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Sample records for selanazal drug ebselen

  1. Repurposing Clinical Molecule Ebselen to Combat Drug Resistant Pathogens.

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    Shankar Thangamani

    Full Text Available Without a doubt, our current antimicrobials are losing the battle in the fight against newly-emerged multidrug-resistant pathogens. There is a pressing, unmet need for novel antimicrobials and novel approaches to develop them; however, it is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to develop new antimicrobials. One strategy to reduce the time and cost associated with antimicrobial innovation is drug repurposing, which is to find new applications outside the scope of the original medical indication of the drug. Ebselen, an organoselenium clinical molecule, possesses potent antimicrobial activity against clinical multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. Moreover, the activity of ebselen against Gram-positive pathogens exceeded those activities determined for vancomycin and linezolid, drugs of choice for treatment of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus infections. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ebselen at which 90% of clinical isolates of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus were inhibited (MIC90 were found to be 0.5 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. Ebselen showed significant clearance of intracellular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA in comparison to vancomycin and linezolid. We demonstrated that ebselen inhibits the bacterial translation process without affecting mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, ebselen was found to exhibit excellent activity in vivo in a Caenorhabditis elegans MRSA-infected whole animal model. Finally, ebselen showed synergistic activities with conventional antimicrobials against MRSA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ebselen, with its potent antimicrobial activity and safety profiles, can be potentially used to treat multidrug resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections alone or in combination with other antibiotics and should be further clinically evaluated.

  2. Discovery of ebselen as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) by high-throughput screening of existing drugs.

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    Eltahan, Rana; Guo, Fengguang; Zhang, Haili; Xiang, Lixin; Zhu, Guan

    2018-01-25

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a water-borne and food-borne apicomplexan pathogen. It is one of the top four diarrheal-causing pathogens in children under the age of five in developing countries, and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other apicomplexans, C. parvum lacks Kreb's cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, thus relying mainly on glycolysis to produce ATP. In this study, we characterized the primary biochemical features of the C. parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) and determined its Michaelis constant towards fructose-6-phosphate (K m  = 0.309 mM, V max  = 31.72 nmol/μg/min). We also discovered that ebselen, an organoselenium drug, was a selective inhibitor of CpGPI by high-throughput screening of 1200 known drugs. Ebselen acted on CpGPI as an allosteric noncompetitive inhibitor (IC 50  = 8.33 μM; K i  = 36.33 μM), while complete inhibition of CpGPI activity was not achieved. Ebselen could also inhibit the growth of C. parvum in vitro (EC 50  = 165 μM) at concentrations nontoxic to host cells, albeit with a relatively small in vitro safety window of 4.2 (cytotoxicity TC 50 on HCT-8 cells = 700 μM). Additionally, ebselen might also target other enzymes in the parasite, leading to the parasite growth reduction. Therefore, although ebselen is useful in studying the inhibition of CpGPI enzyme activity, further proof is needed to chemically and/or genetically validate CpGPI as a drug target. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Ebselen: A thioredoxin reductase-dependent catalyst for α-tocopherol quinone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jianguo; Zhong Liangwei; Zhao Rong; Holmgren, Arne

    2005-01-01

    The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and NADPH, is a powerful protein disulfide reductase system with a broad substrate specificity. Recently the selenazol drug ebselen was shown to be a substrate for both mammalian TrxR and Trx. We examined if α-tocopherol quinone (TQ), a product of α-tocopherol oxidation, is reduced by ebselen in the presence of TrxR, since TQ was not a substrate for the enzyme itself. Ebselen reduction of TQ in the presence of TrxR was caused by ebselen selenol, generated from fast reduction of ebselen by the enzyme. TQ has no intrinsic antioxidant activity, while the product of reduction of TQ, α-tocopherolhydroquinone (TQH 2 ), is a potent antioxidant. The thioredoxin system dependence of ebselen to catalyze reduction of other oxidized species, such as hydrogen peroxide, dehydroascorbate, and peroxynitrite, is discussed. The ability of ebselen to reduce TQ via the thioredoxin system is a novel mechanism to explain the effects of the drug as an antioxidant in vivo

  4. Kinetic characterization of ebselen, chelerythrine and apomorphine as glutaminase inhibitors

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    Thomas, Ajit G.; Rojas, Camilo [Brain Science Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Tanega, Cordelle; Shen, Min; Simeonov, Anton; Boxer, Matthew B.; Auld, Douglas S. [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 9800 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Ferraris, Dana V. [Brain Science Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Tsukamoto, Takashi [Brain Science Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Slusher, Barbara S., E-mail: bslusher@jhmi.edu [Brain Science Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •Ebselen, chelerythrine and apomorphine were identified as glutaminase inhibitors. •These had greater affinities and efficiency of inhibition than known prototypes. •Their previously reported biological activity could be due to glutaminase inhibition. -- Abstract: Glutaminase catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and plays a central role in the proliferation of neoplastic cells via glutaminolysis, as well as in the generation of excitotoxic glutamate in central nervous system disorders such as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and multiple sclerosis. Both glutaminase siRNA and glutaminase inhibition have been shown to be effective in in vitro models of cancer and HAD, suggesting a potential role for small molecule glutaminase inhibitors. However, there are no potent, selective inhibitors of glutaminase currently available. The two prototypical glutaminase inhibitors, BPTES and DON, are either insoluble or non-specific. In a search for more drug-like glutaminase inhibitors, we conducted a screen of 1280 in vivo active drugs (Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC{sup 1280})) and identified ebselen, chelerythrine and (R)-apomorphine. The newly identified inhibitors exhibited 10 to 1500-fold greater affinities than DON and BPTES and over 100-fold increased efficiency of inhibition. Although non-selective, it is noteworthy that the affinity of ebselen for glutaminase is more potent than any other activity yet described. It is possible that the previously reported biological activity seen with these compounds is due, in part, to glutaminase inhibition. Ebselen, chelerythrine and apomorphine complement the armamentarium of compounds to explore the role of glutaminase in disease.

  5. Lipid peroxidation in presence of ebselen.

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    Batna, A; Fuchs, C; Spiteller, G

    1997-07-14

    Lipid peroxidation is initiated by cell damage. After homogenisation of porcine heart tissue in aqueous solution we observed the same lipid peroxidation products as detected after heart infarction. We used this observation to study the influence of ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzoisoselenazol-3-(2H)-one) on the generation of oxidatively derived monohydroxy fatty acids and alpha-hydroxyaldehydes, typical lipid peroxidation (LPO) products. Heart tissue was homogenised before and after enzyme destruction and with addition of ebselen. The obtained LPO products were analysed by GC/MS after appropriate derivatisation and quantified by using internal standards. The amount of monohydroxy fatty acids and alpha-hydroxyaldehydes increased considerably in the porcine heart homogenates in which the enzymes were kept active. Addition of ebselen caused an additional significant increase of hydroxy fatty acids, while the increase of aldehydic compounds was less. These results confirm the glutathione peroxidase-like activity of ebselen but demonstrate also that it does not prevent lipid peroxidation.

  6. Ebselen Is a Potential Anti-Osteoporosis Agent by Suppressing Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation In vitro and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Bone Destruction In vivo.

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    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2016-01-01

    Ebselen is a non-toxic seleno-organic drug with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that is currently being examined in clinical trials to prevent and treat various diseases, including atherosclerosis, stroke, and cancer. However, no reports are available for verifying the pharmacological effects of ebselen on major metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we observed that ebselen suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells in an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture by regulating the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin secreted by osteoblasts. In addition, ebselen treatment in the early stage of osteoclast differentiation inhibited RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the phosphorylation of IκB, PI3K, and Akt in early signaling pathways and by subsequently inducing c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1. Further, ebselen induced apoptosis of osteoclasts in the late stage of osteoclast differentiation. In addition, ebselen treatment suppressed filamentous actin ring formation and bone resorption activity of mature osteoclasts. Reflecting these in vitro effects, administration of ebselen recovered bone loss and its µ-CT parameters in lipopolysaccharide-mediated mouse model. Histological analysis confirmed that ebselen prevented trabecular bone matrix degradation and osteoclast formation in the bone tissues. Finally, it was proved that the anti-osteoclastogenic action of ebselen is achieved through targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. These results indicate that ebselen is a potentially safe drug for treating metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

  7. In Vitro Efficacy of Ebselen and BAY 11-7082 Against Naegleria fowleri

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    Anjan Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri, popularly known as the “brain-eating ameba.” The drugs of choice in treating PAM are the antifungal amphotericin B and an antileishmanial miltefosine, but these are not FDA-approved for this indication and use of amphotericin B is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, very few patients treated with the combination therapy have survived PAM. Therefore, development of efficient drugs is a critical unmet need to avert future deaths of children. Since N. fowleri causes extensive inflammation in the brain it is important to select compounds that can enter brain to kill ameba. In this study, we identified two central nervous system (CNS active compounds, ebselen and BAY 11-7082 as amebicidal with EC50 of 6.2 and 1.6 μM, respectively. The closely related BAY 11-7085 was also found active against N. fowleri with EC50 similar to BAY 11-7082. We synthesized a soluble ebselen analog, which had amebicidal activity similar to ebselen. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated for 48 h with EC50 concentration of ebselen showed alteration in the cytoplasmic membrane, loss of the nuclear membrane, and appearance of electron-dense granules. Incubation of N. fowleri trophozoites with EC50 concentrations of BAY 11-7082 and BAY 11-7085 for 48 h showed the presence of large lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, disruption of cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes and appearance of several vesicles and chromatin residues. Blood-brain barrier permeable amebicidal compounds have potential as new drug leads for Naegleria infection.

  8. In Vitro Efficacy of Ebselen and BAY 11-7082 Against Naegleria fowleri

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    Debnath, Anjan; Nelson, Andrew T.; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; Siegel, Dionicio; McKerrow, James H.

    2018-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri, popularly known as the “brain-eating ameba.” The drugs of choice in treating PAM are the antifungal amphotericin B and an antileishmanial miltefosine, but these are not FDA-approved for this indication and use of amphotericin B is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, very few patients treated with the combination therapy have survived PAM. Therefore, development of efficient drugs is a critical unmet need to avert future deaths of children. Since N. fowleri causes extensive inflammation in the brain it is important to select compounds that can enter brain to kill ameba. In this study, we identified two central nervous system (CNS) active compounds, ebselen and BAY 11-7082 as amebicidal with EC50 of 6.2 and 1.6 μM, respectively. The closely related BAY 11-7085 was also found active against N. fowleri with EC50 similar to BAY 11-7082. We synthesized a soluble ebselen analog, which had amebicidal activity similar to ebselen. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated for 48 h with EC50 concentration of ebselen showed alteration in the cytoplasmic membrane, loss of the nuclear membrane, and appearance of electron-dense granules. Incubation of N. fowleri trophozoites with EC50 concentrations of BAY 11-7082 and BAY 11-7085 for 48 h showed the presence of large lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, disruption of cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes and appearance of several vesicles and chromatin residues. Blood-brain barrier permeable amebicidal compounds have potential as new drug leads for Naegleria infection. PMID:29559968

  9. Repurposing Auranofin, Ebselen, and PX-12 as Antimicrobial Agents Targeting the Thioredoxin System

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    Holly C. May

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As microbial resistance to drugs continues to rise at an alarming rate, finding new ways to combat pathogens is an issue of utmost importance. Development of novel and specific antimicrobial drugs is a time-consuming and expensive process. However, the re-purposing of previously tested and/or approved drugs could be a feasible way to circumvent this long and costly process. In this review, we evaluate the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tested drugs auranofin, ebselen, and PX-12 as antimicrobial agents targeting the thioredoxin system. These drugs have been shown to act on bacterial, fungal, protozoan, and helminth pathogens without significant toxicity to the host. We propose that the thioredoxin system could serve as a useful therapeutic target with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.

  10. Ebselen has lithium-like effects on central 5-HT2Areceptor function.

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    Antoniadou, I; Kouskou, M; Arsiwala, T; Singh, N; Vasudevan, S R; Fowler, T; Cadirci, E; Churchill, G C; Sharp, T

    2018-02-27

    Lithium's antidepressant action may be mediated by inhibition of inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), a key enzyme in G q protein coupled receptor signalling. Recently, the antioxidant agent ebselen was identified as an IMPase inhibitor. Here we investigated both ebselen and lithium in models of the 5-HT 2A receptor, a G q protein coupled receptor implicated in lithium's actions. 5-HT 2A receptor function was modelled in mice by measuring the behavioural (head-twitches) and cortical immediate early gene (IEG; Arc, c-fos and Erg2 mRNA) responses to 5-HT 2A receptor agonist administration. Ebselen and lithium were administered either acutely or chronically prior to assessment of 5-HT 2A receptor function. Given the SSRI augmenting action of lithium and 5-HT 2A antagonists, ebselen was also tested for this action by co-administration with the SSRI citalopram in microdialysis (extracellular 5-HT) experiments. Acute and repeated administration of ebselen inhibited behavioural and IEG responses to the 5-HT 2A receptor agonist DOI. Repeated lithium also inhibited DOI-evoked behavioural and IEG responses. In comparison, a selective IMPase inhibitor (L-690,330) attenuated the behavioural response to DOI whereas glycogen synthase kinase inhibitor (AR-A014418) did not. Finally, ebselen increased regional brain 5-HT synthesis and enhanced the increase in extracellular 5-HT induced by citalopram. The current data demonstrate lithium-mimetic effects of ebselen in different experimental models of 5-HT 2A receptor function, likely mediated by IMPase inhibition. This evidence of lithium-like neuropharmacological effects of ebselen adds further support for the clinical testing of ebselen in mood disorder, including as an antidepressant augmenting agent. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Different dose-dependent effects of ebselen in sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

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    Filiz Ozyigit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebselen is an organoselenium compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of ebselen pretreatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (N = 7 in each group. Before sciatic nerve I/R was induced, ebselen was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. After a 2 h ischemia and a 3 h reperfusion period, sciatic nerve tissues were excised. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were measured. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically. The 15 mg/kg dose of ebselen reduced sciatic nerve damage and apoptosis (P < 0.01, levels of MDA, NO, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively, and increased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively compared with the I/R group that did not receive ebselen. Conversely, the 30 mg/kg dose of ebselen increased sciatic nerve damage, apoptosis, iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and MDA and NO levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and decreased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.05 compared with the sham group. The results of this study suggest that ebselen may cause different effects depending on the dose employed. Ebselen may be protective against sciatic nerve I/R injury via antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities at a 15 mg/kg dose, conversely higher doses may cause detrimental effects.

  12. Synthesis and enhanced neuroprotective activity of C60-based ebselen derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.-F.; Guan, W.-C.; Ke, W.-S.

    2007-01-01

    A C 60 -based ebselen derivative 4 was synthesized through the cycloaddition of C 60 with the azide (3) containing the ebselen component. It was obtained in a four-step synthesis starting from 2-(chloroseleno)benzoyl chloride and 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol in 53% yield (based on consumed C 60 ). Its structure was characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, IR, UV, and FAB-MS. To verify that the C 60 -based ebselen derivative 4 had enhanced antioxidative and neuroprotective activity, the C 60 derivative 5 and the ebselen derivative 6 were selected to treat cortical neuronal cells using the same procedures as with the C 60 -based ebselen derivative 4. The cellular viability of different derivative treatment groups was estimated by LDH leakage assay and MTT assay. At the same final concentration (30 μmol/L), the results showed that the antioxidative and protective potencies of the C 60 -based ebselen derivative 4 (MTT (OD) 0.340 ± 0.035, LDH release (UL -1 ) 4.80 ± 0.16) against H 2 O 2 -mediated neuronal injury have an advantage over those of C 60 derivative 5 (MTT (OD) 0.297 ± 0.036, LDH release (UL -1 ) 5.37 ± 0.31) and ebselen derivative 6 (MTT (OD) 0.267 ± 0.027, LDH release (UL -1 ) 5.85 ± 0.26). Correspondingly, the GPX activity of 4 (1.62 U/μmol) was higher than that of 5 (0.77 U/μmol) and 6 (1.24 U/μmol). These findings demonstrate that the incorporation of two components with similar biological activity (C 60 component and ebselen component) may be a desirable way of obtaining a new and more biologically effective C 60 -based compound. (author)

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Five and Six Membered Selenoheterocyclic Compounds Homologues of Ebselen

    OpenAIRE

    Mouslim Messali; Mostafa Abboudi; Mohamed R. Aouad; Nadjet Rezki; Léon E. Christiaens

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of the antioxidant activity of selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) has attracted growing attention in the biochemistry of selenium. Among molecules which mimic the structure of the active site of the enzyme, N-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazolin-3-one 1, Ebselen, exhibited useful anti-inflammatory properties. It has been extensively investigated and has undergone clinical trials as an anti-inflammatory agent. Unfortunately, Ebselen exhibits relatively poor catalytic activity, pr...

