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Sample records for seismic reflection survey

  1. Near-surface 3D reflections seismic survey; Sanjigen senso hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahigashi, H; Mitsui, H; Nakano, O; Kobayashi, T [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Faults are being actively investigated across Japan since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Discussed in this report is the application of the 3D near-surface reflection seismic survey in big cities. Data from trenching and drilling is used for the geological interpretation of the surroundings of a fault, and the reflection seismic survey is used to identify the position, etc., of the fault. In this article, when the results obtained from the experimental field are examined, it is found that the conventional 2D imaging reflection survey betrays the limit of its capability when the geological structure is complicated, that the 3D reflection seismic survey, on the contrary, is capable of high-precision imaging and, when augmented by drilling, etc., becomes capable of a more detailed interpretation, and that it also contributes effectively to the improvement of local disaster prevention in big cities. Using as the model the Tachikawa fault that runs near JR Tachikawa Station, embodiment of the 3D reflection seismic survey is reviewed. For the acquisition of data excellent in quality in a 3D reflection seismic survey conducted utilizing the roads in the sector chosen for experiment in the urban area, the shock generating points and receiving points should be positioned by taking into account the parameters in the bin arranging process so that the mid-points will be regularly distributed on the surface. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Seismic reflection survey conducted in Benton County, Washinton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beggs, H.G.; Heineck, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The massive Columbia River Basalt group that underlies the Hanford Site is being considered as a potential geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the effort to ascertain and better understand the physical and geological properties of these basalt flows, a multiphased seismic reflection program has been undertaken. This phase was designed to more thoroughly define geologic features and structural attitudes in an areas in the central part of the Hanford Site. The specific feature of interest is known as the Cold Creek Syncline. This seismic survey, utilized the ''VIBROSEIS'' energy source and multifold common depth point recording. 2 figs

  3. Reassessment of seismic reflection data from the Finnsjoen study site and prospectives for future surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Juhlin, C.

    1994-02-01

    Reprocessing of data from the seismic reflection survey performed at Finnsjoen in 1987 show that reflection seismics is a viable technique for mapping fracture zones in crystalline rock. Application of state of the art processing algorithms clearly image a gently dipping fracture zone located in the depth interval 200-400 m. In addition, several other reflectors were imaged in the reprocessed section, both gently and steeply dipping ones. Correlations with borehole data indicate that the origin of these reflections are also fractures zones. The data acquisition procedures used at the Finnsjoen survey were basically sound and could, with minor modifications, be applied at other sites. The results indicate that both sources and receivers in future surveys should be placed in boreholes a few meter below the ground surface. 30 refs

  4. Seismic reflection survey conducted in Benton and Grant Counties, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, T.E.; Beggs, H.G.; Heineck, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The following report is devoted to a discussion of data acquisition procedures, data processing parameters and interpretation of results for a reflection seismic survey located on the Hanford Site in Benton and Grant Countries, Washington. The Pasco basin was the geologic setting for the survey. The main objectives of the program were to determine the subsurface structural attitudes of the numerous basalt flows known to exist within the basin. The location of areas associated with possible faulting and/or fracturing was also considered of prime concern as these conditions could significantly affect the integrity of the basalt

  5. Crustal evolution of Eocene paleo arc around Ogasawara region obtained by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ishizuka, O.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. The existence of two paleo arc which consists of Oligocene and Eocene paleo age is known in IBM forearc region by geological and geophysical studies. The Ogasawara ridge is also known to locate the initial structure of arc evolution from geologic sampling of research submersible. In this region, IODP drilling site: IBM-2 is proposed in order to understand the temporal and spatial change in arc crust composition from 50 to 40Ma magmatism. Site IBM-2 consists of two offset drilling holes (BON-1, BON-2). BON-1 designed to first encounter forearc basalt and will reach the sheeted dykes. BON-2 will start in boninites and finish in fore arc basalts. The purpose of these drilling is sampling the full volcanic stratigraphy from gabbro to boninite. There is no seismic data around BON-1 and BON-2, therefore it is need to conduct the multi-channel seismic reflection survey. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey and wide-angle reflection survey using 7,800 cu.in. air gun, 5 km streamer with 444 ch hydrophones and 40 OBSs in March 2011. We obtained two seismic reflection profiles of lines KT06 and KT07 along the paleo arc around Ogasawara ridge. Line KT06 located the north side of Ogasawara ridge. Line KT07 located the trench side of Ogasawara ridge. Lines KT06 is also deployed the OBSs every 5 km interval. Thin sediments are covered with basement in both survey lines. There are some sediment filled in depression topography. The low-frequency reflection from the top of subducting Pacific plate is recognized in line KT06. The continuity of this reflection is not clear due to the complicated bathymetry. The displacement of basement in northern side of Ogasawara ridge is identified along the lineament of bathymetry in Line 06. This structure is

  6. High-resolution seismic reflection surveying with a land streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz Tapırdamaz, Mustafa; Cankurtaranlar, Ali; Ergintav, Semih; Kurt, Levent

    2013-04-01

    In this study, newly designed seismic reflection data acquisition array (land streamer) is utilized to image the shallow subsurface. Our acquisition system consist of 24 geophones screwed on iron plates with 2 m spacing, moving on the surface of the earth which are connected with fire hose. Completely original, 4.5 Kg weight iron plates provides satisfactory coupling. This land-streamer system enables rapid and cost effective acquisition of seismic reflection data due to its operational facilities. First test studies were performed using various seismic sources such as a mini-vibro truck, buffalo-gun and hammer. The final fieldwork was performed on a landslide area which was studied before. Data acquisition was carried out on the line that was previously measured by the seismic survey using 5 m geophone and shot spacing. This line was chosen in order to re-image known reflection patterns obtained from the previous field study. Taking penetration depth into consideration, a six-cartridge buffalo-gun was selected as a seismic source to achieve high vertical resolution. Each shot-point drilled 50 cm for gunshots to obtain high resolution source signature. In order to avoid surface waves, the offset distance between the source and the first channel was chosen to be 50 m and the shot spacing was 2 m. These acquisition parameters provided 12 folds at each CDP points. Spatial sampling interval was 1 m at the surface. The processing steps included standard stages such as gain recovery, editing, frequency filtering, CDP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. Furthermore, surface consistent residual static corrections were applied recursively to improve image quality. 2D F-K filter application was performed to suppress air and surface waves at relatively deep part of the seismic section. Results show that, this newly designed, high-resolution land seismic data acquisition equipment (land-streamer) can be successfully used to image subsurface. Likewise

  7. Faults survey by 3D reflection seismics; Sanjigen hanshaho jishin tansa ni yoru danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, T; Ejiri, T; Yamada, N; Narita, N; Aso, H; Takano, H; Matsumura, M [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes fault survey by 3D seismic reflection exploration. Survey has been conducted mainly at flat land area without pavement not in urban area in Japan. Subsurface structure is complicated with intersecting multiple faults. In this area, a lot of geological investigations have been done prior to the seismic reflection exploration. Fairly certain images of faults have been obtained. However, there were still unknown structures. Survey was conducted at an area of 170m{times}280m in the CDP range. Measurements were carried out by using 100 g of dynamite per seismic generation point combined with 40 Hz velocity geophones. Fixed distribution consisting of lattice points of 12{times}12 was adopted as an observation method. In and around the lattice, a great number of explosions were carried out. The CDP stacking method and the method of migration after stacking were used for the data processing. The 3D structures of six horizons and five faults could be interpreted. Interpreted horizons were well agreed with the logging results. 3 figs.

  8. Existing reflection seismic data re-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinaka, Motonori; Sano, Yukiko; Kozawa, Takeshi

    2005-08-01

    This document is to report the results of existing seismic data re-processing around Horonobe town, Hokkaido, Japan, which is a part of the Horonobe Underground Research Project. The main purpose of this re-processing is to recognize the subsurface structure of Omagari Fault and fold system around Omagari Fault. The seismic lines for re-processing are TYHR-A3 line and SHRB-2 line, which JAPEX surveyed in 1975. Applying weathering static correction using refraction analysis and noise suppression procedure, we have much enhanced seismic profile. Following information was obtained from seismic re-processing results. TYHR-A3 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west. These reflections are corresponding western limb of anticline to the west side of Omagari Fault. SHRB-2 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west, at CDP 60-140, while there are reflections, dipping to the east, to the east side of CDP 140. These reflections correspond to the western limb and the eastern limb of the anticline, which is parallel to Omagari FAULT. This seismic re-processing provides some useful information to know the geological structure around Omagari Fault. (author)

  9. Seismic reflection surveys in central Palo Duro basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, H.; Buller, M.L.; Lewkowicz, J.; Murphy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic reflection surveys have been conducted in the central Palo Duro basin to provide a basis for identifying localities suitable for the emplacement of an underground high level nuclear waste repository. The objectives of this effort were to determine the structure and stratigraphy in the central Palo Duro basin and evaluate the potential for hydrocarbon resources. Of primary interest is the Upper Permian salt section to a depth of about 3000 ft (914 m). Various tests were carried out along a 3 mi (5 km) segment to determine the most appropriate combination of vibrating source and recording parameters. Approximately 130 mi (209 km) of 24-fold CDP stacked data were acquired. The survey lines were tied to test wells in which velocity surveys were conducted. These data were supplemented by about 400 mi (644 km) of available proprietary CDP stacked data. Analysis of these data strongly suggests that central Palo Duro basin has been tectonically stable since Early Permian time. The maximum offset of the basement is about 600 ft (183 m). These basement faults do not appear to affect any strata above. The San Andres Formation and underlying formations can be traced continuously throughout the area surveyed. Available velocity data from various wells in the central Palo Duro basin show few anomalies, confirming the continuity of the reflecting horizons and the tectonic stability of the area. Hydrocarbon potential of the area is presently being evaluated. The preliminary results of this study are in agreement with the stratigraphic correlations among well logs in the Palo Duro basin

  10. The forearc crustal evolution of Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) region obtained by seismic reflection and refraction surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, N.; Tatsumi, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. By previous seismic survey and deep sea drilling, convex basements are distributed along North-South direction in present forearc region. The convex basements are reported to be formed during Oligocene and Eocene (Taylor, 1992). In IBM forearc region, the middle crust with 6 km/s is recognized by seismic survey using OBSs. In IBM region, four IODP drilling sites are proposed in order to understand comprehensive growth process of arc and continental crust evolution. Two of them are located in forearc region. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey using 7,800/12,000 cu.in. air gun and 5-6 km streamer with 444/204 ch hydrophones in the IBM region since 2004. We investigate the crustal structure beneath the Izu-Bonin forearc region for contribution of IBM drilling site along five long survey lines, which are across from present volcanic front to forearc basin. Seismic refraction survey is also conducted across forearc region using 84 OBSs every 1 km interval. Shallow crustal structure can be classified four units including basement which compared between previous drilling results and obtained seismic profiles. In IBM forearc region, thick sedimentary basin distribute from east side of volcanic front. Two convex basement peaks are indicated in across profile of forearc region. These peaks are estimated the top of paleoarc (Oligocene and Eocene) by previous ODP drilling. The half graben structure with major displacement is identified from west side of present volcanic front to the top of Oligocene arc. On the other hand, there is no displacement of sediments between the Oligocene arc and Eocene arc. This result shows the same origin of basement between the present volcanic front and Oligocene arc. There is long time difference of

  11. 3D seismic surveys for shallow targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C.; Stewart, R.R.; Bertram, M.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology

    2008-07-01

    Although 3D seismic surveys are generally used to map deep hydrocarbon plays, this study demonstrated that they can be useful for characterizing shallow targets, such as oilsands deposits. A high-resolution 3D seismic survey was undertaken to map shallow stratigraphy near Calgary, Alberta. The project demonstrated the efficacy of reflection seismic surveys for shallow targets ranging from 100 to 500 metres. The purpose of the program was to map shallow stratigraphy and structure to depths of up to 500m, and to investigate shallow aquifers in the study area. The results of the survey illustrated the opportunity that 3D seismic surveys provide for mapping shallow reflectors and the acquisition geometry needed to image them. Applications include mapping the distribution of shallow aquifers, delineating shallow coals and investigating oilsands deposits. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Exploration of lateral discontinuities with shallow seismic reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, K.; Ecevitoglu, B.

    2007-01-01

    Shallow seismic reflection method is used to for research of mine, fault and stratigraphy and these researches have been result successfully. Survey parameters should be determined with detailed pre-research before data collection. In this study, limestone-fly sch discontinuity experienced at surface and its extension was researched with collected reflection data

  13. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  14. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B.; Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N.

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  15. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N. [Vibrometric Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  16. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K; Kano, N; Yokokura, T; Kiguchi, T; Yokota, T; Matsushima, J [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Seismic 2D reflection processing and interpretation of shallow refraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, I.; Heikkinen, E.; Lehtimaeki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Posiva Oy takes care of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. In year 2001 Olkiluoto was selected for the site of final disposal. Currently construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is going on at the Olkiluoto site. The aim of this work was to use two-dimensional reflection seismic processing methods to refraction seismic data collected from the ONKALO area in year 2002, and to locate gently dipping reflectors from the stacked sections. Processing was done using mainly open source software Seismic Unix. After the processing, the most distinct two-dimensional reflectors were picked from seismic sections using visualization environment OpendTect. After picking the features from crossing lines were combined into three-dimensional surfaces. Special attention was given for the detection of possible faults and discontinuities. The surfaces were given coordinates and their orientation was adjusted using a geometric procedure, which corresponds roughly a 3D migration, transferred to 3D presentation utility and compared to available geological information. The advantage of this work is to be able to get three-dimensional reflection seismic results from existing data set at only processing costs. Survey lines are also partly located in ONKALO area where extensive surface seismic surveys may not be possible to perform. The applied processing method was successful in detecting the reflectors. Most significant steps were the refraction and residual statics, and deconvolution. Some distinct reflectors can be seen at times 20-200 ms (vertical depths 50-500 m). The signal gets noisier below 200 ms. Reflectors are best visible as coherent phase between the adjacent traces, but do not raise much above the surrounding noise level. Higher amount of traces to be stacked would emphasis the reflections and their continuity more. Reflectors picked on crossing lines match well to borehole observations (KR4, KR7, KR24 and KR38) of fracture zones, and get

  18. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  19. High resolution reflection seismic mapping of shallow coal seams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngadi, SB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the extent of the mine workings. Two 94 m profiles (tied to boreholes) were surveyed using a sledgehammer source. Processing was optimized to image the shallow reflections. The refraction seismic models and stacked time sections were compared and integrated...

  20. Seismic reflection imaging with conventional and unconventional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros Ugalde, Diego Alonso

    This manuscript reports the results of research using both conventional and unconventional energy sources as well as conventional and unconventional analysis to image crustal structure using reflected seismic waves. The work presented here includes the use of explosions to investigate the Taiwanese lithosphere, the use of 'noise' from railroads to investigate the shallow subsurface of the Rio Grande rift, and the use of microearthquakes to image subsurface structure near an active fault zone within the Appalachian mountains. Chapter 1 uses recordings from the land refraction and wide-angle reflection component of the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research (TAIGER) project. The most prominent reflection feature imaged by these surveys is an anomalously strong reflector found in northeastern Taiwan. The goal of this chapter is to analyze the TAIGER recordings and to place the reflector into a geologic framework that fits with the modern tectonic kinematics of the region. Chapter 2 uses railroad traffic as a source for reflection profiling within the Rio Grande rift. Here the railroad recordings are treated in an analogous way to Vibroseis recordings. These results suggest that railroad noise in general can be a valuable new tool in imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface in environmental and geotechnical studies. In chapters 3 and 4, earthquakes serve as the seismic imaging source. In these studies the methodology of Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) is borrowed from the oil and gas industry to develop reflection images. In chapter 3, a single earthquake is used to probe a small area beneath Waterboro, Maine. In chapter 4, the same method is applied to multiple earthquakes to take advantage of the increased redundancy that results from multiple events illuminating the same structure. The latter study demonstrates how dense arrays can be a powerful new tool for delineating, and monitoring temporal changes of deep structure in areas characterized by significant

  1. Seismic surveys test on Innerhytta Pingo, Adventdalen, Svalbard Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Giuliana; Petronio, Lorenzo; Accaino, Flavio; Romeo, Roberto; Wheeler, Walter

    2015-04-01

    We present the preliminary results of an experimental full-wave seismic survey test conducted on the Innnerhytta a Pingo, located in the Adventdalen, Svalbard Islands, Norway. Several seismic surveys were adopted in order to study a Pingo inner structure, from classical reflection/refraction arrays to seismic tomography and surface waves analysis. The aim of the project IMPERVIA, funded by Italian PNRA, was the evaluation of the permafrost characteristics beneath this open-system Pingo by the use of seismic investigation, evaluating the best practice in terms of logistic deployment. The survey was done in April-May 2014: we collected 3 seismic lines with different spacing between receivers (from 2.5m to 5m), for a total length of more than 1 km. We collected data with different vertical geophones (with natural frequency of 4.5 Hz and 14 Hz) as well as with a seismic snow-streamer. We tested different seismic sources (hammer, seismic gun, fire crackers and heavy weight drop), and we verified accurately geophone coupling in order to evaluate the different responses. In such peculiar conditions we noted as fire-crackers allow the best signal to noise ratio for refraction/reflection surveys. To ensure the best geophones coupling with the frozen soil, we dug snow pits, to remove the snow-cover effect. On the other hand, for the surface wave methods, the very high velocity of the permafrost strongly limits the generation of long wavelengths both with these explosive sources as with the common sledgehammer. The only source capable of generating low frequencies was a heavy drop weight system, which allows to analyze surface wave dispersion below 10 Hz. Preliminary data analysis results evidence marked velocity inversions and strong velocity contrasts in depth. The combined use of surface and body waves highlights the presence of a heterogeneous soil deposit level beneath a thick layer of permafrost. This is the level that hosts the water circulation from depth controlling

  2. Multichannel Seismic Reflection - SCAR- Prydz Bay 1980 SDLS CD-ROM vol 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1980 in the Prydz Bay region, by Australian Geological Survey Organization. The...

  3. Applicability of reflection seismic measurements in detailed characterization of crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sireni, S.

    2011-03-01

    Posiva carried out a seismic survey in the access tunnel of the underground research facility ONKALO in 2009. The survey contributes the detailed characterization of the bedrock in the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The aim of this work was to examine the geophysical and geological properties of the chosen tunnel intersections to clarify the important characteristics for reflection generation, and evaluate applicability of this survey for characterization of crystalline bedrock. The seismic result consists of 24 projected amplitude images in 12 different angles. The size of an image is 260*300 m. The amount of digitized reflectors is over 100 and all of them could not be included in this work. The study was limited to 14 intersections that were considered important: brittle fault intersections, tunnel-crosscutting fractures, or lithological contacts. Presence of a brittle fault zone or a tunnel-crosscutting fracture limits the suitable bedrock volume for depositing the nuclear fuel canisters, and wide lithological contacts are a common source of reflection. The seismic data was compared to the existing geological, hydrogeological and geophysical data got from the pilot holes and the tunnel. The most important characteristics were fractures: orientation, fillings, and thickness of the fillings, alteration and water leakage. Geophysically interesting was density, seismic velocities and their products: acoustic impedance and synthetic seismograms. Calculated acoustic impedances showed some differences between cases, but they did not indicate the presence of a reflector. The most common cause of reflector was undulating slickensided, highly altered, tunnel-crosscutting fracture that had thick fracture-fillings and water present. Water was included five times in interpreted reflectors. Also few reflectors were connected to varying mineralogy. Few problematic cases occurred, where a geological feature and a reflection did not correlate, and three of the cases with

  4. Seismic reflection data imaging and interpretation from Braniewo2014 experiment using additional wide-angle refraction and reflection and well-logs data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Majdański, Mariusz; Białas, Sebastian; Gaczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Braniewo2014 reflection and refraction experiment was realized in cooperation between Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) and the Institute of Geophysics (IGF), Polish Academy of Sciences, near the locality of Braniewo in northern Poland. PGNiG realized a 20-km-long reflection profile, using vibroseis and dynamite shooting; the aim of the reflection survey was to characterise Silurian shale gas reservoir. IGF deployed 59 seismic stations along this profile and registered additional full-spread wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with offsets up to 12 km; maximum offsets from the seismic reflection survey was 3 km. To improve the velocity information two velocity logs from near deep boreholes were used. The main goal of the joint reflection-refraction interpretation was to find relations between velocity field from reflection velocity analysis and refraction tomography, and to build a velocity model which would be consistent for both, reflection and refraction, datasets. In this paper we present imaging results and velocity models from Braniewo2014 experiment and the methodology we used.

  5. Seismic imaging for an ocean drilling site survey and its verification in the Izu rear arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Mikiya; Takahashi, Narumi; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Miura, Seiichi; Kodaira, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the crustal structure of a site proposed for International Ocean Discovery Program drilling, the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology carried out seismic surveys in the Izu rear arc between 2006 and 2008, using research vessels Kaiyo and Kairei. High-resolution dense grid surveys, consisting of three kinds of reflection surveys, generated clear seismic profiles, together with a seismic velocity image obtained from a seismic refraction survey. In this paper, we compare the seismic profiles with the geological column obtained from the drilling. Five volcaniclastic sedimentary units were identified in seismic reflection profiles above the 5 km/s and 6 km/s contours of P-wave velocity obtained from the velocity image from the seismic refraction survey. However, some of the unit boundaries interpreted from the seismic images were not recognised in the drilling core, highlighting the difficulties of geological target identification in volcanic regions from seismic images alone. The geological core derived from drilling consisted of seven lithological units (labelled I to VII). Units I to V were aged at 0-9 Ma, and units VI and VII, from 1320-1806.5 m below seafloor (mbsf) had ages from 9 to ~15 Ma. The strong heterogeneity of volcanic sediments beneath the drilling site U1437 was also identified from coherence, calculated using cross-spectral analysis between grid survey lines. Our results suggest that use of a dense grid configuration is important in site surveys for ocean drilling in volcanic rear-arc situations, in order to recognise heterogeneous crustal structure, such as sediments from different origins.

  6. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  7. Method for inverting reflection trace data from 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys and identifying subsurface fluid and pathways in and among hydrocarbon reservoirs based on impedance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Anderson, R.N.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management. 20 figs.

  8. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  9. Tectonic history in the Fort Worth Basin, north Texas, derived from well-log integration with multiple 3D seismic reflection surveys: implications for paleo and present-day seismicity in the basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M. B.; Hornbach, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production in the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) in north Texas have accelerated in the last 10 years due to the success of unconventional gas production. Here, hydraulic fracturing wastewater is disposed via re-injection into deep wells that penetrate Ordovician carbonate formations. The rise in wastewater injection has coincided with a marked rise in earthquake rates, suggesting a causal relationship between industry practices and seismicity. Most studies addressing this relationship in intraplate regions like the FWB focus on current seismicity, which provides an a-posteriori assessment of the processes involved. 3D seismic reflection data contribute complementary information on the existence, distribution, orientation and long-term deformation history of faults that can potentially become reactivated by the injection process. Here we present new insights into the tectonic evolution of faults in the FWB using multiple 3D seismic reflection surveys in the basin, west of the Dallas Fort-Worth Metroplex, where high-volume wastewater injection wells have increased most significantly in number in the past few years. The datasets image with remarkable clarity the 3,300 m-thick sedimentary rocks of the basin, from the crystalline basement to the Cretaceous cover, with particular detail of the Paleozoic section. The data, interpreted using coincident and nearby wells to correlate seismic reflections with stratigraphic markers, allow us to identify faults, extract their orientation, length and displacements at several geologic time intervals, and therefore, reconstruct the long-term deformation history. Throughout the basin, the data show that all seismically detectable faults were active during the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian, but that displacement amounts drop below data resolution ( 7 m) in the post-Pennsylvanian deposits. These results indicate that faults have been inactive for at least the past 300 Ma, until the recent 2008 surge in

  10. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made

  11. Seismic reflection data report: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, Southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hern, J.L.; Powers, D.W.; Barrows, L.J.

    1978-12-01

    Volume II contains uninterpreted processed lines and shotpoint maps from three seismic reflection surveys conducted from 1976 through 1978 by Sandia Laboratories to support investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Data interpretations will be the subject of subsequent reports

  12. Retrieval of reflections from seismic background?noise measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganov, D.S.; Wapenaar, K.; Mulder, W.; Singer, J.; Verdel, A.

    2007-01-01

    The retrieval of the earth's reflection response from cross?correlations of seismic noise recordings can provide valuable information, which may otherwise not be available due to limited spatial distribution of seismic sources. We cross?correlated ten hours of seismic background?noise data acquired

  13. Cetacean behavioral responses to noise exposure generated by seismic surveys: how to mitigate better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Monaco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans use sound in many contexts, such as in social interactions, as well as to forage and to react in dangerous situations. Little information exists to describe how they respond physically and behaviorally to intense and long-term noise levels. Effects on cetaceans from seismic survey activities need to be understood in order to determine detailed acoustic exposure guidelines and to apply appropriated mitigation measures. This study examines direct behavioral responses of cetaceans in the southern Mediterranean Sea during seismic surveys with large airgun arrays (volume up to 5200 ci used in the TOMO-ETNA active seismic experiment of summer 2014. Wide Angle Seismic and Multi-Channel Seismic surveys had carried out with refraction and reflection seismic methods, producing about 25,800 air-gun shots. Visual monitoring undertaken in the 26 daylights of seismic exploration adopted the protocol of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Data recorded were analyzed to examine effects on cetaceans. Sighting rates, distance and orientation from the airguns were compared for different volume categories of the airgun arrays. Results show that cetaceans can be disturbed by seismic survey activities, especially during particularly events. Here we propose many integrated actions to further mitigate this exposure and implications for management.

  14. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  15. Density-based reflectivity in seismic exploration for coal in Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C.; Lyatsky, H.V. (University of Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1991-01-01

    At a coal field in central Alberta, Canada, the acoustic reflectivity of shallow coal seams was found to be dominated by the density contrast between coal and host bentonitic sediments. Sonic logs and a check-shot survey showed that the compressional-wave velocity is almost constant through the coal zone and the overlying sediments, and ranges in value between 2000 m/s and 2350 m/s over different parts of the coal field. The average coal density is 1400 kg/m{sup 3}, whereas the density of the sediments is about 2200 kg/m{sup 3}. Results are illustrated using logs from a typical drillhole in the coal field. At this location, the time reflectivity sequence based on both the density and sonic logs is very similar to that obtained when the density log only is used, with a constant velocity assumed through the coal zone. At another drillhole location in the coal field, where reflection seismic data had been acquired, a synthetic seismogram generated from the density log closely matches the stacked seismic section. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Evidence of shallow gas in the Queen Charlotte Basin from waveform tomography of seismic reflection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takam Takougang, Eric M.; Calvert, Andrew J. [Simon Fraser University (Canada)], email: eta9@sfu.ca

    2011-07-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) collected eight seismic reflection lines in 1988 across the Queen Charlotte sedimentary basin of western Canada, which is the largest tertiary basin on the west coast. This work furthers the study of the upper part of the basin by using quantitative imaging of its structure through application of 2-D waveform tomography to the limited offset seismic reflection data. With the help of waveform tomography, seismic reflection data has allowed the identification of pockmark structures and pipe-like gas chimney in the recovered velocity and attenuation models. Overall, there is an excellent match between field data and predicted data. and a good match between the sonic log and a 1-D velocity function derived from the 2-D velocity model. This shows that specific preconditioning of the data and a good inversion strategy make it possible to use waveform tomography of relatively short offset reflection data for the imaging of shallow geological features.

  17. The seismic reflection inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, W W

    2009-01-01

    The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)

  18. Site study plan for EDBH [Engineering Design Boreholes] seismic surveys, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, H.

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes seismic reflection surveys to run north-south and east-west across the Deaf Smith County site, and intersecting near the Engineering Design Boreholes (EDBH). Both conventional and shallow high-resolution surveys will be run. The field program has been designed to acquire subsurface geologic and stratigraphic data to address information/data needs resulting from Federal and State regulations and Repository program requirements. The data acquired by the conventional surveys will be common-depth- point, seismic reflection data optimized for reflection events that indicate geologic structure near the repository horizon. The data will also resolve the basement structure and shallow reflection events up to about the top of the evaporite sequence. Field acquisition includes a testing phase to check/select parameters and a production phase. The field data will be subjected immediately to conventional data processing and interpretation to determine if there are any anamolous structural for stratigraphic conditions that could affect the choice of the EDBH sites. After the EDBH's have been drilled and logged, including vertical seismic profiling, the data will be reprocessed and reinterpreted for detailed structural and stratigraphic information to guide shaft development. The shallow high-resulition seismic reflection lines will be run along the same alignments, but the lines will be shorter and limited to immediate vicinity of the EDBH sites. These lines are planned to detect faults or thick channel sands that may be present at the EDBH sites. 23 refs. , 7 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Seismic modelling of shallow coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C. (University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics.)

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to determine whether reflection seismic surveys can be used to map stratigraphic and structural detail of shallow Plains-type coal deposits. Two coalfields in central Alberta were used to examine and determine optimum acquisition parameters for reflection seismic surveys in such settings. The study was based on 1-D and 2-D numerical seismic modelling using sonic and density well logs to formulate a layered earth model. Additional objectives were to interpret the reflection seismic data in terms of geologic features in the study area, and to investigate the relationship between vertical resolution and field acquisition geometry. 27 refs., 41 figs.

  20. Digital single-channel seismic-reflection data from western Santa Monica basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normark, William R.; Piper, David J.W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Triezenberg, Peter; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2006-01-01

    During a collaborative project in 1992, Geological Survey of Canada and United States Geological Survey scientists obtained about 850 line-km of high-quality single-channel boomer and sleeve-gun seismic-reflection profiles across Hueneme, Mugu and Dume submarine fans, Santa Monica Basin, off southern California. The goals of this work were to better understand the processes that lead to the formation of sandy submarine fans and the role of sea-level changes in controlling fan development. This report includes a trackline map of the area surveyed, as well as images of the sleeve-gun profiles and the opportunity to download both images and digital data files (SEG-Y) of all the sleeve-gun profiles.

  1. A workflow for sub-/seismic structure and deformation quantification of 3-D reflection seismic data sets across different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk, C.M.; Lohr, T.; Oncken, O. [GFZ Potsdam (Germany); Tanner, D.C. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). GZG; Endres, H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)]|[TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany); Trappe, H.; Kukla, P. [TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The evolution of a sedimentary basin is mostly affected by deformation. Large-scale, subsurface deformation is typically identified by seismic data, sub-seismic small-scale fractures by well data. Between these two methods, we lack a deeper understanding of how deformation scales. We analysed a 3-D reflection seismic data set in the North German Basin, in order to determine the magnitude and distribution of deformation and its accumulation in space and time. A five-step approach is introduced for quantitative deformation and fracture prediction. An increased resolution of subtle tectonic lineaments is achieved by coherency processing, allowing to unravel the kinematics in the North German Basin from structural interpretation. Extensional events during basin initiation and later inversion are evident. 3-D retrodeformation shows major-strain magnitudes between 0-20% up to 1.3 km away from a fault trace, and variable deviations of associated extensional fractures. Good correlation of FMI data, strain distribution from retro-deformation and from geostatistic tools (see also Trappe et al., this volume) allows the validation of the results and makes the prediction of small-scale faults/fractures possible. The temporal component will be gained in the future by analogue models. The suggested workflow is applicable to reflection seismic surveys and yields in great detail both the tectonic history of a region as well as predictions for hydrocarbon plays or deep groundwater or geothermal reservoirs. (orig.)

  2. Lamont Doherty Seismic Reflection Scanned Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains single channel seismic reflection profiles as provided to NGDC by Lamont Doherty Earh Observatory (LDEO). The profiles were originally...

  3. Reflection seismic imaging of the upper crystalline crust for characterization of potential repository sites: Fine tuning the seismic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C.; Palm, H.; Bergman, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2001-09-01

    SKB is currently carrying out studies to determine which seismic techniques, and how, they will be used for investigations prior to and during the building of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Active seismic methods included in these studies are refraction seismics, reflection seismics, and vertical seismic profiling (VSP). The main goal of the active seismic methods is to locate fracture zones in the crystalline bedrock. Plans are to use longer reflection seismic profiles (3.4 km) in the initial stages of the site investigations. The target depth for these seismic profiles is 100-1500 m. Prior to carrying out the seismic surveys over actual candidate waste repository sites it has been necessary to carry out a number of tests to determine the optimum acquisition parameters. This report constitutes a summary of the tests carried out by Uppsala University. In addition, recommended acquisition and processing parameters are presented at the end of the report. A major goal in the testing has been to develop a methodology for acquiring high-resolution reflection seismic data over crystalline rock in as a cost effective manner as possible. Since the seismic source is generally a major cost in any survey, significant attention has been given to reducing the cost of the source. It was agreed upon early in the study that explosives were the best source from a data quality perspective and, therefore, only explosive source methods have been considered in this study. The charge size and shot hole dimension required to image the upper 1-1.5 km of bedrock is dependent upon the conditions at the surface. In this study two types of shot hole drilling methods have been employed depending upon whether the thickness of the loose sediments at the surface is greater or less than 0.5 m. The charge sizes and shot hole dimensions required are: Loose sediment thickness less than 0.5 m: 15 g in 90 cm deep 12 mm wide uncased shot holes. Loose sediment thickness greater than 0.5 m: 75 g

  4. Seismic site survey investigations in urban environments: The case of the underground metro project in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Colberg-Larsen, J.; Ploug, C.

    2009-05-01

    Near surface geophysics applications are gaining more widespread use in geotechnical and engineering projects. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey time, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of wide-scale geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face great challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic pre-investigation was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using seismic methods to obtain information about the subsurface layer locations and media properties in Copenhagen. Such information is needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling related to the Cityringen underground metro project. The pre-investigation objectives were to validate methods in an urban environment and optimize field survey procedures, processing and interpretation methods in urban settings in the event of further seismic investigations. The geological setting at the survey site is characterized by several interlaced layers of clay, till and sand. These layers are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present varying thickness, overlaying several different unit types of limestone at shallow depths. Specific results objectives were to map the bedrock surface, ascertain a structural geological framework and investigate bedrock media properties relevant to the construction design. The seismic test consisted of a combined seismic reflection and refraction analyses of a profile line conducted along an approximately 1400 m section in the northern part of Copenhagen, along the projected metro city line. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 10 m spacing. Complementarily, six vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were performed at boreholes located along the line. The reflection

  5. High-resolution seismic reflection study, Vacherie Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    A high-resolution seismic reflection study, consisting of recording, processing, and interpreting four seismic reflection lines, was made at Vacherie Dome, Louisiana. The presumed shape of the dome, as pictured in the geologic area characterization report by Law Engineering Testing Company in 1982, was based largely on interpretation of gravity data, constrained by a few wells and exploration-type seismic profiles. The purpose of the study was to obtain refined profiles of the dome above -914 m (-3000 ft) elevation. Additional study had been recommended by Louisiana State University in 1967 and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation in 1981 because the interpreted size of Vacherie Dome was based on limited seismic and gravity data. Forty-eight traces of seismic data were recorded each time shots were made to generate energy. Twelve-fold, common-depth-point data were obtained using geophone stations spaced at 15-m (50-ft) intervals with shots at 30-m (100-ft) intervals. The time-sampling interval used was 1 ms. Processing intended to enhance resolution included iterative static corrections, deconvolution before stacking, and both time- and depth-migration. The locations of the steep dome sides were inferred primarily from terminations of strong reflections (migrated) from strata near the top of the upper and lower Cretaceous sections. This interpretation agrees closely with the presumed shape from the top of the dome to about -610 m (-2000 ft) elevation, but below this on three of the profiles, this interpretation indicates a steeper salt face than the presumed shape. The area reduction at -914 m (-3000 ft) elevation is estimated to be on the order of 20 percent. 10 references, 11 figures, 4 tables

  6. Surface 3-D reflection seismics - implementation at the Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Lehtimaeki, T.; Heikkinen, E. [Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2007-03-15

    Posiva Oy takes care of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. In year 2001 Olkiluoto was selected for the site of final disposal. Construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is going on at the Olkiluoto site. The aim of this work was to study the possibilities for surface 3-D seismics and to review experiences for design before field work. The physical parameters and geometric properties of the site, as well as efficient survey layout and source arrangements, were considered in this work. Reflection seismics is most used geophysical investigation method in oil exploration and earth studies in sedimentary environment. Recently method has also been applied in crystalline bedrock for ore exploration and nuclear waste disposal site investigations. The advantage of the method is high accuracy combined with large depth of investigation. The principles of seismic 2-D and 3-D soundings are well known and advanced. 3-D sounding is a straightforward expansion of 2-D line based surveying. In investigation of crystalline bedrock, the high frequency wave sources and receivers, their right use in measurements and careful processing procedure (refraction static corrections in particular) are important. Using the site parameters in 2-D numerical modeling, two cases of faulted thin layer at depths of 200, 400 and 600 meters were studied. The first case was a layer with vertical dislocation (a ramp) and the other a layer having limited width of dislocated part. Central frequencies were 100, 200, 400 and 700 Hz. Results indicate that 10 - 20 m dislocation is recognizable, but for depths greater than 600 m, over 20 meters is required. Width of the dislocated part will affect the detectability of vertical displacement. At depths of 200 m and 400 m 10 - 50 m wide parts appear as point-like scatterers, wider areas have more continuity. Dislocations larger than 20 m can be seen. From depth of 600 m over 100 m wide parts are discernible, narrower are visible

  7. Surface 3-D reflection seismics - implementation at the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Lehtimaeki, T.; Heikkinen, E.

