our understanding of the formation and evolution of the gas giant planets, and ultimately the present-day structure of the Solar System.

  9. Upcoming planetary missions and the applicability of high-temperature-superconductor bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasunas, J.; Kunde, V.; Moseley, H.; Lakew, B.

    1991-01-01

    Planetary missions to Mars and beyond can last 11 years and longer, making impractical the use of stored cryogens. Passive radiative coolers and single-stage mechanical coolers remain possibilities. Cassini and Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Fly-by (CRAF), both using the newly developed Mariner Mark 2 spacecraft, will be the next outer planet missions after Galileo; they are intended to provide information on the origin and evolution of the solar system. CRAF is slated for a 1994 launch. Cassini was chosen by ESA and will be launched by a Titan 4/Centaur in 1996. It will fly by Jupiter in 2000, inject an ESA-supplied probe into Titan in 2002, and take data in Saturn's orbit from 2002 to 2006. NASA/Goddard is currently developing a prototype Fourier transform spectrometer, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), for the Cassini mission. The baseline infrared detectors for CIRS are HgCdTe to 16 microns and Schwarz-type thermopiles from 16 to 1000 microns. The far infrared focal plane could be switched from thermopiles to high temperature superconductor (HTS) bolometers between now and 1996. An HTS bolometer could be built using the kinetic inductance effect, or the sharp resistance change at the transition. The transition-edge bolometer is more straightforward to implement, and initial efforts at NASA/Goddard are directed to that device. A working device was made and tested in early 1989. It also has somewhat elevated noise levels below 100 Hz. Upcoming efforts will center on reducing the time constant of the HTS bolometer by attempting to deposit an HTS film on a diamond substrate, and by thinning SrTiO3 substrates. Attempts will be made to improve the film quality to reduce the 1/4 noise level, and to improve the thermal isolation to increase the bolometer sensitivity

  10. Evaluation of the NASA Arc Jet Capabilities to Support Mission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomino, Anthony; Bruce, Walt; Gage, Peter; Horn, Dennis; Mastaler, Mike; Rigali, Don; Robey, Judee; Voss, Linda; Wahlberg, Jerry; Williams, Calvin

    2010-01-01

    NASA accomplishes its strategic goals through human and robotic exploration missions. Many of these missions require launching and landing or returning spacecraft with human or return samples through Earth's and other planetary atmospheres. Spacecraft entering an atmosphere are subjected to extreme aerothermal loads. Protecting against these extreme loads is a critical element of spacecraft design. The safety and success of the planned mission is a prime concern for the Agency, and risk mitigation requires the knowledgeable use of thermal protection systems to successfully withstand the high-energy states imposed on the vehicle. Arc jets provide ground-based testing for development and flight validation of re-entry vehicle thermal protection materials and are a critical capability and core competency of NASA. The Agency's primary hypersonic thermal testing capability resides at the Ames Research Center and the Johnson Space Center and was developed and built in the 1960s and 1970s. This capability was critical to the success of Apollo, Shuttle, Pioneer, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder, and Orion. But the capability and the infrastructure are beyond their design lives. The complexes urgently need strategic attention and investment to meet the future needs of the Agency. The Office of Chief Engineer (OCE) chartered the Arc Jet Evaluation Working Group (AJEWG), a team of experienced individuals from across the Nation, to capture perspectives and requirements from the arc jet user community and from the community that operates and maintains this capability and capacity. This report offers the AJEWG's findings and conclusions that are intended to inform the discussion surrounding potential strategic technical and investment strategies. The AJEWG was directed to employ a 30-year Agency-level view so that near-term issues did not cloud the findings and conclusions and did not dominate or limit any of the strategic options.