  14. Modeling the oxidation of ebselen and other organoselenium compounds using explicit solvent networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayse, Craig A; Antony, Sonia

    2009-05-14

    The oxidation of dimethylselenide, dimethyldiselenide, S-methylselenenyl-methylmercaptan, and truncated and full models of ebselen (N-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) by methyl hydrogen peroxide has been modeled using density functional theory (DFT) and solvent-assisted proton exchange (SAPE), a method of microsolvation that employs explicit solvent networks to facilitate proton transfer reactions. The calculated activation barriers for these systems were substantially lower in energy (DeltaG(double dagger) + DeltaG(solv) = 13 to 26 kcal/mol) than models that neglect the participation of solvent in proton exchange. The comparison of two- and three-water SAPE networks showed a reduction in the strain in the model system but without a substantial reduction in the activation barriers. Truncating the ebselen model to N-methylisoselenazol-3(2H)-one gave a larger activation barrier than ebselen or N-methyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one but provided an efficient means of determining an initial guess for larger transition-state models. The similar barriers obtained for ebselen and Me(2)Se(2) (DeltaG(double dagger) + DeltaG(solv) = 20.65 and 20.40 kcal/mol, respectively) were consistent with experimentally determined rate constants. The activation barrier for MeSeSMe (DeltaG(double dagger) + DeltaG(solv) = 21.25 kcal/mol) was similar to that of ebselen and Me(2)Se(2) despite its significantly lower experimental rate for oxidation of an ebselen selenenyl sulfide by hydrogen peroxide relative to ebselen and ebselen diselenide. The disparity is attributed to intramolecular Se-O interactions, which decrease the nucleophilicity of the selenium center of the selenenyl sulfide.

  15. C60-based ebselen derivative: synthesis by bingel cyclopropanation and enhanced antioxidative and neuroprotective activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xufeng Liu; Wenchao Guan; Wengshan Ke

    2007-01-01

    C 60 -based ebselen derivative 3 was synthesized through Bingel cyclopropanation of C 60 with the ebselen malonate 2. Compound 3 was obtained in 42% yield (based on consumed C 60 ) in a three-step synthesis starting from 2-(chloroseleno)benzoyl chloride and 2-(2aminoethoxy)ethanol. Its structure was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13 C NMR, IR, UV and FAB-MS spectroscopy analyses. In order to verify the enhanced antioxidative and neuroprotective activity of 3, a C 60 derivative (4), an ebselen derivative (2), and their mixture (4 plus 2 in equimolar ratio) were employed to treat cortical neuronal cells, following the same procedure used with 3 and at the same final concentration (30 μmol L -1 ). Cell viabilities of the four treated groups were estimated by LDH (lactic dehydrogenase) leakage and MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assays. Results showed that the antioxidative and protective activities of C 60 -based ebselen derivative 3 against H 2 O 2 -mediated neuronal injury (MTT(OD) 0.364 ± 0.028; LDH release (UL -1 ) 4.66 ± 0.28) were significantly higher than those of C 6 )0 derivative 4 (MTT(OD) 0.324 ± 0.025; LDH release (UL -1 ) 5.39 ± 0.17), ebselen derivative 2 (MTT(OD) 0.294 ± 0.021; LDH release (UL -1 ) 5.71 ± 0.27), and the mixture of 4 and 2 (MTT(OD) 0.310 ± 0.018; LDH release (UL -1 ) 5.54 ±0.39). These findings demonstrated that the combination of two molecular units with similar biological activities (C 60 and ebselen) may be a desirable way of obtaining new and more biologically effective C 60 -based compounds. (author)

  16. Antifungal activities of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen alone and in combination with antifungal agents against Fusarium spp.

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    Venturini, Tarcieli Pozzebon; Chassot, Francieli; Loreto, Érico Silva; Keller, Jéssica Tairine; Azevedo, Maria Izabel; Zeni, Gilson; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we describe the in vitro activity of a combination of the organoselenium compounds diphenyl diselenide and ebselen alone and in combination with amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, and voriconazole against 25 clinical isolates of Fusarium spp. For this analysis, we used the broth microdilution method based on the M38-A2 technique and checkerboard microdilution method. Diphenyl diselenide (MIC range = 4-32 μg/ml) and ebselen (MIC range = 2-8 μg/ml) showed in vitro activity against the isolates tested. The most effective combinations were (synergism rates): ebselen + amphotericin B (88%), ebselen + voriconazole (80%), diphenyl diselenide + amphotericin B (72%), and diphenyl diselenide + voriconazole (64%). Combination with caspofungin resulted in low rates of synergism: ebselen + caspofungin, 36%, and diphenyl diselenide + caspofungin, 28%; combination with itraconazole demonstrated indifferent interactions. Antagonistic effects were not observed for any of the combinations tested. Our findings suggest that the antifungal potential of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen deserves further investigation in in vivo experimental models, especially in combination with amphotericin B and voriconazole. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Evaluation of Organochalcogens in Human Leucocytes: A Comparative Study between Ebselen, Diphenyl Diselenide, and Diphenyl Ditelluride

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    Diones Caeran Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organochalcogens, particularly ebselen, have been used in experimental and clinical trials with borderline efficacy. (PhSe2 and (PhTe2 are the simplest of the diaryl dichalcogenides and share with ebselen pharmacological properties. In view of the concerns with the use of mammals in studies and the great number of new organochalcogens with potential pharmacological properties that have been synthesized, it becomes important to develop screening protocols to select compounds that are worth to be tested in vivo. This study investigated the possible use of isolated human white cells as a preliminary model to test organochalcogen toxicity. Human leucocytes were exposed to 5–50 μM of ebselen, (PhSe2, or (PhTe2. All compounds were cytotoxic (Trypan’s Blue exclusion at the highest concentration tested, and Ebselen was the most toxic. Ebselen and (PhSe2 were genotoxic (Comet Assay only at 50 μM, and (PhTe2 at 5–50 μM. Here, the acute cytotoxicity did not correspond with in vivo toxicity of the compounds. But the genotoxicity was in the same order of the in vivo toxicity to mice. These results indicate that in vitro genotoxicity in white blood cells should be considered as an early step in the investigation of potential toxicity of organochalcogens.

  18. In vitro glutathione peroxidase mimicry of ebselen is linked to its oxidation of critical thiols on key cerebral suphydryl proteins - A novel component of its GPx-mimic antioxidant mechanism emerging from its thiol-modulated toxicology and pharmacology.

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    Kade, I J; Balogun, B D; Rocha, J B T

    2013-10-25

    The antioxidant mechanism of ebselen in rats brain is largely linked with its glutathione peroxidase (GPx) rather than its peroxiredoxin mimicry ability. However, the precise molecular dynamics between the GPx-mimicry of ebselen and thiol utilization is yet to be fully clarified and thus still open. Herein, we investigated the influence of dithiothreitol (DTT) on the antioxidant action of ebselen against oxidant-induced cerebral lipid peroxidation and deoxyribose degradation. Furthermore, the critical inhibitory concentrations of ebselen on the activities of sulphydryl enzymes such as cerebral sodium pump, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also investigated. We observe that ebselen (at ≥42 μM) markedly inhibited lipid peroxidation in the presence and absence of DTT, whereas it inhibited deoxyribose degradation only in the presence of DTT. Furthermore, under in vitro conditions, ebselen inhibited the thiol containing enzymes; cerebral sodium pump (at ≥40 μM), δ-ALAD (≥10 μM) and LDH (≥1 μM) which were either prevented or reversed by DTT. However, the inhibition of the activities of these sulphydryl proteins in diabetic animals was prevented by ebselen. Summarily, it is apparent that the effective in vitro inhibitory doses of ebselen on the activity of the sulphydryl proteins are far less than its antioxidant doses. In addition, the presence of DTT is evidently a critical requirement for ebselen to effect its antioxidant action against deoxyribose degeradation and not lipid peroxidation. Consequently, we conclude that ebselen possibly utilizes available thiols on sulphydryl proteins to effect its GPx mimicry antioxidant action against lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effects of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity

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    Marreilha dos Santos, A.P., E-mail: apsantos@ff.ul.pt [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Lucas, Rui L.; Andrade, Vanda; Mateus, M. Luísa [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Batoreu, M. Camila [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared to rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E{sub 2} prostaglandin (PGE{sub 2}) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.

  20. Use of the mouse ear vesicant model to evaluate the effectiveness of ebselen as a countermeasure to the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Anju; Reznik, Sandra; Trombetta, Louis; Billack, Blase

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies in this and other laboratories have demonstrated that ebselen (EB-1), an organoselenium compound, spares cells from mechlorethamine (HN2) toxicity in vitro. In the present study, the hypothesis that EB-1 will reduce dermal toxicity of HN2 in vivo is put forward and found to have merit. Using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM), HN2, applied topically, showed a dose-dependent effect upon ear swelling and thickness 24 h after treatment; whereas tissue injury consistent with vesication was observed at the higher test doses of HN2 (≥ 0.250 µmol per ear). To examine HN2 countermeasure activity using the MEVM, either hydrocortisone (HC), as a positive control, or EB-1, the test countermeasure, was administered as three topical treatments 15 min, 4 and 8 h after HN2 exposure. Using this approach, both HC and EB-1 were found to reduce tissue swelling associated with HN2 toxicity 24 h after exposure to the vesicant. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time the effectiveness of EB-1 as a vesicant countermeasure in a relevant in vivo model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Drug Facts

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  5. Drug Addiction

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    ... attempt to stop taking the drug Recognizing unhealthy drug use in family members Sometimes it's difficult to ... sold to support drug use Recognizing signs of drug use or intoxication Signs and symptoms of drug ...

  6. Drug Allergy

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    ... Seizure Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days ... reaction the first time you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can ...

  7. The Use of Drugs to Reduce Hearing Loss Following Acute Acoustic Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    L - carnitine (ALCAR) and (5) Src-PTK inhibitor, KX1-004 in reducing hearing and sensory cell loss as the result of an acute acoustic trauma that...trauma: (1) L -N-acetylcysteine ( L -NAC); (2) D-Methionine (D-MET); (3) Ebselen SPI-1005; (4) Acetyl- L - carnitine (ALCAR) and (5) Src-PTK inhibitor, KX1...rescue mode with L -N-acetylcysteine, D- Methionine, Ebselen SPI-1005, Acetyl- L - carnitine or Src-PTK inhibitor, KX1-004 following an acoustic trauma

  8. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... some signs and symptoms of someone with a drug use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely ... So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug ...

  9. Drug allergies

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    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

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  13. Drug Safety

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    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

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    Full Text Available ... Where Can Someone Find Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ... You Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English ...

  17. Hazardous Drugs

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    ... and hazardous drugs in the workplace. Pharmacy . OSHA Hospital eTool. Reviews safety and health topics related to hazardous drugs including drug handling, administration, storage, and disposal. OSHA has identified worker exposure ...

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  19. Drug Reactions

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    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...

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  1. Club Drugs

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    ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... regarding prevention and treatment of MDMA. ( September 2017 ) View all related publications Related NIDA Notes Articles Narrative ...

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  5. New Chiral Ebselen Analogues with Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata J. Pacuła

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New chiral camphane-derived benzisoselenazol-3(2H-ones and corresponding diselenides have been synthetized using a convenient one-pot procedure. Se-N bond was efficiently converted to an Se-Se bond, which could also be easily re-oxidized to the initial benzisoselenazolone moiety. The antioxidant activity of camphor derivatives was evaluated and compared to the reactivity of a series of N-amino acid benzisoselenazol-3(2H-ones obtained by a modified procedure involving the improved synthesis and isolation of the diseleno bis(dibenzoic acid. The most efficient peroxide scavengers, N-bornyl and N-leucine methyl ester benzisoselenazol-3(2H-ones, were further evaluated as cytotoxic agents on four cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HEP G2, HL 6, and DU 145 and normal cell line PNT1A. The highest antiproliferative potential was evaluated for two compounds bearing a 3-methylbutyl carbon chain, N-leucine methyl ester and N-3-methylbutyl benzisoselenazol-3(2H-ones.

  6. Drug Facts

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  7. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... 4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from drugs. But she's afraid ...

  8. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use ... Information about this page Click on the button that says "Listen" on any page and the computer will read the text to you. This website talks ...

  9. Identifying Drugs

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    ... and Affect Teens The Negative Health Effects of Marijuana Use State and Federal Drug Laws Treatment and Recovery Federal Student Aid and Consequences of a Drug Conviction School Failure VIDEO: Taking Prescription Drugs to Get High—A Bad Idea Drugged Driving—What You Should Know How ...

  10. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

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    Full Text Available ... call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I ... prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop ...

  13. Drug Abuse

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    ... and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug ...

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  17. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Drug metabolism may be defined as the biochemical modifica- tion of one chemical form to another, occurring usually through ..... Endogenous. Enzyme. Drugs. Cofactor. Glucuronidation. UDP glucoronic. UDP-. Chloramphenicol, acid glucuronosyltransferase morphine, paracetamol, salicylic acid, fenoprofen, desipramine,.

  18. Drug Facts

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  20. Study Drugs

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    ... What Are Study Drugs? Doctors prescribe medicines like Adderall and Ritalin to treat conditions like attention deficit ... stimulants are used as study drugs: amphetamines like Adderall, Dexedrine, or Vyvanse methylphenidates like Ritalin or Concerta ...

  1. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  2. Drug Facts

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  3. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  4. Orphan drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Goločorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of ...

  5. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...

  6. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  7. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs ... adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  8. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... to main content Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts ... Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page ...

  9. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... the computer will read the text to you. This website talks about drug abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos ... I want my daughter to avoid drugs. "Debbie" has been drug-free for years. She wants her daughter to stay away from ...

  10. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Drug-resistance testing results are used to decide which HIV medicines to include in a person’s first HIV regimen. After treatment is started, drug-resistance testing is repeated if ...

  11. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  12. WAr on DrugS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-12

    Apr 12, 2009 ... tion of drugs, especially hemp (Cannabis. Sativa), became entrenched. Oloruntoba. (2006) explained that the vigour and sus- tained efforts to legislate against drugs in contemporary Nigeria was because of the growing notoriety of the country as a transit point or centre for recruitment of drug couriers, and a ...

  13. [NEPHROTOXIC DRUGS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, B; Šutić, I; Marković, N Bašić

    2016-12-01

    Renal tissue is sensitive to the effect of potentially nephrotoxic drugs and other substances that are available over-the-counter or can be purchased at healthy food stores or elsewhere, and harmful substances from the environment. The harmful effects of these substances lead to the development of recognizable clinical syndromes, including acute or chronic renal failure, tubulopathy, and proteinuria. Risk factors that influence the development of kidney disease induced by drugs are divided into those related to patient characteristics, drug characteristics, and renal function. Drugs that commonly exhibit nephrotoxic effects are analgesics, antimicrobials, chemotherapeutics, contrast agents, immunosuppressants, herbal preparations and substances containing heavy metals. Family physician must carefully observe their patients, nurturing individual approach to drug selection and determining the dose. Renal function can quickly return to normal if the damage is recognized on time. Recent research yields insights into the identification of new biomarkers that will contribute to early detection of drug induced kidney damage.

  14. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; ...

  15. [Orphan drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Vojinović, Aleksandra; Lalić-Popović, Mladena; Pavlović, Nebojsa; Mikov, Momir

    2013-01-01

    Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in "adopting" them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. THE BEGINNING OF ORPHAN DRUGS DEVELOPMENT: This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the "Orphan Drug Act" was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs.

  16. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content Drugs Home Drugs Find information on FDA-approved HIV/ ... infection drugs and investigational HIV/AIDS drugs. Search Drugs Search drug Search Icon What's this? Close Popup ...

  17. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? ... Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662- ...