    2007-03-01

    Posiva Oy takes care of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. In year 2001 Olkiluoto was selected for the site of final disposal. Construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is going on at the Olkiluoto site. The aim of this work was to study the possibilities for surface 3-D seismics and to review experiences for design before field work. The physical parameters and geometric properties of the site, as well as efficient survey layout and source arrangements, were considered in this work. Reflection seismics is most used geophysical investigation method in oil exploration and earth studies in sedimentary environment. Recently method has also been applied in crystalline bedrock for ore exploration and nuclear waste disposal site investigations. The advantage of the method is high accuracy combined with large depth of investigation. The principles of seismic 2-D and 3-D soundings are well known and advanced. 3-D sounding is a straightforward expansion of 2-D line based surveying. In investigation of crystalline bedrock, the high frequency wave sources and receivers, their right use in measurements and careful processing procedure (refraction static corrections in particular) are important. Using the site parameters in 2-D numerical modeling, two cases of faulted thin layer at depths of 200, 400 and 600 meters were studied. The first case was a layer with vertical dislocation (a ramp) and the other a layer having limited width of dislocated part. Central frequencies were 100, 200, 400 and 700 Hz. Results indicate that 10 - 20 m dislocation is recognizable, but for depths greater than 600 m, over 20 meters is required. Width of the dislocated part will affect the detectability of vertical displacement. At depths of 200 m and 400 m 10 - 50 m wide parts appear as point-like scatterers, wider areas have more continuity. Dislocations larger than 20 m can be seen. From depth of 600 m over 100 m wide parts are discernible, narrower are visible

  8. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael G. Waddell; William J. Domoracki; Tom J. Temples; Jerome Eyer

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, University of South Carolina is conducting a 14 month proof of concept study to determine the location and distribution of subsurface Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) contamination at the 216-Z-9 crib, 200 West area, Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, Washington by use of two-dimensional high resolution seismic reflection surveys and borehole geophysical data. The study makes use of recent advances in seismic reflection amplitude versus offset (AVO) technology to directly detect the presence of subsurface DNAPL. The techniques proposed are a noninvasive means towards site characterization and direct free-phase DNAPL detection. This report covers the results of Task 3 and change of scope of Tasks 4-6. Task 1 contains site evaluation and seismic modeling studies. The site evaluation consists of identifying and collecting preexisting geological and geophysical information regarding subsurface structure and the presence and quantity of DNAPL. The seismic modeling studies were undertaken to determine the likelihood that an AVO response exists and its probable manifestation. Task 2 is the design and acquisition of 2-D seismic reflection data designed to image areas of probable high concentration of DNAPL. Task 3 is the processing and interpretation of the 2-D data. Task 4, 5, and 6 were designing, acquiring, processing, and interpretation of a three dimensional seismic survey (3D) at the Z-9 crib area at 200 west area, Hanford

  9. Reflection seismic methods applied to locating fracture zones in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, C.

    1998-01-01

    The reflection seismic method is a potentially powerful tool for identifying and localising fracture zones in crystalline rock if used properly. Borehole sonic logs across fracture zones show that they have reduced P-wave velocities compared to the surrounding intact rock. Diagnostically important S-wave velocity log information across the fracture zones is generally lacking. Generation of synthetic reflection seismic data and subsequent processing of these data show that structures dipping up towards 70 degrees from horizontal can be reliably imaged using surface seismic methods. Two real case studies where seismic reflection methods have been used to image fracture zones in crystalline rock are presented. Two examples using reflection seismic are presented. The first is from the 5354 m deep SG-4 borehole in the Middle Urals, Russia where strong seismic reflectors dipping from 25 to 50 degrees are observed on surface seismic reflection data crossing over the borehole. On vertical seismic profile data acquired in the borehole, the observed P-wave reflectivity is weak from these zones, however, strong converted P to S waves are observed. This can be explained by the source of the reflectors being fracture zones with a high P wave to S wave velocity ratio compared to the surrounding rock resulting in a high dependence on the angle of incidence for the reflection coefficient. A high P wave to S wave velocity ratio (high Poisson's ratio) is to be expected in fluid filled fractured rock. The second case is from Aevroe, SE Sweden, where two 1 km long crossing high resolution seismic reflection lines were acquired in October 1996. An E-W line was shot with 5 m geophone and shotpoint spacing and a N-S one with 10 m geophone and shotpoint spacing. An explosive source with a charge size of 100 grams was used along both lines. The data clearly image three major dipping reflectors in the upper 200 ms (600 m). The dipping ones intersect or project to the surface at/or close to

  10. Evaluation of seismic reflection data in the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitcho, C.A.; Wong, I.G.; Turcotte, F.T.

    1986-08-01

    Seismic reflection data purchased from petroleum industry brokers and acquired through group speculative surveys were interpreted for information on the regional subsurface geologic structure and stratigraphy within and surrounding the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. Structures of interest were faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures related to salt dissolution. The seismic reflection data were used to interpret stratigraphy by identifying continuous and discontinuous reflectors on the seismic profiles. Thickening and thinning of strata and possible areas of salt flowage or dissolution could be identified from the seismic data. Identifiable reflectors included the tops of the Precambrian and Mississippian, a distinctive interbed close to the middle of the Pennsylvanian Paradox salt formation (probably the interval between Salt Cycles 10 and 13), and near the top of the Paradox salt. Of the 56 faults identified from the seismic reflection interpretation, 33 trend northwest, west-northwest, or west, and most affect only the deeper part of the stratigraphic section. These faults are part of the deep structural system found throughout the Paradox Basin, including the fold and fault belt in the northeast part of the basin. The faults bound basement Precambrian blocks that experienced minor activity during Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian deposition, and showed major displacement during early Paradox salt deposition as the Paradox Basin subsided. Based on the seismic data, most of these faults appear to have an upward terminus between the top of the Mississippian and the salt interbed reflector

  11. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System for Hydrothermal Deposit Survey (2) - Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Mikada, H.; Takekawa, J.; Shimura, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. . (1) VCS is an effective high-resolution 3D seismic survey within limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (air gun, water gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. (5) Autonomous recording system. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN. in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. The result gives clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Uncertainty of the source/receiver poisons in water causes the serious problem of the imaging. We used several transducer/transponder to estimate these positions. The VCS seismic records themselves can also provide sensor position using the first break of each trace and we calibrate the positions. We are currently developing the autonomous recording VCS system and planning the trial experiment in actual ocean to establish the way of deployment/recovery and the examine the position through the current flow in November, 2010. The second VCS survey will planned over the actual hydrothermal deposit with deep-towed source in February, 2011.

  12. Seismic VSP and HSP surveys on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinen, J.; Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.

    1992-10-01

    Seismic reflection surveys in boreholes were carried out for Teollisuuden Voima Oy at five sites in Finland (Eurajoki Olkiluoto, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Kuhmo Romuvaara and Sievi Syyry). The vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) surveys were a part of the investigation programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose was to detect fractured zones, lithological contacts and other anomalies in the structure of the rockmass and to determine their position and orientation. Horizontal Seismic Profiling (HSP) was used at the Olkiluoto site, additionally to VSP. The data has been organized in profiles containing seismograms recorded from the same shotpoint (shot gathers). One of the most powerful processing methods used with this project has been the Image Space Filtering, a new technique, which has been developed (in the project) for seismic reflection studies in crystalline rock. The method can be applied with other rock types where steeply inclined or vertical anomalies are of interest. It acts like a multichannel filter, enhancing the reflected events and also as an interpretation tool, to estimate the strength and position of the reflectors. This approach has been of great help in emphasizing the weak reflections from uneven and sometimes vanishing interfaces encountered in crystalline

  13. a Comparative Case Study of Reflection Seismic Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamooti, M.; Aydin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic imaging is the most common means of gathering information about subsurface structural features. The accuracy of seismic images may be highly variable depending on the complexity of the subsurface and on how seismic data is processed. One of the crucial steps in this process, especially in layered sequences with complicated structure, is the time and/or depth migration of seismic data.The primary purpose of the migration is to increase the spatial resolution of seismic images by repositioning the recorded seismic signal back to its original point of reflection in time/space, which enhances information about complex structure. In this study, our objective is to process a seismic data set (courtesy of the University of South Carolina) to generate an image on which the Magruder fault near Allendale SC can be clearly distinguished and its attitude can be accurately depicted. The data was gathered by common mid-point method with 60 geophones equally spaced along an about 550 m long traverse over a nearly flat ground. The results obtained from the application of different migration algorithms (including finite-difference and Kirchhoff) are compared in time and depth domains to investigate the efficiency of each algorithm in reducing the processing time and improving the accuracy of seismic images in reflecting the correct position of the Magruder fault.

  14. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  15. Crustal structure of Shatsky Rise from joint refraction and reflection seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, J.; Sager, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Shatsky Rise in the western Pacific is one of a few gigantic oceanic plateaus in the world, with a surface area of ˜ 4.8 ± 105~km2 (about the same size as California). In contrast to other large oceanic plateaus formed during the Cretaceous Quite Period, Shatsky Rise formed during the frequent reversals of magnetic polarity, allowing its tectonic environment to be resolved in detail. It was formed at a rapidly spreading ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction, so the effect of lithospheric lid on magma migration is expected to be minimal, thereby facilitating the petrological interpretation of its seismic structure in terms of parental mantle processes. In the summer of 2010, a seismic refraction survey combined with multichannel seismic profiling was conducted across Shatsky Rise. Twenty eight ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed along two crossing perpendicular lines, and all of the instruments were recovered successfully, yielding a large volume of high-quality wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with the source-receiver distance often exceeding 200~km. In this contribution, we present the P-wave velocity structure of the Shatsky Rise crust, which is constructed by joint refraction and reflection travel time tomography, and also discuss its implications for the origin of Shatsky Rise.

  16. Fault-related-folding structures and reflection seismic sections. Study by seismic modeling and balanced cross section; Danso ga kaizaisuru shukyoku kozo no keitai to jishin tansa danmen. 2. Seismic modeling oyobi balanced cross section ni yoru study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamagawa, T; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukui, R [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    It occasionally happens that there exists a part where reflection near the thrust is not clearly observed in a thrust zone seismic survey cross section. For the effective interpretation of such an occurrence, the use of geological structures as well as the reflected pattern is effective. When the velocity structures for a fold structure having a listric fault caused anticline (unidirectionally inclined with a backlimb, without a forelimb) and for a fault propagation fold are involved, a wrong interpretation may be made since they look alike in reflection wave pattern despite their difference in geological structure. In the concept of balanced cross section, a check is performed, when the stratum after deformation is recovered to the time of deposition, as to whether the geologic stratum area is conserved without excess or shortage. An excess or shortage occurs if there is an error in the model, and this shows that the fault surface or fold structure is not correctly reflected. Positive application of geological knowledge is required in the processing and interpreting of data from a seismic survey. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  17. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  18. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  19. Seismic-reflection and ground penetrating radar for environmental site characterization. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumb, R.; Steeples, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    'The project''s goals are threefold: (1) to examine the complementary site-characterization capabilities of modern, three-component shallow-seismic techniques and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methods at depths ranging from 2 to 8 m at an existing test site; (2) to demonstrate the usefulness of the two methods when used in concert to characterize, in three-dimensions, the cone of depression of a pumping well, which will serve as a proxy site for fluid-flow at an actual, polluted site; and (3) to use the site as an outdoor mesoscale laboratory to validate existing three-dimensional ground-penetrating radar and seismic-reflection computer models developed at the Univ. of Kansas. To do this, useful seismic and GPR data are being collected along the same line(s) and within the same depth range. The principal investigators selected a site in central Kansas as a primary location and, although the site itself is not environmentally sensitive, the location chosen offers particularly useful attributes for this research and will serve as a proxy site for areas that are contaminated. As part of an effort to evaluate the strengths of each method, the authors will repeat the seismic and GPR surveys on a seasonal basis to establish how the complementary information obtained varies over time. Because the water table fluctuates at this site on a seasonal basis, variations in the two types of data over time also can be observed. Such noninvasive in-situ methods of identifying and characterizing the hydrologic flow regimes at contaminated sites support the prospect of developing effective, cost-conscious cleanup strategies in the near future. As of the end of May 1998, the project is on schedule. The first field work was conducted using both of the geophysical survey methods in October of 1997, and the second field survey employed both methods in March of 1998. One of the stated tasks is to reoccupy the same survey line on a quarterly basis for two years to examine change in both

  20. Shear-wave seismic reflection imaging and impedance inversion for a near-surface point-bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, N. W.; Morrison, M.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Odom, B.; Clift, P. D.; Olson, E.; Gostic, A.

    2017-12-01

    Imaging and inversion of SH-waves are useful to detect, map, and quantitatively characterize near-surface point-bar strata. We conduct a horizontally-polarized (SH) reflection survey across and along a near-surface (9 - 40 m) downstream point-bar. We invert for shear-impedance profiles and correlate our interpretation to electrical conductivity (EC) logs in adjacent wells to study the internal architecture and lithology of point-bars. We acquire two common-midpoint (CMP) SH-wave seismic reflection lines at False River (Point Coupee Parish, Louisiana). A 104 m long seismic line (L1) is oriented orthogonal (NW - SE) to point-bar strike. A second line (L2) is 48 m long and set parallel to point-bar strike (NE - SW). Two EC wells lie 33 m apart. Both wells are parallel with respect to the L1 survey and offset from it by 15 m. EC log measurements range from 1 - 25 m depth. Interference of Love-waves prevents seismic imaging at depths less than 9 m. The L1 and L2 data sets are inverted for shear-impedance using a model-based band-limited impedance (BLIMP) algorithm that incorporates a low-frequency velocity model. This model is also used for the depthing processing. The L1 cross-section shows coherent dipping reflection events ( 4 - 7º) from 0.15 - 0.35 s (10 - 40 m). The corresponding shear-impedance profile also reveals coherent and dipping impedance contrasts that grow in magnitude with increasing depth. The L2 cross-section shows comparatively less dip ( 1º) as well as sharper and shallower continuity of reflection events (0.1 - 0.28 s TWT or 9 - 25 m). Depth-converted (TVD) seismic amplitudes and impedance values correlate to near-surface point-bar geology via superposition of log data. The first well (W5) shows distinct EC local maxima (+50 - 70 mS/m) at 14.5 and 15.5 m depth that correlate well with the seismic amplitudes and impedance values from both L1 and L2 data sets. The second well (W7) shows comparatively lower local maxima (+40 - 60 mS/m) but at greater

  1. Iterative reflectivity-constrained velocity estimation for seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaya, Shogo; Verschuur, D. J. Eric

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a reflectivity constraint for velocity estimation to optimally solve the inverse problem for active seismic imaging. This constraint is based on the velocity model derived from the definition of reflectivity and acoustic impedance. The constraint does not require any prior information of the subsurface and large extra computational costs, like the calculation of so-called Hessian matrices. We incorporate this constraint into the Joint Migration Inversion algorithm, which simultaneously estimates both the reflectivity and velocity model of the subsurface in an iterative process. Using so-called full wavefield modeling, the misfit between forward modeled and measured data is minimized. Numerical and field data examples are given to demonstrate the validity of our proposed algorithm in case accurate initial models and the low frequency components of observed seismic data are absent.

  2. Shallow shear-wave reflection seismics in the tsunami struck Krueng Aceh River Basin, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Polom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the project "Management of Georisk" (MANGEONAD of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, Hanover, high resolution shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in the Indonesian province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatra in cooperation with the Government of Indonesia, local counterparts, and the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences, Hanover. The investigations were expected to support classification of earthquake site effects for the reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure as well as for groundwater exploration. The study focussed on the city of Banda Aceh and the surroundings of Aceh Besar. The shear-wave seismic surveys were done parallel to standard geoengineering investigations like cone penetrometer tests to support subsequent site specific statistical calibration. They were also partly supplemented by shallow p-wave seismics for the identification of (a elastic subsurface parameters and (b zones with abundance of groundwater. Evaluation of seismic site effects based on shallow reflection seismics has in fact been found to be a highly useful method in Aceh province. In particular, use of a vibratory seismic source was essential for successful application of shear-wave seismics in the city of Banda Aceh and in areas with compacted ground like on farm tracks in the surroundings, presenting mostly agricultural land use areas. We thus were able to explore the mechanical stiffness of the subsurface down to 100 m depth, occasionally even deeper, with remarkably high resolution. The results were transferred into geotechnical site classification in terms of the International Building Code (IBC, 2003. The seismic images give also insights into the history of the basin sedimentation processes of the Krueng Aceh River delta, which is relevant for the exploration of new areas for construction of safe foundations of buildings and for identification of fresh water aquifers in the tsunami

  3. Detecting voids in a 0. 6m coal seam, 7m deep, using seismic reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W. (University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (USA). Kansas Geological Survey)

    1991-07-01

    Surface collapse over abandoned subsurface coal mines is a problem in many parts of the world. High-resolution P-wave reflection seismology was successfully used to evaluate the risk of an active sinkhole to a main north-south railroad line in an undermined area of southeastern Kansas, USA. Water-filled cavities responsible for sinkholes in this area are in a 0.6 m thick coal seam, 7 m deep. Dominant reflection frequencies in excess of 200 Hz enabled reflections from the coal seam to be discerned from the direct wave, refractions, air wave, and ground roll on unprocessed field files. Repetitive void sequences within competent coal on three seismic profiles are consistent with the 'room and pillar' mining technique practiced in this area near the turn of the century. The seismic survey showed that the apparent active sinkhole was not the result of reactivated subsidence but probably the results of erosion. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Origin and Formation of Giant Mounds in Lake Ladoga (Russia) from High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Lebas, E.; Krastel, S.; Averes, T.; Wagner, B.; Melles, M.; Fedorov, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of the German-Russian project `PLOT - Paleolimnological Transect' (for an overview of the project see Gromig et al., this meeting), a pilot seismic survey was carried out in Lake Ladoga (Russia) in late summer 2013. In total, 1500 km of seismic reflection profiles have been acquired using a mini-GI gun and a 32-channel seismic streamer. The high-resolution of the seismic data allows us to document in detail the sedimentary processes that occurred in the lake during the preglacial and postglacial history. The seismic stratigraphic architecture of the lake shows, from top to bottom, acoustically well-stratified Holocene muds overlaying rather transparent postglacial varves. These sediment successions are usually bordered by a hard reflector underneath, which may represent coarse-grained sediments or a till. The nature of the material composing the uppermost units have been tied to coring information from core Co1309, which was retrieved during the same survey. Of particular interest, are the single to composite, giant (kilometer-scale) mounds directly overlying the hard reflector. Internal architecture of the mounds reveals a complex formation history, with mound types showing significant structural deformation of different degrees; and other mound types showing a central deformation area, which strongly contrasts with the titled reflections or undisturbed stratification visible at the edges. The deepest seismic unit underlying the mounds is characterized by well-bedded, tilted reflectors in the southeastern part of the lake, while clear synclines are identified in the northwestern part of the lake. An erosional truncation separates the deepest unit from the overlying ones. In the work presented here, we focus on the understanding of the origin and the formation of the giant mounds with respect to the glacial history of Lake Ladoga.

  5. Seismic imaging of sandbox experiments – laboratory hardware setup and first reflection seismic sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Krawczyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the study and technical development introduced here, we combine analogue sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modelling of sandbox models. For that purpose, we designed and developed a new mini-seismic facility for laboratory use, comprising a seismic tank, a PC-driven control unit, a positioning system, and piezoelectric transducers used here for the first time in an array mode. To assess the possibilities and limits of seismic imaging of small-scale structures in sandbox models, different geometry setups were tested in the first 2-D experiments that also tested the proper functioning of the device and studied the seismo-elastic properties of the granular media used. Simple two-layer models of different materials and layer thicknesses as well as a more complex model comprising channels and shear zones were tested using different acquisition geometries and signal properties. We suggest using well sorted and well rounded grains with little surface roughness (glass beads. Source receiver-offsets less than 14 cm for imaging structures as small as 2.0–1.5 mm size have proven feasible. This is the best compromise between wide beam and high energy output, and is applicable with a consistent waveform. Resolution of the interfaces of layers of granular materials depends on the interface preparation rather than on the material itself. Flat grading of interfaces and powder coverage yields the clearest interface reflections. Finally, sandbox seismic sections provide images of high quality showing constant thickness layers as well as predefined channel structures and indications of the fault traces from shear zones. Since these were artificially introduced in our test models, they can be regarded as zones of disturbance rather than tectonic shear zones characterized by decompaction. The multiple-offset surveying introduced here, improves the quality with respect to S / N ratio and source signature even more; the maximum depth

  6. Three-dimensional seismic survey planning based on the newest data acquisition design technique; Saishin no data shutoku design ni motozuku sanjigen jishin tansa keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minehara, M; Nakagami, K; Tanaka, H [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    Theory of parameter setting for data acquisition is arranged, mainly as to the seismic generating and receiving geometry. This paper also introduces an example of survey planning for three-dimensional land seismic exploration in progress. For the design of data acquisition, fundamental parameters are firstly determined on the basis of the characteristics of reflection records at a given district, and then, the layout of survey is determined. In this study, information through modeling based on the existing interpretation of geologic structures is also utilized, to reflect them for survey specifications. Land three-dimensional seismic survey was designed. Ground surface of the surveyed area consists of rice fields and hilly regions. The target was a nose-shaped structure in the depth about 2,500 m underground. A survey area of 4km{times}5km was set. Records in the shallow layers could not obtained when near offset was not ensured. Quality control of this distribution was important for grasping the shallow structure required. In this survey, the seismic generating point could be ensured more certainly than initially expected, which resulted in the sufficient security of near offset. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Seismic-reflection surveys of the Blake Ridge, R/V Cape Hatteras, 1992 and 1995; data acquisition, navigation and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael H.; Dillon, William P.; Anton, Christopher H.; Danforth, William W.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study, seismic-reflection profiles were collected over the Blake Ridge in 1992 and 1995, in order to map the volume and distribution of methane hydrate. Faulting and seafloor instabilities appear to be related to methane hydrate processes at the Blake Ridge. Seismic profiles display a prominent collapse structure at the crest, which is inferred to have resulted from the mobilization of sediment that was associated with methane hydrate dissociation.

  8. Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic-reflection data collected in the Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Hart, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Contained on this set of two CD-ROMs are stacked and migrated multi-channel seismic-reflection data for 44 lines recorded in the Chukchi Sea, northern Alaska, by the United States Geological Survey in 1977, 1978, and 1980. All data were reprocessed by the USGS in 2000 using updated methods. The resulting final data have both increased temporal and spatial resolution thus providing improved interpretability. An added benefit of these CD-ROMs is that they are a more stable, long-term archival medium for the data.

  9. Multiple attenuation to reflection seismic data using Radon filter and Wave Equation Multiple Rejection (WEMR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput [Geophysical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesha Street no.10 Basic Science B Buliding fl.2-3 Bandung, 40132, West Java Indonesia puput.erlangga@gmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.

  10. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method; Gokusenso jishin hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S; Muraoka, S; Kaida, Y; Takahashi, T [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To effectively use the very shallow seismic reflection for active fault survey, a method has been investigated by which fault structures can be appropriately reconstructed from the fault information detected in the original records. The first step of reconstructing the fault system from the travel time reflection curve was to grasp an outline of fault structure from the patterns of travel time curve observed in the original record. For the very shallow seismic reflection method, especially, the low velocity layers in a shallow part succeeding from the ground surface made the issue complicated. Then, the travel time reflection curves were calculated in the case of existing several horizontal reflection surfaces in the surface layer. The constant values, mean velocities to the depth at individual reflection surfaces were used for the approximation of velocities. The outline of fault structure was grasped from the observation of original record. Then, the structure was reconstructed from the travel time curves. When the mean velocity in the medium was known, reconstruction of the feature of reflection surfaces from the travel time curves could be determined by simple mapping. When the mean velocity was unknown, it was calculated using the reciprocal travel time from the common reflection surface for individual reflection surfaces. 7 figs.

  11. Resolution of Reflection Seismic Data Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus; Zunino, Andrea

    The Rayleigh Principle states that the minimum separation between two reflectors that allows them to be visually separated is the separation where the wavelet maxima from the two superimposed reflections combine into one maximum. This happens around Δtres = λb/8, where λb is the predominant...... lower vertical resolution of reflection seismic data. In the following we will revisit think layer model and demonstrate that there is in practice no limit to the vertical resolution using the parameterization of Widess (1973), and that the vertical resolution is limited by the noise in the data...

  12. The effect of deformation after backarc spreading between the rear arc and current volcanic front in Shikoku Basin obtained by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Tamura, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed crustal structure information of a back-arc basin must be obtained to elucidate the mechanism of its opening. Especially, the Shikoku Basin, which occupies the northern part of the Philippine Sea Plate between the Kyushu-Palau Ridge and the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc, is an important area to understand the evolution of the back-arc basins as a part of the growth process of the Philippine Sea. Especially, the crustal structure oft the east side of Shikoku Basin is complicated by colliding to the Izu Peninsula Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology has been carried out many multi-channel seismic reflection surveys since 2004 in Izu-Bonin region. Kodaira et al. (2008) reported the results of a refraction seismic survey along a north-south profile within paleoarc in the rear arc (i.e., the Nishi-shichito ridge) about 150 km west of current volcanic front. According to their results, the variation relationship of crustal thickness between the rear arc and volcanic front is suggested the evidence of rifting from current volcanic arc. There is the en-echelon arrangement is located in the eastern side of Shikoku Basin from current arc to rear arc, and it is known to activate after ceased spreading at 15 Ma (Okino et al., 1994) of Shikoku Basin by geologic sampling of Ishizuka et al. (2003). Our MCS results are also recognized the recent lateral fault zone is located in east side of Shikoku Basin. We carried out high density grid multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) survey using tuned airgun in order to obtain the relationship between the lateral faults and en-echelon arrangement in KR08-04 cruise. We identified the deformation of sediments in Shikoku Basin after activity of Kanbun seamount at 8 Ma in MCS profile. It is estimated to activate a part of the eastern side of Shikoku Basin after construction of en-echelon arrangement and termination of Shikoku Basin spreading. Based on analyses of magnetic and gravity anomalies, Yamazaki and Yuasa (1998

  13. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddell, Michael G.; Domoracki, William J.; Eyer, Jerome

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, University of South Carolina is conducting a proof of concept study to determine the location and distribution of subsurface DNAPL carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) contamination at the 216-Z-9 crib, 200 West area, DOE Hanford Site, Washington by use of two-dimensional high-resolution seismic reflection surveys and borehole geophysical data. The study makes use of recent advances in seismic reflection amplitude versus offset (AVO) technology to directly detect the presence of subsurface DNAPL. The techniques proposed are noninvasive means of site characterization and direct free-phase DNAPL detection. This final report covers the results of Tasks 1, 2, and 3. Task (1) contains site evaluation and seismic modeling studies. The site evaluation consists of identifying and collecting preexisting geological and geophysical information regarding subsurface structure and the presence and quantity of DNAPL. The seismic modeling studies were undertaken to determine the likelihood that an AVO response exists and its probable manifestation. Task (2) is the design and acquisition of 2-D seismic reflection data to image areas of probable high concentration of DNAPL. Task (3) is the processing and interpretation of the 2-D data. During the commission of these tasks four seismic reflection profiles were collected. Subsurface velocity information was obtained by vertical seismic profile surveys in three wells. The interpretation of these data is in two parts. Part one is the construction and interpretation of structural contour maps of the contact between the Hanford Fine unit and the underlying Plio/Pleistocene unit and of the contact between the Plio/Pleistocene unit and the underlying caliche layer. These two contacts were determined to be the most likely surfaces to contain the highest concentration CCl 4 . Part two of the interpretation uses the results of the AVO modeling to locate any seismic amplitude anomalies that might be

  14. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. Waddell; William J. Domoracki; Jerome Eyer

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, University of South Carolina is conducting a proof of concept study to determine the location and distribution of subsurface DNAPL carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) contamination at the 216-Z-9 crib, 200 West area, DOE Hanford Site, Washington by use of two-dimensional high-resolution seismic reflection surveys and borehole geophysical data. The study makes use of recent advances in seismic reflection amplitude versus offset (AVO) technology to directly detect the presence of subsurface DNAPL. The techniques proposed are noninvasive means of site characterization and direct free-phase DNAPL detection. This final report covers the results of Tasks 1, 2, and 3. Task (1) contains site evaluation and seismic modeling studies. The site evaluation consists of identifying and collecting preexisting geological and geophysical information regarding subsurface structure and the presence and quantity of DNAPL. The seismic modeling studies were undertaken to determine the likelihood that an AVO response exists and its probable manifestation. Task (2) is the design and acquisition of 2-D seismic reflection data to image areas of probable high concentration of DNAPL. Task (3) is the processing and interpretation of the 2-D data. During the commission of these tasks four seismic reflection profiles were collected. Subsurface velocity information was obtained by vertical seismic profile surveys in three wells. The interpretation of these data is in two parts. Part one is the construction and interpretation of structural contour maps of the contact between the Hanford Fine unit and the underlying Plio/Pleistocene unit and of the contact between the Plio/Pleistocene unit and the underlying caliche layer. These two contacts were determined to be the most likely surfaces to contain the highest concentration CCl{sub 4}. Part two of the interpretation uses the results of the AVO modeling to locate any seismic amplitude anomalies that might be

  15. Baseline seismic survey for the 2nd offshore methane hydrate production test in the Eastern Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Y.; Inamori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Fujii, T.; Saeki, T.; Takahashi, H.; Kobayashi, F.

    2017-12-01

    JOGMEC carries out seismic monitoring surveys before and after the 2nd offshore methane hydrate (MH) production test in the Eastern Nankai Trough and evaluates MH dissociation behavior from the time-lapse seismic response. In 2016, JOGMEC deployed Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) system provided by OCC in the Daini Atsumi Knoll with water depths of 900-1100 m. The main challenge of the seismic survey was to optimize the cable layout for ensuring an effective time-lapse seismic detectability while overcoming the following two issues: 1. OBC receiver lines were limited to only two lines. It was predicted that the imaging of shallow reflectors would suffer from lack of continuity and resolution due to this limitation of receiver lines. 2. The seafloor and shallow sedimentary layers including monitoring target are dipping to the Northwest direction. It was predicted that the refection points would laterally shift to up-dip direction (Southeast direction). In order to understand the impact of the issues above, the seismic survey was designed with elastic wave field simulation. The reflection seismic survey for baseline data was conducted in August 2016. A total of 70 receiver stations distributed along one cable were deployed successfully and a total of 9952 shots were fired. After the baseline seismic survey, the hydrophone and geophone vertical component datasets were processed as outlined below: designaturing, denoising, surface consistent deconvolution and surface consistent amplitude correction. High-frequency imaging with Reverse Time Migration (RTM) was introduced to these data sets. Improvements in imaging from the RTM are remarkable compared to the Kirchhoff migration and the existing Pre-stack time migration with 3D marine surface seismic data obtained and processed in 2002, especially in the following parts. The MH concentrated zone which has complex structures. Below the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) which is present as a impedance-contrast boundary

  16. Reflection seismic investigations of western Canadian coalfields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C.; Bertram, M.B.

    1983-03-01

    High resolution reflection seismic studies using a seisgun surface source were undertaken at four sites in Alberta. The objective of the project was to test the feasibility of the seismic method for the exploration and evaluation of coal deposits in a range of environments in western Canada. At Camrose, coherent reflections from a coal zone 70-110 m below the surface were recorde along a 5 km profile. Variations in reflection amplitude and character were interpreted in terms of two main seams. Channel washouts, faults with throws of 5 m or greater, and effects of differential compaction were resolved. Studies at a foothills site showed that good data can be obtained in structurally disturbed areas with mild deformation. At this site, faults with vertical throws of up to 40 m were delineated. In the mountain region, studies indicated that the seismic method is not appropriate in areas with strong deformation. Deep weathering, variable topography and rapid lateral changes in reflector dip were the main reasons for poor data quality. The seisgun is a threshold seismic source which performs well in areas with a shallow water table and a zone of interest within 350 m of the surface. Its effectiveness decreases dramatically if the overburden is both thick and dry. Careful selection of field geometry and recording parameters is critical. In data processing, important aspects are the careful muting of first breaks and evaluation of short and long wavelength weathering statics corrections. A computer program listing for static correction analysis is included. The seismic method is very appropriate for evaluation of Plains and Foothills coal deposits in Alberta. It can provide continuous subsurface coverage between drillholes and therefore reduce the density of drillholes required to delineate a prospective area. 29 refs., 33 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. High-resolution seismic-reflection imaging 25 years of change in I-70 sinkhole, Russell County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W.; Lambrecht, J.L.; Croxton, N.

    2006-01-01

    Time-lapse seismic reflection imaging improved our understanding of the consistent, gradual surface subsidence ongoing at two sinkholes in the Gorham Oilfield discovered beneath a stretch of Interstate Highway 70 through Russell and Ellis Counties in Kansas in 1966. With subsidence occurring at a rate of around 10 cm per year since discovery, monitoring has been beneficial to ensure public safety and optimize maintenance. A miniSOSIE reflection survey conducted in 1980 delineated the affected subsurface and successfully predicted development of a third sinkhole at this site. In 2004 and 2005 a high-resolution vibroseis survey was completed to ascertain current conditions of the subsurface, rate and pattern of growth since 1980, and potential for continued growth. With time and improved understanding of the salt dissolution affected subsurface in this area it appears that these features represent little risk to the public from catastrophic failure. However, from an operational perspective the Kansas Department of Transportation should expect continued subsidence, with future increases in surface area likely at a slightly reduced vertical rate. Seismic characteristics appear empirically consistent with gradual earth material compaction/settling. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  18. Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic-reflection data collected in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agena, W.F.; Lee, Myung W.; Hart, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Contained on this set of two CD-ROMs are stacked and migrated multi-channel seismic-reflection data for 65 lines recorded in the Beaufort Sea by the United States Geological Survey in 1977. All data were reprocessed by the USGS using updated processing methods resulting in improved interpretability. Each of the two CD-ROMs contains the following files: 1) 65 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 65 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each line to cdp numbers and shotpoint numbers; 4) 2 small scale graphic images (stacked and migrated) of a segment of line 722 in Adobe Acrobat (R) PDF format; 5) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file; 6) PlotSeis, an MS-DOS Application that allows PC users to interactively view the SEG-Y files; 7) a PlotSeis documentation file; and 8) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document).