  11. Spotlight on unmet needs in stroke prevention: The PIONEER AF-PCI, NAVIGATE ESUS and GALILEO trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmrich, Melanie; Peterson, Eric D; Thomitzek, Karen; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2016-09-28

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major healthcare concern, being associated with an estimated five-fold risk of ischaemic stroke. In patients with AF, anticoagulants reduce stroke risk to a greater extent than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with ASA plus clopidogrel. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are now a widely-accepted therapeutic option for stroke prevention in non-valvular AF (NVAF). There are particular patient types with NVAF for whom treatment challenges remain, owing to sparse clinical data, their high-risk nature or a need to harmonise anticoagulant and antiplatelet regimens if co-administered. This article focuses on three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that are investigating the utility of rivaroxaban, a direct, oral, factor Xa inhibitor, in additional areas of stroke prevention where data for anticoagulants are lacking: oPen-label, randomized, controlled, multicentre study explorIng twO treatmeNt stratEgiEs of Rivaroxaban and a dose-adjusted oral vitamin K antagonist treatment (PIONEER AF-PCI); New Approach riVaroxoban Inhibition of factor Xa in a Global trial vs Aspirin to prevenT Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE ESUS); and Global study comparing a rivAroxaban-based antithrombotic strategy to an antipLatelet-based strategy after transcatheter aortIc vaLve rEplacement to Optimize clinical outcomes (GALILEO). Data from these studies present collaborative efforts to build upon existing registrational Phase III data for rivaroxaban, driving the need for effective and safe treatment of a wider range of patients for stroke prevention.

  12. Surveillance mission planning for UAVs in GPS-denied urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengfei, Wang

    In this thesis, the issues involved in the mission planning of UAVs for city surveillance have been studied. In this thesis, the research includes two major parts. Firstly, a mission planning system is developed that generates mission plans for a group of fixed-wing UAVs with on-board gimballed cameras to provide continuous surveillance over an urban area. Secondly, the problem of perching location selection (as part of perch-and-stare surveillance mission) for rotary-wing UAVs in a GPS-denied environment is studied. In this kind of mission, a UAV is dispatched to perch on a roof of a building to keep surveillance on a given target. The proposed algorithms to UAV surveillance mission planning (fixed-wing and rotary-wing) have been implemented and tested. It represents an important step towards achieving autonomous planning in UAV surveillance missions.

  13. Mission,System Design and Payload Aspects of ESA's Mercury Cornerstone Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, A.; Anselmi, A.; Scoon, G. E. N.

    1999-09-01

    Aim of this paper is to summarise the 1-year study performed by Alenia Aerospazio in close co-operation with the European Space Agency, on the Mercury Cornerstone System and Technology Study, as a part of Horizon 2000+ Scientific Programme plan. ESA's definition study towards a mission to Mercury conceives the launch of a S/C in 2009, on a two to three years journey, plus a one-year scientific observations and data take. The mission's primary objectives are manyfolded, aiming at approaching basic scientific questions on the origin and evolution of Mercury: identify and map the chemical and mineral composition of the surface, measure the topography of surface landforms, define the gravitational field, investigate particles and magnetic fields. The mission is also intended to resolve the librational state of the planet, in a system experiment requiring high accuracy inertial attitude (arcsecond level) and orbit (m-level) reconstitution. This experiment will allow to infer whether Mercury has a molten core, which is crucial to theories of magnetic field generation, and theories of the thermal history of terrestrial type planets. A hard-lander is planned to perform in-situ surface geochemical analysis. The mission is expected to provide scientists with a global portrait of Mercury returning about 1200 Gbits of scientific data, during a 1-year observation phase. The crucial aspects of the spacecraft design have to do with the high-temperature and high-radiation environment. Thermal control is achieved by a combination of orbit selection, attitude law, and special design provisions for IR shielding and HT insulation. Ad-hoc design provisions are envisaged for power and antenna mechanisms. Though the conceptual objectives of this industrial study focused on system architectures and enabling technologies for a "Cornerstone" class mission, in this paper emphasis is given on the scientific payload aspects.