  18. Antineoplastic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadée, Wolfgang; El Sayed, Yousry Mahmoud

    The limited scope of therapeutic drug-level monitoring in cancer chemotherapy results from the often complex biochemical mechanisms that contribute to antineoplastic activity and obscure the relationships among drug serum levels and therapeutic benefits. Moreover, new agents for cancer chemotherapy are being introduced at a more rapid rate than for the treatment of other diseases, although the successful application of therapeutic drug-level monitoring may require several years of intensive study of the significance of serum drug levels. However, drug level monitoring can be of considerable value during phase I clinical trials of new antineoplastic agents in order to assess drug metabolism, bioavailability, and intersubject variability; these are important parameters in the interpretation of clinical studies, but have no immediate benefit to the patient. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) probably represents the most versatile and easily adaptable analytical technique for drug metabolite screening (1). HPLC may therefore now be the method of choice during phase I clinical trials of antineoplastic drugs. For example, within a single week we developed an HPLC assay—using a C18 reverse-phase column, UV detection, and direct serum injection after protein precipitation—for the new radiosensitizer, misonidazole (2).

  19. Drug Facts

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  20. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often ... NIH is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . ...

  1. Drug Facts

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  2. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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    Chemistry of Drug Metabolism. Drug metabolism is a chemical process, where enzymes play a crucial role in the conversion of one chemical species to another. The major family of enzymes associated with these metabolic reactions is the cytochrome P450 family. The structural features and functional activity of these ...

  3. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Survey Results Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Unpredictable Danger Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2016 Monitoring the Future 2016 Survey Results Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2015 View All NIDA Home ...

  4. Capping Drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the process of treatment, drugs are also used for medical diagnosis and for ... ing cells. Since cancer cells grow at a faster rate than the normal .... ity characteristics. After intake, the N-methyl group is cleaved in the liver to release the physiologically active drug. Similarly, membrane transportation characteristics of the neu-.

  5. Drug repurposing based on drug-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wu, Ping; Kong, De-Xin

    2015-02-01

    Given the high risk and lengthy procedure of traditional drug development, drug repurposing is gaining more and more attention. Although many types of drug information have been used to repurpose drugs, drug-drug interaction data, which imply possible physiological effects or targets of drugs, remain unexploited. In this work, similarity of drug interaction was employed to infer similarity of the physiological effects or targets for the drugs. We collected 10,835 drug-drug interactions concerning 1074 drugs, and for 700 of them, drug similarity scores based on drug interaction profiles were computed and rendered using a drug association network with 589 nodes (drugs) and 2375 edges (drug similarity scores). The 589 drugs were clustered into 98 groups with Markov Clustering Algorithm, most of which were significantly correlated with certain drug functions. This indicates that the network can be used to infer the physiological effects of drugs. Furthermore, we evaluated the ability of this drug association network to predict drug targets. The results show that the method is effective for 317 of 561 drugs that have known targets. Comparison of this method with the structure-based approach shows that they are complementary. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of drug repurposing based on drug-drug interaction data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. The Use of Drugs to Reduce Hearing Loss Following Acute Acoustic Trama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Methionine, Acetyl L - Carnitine or the Src protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, KX1-004 and compared to untreated control subjects. Hearing loss...noise exposure: (1) L -N-acetylcysteine ( L -NAC); (2) D-Methionine (D-MET); (3) Ebselen SPI-1005; (4) Acetyl- L - carnitine (ALCAR) and (5) Src-PTK inhibitor...4) Acetyl- L - carnitine (ALCAR) and (5) Src-PTK inhibitor, KX1-004. Five reference/replication experimental groups and 3 control groups will be run

  7. Drug Facts

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    ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  8. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Drug Metabolism: A Fascinating Link Between Chemistry and Biology. Nikhil Taxak Prasad V Bharatam. General Article Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 259-282 ...

  9. Drug Facts

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  13. Drug Facts

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  14. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I ... changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who don't use marijuana. Haga ...

  15. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery Why Does a Person Need Treatment? ... of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency of the United States Government. NIH is ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop ... marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and ... Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  19. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs and Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Indrati, Dina; Prasetyo, Herry

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...

  20. [Drug promiscuity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zong-ru

    2011-04-01

    It is essential for a successful drug to possess two basic characteristics: satisfactory pharmacological action with sufficient potency and selectivity; good druggability with eligible physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and safety profiles, as well as structural novelty. Promiscuity is defined as the property of a drug to act with multiple molecular targets and exhibit distinct pharmacological effects. Promiscuous drugs are the basis of polypharmacology and the causes for side effects and unsuitable DMPK. Drug promiscuity originates from protein promiscuity. In order to accommodate, metabolize and excrete various endo- and exogenous substances, protein acquired the capability during evolution to adapt a wide range of structural diversity, and it is unnecessary to reserve a specific protein for every single ligand. The structures of target proteins are integration of conservativity and diversity. The former is represented by the relatively conservative domains for secondary structures folding, which leads to overlapping in ligand-binding and consequent cross-reactivity of ligands. Diversity, however, embodies the subtle difference in structures. Similar structural domain may demonstrate different functions due to alteration of amino acid sequences. The phenomenon of promiscuity may facilitate the "design in" of multi-target ligands for the treatment of complicated diseases, whereas it should be appropriately handled to improve druggability. Therefore, one of the primary goals in drug design is to scrutinize and manipulate the "merits and faults" of promiscuity. This review discusses the application of promiscuity in drug design for receptors, enzymes, ion channels and cytochrome P450. It also briefly describes the methods to predict ligand promiscuity based on either target or ligand structures.

  1. Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cosmetics Tobacco Products Home Drug Databases Drugs@FDA Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Download Drugs@FDA Express for free Search by Drug Name, Active Ingredient, or Application Number Enter at ...

  2. Study Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Stephanie Phuong; Roosta, Natalie; Nielsen, Mikkel Fuhr; Meyer, Maria Holmgaard; Friis, Katrine Birk

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, students around the world, started to use preparations as Ritalin and Modafinil,also known as study drugs, to improve their cognitive abilities1. It is a common use among thestudents in United States of America, but it is a new tendency in Denmark. Our main focus is tolocate whether study drugs needs to be legalized in Denmark or not. To investigate this ourstarting point is to understand central ethical arguments in the debate. We have chosen twoarguments from Nick Bostrom a...

  3. Drug Allergy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Rasha H. El-Owaidy. Immunology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Ain Shams University, Cairo. Introduction. Adverse reactions to pharmaceutical and diagnostic products constitute a major hazard in the practice of medicine and are responsible for substantial morbidity and cost. Adverse drug reactions can be divided into ...

  4. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  5. Capping Drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well documented that till recent times drugs derived from plants were used to relieve patients from suffering. But at the turn of the last century, with the improvement in purification meth- ods using chromatographic techniques, single compounds with well-defined structure became available for testing and treat- ment.

  6. Drugs reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    chlorpropamide] and biguanides [e.g. metformin]), steroids and dapsone. The effectiveness of these drugs is likely to be reduced. Side-effects are uncommon but include: ▫ Skin reactions: rash, urticaria, flushing. Fortunately many of these reactions are self-limiting and gradually clear; the patient only needs symptomatic ...

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  8. Misused Drug

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analgesic effects by antagonising a subset of glutamate receptors ... unpleasant dreams up to 24hrs after the drug has been given.7 ... are intact. The amnesic effect of ketamine, which often persists for up to one hour after recovery of consciousness, cnsuree that there is no recall of surgery or anaesthesia. Effects on the War ...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  10. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications ... mind-altering ingredient, in the blood. But the role that marijuana plays in crashes is ... age, gender, race, and presence of alcohol. 9 More research ...

  11. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Future survey shows long term decline in illicit drug use, prescription opioid abuse, cigarette and alcohol use among the nation’s youth. View Online Download PDF Monitoring the Future 2013 Survey Results: College and Adults Published: April 30, 2015 In 2013, ...

  12. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  13. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  14. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...

  15. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  16. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR), and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object) by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug). Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin) are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or act...

  19. Understanding drugs and behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parrott, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xi Part I Drugs and Their Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Psychoactive drugs: introduction and overview . . . . . . . . 2 The brain...

  20. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  1. Drugs and the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet explores various aspects of drug addiction, with a special focus on drugs' effects on the brain. A brief introduction presents information on the rampant use of drugs in society and elaborates the distinction between drug abuse and drug addiction. Next, a detailed analysis of the brain and its functions is given. Drugs target the more…

  2. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  3. Drugs and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelssering, G.; Aguiar, L.F.; Ribeiro, R.M.; Souza, A.Z. de

    1988-01-01

    Different kinds of drugs who can be transferred through the mother's milk to the lactant and its effects are showed in this work. A list of them as below: cardiotonics, diuretics, anti-hypertensives, beta-blockings, anti-arrythmics, drugs with gastrintestinal tract action, hormones, antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, citostatic drugs, central nervous system action drugs and anticoagulants drugs. (L.M.J.) [pt

  4. Drugs Approved for Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for rhabdomyosarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. There may be drugs used in rhabdomyosarcoma that are not listed here.

  5. 99 Films on Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David O., Ed.

    This catalog describes and evaluates 16-millimeter films about various aspects of drug use. Among the subjects covered by the 99 films are the composition and effects of different drugs, reasons why people use drugs, life in the drug culture, the problem of law enforcement, and various means of dealing with drug users. Each film is synopsized. Two…

  6. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs are bad for you, and they’re bad for your baby. About 1 in 20 women (5 percent) take street drugs during pregnancy. Street drugs include: Cocaine Ecstasy, methamphetamine and other club drugs Heroin Marijuana Prescription drugs that are abused How can street ...

  7. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  8. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... public. More Information More in The Drug Development Process Step 1: Discovery and Development Step 2: Preclinical ...

  9. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Leukemia This page lists cancer drugs ... used in leukemia that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Abitrexate (Methotrexate) ...

  10. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  11. Teenagers and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teenagers and drugs; Symptoms of drug use in teenagers; Drug abuse - teenagers; Substance abuse - teenagers ... for a specialist who has experience working with teenagers. Do not hesitate, get help right away. The ...

  12. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  13. Text mining for drug-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Heng-Yi; Chiang, Chien-Wei; Li, Lang

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of drug-drug interaction (DDI), the study of pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and pharmacogenetics (PG) data are significant. In recent years, drug PK parameters, drug interaction parameters, and PG data have been unevenly collected in different databases and published extensively in literature. Also the lack of an appropriate PK ontology and a well-annotated PK corpus, which provide the background knowledge and the criteria of determining DDI, respectively, lead to the difficulty of developing DDI text mining tools for PK data collection from the literature and data integration from multiple databases.To conquer the issues, we constructed a comprehensive pharmacokinetics ontology. It includes all aspects of in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments, in vivo pharmacokinetics studies, as well as drug metabolism and transportation enzymes. Using our pharmacokinetics ontology, a PK corpus was constructed to present four classes of pharmacokinetics abstracts: in vivo pharmacokinetics studies, in vivo pharmacogenetic studies, in vivo drug interaction studies, and in vitro drug interaction studies. A novel hierarchical three-level annotation scheme was proposed and implemented to tag key terms, drug interaction sentences, and drug interaction pairs. The utility of the pharmacokinetics ontology was demonstrated by annotating three pharmacokinetics studies; and the utility of the PK corpus was demonstrated by a drug interaction extraction text mining analysis.The pharmacokinetics ontology annotates both in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. The PK corpus is a highly valuable resource for the text mining of pharmacokinetics parameters and drug interactions.

  14. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  15. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  16. [Designer drugs in Finland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Ulrich; den Hollander, Bjørnar; Simojoki, Kaarlo; Korpi, Esa R; Pihlainen, Katja; Alho, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    Designer drugs are synthetic psychotropic drugs which are marketed as "legal drugs". Their emergence, rapid spreading and unpredictable effects have challenged the health and substance abuse care. The slow process of classification of an abusable drug has provided too many possibilities for spreading the designer drugs. Once a certain substance receives an illegal drugs classification, dealers and users usually move to another, slightly different molecule that is still legal. In Finland, the Narcotics Act has been amended to the effect that the addition of a new substance to the illegal drug list does not require an amendment to the law.

  17. Drug interactions with oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Christensen, L K

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs may be influenced by a large number of other drugs. Some of these combinations (e.g. phenylbutazone, sulphaphenazole) may result in cases of severe hypoglycaemic collapse. Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide should never be given to a patient without a prior careful check of which medicaments are already being given. Similarly, no drug should be given to a diabetic treated with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide without consideration of the possibility of interaction phenomena.

  18. Drug Products in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Active drugs that have been reported by participating drug manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. All drugs are identified by National Drug Code...

  19. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Peter J

    2018-01-17

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  20. [Designer drugs in Jutland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, K W; Kaa, E

    2001-04-16

    The aim of this investigation was to examine illegal tablets and capsules seized in Jutland, the western part of Denmark, during the period 1995-1999. The drugs are described according to technical appearance (colour, logo, score, diameter) and content of synthetic drugs. All illegal tablets and capsules received during the period 1995-1999 (109 cases containing 192 different samples) were examined. MDMA was the most common drug and was seen during the entire period. Amphetamine was the second most common drug and has been frequently detected during the the last two years. Drugs like MDE, MBDB, BDB, and 2-CB were rarely seen and they disappeared quickly from the illegal market. MDA appeared on the market at the end of 1999. Only 53% of the tablets contained MDMA as the sole drug. Eighty-one percent of the tablets/capsules contained only one synthetic drug, whereas 13% contained a mixture of two or more synthetic drugs. Six per cent of the samples did not contain a euphoric drug/designer drug. The content of MDMA, MDE, and amphetamine in the tablets varied greatly. MDMA is apparently the drug preferred by the users, but still only half of the tablets contained MDMA as the only drug. The rest of the tablets contained either another synthetic drug or a mixture of drugs. In conclusion, the increasing supply of various drugs with different and unpredictable effects and of miscellaneous quality brings about the risk of serious and complicated intoxications.

  1. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating drug...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ... the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that ...

  4. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... factors affect drug use trends, when young people view drug use as harmful, they tend to decrease ...

  5. Food-drug interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated......, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers...... are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those...

  6. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against

  7. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs

  8. Drug-drug interactions : from knowledge base to clinical impact

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Marine

    2014-01-01

    Drug usage has increased steadily, and the more drugs used, the higher the risk for adverse effects or loss of effect due to drug-drug interactions. For drug prescribers it is difficult to know what drugs a patient is taking and whether they interact. Computerizing of health care records has made it possible to connect patients’ drug lists to clinical decision support systems giving the prescriber information about e.g. drug-drug interactions, duplicated prescriptions and ...

  9. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  10. CMS Drug Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released several information products that provide spending information for prescription drugs in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The CMS Drug Spending...

  11. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  12. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  13. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Andersen, M; Hansen, P B

    1997-01-01

    induced by non-cytotoxic drugs is characterised by heterogeneous clinical picture and recovery is generally rapid. Although corticosteroids seem inefficient, we still recommend that severe symptomatic cases of drug-induced thrombocytopenia are treated as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura due...

  14. Drugs to be Discontinued

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Companies are required under Section 506C of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  15. Drug AMP Reporting - Quarterly

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drugs that have been reported under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program along with an indication of whether or not the required Average Manufacturer Price (AMP) was...

  16. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  17. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... risk for adverse reactions to medications. Facts about Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. ...

  18. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  19. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  20. Drugs of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Donald E., Ed.

    This Drug Enforcement Administration publication delivers clear, scientific information about drugs in a factual, straightforward way, combined with precise photographs shot to scale. The publication is intended to serve as an A to Z guide for drug history, effects, and identification information. Chapters are included on the Controlled Substances…

  1. Drug Enforcement Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet contains information relating to drug abuse and abusers; drug traffic legislation; law enforcement; and descriptions of commonly used narcotics, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. Also included is a short but explicit listing of audiovisual aids, an annotated bibliography, and drug identification pictures. The booklet…

  2. Immediate Drug Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickner, Paige G; Hong, David

    2016-07-01

    Drug allergy affects a large percentage of the general population. A listed drug allergy can also have broad implications for many aspects of patient care. Here, we will review recent advances in the arena of drug allergies with a focus on antibiotics, monoclonals, NSAIDs, and chemotherapeutics.

  3. Writing Drug Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The paper juxtaposes the cultural mediation of experience through drugs with that performed with text. As a sample of the currently radically changing relations between professional and lay knowledge in the field of drug interventions, the website of a Copenhagen institution for young drug users...

  4. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basic Facts & Information What does “Drug and Substance Abuse” mean? Most drugs and other chemical substances are helpful when used ... medications, and pain medications. Some older adults also abuse illegal drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and injected narcotics. Some ...