  19. Seismic refraction survey of the ANS preferred site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.K. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Hopkins, R.A. (Marrich, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Doll, W.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Between September 19, 1991 and October 8, 1991 personnel from Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Automated Sciences Group, Inc., and Marrich, Inc. performed a seismic refraction survey at the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) preferred site. The purpose of this survey was to provide estimates of top-of-rock topography, based on seismic velocities, and to delineate variations in rock and soil velocities. Forty-four seismic refraction spreads were shot to determine top-of-rock depths at 42 locations. Nine of the seismic spreads were shot with long offsets to provide 216 top-of-rock depths for 4 seismic refraction profiles. The refraction spread locations were based on the grid for the ANS Phase I drilling program. Interpretation of the seismic refraction data supports the assumption that the top-of-rock surface generally follows the local topography. The shallow top-of-rock interface interpreted from the seismic refraction data is also supported by limited drill information at the site. Some zones of anomalous data are present that could be the result of locally variable weathering, a localized variation in shale content, or depth to top-of-rock greater than the site norm.

  20. Seismic reflection response from cross-correlations of ambient vibrations on non-conventional hidrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, F. V.; Granados, I.; Aguirre, J.; Carrera, R. Á.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, in hydrocarbon industry, there is a need to optimize and reduce exploration costs in the different types of reservoirs, motivating the community specialized in the search and development of alternative exploration geophysical methods. This study show the reflection response obtained from a shale gas / oil deposit through the method of seismic interferometry of ambient vibrations in combination with Wavelet analysis and conventional seismic reflection techniques (CMP & NMO). The method is to generate seismic responses from virtual sources through the process of cross-correlation of records of Ambient Seismic Vibrations (ASV), collected in different receivers. The seismic response obtained is interpreted as the response that would be measured in one of the receivers considering a virtual source in the other. The acquisition of ASV records was performed in northern of Mexico through semi-rectangular arrays of multi-component geophones with instrumental response of 10 Hz. The in-line distance between geophones was 40 m while in cross-line was 280 m, the sampling used during the data collection was 2 ms and the total duration of the records was 6 hours. The results show the reflection response of two lines in the in-line direction and two in the cross-line direction for which the continuity of coherent events have been identified and interpreted as reflectors. There is certainty that the events identified correspond to reflections because the time-frequency analysis performed with the Wavelet Transform has allowed to identify the frequency band in which there are body waves. On the other hand, the CMP and NMO techniques have allowed to emphasize and correct the reflection response obtained during the correlation processes in the frequency band of interest. The results of the processing and analysis of ASV records through the seismic interferometry method have allowed us to see interesting results in light of the cross-correlation process in combination with

  1. GPR surveys for the characterization of foundation plinths within a seismic vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Domenico, Domenica; Teramo, Antonio; Campo, Davide

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of GPR surveys performed to identify the foundation plinths of 12 buildings of a school, whose presence is uncertain since the structural drawings were not available. Their effective characterization is an essential element within a study aimed at assessing the seismic vulnerability of the buildings, which are non-seismically designed structures, located in an area classified as a seismic zone after their construction. Through GPR profiles acquired by two 250 MHz antennas, both in reflection mode and in a WARR configuration, the actual geometry and depth of the building plinths were successfully identified, limiting the number of invasive tests necessary to validate the GPR data interpretation, thus enabling the choice of the most suitable sites that would not alter the serviceability of the structure. The collected data were also critically analysed with reference to local environmental noise that, if causing reflections superimposed on those of the subsoil, could undermine the success of the investigation. Due to the homogeneity of the ground, the processing and results relative to each pair of profiles carried out for all of these buildings is very similar, so the results concerning only two of them are reported. (paper)

  2. Reflection imaging of the Moon's interior using deep-moonquake seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishitsuji, Y.; Rowe, CA; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    The internal structure of the Moon has been investigated over many years using a variety of seismic methods, such as travel time analysis, receiver functions, and tomography. Here we propose to apply body-wave seismic interferometry to deep moonquakes in order to retrieve zero-offset reflection

  3. Multichannel seismic-reflection data collected in 1980 in the eastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Mann, Dennis M.; May, Steven D.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected approximately 2,652 km of 24-channel seismic-reflection data in early September, 1980, over the continental shelf in the eastern Chukchi Sea (Fig. 1). The profiles were collected on the USGS Research Vessel S.P. Lee. The seismic energy source consisted of a tuned array of five airguns with a total volume of 1213 cubic inches of air compressed to approximately 1900 psi. The recording system consisted of a 24-channel, 2400 meter long streamer with a group interval of 100 m, and a GUS (Global Universal Science) model 4200 digital recording instrument. Shots were fired every 50 meters. Navigational control for the survey was provided by a Magnavox integrated navigation system using transit satellites and doppler-sonar augmented by Loran C (Rho-Rho). A 2-millisecond sampling rate was used in the field; the data were later desampled to 4-milliseconds during the demultiplexing process. 8 seconds data length was recorded. Processing was done at the USGS Pacific Marine Geology Multichannel Processing Center in Menlo Park, California, in the sequence: editing-demultiplexing, velocity analysis, CDP stacking, deconvolution-filtering, and plotting on an electrostatic plotter. Plate 1 is a trackline chart showing shotpoint navigation.

  4. Seismic data enhancement with Common Reflection Surface (CRS) stack method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykulov, M.; Brink, H.J.; Gajewski, D.; Yoon, Mi-Kyung [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik

    2008-10-23

    We present the results of partial stacking of prestack seismic reflection data based on the kinematic wavefield attributes computed during the automatic CRS stack. The resulting CRS supergathers are more regularised and have better signal to noise ratio compared to original CMP gathers. The improved data can be used in any conventional processing tool instead of the original data, providing enhanced images of better quality. The CRS supergather method is especially suited for low fold seismic reflection data. Application of the new method to synthetic and real low fold data shows a clear improvement of seismograms as well as time and depth-migrated sections. (orig.)

  5. High Resolution Vertical Seismic Profile from the Chicxulub IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 Borehole: Wave Speeds and Seismic Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lofi, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Christeson, G. L.; Saustrup, S., Sr.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    We acquired a closely-spaced vertical seismic profile (VSP) in the Chicxulub K-Pg Impact Crater drilling program borehole to calibrate the existing surface seismic profiles and provide complementary measurements of in situ seismic wave speeds. Downhole seismic records were obtained at spacings ranging from 1.25 m to 5 m along the borehole from 47.5 m to 1325 mwsf (meters wireline below sea floor) (Fig 1a) using a Sercel SlimwaveTM geophone chain (University of Alberta). The seismic source was a 30/30ci Sercel Mini GI airgun (University of Texas), fired a minimum of 5 times per station. Seismic data processing used a combination of a commercial processing package (Schlumberger's VISTA) and MatlabTM codes. The VSP displays detailed reflectivity (Fig. 1a) with the strongest reflection seen at 600 mwsf (280 ms one-way time), geologically corresponding to the sharp contact between the post-impact sediments and the target peak ring rock, thus confirming the pre-drilling interpretations of the seismic profiles. A two-way time trace extracted from the separated up-going wavefield matches the major reflection both in travel time and character. In the granitic rocks that form the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater, we observe P-wave velocities of 4000-4500 m/s which are significantly less than the expected values of granitoids ( 6000 m/s) (Fig. 1b). The VSP measured wave speeds are confirmed against downhole sonic logging and in laboratory velocimetry measurements; these data provide additional evidence that the crustal material displaced by the impact experienced a significant amount of damage. Samples and data provided by IODP. Samples can be requested at http://web.iodp.tamu.edu/sdrm after 19 October 2017. Expedition 364 was jointly funded by ECORD, ICDP, and IODP with contributions and logistical support from the Yucatan State Government and UNAM. The downhole seismic chain and wireline system is funded by grants to DRS from the Canada Foundation for Innovation and

  6. Low-frequency asymptotic analysis of seismic reflection from afluid-saturated medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.B.; Korneev, V.A.; Goloshubin, G.M.; Patzek, T.W.

    2004-04-14

    Reflection of a seismic wave from a plane interface betweentwo elastic media does not depend on the frequency. If one of the mediais poroelastic and fluid-saturated, then the reflection becomesfrequency-dependent. This paper presents a low-frequency asymptoticformula for the reflection of seismic plane p-wave from a fluid-saturatedporous medium. The obtained asymptotic scaling of the frequency-dependentcomponent of the reflection coefficient shows that it is asymptoticallyproportional to the square root of the product of the reservoir fluidmobility and the frequency of the signal. The dependence of this scalingon the dynamic Darcy's law relaxation time is investigated as well.Derivation of the main equations of the theory of poroelasticity from thedynamic filtration theory reveals that this relaxation time isproportional to Biot's tortuosity parameter.

  7. Imaging near-subsurface subrosion structures and faults using SH-wave reflection seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja; Polom, Ulrich; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Subrosion is a term for underground leaching of soluble rocks and is a global phenomenon. It involves dissolution of evaporites due to the presence of unsaturated water, fractures and faults. Fractures and faults are pathways for water to circulate and to generate subsurface cavities. Depending on the leached material and the parameters of the generation process, especially the dissolution rate, different kinds of subrosion structures evolve in the subsurface. The two end members are collapse and depression structures. Subrosion is a natural process, but it can be enhanced by anthropogenic factors like manipulation of the aquifer system and groundwater flow and by e.g. extraction of saline water. The formation of sinkholes and depressions are a dangerous geohazard, especially if they occur in urban areas, which often leads to building and infrastructural damage and life-threatening situations. For this reason investigations of the processes that induce subrosion and a detailed analysis of the resulting structures are of importance. To develop a comprehensive model of near-subsurface subrosion structures, reflection seismics is one of the methods used by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics. The study area is located in the city of Bad Frankenhausen in northern Thuringia, Germany. Most of the geological underground of Thuringia is characterized by Permian deposits. Bad Frankenhausen is situated directly south of the Kyffhäuser mountain range at the Kyffhäuser Southern Margin Fault. This major fault is one of the main pathways for the circulating ground- and meteoric waters that leach the Permian deposits, especially the Leine-, Staßfurt- and Werra Formations. 2014 and 2015 eight shear wave reflection seismic profiles were carried out in the urban area of Bad Frankenhausen and three profiles in the countrified surroundings. Altogether ca. 3.6 km were surveyed using a landstreamer as receiver and an electro-dynamic vibrator as source. The surveys were

  8. Improving fault image by determination of optimum seismic survey parameters using ray-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Sadegh; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hasani, Hossein; Talebi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-01

    In complex structures such as faults, salt domes and reefs, specifying the survey parameters is more challenging and critical owing to the complicated wave field behavior involved in such structures. In the petroleum industry, detecting faults has become crucial for reservoir potential where faults can act as traps for hydrocarbon. In this regard, seismic survey modeling is employed to construct a model close to the real structure, and obtain very realistic synthetic seismic data. Seismic modeling software, the velocity model and parameters pre-determined by conventional methods enable a seismic survey designer to run a shot-by-shot virtual survey operation. A reliable velocity model of structures can be constructed by integrating the 2D seismic data, geological reports and the well information. The effects of various survey designs can be investigated by the analysis of illumination maps and flower plots. Also, seismic processing of the synthetic data output can describe the target image using different survey parameters. Therefore, seismic modeling is one of the most economical ways to establish and test the optimum acquisition parameters to obtain the best image when dealing with complex geological structures. The primary objective of this study is to design a proper 3D seismic survey orientation to achieve fault zone structures through ray-tracing seismic modeling. The results prove that a seismic survey designer can enhance the image of fault planes in a seismic section by utilizing the proposed modeling and processing approach.

  9. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K

    1996-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.

    1995-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Reflection seismic studies over the end-glacial Burträsk fault, Skellefteå, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Juhlin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection seismic data were acquired along a ca. 22 km long profile over the end-glacial Burträsk fault with a nominal receiver and source spacing of 20 m. A steeply dipping reflection can be correlated to the Burträsk fault, indicating that the fault dips at about 55° to the southeast near the surface. The reflection from the fault is rather poorly imaged, probably due to a lateral offset in the fault of about 1 km at this location and the crookedness of the seismic profile in the vicinity of the fault. A more pronounced steeply dipping reflection is observed about 4 km southeast of the Burträsk fault. Based on its correlation with a topographic low at the surface this reflection is interpreted to originate from a fracture zone. There are no signs of large displacements along this zone as the glacial ice receded, but earthquakes could be associated with it today. Other reflections on the processed seismic section may originate from changes in lithological variations in the supra-crustal rocks or from intrusions of more mafic rock. Constraints on the fault geometry provided by the reflection seismic data will help determine what stresses were required to activate the fault when the major rupture along it occurred ca. 9500 years ago.

  12. Archive of digital chirp seismic reflection data collected during USGS cruise 05SCC01 offshore of Port Fourchon and Timbalier Bay, Louisiana, August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.; Calderon, Karynna

    2007-01-01

    In August of 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys offshore of Port Fourchon and Timbalier Bay, Louisiana, and in nearby waterbodies. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital chirp seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, observer's logbook, and formal FGDC metadata. Filtered and gained digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.

  13. FINOSEIS: A new approach to offshore-building foundation soil analysis using high resolution reflection seismic and Scholte-wave dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Dennis; Wölz, Susanne; Müller, Christof; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2009-05-01

    As part of the FINOSEIS project we present the development of new seismic acquisition and inversion concepts for offshore-building foundation soil analysis. FINOSEIS is a subproject of the FINO3 project, which is aimed at the construction of an offshore research platform based in 28 m water depth, hosting eight research projects dealing with offshore wind energy topics. Our investigations focus on the determination of seismic parameters and structural information of the building plot of FINO3. We infer the shear-wave velocity structure by exploiting the dispersive properties of Scholte-waves and use high resolution 2.5D reflection seismic acquisition to determine seismic stratigraphy in three dimensions. Our work is motivated regarding possible hazards to offshore foundations such as wind parks and the FINO3 platform itself, e.g. permanent mechanical load by wind- and wave-forces possibly leading to an impairment of the soil. We conducted a pre-investigation of the site of the future platform in order to help finding a suitable foundation soil by improving common site investigation methods. In May 2006 we did a survey covering an area of 2 km square employing high resolution 2.5D reflection seismic. Along three 2 km airgun profiles Scholte-waves were recorded with Ocean-Bottom-Seismometers. Spectral analysis of these led to pseudo-2D shear-wave velocity models along the profiles. The reflection seismic area is characterized by glacial stratigraphy and diffractions documented within the penetration range of 30 m. With respect to the topography of the identified horizons as well as to the distribution of diffracting objects, a suitable foundation area for the platform was suggested. The results of the Scholte-wave experiment provide valuable information for further inversion models as well as for the dimensioning of further measurements. We also implemented an inversion strategy using the particle swarm optimization method. The inverted layers of shear-wave velocity

  14. Contributions to a shallow aquifer study by reprocessed seismic sections from petroleum exploration surveys, eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.

    1994-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Drilling Company of Abu Dhabi, is conducting a 4-year study of the fresh and slightly saline groundwater resources of the eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate. Most of this water occurs in a shallow aquifer, generally less than 150 m deep, in the Al Ain area. A critical part of the Al Ain area coincides with a former petroleum concession area where about 2780 km of vibroseis data were collected along 94 seismic lines during 1981-1983. Field methods, acquistion parameters, and section processing were originally designed to enhance reflections expected at depths ranging from 5000 to 6000 m, and subsurface features directly associated with the shallow aquifer system were deleted from the original seismic sections. The original field tapes from the vibroseis survey were reprocessed in an attempt to extract shallow subsurface information (depths less than 550 m) for investigating the shallow aquifer. A unique sequence of reproccessing parameters was established after reviewing the results from many experimental tests. Many enhancements to the resolution of shallow seismic reflections resulted from: (1) application of a 20-Hz, low-cut filter; (2) recomputation of static corrections to a datum nearer the land surface; (3) intensive velocity analyses; and (4) near-trace muting analyses. The number, resolution, and lateral continuity of shallow reflections were greatly enhanced on the reprocessed sections, as was the delineation of shallow, major faults. Reflections on a synthetic seismogram, created from a borehole drilled to a depth of 786 m on seismic line IQS-11, matcheddprecisely with shallow reflections on the reprocessed section. The 33 reprocessed sections were instrumental in preparing a map showing the major structural features that affect the shallow aquifer system. Analysis of the map provides a better understanding of the effect of these shallow features on the regional occurrence, movement, and quality of

  15. Integration of 2D and 3D reflection seismic data with deep boreholes in the Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Emilia; Malehmir, Alireza; Voipio, Teemu; Wijns, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Kevitsa is a large disseminated sulphide Ni-Cu-PGE deposit hosted by the Kevitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion in northern Finland and dated as about 2.06 Ga old. The Geological Survey of Finland first discovered the Kevitsa deposit in 1987. Open pit mining by Kevitsa Mining Oy/First Quantum Minerals Ltd. commenced in June 2012. The final pit depth is planned to be 550-600 m. The estimated ore reserves of the Kevitsa intrusion are about 240 million tones (using a nickel cut-off grade of 0.1%). The expected life-of-mine is 20-30 years. More than 400 hundred holes have been drilled in the Kevitsa area, but most are concentrated close to the known deposit and do not provide a comprehensive understanding of the extent of the intrusion. The basal contact of the intrusion is penetrated by only about 30 drill holes, most of which are shallow. A better knowledge of the geometry of the intrusion would provide a framework for near-mine and deep exploration in the area. An exact knowledge on the basal contact of the intrusion would also provide an exploration target for the contact-type mineralization that is often more massive and richer in Ni-Cu. In December 2007, a series of 2D reflection seismic profiles was acquired in the Kevitsa area. It consisted of four connected survey lines between 6 and 11 km long. In 2010, the initial positive results of the 2D seismic survey led Kevitsa Mining Oy/First Quantum Minerals Ltd. to initiate a 3D reflection seismic survey. The 3D seismic survey is limited to the closer vicinity of the known deposit, while the 2D seismic survey was designed to provide a more regional view of the Kevitsa intrusive complex. The main aims of the 2D and 3D seismic surveys were to delineate the shape and extent of the ore-bearing Kevitsa intrusion and the geometry of some of the host rock and surrounding units, and extract information about the larger-scale structures and structures important for mine-planning purposes. The 2D and 3D seismic data were used to

  16. Full waveform seismic AVAZ signatures of anisotropic shales by integrated rock physics and the reflectivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiwu; Guo, Zhiqi; Han, Xu

    2018-06-01

    A set of parallel vertical fractures embedded in a vertically transverse isotropy (VTI) background leads to orthorhombic anisotropy and corresponding azimuthal seismic responses. We conducted seismic modeling of full waveform amplitude variations versus azimuth (AVAZ) responses of anisotropic shale by integrating a rock physics model and a reflectivity method. The results indicate that the azimuthal variation of P-wave velocity tends to be more complicated for orthorhombic medium compared to the horizontally transverse isotropy (HTI) case, especially at high polar angles. Correspondingly, for the HTI layer in the theoretical model, the short axis of the azimuthal PP amplitudes at the top interface is parallel to the fracture strike, while the long axis at the bottom reflection directs the fracture strike. In contrast, the orthorhombic layer in the theoretical model shows distinct AVAZ responses in terms of PP reflections. Nevertheless, the azimuthal signatures of the R- and T-components of the mode-converted PS reflections show similar AVAZ features for the HTI and orthorhombic layers, which may imply that the PS responses are dominated by fractures. For the application to real data, a seismic-well tie based on upscaled data and a reflectivity method illustrate good agreement between the reference layers and the corresponding reflected events. Finally, the full waveform seismic AVAZ responses of the Longmaxi shale formation are computed for the cases of HTI and orthorhombic anisotropy for comparison. For the two cases, the azimuthal features represent differences mainly in amplitudes, while slightly in the phases of the reflected waveforms. Azimuth variations in the PP reflections from the reference layers show distinct behaviors for the HTI and orthorhombic cases, while the mode-converted PS reflections in terms of the R- and T-components show little differences in azimuthal features. It may suggest that the behaviors of the PS waves are dominated by vertically

  17. Seismarmara experiment: results from reprocessing of selected multi-channel seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, S.; Voogd, B.; Carton, H.; Laigle, M.; Becel, A.; Saatcilar, R.; Singh, S.; Hirn, A.

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) has been responsible for the earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999. The occurrence of these earthquakes has drawn scientific attention into the Sea of Marmara since the NAF enters into the Sea of Marmara where the latest Izmit earthquake rupture stopped. The SEISMARMARA-2001 survey is a combined seismic reflection, refraction and earthquake experiment carried out in 2001 in the Marmara Region in Turkey by French-Turkish scientific cooperation. The objectives of this survey were to image the various branches of the NAF and related other fault systems. R/V Le Nadir was equipped with a 4.5 km long streamer with 360 channels and a large airgun source. During Leg 1, a grid of large regional lines encompassing the whole Marmara trough was shot. For part of them a strong 8100 cu.in. source for deepest penetration was used, with a 150 m shot interval giving a 15-fold coverage. Another part was shot for a higher resolution with a 2900 cu. in. array at a 50m or 38 m interval to give a 45 or 60-fold coverage. The latter acquisition parameters were used for Leg 2 that was devoted to a very dense grid of lines in the Cinarcik Basin Reprocessing of the multi-channel seismic data is currently being undertaken in several Institutions using different seismic processing softwares (GeoVecteur, ProMAX, Focus), to take advantage of the diverse acquisitions and cope with their limitations, for instance high fold-order for Leg 2 and strength of signal but loose spatial sampling for the bigger source. The main objectives of the reprocessing of the selected profiles are to do a detailed velocity analysis and stacking after deconvolution, filtering to remove or suppress deep sea bottom multiples and out of plane reflections, and time-migration and depth conversion and thus reveal both the shallow and deeper reflection image of the crust in the Sea of Marmara. We show that choosing an appropriate processing sequence for different sources and acquisition

  18. Effects of seismic survey sound on cetaceans in the Northwest Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, Valerie D.; Holst, Meike [LGL Limited, Environmental Research Associates (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Hydrocarbon exploration with marine seismic programs in the Canadian Beaufort Sea is expected to continue in the future. However the effect of those seismic surveys on cetaceans is a controversial subject, the sound emitted by airguns might result in hearing impairment or injury to marine mammals if they are at close range. The aim of this paper is to determine the behavior of cetaceans during seismic surveys. From 2003 to 2008, studies were conducted for 9180 hours over 8 seismic programs to observe the difference in number, sighting distance and behavior of marine mammals between seismic and non-seismic periods. Results showed that mysticetes and baleen whales tend to avoid the active airgun array while large toothed whales showed no difference in sighting rate and distances whether the airgun was active or not. This study showed that the effectiveness of ramping up the airgun to alert cetaceans of seismic operations depends on the species.

  19. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, I.; Stephenson, R.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the experiment was to obtain new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea zone, including the Focsani Basin. The seismic reflection line had a WNW-ESE orientation, running from internal East Carpathians units, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians, and the foreland Focsani Basin towards the Danube Delta. There were 131 shot points along the profile, with about 1 km spacing, and data were recorded with stand-alone RefTek-125s (also known as "Texans"), supplied by the University Texas at El Paso and the PASSCAL Institute. The entire line was recorded in three deployments, using about 340 receivers in the first deployment and 640 receivers in each of the other two deployments. The resulting deep seismic reflection stacks, processed to 20 s along the entire profile and to 10 s in the eastern Focsani Basin, are presented here. The regional architecture of the latter, interpreted in the context of abundant independent constraint from exploration seismic and subsurface data, is well imaged. Image quality within and beneath the thrust belt is of much poorer quality. Nevertheless, there is good evidence to suggest that a thick (˜10 km) sedimentary basin having the structure of a graben and of indeterminate age underlies the westernmost part of the Focsani Basin, in the depth range 10-25 km. Most of the crustal depth seismicity observed in the Vrancea zone (as opposed to the more intense upper mantle seismicity) appears to be associated with this sedimentary basin. The sedimentary successions within this basin and other horizons

  20. Forsmark site investigation. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area, 2004: Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2005-06-15

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Fall of 2004 in the Forsmark area, located about 140 km north of Stockholm, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for spent nuclear fuel. About 25 km of high resolution (nominal source and receiver spacing of maximum 10 m and a minimum of 160 active channels) seismic data were acquired along 10 profiles, varying in length from about 1 km to over 4 km. Three of these profiles are extensions of profiles that were acquired in 2002 (Stage 1). While the 2002 Stage 1 profiles were geared towards acquiring data from within the relatively undeformed lens, the current study focused on acquiring data from the boundaries of the lens. Data acquisition was also concentrated towards the western part of the candidate area. Data were acquired using a combination of the same explosive source as in Stage 1 (1575 g of explosives) and the VIBSIST mechanical source consisting of an industrial hammer mounted on a tractor. Earlier tests in Laxemar had shown that the VIBSIST source gives comparable data to the explosive source and is less expensive. It can also be used in areas where explosives are prohibited, such as close to the nuclear power plant. At present, the source cannot be used in the terrain, therefore an explosive component is still required. About 80% of the 2100 source points were activated using the VIBSIST system. Stacked sections from the new profiles are generally consistent with the Stage 1 results. Reflections from the prominent south dipping A1 reflector can be observed on most profiles, however, it is not clear if it can be traced all the way to the surface. Neither is it clearly observed below the power plant, suggesting its lateral extent is limited to the west. Instead, a gently east dipping reflector (B8) is interpreted below the power plant. Reflections consistent with the A2 reflector are also found on two profiles, but cannot be traced very far to the south, suggesting that

  1. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rogers

    2011-12-31

    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume

  2. Detailed geological characterisation from seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Hatherly; Binzhong Zhou; Troy Peters; Milovan Urosevic [CRC Mining (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    The use of seismic reflection surveying continues to grow within Australia's underground coal mining regions of the Sydney and Bowen Basins. For this project, the potential for acoustic impedance inversion to complement the information available from conventional seismic surveys was investigated. Acoustic impedance is defined by the product of seismic P-wave velocity and rock density. The methods of seismic inversion have been developed mainly for the investigation of petroleum reservoirs. Commercial software packages are available and for this project we utilised the Hampson and Russell software available at Curtin University of Technology. For the true amplitude processing of the seismic data, the Promax software operated at Velseis Processing was used. Inversions were undertaken for three 3D seismic surveys and two 2D surveys. The sites were at Grasstree and North Goonyella Mines in the Bowen Basin and at West Cliff and Dendrobium Collieries in the Sydney Basin. An empirical relationship was derived between acoustic impedance and the newly developed Geophysical Strata Rating (GSR). This allows impedance values to be converted into GSR values that have more meaning in geotechnical assessment. To obtain satisfactory inversions, we used the model based approach.

  3. Interpretation of seismic reflection data, Central Palo Duro Basin: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Seismic reflection data from the Central Palo Duro Basin, Texas, were studied to identify and characterize geologic structure, potential hydrocarbon traps, and anomalies suggesting adverse features such as salt dissolution or diapirism. The data included seismic reflection data, geologic and geophysical data controlled by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, and data from the literature. These data comprised approximately 590 line-mi of seismic profiles over approximately 4000 mi 2 , plus well logs from 308 wells. The study addressed the section from shallow reflectors down to basement. Structural contour maps were prepared for the Upper San Andres, Near Top of Glorieta, Wolfcamp, and Precambrian horizons. Isopach maps were prepared for intervals between the Upper and Lower San Andres and between the Upper San Andres and the Wolfcamp. Interpretation indicates southeasterly dips in the northwest part of the mapped area and southwesterly dips in the southwest part. Geologic structures show a generally northwest alignment. Faults at the Precambrian level and geologic structures show a generally northwest alignment. Faulting in the area is largely limited to the Precambrian, but interpretation is uncertain. Evidence of post-Wolfcampian faulting is not recognized. Seismic data delineating the San Andres section indicate a stable section throughout the area. Anomalous reflection events possibly associated with subsurface salt dissolution were seen at the 800- to 1200-ft level in Swisher County. Other anomalies include an overthickened zone northwest of Westway and carbonate buildup in the Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian in Randall County. Mississippian to Middle Pennsylvanian diastrophism resulting in the Amarillo Uplift and Matador Arch is not manifested structurally in the central Palo Duro Basin. Subsidence or gentle uplift contributed to some structural deformation

  4. New seismic source `BLASTER` for seismic survey; Hasaiyaku wo shingen to shite mochiita danseiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, G; Yoshikuni, Y [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Built-up weight and vacuole have been conceived as seismic sources without using explosive. There have been problems that they have smaller energy to generate elastic wave than explosive, and that they have inferior working performance. Concrete crushing explosive is tried to use as a new seismic source. It is considered to possess rather large seismic generating energy, and it is easy to handle from the viewpoint of safety. Performance as seismic source and applicability to exploration works of this crushing explosive were compared with four kinds of seismic sources using dynamite, dropping weight, shot-pipe utilizing shot vacuole, and impact by wooden maul. When considered by the velocity amplitude, the seismic generating energy of the crushing explosive of 120 g is about one-fifth of dynamite of 100 g. Elastic wave generated includes less high frequency component than that by dynamite, and similar to that using seismic source without explosive, such as the weight dropping. The maximum seismic receiving distance obtained by the seismic generation was about 100 m. This was effective for the slope survey with the exploration depth between 20 m and 30 m. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Shallow reflection seismic soundings in bedrock at Lavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okko, Olli

    1988-03-01

    The well-studied granitic block at Lavia was one of the test sites of a shallow seismic development project. A portable digital seismograph and high frequency geophones were rented fro the field period. A sledge hamme and a drop weight were tested as wave sources. The sounding was carried out on outcropped area in order to record high frequency reflections from known subhorizontal fracture zones as shallow as 30 m. Large amplitude surface waves hide most of the shallow reflections, recognizable only on few traces in the data. The data processing carried out did not reveal the geometry of these reflectors. Events arriving after the ground roll were analyzed in 2-folded CDP-sections. The continuous reflective horizons in them correspond to lithological changes and fracture zones located deeper than 200 m in the bedrock

  6. Groundwater exploration in a Quaternary sediment body by shear-wave reflection seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrung, M.; Polom, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    The detailed investigation of a shallow aquifer structure is the prerequisite for choosing a proper well location for groundwater exploration drilling for human drinking water supply and subsequent managing of the aquifer system. In the case of shallow aquifers of some 10 m in depth, this task is still a challenge for high-resolution geophysical methods, especially in populated areas. In areas of paved surfaces, shallow shear-wave reflection seismics is advantageous compared to conventional P-wave seismic methods. The sediment body of the Alfbach valley within the Vulkaneifel region in Germany, partly covered by the village Gillenfeld, was estimated to have a maximum thickness of nearly 60 m. It lies on top of a complicated basement structure, constituted by an incorporated lava flow near the basement. For the positioning of new well locations, a combination of a SH-wave land streamer receiver system and a small, wheelbarrow-mounted SH-wave source was used for the seismic investigations. This equipment can be easily applied also in residential areas without notable trouble for the inhabitants. The results of the 2.5D profiling show a clear image of the sediment body down to the bedrock with high resolution. Along a 1 km seismic profile, the sediment thickness varies between 20 to more than 60 m in the centre of the valley. The reflection behaviour from the bedrock surface corroborates the hypothesis of a basement structure with distinct topography, including strong dipping events from the flanks of the valley and strong diffractions from subsurface discontinuities. The reflection seismic imaging leads to an estimation of the former shape of the valley and a reconstruction of the flow conditions at the beginning of the sedimentation process.

  7. Combined analysis of surface reflection imaging and vertical seismic profiling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.; Karageorgi, E.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents results from surface and borehole seismic profiling performed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on Yucca Mountain. This work was performed as part of the site characterization effort for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Their objective was to provide seismic imaging from the near surface (200 to 300 ft. depth) to the repository horizon and below, if possible. Among the issues addressed by this seismic imaging work are location and depth of fracturing and faulting, geologic identification of reflecting horizons, and spatial continuity of reflecting horizons. The authors believe their results are generally positive, with tome specific successes. This was the first attempt at this scale using modem seismic imaging techniques to determine geologic features on Yucca Mountain. The principle purpose of this report is to present the interpretation of the seismic reflection section in a geologic context. Three surface reflection profiles were acquired and processed as part of this study. Because of environmental concerns, all three lines were on preexisting roads. Line 1 crossed the mapped surface trace of the Ghost Dance fault and it was intended to study the dip and depth extent of the fault system. Line 2 was acquired along Drill Hole wash and was intended to help the ESF north ramp design activities. Line 3 was acquired along Yucca Crest and was designed to image geologic horizons which were thought to be less faulted along the ridge. Unfortunately, line 3 proved to have poor data quality, in part because of winds, poor field conditions and limited time. Their processing and interpretation efforts were focused on lines 1 and 2 and their associated VSP studies

  8. Seismic-Reflection Technology Defines Potential Vertical Bypass in Hydrogeologic Confinement within Tertiary Carbonates of the Southeastern Florida Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K. J.; Walker, C.; Westcott, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous improvements in shallow-focused, high-resolution, marine seismic-reflection technology has provided the opportunity to evaluate geologic structures that breach confining units of the Floridan aquifer system within the southeastern Florida Platform. The Floridan aquifer system is comprised mostly of Tertiary platform carbonates. In southeastern Florida, hydrogeologic confinement is important to sustainable use of the Floridan aquifer system, where the saline lower part is used for injection of wastewater and the brackish upper part is an alternative source of drinking water. Between 2007 and 2011, approximately 275 km of 24- and 48-channel seismic-reflection profiles were acquired in canals of peninsular southeastern Florida, Biscayne Bay, present-day Florida shelf margin, and the deeply submerged Miami Terrace. Vertical to steeply dipping offsets in seismic reflections indicate faults, which range from Eocene to possible early Pliocene age. Most faults are associated with karst collapse structures; however, a few tectonic faults of early Miocene to early Pliocene age are present. The faults may serve as a pathway for vertical groundwater flow across relatively low-permeability carbonate strata that separate zones of regionally extensive high-permeability in the Floridan aquifer system. The faults may collectively produce a regional confinement bypass system. In early 2011, twenty seismic-reflection profiles were acquired near the Key Biscayne submarine sinkhole located on the seafloor of the Miami Terrace. Here the water depth is about 365 m. A steeply dipping (eastward) zone of mostly deteriorated quality of seismic-reflection data underlies the sinkhole. Correlation of coherent seismic reflections within and adjacent to the disturbed zone indicates a series of faults occur within the zone. It is hypothesized that upward movement of groundwater within the zone contributed to development of a hypogenic karst system and the resultant overlying sinkhole

  9. Reflection imaging of the Moon's interior using deep-moonquake seismic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitsuji, Yohei; Rowe, C. A.; Wapenaar, Kees; Draganov, Deyan

    2016-04-01

    The internal structure of the Moon has been investigated over many years using a variety of seismic methods, such as travel time analysis, receiver functions, and tomography. Here we propose to apply body-wave seismic interferometry to deep moonquakes in order to retrieve zero-offset reflection responses (and thus images) beneath the Apollo stations on the nearside of the Moon from virtual sources colocated with the stations. This method is called deep-moonquake seismic interferometry (DMSI). Our results show a laterally coherent acoustic boundary around 50 km depth beneath all four Apollo stations. We interpret this boundary as the lunar seismic Moho. This depth agrees with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) SELenological and Engineering Explorer (SELENE) result and previous travel time analysis at the Apollo 12/14 sites. The deeper part of the image we obtain from DMSI shows laterally incoherent structures. Such lateral inhomogeneity we interpret as representing a zone characterized by strong scattering and constant apparent seismic velocity at our resolution scale (0.2-2.0 Hz).