  14. Competencia intercapitalista en tecnología estratégica y su militarización: el caso del sistema satelital Galileo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Delgado Ramos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce sont trois les acteurs qu'on peut identifier dans le développement scientifico-technologique: l'État nation, les sociétés multinationales et les centres de production de connaissances. Leur interaction et synergie pour le développement endogène de technologie civil et militaire sont bien ancrés dans les États capitalistes centraux. Il est possible d'identifier, à partir de cette perspective de synergie que je désigne comme « réseau industriel », une croissante militarisation du « réseau industriel européen » comme le résultat d'une profonde rivalité intercapitaliste (surtout à l'égard des États-Unis. Une évaluation sociologique du rôle des principaux acteurs, ainsi que des conséquences importantes sont présentés de manière générale, pour le cas du secteur militaire et de la défense et, particulièrement, pour le système du satellite Galileo. On examine certaines caractérisques de la compétence entre les systèmes du satellite Galileo (Europe, le GPS (États- Unis, le Glonass (Russie et le Beidou (Chine. De toute façon, nous proposons une discussion sur le rôle à jouer par l'Amérique du Sud, surtout le Brésil, dans le processus de développement de Galileo.

  15. Space and the complexity of European rules and policies: The common projects Galileo and GMES—precedence for a new European legal approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Annette

    2010-04-01

    The two European flagship space projects, Galileo and GMES, clearly show that the current existing legal rules of the two organisations involved (European Union and European Space Agency) are not compatible. Moreover, it is quite impossible to implement a common project if every single organisation insists on the application of its own rules strictu sensu. Nevertheless, due to the political desire to advance these projects rapidly and to make them a success, legal obstacles were to be overcome. Consequently, recently concluded agreements between ESA and the EU-Commission concerning the financial and governmental matters of the Galileo and GMES implementation feature a new approach to cooperation between these two organisations. However, the question remains if they can be taken as precedence for a future institutionalised cooperation? It follows that the agreements have to be analysed in order to understand how a mutually acceptable agreement was reached despite the disparity in the rules of both organisations. In this regard, especially the financial decision agreement concerning Galileo in December 2007 shows a very interesting and unique way in applying EU-competition law. In the same way, the GMES-Delegation Agreement of spring 2008 is a good example of how two different legal systems can be applied to make a project success. Additionally, the reasons and arguments of both organisations have to be considered, especially once the Treaty of Lisbon will be in force. As these two main projects of the European Space Policy are characterized by the desire for a successful European cooperation, they can be regarded as an important step forward for a new legal approach. A new system emerges which could be taken into consideration for further common projects undertaken by ESA and the EU.

  16. Great Physicists - The Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, William H

    2002-01-01

    The author, a former American chemistry professor, has organized his book into nine parts with 29 chapters, covering, in a fairly historical sequence and systematic conceptual progression, all fundamentals of today's physics: i.e., mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, relativity, quantum mechanics, nuclear physics, particle physics, astronomy-astrophysics-cosmology. Obviously, the 20th century (when about 90% of professional physicists of all time worked) assumes with five topics the dominant role in this enterprise. For each topic, a small number (ranging from one to eight) of leading personalities is selected and the biographies of these 29 physicists, including two women (Marie Curie and Lise Meitner), are presented in some detail together with their achievements in the particular topic. Important relevant contributions of other scholars to each topic are also discussed. In addition, Cropper provides each of the topics with a short 'historical synopsis' justifying his selection of key persons. One may argue that concentrating on leading physicists constitutes an old-fashioned approach to displaying the history and contents of fundamental topics in physics. However, the mixture of biographies and explanation of leading contributions given here will certainly serve for a larger public, not just professional physicists and scientists, as a guide through the exciting development of physical ideas and discoveries. In general, the presentation of the material is quite satisfactory (with only few slips, e.g., in the Meitner story, where the author follows too closely a new biography) and gives the essence of the great advances in physics since the 15th century. One notices perhaps the limitation of the author in cases where no biography in English is available - this would also explain the omission of some of the main contributors to atomic and particle physics, such as Arnold Sommerfeld and Hideki Yukawa, or that French or Russian

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Great Physicists - The Life and Times of Leading Physicists from Galileo to Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, William H.