  5. Dynamics of Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Joan H.; Holden, Raymond H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from interviews with 167 drug users in the community, including age, sex, birth order, education, family constellation, and circumstances of first drug use. The majority of subjects had tried to stop using drugs, but most had been unsuccessful at the time of the interview. (Author)

  6. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limiting but they can be the initial presentation of more serious reactions such as Stevens-Johnson and drug hypersensitivity syndromes.3 It is thus important for the clinician to distinguish between self-limiting morbilliform drug eruptions that resolve solely with the withdrawal of the offending drug and the life-threatening ...

  7. Drugs in sport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mottram, D. R. (David R.)

    2005-01-01

    ...-Doping Agency (WADA) Methods and advances in doping control, and the sanctions for testing positive The use of therapeutic drugs banned in sport Evaluation of the status of creatine as a legitimate nutritional supplement Ethical, political and administrative issues in monitoring drug use An assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sp...

  8. DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH TUBERCULOSIS THERAPY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    The most important adverse drug-drug interactions occur with drugs that have seri- ous toxicity and a low therapeutic index, where relatively small changes in drug level can have significant adverse consequences. Additionally, drug-drug interac- tions can be clinically important if the disease being controlled with the drug is.

  9. Black Youths and Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Janice; Pearson, Patricia G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effect of drugs on black youths, discussing different types of drug involvement, reasons for drug involvement, extent and nature of involvement, drugs and crime, drugs and health issues, drug control strategies, and prevention. Policy implications include prioritizing drug prevention among black youths, providing alternatives to drug…

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/ ...

  11. Drug interactions with sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Meseguer, Idoia; Jose, Begoña San; Lopez-Gimenez, Leocadio R; Gil, Maria A; Serrano, Laura; Castaño, Mikel; Sautua, Saioa; Basagoiti, Amaya De; Belaustegui, Ainhoa; Baza, Beatriz; Baskaran, Zuriñe; Bustinza, Alazne

    2015-02-01

    Sunitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor, advanced renal cell carcinoma, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of this article is to describe the pharmacological interactions between sunitinib and commonly prescribed drugs. We reviewed available information on pharmacological interactions between sunitinib and concomitantly prescribed drugs. Drugs were grouped into different therapeutic groups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Sunitinib interacts with CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors and with P-glycoprotein and ABCG2 substrates. Pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs have also been found. Current information on drug interactions between sunitinib and other drugs is scarce and most of the times it is difficult to apply to clinical practice. Even so, this difficulty in managing drug interactions should not be a reason to ignore them as they can help to explain intolerances and treatment failures. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  13. Antidepressants and platinum drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Brigitte J; Ryan, John J; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2014-01-01

    Antidepressants are frequently prescribed concurrently with anti-cancer drugs and may have synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects. The present work investigated the effect of antidepressants on the cytotoxicity of platinum agents cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin. The cytotoxicity of platinum drugs alone or in combination with antidepressants was measured in HCT116 wild-type (wt), HCT116 (p53 -/-), HT-29, SKOV3 and A2780 cells using an apoptosis-based assay. The effect of antidepressants on platinum cytotoxicity is both cell type- and drug dependent. Mostly additive effects were observed. Desipramine and fluoxetine caused the greatest effects, with cisplatin in general being most sensitive to their presence. There is little effect of p53 status on the drug-drug interaction while the calmodulin inhibitor W7 augmented cisplatin cytotoxicity relative to carboplatin and oxaliplatin. The drug-drug interaction between antidepressants and platinum anti-cancer agents requires detailed evaluation for optimization of patient care.

  14. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: Drug Use and Viral Infections : Describes how people who engage in drug use or high-risk behaviors associated with drug use also put ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens ... Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug misuse ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: Drug ...

  20. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  3. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma Alimta (Pemetrexed Disodium) Pemetrexed Disodium Drug Combinations Used ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... getting HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can ... It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug use. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction ...

  13. Inflammasome in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enquan; Liu, Jianuo; Wang, Xiaobei; Xiong, Huangui

    2017-01-01

    Drug abuse disorders refer to a set of related negative health implications associated with compulsive drug seeking and use. Because almost all addictive drugs act on the brain, many of them cause neurological impairments after long-term abuse. Neuropathological studies have revealed a widespread impairment of the cellular elements. As the key components to limit the damage of neural cells, CNS immune system is also found affected by these drugs, directly or indirectly. It has been shown that drugs of abuse alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling. Growing studies on neuroimmune factors further demonstrate their indispensable role in drugs-induced neurotoxicity. As an important proinflammatory intracellular receptor, inflammasome is activated in many neurodegenerative diseases in response to a broad range of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals. In the cases of drug abuse, especially in those with comorbid of HIV infection and sustained pain, inflammasome activation significantly promotes the neuroinflammation-associated toxicities. To understand inflammasome in drug-associated neurotoxic activity, we reviewed the role played by inflammasome in drug abuse-induced microglial neurotoxicity and evaluated the potential of imflammasone as a therapeutic target for drug abuse disorders based on recent development of various selective small-molecular inflammasome inhibitors.

  14. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia.

  15. Supersaturating drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are probably the most common and important supersaturating drug delivery systems for the formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds. These delivery systems are able to achieve and maintain a sustained drug supersaturation which enables improvement...... of the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by increasing the driving force for drug absorption. However, ASDs often require a high weight percentage of carrier (usually a hydrophilic polymer) to ensure molecular mixing of the drug in the carrier and stabilization of the supersaturated state, often leading...... strategy for poorly-soluble drugs. While the current research on co-amorphous formulations is focused on preparation and characterization of these systems, more detailed research on their supersaturation and precipitation behavior and the effect of co-formers on nucleation and crystal growth inhibition...

  16. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  17. Illegal drugs and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Grigoleit, Lisa; Hess, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard; Musshoff, Frank

    2013-03-10

    An interrelation between consumption of illegal drugs and committing an indictable offence has been repeatedly discussed in literature. In a retrospective study serum concentrations of illegal and legal drugs as well as data originating from police reports and examinations by physicians taking blood from individuals being suspected to be under the influence of drugs were evaluated. Results from 4816 cases were available. Property offences were the most frequent type (36%) as well as consumption of cannabinoids (55%). Psychophysiological conditions of consumers were compared with according serum concentrations. Close correlations between stimulating drugs and violence associated crime could not be found. Stimulated as well as sedated behaviour occurring following the consumption of various drugs might be the reason for no clear correlation between types of offence and consumed illegal or legal drugs in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Therapeutic drug monitoring of atypical antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grundmann Milan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder often associated with cognitive impairment and affective, mainly depressive, symptoms. Antipsychotic medication is the primary intervention for stabilization of acute psychotic episodes and prevention of recurrences and relapses in patients with schizophrenia. Typical antipsychotics, the older class of antipsychotic agents, are currently used much less frequently than newer atypical antipsychotics. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM of antipsychotic drugs is the specific method of clinical pharmacology, which involves measurement of drug serum concentrations followed by interpretation and good cooperation with the clinician. TDM is a powerful tool that allows tailor-made treatment for the specific needs of individual patients. It can help in monitoring adherence, dose adjustment, minimizing the risk of toxicity and in cost-effectiveness in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The review provides complex knowledge indispensable to clinical pharmacologists, pharmacists and clinicians for interpretation of TDM results.

  19. Discontinued drugs in 2012: cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Min; Xiang, Bing-Ren

    2013-11-01

    The continued high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has attracted wide concern and great attention of pharmaceutical industry. In order to reduce the attrition of cardiovascular drug R&D, it might be helpful recapitulating previous failures and identifying the potential factors to success. This perspective mainly analyses the 30 cardiovascular drugs dropped from clinical development in 2012. Reasons causing the termination of the cardiovascular drugs in the past 5 years are also tabulated and analysed. The analysis shows that the attrition is highest in Phase II trials and financial and strategic factors and lack of clinical efficacy are the principal reasons for these disappointments. To solve the four problems (The 'better than the Beatles' problem, the 'cautious regulator' problem, the 'throw money at it' tendency and the 'basic researchbrute force' bias) is recommended as the main measure to increase the number and quality of approvable products.

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL HERBAL DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nishteswar

    2011-01-01

    An anti-microbial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbiocidal) or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic). Sulphonamide drugs were the first antimicrobial drugs, and paved the way for the antibiotic revolution in medicine. The first sulfonamide, trade named Prontosil, was actually a prodrug. However, with the development of antimicrobials, microorganisms have adapted ...

  1. Radiopharmaceutical drug review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.

    1985-01-01

    To ensure proper radioactive drug use (such as quality, diagnostic improvement, and minimal radioactive exposure), the Food and Drug Administration evaluates new drugs with respect to safety, effectiveness, and accuracy and adequacy of the labeling. The IND or NDA process is used for this purpose. A brief description of the process, including the Chemical Classification System and the therapeutic potential classification, is presented as it applies to radiopharmaceuticals. Also, the status of the IND or NDA review of radiopharmaceuticals is given

  2. AMDD: Antimicrobial Drug Database

    OpenAIRE

    Danishuddin, Mohd; Kaushal, Lalima; Hassan Baig, Mohd; Khan, Asad U.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance is one of the major concerns for antimicrobial chemotherapy against any particular target. Knowledge of the primary structure of antimicrobial agents and their activities is essential for rational drug design. Thus, we developed a comprehensive database, anti microbial drug database (AMDD), of known synthetic antibacterial and antifungal compounds that were extracted from the available literature and other chemical databases, e.g., PubChem, PubChem BioAssay and ZINC, etc. The ...

  3. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  4. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future...

  5. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic and organi......Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...... their performance....

  6. Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...

  7. Metallomics in drug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi Nhu Tam; Ostergaard, Jesper; Stürup, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for separation of free cisplatin from liposome-encapsulated cisplatin and protein-bound cisplatin was developed. A liposomal formulation of cisplatin based on PEGylated liposomes was used as model drug formulation...... to plasma constituents in plasma samples. It was demonstrated that this approach is suitable for studies of the stability of liposome formulations as leakage of active drug from the liposomes and subsequent binding to biomolecules in plasma can be monitored. This methodology has not been reported before...... and will improve characterization of liposomal drugs during drug development and in studies on kinetics....

  8. ICP and Antihypertensive Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzaud-Laborde, Charlotte; Lafitte, Pierre; Balardy, Laurent; Czosnyka, Zofia; Schmidt, Eric A

    2018-01-01

     Arterial hypertension is among the leading risks for mortality. This burden requires in hypertensive patients the use of single, double or more antihypertensive drugs. The relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure is complex and still under debate. The impact of antihypertensive drugs on ICP is unknown. We wanted to understand whether the use of antihypertensive drugs has a significant influence on ICP and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/brain related parameters. In a cohort of 95 patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus, we prospectively collected drug details according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Lumbar infusion studies were performed. Using ICM+ software, we calculated at baseline and plateau ICP and pulse amplitude, resistance to CSF outflow, elastance, and pressure in the sagittal sinus and CSF production rate. We studied the influence of the administration of 1, 2, 3 or more antihypertensive drugs on ICP-derived parameters. We compared the data using Student's and Mann-Whitney tests or Chi-squared and Fisher's exact test.  Elastance is significantly higher in patients with at least one antihypertensive drug compared with patients without medication. On the contrary, pressure volume index (PVI) is significantly decreased in patients with antihypertensive drugs compared with patients not on these medications. However, the number of antihypertensive drugs does not seem to influence other ICP parameters.  Patients on antihypertensive drugs seem to have a stiffer brain than those not on them.

  9. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  10. How to Misuse Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Edwards

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of us, during our training, are taught about the actions of drugs and their side-effects, but very few of us are taught how to misuse drugs. However, this is an art that seems to be acquired through practice in handling drugs, by various members of the medical and nursing professions, as well as by the general population. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a few of the ways in which drugs can be, and are, misused.

  11. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  12. Student Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlis, Helen H.

    This paper discusses the nature and extent of student drug use, its meaning and significance, society's response to it, and some of the problems resulting from efforts to control it. Drugs are any substance which by its chemical nature affects the structure or function of the living organism. Abuse refers to any use of a non-medically approved…

  13. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    related substances include precursor chemicals used to make narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances—such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine—which...Department to report the five largest importing and exporting countries of two precursor drugs, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, commonly used to...UNODC, Alternative Development: A Global Thematic Evaluation, Final Synthesis Report, 2005, at http://www.unodc.org/pdf

  14. [Drugs and light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, H H

    1997-06-30

    The number of drugs that are found to be photochemically unstable or able to induce phototoxic side-effects is steadily increasing. It can be difficult, however, to obtain relevant information on the photoreactivity of drugs or drug products from the commonly used handbooks. This is because of lack of standard methods of evaluation or a requirement for official specifications for a given product. The author points to the main problems connected with interactions between drugs and light in vitro and in vivo. The most obvious result of exposure to light is reduced potency of the drug because of photodecomposition. Adverse effects due to the formation of photodegradation products during storage and use have also been reported. The drug substance can further cause light-induced side-effects after administration to the patient, e.g. phototoxicity and photoallergy. More data on photoreactivity are needed in order to minimize the side-effects of frequently used drugs. The article includes a list of potential photosensitizing drug substances on the Norwegian market.

  15. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Abstract. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is a rare but important and often challenging diagnosis for the physician. Intake of antimicrobials, steroids, anal- gesics amongst others has been implicated. Signs and symptoms generally develop within 24-48 hours of drug ingestion. The pa- tient often ...

  16. Drug Testing. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the United States Supreme Court confirmed that in the school's role of in loco parentis, drug testing of students who were involved in athletics and extracurricular activities was constitutional. In a state of the union address, George W. Bush stated that drug testing in schools had been effective and was part of "our aggressive…

  17. Adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, K; Borshoff, D C

    2018-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality to patients and a source of financial burden to the healthcare system. Of the wide spectrum of adverse drug reactions, the most concerning to the anaesthetist remain anaphylaxis and malignant hyperthermia. Although the incidence of anaphylaxis under anaesthesia is difficult to ascertain, it occurs commonly enough that most anaesthetists will manage at least one case in their career. The wide range of drugs given in the peri-operative period and the variable presentation in the anaesthetised patient can delay diagnosis and treatment, and adversely affect outcome. Furthermore, despite improvements in testing, causative drugs can still be difficult to identify, as adverse reactions may be mediated by mechanisms other than IgE activation. With an increase in the reporting of anaphylaxis to newer anaesthetic drugs such as sugammadex, combined with change over the recent decades in the most likely causative peri-operative agents, it is imperative anaesthetists remain up to date on recent developments. In addition, they should be vigilant to patient characteristics, including pharmacogenetic variations that may predispose to adverse drug reactions, in order to help minimise risks of a reaction. The severity of adverse drug reactions to peri-operative drugs means morbidity and mortality remain high. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. The Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCrosta, Anthony

    1989-01-01

    The role of teachers in helping fight against drug abuse is discussed stressing the teacher's ability to see changes in the students and the potential for positive influence. A vital school role involves teaching life skills and wellness principles. Information on commonly abused drugs and their effects is presented. (SM)

  19. Antiretroviral therapeutic drug monitoring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winnie

    A narrow therapeutic window. □ Good correlation between drug ... Antiretroviral therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is an additional monitoring tool to assist in the management of HIV-infected patients. Antiretroviral TDM is ... Antiretroviral TDM could play an important adjunctive role in our area. Clearly this will be a limited ...

  20. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  1. Antiretroviral therapeutic drug monitoring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winnie

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TDM. The vast majority of drugs used in clinical practice do not require TDM. It is far easier for clinicians to adopt a 'one size fits all' approach to dosing. Alternatively doses may be modified according to response. However, with some drugs this will result in high rates of toxicity, or suboptimal ...

  2. Drug allergy REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical spectrum ofdisease ranges from mild exanthems to life-threatening serum sickness. Type IV. This type of reaction usually occurs when drug binding to skin protein elicits a cell-mediated immune response." Severe clinical problems are rare. Reactions may complicate frequent skin exposure to drugs and are.

  3. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  4. Implantable Drug Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs such as insulin are injected as needed directly into bloodstream by compact implantable dispensing unit. Two vapor cavities produce opposing forces on drug-chamber diaphragm. Heaters in cavities allow control of direction and rate of motion of bellows. Dispensing capsule fitted with coil so batteries can be recharged by induction.

  5. Drugs and Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Mae; Miller, Eva

    The effects of drug abuse and dependence vary, depending on the type of drug, polydrug use, and characteristics of the user. The influence of genetic, neurochemical, neuropsyiological, sociocultural, and economic factors suggest that the etiology of substance abuse and dependence is multiply determined. Models explaining the causation of substance…

  6. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  7. Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victor F.