  10. Attenuation (1/Q) estimation in reflection seismic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raji, Wasiu; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Despite its numerous potential applications, the lack of a reliable method for determining attenuation (1/Q) in seismic data is an issue when utilizing attenuation for hydrocarbon exploration. In this paper, a new method for measuring attenuation in reflection seismic data is presented. The inversion process involves two key stages: computation of the centroid frequency for the individual signal using a variable window length and fast Fourier transform; and estimation of the difference in the centroid frequency and travel time for paired incident and transmitted signals. The new method introduces a shape factor and a constant which allows several spectral shapes to be used to represent a real seismic signal without altering the mathematical model. Application of the new method to synthetic data shows that it can provide reliable estimates of Q using any of the spectral shapes commonly assumed for real seismic signals. Tested against two published methods of Q measurement, the new method shows less sensitivity to interference from noise and change of frequency bandwidth. The method is also applied to a 3D data set from the Gullfaks field, North Sea, Norway. The trace length is divided into four intervals: AB, BC, CD, and DE. Results show that interval AB has the lowest 1/Q value, and that interval BC has the highest 1/Q value. The values of 1/Q measured in the CDP stack using the new method are consistent with those measured using the classical spectral ratio method. (paper)

  11. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  12. Characterization of the Vajont landslide (North-Eastern Italy) by means of reflection and surface wave seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Lorenzo; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of the disastrous Vajont rockslide (North-Eastern Italy, October 9, 1963) have been studied in great detail over the past five decades. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the rockslide dynamics still presents several uncertainties, including those related to the accurate estimation of the actual landslide mass. This work presents the results of a geophysical characterization of the Vajont landslide body in terms of material properties and buried geometry. Both aspects add new information to the existing dataset and will help a better understanding of the rockslide failure mechanisms and dynamics. In addition, some general considerations concerning the intricacies of landslide characterization can be drawn, with due attention to potential pitfalls. The employed techniques are: (i) high resolution P-wave reflection, (ii) high resolution SH-wave reflection, (iii) controlled source surface wave analysis. We adopted as a seismic source a vibrator both for P waves and SH waves, using vertical and horizontal geophones respectively. For the surface wave seismic survey we used a heavy drop-weight source and low frequency receivers. Despite the high noise level caused by the fractured conditions of the large rock body, a common situation in landslide studies, we managed to achieve a satisfying imaging quality of the landslide structure thanks to the large number of active channels, the short receiver interval and the test of appropriate seismic sources. The joint use of different seismic techniques help focus the investigation on the rock mass mechanical properties. Results are in good agreement with the available borehole data, the geological sections and the mechanical properties of the rockmass estimated by other studies. In general the proposed approach is likely to be applicable successfully to similar situations where scattering and other noise sources are a typical bottleneck to geophysical data acquisition on landslide bodies.

  13. Recording and processing procedures for multi-channel seismic-reflection data collected in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadisman, Shawn V.; Ryan, Holly F.; Mann, Dennis M.

    1987-01-01

    During 1984, over 2300 km of multichannel seismic-reflection data were recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey in the western Ross Sea and Iselin Bank regions.  A temporary loss and sinking of the streamer led to increasing the streamer tow depth to 20 m, which resulted in some attenuation of frequencies in the 30-50 Hz range but no significant difference in resolution of the stacked data.  Severe water bottom multiples were encountered and removed by dip-filtering, weighted stacking, and severe post-NMO muting.

  14. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  15. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. Waddell; William J. Domoracki; Tom J. Temples

    2001-12-01

    This annual technical progress report is for part of Task 4 (site evaluation), Task 5 (2D seismic design, acquisition, and processing), and Task 6 (2D seismic reflection, interpretation, and AVO analysis) on DOE contact number DE-AR26-98FT40369. The project had planned one additional deployment to another site other than Savannah River Site (SRS) or DOE Hanford Site. After the SUBCON midyear review in Albuquerque, NM, it was decided that two additional deployments would be performed. The first deployment is to test the feasibility of using non-invasive seismic reflection and AVO analysis as a monitoring tool to assist in determining the effectiveness of Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) in removal of DNAPL. The second deployment is to the Department of Defense (DOD) Charleston Naval Weapons Station Solid Waste Management Unit 12 (SWMU-12), Charleston, SC to further test the technique to detect high concentrations of DNAPL. The Charleston Naval Weapons Station SWMU-12 site was selected in consultation with National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and DOD Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southern Division (NAVFAC) personnel. Based upon the review of existing data and due to the shallow target depth, the project team collected three Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP) and an experimental P-wave seismic reflection line. After preliminary data analysis of the VSP data and the experimental reflection line data, it was decided to proceed with Task 5 and Task 6. Three high resolution P-wave reflection profiles were collected with two objectives; (1) design the reflection survey to image a target depth of 20 feet below land surface to assist in determining the geologic controls on the DNAPL plume geometry, and (2) apply AVO analysis to the seismic data to locate the zone of high concentration of DNAPL. Based upon the results of the data processing and interpretation of the seismic data, the project team was able to map the channel that is controlling the DNAPL plume

  16. Simulations of seismic acquisition footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.; Margrave, G.; Lawton, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the causes of commonly observed artefacts in seismic field data. These seismic acquisition footprints typically consist of modulations in recorded amplitudes that are spatially correlated to the surface locations of sources and receivers used in a survey. Two broad classes of footprint were considered, notably amplitude variations related to the edges of the survey and the amplitude variations in the interior of the survey. The variations in amplitude obscure the true reflection response of the subsurface. The MATLAB numerical modelling code was used to produce the synthetic seismic data and create a thorough dataset using a survey design incorporating dense grids of sources and receivers. The footprint consisting of periodic amplitude variations in the interior of the surveys, similar to that observed in field data and likely produced by poor sampling, was observed in the decimated dataset. This type of footprint varied in strength between images produced with different processing algorithms. The observed footprint in these simulations was most organized in the unmigrated stack and was somewhat randomized after poststack. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Crustal structure in the Kiruna area, northern Sweden, based on seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhojuntti, Niklas; Bergman, Stefan; Olsson, Sverker

    2013-04-01

    Northernmost Sweden is currently one of the most active mining areas in Europe. In order to better understand the regional three-dimensional crustal structure and to support deep ore exploration, we have acquired a 74 km long seismic reflection profile in the Kiruna area. The upper crust in this area is largely composed of various supracrustal units, which are dominated by metabasalts, acidic metavolcanics and clastic metasedimentary rocks, resting on an Archaean metagranitoid complex. All of these units have been intruded by plutonic rocks, and to variable degrees folded, sheared and metamorphosed, during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The profile crosses several steep ductile shear zones, some of which extend for hundreds of kilometres along strike. Many of the lithological contacts and deformation zones are expected to be seismically reflective. The profile is located only a few kilometres from the world's largest underground iron-ore mine in Kiruna, and closer to the profile there are several known ore bodies, some of which are active exploration targets. For the seismic recording we used approximately 350 geophones in split-spread configuration, at a separation of 25 m. The main seismic source was the Vibsist system (an impact source), which normally was employed at every geophone station. We also fired explosive charges (8-16 kg) at a few locations distributed along the profile to image deeper structures, although at very low resolution. Wireless seismometers were placed along and to the side of the profile, mainly in order to achieve better velocity control and to study out-of-the-plane reflections. Some mining blasts in Kiruna were also recorded. The upper crust in the area is quite reflective, most clearly demonstrated by the dynamite shot records. Some of the reflections appear to originate from steeply dipping structures. The dynamite shot records show a set of reflections at 3-4 s twt, corresponding to a depth of roughly 10 km, the explanation for which is

  18. Seismic Reflectivity of the Crust in the Northern Salton Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K.; Fuis, G. S.; Goldman, M.; Persaud, P.; Ryberg, T.; Langenheim, V. E.; Scheirer, D. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Catchings, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Salton Trough in southern California is a tectonically active pull-apart basin that was formed by migrating step-overs between strike-slip faults, of which the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and the Imperial Fault are the current, northernmost examples. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) was undertaken to improve our knowledge of fault geometry and seismic velocities within the sedimentary basins and underlying crystalline crust around the SAF. Such data are useful as input for modeling scenarios of strong ground shaking in the surrounding high-population areas. We used pre-stack depth migration of line segments from shot gathers in several seismic profiles that were acquired in the northern part of the SSIP study area (Lines 4 - 7). Our migration approach can be considered as an infinite-frequency approximation of the Fresnel volume pre-stack depth migration method. We use line segments instead of the original waveform data. We demonstrate the method using synthetic data and analyze real data from Lines 4 - 7 to illustrate the relationship between distinct phases in the time domain and their resulting image at depth. We show both normal-moveout reflections from sub-horizontal interfaces and reverse-moveout reflections from steep interfaces, such as faults. Migrated images of dipping faults, such as the SAF and the Pinto Mountain Fault, are presented in this way. The SAF is imaged along Line 4, through the Mecca Hills, as a number of steeply dipping fault segments that collectively form a flower structure, above 5 km depth, that sole into a moderately NE-dipping fault below that depth. The individual migrated reflection packages correlate with mapped surface fault traces in the Mecca Hills. A similar geometry is seen on Line 6, from Palm Springs through Yucca Valley, where fault splays sole or project into a moderately dipping SAF below 10-km depth. We also show and discuss the reflectivity pattern of the middle and lower crust for Lines 4 - 7.

  19. The crustal characteristics at syn- and/or post-rifting in eastern Shikoku basin by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Takizawa, K.; No, T.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Imaging of the arc-backarc transition zone is important in relation to the backarc opening process. Shikoku Basin locates between the Kyushu-Palau Ridge and the Izu-Ogasawara Arc, which is an important area to reveal the opening evolution of the backarc basins as a part of the growth process of the Philippine Sea. The Shikoku Basin was in the backarc rifting and spreading stage during about 30-15 Ma (e.g. Okino et al., 1994). High P-wave velocity lower crust is identified in arc-backarc transition zone by refraction survey using OBSs (Takahashi et al., 2007). Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) survey using 12,000 cu.in. air gun and 5 km streamer with 204 ch hydrophones in the Izu-Ogasawara region since 2004. We extracted and mapped the crustal characteristics from poststack and prestack depth migrated profiles. According to obtained profiles, the deformation structure with share component is recognized in arc-backarc transition zone, which located eastern side of Shikoku Basin from Zenisu Ridge to about 500 km south. The maximum width of this deformation zone is about 100 km. The relative displacement of horizon is little; however, it is strongly deformed from upper crust beneath seafloor. This deformation zone indicates the post- rifting activity in east side of Shikoku Basin. On the other hand, some knolls are indicated along the en- echelon arrangement from Izu-Ogasawara arc. Ishizuka et al. (2003) reported post-rifting volcanism with Miocene age in en-echelon arrangement. A part of these knolls are estimated to penetrate at syn-rifting and/or post-rifting stage in backarc opening. By comparing the both side of arc-backarc transition zone, we elucidate syn- and post-rifting effect in Shikoku Basin. We also carried out high density MCS surveys in Shikoku Basin in order to IODP proposal site for reconstruction of magmatic processes since Oligocene in rear arc. In this survey, we use new

  20. Experiment for deep seismic reflections in Hidaka, Hokkaido. Comparison between Vibroseis and explosive data; Hidaka chiiki ni okeru shinbu hanno data no shutoku jikken. Vibroseis to dynamite no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, N; Ikawa, T [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T; Tsumura, N; Shinohara, M; Ikawa, T. Ikawa, H.; Asano, Y; Tanaka, Y; Miyazono, N [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Arita, K; Moriya, T; Otsuka, K; Omura, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kimura, M [Osaka Prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Hirata, N [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Okuike, S

    1997-05-27

    This is a prompt report. These days the importance of acquiring knowledge about the structure from the lower crust down to the upper mantle is often discussed with reference taken to Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. The Hidaka collision belt where the lower crust is exposed on the surface is a rare phenomenon in the world and has been the subject of seismic survey. As a part of the survey, experiments are conducted by the use of vibrations produced by Vibroseis and dynamite sources. Every one of the shot records (20-second record) from the two types of vibration sources contains a clear echo in the vicinity of 16 seconds supposedly from a level deeper than 40 kilometers, not to mention reflections from shallow levels. Although some studies have to be conducted before the reflecting geological boundary (possibly the upper mantle) of the echo near the 16-second point can be identified, yet this is probably the reflection from the deepest level ever obtained in the seismic reflection survey conducted in Japan`s land area. It is proved by this experiment that vibration from a vibrator can reach as far as that from explosion if the vibrator specifications are rightly chosen. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area - stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Bergman Bjoern; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2002-10-01

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Spring of 2002 in the Forsmark area, located about 70 km northeast of Uppsala, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for high level radioactive waste. About 16 km of high resolution seismic data were acquired along five separate profiles varying in length from 2 to 5 km. Non-final source and receiver spacing was 10 m with 100 active channels when recording data from a dynamite source (15-75 g). The profiles were located within a relatively undeformed lens of bedrock that trends in the NW-SE direction. The lens is surrounded by highly deformed rock on all sides. In conjunction with the reflection component of the study, all shots were also recorded on up to eleven 3-component fixed Orion seismographs. These recordings provided long offset data from which a velocity model of the uppermost 400 m of bedrock could be derived. Results from the study show that the bedrock has been well imaged down to depths of at least 3 km. The upper 1000 m of bedrock is much more reflective in the southeastern portion of the lens compared to the northwestern part close to the Forsmark reactors. This is interpreted as the bedrock being more homogeneous in the northwest. However, a major reflective zone (the A1 reflector) is interpreted to dip to the S-SE below this homogeneous bedrock. In the southeastern portion of the lens the orientation of the reflectors is well determined where the profiles cross one another. The general strike of the major reflectors is NE-SW with dips of 20-35 degrees to the southeast.

  2. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data, SCAR - Wilkes Land 1982, SDLS, CD-ROM 15

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from thirteen lines recorded during 1983 off Wilkes Island, Antarctica, by the U.S. Geological...

  3. 75 FR 54095 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Seismic Survey in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Seismic Survey in the Eastern... low-energy marine seismic survey. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is... funding provided by the National Science Foundation, a low-energy marine seismic survey. NMFS reviewed SIO...

  4. Seismic modelling of coal bed methane strata, Willow Creek, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.E.; Mayer, R.; Lawton, D.C.; Langenberg, W. [Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose is to determine the feasibility of applying high- resolution reflection seismic surveying to coalbed methane (CBM) exploration and development. Numerical reflection seismic methods are examined for measuring the mapping continuity and coherence of coal zones. Numerical modelling of a coal zone in Upper Cretaceous sediments near Willow Creek, Alberta indicates that seismic data that is predominantly of 100 Hz is required to map the coal zone and lateral facies variations within the deposit. For resolution of individual coal seams, a central frequency >150 Hz would be needed. 26 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The Virtual Seismic Atlas Project: sharing the interpretation of seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R.; Mortimer, E.; McCaffrey, B.; Stuart, G.; Sizer, M.; Clayton, S.

    2007-12-01

    Through the activities of academic research programs, national institutions and corporations, especially oil and gas companies, there is a substantial volume of seismic reflection data. Although the majority is proprietary and confidential, there are significant volumes of data that are potentially within the public domain and available for research. Yet the community is poorly connected to these data and consequently geological and other research using seismic reflection data is limited to very few groups of researchers. This is about to change. The Virtual Seismic Atlas (VSA) is generating an independent, free-to-use, community based internet resource that captures and shares the geological interpretation of seismic data globally. Images and associated documents are explicitly indexed using not only existing survey and geographical data but also on the geology they portray. By using "Guided Navigation" to search, discover and retrieve images, users are exposed to arrays of geological analogues that provide novel insights and opportunities for research and education. The VSA goes live, with evolving content and functionality, through 2008. There are opportunities for designed integration with other global data programs in the earth sciences.

  6. Reprocessing and interpretation, seismic reflection data: Hanford Site, Pasco Basin, south central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkman, E.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to reprocess, evaluate, and reinterpret 14 line miles of seismic reflection data acquired at the Hanford Site. Regional and area-specific geology has been reviewed, the data acquisition parameters as they relate to the limitations inherent in the data have been discussed, and the reprocessing procedures have been described in detail along with an evaluation of the original processing. After initial testing, the focus of the reprocessing was placed on resolution of the geologic horizons at and near the top of the basalt. The reprocessed seismic data shows significant improvement over the original processing. The improvement is the result of the integrated processing and interpretation approach where each processing step has been tested in sequence and the intermediate results examined carefully in accordance with the project goals. The interpretation procedure placed strong reliance upon synthetic seismograms and models calculated based upon the physical parameters of the subsurface materials, and upon associated geophysical (reflection, gravity, magnetic) data. The final interpretation of the seismic data is in agreement with the structural contour maps based primarily on borehole information. The seismic interpretation has added important detail concerning areas which should be considered for further study. 60 figs., 1 tab

  7. 3D Seismic Reflection Amplitude and Instantaneous Frequency Attributes in Mapping Thin Hydrocarbon Reservoir Lithofacies: Morrison NE Field and Morrison Field, Clark County, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Totten, Matthew; Vohs, Andrew; Linares, Aria

    2017-12-01

    Thin hydrocarbon reservoir facies pose resolution challenges and waveform-signature opportunities in seismic reservoir characterization and prospect identification. In this study, we present a case study, where instantaneous frequency variation in response to a thin hydrocarbon pay zone is analyzed and integrated with other independent information to explain drilling results and optimize future drilling decisions. In Morrison NE Field, some wells with poor economics have resulted from well-placement incognizant of reservoir heterogeneities. The study area in Clark County, Kanas, USA, has been covered by a surface 3D seismic reflection survey in 2010. The target horizon is the Viola limestone, which continues to produce from 7 of the 12 wells drilled within the survey area. Seismic attributes extraction and analyses were conducted with emphasis on instantaneous attributes and amplitude anomalies to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneities and their control on hydrocarbon entrapment settings. We have identified a higher instantaneous frequency, lower amplitude seismic facies that is in good agreement with distinct lithofacies that exhibit better (higher porosity) reservoir properties, as inferred from well-log analysis and petrographic inspection of well cuttings. This study presents a pre-drilling, data-driven approach of identifying sub-resolution reservoir seismic facies in a carbonate formation. This workflow will assist in placing new development wells in other locations within the area. Our low amplitude high instantaneous frequency seismic reservoir facies have been corroborated by findings based on well logs, petrographic analysis data, and drilling results.

  8. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): the 2010-2011 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, R.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Serrano, I.; Villaseñor, A.; Galeano, J.

    2012-04-01

    As an example of the recent advances introduced in seismic monitoring of Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) during recent years, we describe the instrumental network deployed during the 2010-2011 survey by the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR). The period of operation extended from December 19, 2010 to March 5, 2011. We deployed a wireless seismic network composed by four three-component seismic stations. These stations are based on 24-bit SL04 SARA dataloggers sampling at 100 sps. They use a PC with embedded linux and SEISLOG data acquisition software. We use two types of three-component seismometers: short-period Mark L4C with natural frequency of 1 Hz and medium-period Lennartz3D/5s with natural frequency of 0.2 Hz. The network was designed for an optimum spatial coverage of the northern half of Deception, where a magma chamber has been reported. Station locations include the vicinity of the Spanish base "Gabriel de Castilla" (GdC), Obsidianas Beach, a zone near the craters from the 1970 eruptions, and the Chilean Shelter located south of Pendulum Cove. Continuous data from the local seismic network are received in real-time in the base by wifi transmission. We used Ubiquiti Networks Nanostation2 antennas with 2.4 GHz, dual-polarity, 10 dBi gain, and 54 Mbps transmission rate. They have shown a great robustness and speed for real-time applications. To prioritize data acquisition when the battery level is low, we have designed a circuit that allows independent power management for the seismic station and wireless transmission system. The reception antenna located at GdC is connected to a computer running SEISCOMP. This software supports several transmission protocols and manages the visualization and recording of seismic data, including the generation of summary plots to show the seismic activity. These twelve data channels are stored in miniseed format and displayed in real time, which allows for a rapid evaluation of

  9. Seismic reflection data report: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, Southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hern, J.L.; Powers, D.W.; Barrows, L.J.

    1978-12-01

    Three seismic reflection (Vibroseis) surveys conducted from 1976 through 1978 by Sandia Laboratories to support investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described. Volume I describes the purpose, field parameters, and data processing parameters. Volume II contains uninterpreted processed lines and shotpoint maps. Data interpretations will be the subject of the subsequent reports. The data collected during these three surveys total 77 line miles; 72 line miles of this are on or very near the WIPP site. The first of the surveys (1976 SAN) covered 25 line miles and was conducted similarly to previous petroleum industry surveys in the area. 1976 SAN supplemented existing petroleum industry data. The two subsequent surveys (1977 X and 1978 Y) used shorter geophone spacings (110'), higher signal frequencies (up to 100 Hz), and higher data sampling rates (2 ms.) to better define the shallow zone (less than 4000') of primary interest. 1977 X contained 47 line miles on or near the WIPP site and over several structural features northwest of the site. 1978 Y contains 5 line miles over a one square mile area near the center of the WIPP site. These data show increasing discrimination of shallow reflectors as data collection parameters were modified. Data tables of recording and processing parameters are included. A fourth Vibroseis survey was conducted at the WIPP site in 1978 by Grant Geophysical Company for Bechtel; the data are not in final form and are not included. Petroleum industry data and an inconclusive weight-drop survey, conducted in 1976, are also not included in this report

  10. Integrated approach to 3-D seismic acquisition geometry analysis : Emphasizing the influence of the inhomogeneous subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuizen, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    The seismic reflection method for imaging of the earth's interior is an essential part of the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon resources. A seismic survey should be designed such that the acquired data leads to a sufficiently accurate subsurface image. The survey geometry analysis method

  11. Multichannel Seismic Reflection - SCAR- Antarctic Penn. 1987-88 SDLS CD-ROM vol 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1987-88 in the Antarctica Peninsula region, by Petrobras, Brazil. The following...

  12. Multichannel Seismic Reflection - SCAR- Antarctic Penn. 1987-88 SDLS CD-ROM vol 26

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1987-88 in the Antarctica Peninsula region, by Petrobras, Brazil. The following...

  13. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  14. Processing of multichannel seismic reflection data acquired in 2013 for seismic investigations of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John J.; Agena, Warren F.; Haines, Seth; Hart, Patrick E.

    2016-04-13

    As part of a cooperative effort among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, two grids of two-dimensional multichannel seismic reflection data were acquired in the Gulf of Mexico over lease blocks Green Canyon 955 and Walker Ridge 313 between April 18 and May 3, 2013. The purpose of the data acquisition was to fill knowledge gaps in an ongoing study of known gas hydrate accumulations in the area. These data were initially processed onboard the recording ship R/V Pelican for more quality control during the recording. The data were subsequently processed in detail by the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver, Colorado, in two phases. The first phase was to create a “kinematic” dataset that removed extensive noise present in the data but did not preserve relative amplitudes. The second phase was to create a true relative amplitude dataset that included noise removal and “wavelet” deconvolution that preserved the amplitude information. This report describes the processing techniques used to create both datasets.

  15. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea - 1987, SDLS CD-ROM vol 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during the 1987 field season in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by SEVMORGEOLOGIA, RUSSIA. The...

  16. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea - 1980, SDLS CD-ROM vol 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from four lines recorded during 1980 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  17. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea - 1980, SDLS, CD-ROM vol 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from seven lines recorded during 1980 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  18. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea - 1989, SDLS CD-ROM vol 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1989 field season in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the SEVMORGEOLOGIA, RUSSIS. The...

  19. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea 1980, SDLS, CD-ROM vol 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from eleven lines recorded during 1980 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  20. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Wilkes Land, 1983, SDLS CD-ROM vol 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from thirteen lines recorded during 1983 off Wilkes Island, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...

  1. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Wilkes Land 1982, SDLS CD-ROM vol 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from sixteen lines recorded during 1982 off Wilkes Island, Antarctica, by the Institut Francais du...

  2. Refraction and reflection seismic investigations for geological energy-storage site characterization: Dalby (Tornquist Zone), southwest Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Bergman, Bo; Andersson, Benjamin; Sturk, Robert; Johansson, Mattis

    2017-04-01

    -looking bedrock is clearly observed in the tomograms suggesting the possibility of weakness zones (likely highly fractured and/or weathered) in the bedrock. Signs of reflections in the raw shot gathers were encouraging and motivated to process the reflection component of the data for the purpose of subsurface imaging. Several northeast dipping, about 60-65 degree, reflections were imaged down to 400 m depth thanks to the close shot and receiver spacing strategy of the data acquisition. These reflections often show coherent character but at occasions are discontinuous and have different appearances. Reflections along profile 4 have for example different characters, shorter and more gently dipping, compared to those observed in profiles 2 and 3 suggesting that the main dip favors the orientation of profiles 2 and 3. The origins of the reflections are unclear ranging from amphibolite sheets to diabase dykes within the gneissic rocks, and each of this implies a different geological scenario (when compared with the geological data from a nearby quarry north of the study area) at where the site will be developed. Future studies should aim at understanding the cause of the reflections, constraining their locations at depth, and if they play any major role for the planning of the underground facilities. This study however illustrates the potential of the combined refraction and reflection imaging for these types of projects. For future developments of the site however a full 3D seismic survey can highly be useful. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by Skanska, and benefited collaborations among experts from Sweco, Lund University and Skanska. Trust project (http://www.trust-geoinfra.se) was fundamental to initiate this project.

  3. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Weddell Sea - 1978, SDLS CD-ROM vol 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1978 in the Weddell Sea and Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  4. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR, Ross Sea - 1982-1983, CD-ROM vol 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from fourteen lines recorded during 1982 in the Ross Sea and Wilkes Island, Antarctica, by the...

  5. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Weddell Sea - 1978, SDLS CD-ROM vol 18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1978 in the Weddell Sea and Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  6. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Weddell Sea - 1978, SDLS CD-ROM vol 17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1978 in the Weddell Sea and Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  7. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Antarctic Peninsula - 1985, SDLS CD-ROM vol 16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1985 field season along the north side of the Antarctic-Peninsula by the British...

  8. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea 1982, SDLS CD-ROM vol 12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from seven lines recorded during 1982 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Institut Francais du...

  9. Seismic stratigraphy, some examples from Indian Ocean, interpretation of reflection data in interactive mode

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    the sedimentary layers on the basis of density-velocity contrasts. The surfaces may indicate unconformities or conformities. Eventually the method provides image of the sedimentary strata with internal surfaces and basaltic basement and occasionally its... underneath along a profile. Earth scientists will interpret these images in terms of stratigraphy. In simple terminology the seismic stratigraphy can be defined as a viewing of seismic reflection data with a geological approach. Total...

  10. Seismic reflection profile of the Blake Ridge near sites 994, 995, and 997: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Drury, Rebecca M.

    1996-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles near Sites 994, 995, and 997 were collected with seismic sources that provide maximum resolution with adequate power to image the zone of gas hydrate stability and the region direction beneath it. The overall structure of the sediment drift deposit that constitutes the Blake Ridge consists of southwestward-dipping strata. These strata are approximately conformal to the seafloor on the southwest side of the ridge and are truncated by erosion on the northeast side. A bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) marks the velocity contrast between gas hydrate-bearing sediment and regions containing free gas beneath the zone of gas hydrate stability. The BSR is strong and continuous near the ridge crest but becomes discontinuous on the flanks, where concentration of gas is reduced and dipping strata pass through the level of the base o fgas hydrate stability or the strata are disrupted by faults. Seismic reflection amplitudes appear to be reduced in the region of gas hydrate formation compared to normal amplitudes. A faulted zone ~0.5-0.6 s thick parallels reflections from strata. We infer that this may represent a formerly gas hydrate-bearing zone that was faulted because of a breakdown of hydrate near its phase limit (at the base of the zone). Strong reflections at the top of the faulted zone are caused by free-gas acccumulation at Site 994. Similar strong reflections probably are caused by free-gas accumulations where the top of the faulted zone rises above the BSR, although this would require local free gas within the hydrate-stable zone.

  11. Variable post-Paleozoic deformation detected by seismic reflection profiling across the northwestern "prong" of New Madrid seismic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, J.H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; Devera, J.A.; Denny, F.B.; Woolery, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles across the northwesternmost part of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) and northwestern margin of the Reelfoot rift, near the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in the northern Mississippi embayment, reveal intense structural deformation that apparently took place during the late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic up to near the end of the Cretaceous Period. The seismic profiles were sited on both sides of the northeast-trending Olmsted fault, defined by varying elevations of the top of Mississippian (locally base of Cretaceous) bedrock. The trend of this fault is close to and parallel with an unusually straight segment of the Ohio River and is approximately on trend with the westernmost of two groups of northeast-aligned epicenters ("prongs") in the NMSZ. Initially suspected on the basis of pre-existing borehole data, the deformation along the fault has been confirmed by four seismic reflection profiles, combined with some new information from drilling. The new data reveal (1) many high-angle normal and reverse faults expressed as narrow grabens and anticlines (suggesting both extensional and compressional regimes) that involved the largest displacements during the late Cretaceous (McNairy); (2) a different style of deformation involving probably more horizontal displacements (i.e., thrusting) that occurred at the end of this phase near the end of McNairy deposition, with some fault offsets of Paleocene and younger units; (3) zones of steeply dipping faults that bound chaotic blocks similar to that observed previously from the nearby Commerce geophysical lineament (CGL); and (4) complex internal deformation stratigraphically restricted to the McNairy, suggestive of major sediment liquefaction or landsliding. Our results thus confirm the prevalence of complex Cretaceous deformations continuing up into Tertiary strata near the northern terminus of the NMSZ. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Seismic Analyzer: Interpreting and Illustrating 2D Seismic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seism...

  13. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  14. Seismic and electromagnetic interferometry : Retrieval of the earth's reflection response using crosscorrelation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganov, D.

    2007-01-01

    One of the goals of exploration geophysics is to obtain an image of the subsurface. In petroleum exploration and near-surface geophysics, this is best achieved using reflected waves. For this, a controlled seismic or electromagnetic source is placed at the surface, activated, and the wavefields that

  15. Survey of seismic fragilities used in PRA studies of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, seismic PRA studies have been performed on a large number of nuclear power plants in the USA. This paper presents a summary of a survey on fragility databases and the range of evaluated fragility values of various equipment categories based on past PRAs. The survey includes the use of experience data, the interpretations of available test data, and the quantification of uncertainties. The surveyed fragility databases are limited to data available in the public domain such as NUREG reports, conference proceedings and other publicly available reports. The extent of the availability of data as well as limitations are studied and tabulated for various equipment categories. The survey of the fragility values in past PRA studies includes not only the best estimate values, but also the dominant failure modes and the estimated uncertainty levels for each equipment category. The engineering judgments employed in estimating the uncertainty in the fragility values are also studied. This paper provides a perspective on the seismic fragility evaluation procedures for equipment in order to clearly identify the engineering analysis and judgment used in past seismic PRA studies

  16. The reflection seismology measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, C.

    1987-01-01

    Even though data acquisition and data processing procedures have become more and more complex in recent decades, the end products of a reflection seismic survey have remained simple and illustrative. A seismic section resembles a geological cross-section and can be interpreted without in-depth knowledge provided that the basic principles behind the method are understood. This article attempts to convey some insight into the methodology without claiming to be scientifically exact or complete. (author)

  17. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Antarctic Peninsula 1987-88, SDLS CD-ROM vol 24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1987-88 in the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...

  18. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Antarctic Peninsula - 1988-1989, SDLS CD-ROM vol 25

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1988-89 in the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...

  19. 4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wen-Feng; Peng, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions. (paper)

  20. Structure of the Gabon Margin from integrated seismic reflection and gravity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupre, S.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Bertotti, G.V.

    2011-01-01

    In the South Gabon Basin, deep multi-channel seismic reflection and gravity modeling analysis have shed light on key features of the structure of the margin. The thinned continental crust beneath the Gabon Margin appears to be composed of two distinct layers, separated by a clear, strong and more or

  1. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Ross Sea 1987-1988, SDLS CD-ROM vol 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data from six lines recorded during 1988 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, by the Bundesanstalt fur...

  2. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Prydz Bay - 1984-1985, SDLS CD-ROM vol 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1984-85 in the Prydz Bay region, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...

  3. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Amundsen Sea - 1986-1987, SDLS CD-ROM vol 23

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1986-87 in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil Corporation....

  4. Interlobate esker architecture and related hydrogeological features derived from a combination of high-resolution reflection seismics and refraction tomography, Virttaankangas, southwest Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maries, Georgiana; Ahokangas, Elina; Mäkinen, Joni; Pasanen, Antti; Malehmir, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    A novel high-resolution (2-4 m source and receiver spacing) reflection and refraction seismic survey was carried out for aquifer characterization and to confirm the existing depositional model of the interlobate esker of Virttaankangas, which is part of the Säkylänharju-Virttaankangas glaciofluvial esker-chain complex in southwest Finland. The interlobate esker complex hosting the managed aquifer recharge (MAR) plant is the source of the entire water supply for the city of Turku and its surrounding municipalities. An accurate delineation of the aquifer is therefore critical for long-term MAR planning and sustainable use of the esker resources. Moreover, an additional target was to resolve the poorly known stratigraphy of the 70-100-m-thick glacial deposits overlying a zone of fractured bedrock. Bedrock surface as well as fracture zones were confirmed through combined reflection seismic and refraction tomography results and further validated against existing borehole information. The high-resolution seismic data proved successful in accurately delineating the esker cores and revealing complex stratigraphy from fan lobes to kettle holes, providing valuable information for potential new pumping wells. This study illustrates the potential of geophysical methods for fast and cost-effective esker studies, in particular the digital-based landstreamer and its combination with geophone-based wireless recorders, where the cover sediments are reasonably thick.

  5. A critical review of the potential impacts of marine seismic surveys on fish & invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A G; Przeslawski, R; Duncan, A; Gunning, M; Bruce, B

    2017-01-15

    Marine seismic surveys produce high intensity, low-frequency impulsive sounds at regular intervals, with most sound produced between 10 and 300Hz. Offshore seismic surveys have long been considered to be disruptive to fisheries, but there are few ecological studies that target commercially important species, particularly invertebrates. This review aims to summarise scientific studies investigating the impacts of low-frequency sound on marine fish and invertebrates, as well as to critically evaluate how such studies may apply to field populations exposed to seismic operations. We focus on marine seismic surveys due to their associated unique sound properties (i.e. acute, low-frequency, mobile source locations), as well as fish and invertebrates due to the commercial value of many species in these groups. The main challenges of seismic impact research are the translation of laboratory results to field populations over a range of sound exposure scenarios and the lack of sound exposure standardisation which hinders the identification of response thresholds. An integrated multidisciplinary approach to manipulative and in situ studies is the most effective way to establish impact thresholds in the context of realistic exposure levels, but if that is not practical the limitations of each approach must be carefully considered. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SH-wave reflection seismic and VSP as tools for the investigation of sinkhole areas in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja; Tschache, Saskia; Polom, Ulrich; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes can lead to damage of buildings and infrastructure and they can cause life-threatening situations, if they occur in urban areas. The process behind this phenomenon is called subrosion. Subrosion is the underground leaching of soluble rocks, e.g. anhydrite and gypsum, due to the contact with ground- and meteoric water. Depending on the leached material, and especially the dissolution rate, different kinds of subrosion structures evolve in the subsurface. The two end members are collapse and depression structures. For a better understanding of the subrosion processes a detailed characterization of the resulting structures is necessary. In Germany sinkholes are a problem in many areas. In northern Germany salt and in central and southern Germany sulfate and carbonate deposits are affected by subrosion. The study areas described here are located in Thuringia in central Germany and the underground is characterized by soluble Permian deposits. The occurrence of 20 to 50 sinkholes is reported per year. Two regions, Bad Frankenhausen and Schmalkalden, are investigated, showing a leaning church tower and a sinkhole of 30 m diameter and 20 m depth, respectively. In Bad Frankenhausen four P-wave and 16 SH-wave reflection seismic profiles were carried out, supplemented by three zero-offset VSPs. In Schmalkalden five SH-wave reflection seismic profiles and one zero-offset VSP were acquired. The 2-D seismic sections, in particular the SH-wave profiles, showed known and unknown near-surface faults in the vicinity of sinkholes and depressions. For imaging the near-surface ( 2,5, probably indicating unstable areas due to subrosion. We conclude, that SH-wave reflection seismic offer an important tool for the imaging and characterization of near-surface subrosion structures and the identification of unstable zones, especially in combination with P-wave reflection seismic and zero-offset VSP with P- and S-waves. Presumably there is a connection between the presence of large

  7. Three dimensional marine seismic survey has no measurable effect on species richness or abundance of a coral reef associated fish community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ian; Cripps, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A marine seismic survey was conducted at Scott Reef, North Western Australia. • Effects of the survey on demersal fish were gauged using underwater visual census. • There was no detectable impact of the seismic survey on species abundance. • There was no detectable impact of the seismic survey on species richness. -- Abstract: Underwater visual census was used to determine the effect of a three dimensional seismic survey on the shallow water coral reef slope associated fish community at Scott Reef. A census of the fish community was conducted on six locations at Scott Reef both before and after the survey. The census included small site attached demersal species belonging to the family Pomacentridae and larger roving demersal species belonging to the non-Pomacentridae families. These data were combined with a decade of historical data to assess the impact of the seismic survey. Taking into account spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and observer variability, modelling showed no significant effect of the seismic survey on the overall abundance or species richness of Pomacentridae or non-Pomacentridae. The six most abundant species were also analysed individually. In all cases no detectable effect of the seismic survey was found on the abundance of these fish species at Scott Reef

  8. Integration of seismic-reflection and well data to assess the potential impact of stratigraphic and structural features on sustainable water supply from the Floridan aquifer system, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Broward County water managers commenced a 3.5-year cooperative study in July 2012 to refine the geologic and hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) in Broward County. A lack of advanced stratigraphic knowledge of the physical system and structural geologic anomalies (faults and fractures originating from tectonics and karst-collapse structures) within the FAS pose a risk to the sustainable management of the resource. The principal objective of the study is to better define the regional stratigraphic and structural setting of the FAS in Broward County. The objective will be achieved through the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of new seismic-reflection data along several canals in Broward County. The interpretation includes integration of the new seismic-reflection data with existing seismic-reflection profiles along Hillsboro Canal in Broward County and within northeast Miami-Dade County, as well as with data from nearby FAS wellbores. The scope of the study includes mapping the geologic, hydrogeologic, and seismic-reflection framework of the FAS, and identifying stratigraphic and structural characteristics that could either facilitate or preclude the sustainable use of the FAS as an alternate water supply or a treated effluent repository. In addition, the investigation offers an opportunity to: (1) improve existing groundwater flow models, (2) enhance the understanding of the sensitivity of the groundwater system to well-field development and upconing of saline fluids, and (3) support site selection for future FAS projects, such as Class I wells that would inject treated effluent into the deep Boulder Zone.