    2002-11-01

    The author, a former American chemistry professor, has organized his book into nine parts with 29 chapters, covering, in a fairly historical sequence and systemtic conceptual progression, all fundamentals of today's physics: i.e., mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, relativity, quantum mechanics, nuclear physics, particle physics, astronomy-astrophysics-cosmology. Obviously, the 20th century (when about 90% of professional physicists of all time worked) assumes with five topics the dominant role in this enterprise. For each topic, a small number (ranging from one to eight) of leading personalities is selected and the biographies of these 29 physicists, including two women (Marie Curie and Lise Meitner), are presented in some detail together with their achievements in the particular topic. Important relevant contributions of other scholars to each topic are also discussed. In addition, Cropper provides each of the topics with a short 'historical synopsis' justifying his selection of key persons. One may argue that concentrating on leading physicists constitutes an old-fashioned approach to displaying the history and contents of fundamental topics in physics. However, the mixture of biographies and explanation of leading contributions given here will certainly serve for a larger public, not just professional physicists and scientists, as a guide through the exciting development of physical ideas and discoveries. In general, the presentation of the material is quite satisfactory (with only few slips, e.g., in the Meitner story, where the author follows too closely a new biography) and gives the essence of the great advances in physics since the 15th century. One notices perhaps the limitation of the author in cases where no biography in English is available - this would also explain the omission of some of the main contributors to atomic and particle physics, such as Arnold Sommerfeld and Hideki Yukawa, or that French or Russian readers

  18. Schiller's Rotten Apples and the Larger Mission of FIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marvin

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Fashion Institute of Technology's (FIT's) 2 + 2 curriculum, in which students complete an associate degree in applied science degree before applying for selective admission to a baccalaureate program. Considers the relevance of creativity to the mission of FIT. Quotes well-known creative people about the sources of creativity and the…

  19. Characterization of CZT detectors for the ASIM mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan; Skogseide, Y

    2008-01-01

    The National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark is responsible for the selection and characterization of the CZT detector crystals for the X and gamma -ray instrument MXGS onboard ESA’s Atmospheric Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM) mission. The Modular X- and Gamma ray Sensor (MXGS) ...

  20. DANIDA; Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Mission 3 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.; Marsteen, L.

    1996-12-31

    In the development of the Environmental Information and Monitoring Programme for the Arab Republic of Egypt (EIMP), NILU is responsible for the establishment of an air pollution monitoring system. This report summarizes the third mission to Egypt and includes meetings and site visit reports. Air quality sites in Alexandria are described and comments are given to earlier selected sites in Cairo

  1. 75 FR 39911 - Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... (including political contributions) of an applicant are entirely irrelevant to the selection process... similar trade mission to China in 2008 and due to continued requests from many small and medium-sized... and turned out over 90,000 trade visitors along with 200 media units. CS Guangzhou will provide entry...

  2. Strategic Approaches to Trading Science Objectives Against Measurements and Mission Design: Mission Architecture and Concept Maturation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, K. E.; Nash, A. E., III

    2017-12-01

    Earth Science missions are increasingly challenged to improve our state of the art through more sophisticated hypotheses and inclusion of advanced technologies. However, science return needs to be constrained to the cost environment. Selectable mission concepts are the result of an overlapping Venn diagram of compelling science, feasible engineering solutions, and programmatic acceptable costs, regardless of whether the science investigation is Earth Venture or Decadal class. Since the last Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey released in 2007, many new advanced technologies have emerged, in instrument, SmallSat flight systems, and launch service capabilities, enabling new mission architectures. These mission architectures may result in new thinking about how we achieve and collect science measurements, e.g., how to improve time-series measurements. We will describe how the JPL Formulation Office is structured to integrate methods, tools, and subject matter experts to span the mission concept development lifecycle, and assist Principal Investigators in maturing their mission ideas into realizable concepts.