    1978-01-01

    Millions of people in this country take medications, and millions drink alcohol. Both are drugs and have effects on the organs and systems with which they or their metabolites come in contact. This short article discusses some of the combined effects of prescribed drugs and alcohol on some systems, with special emphasis on the liver. PMID:712865

  8. [Drug-Drug Interactions with Consideration of Pharmacogenetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Shogo

    2018-01-01

     Elderly patients often suffer from a variety of diseases and therefore may be prescribed several kinds of drugs. Interactions between these drugs may cause problems in some patients. Guidelines for drug interactions were released on July 8, 2014 "Drug Interaction Guideline for Drug Development and Labeling Recommendations (Final Draft)". These guidelines include the theoretical basis for evaluating the mechanisms of drug interaction, the possible extent of drug interactions, and take into consideration special populations (e.g., infants, children, elderly patients, patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction, and subjects with minor deficient alleles for drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters). In this symposium article, I discuss this last special population: altered drug metabolism and drug interactions in subjects with minor alleles of genes encoding deficient drug metabolizing enzymes. I further discuss a drug label for eliglustat (Cerdelga) with instructions for patients with ultra-rapid, extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizer phenotypes that arise from different CYP2D6 gene alleles.

  9. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  10. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  11. Drug therapy of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is a chronic granulomatous bacterial infection mainly affecting the skin and peripheral nervous system yet also involving other organs and systems as a result of a pathological process. The causative agent of leprosy - Mycobacterium leprae - is an obligate intracellular microorganism. Despite the removal of a threat of a leprosy epidemic, European countries still record outbreaks of the disease mainly among migrants coming from endemic areas. A golden standard of the treatment of leprosy is a WHO-recommended combined drug therapy comprising drugs such as dapsone, clofazimine and rifampicin. The article provides current data on the mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety of these drugs and their combined scheme of treatment obtained as a result of clinical trials. Moreover, it also reviews new regimens of the drug therapy of leprosy including those with the use of drugs from the group of fluoroquinols as well as immunotherapy of the disease.

  12. [Drug induced diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, Isabelle; Hadengue, Antoine

    2008-09-03

    Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event involving the most frequently antibiotics, laxatives and NSAI. Drug induced diarrhea may be acute or chronic. It may be due to expected, dose dependant properties of the drug, to immuno-allergic or bio-genomic mechanisms. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described resulting in osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhea, shortened transit time, or malabsorption. Histopathological lesions sometimes associated with drug induced diarrhea are usually non specific and include ulcerations, inflammatory or ischemic lesions, fibrous diaphragms, microscopic colitis and apoptosis. The diagnosis of drug induced diarrhea, sometimes difficult to assess, relies on the absence of other obvious causes and on the rapid disappearance of the symptoms after withdrawal of the suspected drug.

  13. Potential drug-drug interaction in Mexican patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Zurita, María Conchita; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Genis, Alma; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Lilia López-Narváez, María; de la O de la O, María Elena; Nicolini, Humberto

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to observe potential drug-drug interactions in the medication of Mexican schizophrenic patients. We performed a retrospective and cross-sectional study that was carried out in a psychiatric clinic. Only the prescriptions of patients with schizophrenia whose diagnoses were based on the DSM-IV instrument were included in this study. The Drug Interactions Checker software ( http://www.drugs.com/drug_interactions.html ) was used in this study to analyse potential drug-drug interactions. In total, 86 of 126 patients were at risk of potential drug-drug interactions. Haloperidol and biperiden was the most common drug pair of 232 pairs evaluated. In our study, 13.8% of drug-drug interaction showed a major level of severity, whereas in 83.2%, the interaction was moderate. Finally, central nervous system (CNS) depression and anticholinergic effect were the main possible effects of drug-drug interaction. Our results revealed a high number of patients with schizophrenia receiving two or more drugs. The potential drug-drug interactions observed in the Mexican population are consistent with the concomitant use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants prescribed in schizophrenia that could cause central nervous system (CNS) depression and anticholinergic effect. Drug-drug interaction must be considered when the patient with schizophrenia is medicated.

  14. Regional drug information service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, U I; Stoelben, S; Ebert, U; Siepmann, M; Krappweis, J; Kirch, W

    1999-06-01

    Drug information centers (DICs) were established in Europe more than two decades ago. The majority of German DICs were created in the 90s. The regional University hospital-based DIC, which offers services to physicans, is now in operation for three and a half years . To evaluate the types of enquiries received and the profile of the users of a drug information service. The working procedure at a regional center in Dresden, Germany, is described. The topics for consultation (adverse reactions, pharmacokinetics, etc.) are presented, and the types of drugs involved are classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Users are grouped by medical specialty. Future plans for the DIC are discussed. A total of 516 enquiries were received. Questions concerning therapeutic use (34%), adverse drug reactions (28%), pregnancy/lactation (16%), and pharmacokinetics/dosage (15%) were asked most frequently. Cardiovascular drugs (20%), systemic antiinfectives (19%) as well as drugs targeting the central nervous system (15%) and alimentation/metabolism (9%) were the predominant foci of enquiries. The major users of the DIC were internists (19%), general practitioners (19%), pediatricians (18%), and gynecologists (11%). The types of questions and users of this service were generally similar to those recorded at many other European DICs. The service has begun producing educational bulletins on drug-related topics of clinical relevance.

  15. Adverse cutaneous drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Surajit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.

  16. Preclinical drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodniewicz, Teresa; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Life sciences provide reasonably sound prognosis for a number and nature of therapeutic targets on which drug design could be based, and search for new chemical entities--future new drugs, is now more than ever based on scientific principles. Nevertheless, current very long and incredibly costly drug discovery and development process is very inefficient, with attrition rate spanning from many thousands of new chemical structures, through a handful of validated drug leads, to single successful new drug launches, achieved in average after 13 years, with compounded cost estimates from hundreds of thousands to over one billion US dollars. Since radical pharmaceutical innovation is critically needed, number of new research projects concerning this area is steeply rising outside of big pharma industry--both in academic environment and in small private companies. Their prospective success will critically depend on project management, which requires combined knowledge of scientific, technical and legal matters, comprising regulations concerning admission of new drug candidates to be subjects of clinical studies. This paper attempts to explain basic rules and requirements of drug development within preclinical study period, in case of new chemical entities of natural or synthetic origin, which belong to low molecular weight category.

  17. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  18. Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Oakley

    The varied aspects of drugs, their source, abuse, chemical composition, and physical, personal, and social effects are explored. Seven units cover the following areas: (1) an overview on drug use, a brief history of drugs and discussion of social implications; (2) the human nervous system and the actions of drugs; (3) "nondrug drugs" such as…

  19. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Hodgkin lymphoma. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. The Great Drug Debate: II. Taking Drugs Seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, John

    1988-01-01

    Argues that legalization is not the solution to drug-related problems. Proposes increased emphasis on the small retailers of drugs, and mandatory urinalysis for heroin, cocaine, and PCP for those arrested for typical drug-related crimes. (FMW)

  5. Vaccines against drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R

    2012-01-01

    The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.

  6. Storytelling in drug treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    Professionals who provide drug treatment to young people regularly encounter what they conceive to be inauthentic client claims, that is, claims not in accordance with reality. Earlier research demonstrates how authenticity remains a key concern within drug treatment, but it has not sufficiently...... of ulterior motives, clients are interpreted as making inauthentic claims because they want to obtain something externally from drug treatment (e.g., avoid prison or work training programs), and (3) the story of disorders explains inauthenticity as a result of pathology. The study illuminates how...

  7. Drug Use in Gyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2015-01-01

    Taking some of the most significant academic works into consideration this chapter describes how the scholarly interest in drug use in gyms rose from studies of competitive bodybuilding to studies of larger segments of the gym population. The challenge of establishing reliable figures for the fre......Taking some of the most significant academic works into consideration this chapter describes how the scholarly interest in drug use in gyms rose from studies of competitive bodybuilding to studies of larger segments of the gym population. The challenge of establishing reliable figures...... of the significant political campaigns and strategies to regulate and counter drug use in gyms....

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, ... effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is partly due to the addictive and intoxicating effects of many drugs, which can alter judgment and ... HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect ...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) ... the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects Contact the Press Office Meetings & Events Media ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Meetings & Events Media Guide About NIDA Director's Page Organization Legislative Activities Advisory Boards & Groups Working at NIDA ...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in ...

  13. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) ... with HIV is a key predictor of the development of AIDS. Because of their compromised immune system, ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter ... research findings and news updates. Read on to Learn the Link between drug use and HIV and ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health ... on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Foundation for Women Legislators (NFWL) Educational Institutions: Florida International University Montgomery College Center for the Advancement of ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link Videos NIDA ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global ... syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is treatment, but no cure, ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana ... person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  6. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pancreatic cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana ... risk of contracting HIV, and using drugs and alcohol can increase the chances of unsafe behavior by ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ... to HIV and progression of AIDS. Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has ...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer Atezolizumab Avelumab Bavencio (Avelumab) Cisplatin Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Durvalumab ...

  11. Drug: D10143 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10143 Drug Ondelopran (USAN/INN); Odelepran ... C20H24FN3O3 D10143.gif ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence Chemical group: DG01756 ... opioid

  12. Drug: D00123 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00123 Drug Cyanamide (JP17); Cyanamide (TN) ... CH2N2 D00123.gif ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence Same as: C01566 Therapeutic category: 3

  13. Drug: D05157 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05157 Drug Nicotine polacrilex (USAN); Nicorette (TN) ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine dependence Cyp substrate ... DG01638 ... CYP2A6 substrate Cy

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search ... Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/ ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... parents and teachers). It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug use. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Web site describes the dangers of drug misuse and ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog ... Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in providing ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana ... person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... AIDS, as well as HIV/AIDS research and policies. AIDS.gov New Media Tools : These new media ...

  20. Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.

  1. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  2. Drug therapy smartens up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  3. Drugs: Shatter the Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they totally help a lot of people. It really depends on the who , how , and why of ... Mixing pills with other drugs or with alcohol really increases your risk of death from accidental overdose. ...

  4. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  5. The drug swindlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M; Lydecker, M; Lee, P R

    1990-01-01

    In a number of important developing nations--among them Indonesia, India, and Brazil--clinical pharmacologists and other drug experts are revealing mounting concern over the marketing of fraudulent drug products. These are shaped, colored, flavored, marked, and packaged to mimic the real product. They may contain the actual antibiotic or other drug indicated on the label, but so "cut" that the product provides only a small fraction of the labeled amount, or they may contain only useless flour or starch. At best, they are worthless. At the worst, they can kill. In most instances, it is believed that these "drugs" are produced and marketed by local or domestic fly-by-night groups and not by multinational pharmaceutical firms. Blame for these practices is placed on inadequate or unenforced laws, only trivial punishments, bribery and corruption, and the fact that generally "nobody inspects the inspectors."

  6. Bibliography [On Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Detroit, MI.

    A bibliography of materials on drugs is presented. The book and paper back entries are annotated. Selected technical references are listed under these major findings: (1) dependency, (2) barbiturates, (3) amphetamines, and (4) general pharmacology. (PS)

  7. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  8. Information for Consumers (Drugs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertising: Questions to Ask Yourself Sample Prescription Drug Advertisements Give Us Feedback Resources for You Report a ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  9. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  10. Asthma - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma - children Wheezing Patient Instructions Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - quick-relief drugs Asthma - what to ask the doctor - adult Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child Bronchiolitis - discharge Exercise-induced asthma Exercising and asthma ...

  11. Approved Drugs for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Directors & Staff Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos Quick Links Drug Watch Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta ...

  12. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  13. Drug use among drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    Randomly selected drivers were stopped at times and places of previous fatal crashes in Lincoln, Nebraska, and Dade County (Miami), Florida. Breath, urnine, blood, and lip swab samples were requested, for later analysis for drugs and medications. A c...

  14. Drug-induced diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea associated with medicines ... Nearly all medicines may cause diarrhea as a side effect. The drugs listed below, however, are more likely to cause diarrhea. Laxatives are meant to cause diarrhea. ...

  15. Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nervousness and hyperactivity. Drugs with Other Drugs Drug-drug interactions occur when two or more drugs react with ... foods, beverages or other products? What are possible drug interaction signs I should know about? How will the ...

  16. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  18. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  19. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post- ...

  1. Youth, drugs, and biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Jose Sanches Vergara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle the issue of youth and drugs as something linked to biopower and biopolitics, both concepts developed by Michael Foucault. Youth and drugs are taken and analyzed in situations involving the management of crime linked to the risks and deviations from the law, abuse and dependence. The youth; irreverent, courageous, healthy, idealistic, and that wanted to change the world for the better as we have seen in the past, is now strongly related to violence, dangerous activities, moral and social risks, drug addiction, criminality, and others negative images. To deal with these young people, tolerance and small punishments of yore are not enough anymore. The young people emerge as a segment of the population subject to various actions and programs. The drugs now are seen as matters of security and public health. There is a shifting and repositioning in the discourse about the young - from minor, drugged, and criminal to lawbreaker, user and drug addict. The change is subtle, but represents a modulation in the devices of social control. Beyond the consent of the young to get rid of drugs, there is a search for the creation of a wide area of monitoring of their behavior through the activation of community protection networks. The belief that the young are more impressionable and vulnerable, and that action on the cause of the problem or risk reduction are the most efficient ways of management, taking responsibility away from personal and family sphere and transferring it to the State, contributes to the increasing control of young people nowadays.

  2. Drug Release Mechanism of Slightly Soluble Drug from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theophylline (THP) as drug in drug to clay ratios of 1:2, 3:4 and 1:1. The formulations were characterized for drug release and loading. Dependent and independent kinetic models were employed to analyze the drug release data. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the structural characterization of ...

  3. Identification of clinically significant drug-drug interactions in cardiac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions in cardiac intensive care units of two tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan, and to compare the various potential drug-drug interactions related parameters between the government and private hospitals included in the study. Method: A ...

  4. Drug Release Mechanism of Slightly Soluble Drug from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theophylline) from nanocomposite of zeolite (ZLT) or hydrotalcite (HTC) used as drug carrier. Methods: Nanocomposite was prepared with dispersion of either ZLT or HTC as drug carrier and theophylline (THP) as drug in drug to clay ratios of 1:2 ...

  5. Influence of drug colour on perceived drug effects and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da; Wang, Tieyan; Wang, Tieshan; Qu, Xingda

    2018-02-01

    A drug's physical characteristics, such as colour, could be factors influencing its therapeutic effects. It is not well understood whether people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy are affected by colour, especially among Chinese population. This study was conducted to examine people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy on the basis of drug colour, and to reveal possible gender differences in colour-related drug expectations. Participants (n = 224) were asked to classify seven single-coloured and six two-coloured capsules into one of four categories of drug effects, and to indicate the strength of drug efficacy. It is found that all the coloured capsules yielded non-chance distributions in classifications of drug effects, with six single-coloured and four two-coloured capsules associated with specific drug effects. Colour also conveyed differential strengths of drug efficacy in general and in relation to specific drug effects. There were gender differences in drug expectations for some colours and colour combinations. Practitioner Summary: Drug colour was found to have impacts on perceived drug effects and efficacy. The findings from the present study can be used by ergonomics practitioners to design appropriate drug colours in support of drug differentiation, therapeutic effects and medication adherence.

  6. Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery Part 2: Nanostructures for Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some challenges associated with the technology as it relates to drug effectiveness, toxicity, stability, pharmacokinetics and drug regulatory control are discussed in this review. Clearly, nanotechnology is a welcome development that is set to transform drug delivery and drug supply chain management, if optimally developed ...

  7. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, viz., phenytoin (PHT, carbamazepine (CBZ, phenobarbital (PB, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins.

  8. Psychotropic Drugs and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Lúcia Moreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS infection is frequently associated with psychiatric disor- ders like psychosis, depression and anxiety. Psychiatric comorbidities may interfere with adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are essential. However, the administration of a psychotropic drug to HAART therapy can result in drug interactions.Objectives: This review aims to analyze the various psychotropic drugs that can be used in these patients, as well as the interactions and adverse reactions that may occur. Methods: A MEDLINE search on anglo-saxonic literature was conducted, from 1993 until 2011, using the key-words: HIV, AIDS, psychosis, depression, anxiety, secondary mania, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, HAART. Results: We found 100 articles, of which 66 were included and 34 excluded. The articles that showed no specific data on the use of psychotropic drugs in HIV patients were excluded. Discussion: Pharmachologic interactions may occur by occupation of the same metabolic pathways. Further research is needed with indications for best practices. Psychotherapeutic interventions should be considered. Conclusion: The choice of the therapeutic intervention, namely when considering psychotropic drugs with the lowest number of interactions and adverse effects is crucial in order to achieve therapeutic success in the treatment of HIV infected patients.