  9. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  10. Active intra-basin faulting in the Northern Basin of Lake Malawi from seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, D. J.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Scholz, C. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Onyango, E. A.; Peterson, K.; Gaherty, J. B.; Nyblade, A.; Accardo, N. J.; McCartney, T.; Oliva, S. J.; Kamihanda, G.; Ferdinand, R.; Salima, J.; Mruma, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Many questions remain about the development and evolution of fault systems in weakly extended rifts, including the relative roles of border faults and intra-basin faults, and segmentation at various scales. The northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa) rift in the East African Rift System is an early stage rift exhibiting pronounced tectonic segmentation, which is defined by 100-km-long border faults. The basins also contain a series of intrabasinal faults and associated synrift sediments. The occurrence of the 2009 Karonga Earthquake Sequence on one of these intrabasinal faults indicates that some of them are active. Here we present new multichannel seismic reflection data from the Northern Basin of the Malawi Rift collected in 2015 as a part of the SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project. This rift basin is bound on its east side by the west-dipping Livingstone border fault. Over 650 km of seismic reflection profiles were acquired in the Northern Basin using a 500 to 1540 cu in air gun array and a 1200- to 1500-m seismic streamer. Dip lines image a series of north-south oriented west-dipping intra-basin faults and basement reflections up to 5 s twtt near the border fault. Cumulative offsets on intra-basin faults decrease to the west. The largest intra-basin fault has a vertical displacement of >2 s two-way travel time, indicating that it has accommodated significant total extension. Some of these intra-basin faults offset the lake bottom and the youngest sediments by up to 50 s twtt ( 37 m), demonstrating they are still active. The two largest intra-basin faults exhibit the largest offsets of young sediments and also correspond to the area of highest seismicity based on analysis of seismic data from the 89-station SEGMeNT onshore/offshore network (see Peterson et al, this session). Fault patterns in MCS profiles vary along the basin, suggesting a smaller scale of segmentation of faults within the basin; these variations in fault patterns

  11. From the Atlas to the Rif a Crustal seismic image across Morocco: The SIMA & RIFSEIS control source wide-angle seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Ayarza, Puy; Gallart, Josep; Diaz, Jordi; Harnafi, Mimoun; Levander, Alan; Teixell, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The velocity structure of the crust and the geometry of the Moho across Morocco has been the main target of two recently acquired wide-angle seismic reflection transects. One is the SIMA experiment which provided seismic constraints beneath the Atlas Mountains and the second has been the RIFSEIS experiment which sampled the RIF orogen. Jointly these controlled source wide-angle seismic reflection data results in an almost 700 km, seismic profile going from the the Sahara craton across the High and Middle Atlas and Rif Mountain till the Gibraltar-Arc (Alboran). Current work on the interpretation of the seismic data-set is based on forward modeling, ray-tracing, as well as low fold wide-angle stacking. The data has resulted in a detailed crustal structure and velocity model for the Atlas Mountains and a 700 km transect revealing the irregular topography of the Moho beneath these two mountain orogens. Results indicate that the High Atlas features a moderate crustal thickness and that shortening is resolved at depth through a crustal root where the Saharan crust under-thrusts below the Moroccan crust, defining a lower crust imbrication which locally places the Moho boundary at, approximately, 40 km depth. The P-wave velocity model is characterized, in averaged, by relatively low velocities. These low deep crustal velocities together with other geophysical observables such as: conductivity estimates derived from Mt measurements; moderate Bouguer gravity anomaly; surface exposures of recent alkaline volcanics; lead the interpretation to propose that partial melts are currently emplaced in the deep crustal levels and in the upper mantle. The Moho discontinuity defines a crust which is in average relatively thin beneath the Atlas which is almost a 4000 m high orogenic belt. The resulting model supports existence of mantle upwelling as a possible mechanism that contributes, significantly, to maintain the High Atlas topography.

  12. Full 40 km crustal reflection seismic datasets in several Indonesian basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, M. G.; Granath, J. W.; Christ, J. M.; Emmet, P. A.; Bird, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Long offset, deep penetration regional 2D seismic data sets have been acquired since 2002 by GX Technology in a number of regions worldwide (www.iongeo.com/Data_Libraries/Spans/). Typical surveys consist of 10+ lines located to image specific critical aspects of basin structure. Early surveys were processed to 20 km, but more recent ones have extended to 40-45 km from 16 sec records. Pre-stack time migration is followed by pre-stack depth migration using gravity and in some cases magnetic modeling to constrain the velocity structure. We illustrate several cases in the SE Asian and Australasian area. In NatunaSPAN™ two generations of inversion can be distinguished, one involving Paleogene faults with Neogene inversion and one involving strike slip-related uplift in the West Natuna Basin. Crustal structure in the very deep Neogene East Natuna Basin has also been imaged. The JavaSPAN™ program traced Paleogene sediments onto oceanic crust of the Flores Sea, thus equating back arc spreading there to the widespread Eocene extension. It also imaged basement in the Makassar Strait beneath as much as 6 km of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks that accumulated Eocene rift basins (the North and South Makassar basins) on the edge of Sundaland, the core of SE Asia. The basement is seismically layered: a noisy upper crust overlies a prominent 10 km thick transparent zone, the base of which marks another change to slightly noisier reflectivity. Eocene normal faults responsible for the opening of extensional basins root in the top of the transparent layer which may be Moho or a brittle-ductile transition within the extended continental crust. Of particular significance is the first image of thick Precambrian basins comprising the bulk of continental crust under the Arafura Sea in the ArafuraSPAN™ program. Four lines some 1200 km long located between Australia and New Guinea on the Arafura platform image a thin Phanerozoic section overlying a striking Precambrian basement composed of

  13. Monte Carlo reservoir analysis combining seismic reflection data and informed priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Mosegaard, Klaus; Lange, Katrine

    2015-01-01

    Determination of a petroleum reservoir structure and rock bulk properties relies extensively on inference from reflection seismology. However, classic deterministic methods to invert seismic data for reservoir properties suffer from some limitations, among which are the difficulty of handling...... with the goal to directly infer the rock facies and porosity of a target reservoir zone. We thus combined a rock-physics model with seismic data in a single inversion algorithm. For large data sets, theMcMC method may become computationally impractical, so we relied on multiple-point-based a priori information...... to quantify geologically plausible models. We tested this methodology on a synthetic reservoir model. The solution of the inverse problem was then represented by a collection of facies and porosity reservoir models, which were samples of the posterior distribution. The final product included probability maps...

  14. Integration of seismic reflection and geologically balanced profiles; Integration reflexionsseismischer und geologisch bilanzierter Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, A. [Trappe Erdoel Erdgas Consultant, Isernhagen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Geophysics and geology employ different kinds of techniques in order to preserve the underground structure. These techniques are based on different sets of data, i.e. seismic or geological data. A sensible combination of the two techniques should produce a better model of the ground structure. This study attempts to integrate geologically balanced profiles and seismic reflection data. A balanced geological profile can than be compared with seismic reflection data measured in the field. The geological model is then changed into a seismic model of the underground by means of seismic modeling. Synthetic modeling is based on the acquisition of available field data. The synthetic stack section or the synthetic migration image are then compared to the field data. Deviations between the two can be attributed to speed errors and the fact that balances will never give an unequivocal solution but always present a group of solutions. (orig. MSK). [Deutsch] In der Geophysik und der Geologie werden verschiedene Techniken verwendet, um die Untergrundstruktur zu erhalten. Diese Techniken basieren auf verschiedenen Datensaetzen, z.B. seismische und geologische Daten. Eine sinnvolle Kombination der Techniken sollte ein besseres Abbild des Untergrundes liefern. In dieser Studie wird ein Versuch unternommen geologisch bilanzierte Profile und reflexionsseismische Daten zu integrieren. Soll ein bilanziertes geologisches Profil mit im Feld gemessenen reflexionsseismischen Daten verglichen werden, dann wird das geologische Modell mit Hilfe der seismischen Modellierung in ein seismisches Abbild des Untergrundes verwandelt. Dabei wird die synthetische Modellierung entsprechend der Aquisition der vorliegenden Felddaten durchgefuehrt. Die synthetische Stapelsektion oder das synthetische Migrationsimage werden anschliessend mit den Felddaten verglichen. Abweichungen zwischen beobachteten und Felddaten haben ihre Ursachen sowohl in Geschwindigkeitsfehlern, als auch in der Tatsache, dass eine

  15. Rock mass seismic imaging around the ONKALO tunnel, Olkiluoto 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Cozma, M.; Balu, L.; Enescu, N.

    2008-11-01

    Posiva Oy prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in bedrock focusing in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the application filed in 1999, the Decision-in-Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001. Vibrometric Oy has performed a tunnel seismic survey in ONKALO access tunnel on a 100 m line in December 2007. Tunnel length (chainage) was 1720 - 1820 m (vertical depth 170 - 180 m). Measurement applied 120 source positions at 1 m spacing, and on the both ends at 4 m spacing. Electromechanical Vibsist-20 tool was used as the source. Hammer produced 15.36 s sweeps. Signal was recorded with 2-component geophone assemblies, installed in 400 mm long, 45 mm drillholes in the tunnel wall. Sweeps were recorded with Summit II seismograph and decoded to seismic traces. Also percussion drill rig, which is used in drilling the blasting holes in tunnel excavation, was tested from a 100-m distance as a seismic source. Signal is equally good as from actual seismic source, and may be applied later on for production. Obtained seismic results were processed with tomographic reconstruction of the first arrivals to P and S wave refraction tomograms, and to tomograms of Young's modulus and Shear Modulus. The obtained values correspond the typical levels known from Olkiluoto. There are indications of lower velocity near tunnel wall, but resolution is not adequate for further interpretation. Some variation of velocity is detected in the rock mass. Seismic data was also processed with normal reflection profile interpretation and migrated. As a result there was obtained reflection images to a 100-m distance from the tunnel. Several reflecting events were observed in the rock mass. Features making an angle of 30 deg or more with tunnel axis can be imaged from distances of tens of metres. Vertical fractures perpendicular to tunnel can be imaged only near the tunnel. Gently dipping features can be imaged below and above. Images are 2D, i

  16. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Queen Maud Land - 1985-1986, SDLS CD-ROM vol 22

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1985-86 in the Queen Maud Land region, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...

  17. Uncertainty analysis of depth predictions from seismic reflection data using Bayesian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelioudakis, Dimitrios G.; Hobbs, Richard W.; Caiado, Camila C. S.

    2018-03-01

    Estimating the depths of target horizons from seismic reflection data is an important task in exploration geophysics. To constrain these depths we need a reliable and accurate velocity model. Here, we build an optimum 2D seismic reflection data processing flow focused on pre - stack deghosting filters and velocity model building and apply Bayesian methods, including Gaussian process emulation and Bayesian History Matching (BHM), to estimate the uncertainties of the depths of key horizons near the borehole DSDP-258 located in the Mentelle Basin, south west of Australia, and compare the results with the drilled core from that well. Following this strategy, the tie between the modelled and observed depths from DSDP-258 core was in accordance with the ± 2σ posterior credibility intervals and predictions for depths to key horizons were made for the two new drill sites, adjacent the existing borehole of the area. The probabilistic analysis allowed us to generate multiple realizations of pre-stack depth migrated images, these can be directly used to better constrain interpretation and identify potential risk at drill sites. The method will be applied to constrain the drilling targets for the upcoming International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), leg 369.

  18. Seismic Shear Energy Reflection By Radon-Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Umairia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic waves split in an anisotropic medium, instead of rotating horizontal component to principal direction, Radon-Fourier is derived to observe the signature of shear wave reflection. Synthetic model with fracture is built and discretized using finite difference scheme for spatial and time domain. Common depth point (CDP with single shot gives traces and automatic gain is preprocessed before Radon Transform (RT, a filtering technique gives radon domain. It makes easier to observe fractures at specific incidence and improves its quality in some way by removing the noise. A comparison of synthetic data and BF-data is performed on the basis of root means square error (RMS values. The RMS error is minimum at the 10th trace in radon domain.

  19. Joint inversion of gravity and seismic data along a profile across the seismogenic fault of 2010 Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guangliang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake occurred on the Ganzi-Yushu fault zone, across which we carried out a joint relative-gravity and seismic-reflection survey, and then performed a gravity inversion constrained by the seismic-reflection result. Based on the data of complete Bouguer gravity anomaly and seismic reflection, we obtained a layered interface structure in deep crust down to Moho. Our study showed that the inversion could reveal the interfaces of strata along the survey profile and the directions of regional faults in two-dimension. From the characteristics of the observed topography of the Moho basement, we tentatively confirmed that the uplift of eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet plateau was caused by the subduction of the Indian plate.

  20. Experimental investigation on multidisciplinary geophysical characterization of deep underground structure using multi-scale, multi-mode seismic profiling for the evaluation of ground motion and seismic model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in data acquisition and velocity estimation for multi-mode, multiscale seismic exploration were explained along with the basic concept of strategic geophysical surveys for NPP siting assessment. Then, as a case study using this concept, multidisciplinary geophysical characterization results pertaining to the deep underground structure beneath the JNES Kashiwazaki Center were explained in detail. At the site, reflection/refraction surveys and magnetotelluric/gravity surveys were also conducted. It was shown that these surveys can be used complementary because at the upsurge part, where clear images cannot be obtained by reflection/refraction surveys, magnetotelluric /gravity surveys can be used to obtain clear images. (author)

  1. Development of a low cost method to estimate the seismic signature of a geothermal field form ambient noise analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibuleac, Ileana [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2016-06-30

    A new, cost effective and non-invasive exploration method using ambient seismic noise has been tested at Soda Lake, NV, with promising results. The material included in this report demonstrates that, with the advantage of initial S-velocity models estimated from ambient noise surface waves, the seismic reflection survey, although with lower resolution, reproduces the results of the active survey when the ambient seismic noise is not contaminated by strong cultural noise. Ambient noise resolution is less at depth (below 1000m) compared to the active survey. In general, the results are promising and useful information can be recovered from ambient seismic noise, including dipping features and fault locations.

  2. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panea, I; Stephenson, R.A.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.I.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.C.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the

  3. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  4. Integration between well logging and seismic reflection techniques for structural a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel K. Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abu El Gharadig basin is located in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt. Geophysical investigation in the form of thirty (3D seismic lines and well logging data of five wells have been analyzed in the oil field BED-1 that is located in the northwestern part of Abu El Gharadig basin in the Western Desert of Egypt. The reflection sections have been used to shed more light on the tectonic setting of Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous rocks. While the well logging data have been analyzed for delineating the petrophysical characteristics of the two main reservoirs, Bahariya and Kharita Formations. The constructed subsurface geologic cross sections, seismic sections, and the isochronous reflection maps indicate that the area is structurally controlled by tectonic trends affecting the current shape of Abu El Gharadig basin. Different types of faults are well represented in the area, particularly normal one. The analysis of the average and interval velocities versus depth has shown their effect by facies changes and/or fluid content. On the other hand, the derived petrophysical parameters of Bahariya and Kharita Formations vary from well to another and they have been affected by the gas effect and/or the presence of organic matter, complex lithology, clay content of dispersed habitat, and the pore volume.

  5. Crustal investigations of the earthquake-prone Vrancea region in Romania - Part 2: Novel deep seismic reflection experiment in the southeastern Carpathian belt and its foreland basin - survey target, design, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V. I.; Stephenson, R. A.; Diaconescu, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Matenco, L.; Dinu, C.; Harder, S.; Prodehl, C.; Hauser, F.; Raileanu, V.; Cloetingh, S. A.; Leever, K.

    2001-12-01

    Seismic studies of the outer Carpathian Orogen and its foreland (Focsani Basin) in the vicinity of the Vrancea Zone and Danube Delta (Romania) forms one component of a new multidisciplinary initiative of ISES (Netherlands Centre for Integrated Solid Earth Sciences) called DACIA PLAN ("Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics"). The study area, at the margin of the European craton, constitutes one of the most active seismic zones in Europe, yet has remained a geological and geodynamic enigma within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Intermediate depth (50-220 km) mantle earthquakes of significant magnitude occur in a geographically restricted area in the south-east Carpathians bend. The adjacent, foreland Focsani Basin appears to exhibit recent extensional deformation in what is otherwise understood to be a zone of convergence. The deep seismic reflection component of DACIA PLAN comprises a ~140-km near-vertical profile across the Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin. Data acquisition took place in August-September 2001, as part of the integrated refraction/reflection seismic field programme "Vrancea-2001" co-ordinated at Karlsruhe University (cf. Abstract, Part 1), utilising 640 independently deployed recorders provided by UTEP and IRIS/PASSCAL ("Texans"). Station spacing was every 100-m with shots every 1-km. These data are to be integrated with industry seismic as well as planned new medium-high resolution seismic reflection profiling across key neotectonically active structures in the Focsani Basin. Particular goals of DACIA PLAN include: (1) the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to this zone, including the foreland Focsani Basin; (2) the presence and geometry of structural detachment(s) in relation with foreland basin development, including constraints for balanced cross-sections and geodynamic modelling of basin origin and evolution; (3) the relationship between crustal

  6. Seismic imaging of glaciomarine sediments of Antarctica: Optimizing the acquisition parameters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pandey, D.; Chaubey, A.K.; Rajan, S.

    This paper presents some of the significant points on the designing and acquisition parameters for multi-channel seismic reflection survey in the Antarctic waters with an emphasis of imaging Glaciomarine sediments. Due to their importance...

  7. Reflection seismic characterization of the Grängesberg iron deposit and its mining-induced structures, central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Joachim; Malehmir, Alireza; Högdahl, Karin; Juhlin, Christopher; Persson Nilsson, Katarina

    2014-05-01

    ) electric and vibration noise due to populated areas and roads, as well as a rock crusher working close to the line, (3) significant static variations (due to the variable nature of the terrain: forest, roads, open pit filled with 10s of meters of unconsolidated materials...), make this dataset similar to a city-kind dataset. Preprocessing of the data first required the cable- and wireless- recorded sub-datasets to be merged using GPS time stamps (nanoseconds accuracy) registered in the active data. Vertical shift and stack was then carried out to stack all data available at each shot point. Preliminary results from brute stacks exhibit evidences of reflections or diffractions. It is anticipated that further processing, involving especially appropriate static corrections and velocity analysis, would help interpreting such seismic events in relation to the ore body and its surrounding structures. Possible along-profile compartmentalization is also detected; further processing is however necessary before interpreting such features in terms of recent faulting. Acknowledgements: Formas, Grängesberg Iron AB, Spendrups and Geological Survey of Sweden

  8. Investigation of sinkhole areas in Germany using 2D shear wave reflection seismics and zero-offset VSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschache, Saskia; Wadas, Sonja; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes pose a serious geohazard for humans and infrastructure in populated areas. The Junior Research Group Subrosion within the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics and the joint project SIMULTAN work on the multi-scale investigation of subrosion processes in the subsurface, which cause natural sinkholes. In two case studies in sinkhole areas of Thuringia in Germany, we applied 2D shear wave reflection seismics using SH-waves with the aim to detect suitable parameters for the characterisation of critical zones. This method has the potential to image near-surface collapse and faulting structures in improved resolution compared to P-wave surveys resulting from the shorter wavelength of shear waves. Additionally, the shear wave velocity field derived by NMO velocity analysis is a basis to calculate further physical parameters, as e.g. the dynamic shear modulus. In both investigation areas, vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired by generating P- and SH-waves (6 component VSP) directly next to a borehole equipped with a 3C downhole sensor. They provide shear and compressional wave velocity profiles, which are used to improve the 2D shear wave velocity field from surface seismics, to perform a depth calibration of the seismic image and to calculate the Vp/Vs ratio. The signals in the VSP data are analysed with respect to changes in polarisation and attenuation with depth and/or azimuth. The VSP data reveal low shear wave velocities of 200-300 m/s in rock layers known to be heavily affected by subrosion and confirm the low velocities calculated from the surface seismic data. A discrepancy of the shear wave velocities is observed in other intervals probably due to unsymmetrical travel paths in the surface seismics. In some VSP data dominant conversion of the direct SH-wave to P-wave is observed that is assumed to be caused by an increased presence of cavities. A potential fault distorting the vertical travel paths was detected by abnormal P-wave first

  9. A Seismic Analysis for Reflective Metal Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Kim, Taesoon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) GSI- 191 (Generic Safety Issue-191) is concerned about the head-loss of emergency core cooling pumps caused by calcium silicate insulation debris accumulated on a sump screen when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to cope with the concern, many nuclear plants in U. S. have been replacing calcium silicate insulation in containment building with reflective metal insulation (RMI). In Korea, RMI has been used for only reactor vessels recently constructed, but the RMI was imported. Therefore, we have been developing the domestic design of RMI to supply to nuclear power plants under operation and construction in relation to the GSI-191. This paper covers that the structural integrity of the RMI assembly was evaluated under SSE (safety shutdown earthquake) load. An analysis model was built for the seismic test system of a reflective metal insulation assembly and pre-stress, modal, and spectrum analysis for the model were performed using a commercial structural analysis code, ANSYS. According to the results of the analyses, the buckles fastening the RMIs showed the structural integrity under the required response spectrum containing the safety shutdown earthquake loads applied to main components in containment building. Consequently, since the RMI isn't disassembled under the SSE load, the RMI is judged not to affect safety related components.

  10. A Seismic Analysis for Reflective Metal Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Kim, Taesoon

    2016-01-01

    U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) GSI- 191 (Generic Safety Issue-191) is concerned about the head-loss of emergency core cooling pumps caused by calcium silicate insulation debris accumulated on a sump screen when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to cope with the concern, many nuclear plants in U. S. have been replacing calcium silicate insulation in containment building with reflective metal insulation (RMI). In Korea, RMI has been used for only reactor vessels recently constructed, but the RMI was imported. Therefore, we have been developing the domestic design of RMI to supply to nuclear power plants under operation and construction in relation to the GSI-191. This paper covers that the structural integrity of the RMI assembly was evaluated under SSE (safety shutdown earthquake) load. An analysis model was built for the seismic test system of a reflective metal insulation assembly and pre-stress, modal, and spectrum analysis for the model were performed using a commercial structural analysis code, ANSYS. According to the results of the analyses, the buckles fastening the RMIs showed the structural integrity under the required response spectrum containing the safety shutdown earthquake loads applied to main components in containment building. Consequently, since the RMI isn't disassembled under the SSE load, the RMI is judged not to affect safety related components

  11. Application of the surface reflection seismic method to shallow coal exploration in the plains of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyatsky, H.V.; Lawton, D.C. (University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1988-12-01

    A study was done to make a quantitative interpretation of reflection seismic data from the Highvale-Whitewood shallow coal deposit in central Alberta. Results showed that the data is useful in demonstrating coal thickness and stratigraphy as well as structural formation. Reflection character is affected by nature of the strata surrounding the coal deposit. 22 refs., 1 tab., 23 figs.

  12. Measurement Of Compressional-Wave Seismic Velocities In 29 Wells At The Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Check shot seismic velocity surveys were collected in 100 B/C, 200 East, 200-PO-1 Operational Unit (OU), and the Gable Gap areas in order to provide time-depth correlation information to aid the interpretation of existing seismic reflection data acquired at the Hanford Site (Figure 1). This report details results from 5 wells surveyed in fiscal year (FY) 2008, 7 wells in FY 2009, and 17 wells in FY 2010 and provides summary compressional-wave seismic velocity information to help guide future seismic survey design as well as improve current interpretations of the seismic data (SSC 1979/1980; SGW-39675; SGW-43746). Augmenting the check shot database are four surveys acquired in 2007 in support of the Bechtel National, Inc. Waste Treatment Plant construction design (PNNL-16559, PNNL-16652), and check shot surveys in three wells to support seismic testing in the 200 West Area (Waddell et al., 1999). Additional sonic logging was conducted during the late 1970s and early 1980s as part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) (SSC 1979/1980) and check shot/sonic surveys as part of the safety report for the Skagit/Hanford Nuclear project (RDH/10-AMCP-0164). Check shot surveys are used to obtain an in situ measure of compressional-wave seismic velocity for sediment and rock in the vicinity of the well point, and provide the seismic-wave travel time to geologic horizons of interest. The check shot method deploys a downhole seismic receiver (geophone) to record the arrival of seismic waves generated by a source at the ground surface. The travel time of the first arriving seismic-wave is determined and used to create a time-depth function to correlate encountered geologic intervals with the seismic data. This critical tie with the underlying geology improves the interpretation of seismic reflection profile information. Fieldwork for this investigation was conducted by in house staff during the weeks of September 22, 2008 for 5 wells in the 200 East Area (Figure 2); June 1

  13. Shallow Seismic Reflection Study of Recently Active Fault Scarps, Mina Deflection, Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R. A.; Christie, M.; Tsoflias, G. P.; Stockli, D. F.

    2006-12-01

    During the spring and summer of 2006 University of Kansas geophysics students and faculty acquired shallow, high resolution seismic reflection data over actively deforming alluvial fans developing across the Emmigrant Peak (in Fish Lake Valley) and Queen Valley Faults in western Nevada. These normal faults represent a portion of the transition from the right-lateral deformation associated with the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone to the normal and left-lateral faulting of the Mina Deflection. Data were gathered over areas of recent high resolution geological mapping and limited trenching by KU students. An extensive GPR data grid was also acquired. The GPR results are reported in Christie, et al., 2006. The seismic data gathered in the spring included both walkaway tests and a short CMP test line. These data indicated that a very near-surface P-wave to S-wave conversion was taking place and that very high quality S-wave reflections were probably dominating shot records to over one second in time. CMP lines acquired during the summer utilized a 144 channel networked Geode system, single 28 hz geophones, and a 30.06 downhole rifle source. Receiver spacing was 0.5 m, source spacing 1.0m and CMP bin spacings were 0.25m for all lines. Surveying was performed using an RTK system which was also used to develop a concurrent high resolution DEM. A dip line of over 400m and a strike line over 100m in length were shot across the active fan scarp in Fish Lake Valley. Data processing is still underway. However, preliminary interpretation of common-offset gathers and brute stacks indicates very complex faulting and detailed stratigraphic information to depths of over 125m. Depth of information was actually limited by the 1024ms recording time. Several west-dipping normal faults downstep towards the basin. East-dipping antithetic normal faulting is extensive. Several distinctive stratigraphic packages are bound by the faults and apparent unconformitites. A CMP dip line

  14. Ground magnetic studies along a regional seismic-reflection profile across Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ground magnetic data were collected along a 26-km-long regional seismic-reflection profile in southwest Nevada that starts in the Amargosa Desert, crosses Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and ends in Midway Valley. Parallel ground magnetic profiles were also collected about 100 m to either side of the western half of the seismic-reflection line. The magnetic data indicate that the eastern half of Crater Flat is characterized by closely-spaced faulting (1--2 km) in contrast to the western half of Crater Flat. Modeling of the data indicates that the Topopah Spring Tuff is offset about 250 m on the Solitario Canyon fault and about 50 m on the Ghost Dance fault. These estimates of fault offset are consistent with seismic-reflection data and geologic mapping. A broad magnetic high of about 500--600 nT is centered over Crater Flat. Modeling of the magnetic data indicates that the source of this high is not thickening and doming of the Bullfrog Tuff, but more likely lies below the Bullfrog Tuff. Possible source lithologies for this magnetic high include altered argillite of the Eleana Formation, Cretaceous or Tertiary intrusions, and mafic sills

  15. A critical review of the potential impacts of marine seismic surveys on fish & invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.G.; Przeslawski, R.; Duncan, A.; Gunning, M.; Bruce, B.

    2017-01-01

    Marine seismic surveys produce high intensity, low-frequency impulsive sounds at regular intervals, with most sound produced between 10 and 300 Hz. Offshore seismic surveys have long been considered to be disruptive to fisheries, but there are few ecological studies that target commercially important species, particularly invertebrates. This review aims to summarise scientific studies investigating the impacts of low-frequency sound on marine fish and invertebrates, as well as to critically evaluate how such studies may apply to field populations exposed to seismic operations. We focus on marine seismic surveys due to their associated unique sound properties (i.e. acute, low-frequency, mobile source locations), as well as fish and invertebrates due to the commercial value of many species in these groups. The main challenges of seismic impact research are the translation of laboratory results to field populations over a range of sound exposure scenarios and the lack of sound exposure standardisation which hinders the identification of response thresholds. An integrated multidisciplinary approach to manipulative and in situ studies is the most effective way to establish impact thresholds in the context of realistic exposure levels, but if that is not practical the limitations of each approach must be carefully considered. - Highlights: • Generalisations about impacts are often inappropriate due to the vast gap in our knowledge about sound thresholds and recovery from impact. • A disparity exists between results obtained in the field and results obtained from the laboratory. • A multidisciplinary approach to lab & field studies is ideal, but if not practical, the limitations of each approach must be carefully considered.

  16. Uncertainty analysis of depth predictions from seismic reflection data using Bayesian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelioudakis, Dimitrios G.; Hobbs, Richard W.; Caiado, Camila C. S.

    2018-06-01

    Estimating the depths of target horizons from seismic reflection data is an important task in exploration geophysics. To constrain these depths we need a reliable and accurate velocity model. Here, we build an optimum 2-D seismic reflection data processing flow focused on pre-stack deghosting filters and velocity model building and apply Bayesian methods, including Gaussian process emulation and Bayesian History Matching, to estimate the uncertainties of the depths of key horizons near the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) borehole 258 (DSDP-258) located in the Mentelle Basin, southwest of Australia, and compare the results with the drilled core from that well. Following this strategy, the tie between the modelled and observed depths from DSDP-258 core was in accordance with the ±2σ posterior credibility intervals and predictions for depths to key horizons were made for the two new drill sites, adjacent to the existing borehole of the area. The probabilistic analysis allowed us to generate multiple realizations of pre-stack depth migrated images, these can be directly used to better constrain interpretation and identify potential risk at drill sites. The method will be applied to constrain the drilling targets for the upcoming International Ocean Discovery Program, leg 369.

  17. Analysis of seismic reflectivity and AVO pattern of BSR using OBS data in the southwestern offshore region of Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, W.B.; Yang, H.R. [Jinwen Univ. of Science and Technology, Hsintien City, Taipei County, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Environment and Property Management; Schnurle, P.; Liu, C.S. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Oceanography; Lee, C.S. [National Taiwan Ocean Univ., Keelung, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Applied Earth Science; Wang, Y.; Chung, S.H.; Chen, S.C. [Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan (China). Central Geological Survey

    2008-07-01

    Regional multi-channel seismic reflection profiles that were conducted in Taiwan from 2003 to 2006 resulted in the identification of a gas hydrate-related bottom simulating reflector (BSR) in the broad southwestern offshore region of Taiwan. In order to understand the regional distribution of methane hydrate bearing layers and explore concentrated hydrate bearing layers, this paper presented a comprehensive analysis of reflection coefficient and amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) pattern of BSR using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) seismic data acquired in the southwestern offshore region of Taiwan. The study focused on the analysis and interpretation of airgun array signals recorded by OBSs during 2004 and 2006. Ten profiles of seismic reflection/refraction with a total length of about 140 km and recorded by 50 recovered OBSs were acquired on the active and passive margins in offshore southwestern Taiwan. Amplitudes of the direct water arrival, the multiple, and the BSR were picked interactively for all the OBS lines. A quantitative representation of reflector strength was provided by calculation of reflection coefficients. In general, the seafloor reflection coefficients for the active and passive margins were estimated as 0.1-0.25. The paper presented the data and analysis as well as the results of the study. It was concluded that the results of calculated reflection coefficient of the BSR in offshore southwest Taiwan suggested that inferred hydrate concentration for the passive margin profiles was relatively higher than that for the active margin profiles. 4 refs.

  18. Near-surface, marine seismic-reflection data defines potential hydrogeologic confinement bypass in a tertiary carbonate aquifer, southeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Walker, Cameron; Westcott, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 210 km of near-surface, high-frequency, marine seismic-reflection data were acquired on the southeastern part of the Florida Platform between 2007 and 2011. Many high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles, interpretable to a depth of about 730 m, were collected on the shallow-marine shelf of southeastern Florida in water as shallow as 1 m. Landward of the present-day shelf-margin slope, these data image middle Eocene to Pleistocene strata and Paleocene to Pleistocene strata on the Miami Terrace. This high-resolution data set provides an opportunity to evaluate geologic structures that cut across confining units of the Paleocene to Oligocene-age carbonate rocks that form the Floridan aquifer system.Seismic profiles image two structural systems, tectonic faults and karst collapse structures, which breach confining beds in the Floridan aquifer system. Both structural systems may serve as pathways for vertical groundwater flow across relatively low-permeability carbonate strata that separate zones of regionally extensive high-permeability rocks in the Floridan aquifer system. The tectonic faults occur as normal and reverse faults, and collapse-related faults have normal throw. The most common fault occurrence delineated on the reflection profiles is associated with karst collapse structures. These high-frequency seismic data are providing high quality structural analogs to unprecedented depths on the southeastern Florida Platform. The analogs can be used for assessment of confinement of other carbonate aquifers and the sealing potential of deeper carbonate rocks associated with reservoirs around the world.

  19. High-resolution 3D seismic reflection imaging across active faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimation in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kato, Naoko

    2016-10-01

    We collected and interpreted high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data across a hypothesized fault scarp, along the largest active fault that could generate hazardous earthquakes in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The processed and interpreted 3D seismic cube, linked with nearby borehole stratigraphy, suggests that a monocline that deforms lower Pleistocene units is unconformably overlain by middle Pleistocene conglomerates. Judging from structural patterns and vertical separation on the lower-middle Pleistocene units and the ground surface, the hypothesized scarp was interpreted as a terrace riser rather than as a manifestation of late Pleistocene structural growth resulting from repeated fault activity. Devastating earthquake scenarios had been predicted along the fault in question based on its proximity to the metropolitan area, however our new results lead to a significant decrease in estimated fault length and consequently in the estimated magnitude of future earthquakes associated with reactivation. This suggests a greatly reduced seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan area from earthquakes generated by active intraplate crustal faults.