  3. Sample Return Mission to the South Pole Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Clark, B. C.; Gamber, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest and oldest observed feature on the Moon. Compositional and topographic data from Galileo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector have demonstrated that SPA represents a distinctive major lunar terrane, which has not been sampled either by sample return missions (Apollo, Luna) or by lunar meteorites. The floor of SPA is characterized by mafic compositions enriched in Fe, Ti, and Th in comparison to its surroundings. This composition may represent melt rocks from the SPA event, which would be mixtures of the preexisting crust and mantle rocks. However, the Fe content is higher than expected, and the large Apollo basin, within SPA, exposes deeper material with lower iron content. Some of the Fe enrichment may represent mare and cryptomare deposits. No model adequately accounts for all of the characteristics of the SPA and disagreements are fundamental. Is mantle material exposed or contained as fragments in melt rock and breccias? If impact melt is present, did the vast sheet differentiate? Was the initial mantle and crust compositionally different from other regions of the Moon? Was the impact event somehow peculiar, (e.g., a low-velocity impact)? The precise time of formation of the SPA is unknown, being limited only by the initial differentiation of the Moon and the age of the Imbrium event, believed to be 3.9 b.y. The questions raised by the SPA can be addressed only with detailed sample analysis. Analysis of the melt rocks, fragments in breccias, and basalts of SPA can address several highly significant problems for the Moon and the history of the solar system. The time of formation of SPA, based on analysis of melt rocks formed in the event. would put limits on the period of intense bombardment of the Moon, which has been inferred by some to include a "terminal cataclysm." If close to 3.9 Ga, the presumed age of the Imbrium Basin, the SPA date would confirm the lunar cataclysm. This episode, if it occurred, would have

  4. SPHEREx: Playing Nicely with Other Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; SPHEREx Science Team

    2018-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Medium Explorer (MIDEX) program that was selected for a competitive Phase A study in August 2017, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals of NASA's Astrophysics Division. SPHEREx is a wide-field spectral imager, and it would produce the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey, using a passively cooled telescope with a wide field-of-view for large mapping speed. The SPHEREx spectra would have resolving power R=41 at wavelengths from 0.75 to 4.2um, and R=135 from 4.2 to 5um. The spectra resolution is provided by Linear Variable Filters placed directly over the four SPHEREx H2RG detector arrays. SPHEREx would be sensitive enough to obtain spectra of essentially all near-infrared sources from the WISE survey. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx, to be launched in 2022, would produce four complete all-sky spectral maps that would serve as a rich archive for the astronomy community.SPHEREx would be tremendously synergistic with numerous other missions and facilities [NASA and non-NASA] which will be operating in the coming decade. SPHEREx observations could pick out the most promising and exciting targets for investigation from JWST. From the opposite perspective, SPHEREx statistical samples could be used to refine the conclusions derived from JWST’s indepth studies of a few members of an interesting class of objects. SPHEREx and GAIA spectrophotometry, incorporating photometry from WISE and GALEX as well as GAIA astrometry, could lead to the determination of the radii of main sequence stars, and their transiting exoplanets discovered by TESS, with 1% accuracy. SPHEREx low redshift spectra of millions of galaxies could be used to validate and calibrate the photometric nredshift scale being adopted by WFIRST and Euclid, improving the precision of the dark energy measures being returned by those missions. The poster will briefly address SPHEREx synergisms with these and other missions ranging from LSST