  9. Drug-induced hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. L. Rizzo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid axis is particularly prone to interactions with a wide variety of drugs, whose list increases year by year. Hypothyroidism is the most frequent consequence of drug-induced thyroid dysfunction. The main mechanisms involved in the development of primary hypothyroidism are: inhibition of the synthesis and/or release of thyroid hormones, immune mechanisms related to the use of interferon and other cytokines, and the induction of thyroiditis associated with the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and drugs blocking the receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor. Central hypothyroidism may be induced by inhibition of thyroid-stimulating hormone (bexarotene or corticosteroids or by immunological mechanisms (anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD-1 antibody drugs. It is also important to recognize those drugs that generate hypothyroidism by interaction in its treatment, either by reducing the absorption or by altering the transport and metabolism of levothyroxine. Thus, it is strongly recommended to evaluate thyroid function prior to the prescription of medications such as amiodarone, lithium, or interferon, and the new biological therapies that show important interaction with thyroid and endocrine function in general.

  10. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  11. Drug Policy in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucek Psenkova, Maria; Visnansky, Martin; Mackovicova, Stanislava; Tomek, Dominik

    2017-09-01

    Slovak law sets clear rules and timelines in the process of approving the price and reimbursement of drugs. During the last decade, the Ministry of Health adopted several cost-containment measures in the price and reimbursement policy. The most effective measures were the implementation of the external referencing of drug prices in 2008 and the reimbursement law in 2011. The new act introduced several regulations such as making stricter rules for the referencing of prices, setting cost per quality-adjusted life-year threshold, and defining new rules for the setting of reimbursements. On one side, implementation of these measures helped to achieve visible cost savings, but, on the other side, cost-containment policies have had some unintended consequences. In recent years, Slovakia has been facing a decreased availability of drugs because of parallel exports. As a result of the government's effort, Slovakia is the only country in the European Union that implemented a legal ban on the re-export of medicines. During the decade before 2011, many innovative drugs were included in the reimbursement system. Because of stricter legal conditions introduced in 2011, there has been a gradual shift in reimbursing innovative drugs from the standard reimbursement system to reimbursement by way of exceptions of health insurance companies. Recently, there has been an ongoing discussion on possible changes to the reimbursement law. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades...

  13. Projecting future drug expenditures--2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James M; Li, Edward; Doloresco, Fred; Matusiak, Linda; Hunkler, Robert J; Shah, Nilay D; Vermeulen, Lee C; Schumock, Glen T

    2012-03-01

    Factors likely to influence drug expenditures, drug expenditure trends in 2010 and 2011, and projected drug expenditures for 2012 are discussed. Data were analyzed to provide drug expenditure trends for total drug expenditures and the hospital and clinic sectors. Data were obtained from the IMS Health National Sales Perspectives database. From 2009 to 2010, total U.S. drug expenditures increased by 2.7%, with total spending rising from $299.2 billion to $307.5 billion. Drug expenditures in clinics grew by 6.0% from 2009 to 2010. Hospital drug expenditures increased at the moderate rate of 1.5% from 2009 to 2010; through the first nine months of 2011, hospital drug expenditures increased by only 0.3% compared with the same period in 2010. The dominant trend over the past several years is substantial moderation in expenditure growth for widely used drugs, primarily due to the ongoing introduction and wide use of generic versions of high-cost, frequently used medications. At the end of 2010, generic drugs accounted for 78% of all retail prescriptions dispensed. Another pattern is substantial increases in expenditures for specialized medications, particularly in the outpatient setting as growth in prescription drug expenditures for clinic-administered drugs consistently outpaces growth in total expenditures. Various factors are likely to influence drug expenditures in 2012, including drugs in development, the diffusion of new drugs, generic drugs, drug shortages, and biosimilars. For 2012, we project a 3-5% increase in total drug expenditures across all settings, a 5-7% increase in expenditures for clinic-administered drugs, and a 0-2% increase in hospital drug expenditures.

  14. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic–organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: ► The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. ► The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. ► The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  15. Drug-Path: a database for drug-induced pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Qiu, Chengxiang; Cui, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Some databases for drug-associated pathways have been built and are publicly available. However, the pathways curated in most of these databases are drug-action or drug-metabolism pathways. In recent years, high-throughput technologies such as microarray and RNA-sequencing have produced lots of drug-induced gene expression profiles. Interestingly, drug-induced gene expression profile frequently show distinct patterns, indicating that drugs normally induce the activation or repression of distinct pathways. Therefore, these pathways contribute to study the mechanisms of drugs and drug-repurposing. Here, we present Drug-Path, a database of drug-induced pathways, which was generated by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis for drug-induced upregulated genes and downregulated genes based on drug-induced gene expression datasets in Connectivity Map. Drug-Path provides user-friendly interfaces to retrieve, visualize and download the drug-induced pathway data in the database. In addition, the genes deregulated by a given drug are highlighted in the pathways. All data were organized using SQLite. The web site was implemented using Django, a Python web framework. Finally, we believe that this database will be useful for related researches. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. National Drug Control Strategy. Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    President Bush's new National Drug Control Strategy for 2003 focuses on three core priorities: stopping drug use before it starts; healing America's drug users; and disrupting the market. The 2003 strategy reports progress toward meeting the President's goals of reducing drug use by 10 percent over 2 years, and 25 percent over 5 years. With regard…

  17. Human drug metabolism: an introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    ..., both under drug pressure and during inhibition. Factors affecting drug metabolism, such as genetic polymorphisms, age and diet are discussed and how metabolism can lead to toxicity is explained. The book concludes with the role of drug metabolism in the commercial development of therapeutic agents as well as the pharmacology of some illicit drugs.

  18. Neurocognitive Predictors of Drug Relapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Marhe (Reshmi)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, about 35 million people, that is 0.8% of the world’s adult population, use heroin and/or cocaine and more than 10-13% of these drug users are or will become drug dependent (UNODC, World Drug Report, 2012). Drug dependency is characterized as a chronic relapsing disorder

  19. Reinforcing stimulus properties of drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van

    1979-01-01

    The reinforcing efficacy of psychoactive drugs can reliably be studied in experimental animals by using procedures for drug self-administration. This property of drugs is used to predict qualitatively and quantitatively their abuse potential in humans. External factors like the dose of the drug, the

  20. Breakthrough Drugs and Turtle Soup

    OpenAIRE

    Chabner, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) category of Breakthrough Therapy drugs was established in 2012, fostered by collaboration between legislators, researchers, industry representatives, and cancer research advocates. This category allows the FDA to designate certain lifesaving drugs for expedited review, and it has been successful in speeding the approval of several new drugs.

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs ... from the Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and permanent liver damage. Poor judgment and risky behavior. Drug misuse by any route (not just injection) can ... People who receive treatment stop or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... parents and teachers). It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug use. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug ... between drugs and HIV, as well as other information about the science of drug use is available at NIDA's home ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  5. Drug delivery with living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliervoet, Lies A L; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The field of drug delivery has grown tremendously in the past few decades by developing a wide range of advanced drug delivery systems. An interesting category is cell-based drug delivery, which includes encapsulation of drugs inside cells or attached to the surface and subsequent transportation

  6. How to Identify Drug Paraphernalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Affect Teens The Negative Health Effects of Marijuana Use State and Federal Drug Laws Treatment and Recovery Federal Student Aid and Consequences of a Drug Conviction School Failure VIDEO: Taking Prescription Drugs to Get High—A Bad Idea Drugged Driving—What You Should Know How ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ...

  8. European rating of drug harms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Phillips, Lawrence; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms. Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed

  9. Biochemistry of drugs. XXVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raz, K.; Smolik, S.; Vinarova, M.; Janda, J.; Franc, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The erythro- and threoform of p-hydroxynorephedrine belong to the group of drugs affecting the course of hypertensive disease. For pharmacological studies both forms were labelled with 3 H radionuclide on the benzene ring. 90% of radioactivity was concentrated in the ortho positions with regard to the hydroxyl, 10% in the meta position. After the administration of the labelled drug to rats, rapid absorption occurs and radioactivity is eliminated from the organism, especially in the urine. Three radioactive substances were found in the urine of experimental animals. A substance with properties corresponding to those of the administered drug prevailed. The highest levels of radioactivity in the tissues were found after intravenous administration as early as after 5 minutes after administration, 15 minutes after subcutaneous administration. It was found that p-hydroxynorephedrine significantly restricted the detainment of labelled noradrenaline-7- 3 H in the tissues of premedicated animals. (author)

  10. Potential drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions in dermatological inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lukas; Kränke, Birger; Aberer, Werner

    2016-11-01

    To present information on the frequency of drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions, and to provide assistance on how to minimize these major problems in the pharmacological treatment of dermatological inpatients. The medications given to 1,099 dermatological inpatients were retrospectively analyzed for drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions using web-based drug interaction software (Diagnosia ® Check). We report an overall frequency of relevant drug-drug interactions of 51.7 %, with an average of 3.2 interactions per affected inpatient. Drug combinations that should have been avoided were found in 5.7 % of the study population. Total drug count was the most important risk factor. Drug groups involved in the majority of interactions were analgesics, cardiovascular and antithrombotic agents, as well as antidepressants. The risk of developing adverse drug reactions was rated as "high" in 53.1 % of inpatients. The top five adverse reactions in this patient group were bleeding, constipation, anticholinergic effects, sedation, and orthostatic effects. Potential drug-drug interactions as well as adverse drug reactions are alarmingly common in dermatological inpatients. Every other patient is at risk of experiencing such interactions or adverse reactions, and every twentieth patient receives a drug combination that should not be administered. Increased alertness is a must in order to identify patients at risk. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Drugs for rare disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Serge; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2017-08-01

    Estimates of the frequencies of rare disorders vary from country to country; the global average defined prevalence is 40 per 100 000 (0.04%). Some occur in only one or a few patients. However, collectively rare disorders are fairly common, affecting 6-8% of the US population, or about 30 million people, and a similar number in the European Union. Most of them affect children and most are genetically determined. Diagnosis can be difficult, partly because of variable presentations and partly because few clinicians have experience of individual rare disorders, although they may be assisted by searching databases. Relatively few rare disorders have specific pharmacological treatments (so-called orphan drugs), partly because of difficulties in designing trials large enough to determine benefits and harms alike. Incentives have been introduced to encourage the development of orphan drugs, including tax credits and research aids, simplification of marketing authorization procedures and exemption from fees, and extended market exclusivity. Consequently, the number of applications for orphan drugs has grown, as have the costs of using them, so much so that treatments may not be cost-effective. It has therefore been suggested that not-for-profit organizations that are socially motivated to reduce those costs should be tasked with producing them. A growing role for patient organizations, improved clinical and translational infrastructures, and developments in genetics have also contributed to successful drug development. The translational discipline of clinical pharmacology is an essential component in drug development, including orphan drugs. Clinical pharmacologists, skilled in basic pharmacology and its links to clinical medicine, can be involved at all stages. They can contribute to the delineation of genetic factors that determine clinical outcomes of pharmacological interventions, develop biomarkers, design and perform clinical trials, assist regulatory decision

  12. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions.

  13. Drug abuse among the students

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zaman; Sobia Razzaq; Rabia Hassan; Junaid Qureshi; Hira Ijaz; Muhammad Hanif; Fazal Rahman Chughtai

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine...

  14. Smart drugs: green shuttle or real drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, L; Borghesi, B; Canali, C; Andrenacci, M; Basso, M; Federici, S; Labra, M

    2013-11-01

    We have combined morphological, molecular, and chemical techniques in order to identify the plant and chemical composition of some last-generation smart drugs, present on the market under the following names: Jungle Mistic Incense, B-52, Blendz, and Kratom 10x. Micromorphological analyses of botanical fragments allowed identification of epidermal cells, stomata, trichomes, starch, crystals, and pollen. DNA barcoding was carried out by the plastidial gene rbcL and the spacer trnH-psbA as universal markers. The combination of morphological and molecular data revealed a mixture of plants from different families, including aromatic species, viz., Lamiaceae and Turneraceae. GC-MS and LC-MS analyses on ethanol or methanol extracts showed the presence of synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-250 in Jungle, JWH-122 in B-52, and JWH-073 and JWH-018 in Blendz. In Kratom 10x, only the indole alkaloid mitragynine was detected. All the identified synthetic cannabinoids, apart from mitragynine, are under the restriction of law in Italy (TU 309/90). Synthetic cannabinoid crystals were also identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which also detected other foreign organic chemicals, probably preservatives or antimycotics. In Kratom only leaf fragments from Mitragyna speciosa, containing the alkaloid mitragynine, were found. In the remaining products, aromatic plant species have mainly the role of hiding synthetic cannabinoids, thus acting as a "green shuttle" rather than as real drugs. Such a multidisciplinary approach is proposed as a method for the identification of herbal blends of uncertain composition, which are widely marketed in "headshops" and on the Internet, and represent a serious hazard to public health.

  15. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals.

  16. Computer aided drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.

    2017-08-01

    Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.

  17. Dendrimers in drug research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    and in vivo cytotoxicity, as well as biopermeability, biostability and immunogenicity. The review deals with numerous applications of dendrimers as tools for efficient multivalent presentation of biological ligands in biospecific recognition, inhibition and targeting. Dendrimers may be used as drugs...... for antibacterial and antiviral treatment and have found use as antitumor agents. The review highlights the use of dendrimers as drug or gene delivery devices in e.g. anticancer therapy, and the design of different host-guest binding motifs directed towards medical applications is described. Other specific examples...

  18. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  19. Biochemistry of drugs. XXII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franc, Z.; Smolik, S.; Horesovsky, O.; Hradil, F.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics in rats was studied of the tranquilizer noroxyclothepine (8-chloro-10-(4-hydroxyethyl)piperazino-10,11-dihydrobenzo(b,f)-thiepine). The drug was labelled with carbon 14 and the kinetics of the drug was investigated after oral and i.v. administration. It was found that over 4 days, 88 to 99% of radioactivity was excreted in feces and 5.5 to 6% in the urine, this for both ways of administration. Following oral administration, 50% of radioactivity was eliminated from the organism within 27 hours while following i.v. administration, the elimination took 38 hours. (L.O.)

  20. Ketamine - A Multifaceted Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzhong; Li, Jian; Lu, Yi; Sun, Dajin; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Liu, Renyu; Luo, Jin Jun

    There is a petition for tight control of ketamine from the Chinese government to classify ketamine as a Schedule I drug, which is defined as a drug with no currently accepted medical use but a high potential for abuse. However, ketamine has unique properties that can benefit different patient populations. Scholars from the Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine and the International Chinese Academy of Anesthesiology WeChat groups had an interactive discussion on ketamine, including its current medical applications, future research priorities, and benefits versus risks. The discussion is summarized in this manuscript with some minor edits.

  1. Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiasekar, Anisha Cynthia; Deepthi, D. Angeline; Sathia Sekar, G. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura is a skin condition result from a low platelet count due to drug-induced anti-platelet antibodies caused by drugs. Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura should be suspected when a patient, child or adult, has sudden, severe thrombocytopenia. Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura is even more strongly suspected when a patient has repeated episodes of sudden, severe thrombocytopenia

  2. Drug use as consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon Robert; Sigurdsson, Valdimar

    2011-12-01

    Seeking integration of drug consumption research by a theory of memory function and emphasizing drug consumption rather than addiction, Müller & Schumann (M&S) treat drug self-administration as part of a general pattern of consumption. This insight is located within a more comprehensive framework for understanding drug use as consumer behavior that explicates the reinforcement contingencies associated with modes of drug consumption.