  20. Archive of Digital Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 96LCA04 in Lakes Mabel and Starr, Central Florida, August 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Swancar, Amy; Tihansky, Ann B.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    In August of 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys of Lakes Mabel and Starr, central Florida, as part of the Central Highlands Lakes project, which is part of a larger USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook; and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. For detailed information about the hydrologic setting of Lake Starr and the interpretation of some of these seismic reflection data, see Swancar and others (2000) at http://fl.water.usgs.gov/publications/Abstracts/wri00_4030_swancar.html. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided. The USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) - St. Petersburg assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 96LCA04 tells us the data were collected in 1996 for the Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study and the data were collected during the fourth field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The boomer plate is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when

  1. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  2. Seismic profiling survey of the Ogasawra plateau and the Michelson ridge, western Pacific: evoluation of cretaceous guyots and deformation of a subduc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Y.; Murakami, F.; Kishimoto, K.; Saito, E. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-04-27

    Evolution of Cretaceous guyots and deformation of a subducting oceanic plateau were investigated by the analysis of seismic profiling survey in the Ogasawara Plateau and the Michelson Ridge, western Pacific. From the seismic profiling survey, the well stratified lagoon sediments under the flat summit of the guyots and the reefs, in which any reflection rims are not observed, were clearly distinguished. The lagoon sediments thicken westward, which suggests a westward increase of subsidence rate during the period of the growth of the reef complexes. If the guyots are hot-spot volcanos, the westward increase of subsidence rate was able to be interpreted by an eastward increase of the ages of the volcanic mounds formed on the eastward moving oceanic plate. The present Ogasawara Plateau is colliding with the Ogasawara Arc at the Ogasawara Trench and remarkably faulted. These faults are high-angle normal faults and no compressional deformation, such as folding, is observed, which provides that the Ogasawara Plateau has been underthrusting beneath the Ogasawara Are. 15 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Reflection and tubewave analysis of the seismic data from the Stripa crosshole site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Baehler, S.; Hammarstroem, M.; Pihl, J.

    1986-12-01

    The data from the crosshole research program (radar, seismics and hydraulics) in the Stripa Phase II Project resulted in the construction of a model. The results from the present study were compared to this model. It was found that the existing data set used for tomographic analysis could only be used to a limited extent, as reflection analysis requires a more dense detector coverage. Nevertheless two reflectors were detected. The positions of the reflectors were compared to the existing crosshole model and proved to correlate well. For the tubewave analysis almost all crosshole seismic data could be used. By comparing the results with previous hydraulic tests, it was found that tubewave sources and hydraulically conductive zones are in concordance. All previously defined zones but one could be detected. (orig./HP)

  4. Multicomponent seismic applications in coalbed methane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.; Trend, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2004-07-01

    Seismic applications for coalbed methane (CBM) development are used to address the following challenges: lateral continuity of coal zones; vertical continuity of coal seams; permeability of cleats and fractures; coal quality and gas content; wet versus dry coal zones; and, monitoring storage of greenhouse gases. This paper presented a brief description of existing seismic programs, including 2-D and 3-D surface seismic surveys; multicomponent seismic surveys; vertical seismic profiles; cross-well seismic surveys; and, time-lapse seismic surveys. A comparative evaluation of their use in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and the Ardley Formation was presented. The study showed that variations in reservoir properties resulting from gas production and dewatering can be effectively imaged using seismic surveys. Seismic surveys are useful in reservoir management, monitoring sweep efficiency during enhanced natural gas from coal (NGC) production, monitoring disposal of produced water and verifying storage of carbon dioxide for carbon credits. tabs., figs.

  5. FY 1998 basic survey for coal resource development. Data collection of the joint research of new technology in the geophysical exploration of coal resources (land area shallow seam survey); 1998 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa shiryoshu. Shintansa gijutsu chosa kaihatsu (rikuiki senso tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This is a compilation of the data on the coal resource land area shallow seam survey conducted in FY 1998 as the basic survey for coal resource development. The trend survey was made from July 26 to August 6, 1998. The purposes of the survey are to study the image analysis method, examples of application of the reflection seismic survey to coal, and inversion technology. The data compilation includes the following: 1. Minutes of the proceedings of the FY 1998 Japan-Australia steering committee (in English). 2. Data/proceedings of the FY 1998 Japan-Australia technical study committee (in English). 3. Results of the GPS measurement of reflection seismic survey traverse lines in Caroona district. 4. List of parameters in the FY 1998 reflection seismic survey data processing. 5. Report on the work of inspection/repair of seismic pulse generator. 6. List of the data on diameter of the test boring conducted in FY 1998. 7. NEDO-DMR CAROONA DDH borehole core pictures. 8. Estimated curves. 9. Report on the trend survey of the FY 1998 coal resource development basic survey (land area shallow seam survey). 10. Pictures. 11. Data on the 1st (FY 1998) new exploration technology study committee. (NEDO)

  6. Refraction seismic surveys in the investigation trench TK3 area in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihalainen, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-03-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, the ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) conducted refraction seismic surveys at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki. The work was ordered by Posiva Oy. The field work was carried out during May and June 2004. On five profiles S70-S74 totally 1002.5 m was surveyed. The purpose of the work was to determine the overburden thickness and to study bedrock properties, e.g. eventual fractured zones. The work consisted of staking, levelling, seismic measurements, interpretation and reporting. Fieldwork and interpretation were concluded by May and June 2004. Previously in 2000 and 2002 Smoy has carried out 33.0 km of seismic surveys in the area. (orig.)

  7. Seismic Readings from the Deepest Borehole in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolery, Edward W [KY Geological Survey, Univ of KY; Wang, Zhenming [KY Geological Survey, Univ of KY; Sturchio, Neil C [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago

    2006-03-01

    Since the 1980s, the research associated with the UK network has been primarily strong-motion seismology of engineering interest. Currently the University of Kentucky operates a strong-motion network of nine stations in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. A unique feature of the network is the inclusions of vertical strong-motion arrays, each with one or two downhole accelerometers. The deepest borehole array is 260 m below the surfaces at station VASA in Fulton County, Kentucky. A preliminary surface seismic refraction survey was conducted at the site before drilling the hole at VSAS (Woolery and Wang, 2002). The depth to the Paleozoic bedrock at the site was estimated to be approximately 595 m, and the depth to the first very stiff layer (i.e. Porters Creek Clay) was found to be about 260 m. These depths and stratigraphic interpretation correlated well with a proprietary seismic reflection line and the Ken-Ten Oil Exploration No. 1 Sanger hole (Schwalb, 1969), as well as our experience in the area (Street et al., 1995; Woolery et al., 1999).

  8. Imaging Shallow Aquitard Breaches with P waves: Results from a Walk-away test and a Reflection Survey at two Sites in Memphis, Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, J.; Magnani, M.; Waldron, B. A.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of two seismic reflection experiments conducted in the Great Memphis area in April and July 2006. The two experiments consisted in a walk-away test and in the acquisition of a 1 km seismic reflection profile. The acquisition of the seismic data is part of a larger effort aimed at imaging the lateral continuity of the Upper Claiborne confining clay that separates the Memphis aquifer, the region's primary drinking water source, from the upper unconfined aquifer and protects the drinking aquifer from exposure to potential contamination. During the walk-away test, four P-wave sources, a 7.5 kg sledge hammer, a 20 kg weight drop, a 12-gauge Buffalo gun, and a Minivibe source were tested at two sites with the goal of selecting the best P-wave seismic source and acquisition parameters for shallow reflection surveys. Boreholes nearby both sites encountered the Upper Claiborne unit at a depth ranging from 10 m to 40 m. One site is located within a 100-meter length of road median that can be considered an urban environment. The second site is located at Shelby Farms within the City of Memphis yet reflects a rural setting with minimal noise and no subsurface infrastructure. Performing identical walk-away tests at both sites, the results indicate that the energy source selection is site dependent. At the urban site, the energy generated by the weight drop source is more coherent and can be interpreted with more confidence on the recorded data. However the Shelby Farms site the 12-gauge shotgun produced the strongest recorded energy, the highest dominant frequency and the broadest frequency band (6- 110 Hz). Strong attenuations are observed at both sites with a much higher attenuation in the urban road median site, where the near surface materials consisted of gravels, sands, clays, and pebbles. For both sites, surface waves and refractions dominate the seismic recordings. Filtering and gain of the data revealed the presence of shallow reflections related

  9. Estimation of subsurface structures in a Minami Noshiro 3D seismic survey region by seismic-array observations of microtremors; Minami Noshiro sanjigen jishin tansa kuikinai no hyoso kozo ni tsuite. Bido no array kansoku ni yoru suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, H; Ling, S; Ishikawa, K [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tsuburaya, Y; Minegishi, M [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    Japan National Oil Corporation Technology Research Center has carried out experiments on the three-dimensional seismic survey method which is regarded as an effective means for petroleum exploration. The experiments were conducted at the Minami Noshiro area in Akita Prefecture. Seismometer arrays were developed in radii of 30 to 300 m at seven points in the three-dimensional seismic exploration region to observe microtremors. The purpose is to estimate S-wave velocities from the ground surface to the foundation by using surface waves included in microtremors. Estimation of the surface bed structure is also included in the purpose since this is indispensable in seismic exploration using the reflection method. This paper reports results of the microtremor observations and the estimation on S-wave velocities (microtremor exploration). One or two kinds of arrays with different sizes composed of seven observation points per area were developed to observe microtremors independently. The important point in the result obtained in the present experiments is that a low velocity bed suggesting existence of faults was estimated. It will be necessary to repeat experiments and observations in the future to verify whether this microtremor exploration method has that much of exploration capability. For the time being, however, interest is addressed to considerations on comparison with the result of 3D experiments using the reflection method. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Monitoring and impact mitigation during a 4D seismic survey near a population of gray whales off Sakhalin Island, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröker, Koen Cornelis Arthur; Gailey, Glenn; Muir, Judy; Racca, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    A 4D seismic survey was conducted in 2010 near the feeding grounds of gray whales off Sakhalin Island, Russia. To minimize disruptions to the whales’ feeding activity and enhance understanding of the potential impacts of seismic surveys on gray whales Eschrichtius robustus, an extensive monitoring

  11. Implications of seismic reflection and potential field geophysical data on the structural framework of the Yucca Mountain--Crater Flat region, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocher, T.M.; Langenheim, V.E.; Hunter, W.C.

    1998-01-01

    Seismic reflection and gravity profiles collected across Yucca Mountain, Nevada, together with geologic data, provide evidence against proposed active detachment faults at shallow depth along the pre-Tertiary-Tertiary contact beneath this potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. The new geophysical data show that the inferred pre-Tertiary-Tertiary contact is offset by moderate-to-high-angle faults beneath Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and thus this shallow surface cannot represent an active detachment surface. The reflection lines reveal that the Amargosa Desert rift zone is an asymmetric half-graben having a maximum depth of about 4 km and a width of about 25 km. The east-dipping Bare Mountain fault that bounds this graben to the west can be traced by seismic reflection data to a depth of at least 3.5 km and possibly as deep as 6 km, with a constant dip of 64 degree ± 5 degree. Along the profile the transition from east- to west-dipping faults occurs at or just west of the Solitario Canyon fault, which bounds the western side of Yucca Mountain. The interaction at depth of these east- and west-dipping faults, having up to hundreds of meters offset, is not imaged by the seismic reflection profile. Understanding potential seismic hazards at Yucca Mountain requires knowledge of the subsurface geometry of the faults near Yucca Mountain, since earthquakes generally nucleate and release the greatest amount of their seismic energy at depth. The geophysical data indicate that many fault planes near the potential nuclear waste facility dip toward Yucca Mountain, including the Bare Mountain range-front fault and several west-dipping faults east of Yucca Mountain. Thus, earthquake ruptures along these faults would lie closer to Yucca Mountain than is often estimated from their surface locations and could therefore be more damaging

  12. Marine biota sightings during 3D marine seismic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joao Luiz Martinez de; Uller, George A. [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Derntl, Jose Renato; Ribeiro, Camila Castroviejo da Silva; Pereira, Edisio [GEOCOOP Cooperativa de Trabalho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Cristina Maschio de [Nautilus Cooperativa de Trabalho (Brazil); Ferraz, Alexandre Almeida; Costa, Leandro Damiao Soares da [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work intends to make a correlation between the presence of the marine biota and the seismic source activity (air guns) during seismic surveys, in Campos (BM-C-25 and BM-C-16) and Santos (BM-S-3) Basin, since July 2003 until March 2004. Environmental data were acquired onboard of the Seismic Vessel CGG Harmattan by a team of four oceanographers (environmental technicians), working on the highest place of the Vessel to record and identify the animals whenever was possible. The data were recorded in forms where fields about the biotic and environmental aspects were filled. In 212 days of observations, 2580,1 hours of sighting's effort were recorded; the air guns worked during 37,6% of the time of the effort. These efforts were made during the daylight reaching an average value of 11,35 hours/day. Sightings were divided into the suborders Odontocetes and Mysticetes, and others (fishes, turtles and non identified mammals). 175 sightings were recorded, being 54% when the air gun was off (24% Mysticetes, 56% Odontocetes, 20% others). Similarly, when the air gun was working, 46% of the records were made (24% Mysticetes, 61% Odontocetes, 6% others); the major concentration (58%) of individuals was inside the 1000 m radius around the ship, followed by 14% of the individuals occurring between 3001-4000 m radius away from the ship. The analysis of the data suggests a non-evasive behavior related to the working of the seismic source, corroborating the results reached by other publications using the data collected onboard CGG Vessels. (author)

  13. The tectonics of the area around the Konrad Mine (Salzgitter) based on reflection seismic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaritz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Reflection seismic investigations were carried out to determine the safety of the final disposal of radioactive waste in the Konrad mine. The layer thickness since the Zechstein and the position of the most important geological horizons are described. On the basis of the seismic sections, the Thiede and Vechelde-Broistedt salt structures and the fault systems of the Konrad Graben and Immendorf fault are briefly analysed. The development of the structures in this area is explained by a combination of halokinesis and epirogenic-tectonic processes. The iron-ore deposit is syngenetic with the surrounding salt stocks. This has to be taken into consideration for a reconstruction of the paleogeography and assessment of the deposit. (orig.) [de

  14. Archive of Digital Boomer and CHIRP Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 08LCA03 in Lake Panasoffkee, Florida, May 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; McBride, W. Scott; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2009-01-01

    In May of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys in Lake Panasoffkee, located in central Florida, as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer and Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP)* seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles and geospatially corrected interactive profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. *Due to poor data acquisition conditions associated with the lake bottom sediments, only two CHIRP tracklines were collected during this field activity. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are provided. The USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) - St. Petersburg assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 08LCA03 tells us the data were collected in 2008 for the Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study and the data were collected during the third field activity for that study in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The naming convention used for each seismic line is as follows: yye##a, where 'yy' are the last two digits of the year in which the data were collected, 'e' is a 1-letter abbreviation for the equipment type (for example, b for boomer and c

  15. Seismic reflection survey of the Uemachi fault in Osaka Prefecture; Osaka Uemachi danso no hanshaho danseiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Y [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshizawa, M; Hirooka, S [Nikko Exploration and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yokota, H; Ito, S [Hanshin Consultant Co., Osaka (Japan); Hayashi, K; Aizawa, H

    1997-05-27

    Reflection survey is conducted using three traverse lines in Sakai City for confirming the presence of a southward stretch of the Uemachi fault underground along the western periphery of the Uemachi terrace, Osaka, and for elucidating its connection to the Sakamoto fault distributed near Izumi. Another reflection survey is conducted in the bed of Kanzaki river, Osaka, for the confirmation of its connection to the Nembutsuji-zan fault in Senri hillock. It is estimated on the basis of boring data that there exists another flexural structure approximately 3km south of the flexural structure whose presence is confirmed by the Sakai second traverse line. Accordingly, possibilities are high that the southward stretch of the Uemachi fault connects to the Sakamoto fault. The confirmation by the Kanzaki river traverse line of the flexural structure again confirms the continuity between the Uemachi fault and Nembutsuji-zan fault. The above-said findings enable an inference that the three faults of Nembutsuji-zan, Uemachi, and Sakamoto constitute a chain of active faults. Furthermore, there exists an active fault to the south of the Sakamoto fault, which zigzags to the south on the right-hand side as far as the south of the Kumeda pond. Accordingly, the Uemachi fault system as a whole spans approximately 43km from the northern end of the Nembutsuji-zan fault as far as the south of the Kumeda pond. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Archive of digital boomer seismic reflection data collected offshore east-central Florida during USGS cruise 00FGS01, July 14-22, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subino, Janice A.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Wiese, Dana S.; Calderon, Karynna; Phelps, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    In July of 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey (FGS), conducted a geophysical survey of the Atlantic Ocean offshore Florida's east coast from Brevard County to northern Martin County. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) information, digital and handwritten Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. A filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital image of each seismic profile is also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of all acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU) (Cohen and Stockwell, 2005). Example SU processing scripts and USGS Software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 00FGS01 tells us the data were collected in 2000 for cooperative work with the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) and the data were collected during the first field activity for that study in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The boomer plate is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when discharged, emits a short acoustic pulse, or shot, which propagates through the water, sediment column, or rock beneath. The acoustic energy is reflected

  17. Fiscal 2000 basic survey for coal resource exploration. Survey for development of new exploration technology (Exploration of shallow layers on the land - Collection of data and materials); 2000 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa shiryoshu. Shintansa gijutsu chosa kaihatsu (rikuiki senso tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    As agreed upon between NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization), Japan, and Queensland, Australia, joint research was conducted on new technology for coal exploration within Queensland, and data collected during the research and related materials are compiled into this book. The book contains the Agreement for the Joint Research of New Technology in the Geophysical Exploration of Coal Resources (Japanese and English), GPS (global positioning system) survey results along 2-dimensional seismic reflection method traverse lines, GPS survey results along 3-dimensional seismic reflection method traverse lines, seismic generator vehicle inspection and repair report, geophysical logging observer's logs and test bore dip measurement data sheets, examples of outputted shot records (2-dimensional seismic reflection method), examples of outputted shot records (3-dimensional seismic reflection method), analysis and testing report on Girrah layer samples, reference literature on PRBS (pseudorandom binary sequence), collections of photographs of cores sampled by test boring (BG001, BG002, BG003, BG004), collections of other photographs, and so forth. (NEDO)

  18. Re-processing of Shallow and Deep Crustal Reflection Seismic Data along BABEL Line 7, Central Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokhi, Hanieh

    2012-01-01

    The BABEL project (Baltic And Bothnian Echoes from the Lithosphere) was a collaboration among British, Danish, Finnish, German and Swedish geoscientists to acquire deep-crustal reflection and wide-angle refraction data in the Baltic Shield and Gulf of Bothnia. In 1989, the collection of 2,268 km of deep marine reflection seismic data was carried out. BABEL line 7, one of several BABEL profiles, is the focus of this study and runs north of the Åland islands, in an E-W direction in the Bothnian...

  19. An asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a permeable layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Goloshubin, G.

    2009-10-15

    Analysis of compression wave propagation in a poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection from a high-permeability layer in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of Biot's model of poroelasticity. A review of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and Darcy's law suggests an alternative new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The absolute value of this parameter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility and the wave frequency. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). Practical applications of the obtained asymptotic formulae are seismic modeling, inversion, and at-tribute analysis.

  20. Mini-Sosie - a new concept in high-resolution seismic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, C J

    1977-12-01

    Mini-Sosie is a new approach to high-resolution reflection seismics using a nondynamite source. The basic principles is to use an ordinary earth tamper to produce a long duration pseudo-random input pulse train. Returning signals from suitable geophone arrays are decoded in real time by crosscorrelation with the reference signal recorded from a source-sensor attached to the tamper plate. Relatively weak signals are stacked until sufficient amplitude is obtained; most noise is phased out during the decoding process while in-phase seismic events are added, resulting in good signal-to-noise ratios. The resulting output is the standard field seismogram. The source is relatively quiet and surface damage is insignificant thereby avoiding environmental restrictions. Mini-Sosie is especially useful for shallow investigation to one second (two-way time) and has a wide range of applications from shallow oil and gas exploration, coal, and hard mineral exploration to hydrology and engineering studies.

  1. A seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection exploration in 2002 on the Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica-Outline of observations (JARE-43-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Miyamachi

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection exploration was successfully conducted along a profile crossing the JARE-41 seismic profile on the Mizuho Plateau, in East Antarctica, in the austral summer season of 2001-2002 (JARE-43. One hundred sixty-one seismic stations were temporarily installed along a profile about 151 km long and seven large shots with about 700 kg of dynamite were fired. In addition, one shot with charge size of 20 kg was also arranged along the profile. The obtained seismic records show the clear onsets of the first arrivals at distances of less than 100 km from each large shot. In particular, seismic waves traveling through the ice sheet and dispersed surface waves were clearly observed. Some later reflection phases were also detected. The obtained first travel time data show that the ice sheet is a two-layered structure consisting of an upper layer with a P wave velocity of 2.7-2.9 km/s and a lower layer of 3.7-3.9 km/s. The thickness of the upper layer is estimated to be about 36-45 m. The apparent velocity in the basement rock just beneath the ice sheet is 6.1-6.2 km/s in the central and southern parts of the profile and almost 5.9 km/s in the northern part. This report describes basic outlines of the exploration and the obtained seismic data.

  2. Interferometric seismic imaging around the active Lalor mine in the Flin Flon greenstone belt, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Eric; Calvert, Andrew J.; Craven, Jim

    2017-10-01

    Seismic interferometry, which recovers the impulse response of the Earth by cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded at sets of two receivers, has found several applications, including the generation of virtual shot gathers for use in seismic reflection processing. To evaluate the effectiveness of this passive recording technique in mineral exploration in a hard-rock environment, 336 receivers recorded 300 h of ambient noise over the volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit of the recently discovered Lalor mine in the Canadian Flin Flon greenstone belt. A novel time-domain beamforming algorithm was developed to search for individual source locations, demonstrating that the vast majority of noise originated from the mine and ventilation shafts of the Lalor mine. The results of the beamforming were utilized in conjunction with frequency-wavenumber filtering to remove undesirable, mostly monochromatic surface wave noise originating from nearby sources. Virtual shot gathers were generated along three receiver lines, each of which was processed as a separate 2-D reflection line. Two of the resulting unmigrated reflection profiles are compared against coincident dipmoveout-stacked data from a larger, coincident 3-D dynamite seismic survey that was also acquired over the Lalor mine in 2013. Using knowledge of the local geology derived from numerous boreholes, coherent events recovered in the passive reflection profiles are inferred to be either spurious arrivals or real reflections, some of which can be interpreted in terms of geological contacts, indicating the future potential of passive recording surveys in hard rock settings.

  3. Recent Vs. Historical Seismicity Analysis For Banat Seismic Region (Western Part Of Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Oros Eugen; Diaconescu Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The present day seismic activity from a region reflects the active tectonics and can confirm the seismic potential of the seismogenic sources as they are modelled using the historical seismicity. This paper makes a comparative analysis of the last decade seismicity recorded in the Banat Seismic Region (western part of Romania) and the historical seismicity of the region (Mw≥4.0). Four significant earthquake sequences have been recently localized in the region, three of them nearby the city of...

  4. In-seam seismic surveys at Polio and Santiago collieries during the month of January

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In-seam seismic surveys were carried out over the last two weekends in January in order to assess two coal panels, one in seam Cuatro at Polio colliery between levels 4 and 5 of the Centella field and the other in the Mariana seam at Santiago colliery between levels 3,5, and 7 in the Desquite zone. Geological research called in-seam seismics, which is just being developed in Spain, is a geophysical method developed specially for detailed investigation of coal seams.

  5. The lithosphere structure and deep processes of the Mesozoic metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from passive and active seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q.; Shi, D.; Jiang, G.; Yan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe-03 has conducted a Transect exploration across middle and lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMT) in Eastern China. Broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey were carried out along the Transect. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, deep processes and deformation history of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and financial support by National Natural

  6. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  7. Integrated Seismic Survey for Detecting Landslide Effects on High Speed Rail Line at Istanbul–Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grit Mert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves Method (MASW, seismic refraction tomography and seismic reflection methods are used together at Silivri district in Istanbul – a district with a landslide problem because of the high speed rail line project crossing through the area. The landslide structure, border and depth of the slip plane are investigated and correlated within the local geology. According to the obtained 2D seismic sections, the landslide occurs through the East-West direction in the study area and the landslide slip plane with its border are clearly obtained under the subsurface. The results prove that the study area is suitable enough for the landslide development and this evolution also affects the high speed rail line project.

  8. Microtremor survey to investigate seismic vulnerability around the Seulimum Fault, Aceh Besar-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, Andrean V. H.; Muksin, Umar; Rahmayani, Febrina

    2018-05-01

    The Seulimeum Fault has generated inland earthquake with magnitude larger than M 6.5 that destroyed houses in the Lamteuba and Krueng Raya Villages. Earthquakes along the Seulimeum Fault are mostly right lateral strike-slip characterizing the Fault. The understanding of the seismic vulnerability around the highly populated Banda Aceh City and the villages in Aceh Besar is therefore very important since the city, and the villages are very close to the Seulimeum Fault. A microtremor survey has been conducted to investigate seismic vulnerability in the area closed to the Seulimeum Fault. The waveforms of the microtremor have been recorded in Lamteuba and Kreung Raya villages, Aceh Besar at 20 sites for 7 days from August 14, 2017 with the interval of measurement of 1 km. The waveforms recorded for 30 minutes at each site by using one Taurus Seismometer in miniseed format. The data has been analyzing by using Geopsy to obtain the Horizontal-Vertical Spectral Ratio for each site. The seismic vulnerability is considered to be high if the value of the Horizontal-Vertical Spectral Ratio is high. The HVSR values are then interpolated to obtain the seismic vulnerability map. The preliminary result shows high seismic vulnerability in the area around the first site.

  9. Tectonic evolution of the Salton Sea inferred from seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D.S.; Driscoll, N.W.; Kent, G.M.; Harding, A.J.; Babcock, J.M.; Baskin, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Oblique extension across strike-slip faults causes subsidence and leads to the formation of pull-apart basins such as the Salton Sea in southern California. The formation of these basins has generally been studied using laboratory experiments or numerical models. Here we combine seismic reflection data and geological observations from the Salton Sea to understand the evolution of this nascent pull-apart basin. Our data reveal the presence of a northeast-trending hinge zone that separates the sea into northern and southern sub-basins. Differential subsidence (10 mm yr 1) in the southern sub-basin suggests the existence of northwest-dipping basin-bounding faults near the southern shoreline, which may control the spatial distribution of young volcanism. Rotated and truncated strata north of the hinge zone suggest that the onset of extension associated with this pull-apart basin began after 0.5 million years ago. We suggest that slip is partitioned spatially and temporally into vertical and horizontal domains in the Salton Sea. In contrast to previous models based on historical seismicity patterns, the rapid subsidence and fault architecture that we document in the southern part of the sea are consistent with experimental models for pull-apart basins. ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  10. Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon

    2016-04-01

    Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.

  11. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central Indian Ocean: A model from gravity and seismic reflection data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Neprochnov, Y.P.

    Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises...

  12. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, James A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  13. Probabilistic modeling of caprock leakage from seismic reflection data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Bergjofd-Kitterød, Ingjerd

    We illustrate a methodology which helps to perform a leakage risk analysis for a CO2 reservoir based on a consistent, probabilistic approach to geophysical and geostatistical inversion. Generally, risk assessments of storage complexes are based on geological models and simulations of CO2 movement...... within the storage complexes. The geological models are built on top of geophysical data such as seismic surveys, geological information and well logs from the reservoir or nearby regions. The risk assessment of CO2 storage requires a careful analysis which accounts for all sources of uncertainty....... However, at present, no well-defined and consistent method for mapping the true uncertainty related to the geophysical data and how that uncertainty affects the overall risk assessment for the potential storage site is available. To properly quantify the uncertainties and to avoid unrealistic...

  14. Seismic texture and amplitude analysis of large scale fluid escape pipes using time lapses seismic surveys: examples from the Loyal Field (Scotland, UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrelli, Daniele; Jihad, Ali; Iacopini, David; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Fluid escape pipes are key features of primary interest for the analysis of vertical fluid flow and secondary hydrocarbon migration in sedimentary basin. Identified worldwide (Løset et al., 2009), they acquired more and more importance as they represent critical pathways for supply of methane and potential structure for leakage into the storage reservoir (Cartwright & Santamarina, 2015). Therefore, understanding their genesis, internal characteristics and seismic expression, is of great significance for the exploration industry. Here we propose a detailed characterization of the internal seismic texture of some seal bypass system (e.g fluid escape pipes) from a 4D seismic survey (released by the BP) recently acquired in the Loyal Field. The seal by pass structure are characterized by big-scale fluid escape pipes affecting the Upper Paleogene/Neogene stratigraphic succession in the Loyal Field, Scotland (UK). The Loyal field, is located on the edge of the Faroe-Shetland Channel slope, about 130 km west of Shetland (Quadrants 204/205 of the UKCS) and has been recently re-appraised and re developed by a consortium led by BP. The 3D detailed mapping analysis of the full and partial stack survey (processed using amplitude preservation workflows) shows a complex system of fluid pipe structure rooted in the pre Lista formation and developed across the paleogene and Neogene Units. Geometrical analysis show that pipes got diameter varying between 100-300 m and a length of 500 m to 2 km. Most pipes seem to terminate abruptly at discrete subsurface horizons or in diffuse termination suggesting multiple overpressured events and lateral fluid migration (through Darcy flows) across the overburden units. The internal texture analysis of the large pipes, (across both the root and main conduit zones), using near, medium and far offset stack dataset (processed through an amplitude preserved PSTM workflow) shows a tendency of up-bending of reflection (rather than pulls up artefacts

  15. Laboratory measurements of the seismic velocities and other petrophysical properties of the Outokumpu deep drill core samples, eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbra, Tiiu; Karlqvist, Ronnie; Lassila, Ilkka; Høgström, Edward; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2011-01-01

    Petrophysical, in particular seismic velocity, measurements of the Outokumpu deep drill core (depth 2.5 km) have been carried out to characterize the geophysical nature of the Paleoproterozoic crustal section of eastern Finland and to find lithological and geophysical interpretations to the distinct crustal reflectors as observed in seismic surveys. The results show that different lithological units can be identified based on the petrophysical data. The density of the samples remained nearly constant throughout the drilled section. Only diopside-tremolite skarns and black schists exhibit higher densities. The samples are dominated by the paramagnetic behaviour with occasional ferromagnetic signature caused by serpentinitic rocks. Large variations in seismic velocities, both at ambient pressure and under in situ crustal conditions are observed. The porosity of the samples, which is extremely low, is either intrinsic by nature or caused by decompaction related to fracturing during the core retrieval. It is noteworthy that these microfractures have dramatically lowered the VP and VS values. From the measured velocities and density data we have calculated the seismic impedances, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios for the lithological units of the Outokumpu section and from these data the reflection coefficients for the major lithological boundaries, evident in the surveyed section, were determined. The data show that the strong and distinct reflections visible in wide-angle seismic surveys are caused by interfaces between diopside-tremolite skarn and either serpentinites, mica schist or black schist.

  16. Gas hydrate concentration and characteristics within Hydrate Ridge inferred from multicomponent seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Sen, Mrinal K.; Bangs, Nathan L.

    2007-12-01

    A seismic experiment composed of streamer and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) surveys was conducted in the summer of 2002 at southern Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon, to map the gas hydrate distribution within the hydrate stability zone. Gas hydrate concentrations within the reservoir can be estimated with P wave velocity (Vp); however, we can further constrain gas hydrate concentrations using S wave velocity (Vs), and use Vs through its relationship to Vp (Vp/Vs) to reveal additional details such as gas hydrate form within the matrix (i.e., hydrate cements the grains, becomes part of the matrix frame or floats in pore space). Both Vp and Vs can be derived simultaneously by inverting multicomponent seismic data. In this study, we use OBS data to estimate seismic velocities where both gas hydrate and free gas are present in the shallow sediments. Once Vp and Vs are estimated, they are simultaneously matched with modeled velocities to estimate the gas hydrate concentration. We model Vp using an equation based on a modification of Wood's equation that incorporates an appropriate rock physics model and Vs using an empirical relation. The gas hydrate concentration is estimated to be up to 7% of the rock volume, or 12% of the pore space. However, Vp and Vs do not always fit the model simultaneously. Vp can vary substantially more than Vs. Thus we conclude that a model, in which higher concentrations of hydrate do not affect shear stiffness, is more appropriate. Results suggest gas hydrates form within the pore space of the sediments and become part of the rock framework in our survey area.

  17. High-resolution S-wave reflection survey in a linear depression; Senjo kubochi ni okeru kobunkaino S ha hanshaho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Y [Kyushu Regional Construction Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    An attempt was made to apply a method combining the high-resolution S-wave reflection survey with boring to a fault survey at the Kuju town, Oita Prefecture. The investigation area has a linear depression area as small as about 600 m from east to west and about 100 m from north to south surround by mountain slopes. The boundary section with mountain peaks at the north ridge of the depression area is linear, and existence of a southward falling normal fault has been indicated. The seismic investigation has employed an artificial plank hammering method, and the derived data were processed by using the processing software, Vista for Windows. The Bin interval was 25 cm, the S-wave velocity ranged from 100 to 150 m/s, and the spatial resolution was estimated at several ten centimeters or less. The resolution is thought sufficient for assessing the fault location and displacement. The acquired depth cross sections presented distinct structural discontinuity, from which the fault locations were estimated. However, for displacements in the base bed and upper beds, the reflected waves fell into disorder at the faults, having made a detailed assessment difficult. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  19. The Geologic History of Lake of the Woods, Minnesota, Reconstructed Using Seismic-Reflection Imaging and Sediment Core Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougardy, Devin D.

    only near the margins of the basin, suggesting that water occupied much of the middle of the southern basin after lake level drawdown. The reflection character and configuration of SU-C and SU-D are genetically different indicating that the depositional environment had changed following the formation of UNCF-2. Piston-type sediment cores collected from the southern basin of LOTW at depths that correspond to the middle of SU-D contain high amounts of organic material and charcoal fragments and sediment that are probably not related to Lake Agassiz. Instead, they were likely deposited during a transitional phase between when Lake Agassiz left the LOTW basin (UNCF-2) and inundation of LOTW from the northern basin due to differential isostatic rebound (UNCF-3). All sediment cores collected from the southern basin of LOTW record the uppermost unconformity, analogous in depth to UNCF-3 in the seismic images, which separates modern sediments from mid to late-Holocene sediments. The lithology of sediments below this unconformity varies across the basin from gray clay to laminated silt and clay. Radiocarbon ages from two peat layers immediately below the unconformity indicate that subaerial conditions had existed prior to the formation of UNCF-1, at about 7.75 ka cal BP. The timing correlates well with other lakes in the upper Midwest that record a prolonged dry climate during the mid-Holocene. UNCF-3 is planar and erosional across the entire survey area but erosion is greatest in the northern part of the basin as the result of a southward transgressing wave base driven by differential isostatic rebound. Deposition in the southern basin probably resumed around 3.3 ka cal BP, though no radiocarbon dates were collected directly above UNCF-3. The lithology of sediment above UNCF-3 is highly uniform across the basin and represents modern sedimentation. Late-Holocene sedimentation rates were calculated at about 0.9 mm year-1 and are roughly double the sedimentation rates in the NW

  20. Crustal-scale pop-up structure in cratonic lithosphere: DOBREdeep seismic reflection study of the Donbas fold belt, Ukraine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maystrenko, Yu.; Stovba, S.; Stephenson, R.A.; Bayer, U.; Menyoli, E.; Gajewski, D.; Huebscher, Ch.; Rabbel, W.; Saintot, A.N.; Starostenko, V.I.; Thybo, H.; Tolkunov, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The DOBRE project investigated the interplay of geologic and geodynamic processes that controlled the evolution of the Donbas fold belt, Ukraine, as an example of an inverted intracratonic rift basin. A deep seismic reflection profile provides an excellent image of the structure of the Donbas fold

  1. Geological affinity of reflecting boundaries in the intermediate structural stage of the Chu Sarysuyskiy depression based on results of vertical seismic profilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, N.G.; Kiselevskiy, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    A computer (EVM) and an ASOI-VSP-SK program complex are used to analyze data from seismic exploration and acoustical logging with interval by interval calculation of the velocity every four meters. Vertical seismic profilling (VSP) results are used to identify all the upper layers as reference layers. The basic reference level, the third, which corresponds to the floor of the carbonate middle to upper Visean series, is not sustained due to the thin layered state of the terrigeneous section. Based on data from vertical seismic profilling, the reflected wave method (MOV) and the common depth point method (MOGT), the reference 3-a and 6-a levels are identified. Deep reflections of the seventh, 7-a and Rf, approximately confined to the roof and floor of the lower Paleozoic deposits and the upper part of the upper reef series, are noted in the series of the Caledonian cap of the Prebaykal massifs based on vertical seismic profilling. Collector levels are noted on the basis of the frequency of the wave spectra and from the absorption coefficient in the Testas structure and in other low amplitude structures. The insufficiency of the depth capability of the common depth point method and the poor knowledge level of seismic exploration of the section of the lower Paleozoa and the upper Proterozoa of the Chu Sarysuyskiy depresion are noted.