  5. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor

  6. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  7. Strategic design for pediatric neurosurgery missions across the Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrecht, Amanda; Duenas, Matthew J; Hahn, Edward J; Aryan, Henry E; Hughes, Samuel A; Waters, Dawn; Levy, Michael L; Jandial, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    With growing interest in global health, surgeons have created outreach missions to improve health care disparities in less developed countries. These efforts are mainly episodic with visiting surgeons performing the operations and minimal investment in local surgeon education. To create real and durable advancement in surgical services in disciplines that require urgent patient care, such as pediatric neurosurgery, improving the surgical armamentarium of the local surgeons must be the priority. We propose a strategic design for extending surgical education missions throughout the Western Hemisphere in order to transfer modern surgical skills to local neurosurgeons. A selection criteria and structure for targeted missions is a derivative of logistical and pedagogical lessons ascertained from previous missions by our teams in Peru and Ukraine. Outreach programs should be applied to hospitals in capital cities to serve as a central referral center for maximal impact with fiscal efficiency. The host country should fulfill several criteria, including demonstration of geopolitical stability in combination with lack of modern neurosurgical care and equipment. The mission strategy is outlined as three to four 1-week visits with an initial site evaluation to establish a relationship with the hospital administration and host surgeons. Each visit should be characterized by collaboration between visiting and host surgeons on increasingly complex cases, with progressive transfer of skills over time. A strategic approach for surgical outreach missions should be built on collaboration and camaraderie between visiting and local neurosurgeons, with the mutual objective of cost-effective targeted renovation of their surgical equipment and skill repertoire.

  8. Influence of Customer Focused Mission Statement on Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Nwachukwu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of customer‑focused mission statements on customer satisfaction in selected cell phone manufacturing companies in the United States. The study employed content analysis for the mission statement and data from America customer satisfaction index (ACSI. In analysing our data, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression techniques were used. The result showed that product and service, technology, philosophy, self‑concept, and public image mission statement components are strongly positively correlated with customer satisfaction. Customer, survival, growth and profitability and market mission statement components are insignificantly negatively correlated with customer satisfaction. The study, therefore, recommends that companies that want to remain competitive by enhancing customer satisfaction should formulate mission statements from a customer perspective so that they include product and service, technology, philosophy, self‑concept, and public image components. The main limitation of the study represents the sample size and structure. This study empirically investigated the correlation and association of nine mission statement components with customer satisfaction.

  9. The esa earth explorer land surface processes and interactions mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Jubineau, Franck; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto

    2017-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is defining candidate missions for Earth Observation. In the class of the Earth Explorer missions, dedicated to research and pre-operational demonstration, the Land Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM) will acquire the accurate quantitative measurements needed to improve our understanding of the nature and evolution of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and to contribute significantly to a solution of the scaling problems for energy, water and carbon fluxes at the Earth's surface. The mission is intended to provide detailed observations of the surface of the Earth and to collect data related to ecosystem processes and radiation balance. It is also intended to address a range of issues important for environmental monitoring, renewable resources assessment and climate models. The mission involves a dedicated maneuvering satellite which provides multi-directional observations for systematic measurement of Land Surface BRDF (BiDirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) of selected sites on Earth. The satellite carries an optical payload : PRISM (Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission), a multispectral imager providing reasonably high spatial resolution images (50 m over 50 km swath) in the whole optical spectral domain (from 450 nm to 2.35 μm with a resolution close to 10 nm, and two thermal bands from 8.1 to 9.1 μm). This paper presents the results of the Phase A study awarded by ESA, led by ALCATEL Space Industries and concerning the design of LSPIM.

  10. Resumes of the Bird mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert

    2004-11-01

    The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.