  3. Role of drug transporters and drug accumulation in the temporal acquisition of drug resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hembruff, Stacey L; Laberge, Monique L; Villeneuve, David J; Guo, Baoqing; Veitch, Zachary; Cecchetto, Melanie; Parissenti, Amadeo M

    2008-01-01

    Anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer. However, tumor resistance to these drugs often develops, possibly due to overexpression of drug transporters. It remains unclear whether drug resistance in vitro occurs at clinically relevant doses of chemotherapy drugs and whether both the onset and magnitude of drug resistance can be temporally and causally correlated with the enhanced expression and activity of specific drug transporters. To address these issues, MCF-7 cells were selected for survival in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (MCF-7 DOX-2 ), epirubicin (MCF-7 EPI ), paclitaxel (MCF-7 TAX-2 ), or docetaxel (MCF-7 TXT ). During selection cells were assessed for drug sensitivity, drug uptake, and the expression of various drug transporters. In all cases, resistance was only achieved when selection reached a specific threshold dose, which was well within the clinical range. A reduction in drug uptake was temporally correlated with the acquisition of drug resistance for all cell lines, but further increases in drug resistance at doses above threshold were unrelated to changes in cellular drug uptake. Elevated expression of one or more drug transporters was seen at or above the threshold dose, but the identity, number, and temporal pattern of drug transporter induction varied with the drug used as selection agent. The pan drug transporter inhibitor cyclosporin A was able to partially or completely restore drug accumulation in the drug-resistant cell lines, but had only partial to no effect on drug sensitivity. The inability of cyclosporin A to restore drug sensitivity suggests the presence of additional mechanisms of drug resistance. This study indicates that drug resistance is achieved in breast tumour cells only upon exposure to concentrations of drug at or above a specific selection dose. While changes in drug accumulation and the expression of drug transporters does occur at the threshold dose, the magnitude of

  4. Role of drug transporters and drug accumulation in the temporal acquisition of drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veitch Zachary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer. However, tumor resistance to these drugs often develops, possibly due to overexpression of drug transporters. It remains unclear whether drug resistance in vitro occurs at clinically relevant doses of chemotherapy drugs and whether both the onset and magnitude of drug resistance can be temporally and causally correlated with the enhanced expression and activity of specific drug transporters. To address these issues, MCF-7 cells were selected for survival in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (MCF-7DOX-2, epirubicin (MCF-7EPI, paclitaxel (MCF-7TAX-2, or docetaxel (MCF-7TXT. During selection cells were assessed for drug sensitivity, drug uptake, and the expression of various drug transporters. Results In all cases, resistance was only achieved when selection reached a specific threshold dose, which was well within the clinical range. A reduction in drug uptake was temporally correlated with the acquisition of drug resistance for all cell lines, but further increases in drug resistance at doses above threshold were unrelated to changes in cellular drug uptake. Elevated expression of one or more drug transporters was seen at or above the threshold dose, but the identity, number, and temporal pattern of drug transporter induction varied with the drug used as selection agent. The pan drug transporter inhibitor cyclosporin A was able to partially or completely restore drug accumulation in the drug-resistant cell lines, but had only partial to no effect on drug sensitivity. The inability of cyclosporin A to restore drug sensitivity suggests the presence of additional mechanisms of drug resistance. Conclusion This study indicates that drug resistance is achieved in breast tumour cells only upon exposure to concentrations of drug at or above a specific selection dose. While changes in drug accumulation and the expression of drug transporters does

  5. Clinical Drug-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction Potential of Sucralfate with Other Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulochana, Suresh P; Syed, Muzeeb; Chandrasekar, Devaraj V

    2016-01-01

    of drugs. This review covers several category of drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, fluoroquinolones, histamine H2-receptor blockers, macrolides, anti-fungals, anti-diabetics, salicylic acid derivatives, steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and provides pharmacokinetic data summary along...

  6. Drug-resistant tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. (DR-TB) is a public health emergency that threatens to destabilise global TB control. Although TB incidence and mortality are decreasing in several parts of the world, the overall prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing in many high-burden countries, ...

  7. "Reasonable" Drug Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the U.S. Supreme Court's recent decision in "Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls," wherein the Court held that random drug testing of students taking part in extracurricular activities is constitutional. (PKP)

  8. Crystallography and Drug Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 12. Crystallography and Drug Design. K Suguna. General Article Volume 19 Issue 12 December 2014 pp 1093-1103. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/12/1093-1103. Keywords.

  9. Crystallography and Drug Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 12. Crystallography and Drug Design. K Suguna. General Article Volume 19 Issue 12 December 2014 pp 1093-1103. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/12/1093-1103. Keywords.

  10. Drugs ID Obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a new attitude to eating. Adjunctive measures aimed at modifying behaviour, such as psychotherapy and group therapy, may help in individual cases. Psychological factors in response to stress would appear to be the basis of some cases of obesity, but the use of psychotropic drugs is limited and for specific indications only.

  11. Prevention and Drug Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Mark F.; Smith, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance…

  12. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  13. Drug development and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  14. Drugs in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, David

    2012-01-01

    Drugs may be used by athletes for a number of reasons, including performance enhancement. The role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is vital to ensure a winning performance has been achieved by fair means. Substances and methods that are included on the WADA Prohibited List are described. The procedures for testing banned substances are…

  15. Women and Drug Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentich, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Presents a feminist perspective which offers a social structural framework for examining women's problematic behavior in traditional gender roles. Examines implications for treatment of women with drug dependence problems including developing the helping agent's awareness of the pervasiveness of sexism and its potentially negative effects.…

  16. Antiepileptic drugs in neuroprotection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pitkanen, A.; Kubová, Hana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2004), s. 777-798 ISSN 1465-6566 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF6474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : antiepileptic drugs * anticonvulsant * epilepsy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  17. Drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, W.B.; Ponto, J.A.; Stathis, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    Patients seen in the nuclear medicine department have a wide variety of disorders and, consequently, may be receiving any number of therapeutic drugs. For this reason, nuclear medicine professionals should be aware of the potential effects that these pharmacologic agents may have on the bio-distribution of subsequently administered radiopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as ''drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions.'' Compared with the quantity of literature written about interactions between various therapeutic drugs, the information available on drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions is scarce. However, there has been increasing interest in this subject, particularly during the past five years. Some of the reported interactions are used intentionally to add a new dimension to the nuclear medicine study and increase its diagnostic capabilities, i.e., pharmacologic intervention. These beneficial ''interactions'' are discussed in detail in several other chapters of this book. Other interactions, however, cause changes in the normal distribution of radiopharmaceuticals, which may interfere with the diagnostic utility of various nuclear medicine procedures. The latter group of interactions is the focus of this chapter

  18. Drug-mineral interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, L.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of drugs such as glucocorticoids and thyroid extract on calcium metabolism is unknown. However, several other medications affect the excretion and intestinal absorption of calcium. A controlled study was carried out to investigate these aspects. Urinary calcium was determined for 3 months during the long-term intake of the antituberculous drug isoniazid (INH) and of the antibiotic tetracycline. The effect of the diuretics furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide, of several aluminum-containing antacids, of thyroid extract and of corticosteroids was also studied. Metabolic balances of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc were determined, as well as the intestinal absorption of calcium using Ca 47. Plasma levels, urinary and fecal excretions of Ca 47 were determined. All drugs tested increased urinary calcium except for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. Regarding the effect of corticosteroids: the intestinal absorption of calcium was unchanged after the short-term use and was very high after long-term use. The studies have shown that several commonly used drugs induce an increase in urinary calcium excretion which may contribute to calcium loss, if this increase persists for prolonged periods of time. Urinary excretions of phosphorus, magnesium and zinc increased in some of the studies.

  19. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  20. Drug Errors in Anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Jain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The incidence of these drug errors during anaesthesia is not certain. They impose a considerable financial burden to health care systems apart from the patient losses. Common causes of these errors and their prevention is discussed.

  1. Arousal and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Verónica; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2017-08-30

    The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band frequencies. The role of arousal in drug abuse is considered here in terms of the effects of drugs of abuse on these two mechanisms. Drug abuse and the perception of withdrawal/relapse are mediated by neurobiological processes that occur only when we are awake, not when we are asleep. These relationships focus on the potential role of arousal, more specifically of RAS electrical coupling and gamma band activity, in the addictive process as well as the relapse to drug use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Crystallography and Drug Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    HIV Drugs. A previously unknown disease which appeared in the early 1980s and was called AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), was identified to be caused by a virus named later as the human ... Structure investigations of these proteins were ... immense help in designing inhibitors to HIV PR and developing.

  3. Drugs Used in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…

  4. Want Drugs? Use Python

    OpenAIRE

    Nowotka, Michał; Papadatos, George; Davies, Mark; Dedman, Nathan; Hersey, Anne

    2016-01-01

    We describe how Python can be leveraged to streamline the curation, modelling and dissemination of drug discovery data as well as the development of innovative, freely available tools for the related scientific community. We look at various examples, such as chemistry toolkits, machine-learning applications and web frameworks and show how Python can glue it all together to create efficient data science pipelines.

  5. Drugs in Lactation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty. One of his first tasks as Dean was the identification and dismissal of those members of staff considered undesirable by the Nazi regime; according to Erost,! ... reviewed publication gives tips on how to pick the right drug for a lactating mother. It is produced in an easy-to- use, flip-open format, with each page printed ...

  6. Drug-mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, L.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of drugs such as glucocorticoids and thyroid extract on calcium metabolism is unknown. However, several other medications affect the excretion and intestinal absorption of calcium. A controlled study was carried out to investigate these aspects. Urinary calcium was determined for 3 months during the long-term intake of the antituberculous drug isoniazid (INH) and of the antibiotic tetracycline. The effect of the diuretics furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide, of several aluminum-containing antacids, of thyroid extract and of corticosteroids was also studied. Metabolic balances of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc were determined, as well as the intestinal absorption of calcium using Ca 47. Plasma levels, urinary and fecal excretions of Ca 47 were determined. All drugs tested increased urinary calcium except for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. Regarding the effect of corticosteroids: the intestinal absorption of calcium was unchanged after the short-term use and was very high after long-term use. The studies have shown that several commonly used drugs induce an increase in urinary calcium excretion which may contribute to calcium loss, if this increase persists for prolonged periods of time. Urinary excretions of phosphorus, magnesium and zinc increased in some of the studies

  7. Pharmacogenetics of psychotropic drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lerer, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    ... of pharmacogenetics with substance dependence and brain imaging, and consider the impact of pharmacogenetics on the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. This book defines the young field of pharmacogenetics as it applies to psychotropic drugs and is, therefore, an essential reference for all clinicians and researchers working in this findings field. Bernard ...

  8. Drug abuse: newly-emerging drugs and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregory G

    2012-09-01

    Drug abusers have access to new, more potent compounds that evade existing laws by virtue of their novel chemical structures. These drugs are available for purchase at stores and over the internet. The drugs are not illegal because they are so new that laws have not yet been passed to ban them. These drugs are leading to emergency department visits for cardiovascular, neurologic, and psychiatric complications. Standard drug screens are not designed to detect these new substances. The internet provides access to drugs for substance abusers but also provides physicians speed of access to the habits of substance abusers.

  9. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  10. Multifunctional High Drug Loading Nanocarriers for Cancer Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Erlei

    2011-12-01

    Most anticancer drugs have poor water-solubility, rapid blood clearance, low tumor-selectivity and severe systemic toxicity to healthy tissues. Thus, polymeric nanocarriers have been widely explored for anticancer drugs to solve these problems. However, polymer nanocarriers developed to date still suffer drawbacks including low drug loading contents, premature drug release, slow cellular internalization, slow intracellular drug release and thereby low therapeutic efficiency in cancer thermotherapy. Accordingly, in this dissertation, functional nanocapsules and nanoparticles including high drug loading liposome-like nanocapsules, high drug loading phospholipid-mimic nanocapsules with fast intracellular drug release, high drug loading charge-reversal nanocapsules, TAT based long blood circulation nanoparticles and charge-reversal nuclear targeted nanoparticles are designed and synthesized. These functional carriers have advantages such as high drug loading contents without premature drug release, fast cellular internalization and intracellular drug release, nuclear targeted delivery and long blood circulation. As a result, all these drug carriers show much higher in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activities.

  11. Drugs, prisons, and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rhidian

    2003-01-01

    The use of drugs in society raises important considerations for health and social policy. Critical health and social care issues arise when drugs are used inside prisons. This paper argues that there is an urgent need for prison drug policies to adopt the principles of harm reduction. However, current policy orthodoxy emphasises the control of drugs and punishment for drug taking. Key components of harm reduction are operationalised in this article by exploring the potential for harm reduction in prison within the context of English drug policy. Whilst the focus is on English policy debates, the discussion will have wider international resonance. Copyright 2003 The Haworth Press, Inc.

  12. DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH DIAZEPAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bojanić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative with anxyolitic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, antitremor, and amnestic activity. It is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P (CYP 450 enzyme system. Diazepam is N-demethylated by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 to the active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam, and is hydroxylated by CYP3A4 to the active metabolite temazepam. N-desmethyl-diazepam and temazepam are both further metabolized to oxazepam. Concomitant intake of inhibitors or inducers of the CYP isozymes involved in the biotransformation of diazepam may alter plasma concentrations of this drug, although this effect is unlikely to be associated with clinically relevant interactions.The goal of this article was to review the current literature on clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions with diazepam.A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for original research and review articles published in English between January 1971. and May 2011. Among the search terms were drug interactions, diazepam, pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, and cytochrome P450. Only articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included, and meeting abstracts were excluded. The reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional publications.Diazepam is substantially sorbed by the plastics in flexible containers, volume control set chambers, and tubings of intravenous administration sets. Manufacturers recommend not mixing with any other drug or solution in syringe or solution, although diazepam is compatible in syringe with cimetidine and ranitidine, and in Y-site with cisatracurium, dobutamine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, nafcillin, quinidine gluconate, remifentanil, and sufentanil. Diazepam is compatible with: dextrose 5% in water, Ringers injection, Ringers injection lactated and sodium chloride 0.9%. Emulsified diazepam is compatible with Intralipid and Nutralipid.Diazepam has low potential

  13. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stay in contact with the more than 200 schools that participated in the chat by providing them with new materials about drug abuse as they are developed. A full transcript of the Drug Facts Chat Day questions and ...

  14. Transporters and drug-drug interactions: important determinants of drug disposition and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jörg; Müller, Fabian; Fromm, Martin F

    2013-07-01

    Uptake and efflux transporters determine plasma and tissue concentrations of a broad variety of drugs. They are localized in organs such as small intestine, liver, and kidney, which are critical for drug absorption and elimination. Moreover, they can be found in important blood-tissue barriers such as the blood-brain barrier. Inhibition or induction of drug transporters by coadministered drugs can alter pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the victim drugs. This review will summarize in particular clinically observed drug-drug interactions attributable to inhibition or induction of intestinal export transporters [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)], to inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters [organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs)], or to inhibition of transporter-mediated [organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), P-gp] renal secretion of xenobiotics. Available data on the impact of nutrition on transport processes as well as genotype-dependent, transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions will be discussed. We will also present and discuss data on the variable extent to which information on the impact of transporters on drug disposition is included in summaries of product characteristics of selected countries (SPCs). Further work is required regarding a better understanding of the role of the drug metabolism-drug transport interplay for drug-drug interactions and on the extrapolation of in vitro findings to the in vivo (human) situation.

  15. Insula and drug cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Hugh

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews the role of the insula in drug craving. Evidence is presented that drug craving may be a particular instance of the anterior insula's broader role in interoception and subjective feeling states similar, for example, to thirst and hunger. An important role for the insula in craving is supported by evidence of insular activity changing with satiety and with the top-down cognitive modulation of cravings. Cognitive processes involving the insula's role in awareness of one's own behaviour may also contribute to craving insofar as the avoidance of craving might require subjective awareness of the endogenous and exogenous cues that initiate it. Finally, some consideration is given to sex differences and developmental processes in craving.

  16. Psychedelic Drugs in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Nichols, Charles D; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Nichols, David E; Kalueff, Allan V

    2017-11-01

    Psychedelic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin, exert profound effects on brain and behavior. After decades of difficulties in studying these compounds, psychedelics are again being tested as potential treatments for intractable biomedical disorders. Preclinical research of psychedelics complements human neuroimaging studies and pilot clinical trials, suggesting these compounds as promising treatments for addiction, depression, anxiety, and other conditions. However, many questions regarding the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of psychedelics remain. Here, we summarize recent preclinical and clinical data in this field, discuss their pharmacological mechanisms of action, and outline critical areas for future studies of psychedelic drugs, with the goal of maximizing the potential benefits of translational psychedelic biomedicine to patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Drug induced rhabdomyolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition of potential life threatening destruction of skeletal muscle caused by diverse mechanisms including drugs and toxins. Given the fact that structurally not related compounds cause an identical phenotype pinpoints to common targets or pathways, responsible for executing rhabdomyolysis. A drop in myoplasmic ATP paralleled with sustained elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration represents a common signature of rhabdomyolysis. Interestingly, cardiac tissue is hardly affected or only secondary, as a consequence of imbalance in electrolytes or acid–base equilibrium. This dogma is now impaired by compounds, which show up with combined toxicity in heart and skeletal muscle. In this review, cases of rhabdomyolysis with novel recently approved drugs will be explored for new target mechanisms in the light of previously described pathomechanisms. PMID:22560920

  18. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Drug Resistance Mutations in Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the extent of HIV-1 drug resistance among drug naïve Kenyan individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenya Medical Research Institute HIV laboratory Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: A total of seventy eight HIV-1 positive drug naïve subjects randomised from five Kenyan provincial hospitals ...