  2. Analysis of multi-channel seismic reflection and magnetic data along 13 degrees N latitude across the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Murty, G.P.S.; Srinivas, K.; Desa, M.; Reddy, S.I.; Ashalata, B.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Mital, G.S.; Drolia, R.K.; rai, S.N.; Ghosh, S.K.; Singh, R.N.; Majumdar, M.

    Analysis of the multi-channel seismic reflection, magnetic and bathymetric data collected along a transect, 1110 km long parallel to 13 degrees N lat. across the Bay of Bengal was made. The transect is from the continental shelf off Madras...

  3. Accelerometer Sensor Specifications to Predict Hydrocarbon Using Passive Seismic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Md Khir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambient seismic ground noise has been investigated in several surveys worldwide in the last 10 years to verify the correlation between observed seismic energy anomalies at the surface and the presence of hydrocarbon reserves beneath. This is due to the premise that anomalies provide information about the geology and potential presence of hydrocarbon. However a technology gap manifested in nonoptimal detection of seismic signals of interest is observed. This is due to the fact that available sensors are not designed on the basis of passive seismic signal attributes and mainly in terms of amplitude and bandwidth. This is because of that fact that passive seismic acquisition requires greater instrumentation sensitivity, noise immunity, and bandwidth, with active seismic acquisition, where vibratory or impulsive sources were utilized to receive reflections through geophones. Therefore, in the case of passive seismic acquisition, it is necessary to select the best monitoring equipment for its success or failure. Hence, concerning sensors performance, this paper highlights the technological gap and motivates developing dedicated sensors for optimal solution at lower frequencies. Thus, the improved passive seismic recording helps in oil and gas industry to perform better fracture mapping and identify more appropriate stratigraphy at low frequencies.

  4. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Šílený, Jan; Lednická, Markéta

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [1-]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria) in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic. In order to evaluate seismicity and to assess the impact of seismic effects at depths of hypothetical deep geological repository for the next time period, the neo-deterministic method was selected as an extension of the probabilistic method. Each one out of the seven survey areas were assessed by the neo-deterministic evaluation of the seismic wave-field excited by selected individual events and determining the maximum loading. Results of seismological databases studies and neo-deterministic analysis of Čihadlo locality are presented.

  5. Seismic structure from multi-channel seismic reflection and wide-angle data of Transect 0E in the Southern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, P.; Holbrook, W.; Brown, H.; Lizarralde, D.; Fletcher, J.; Umhoefer, P.; Kent, G.; Harding, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Axen, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present a velocity model from wide-angle data along with coincident prestack depth migration sections from seismic reflection data collected in the southern Gulf of California. Transect 0E runs NE to SW from the hills of Sierra Madre in mainland Mexico near Mazatlan to approximately 115 km into Gulf of California waters. Wide-angle data were recorded by 9 ocean bottom seismometers, deployed by the R/V New Horizon and 10 Reftek seismometers located along onshore extension of the transect. The average spacing for the OBS and Refteks is ~12 km and shots were fired from the R/V Maurice Ewing at 150 m intervals. Transect 0E crosses what it is believed to be extended continental crust and lies in the initial direction of extension characteristic of the proto-gulf. Preliminary results from the velocity model show upper crustal velocities of 6.1-6.3 km/s and lower crustal velocities of 6.7-7.0 km/s along the entire transect. Seismic velocities and crustal thicknesses observed along transect 0E are characteristic of non-volcanic margins.

  6. Consecutive collection of new finding and knowledge on science and technology to be reflected to seismic safety assessment for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Iijima, Toru

    2013-05-01

    JNES had been collecting and analyzing new finding and knowledge on science and technology to be reflected to seismic safety assessment for nuclear facilities, which was updated so as to develop a system to organize and disseminate such information in response to Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA)'s policy on new safety regulations requesting enhanced protective measures against extreme natural hazards. The tasks were as follows; (1) collection of new finding and knowledge from seismic safety research of JNES, (2) constructing database of seismic safety research from documents published by committees and including the Great East Japan Earthquake and (3) dissemination of information related to seismic research. As for JFY 2012 activities, collecting and analyzing new finding and knowledge were on three areas such as active fault, seismic source/ground motion and tsunami. 4 theme related with the Great East Japan Earthquake, 7 items not related with the Great East Japan Earthquake and one item on external event were collected and analyzed whether incorporating in seismic safety research important for regulation to increase seismic safety of nuclear facilities, with no such theme confirmed. (T. Tanaka)

  7. The Investigation of Active Tectonism Offshore Cide-Sinop, Southern Black Sea by Seismic Reflection and Bathymetric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Y. I.; Ocakoglu, N.; Kılıc, F.; Ozel, A. O.

    2017-12-01

    The active tectonism offshore Cide-Sinop at the Southern Black Sea shelf area was first time investigated by multi-beam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data under the Research Project of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBİTAK-ÇAYDAG-114Y057). The multi-channel seismic reflection data of about 700 km length were acquired in 1991 by Turkish Petroleum Company (TP). Multibeam bathymetric data were collected between 2002-2008 by the Turkish Navy, Department of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography (TN-DNHO). Conventional data processing steps were applied as follows: in-line geometry definition, shot-receiver static correction, editing, shot muting, gain correction, CDP sorting, velocity analysis, NMO correction, muting, stacking, predictive deconvolution, band-pass filtering, finite-difference time migration, and automatic gain correction. Offshore area is represented by a quite smooth and large shelf plain with an approx. 25 km wide and the water depth of about -100 m. The shelf gently deepens and it is limited by the shelf break with average of -120 m contour. The seafloor morphology is charasterised by an erosional surface. Structurally, E-W trending strike-slip faults with generally compression components and reverse/thrust faults have been regionally mapped for the first time. Most of these faults deform all seismic units and reach the seafloor delimiting the morphological highs and submarine plains. Thus, these faults are intepreted as active faults. These results support the idea that the area is under the active compressional tectonic regime

  8. Research items regarding seismic residual risk evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    After learning the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP severe accidents in 2011, the government investigation committee proposed the effective use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and now it is required to establish new safety rules reflecting the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and proposed severe accident measures. Since the Seismic Design Guide has been revised on September 19, 2006, JNES has been discussing seismic PRA (Levels 1-3) methods to review licensees' residual risk assessment while preparing seismic PRA models. Meanwhile, new safety standards for light water reactors are to be issued and enforced on July 2013, which require the residual risk of tsunami, in addition to earthquakes, should be lowered as much as possible. The Fukushima accidents raised the problems related to risk assessment, e.g. approaches based on multi-hazard (earthquake and tsunami), multi-unit, multi-site, and equipment's common cause failure. This fiscal year, while performing seismic and/or tsunami PRA to work on these problems, JNES picked up the equipment whose failure greatly contribute to core damage, surveyed accident management measures on those equipment as well as effectiveness to reduce core damage probability. (author)

  9. Imaging the Danish Chalk Group with high resolution, 3-component seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, J.; Rasmussen, S. L.; Nielsen, L.; Malehmir, A.; Stemmerik, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Chalk Group in the Danish Basin forms important reservoirs to hydrocarbons as well as water resources, and it has been subject to several seismic studies to determine e.g. structural elements, deposition and burial history. This study focuses on the high quality seismic response of a survey acquired with an accelerated 45 kg weight drop and 3-component MEMS-based sensors and additional wireless vertical-type sensors. The 500 m long profile was acquired during one day close to a chalk quarry and chalk cliffs of the Stevns peninsula in eastern Denmark where the well-known K-T (Cretaceous-Tertiary) boundary and different chalk lithologies are well-exposed. With this simple and fast procedure we were able to achieve deep P-wave penetration to the base of the Chalk Group at about 900 m depth. Additionally, the CMP-processed seismic image of the vertical component stands out by its high resolution. Sedimentary features are imaged in the near-surface Danian, as well as in the deeper Maastrichtian and Upper Campanian parts of the Chalk Group. Integration with borehole data suggests that changes in composition, in particular clay content, correlate with changes in reflectivity of the seismic data set. While the pure chalk in the Maastrichtian deposits shows rather low reflectivity, succession enriched in clay appear to be more reflective. The integration of the mentioned methods gives the opportunity to connect changes in facies to the elastic response of the Chalk Group in its natural environmental conditions.

  10. CMP reflection imaging via interferometry of distributed subsurface sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Brown, L. D.; Quiros, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The theoretical foundations of recovering body wave energy via seismic interferometry are well established. However in practice, such recovery remains problematic. Here, synthetic seismograms computed for subsurface sources are used to evaluate the geometrical combinations of realistic ambient source and receiver distributions that result in useful recovery of virtual body waves. This study illustrates how surface receiver arrays that span a limited distribution suite of sources, can be processed to reproduce virtual shot gathers that result in CMP gathers which can be effectively stacked with traditional normal moveout corrections. To verify the feasibility of the approach in practice, seismic recordings of 50 aftershocks following the magnitude of 5.8 Virginia earthquake occurred in August, 2011 have been processed using seismic interferometry to produce seismic reflection images of the crustal structure above and beneath the aftershock cluster. Although monotonic noise proved to be problematic by significantly reducing the number of usable recordings, the edited dataset resulted in stacked seismic sections characterized by coherent reflections that resemble those seen on a nearby conventional reflection survey. In particular, "virtual" reflections at travel times of 3 to 4 seconds suggest reflector sat approximately 7 to 12 km depth that would seem to correspond to imbricate thrust structures formed during the Appalachian orogeny. The approach described here represents a promising new means of body wave imaging of 3D structure that can be applied to a wide array of geologic and energy problems. Unlike other imaging techniques using natural sources, this technique does not require precise source locations or times. It can thus exploit aftershocks too small for conventional analyses. This method can be applied to any type of microseismic cloud, whether tectonic, volcanic or man-made.

  11. Evidence of Enhanced Subrosion in a Fault Zone and Characterization of Hazard Zones with Elastic Parameters derived from SH-wave reflection Seismics and VSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, S. H.; Tanner, D. C.; Tschache, S.; Polom, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Subrosion, the dissolution of soluble rocks, e.g., sulfate, salt, or carbonate, requires unsaturated water and fluid pathways that enable the water to flow through the subsurface and generate cavities. Over time, different structures can occur that depend on, e.g., rock solubility, flow rate, and overburden type. The two main structures are sinkholes and depressions. To analyze the link between faults, groundwater flow, and soluble rocks, and to determine parameters that are useful to characterize hazard zones, several shear-wave (SH) reflection seismic profiles were surveyed in Thuringia in Germany, where Permian sulfate rocks and salt subcrop close to the surface. From the analysis of the seismic sections we conclude that areas affected by tectonic deformation phases are prone to enhanced subrosion. The deformation of fault blocks leads to the generation of a damage zone with a dense fracture network. This increases the rock permeability and thus serves as a fluid pathway for, e.g., artesian-confined groundwater. The more complex the fault geometry and the more interaction between faults, the more fractures are generated, e.g., in a strike slip-fault zone. The faults also act as barriers for horizontal groundwater flow perpendicular to the fault surfaces and as conduits for groundwater flow along the fault strike. In addition, seismic velocity anomalies and attenuation of seismic waves are observed. Low velocities high attenuation may indicate areas affected by subrosion. Other parameters that characterize the underground stability are the shear modulus and the Vp/Vs ratio. The data revealed zones of low shear modulus high Vp/Vs ratio >2.5, which probably indicate unstable areas due to subrosion. Structural analysis of S-wave seismics is a valuable tool to detect near-surface faults in order to determine whether or not an area is prone to subrosion. The recognition of even small fault blocks can help to better understand the hydrodynamic groundwater conditions

  12. Seismic VSP and crosshole investigations in Olkiluoto, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, N.; Cosma, C.; Balu, L.

    2003-04-01

    Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) and crosshole seismic surveys were conducted during 2002 at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, Finland. The VSP investigations were carried out in three boreholes (KR13, KR14 and KR19) with ten or eleven shot points for each borehole. Additionally, the data from a VSP investigation carried out in 1990 in borehole KR5 had been reprocessed with state of the art tools. One crosshole section (KR14-KR15 at 20 - 240 m interval) was measured and processed. Different receiver types were used for the VSP and crosshole: a 3-component geophone chain for VSP and a hydrophone chain for crosshole. VSP surveys have been carried out with a VIBSIST-1000 source - a time-distributed swept-impact source - instead of explosives. With this source, the seismic signals are produced as rapid series of impacts, the impact intervals being monotonically increased to achieve a nonrepeatable sequence. The VIBSIST-1000 uses a tractor-mounted hydraulic rock-breaker, powered through a computer controlled servo-hydraulic flow regulator. Using standard construction equipment ensures that the VIBSIST sources are safe, non-destructive and environmentally friendly. This also makes the method reliable and cost effective. The new VIBSIST source produces signals with levels of energy comparable to explosives. The VIBSIST appears to be more stable, but its most significant advantages are the low cost of preparation of the shot points and the speed of the acquisition. Crosshole surveys were carried out with a piezoelectric borehole source, the VIBSISTSPH54, which operates on the same principle as the surface VIBSIST source. The wide diversity of reflection angles, the local variations of reflectivity and, generally, the relatively weak seismic response of faults and fractured zones in crystalline rock demand intensive processing. The first stage of the processing sequence focuses on eliminating such wave-fields as the direct P, direct S, tube-waves and ground-roll, so that the

  13. Seismic VSP and crosshole investigations in Olkiluoto, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enescu, N.; Cosma, C.; Balu, L. [Vibrometric Oy (Finland)

    2003-04-01

    Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) and crosshole seismic surveys were conducted during 2002 at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, Finland. The VSP investigations were carried out in three boreholes (KR13, KR14 and KR19) with ten or eleven shot points for each borehole. Additionally, the data from a VSP investigation carried out in 1990 in borehole KR5 had been reprocessed with state of the art tools. One crosshole section (KR14-KR15 at 20 - 240 m interval) was measured and processed. Different receiver types were used for the VSP and crosshole: a 3-component geophone chain for VSP and a hydrophone chain for crosshole. VSP surveys have been carried out with a VIBSIST-1000 source - a time-distributed swept-impact source - instead of explosives. With this source, the seismic signals are produced as rapid series of impacts, the impact intervals being monotonically increased to achieve a nonrepeatable sequence. The VIBSIST-1000 uses a tractor-mounted hydraulic rock-breaker, powered through a computer controlled servo-hydraulic flow regulator. Using standard construction equipment ensures that the VIBSIST sources are safe, non-destructive and environmentally friendly. This also makes the method reliable and cost effective. The new VIBSIST source produces signals with levels of energy comparable to explosives. The VIBSIST appears to be more stable, but its most significant advantages are the low cost of preparation of the shot points and the speed of the acquisition. Crosshole surveys were carried out with a piezoelectric borehole source, the VIBSISTSPH54, which operates on the same principle as the surface VIBSIST source. The wide diversity of reflection angles, the local variations of reflectivity and, generally, the relatively weak seismic response of faults and fractured zones in crystalline rock demand intensive processing. The first stage of the processing sequence focuses on eliminating such wave-fields as the direct P, direct S, tube-waves and ground-roll, so that the

  14. ONKALO 3D tunnel seismic investigations at Olkiluoto in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Enescu, N.; Balu, L.; Jacome, M.

    2011-02-01

    POSIVA Oy conducts bedrock investigations at the spent nuclear fuel final disposal site at Olkiluoto, in western Finland. The excavation of the access tunnel to the repository hosts the ONKALO underground rock characterization facility. The investigations carried out at ONKALO focus on the bedrock and groundwater conditions prevailing on the final disposal site and how construction work affects them. Tunnel seismic investigations were carried out in July 2009, as an extension of similar work performed in December 2007. The main objective of the tunnel seismic investigations have been to demonstrate the possibility to detect, locate and image cost effectively steeply and gently dipping fractures, at the side and/or below the tunnel and to characterize the volume of rock surrounding a 250 m long segment of the ONKALO tunnel. The survey was conducted at a depth of 350 m, over a 240 m long line of 3-components receivers, spaced at 3m intervals. Seismic signals were produced along two lines, on the tunnel wall and floor, with source points spaced at 1m. A timedistributed swept-impact, the Vibsist-250 hydraulic source, was used. The source was hosted on a mini excavator. Receiver holes approximately 0.4 m deep were drilled prior to the survey, horizontally into the tunnel wall. One of the procedures used for data stacking and migration is based on a proprietary method combining the DMO (Dip Move Out) correction and an expression of the Radon Transform. Horizontal and vertical migrated profiles were computed both for the P wave and S wave reflected wave fields. A true 3D migration technique (Image Point migration) was used to create 3D migrated sections oriented to incremental azimuths around the tunnel, the result being a cylindrical imaging volume. A general conclusion is that seismic surveys along the tunnel can economically be used for rock mass characterization. High quality results can be obtained by operations in tunnel working conditions, provided that due

  15. Results from an acoustic modelling study of seismic airgun survey noise in Queen Charlotte Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGillivray, A.O.; Chapman, N.R. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2005-12-07

    An acoustic modelling study was conducted to examine seismic survey noise propagation in the Queen Charlotte Basin (QCB) and better understand the physical aspects of sound transmission. The study results are intended to help determine the potential physiological and behavioural effects of airgun noise on marine mammals and fish. The scope of the study included a numerical simulation of underwater sound transmission in QCB in areas where oil and gas exploration activities may be conducted; a forecast of received noise levels by combining acoustic transmission loss computations with acoustic source levels representative of seismic exploration activity and, the use of received forecasts to estimate zones of impact for marine mammals. The critical environmental parameters in the QCB are the bathymetry of the ocean, the sound speed profile in the water and the geoacoustic profile of the seabed. The RAM acoustic propagation model developed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory was used to compute acoustic transmission loss in the QCB. The source level and directionality of the seismic array was determined by a full-waveform array source signature model. This modelling study of noise propagation from seismic surveys revealed several key findings. Among them, it showed that received noise levels in the water are affected by the source location, array orientation and the shape of the sound speed profile with respect to water depth. It also showed that noise levels are lowest in shallow bathymetry. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  16. Evidences of intraplate deformation in the West Madeira Abyssal Plain (eastern North Atlantic) from seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, C.; Simões, M.; Lourenço, N.; Pinto de Abreu, M.

    2009-04-01

    The West Madeira Abyssal Plain is located in the eastern North Atlantic off Madeira Islands, forming part of the Canary Basin and reaching a mean water depth of 5300 m. This region is also located within Africa plate at about 500 km southwards from the Açores-Gibraltar plate boundary, and for that reason lacks seismic activity. Although this region being located in an intraplate setting, the presence of faulted sediments was reported in several works published during the eighties of last century following a study conducted in late 1970s to evaluate the feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the ocean. According these works, the Madeira Abyssal Plain sediments are cut by many normal growth faults and this deformation is a result of compaction and dewatering of the sediments. Evidences of tectonic deformation of oceanic sediments in intraplate settings are uncommon, but folded sediments and reverse faults extending into the basement, were recognized in the equatorial Indian Ocean and in the West African continental margin. Recently, during 2006 multi-channel seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry surveys were carried out in the West Madeira Abyssal Plain by EMEPC in order to prepare the Portuguese proposal for the extension of the continental shelf. The seismic lines were acquired onboard R/V Akademik Shatskiy using a source of 5720 cu in bolt gun array, cable length of 7950 m and shot interval of 50.00 m. The multibeam swath bathymetry was acquired onboard NRP Gago Coutinho, and allowed a high resolution mapping of the main geomorphological features. The multichannel seismic lines, oriented WNW-ESE, image the Madeira island lower slope located at about 4000 m water depth and the almost flat abyssal plain at about 5300 m water depth. These seismic lines show a thick sedimentary succession that reaches a maximum thickness of about 1.5 sec twt in the deepest parts of the West Madeira Abyssal Plain, overlying an irregular diffractive

  17. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. Waddell; William J. Domoracki; Tom J. Temples

    2001-05-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report is for Task 4 site evaluation, Task 5 seismic reflection design and acquisition, and Task 6 seismic reflection processing and interpretation on DOE contact number DE-AR26-98FT40369. The project had planned one additional deployment to another site other than Savannah River Site (SRS) or DOE Hanford. During this reporting period the project had an ASME peer review. The findings and recommendation of the review panel, as well at the project team response to comments, are in Appendix A. After the SUBCON midyear review in Albuquerque, NM and the peer review it was decided that two additional deployments would be performed. The first deployment is to test the feasibility of using non-invasive seismic reflection and AVO analysis as monitoring to assist in determining the effectiveness of Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) in removal of DNAPL. Under the rescope of the project, Task 4 would be performed at the Charleston Navy Weapons Station, Charleston, SC and not at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) project at SRS. The project team had already completed Task 4 at the M-area seepage basin, only a few hundred yards away from the DUS site. Because the geology is the same, Task 4 was not necessary. However, a Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) was conducted in one well to calibrate the geology to the seismic data. The first deployment to the DUS Site (Tasks 5 and 6) has been completed. Once the steam has been turned off these tasks will be performed again to compare the results to the pre-steam data. The results from the first deployment to the DUS site indicated a seismic amplitude anomaly at the location and depths of the known high concentrations of DNAPL. The deployment to another site with different geologic conditions was supposed to occur during this reporting period. The first site selected was DOE Paducah, Kentucky. After almost eight months of negotiation, site access was denied requiring the selection of another site

  18. Structural and Tectonic Map Along the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Northern Gulf of California, Sonora Desert and Valle de Mexicali, Mexico, from Seismic Reflection Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escobar, M.; Suarez-Vidal, F.; Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Martin Barajas, A.; Pacheco-Romero, M.; Arregui-Estrada, S.; Gallardo-Mata, C.; Sanchez-Garcia, C.; Chanes-Martinez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Between 1978 and 1983, Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) carried on an intense exploration program in the northern Gulf of California, the Sonora Desert and the southern part of the Mexicali Valley. This program was supported by a seismic reflection field operation. The collected seismic data was 2D, with travel time of 6 s recording, in 48 channels, and the source energy was: dynamite, vibroseis and air guns. Since 2007 to present time, the existing seismic data has been re-processing and ire-interpreting as part of a collaboration project between the PEMEX's Subdirección de Exploración (PEMEX) and CICESE. The study area is located along a large portion of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Gulf of California and the Southern part of the Salton Trough tectonic province (Mexicali Valley). We present the result of the processes reflection seismic lines. Many of the previous reported known faults were identify along with the first time described located within the study region. We identified regions with different degree of tectonic activity. In structural map it can see the location of many of these known active faults and their associated seismic activity, as well as other structures with no associated seismicity. Where some faults are mist placed they were deleted or relocated based on new information. We included historical seismicity for the region. We present six reflection lines that cross the aftershocks zone of the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 (Mw7.2). The epicenter of this earthquake and most of the aftershocks are located in a region where pervious to this earthquake no major earthquakes are been reported. A major result of this study is to demonstrate that there are many buried faults that increase the seismic hazard.

  19. The ascent of magma as determined by seismic tomography. The visualization of velocity structure and magma distribution from upper mantle to upper crust in Hakone volcano, northern Izu peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shintaro; Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Toshida, Kiyoshi; Oda, Yoshiya

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional seismic reflection and refraction survey was carried out in Hakone volcanic area, northern part of Izu peninsula. The region is one of the most famous hot spring areas in Japan. Hakone volcano morphologically resembles one big caldera. However, the depression of the volcano consists of several small calderas which has been formed by multiple eruptions. Although sprouts of fumarolic gas and steam are identified in a few areas of the volcano, there is no historical record of volcanic eruption. Main purpose of our study is to determine the 3-dimensional deep velocity structure around the volcano using the seismic tomography processing. We deployed 44 sets of temporal offline seismic stations and a line of multi-channels seismic reflection survey cable. The seismic waves generated by some natural earthquakes and 14 dynamite explosions were observed, and their data were processed for tomography. The observation coverage was 20 km in diameter. Our result demonstrates the usefulness of high dense seismic observation in identifying and locating low velocity zones beneath the particular area. According to our tomography, low velocity zone was identified only in surface layer of the old caldera part of the volcano. We could not identify any remarkable reflector in deeper crust, as the result of wide-angle reflection survey using explosive shots. Moreover, we could not identify any other low velocity zone as far as 32 km depth by incorporating the results of other study. In other words, we think that magma is no longer supplied to Hakone volcanic area. (author)

  20. Green's function representations for seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Fokkema, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The term seismic interferometry refers to the principle of generating new seismic responses by crosscorrelating seismic observations at different receiver locations. The first version of this principle was derived by Claerbout (1968), who showed that the reflection response of a horizontally layered

  1. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.A.; Tryggvason, A.; Panea, I; Mocanu, V.I.; Hauser, F

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the

  2. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2016-01-01

    installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single

  3. Site investigation SFR. Reprocessing of reflection seismic profiles 5b and 8, Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Zhang, Fengjiao (Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Reflection seismic profiles 5b and 8 in the northern Forsmark area have been reprocessed with the aim of improving the images in the uppermost 500 metres in the SFR area. The main conclusion is that a new reflection (B10) has been identified that may extend below the SFR site. This reflection was not clearly observed in the previous processing. The reflection strikes approximately N25E and dips at about 35 degrees to the southeast. This orientation is similar to the set B group identified earlier /Juhlin and Palm 2005/. Note that the dip of the reflection is uncertain. On shot gathers it appears to dip at a slightly shallower angle while on the stacked sections it appears to dip at a greater angle. This discrepancy is probably due to the crooked nature of the profiles. However, reflections are clearly observed in shot gathers and its presence below SFR is highly probable. Two new reflections were also identified further north along profile 5b (A11 and A12). These dip to the south-southeast, but would be found at a depth of 1-2 km below SFR if they extend to below the site. There are also signs of a 3rd reflection with similar orientation to the set A group identified earlier, A13, but its existence is very speculative. This reflector would intersect the surface within the SFR area. South of the Singoe deformation zone on profile 5b, another new reflection has been found, N1. The orientation of this reflection is speculative since it is not clearly seen on profile 8. It has been modelled as dipping to the north at about 35 degrees and projects to the surface south of the main SFR area. In addition, the orientation of reflection B7 has been revised as has the lateral extent of A1. Most importantly, A1 is now interpreted not to extend to the surface and not cross the Singoe deformation zone

  4. Paleostress Analysis with Reflection Seismic Data: Example from the Songliao Basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Persaud, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Currently paleostress inversion using fault-slip data is a well established approach. However, the deformation history contained in folds has not yet been fully utilized to determine the paleostress field. By applying a 2D FFT-based algorithm to a structure or isopach map derived from reflection seismic data, we find a new way of exploiting the information preserved in folds to determine the paleostress. Our method requires that the strata have a large areal extent and are well preserved. After pre-processing the maps, we find that in the frequency-wavenumber (F-K) domain, folds with similar strikes are grouped into spectrum belts. Each belt parallels the short axis of the fold group and can therefore indicate the direction of the associated maximum horizontal stress. Some information on the relative chronology of stresses can be deduced by comparing the structure and isopach spectrum maps, e.g., if the structure spectrum map has one more spectrum belt than that of the isopach map (an approximate paleo-structure map of the corresponding stratum), we can conclude that the indicated stress postdated the deposition of the stratum. We selected three Late Cretaceous strata from a 3D seismic survey located in the intracontinental Songliao Basin, northeast China. The Songliao has experienced four episodes of deformation: mantle upwelling, rifting, postrift thermal subsidence and structural inversion (Feng et al., 2009). The selected strata were deposited during the third stage. Three structure and two isopach maps were decomposed in the F-K domain. Spectral analysis of the lower isopach map shows eight paleostress directions. We also identify a ninth paleostress in addition to the previous eight from the structure maps and the upper isopach map. The eight stress directions that exist in both the isopach and structure maps may have been active throughout the time period spanned by the strata. We interpret the ninth paleostress as being active after the deposition of the

  5. Subsurface Characterization using Geophysical Seismic Refraction Survey for Slope Stabilization Design with Soil Nailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Ng, Soon Min; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd; Madun, Aziman

    2018-04-01

    The application of geophysical seismic refraction for slope stabilization design using soil nailing method was demonstrated in this study. The potential weak layer of the study area is first identify prior to determining the appropriate length and location of the soil nail. A total of 7 seismic refraction survey lines were conducted at the study area with standard procedures. The refraction data were then analyzed by using the Pickwin and Plotrefa computer software package to obtain the seismic velocity profiles distribution. These results were correlated with the complementary borehole data to interpret the subsurface profile of the study area. It has been identified that layer 1 to 3 is the potential weak zone susceptible to slope failure. Hence, soil nails should be installed to transfer the tensile load from the less stable layer 3 to the more stable layer 4. The soil-nail interaction will provide a reinforcing action to the soil mass thereby increasing the stability of the slope.

  6. Seismic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground

  7. Seismic Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-01-01

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  8. The discrete Kalman filtering approach for seismic signals deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.

    2012-01-01

    Seismic signals are a convolution of reflectivity and seismic wavelet. One of the most important stages in seismic data processing is deconvolution process; the process of deconvolution is inverse filters based on Wiener filter theory. This theory is limited by certain modelling assumptions, which may not always valid. The discrete form of the Kalman filter is then used to generate an estimate of the reflectivity function. The main advantage of Kalman filtering is capability of technique to handling continually time varying models and has high resolution capabilities. In this work, we use discrete Kalman filter that it was combined with primitive deconvolution. Filtering process works on reflectivity function, hence the work flow of filtering is started with primitive deconvolution using inverse of wavelet. The seismic signals then are obtained by convoluting of filtered reflectivity function with energy waveform which is referred to as the seismic wavelet. The higher frequency of wavelet gives smaller wave length, the graphs of these results are presented.

  9. Theory of reflectivity blurring in seismic depth imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C. J.; Kitchenside, P. W.; Fletcher, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    A subsurface extended image gather obtained during controlled-source depth imaging yields a blurred kernel of an interface reflection operator. This reflectivity kernel or reflection function is comprised of the interface plane-wave reflection coefficients and so, in principle, the gather contains amplitude versus offset or angle information. We present a modelling theory for extended image gathers that accounts for variable illumination and blurring, under the assumption of a good migration-velocity model. The method involves forward modelling as well as migration or back propagation so as to define a receiver-side blurring function, which contains the effects of the detector array for a given shot. Composition with the modelled incident wave and summation over shots then yields an overall blurring function that relates the reflectivity to the extended image gather obtained from field data. The spatial evolution or instability of blurring functions is a key concept and there is generally not just spatial blurring in the apparent reflectivity, but also slowness or angle blurring. Gridded blurring functions can be estimated with, for example, a reverse-time migration modelling engine. A calibration step is required to account for ad hoc band limitedness in the modelling and the method also exploits blurring-function reciprocity. To demonstrate the concepts, we show numerical examples of various quantities using the well-known SIGSBEE test model and a simple salt-body overburden model, both for 2-D. The moderately strong slowness/angle blurring in the latter model suggests that the effect on amplitude versus offset or angle analysis should be considered in more realistic structures. Although the description and examples are for 2-D, the extension to 3-D is conceptually straightforward. The computational cost of overall blurring functions implies their targeted use for the foreseeable future, for example, in reservoir characterization. The description is for scalar

  10. Northeastern Brazilian margin: Regional tectonic evolution based on integrated analysis of seismic reflection and potential field data and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaich, Olav A.; Tsikalas, Filippos; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2008-10-01

    Integration of regional seismic reflection and potential field data along the northeastern Brazilian margin, complemented by crustal-scale gravity modelling, is used to reveal and illustrate onshore-offshore crustal structure correlation, the character of the continent-ocean boundary, and the relationship of crustal structure to regional variation of potential field anomalies. The study reveals distinct along-margin structural and magmatic changes that are spatially related to a number of conjugate Brazil-West Africa transfer systems, governing the margin segmentation and evolution. Several conceptual tectonic models are invoked to explain the structural evolution of the different margin segments in a conjugate margin context. Furthermore, the constructed transects, the observed and modelled Moho relief, and the potential field anomalies indicate that the Recôncavo, Tucano and Jatobá rift system may reflect a polyphase deformation rifting-mode associated with a complex time-dependent thermal structure of the lithosphere. The constructed transects and available seismic reflection profiles, indicate that the northern part of the study area lacks major breakup-related magmatic activity, suggesting a rifted non-volcanic margin affinity. In contrast, the southern part of the study area is characterized by abrupt crustal thinning and evidence for breakup magmatic activity, suggesting that this region evolved, partially, with a rifted volcanic margin affinity and character.

  11. Architecture and growth history of a Miocene carbonate platform from 3D seismic reflection data; Luconia province, offshore Sarawak, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampetti, V.; Schlager, W.; van Konijnenburg, J.H; Everts, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Using 3D seismic reflection data and wireline logs we reconstruct in detail the architecture and growth history of a Miocene carbonate platform in the Luconia province, offshore Sarawak, Malaysia. Platform growth started in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene, by coalescence of isolated patch reefs.

  12. Results of the application of seismic-reflection and electromagnetic techniques for near-surface hydrogeologic and environmental investigations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Fine, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Facilities Investigations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, selected geophysical techniques were evaluated for their usefulness as assessment tools for determining subsurface geology, delineating the areal extent of potentially contaminated landfill sites, and locating buried objects and debris of potential environmental concern. Two shallow seismic-reflection techniques (compression and shear wave) and two electromagnetic techniques (ground-penetrating radar and terrain conductivity) were evaluated at several sites at the U.S. Army Base. The electromagnetic techniques also were tested for tolerance to cultural noise, such as nearby fences, vehicles, and power lines. For the terrain conductivity tests, two instruments were used--the EM31 and EM34, which have variable depths of exploration. The shallowest reflection event was 70 feet below land surface observed in common-depth point, stacked compression-wave data from 24- and 12-fold shallow-seismic-reflection surveys. Several reflection events consistent with clay-sand interfaces between 70 and 120 feet below land surface, along with basement-saprolite surfaces, were imaged in the 24-fold, common- depth-point stacked data. 12-fold, common-depth-point stacked data set contained considerably more noise than the 24-fold, common-depth-point data, due to reduced shot-to-receiver redundancy. Coherent stacked reflection events were not observed in the 24-fold, common-depth-point stacked shear-wave data because of the partial decoupling of the shear- wave generator from the ground. At one site, ground-penetrating radar effectively delineated a shallow, 2- to 5-foot thick sand unit bounded by thin (less than 1 foot) clay layers. The radar signal was completely attenuated where the overlying and underlying clay units thickened and the sand unit thinned. The pene- tration depth of the radar signal was less than 10 feet below land surface. A slight

  13. Seismic evaluation of the Mors Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitz, E.

    1982-01-01

    The ''Seismic Case History'' of the Mors saltdome was already published in detail by ELSAM/ELKRAFT so only a few important points need to be mentioned here: (a) Processing and interpretation of the seismic material. (b) Stratigraphic classification of the most important seismic reflection horizons. (c) Construction of the depth sections and description of the saltdome model. (d) Investigations of the problematic salt overhang using interactive seismic modelling. (EG)

  14. Introductory study of super survey (next generation underground exploration technology); Super survey (jisedai chika tansa gijutsu) no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted on the R and D trend of innovative technology aiming at high-accuracy/high-efficiency next generation underground exploration technology (super survey technology). Paying attention to the seismic survey and electromagnetic survey, the study was made on technical characteristics, the utilization status and the needs at sites, the R and D trend, etc. As to the present R and D, the development is proceeded with of the time domain method in the electromagnetic survey, the effective quantity data processing/analysis method and the indication method using the reflection method in the elastic survey. As new technology to be noticed, the following are cited: SQUID magnetometer, underground analysis using magnetic deviation data, electromagnetic migration, ACROSS, rotating seismometer, laser Doppler vibrator, etc. Concerning the course of the next generation underground survey technology, a system of the integrated underground exploration theory is considered which is based on a combination of the electromagnetic survey and seismic exploration. In the study, a plan is worked out for research/development of a technology of analyzing the different data obtained. 49 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  16. Preliminary stratigraphic and hydrogeologic cross sections and seismic profile of the Floridan aquifer system of Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    To help water-resource managers evaluate the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) as an alternative water supply, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study, in cooperation with the Broward County Environmental Protection and Growth Management Department, to refine the hydrogeologic framework of the FAS in the eastern part of Broward County. This report presents three preliminary cross sections illustrating stratigraphy and hydrogeology in eastern Broward County as well as an interpreted seismic profile along one of the cross sections. Marker horizons were identified using borehole geophysical data and were initially used to perform well-to-well correlation. Core sample data were integrated with the borehole geophysical data to support stratigraphic and hydrogeologic interpretations of marker horizons. Stratigraphic and hydrogeologic units were correlated across the county using borehole geophysical data from multiple wells. Seismic-reflection data were collected along the Hillsboro Canal. Borehole geophysical data were used to identify and correlate hydrogeologic units in the seismic-reflection profile. Faults and collapse structures that intersect hydrogeologic units were also identified in the seismic profile. The information provided in the cross sections and the seismic profile is preliminary and subject to revision.