  11. The inner magnetosphere imager mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

    1993-01-01

    After 30 years of in situ measurements of the Earth's magnetosphere, scientists have assembled an incomplete picture of its global composition and dynamics. Imaging the magnetosphere from space will enable scientists to better understand the global shape of the inner magnetosphere, its components and processes. The proposed inner magnetosphere imager (IMI) mission will obtain the first simultaneous images of the component regions of the inner magnetosphere and will enable scientists to relate these global images to internal and external influences as well as local observations. To obtain simultaneous images of component regions of the inner magnetosphere, measurements will comprise: the ring current and inner plasma sheet using energetic neutral atoms; the plasmasphere using extreme ultraviolet; the electron and proton auroras using far ultraviolet (FUV) and x rays; and the geocorona using FUV. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is performing a concept definition study of the proposed mission. NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has placed the IMI third in its queue of intermediate-class missions for launch in the 1990's. An instrument complement of approximately seven imagers will fly in an elliptical Earth orbit with a seven Earth Radii (R E ) altitude apogee and approximately 4,800-kin altitude perigee. Several spacecraft concepts were examined for the mission. The first concept utilizes a spinning spacecraft with a despun platform. The second concept splits the instruments onto a spin-stabilized spacecraft and a complementary three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Launch options being assessed for the spacecraft range from a Delta 11 for the single and dual spacecraft concepts to dual Taurus launches for the two smaller spacecraft. This paper will address the mission objectives, the spacecraft design considerations, the results of the MSFC concept definition study, and future mission plans

  12. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  13. An Analog Rover Exploration Mission for Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, John; Campbell, Charissa L.; Smith, Christina L.; Cooper, Brittney A.

    2017-10-01

    This abstract describes an analog rover exploration mission designed as an outreach program for high school and undergraduate students. This program is used to teach them about basic mission control operations, how to manage a rover as if it were on another planetary body, and employing the rover remotely to complete mission objectives. One iteration of this program has been completed and another is underway. In both trials, participants were shown the different operation processes involved in a real-life mission. Modifications were made to these processes to decrease complexity and better simulate a mission control environment in a short time period (three 20-minute-long mission “days”). In the first run of the program, participants selected a landing site, what instruments would be on the rover - subject to cost, size, and weight limitations - and were randomly assigned one of six different mission operations roles, each with specific responsibilities. For example, a Science Planner/Integrator (SPI) would plan science activities whilst a Rover Engineer (RE) would keep on top of rover constraints. Planning consisted of a series of four meetings to develop and verify the current plan, pre-plan the next day's activities and uplink the activities to the “rover” (a human colleague). Participants were required to attend certain meetings depending upon their assigned role. To conclude the mission, students viewed the site to understand any differences between remote viewing and reality in relation to the rover. Another mission is currently in progress with revisions from the earlier run to improve the experience. This includes broader roles and meetings and pre-selecting the landing site and rover. The new roles are: Mission Lead, Rover Engineer and Science Planner. The SPI role was previously popular so most of the students were placed in this category. The meetings were reduced to three but extended in length. We are also planning to integrate this program

  14. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  15. Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Sandal, G.; Boyd, J. E.; Gushin, V. I.; Manzey, D.; North, R.; Leon, G. R.; Suedfeld, P.; Bishop, S.; Fiedler, E. R.; Inoue, N.; Johannes, B.; Kealey, D. J.; Kraft, N.; Matsuzaki, I.; Musson, D.; Palinkas, L. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Sipes, W.; Stuster, J.; Wang, J.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The focus will be on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation.

  16. NASA Facts, The Viking Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of publications of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. The Viking mission to Mars, consisting of two unmanned NASA spacecraft launched in August and September, 1975, is described. A description of the spacecraft and their paths is given. A diagram identifying the…

  17. 75 FR 6178 - Mission Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... geothermal, biomass, hydropower, wind, solar, and energy efficiency sectors. The mission will focus on... offers potential growth, barriers still exist that prevent U.S. companies from accessing the market and... additional opportunities in solar, biomass, ``clean coal'' technology such as gasification or wet coal...

  18. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  19. Deep Space Gateway "Recycler" Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L.; Fries, M.; Hamilton, J.; Landis, R.; John, K.; O'Hara, W.

    2018-02-01

    Use of the Deep Space Gateway provides a hub for a reusable planetary sample return vehicle for missions to gather star dust as well as samples from various parts of the solar system including main belt asteroids, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars moon.

  20. Canada and Missions for Peace

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The study focuses primarily on Canada's role in these missions in light of ..... simply because peacekeeping has been the chief form of UN intervention and one in which ... Other factors, such as financial constraints and increasing social problems ..... Luck, superior armaments, the shortage of professional officers among the ...