  19. Abuse of antiretroviral drugs combined with addictive drugs by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports of the use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to produce a highly addictive drug called nyaope or whoonga are of major concern as ARVs are easily accessible in sub-Saharan Africa, including to pregnant women. Use of illicit drugs by pregnant women may result in serious adverse effects in their infants. We have ...

  20. Identification of clinically significant drug-drug interactions in cardiac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug Saf 2007; 16(6): 641-651. 12. Hamilton RA, Briceland LL, Andritz MH. Frequency of. Hospitalization after Exposure to Known Drug‐Drug. Interactions in a Medicaid Population. Pharmacother. 1998; 18(5): 1112-1120. 13. Micromedex T. Drug-Reax® system. 14. SPSS I. IBM SPSS statistics for Windows, version 20.0.

  1. Evaluation of drug-drug interactions among patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is high in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) necessitating dose adjustments or the avoidance of drug combinations. This study aimed to evaluate DDIs among patients with CKD in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, South-East Nigeria.

  2. Potential drug-drug interactions on in-patient medication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are an important cause of adverse drug reactions. The pharmacoepidemiology of such interactions in hospitals in Uganda is not known. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, clinical importance and factors associated with potential DDIs at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital ...

  3. Psychotropic drugs and bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falisi, Giovanni; Rastelli, Claudio; Panti, Fabrizio; Maglione, Horacio; Quezada Arcega, Raul

    2014-10-01

    Sleep and awake bruxism is defined as 'a parafunctional activity including clenching, bracing, gnashing, and grinding of the teeth'. Some evidence suggests that bruxism may be caused by, or associated with, alterations in the CNS neurotransmission. Several classes of psychotropic drugs interfering with CNS activity may potentially contribute to bruxism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relevant peer-reviewed papers to identify and describe the various classes of psychotropic substances that may cause, exacerbate or reduce bruxism as the result of their pharmacological action in CNS neurons. A literature search from 1980 to the present was performed using PubMed database. The term 'bruxism' was used in association with 'psychotropic', 'dopamine (DA)', 'serotonin', 'histamine', 'antipsychotics', 'antidepressants', 'antihistaminergics' and 'stimulants'. Studies on the effects of DA agonists (Levo-DOPA, psychostimulants) and antagonists (antipsychotics) identified a central role of DA in the pathogenesis of pharmacologically induced bruxism. Important information from studies on drugs acting on serotonin neurotransmission (antidepressants) was recognized. Other mechanisms involving different neurotransmitters are emerging. This is the case of antihistaminergic drugs which may induce bruxism as a consequence of their disinhibitory effect on the serotonergic system.

  4. [Intrathecal administration of drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, I A; Levitina, E V; Akimzhanova, A K; Rakhmanina, O A; Shtork, T E

    2016-01-01

    The article summarizes the introduction of drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid. Indications and contraindications for the administration of pharmaceuticals in the cerebrospinal fluid spaces are presented. Main groups of pharmacological agents used for endolumbar introduction and conditions under which they are used, as well as advantages and disadvantages of this treatment are considered. The authors describe a method of administration of antibiotics for bacterial and fungal infections of the central nervous system. The need to assess the intracranial pressure prior to cisternal puncture and exclude blocking of cerebrospinal fluid pathways is emphasized. Information about intrathecal administration of anticancer and cytostatic drugs in primary and metastatic brain lesions as well as data on the significant positive effect of oxygen-ozone mixture in the treatment of victims of traumatic brain injury in its acute period are presented. Of interest are the results of the study, which showed a statistically significant reduction in the severity of neurological deficit after the introduction of cerebrolysin in the lumbar space in the first days after the onset of cerebral infarction. Possible complications of the described method of drug delivery, measures taken against them and methods of preventionare described.

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts ... decrease symptoms of illness. To learn about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please visit: ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve ... as a means of communication. The "Text Message" PSA features two young girls ...

  7. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  8. Marine Corps Drug Prevention Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stander, Valerie A; Reed, Cheryl; Olson, Cheryl B; Johnson, Judy; Merrill, Lex L; Clapp, John; Elder, John; Lawson, Gary; Mangual, George; Lowe, Nate

    2003-01-01

    .... Some of the common components were information on the consequences of drug use, decision-making skill training, public pledges not to use drugs, values clarification, goal setting, stress management...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts ... HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: Drug Use and Viral Infections : ... what to do to counter these trends. Online Resources NIDA for Teens Web site : This Web site ...

  14. Drug involvement in fatal overdoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement. Many results were sensitive to the starting and ending years chosen for examination. Opioid analgesics played a major role in the increased drug deaths for analysis windows starting in 1999 but other drugs, particularly heroin, became more significant for recent time periods. Combination drug use was important for all time periods and needs to be accounted for when designing policies to slow or reverse the increase in overdose deaths.

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post- ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the ... associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at risk for getting HIV ... risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an ...

  18. Human drug metabolism: an introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    ... metabolism and its impact on patient welfare. After underlining the relationship between efficacy, toxicity and drug concentration, the book then considers how metabolizing systems operate and how they impact upon drug concentration...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not misuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... Drugs and HIV" Video How many of us think about HIV/AIDS when we’re at parties ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search ... the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... depict the devastating consequences of compromised judgment and critical thinking that can result from drug use. Young ... HIV epidemic. As we learn more about the critical connection between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS and ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. About HIV/AIDS. ( https://www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs and ... brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects you to ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs and ... young girls texting each other about a mutual friend who got high at a party and made ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... drugs, which can alter judgment and inhibition and lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. ... Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to HIV and progression of ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the ... information about the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ...

  9. Drug: D09520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09520 Crude ... Drug Soft shell turtle carapace (non-JP); Amyda carapace; Amydae ... ... Trionychidae Amyda japonica, Amyda sinensis carapace; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs ... PubChem: 96026200 ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... drug injection paraphernalia—HIV can be transmitted between users. Other infections, such as hepatitis C, can also ... drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , Pinterest , and Instagram ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... from the Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director ... D. Volkow, M.D. Director National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborators Thanks to Those Who Have Helped Raise ...

  12. Drugs that may cause impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... and other tools to send the message to America's youth that using drugs and alcohol even once ... drug use and HIV. Television Networks: MunDos Azteca America Univision Telemundo Galavision Telefutura CW BET NBC ABC ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Plan Search Share ... Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people ... States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people ...

  16. Visualizing Drug Efficacy In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Zhang

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many enzymes are therapeutic targets for drug discovery, whereas other enzymes are important for understanding drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics during compound testing in animals. Testing of drug efficacy and metabolism in an animal model requires the measurement of disease endpoints as well as assays of enzyme activity in specific tissues at selected time points during treatment. This requires the removal of tissue and biochemical assays. Techniques to noninvasively assess drug effects on enzyme activity using imaging technology would facilitate understanding of drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and drug metabolism. Using a commercially available cytochrome P−450 3A substrate whose oxidized product is a luciferase substrate, we show for the first time that cytochrome P−450 enzyme activity can be measured in vivo in real time by bioluminescent imaging. This imaging approach could be applicable to study drug effects on therapeutic target enzymes, as well as drug metabolism enzymes.

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities ... After the Party" "Text Message" NIDA Home Site Map Accessibility Privacy FOIA(NIH) Working at NIDA FAQs ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research ... of an uninfected person. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post-Award Concerns General Information Grant & Contract Application ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental ... and alcohol even once can have serious health consequences. We also work to reach parents and teachers— ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at risk for getting ... related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... can cause liver disease and permanent liver damage. Poor judgment and risky behavior. Drug misuse by any ... drug use and alcohol use can lead to poor decision making, which can result in risky sexual ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... who do not misuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount of HIV in brain cells 1 . Drug use disorder treatment. Since the late 1980s, research has shown that ...

  5. Drug: D02104 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gesic ... DG01586 ... Opioid receptor antagonist ... DG01587 ... Opioid receptor agonist/antagonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence ATC code: N07BB05 Chemical group: DG00998 ...

  6. Drug: D10250 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 08249]) ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence ATC code: N07BC51 ... Treatment of opioid dependence ... PubChem: 163312281 ...

  7. Drug: D05111 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... DG01586 ... Opioid receptor antagonist ... DG01587 ... Opioid receptor agonist/antagonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for... addictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence Same as: C08027 ATC code: N07BB05 Chemical group

  8. Drug: D02102 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for... addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence Cyp substrate ... DG01633

  9. Drug: D08141 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available receptor agonist ... DG01655 ... alpha2-adrenergic receptor specific agonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addicti...ve disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence ATC code: N07BC04 Chemical gro

  10. Drug: D07810 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonist Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for... addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence ATC code: N07BC06 Chem

  11. Drug: D06282 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C4H6O6 D06282.gif ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01571 ... Nicotinic cholinergic receptor partial agonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine dependence Therapeutic category: 7990 A

  12. Drug: D02780 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available )2. Ca D02780.gif ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01498 ... NMDA receptor antagonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for add...ictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence Therapeutic category: 1190 ATC code: N07BB03 Chemica

  13. Drug: D00836 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00836.gif ... Analgesic ... DG01984 ... Opioid analgesics ... DG01586 ... Opioid receptor antagonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence Therapeutic category: 1149 ATC code: N02AE0

  14. Drug: D04765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available agonist ... DG01449 ... alpha2-Adrenergic receptor agonist ... DG01655 ... alpha2-adrenergic receptor specific agonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid depe

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... html ). Atlanta, GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse ... Am. J. Pathol. 2010. 177(1):355-361. How are Teens Affected? Young people are at risk ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post- ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind of ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... updates. Read on to Learn the Link between drug use and HIV and to help us Send the ... since the beginning of the epidemic. Although injection drug use is well known in this regard, the role ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... AIDS. ( https://www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How ... www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: Drug Use and Viral ...

  2. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction have been linked with HIV/AIDS since the beginning ... the link between drug misuse and HIV. We have produced a set of multicultural public service announcements ( ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 – ... and to help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-Read Drug Facts Web site describes the dangers of drug misuse and its link to HIV ... groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, the discussion between friends, and the importance of ...

  6. Predictive toxicology in drug safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jinghai J; Urban, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides information on the present knowledge of drug side effects and their mitigation strategy during drug discovery, gives guidance for risk assessment, and promotes evidence-based toxicology...

  7. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prescription Drugs and Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Drugs and Over-the-Counter Medicines Email Facebook Twitter What are Over-the-Counter Medicines? Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are those that ...

  8. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  9. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  10. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve an important role in ... increasingly at risk for HIV infection through risky sexual behaviors. NIDA ... of the disease. Since the epidemic began, injection drug use has ...

  12. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine and E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ... 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction have been linked with HIV/AIDS since the ...

  14. Drug Revolving Fund-Based

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Drug Revolving Fund (DRF) was instituted in 1996 in Oyo State to ensure sustainable drug availability at primary health care level with a seed stock of drugs supplied by the Petroleum Trust Fund. This was discontinued in 1999 and replaced in January 2000, with free health service, which involves ...

  15. Drug-induced liver injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a term increasingly being used by most clinicians and is synonymous with drug-induced hepatotoxicity. A succinct definition of a DILI is 'a liver injury induced by a drug or herbal medicine resulting in liver test abnormalities or liver dysfunction with a reasonable exclusion of ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of contracting HIV, and using drugs and alcohol can increase the chances of unsafe behavior by altering judgment and decision-making. To learn about HIV among youth, please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: Drug Use and ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding ... transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not misuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount of HIV in brain cells 1 . Drug use disorder treatment. Since the late 1980s, research has shown that drug use disorder treatment is ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health ... Center of Excellence in Women’s Health Duke Ellington School of the Arts Howard University Print Media: People ...

  1. National Drug Control Strategy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy". Based on the premise that drug use and its consequences pose a threat not just to public safety, but also to public health, the 2010 "Strategy" represented the first comprehensive rebalancing of Federal drug control policy in the nearly 40…

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... who do not misuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount of HIV in brain cells 1 . Drug use disorder ... the "After the Party" public service ads (PSA) where an HIV-positive ... under the influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual behavior ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to HIV and progression of AIDS. Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Viral Infections : Describes how people who engage in drug use or high-risk behaviors associated with drug use also put themselves at risk for contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between ...

  5. Drug: D03288 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03288 Drug Calcium carbimide (INN) ... Ca. CN2 D03288.gif ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs f...or addictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence Same as: C19113 ATC code: N07BB02 ... CAS: 1

  6. Drug: D03365 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03365 Drug Nicotine (USP); Habitrol (TN) ... C10H14N2 D03365.gif ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine dependence Cyp substrate ... DG01892 ... CYP1A2 substra

  7. Drug: D00131 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00131 Drug Disulfiram (JP17/USP/INN); Antabuse (TN) ... C10H20N2S4 D00131.gif ... Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence Cyp inhibitor ... DG01634 ... CY

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse ... Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are ...

  9. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Meetings & Events Media Guide Get this Publication Español View Webisodes View Videos "After the Party" "Text Message" ...

  11. Drug Use among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Lewayne D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Collected data from first 100 subjects in on-going longitudinal study of drug use before and during pregnancy in adolescence. Findings from unmarried pregnant adolescents revealed that, although lifetime prevalence of drug use was relatively high, substance use declined voluntarily and substantially during pregnancy. Prepregnancy drug use…

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shown to increase the amount of HIV in brain cells 1 . Drug use disorder treatment. Since the late 1980s, research has shown ... drug injection and unsafe sexual practices. Drug use disorder treatment programs also serve ... increases brain viral load and activates natural killer cells in ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... message to America's youth that using drugs and alcohol even once can have serious health consequences. We also work to reach parents and ... Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts ...

  16. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...

  17. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse.

  18. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: Implications for drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan S Dsouza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and the ventral tegmental area (VTA, which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse.

  19. FDA Drug Safety Podcasts: resources for drug information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kimberly; Shepherd, Jennifer; Jackson, Steven; Chew, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    To describe a Web-based drug information service provided by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to increase the reach of Drug Safety Communications to pharmacists and other health professionals. The Division of Drug Information (DDI) within the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Office of Communications, Silver Spring, MD, between January 2010 and April 2012. DDI provides drug information services regarding human drug products and expert advice and guidance on all aspects of CDER activities. Customers include consumers, health professionals, regulated industry, insurance companies, academia, law enforcement, and other government agencies (national and international). Use of audio podcasts to disseminate timely drug safety information targeted toward pharmacists and other health professionals. RESULTS Since 2010, DDI has recorded and published 119 FDA Drug Safety Podcasts that have reached more than 620,000 individuals. FDA Drug Safety Podcasts serve as portable and convenient options for pharmacists to stay current on the latest drug safety information. Pharmacists are encouraged to explore incorporating Web-based technologies, such as audio podcasts, into their practices.

  20. Aptamers as Both Drugs and Drug-Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ashrafuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short nucleic acid oligos. They may serve as both drugs and drug-carriers. Their use as diagnostic tools is also evident. They can be generated using various experimental, theoretical, and computational techniques. The systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment which uses iterative screening of nucleic acid libraries is a popular experimental technique. Theory inspired methodology entropy-based seed-and-grow strategy that designs aptamer templates to bind specifically to targets is another one. Aptamers are predicted to be highly useful in producing general drugs and theranostic drugs occasionally for certain diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and so on. They bind to various targets like lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, small organic compounds, and even entire organisms. Aptamers may also serve as drug-carriers or nanoparticles helping drugs to get released in specific target regions. Due to better target specific physical binding properties aptamers cause less off-target toxicity effects. Therefore, search for aptamer based drugs, drug-carriers, and even diagnostic tools is expanding fast. The biophysical properties in relation to the target specific binding phenomena of aptamers, energetics behind the aptamer transport of drugs, and the consequent biological implications will be discussed. This review will open up avenues leading to novel drug discovery and drug delivery.