  17. Latest time-lapse seismic data from Sleipner yield new insights into CO2 plume development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadwick, R.A.; Noy, D.; Arts, R.; Eiken, O.

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception in 1996, the CO2 injection operation at Sleipner has been monitored by 3D time-lapse seismic surveys. Striking images of the CO2 plume have been obtained, showing a multi-tier feature of high reflectivity, interpreted as arising from a number of thin layers of CO2 trapped beneath

  18. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Seismic exploration utilizes controlled sources, which emit seismic waves that propagate through the earth subsurface and get reflected off subsurface interfaces and scatterers. The reflected and scattered waves are recorded by recording stations installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single-scattering assumption, where only energy that bounces once off a subsurface scatterer and recorded by a receiver is projected back to its subsurface position. The internally multiply scattered seismic energy is considered as unwanted noise and is usually suppressed or removed from the recorded data. Conventional seismic imaging techniques yield subsurface images that suffer from low spatial resolution, migration artifacts, and acquisition fingerprint due to the limited acquisition aperture, number of sources and receivers, and bandwidth of the source wavelet. Hydrocarbon traps are becoming more challenging and considerable reserves are trapped in stratigraphic and pinch-out traps, which require highly resolved seismic images to delineate them. This thesis focuses on developing and implementing new advanced cost-effective seismic imaging techniques aiming at enhancing the resolution of the migrated images by exploiting the sparseness of the subsurface reflectivity distribution and utilizing the multiples that are usually neglected when imaging seismic data. I first formulate the seismic imaging problem as a Basis pursuit denoise problem, which I solve using an L1-minimization algorithm to obtain the sparsest migrated image corresponding to the recorded data. Imaging multiples may illuminate subsurface zones, which are not easily illuminated by conventional seismic imaging using primary reflections only. I then develop an L2-norm (i.e. least-squares) inversion technique to image

  19. Recent Vs. Historical Seismicity Analysis For Banat Seismic Region (Western Part Of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oros Eugen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present day seismic activity from a region reflects the active tectonics and can confirm the seismic potential of the seismogenic sources as they are modelled using the historical seismicity. This paper makes a comparative analysis of the last decade seismicity recorded in the Banat Seismic Region (western part of Romania and the historical seismicity of the region (Mw≥4.0. Four significant earthquake sequences have been recently localized in the region, three of them nearby the city of Timisoara (January 2012 and March 2013 and the fourth within Hateg Basin, South Carpathians (October 2013. These sequences occurred within the epicentral areas of some strong historical earthquakes (Mw≥5.0. The main events had some macroseismic effects on people up to some few kilometers from the epicenters. Our results update the Romanian earthquakes catalogue and bring new information along the local seismic hazard sources models and seismotectonics.

  20. Indication to distinguish the burst region of coal gas from seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-yuan Cheng; Hong-wei Tang; Lin Xu; Yan-fang Li [China Coal Research Institute, Xi' an (China). Xi' an Research Institute

    2009-09-15

    The velocity of an over-burst coal seam is about 1/3 compared to a normal coal seam based on laboratory test results. This can be considered as a basis to confirm the area of coal and gas burst by seismic exploration technique. Similarly, the simulation result of the theoretical seismic model shows that there is obvious distinction between over-burst coal and normal coal based on the coal reflection's travel-time, energy and frequency. The results from the actual seismic data acquired in the coal and gas over-burst cases is consistent with that of the laboratory and seismic modeling; that is, in the coal and gas burst region, seismic reflection travel time is delayed, seismic amplitude is weakened and seismic frequency is reduced. Therefore, it can be concluded that seismic exploration technique is promising for use in distinguishing coal and gas over-burst regions based on the variation of seismic reflection travel time, amplitude and frequency. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Interpretation of shallow crustal structure of the Imperial Valley, California, from seismic reflection profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severson, L.K.

    1987-05-01

    Eight seismic reflection profiles (285 km total length) from the Imperial Valley, California, were provided to CALCRUST for reprocessing and interpretation. Two profiles were located along the western margin of the valley, five profiles were situated along the eastern margin and one traversed the deepest portion of the basin. These data reveal that the central basin contains a wedge of highly faulted sediments that thins to the east. Most of the faulting is strike-slip but there is evidence for block rotations on the scale of 5 to 10 kilometers within the Brawley Seismic Zone. These lines provide insight into the nature of the east and west edges of the Imperial Valley. The basement at the northwestern margin of the valley, to the north of the Superstition Hills, has been normal-faulted and blocks of basement material have ''calved'' into the trough. A blanket of sediments has been deposited on this margin. To the south of the Superstition Hills and Superstition Mountain, the top of the basement is a detachment surface that dips gently into the basin. This margin is also covered by a thick sequence sediments. The basement of the eastern margin consists of metamorphic rocks of the upper plate of the Chocolate Mountain Thrust system underlain by the Orocopia Schist. These rocks dip to the southeast and extend westward to the Sand Hills Fault but do not appear to cross it. Thus, the Sand Hills Fault is interpreted to be the southern extension of the San Andreas Fault. North of the Sand Hills Fault the East Highline Canal seismicity lineament is associated with a strike-slip fault and is probably linked to the Sand Hills Fault. Six geothermal areas crossed by these lines, in agreement with previous studies of geothermal reservoirs, are associated with ''faded'' zones, Bouguer gravity and heat flow maxima, and with higher seismic velocities than surrounding terranes.

  2. The shallow structure of Solfatara Volcano, Italy, revealed by dense, wide-aperture seismic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Pier Paolo G; Maraio, Stefano; Festa, Gaetano

    2017-12-12

    Two active-source, high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired in the Solfatara tuff cone in May and November 2014, with dense, wide-aperture arrays. Common Receiver Surface processing was crucial in improving signal-to-noise ratio and reflector continuity. These surveys provide, for the first time, high-resolution seismic images of the Solfatara crater, depicting a ~400 m deep asymmetrical crater filled by volcanoclastic sediments and rocks and carved within an overall non-reflective pre-eruptive basement showing features consistent with the emplacement of shallow intrusive bodies. Seismic reflection data were interpreted using the trace complex attributes and clearly display several steep and segmented collapse faults, generally having normal kinematics and dipping toward the crater centre. Fault/fracture planes are imaged as sudden amplitude drops that generate narrow low-similarity and high-dip attributes. Uprising fluids degassed by a magmatic source are the most probable cause of the small-scale amplitude reduction. Seismic data also support the interpretation of the shallow structure of the Solfatara crater as a maar. Our results provides a solid framework to constrain the near-surface geological interpretation of such a complex area, which improves our understanding of the temporal changes of the structure in relation with other geophysical and geochemical measurements.

  3. High-resolution gravity and seismic-refraction surveys of the Smoke Tree Wash area, Joshua Tree National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Goldman, Mark R.; Watt, Janet T.; Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2016-03-02

    We describe high-resolution gravity and seismic refraction surveys acquired to determine the thickness of valley-fill deposits and to delineate geologic structures that might influence groundwater flow beneath the Smoke Tree Wash area in Joshua Tree National Park. These surveys identified a sedimentary basin that is fault-controlled. A profile across the Smoke Tree Wash fault zone reveals low gravity values and seismic velocities that coincide with a mapped strand of the Smoke Tree Wash fault. Modeling of the gravity data reveals a basin about 2–2.5 km long and 1 km wide that is roughly centered on this mapped strand, and bounded by inferred faults. According to the gravity model the deepest part of the basin is about 270 m, but this area coincides with low velocities that are not characteristic of typical basement complex rocks. Most likely, the density contrast assumed in the inversion is too high or the uncharacteristically low velocities represent highly fractured or weathered basement rocks, or both. A longer seismic profile extending onto basement outcrops would help differentiate which scenario is more accurate. The seismic velocities also determine the depth to water table along the profile to be about 40–60 m, consistent with water levels measured in water wells near the northern end of the profile.

  4. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system near "Boulder Zone" deep wells in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, acquired, processed, and interpreted seismic-reflection data near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields to determine if geologic factors may contribute to the upward migration of injected effluent into that upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an underground source of drinking water. The depth of the Boulder Zone at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields ranges from about 2,750 to 3,300 feet below land surface (ft bls), whereas overlying permeable zones used as alternative drinking water supply range in depth from about 825 to 1,580 ft bls at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structures imaged on seismic-reflection profiles created for the study describe the part of the Floridan aquifer system overlying and within the Boulder Zone. Features of the Floridan aquifer system underlying the Boulder Zone were not studied because seismic-reflection profiles acquired near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields lacked adequate resolution at such depths.

  5. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  6. Vertical and horizontal seismic profiling investigations at Olkiluoto, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosma, C.; Enescu, N.; Adam, E.; Balu, L. [Vibrometric Oy (Finland)

    2003-03-01

    Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) and Horizontal Seismic Profiling (HSP) surveys were conducted during 2001 at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, Finland. The VSP investigations were carried out in four boreholes with ten shot points for each borehole. Two HSP lines were measured with receivers laid on the bottom of an artificial pond and ten source points located around the pond. Different receiver types were used for the VSP and (HSP) a 3-component geophone chain for VSP and a hydrophone chain for HSP. All surveys have been carried out with a VIBSIST-1000 source - a time- distributed swept-impact source - instead of explosives. With this source, the seismic signals are produced as rapid series of impacts, the impact intervals being monotonically increased to achieve a non- repeatable sequence. The VIBSIST-1000 uses a tractor-mounted hydraulic rock-breaker, powered through a computer controlled servo- hydraulic flow regulator. Using standard construction equipment ensures that the VIBSIST sources are safe, nondestructive and environmentally friendly. This also makes the method reliable and cost effective. The new VIBSIST source produces signals with levels of energy comparable to explosives. The VIBSIST appears to be more stable, but its most significant advantages are the low cost of preparation of the shot points and the speed of the acquisition. The wide diversity of reflection angles, the local variations of reflectivity and, generally, the relatively weak seismic response of faults and fractured zones in crystalline rock demand intensive processing. The first stage of the processing sequence focuses on eliminating such wave-fields as the direct P, direct S, tube-waves and ground-roll, so that the weaker later events, e.g. reflections, become visible. The second stage of processing consists mainly of Image Point (IP) filtering techniques, aimed at enhancing the reflected wave fields and at separating events generated by reflectors with different orientations. Imaging

  7. A low-frequency asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a high-permeability layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitriy; Goloshubin, Gennady

    2009-03-01

    Analysis of compression wave propagation through a high-permeability layer in a homogeneous poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of the Biot's model of poroelasticity. A new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity is a result of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and the Darcy's law. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The latter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility, an imaginary unit, and the frequency of the signal. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). The practical implications of the theory developed here are seismic modeling, inversion, and attribute analysis.

  8. Uniquely Acquired Vintage Seismic Reflection Data Reveal the Stratigraphic and Tectonic History of the Montana Disturbed Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, M. A.; Link, C. A.; Stickney, M.

    2011-12-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Techco of Denver, Colorado, acquired approximately 302 linear kilometers of two-dimensional (2D) seismic reflection data in Flathead and Lake Counties, Montana, USA, as part of an initiative to identify potential drilling targets beneath the Swan and Whitefish Mountain Ranges and adjacent basins of northwestern Montana. These seismic lines were collected in the Montana Disturbed Belt (MDB) or Montana thrust belt along the western edge of Glacier National Park in mountainous terrain with complicated subsurface structures including thrust faults and folds. These structures formed during the Laramide Orogeny as sedimentary rocks of the Precambrian Belt Supergroup were thrust eastward. Later, during the Cenozoic, high-angle normal faults produced prominent west-facing mountain scarps of the Mission, Swan and Whitefish mountains. The 1983 data set consisted of two profiles of 24-fold (96-channels) Vibroseis data and four profiles of 24-fold (96-channels) helicopter-assisted dynamite data. The dynamite data were collected using the Poulter Method in which explosives were placed on poles and air shots were recorded. The 1983 dynamite profiles extend from southwest to northeast across the Whitefish Mountain Range to the edge of Glacier National Park and the Vibroseis data were collected along nearby roadways. The 1984 data set consists of four profiles of 30-fold (120-channels) helicopter-assisted dynamite data that were also collected using the Poulter Method. The 1984 profiles cross the Swan Mountain Range between Flathead Lake and Glacier National Park. All of these data sets were recently donated to Montana Tech and subsequently recovered from nine-track tape. Conventionally processed seismic stacked sections from the 1980s of these data show evidence of a basement decollement that separates relatively undeformed basement from overlying structures of the MDB. Unfortunately, these data sets have not been processed using modern seismic processing

  9. Field test investigation of high sensitivity fiber optic seismic geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Min, Li; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Faxiang; Sun, Zhihui; Li, Shujuan; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Zhong; Hao, Guanghu

    2017-10-01

    Seismic reflection, whose measured signal is the artificial seismic waves ,is the most effective method and widely used in the geophysical prospecting. And this method can be used for exploration of oil, gas and coal. When a seismic wave travelling through the Earth encounters an interface between two materials with different acoustic impedances, some of the wave energy will reflect off the interface and some will refract through the interface. At its most basic, the seismic reflection technique consists of generating seismic waves and measuring the time taken for the waves to travel from the source, reflect off an interface and be detected by an array of geophones at the surface. Compared to traditional geophones such as electric, magnetic, mechanical and gas geophone, optical fiber geophones have many advantages. Optical fiber geophones can achieve sensing and signal transmission simultaneously. With the development of fiber grating sensor technology, fiber bragg grating (FBG) is being applied in seismic exploration and draws more and more attention to its advantage of anti-electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity and insensitivity to meteorological conditions. In this paper, we designed a high sensitivity geophone and tested its sensitivity, based on the theory of FBG sensing. The frequency response range is from 10 Hz to 100 Hz and the acceleration of the fiber optic seismic geophone is over 1000pm/g. sixteen-element fiber optic seismic geophone array system is presented and the field test is performed in Shengli oilfield of China. The field test shows that: (1) the fiber optic seismic geophone has a higher sensitivity than the traditional geophone between 1-100 Hz;(2) The low frequency reflection wave continuity of fiber Bragg grating geophone is better.

  10. Waveform tomography images of velocity and inelastic attenuation from the Mallik 2002 crosshole seismic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Hou, F. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada); Bauer, K.; Weber, M. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    A time-lapse crosshole seismic survey was conducted at the Mallik field in Canada's Northwest Territories as part of the 2002 Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. The acquired data provided information on the distribution of the compressional-velocity and compressional-attenuation properties of the sediments. Waveform tomography extracted that information and provided subwavelength high-resolution quantitative images of the seismic velocity and attenuation from the first repeat survey, using frequencies between 100 Hz and 1000 Hz. A preprocessing flow was applied to the waveform data that includes tube-wave suppression, low-pass filtering, spatial subsampling, time-windowing, and amplitude equalization. Travel times by anisotropic velocity tomography was used to obtain the starting model for the waveform tomography. The gas-hydrate-bearing sediments were seen as laterally, continuous, high-velocity anomalies and were characterized by an increase in attenuation. The velocity images resolved individual layers as thin as a few metres. These layers could be followed across the area of interest. Slight lateral changes in velocity and in the attenuation factor were observed.

  11. Orbital- to Sub-Orbital-Scale Cyclicity in Seismic Reflections and Sediment Character in Early to Middle Pleistocene Mudstone, Santa Barbara Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. D.; Behl, R. J.; Nicholson, C.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Sorlien, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection records and well logs from the Santa Barbara Channel suggest that large parts of the Pleistocene succession records climate variability on orbital to sub-orbital scales with remarkable sensitivity, much like the well-studied sediments of the last glacial cycle (ODP Site 893). Spectral analysis of seismic reflection data and gamma ray logs from stratigraphically similar Pleistocene sections finds similar cyclic character and shifts through the section. This correlation suggests that acoustic impedance and physical properties of sediment are linked by basin-scale, likely climatically-driven, oscillations in lithologic composition and fabric during deposition, and that seismic profiling can provide a method for remote identification and correlation of orbital- and sub-orbital-scale sedimentary cyclicity. Where it crops out along the northern shelf of the central Santa Barbara Channel, the early to middle Pleistocene succession (~1.8-1.2 Ma) is a bathyal hemipelagic mudstone with remarkably rhythmic planar bedding, finely laminated fabric, and well-preserved foraminifera, none of which have been significantly altered, or obscured by post-depositional diagenesis or tectonic deformation. Unlike the coarser, turbiditic successions in the central Ventura and Los Angeles basins, this sequence has the potential to record Quaternary global climate change at high resolution. Seismic reflection data (towed chirp) collected on the R/V Melville 2008 Cruise (MV08) penetrate 10's of meters below seafloor into a ~1 km-long sequence of south-dipping seismic reflectors. Sampling parallel to the seafloor permits acquisition of consistent signal amplitude for similar reflectors without spreading loss. Based on established age ranges for this section, sedimentation rates may range from 0.4 to 1.4 meters/kyr, therefore suggesting that the most powerful cycles are orbital- to sub-orbital-scale. Discrete sets of cycles with high power show an abrupt shift

  12. Survey of seismic conditions of drilling and blasting operations near overhead electricity power lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Afanasev, P. I.; Bulbasheva, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The monitoring and survey results of drilling and blasting operations are specified during the development of Afanasyevsky deposit of cement raw materials for a 110 kV electricity power lines structure. Seismic explosion waves and air shock waves were registered in the course of monitoring. The dependency of peak particle velocities on the scaled distance and explosive weight by the delay time was obtained.

  13. Seismic applications in CBM exploration and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.E.; Lawton, D.C. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This Power Point presentation reviewed seismic methods, coal seam seismology, seismology and coalbed methane (CBM) development, and time-lapse seismic imaging with reference to numerical modelling and physical testing. The issue of resolution versus detection in various seismic methods was discussed. The thinnest resolvable beds are usually about 1.0 m thick. Coal zones with thin seams can be mapped using seismic reflection, but individual seams are difficult to resolve in field data. In terms of coal seismology, it was noted that seismic surveys make it possible to identify seam thickness, field geometry, subsurface structuring and facies changes. Facies model make it possible to determine the depositional environment, coal type, coal quality and lateral continuity. Some successes in coal seismology include the Cedar Hill and Ferron fields in the San Juan Basin. Numerical modelling methods include digital dipole compressional sonic and density well logs through Ardley Coal Zone, P-wave synthetic seismograms generated in SYNTH (MATLAB), and the alteration of density/velocity values to create new seismograms. Another numerical method is to take the difference between original and altered seismograms. It was shown that dewatering causes a decrease in velocity of about 20 per cent, and a 15 per cent decrease in density. Changes as small as 5 per cent in reservoir properties can be successfully imaged. It was concluded that the identification of dewatered zones allow for optimal positioning of development wells. Further physical testing will involve wet and dry p-wave velocities, s-wave velocities will be tested, and velocities will be measured under pressure. 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. Crustal structure of the southeast Greenland margin from joint refraction and reflection seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Kent, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Detrick, R. S.; Larsen, H.-C.; Hopper, J. R.; Dahl-Jensen, T.

    2000-09-01

    We present results from a combined multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) and wideangle onshore/offshore seismic experiment conducted in 1996 across the southeast Greenland continental margin. A new seismic tomographic method is developed to jointly invert refraction and reflection travel times for a two-dimensional velocity structure. We employ a hybrid ray-tracing scheme based on the graph method and the local ray-bending refinement to efficiently obtain an accurate forward solution, and we employ smoothing and optional damping constraints to regularize an iterative inversion. We invert 2318 Pg and 2078 PmP travel times to construct a compressional velocity model for the 350-km-long transect, and a long-wavelength structure with strong lateral heterogeneity is recovered, including (1) ˜30-km-thick, undeformed continental crust with a velocity of 6.0 to 7.0 km/s near the landward end, (2) 30- to 15-km-thick igneous crust within a 150-km-wide continent-ocean transition zone, and (3) 15- to 9-km-thick oceanic crust toward the seaward end. The thickness of the igneous upper crust characterized by a high-velocity gradient also varies from 6 km within the transition zone to ˜3 km seaward. The bottom half of the lower crust generally has a velocity higher than 7.0 km/s, reaching a maximum of 7.2 to 7.5 km/s at the Moho. A nonlinear Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis is performed to estimate the a posteriori model variance, showing that most velocity and depth nodes are well determined with one standard deviation of 0.05-0.10 km/s and 0.25-1.5 km, respectively. Despite significant variation in crustal thickness, the mean velocity of the igneous crust, which serves as a proxy for the bulk crustal composition, is surprisingly constant (˜7.0 km/s) along the transect. On the basis of a mantle melting model incorporating the effect of active mantle upwelling, this velocity-thickness relationship is used to constrain the mantle melting process during the breakup of Greenland

  15. Effects of disturbance associated with seismic exploration for oil and gas reserves in coastal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

  16. Effects of Disturbance Associated With Seismic Exploration for Oil and Gas Reserves in Coastal Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

  17. Controls of late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic extension in the British Isles: evidence from seismic reflection data in the Central North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.; Cameron, T. D. J.

    2009-04-01

    Controls of late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic extension in the British Isles: evidence from seismic reflection data in the Central North Sea. Kevin Smith (1) and Don Cameron (2) (1) British Geological Survey, Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3LA. (ksm@bgs.ac.uk). (2) British Geological Survey, 376 Gilmerton Road, Edinburgh, EH17 7QS. In the area of the British Isles during the late Devonian and early Carboniferous, the oblique convergence of Laurentia and Gondwana imposed a torque on the adjoining terranes of Baltica and Avalonia. Their resulting clockwise rotation was accommodated by widely distributed N-S extension in the intervening zones previously formed by Caledonian and Acadian convergence. South of Laurentia and Baltica, late Palaeozoic extension was focused (1) at terrane margins, (2) in areas of limited Caledonian-Acadian plutonism, and (3) in places where the western (Iapetus) and eastern (Tornquist) convergence zones intersect at a high angle. One of these latter areas lies in Central England immediately north of the Midland Microcraton (part of Eastern Avalonia), where thermal subsidence associated with early Carboniferous extension gave rise to the late Carboniferous Pennine Basin. Interpretation of an extensive set of 3D and 2D long-offset seismic reflection data suggests that a similar area of enhanced extension at a fold belt intersection lies to north of the Mid North Sea High in the middle of the Central North Sea. Variscan uplift and inversion of the late Palaeozoic basins began to predominate in mid-Carboniferous times as final amalgamation of all the different terranes to form Pangaea curtailed the initial episode of extension and thermal subsidence. This change in the tectonic regime was associated with the onset of tholeiitic volcanism within the convergence zones, and was followed by localised extension during the earliest Permian. Evidence obtained from seismic interpretation of the deep structure of the UK sector of the Central

  18. Test to Extract Soil Properties Using the Seismic HammerTM Active Seismic Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Rebekah F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abbott, Robert E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Geologic material properties are necessary parameters for ground motion modeling and are difficult and expensive to obtain via traditional methods. Alternative methods to estimate soil properties require a measurement of the ground's response to a force. A possible method of obtaining these measurements is active-source seismic surveys, but measurements of the ground response at the source must also be available. The potential of seismic sources to obtain soil properties is limited, however, by the repeatability of the source. Explosives, and hammer surveys are not repeatable because of variable ground coupling or swing strength. On the other hand, the Seismic Hammer TM (SH) is consistent in the amount of energy it inputs into the ground. In addition, it leaves large physical depressions as a result of ground compaction. The volume of ground compaction varies by location. Here, we hypothesize that physical depressions left in the earth by the SH correlate to energy recorded by nearby geophones, and therefore are a measurement of soil physical properties. Using measurements of the volume of shot holes, we compare the spatial distribution of the volume of ground compacted between the different shot locations. We then examine energy recorded by the nearest 50 geophones and compare the change in amplitude across hits at the same location. Finally, we use the percent difference between the energy recorded by the first and later hits at a location to test for a correlation to the volume of the shot depressions. We find that: * Ground compaction at the shot-depression does cluster geographically, but does not correlate to known surface features. * Energy recorded by nearby geophones reflects ground refusal after several hits. * There is no correlation to shot volume and changes in energy at particular shot locations. Deeper material properties (i.e. below the depth of surface compaction) may be contributing to the changes in energy propagation. * Without further

  19. Interim Report on Metallic Component Margins Under High Seismic Loads. Survey of Existing Practices and Status of Benchmark Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    OECD/NEA/CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (WGIAGE) has the main mission to advance the current understanding of those aspects relevant to ensuring the integrity of structures, systems and components under design and beyond design loads, to provide guidance in choosing the optimal ways of dealing with challenges to the integrity of operating as well as new nuclear power plants, and to make use of an integrated approach to design, safety and plant life management. The activity (CAPS) of the WGIAGE group, entitled 'Metallic Component Margins under High Seismic Loads (MECOS)', was initially proposed by the metal sub-group of WGIAGE and approved by the CSNI in June 2012 as a Fukushima activity (F-CAPS). The proposal is aimed to assess the consequences of external hazards on plant safety. The main objectives of the MECOS project were to quantify the existing margins in seismic analysis of safety class components for high seismic loads and assess the existing design practices within a benchmark activity. The first phase of MECOS work included a survey on the existing seismic regulations and design analysis methods in the member countries. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire and a total of 24 questions were asked. The questionnaire consists of three parts: Seismic Input, Seismic Design Basis, and Beyond Seismic Design Basis. The majority of the respondents use the Standard or Modified Shape Spectrum and only a few countries are using the Uniform Seismic Hazard Spectra (UHS) in their seismic design regulations. All of the respondents have minimum seismic demand in their national or adopted standards. The number of defined and used seismic levels for the design of mechanical components is one or two. Almost all of the respondents are using combined testing and analysis methods for seismic qualification and design. Some countries (e.g. Canada, Finland, USA, France, Japan and UK) have specific requirements for

  20. Imaging the Chicxulub central crater zone from large scale seismic acoustic wave propagation and gravity modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Martin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Large complex craters are characterized by central uplifts that represent large-scale differential movement of deep basement from the transient cavity. Here we investigate the central sector of the large multiring Chicxulub crater, which has been surveyed by an array of marine, aerial and land-borne geophysical methods. Despite high contrasts in physical properties,contrasting results for the central uplift have been obtained, with seismic reflection surveys showing lack of resolution in the central zone. We develop an integrated seismic and gravity model for the main structural elements, imaging the central basement uplift and melt and breccia units. The 3-D velocity model built from interpolation of seismic data is validated using perfectly matched layer seismic acoustic wave propagation modeling, optimized at grazing incidence using shift in the frequency domain. Modeling shows significant lack of illumination in the central sector, masking presence of the central uplift. Seismic energy remains trapped in an upper low velocity zone corresponding to the sedimentary infill, melt/breccias and surrounding faulted blocks. After conversion of seismic velocities into a volume of density values, we use massive parallel forward gravity modeling to constrain the size and shape of the central uplift that lies at 4.5 km depth, providing a high-resolution image of crater structure.The Bouguer anomaly and gravity response of modeled units show asymmetries, corresponding to the crater structure and distribution of post-impact carbonates, breccias, melt and target sediments

  1. 3D seismic acquisition design and the processing : a strike survey at the Zafar and Mashal prospective structures, south Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christine, Krohn; Tom, Steinhilber; Judy, Amery-Ryland; Emin, Jafarov

    2002-01-01

    Full text : The Zafar-Mashal block is a large exploration contract area in the deep-water sector of the south Caspian Sea, offshore Azerbaijan. This is the second ExxonMobil-affiliate-operated 3D seismic program in Azerbaijan. Pre-survey data quality evaluation of the existing 3D data set at Nakhchivan and 2D seismic lines over Zafar-Mashal raised concerns about imaging problems. Technical solutions were proposed and tested with ray-trace modeling and acquistion of a 2D seismic test program, which included lines oriented in the dip and strike directions relative to the subsurface structure. Processing results demonstrate that with strike orientation, multiples appear more hyperbolic and have a better velocity discrimination compared to the primary reflectors. Removal of multiples by radon filtering is more effective for the strike survey, especially for attenuating the water-bottom multiples and reducing the peg-leg multiples off shallow reflectors. Radon filtering helped to tighten the semblance velocities down to 6 seconds and in some places below. In areas where the primary velocity trend is slow due to presence of shallow gas, multiples remain difficult to differentiate and remove. Problems also remain where mud volcanoes and high impedance, shallow reflectors reduce or eliminate primary seismic signature. Higher signal-to-noise ratios are gained for a survey acquired in the strike direction because of improved multiple mitigation and an increased amount of data included in the 3D migration

  2. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Homogenization of Electromagnetic and Seismic Wavefields for Joint Inverse Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, G. A.; Commer, M.; Petrov, P.; Um, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    A significant obstacle in developing a robust joint imaging technology exploiting seismic and electromagnetic (EM) wave fields is the resolution at which these different geophysical measurements sense the subsurface. Imaging of seismic reflection data is an order of magnitude finer in resolution and scale compared to images produced with EM data. A consistent joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity) requires/demands the different geophysical data types be similar in their resolution of the subsurface. The superior resolution of seismic data results from the fact that the energy propagates as a wave, while propagation of EM energy is diffusive and attenuates with distance. On the other hand, the complexity of the seismic wave field can be a significant problem due to high reflectivity of the subsurface and the generation of multiple scattering events. While seismic wave fields have been very useful in mapping the subsurface for energy resources, too much scattering and too many reflections can lead to difficulties in imaging and interpreting seismic data. To overcome these obstacles a formulation for joint imaging of seismic and EM wave fields is introduced, where each data type is matched in resolution. In order to accomplish this, seismic data are first transformed into the Laplace-Fourier Domain, which changes the modeling of the seismic wave field from wave propagation to diffusion. Though high frequency information (reflectivity) is lost with this transformation, several benefits follow: (1) seismic and EM data can be easily matched in resolution, governed by the same physics of diffusion, (2) standard least squares inversion works well with diffusive type problems including both transformed seismic and EM, (3) joint imaging of seismic and EM data may produce better starting velocity models critical for successful reverse time migration or full waveform imaging of seismic data (non transformed) and (4

  4. Sequence stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, and seismic structures of the lower intermediate confining unit and most of the Floridan aquifer system, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Kluesner, Jared W.; Westcott, Richard L.; Robinson, Edward; Walker, Cameron; Khan, Shakira A.

    2017-12-08

    Deep well injection and disposal of treated wastewater into the highly transmissive saline Boulder Zone in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer system began in 1971. The zone of injection is a highly transmissive hydrogeologic unit, the Boulder Zone, in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer system. Since the 1990s, however, treated wastewater injection into the Boulder Zone in southeastern Florida has been detected at three treated wastewater injection utilities in the brackish upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated for potential use as drinking water. At a time when usage of the Boulder Zone for treated wastewater disposal is increasing and the utilization of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer system for drinking water is intensifying, there is an urgency to understand the nature of cross-formational fluid flow and identify possible fluid pathways from the lower to upper zones of the Floridan aquifer system. To better understand the hydrogeologic controls on groundwater movement through the Floridan aquifer system in southeastern Florida, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Broward County Environmental Planning and Community Resilience Division conducted a 3.5-year cooperative study from July 2012 to December 2015. The study characterizes the sequence stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, and seismic structures of the lower part of the intermediate confining unit aquifer and most of the Floridan aquifer system.Data obtained to meet the study objective include 80 miles of high-resolution, two-dimensional (2D), seismic-reflection profiles acquired from canals in eastern Broward County. These profiles have been used to characterize the sequence stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, and seismic structures in a 425-square-mile study area. Horizon mapping of the seismic-reflection profiles and additional data collection from well logs and cores or cuttings from 44 wells were focused on construction of three-dimensional (3D) visualizations of eight

  5. Engineering Seismic Base Layer for Defining Design Earthquake Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Nozomu

    2008-01-01

    Engineer's common sense that incident wave is common in a widespread area at the engineering seismic base layer is shown not to be correct. An exhibiting example is first shown, which indicates that earthquake motion at the ground surface evaluated by the analysis considering the ground from a seismic bedrock to a ground surface simultaneously (continuous analysis) is different from the one by the analysis in which the ground is separated at the engineering seismic base layer and analyzed separately (separate analysis). The reason is investigated by several approaches. Investigation based on eigen value problem indicates that the first predominant period in the continuous analysis cannot be found in the separate analysis, and predominant period at higher order does not match in the upper and lower ground in the separate analysis. The earthquake response analysis indicates that reflected wave at the engineering seismic base layer is not zero, which indicates that conventional engineering seismic base layer does not work as expected by the term ''base''. All these results indicate that wave that goes down to the deep depths after reflecting in the surface layer and again reflects at the seismic bedrock cannot be neglected in evaluating the response at the ground surface. In other words, interaction between the surface layer and/or layers between seismic bedrock and engineering seismic base layer cannot be neglected in evaluating the earthquake motion at the ground surface

  6. Optimized suppression of coherent noise from seismic data using the Karhunen-Loeve transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagne, Raul; Vasconcelos, Giovani L.

    2006-01-01

    Signals obtained in land seismic surveys are usually contaminated with coherent noise, among which the ground roll (Rayleigh surface waves) is of major concern for it can severely degrade the quality of the information obtained from the seismic record. This paper presents an optimized filter based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform for processing seismic images contaminated with ground roll. In this method, the contaminated region of the seismic record, to be processed by the filter, is selected in such way as to correspond to the maximum of a properly defined coherence index. The main advantages of the method are that the ground roll is suppressed with negligible distortion of the remnant reflection signals and that the filtering procedure can be automated. The image processing technique described in this study should also be relevant for other applications where coherent structures embedded in a complex spatiotemporal pattern need to be identified in a more refined way. In particular, it is argued that the method is appropriate for processing optical coherence tomography images whose quality is often degraded by coherent noise (speckle)

  7. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queen, John H. [Hi-Geophysical, Inc., Ponca, OK (United States)

    2016-05-09

    Executive Summary The overall objective of this work was the development of surface and borehole seismic methodologies using both compressional and shear waves for characterizing faults and fractures in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. We used both surface seismic and vertical seismic profile (VSP) methods. We adapted these methods to the unique conditions encountered in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) creation. These conditions include geological environments with volcanic cover, highly altered rocks, severe structure, extreme near surface velocity contrasts and lack of distinct velocity contrasts at depth. One of the objectives was the development of methods for identifying more appropriate seismic acquisition parameters for overcoming problems associated with these geological factors. Because temperatures up to 300º C are often encountered in these systems, another objective was the testing of VSP borehole tools capable of operating at depths in excess of 1,000 m and at temperatures in excess of 200º C. A final objective was the development of new processing and interpretation techniques based on scattering and time-frequency analysis, as well as the application of modern seismic migration imaging algorithms to seismic data acquired over geothermal areas. The use of surface seismic reflection data at Brady's Hot Springs was found useful in building a geological model, but only when combined with other extensive geological and geophysical data. The use of fine source and geophone spacing was critical in producing useful images. The surface seismic reflection data gave no information about the internal structure (extent, thickness and filling) of faults and fractures, and modeling suggests that they are unlikely to do so. Time-frequency analysis was applied to these data, but was not found to be significantly useful in their interpretation. Modeling does indicate that VSP and other seismic methods with sensors located at depth in wells will be the most

  8. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the S Angolan & SE Brazilian margins from integrated quantitative analysis of deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick; Horn, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Integrated quantitative analysis using deep seismic reflection data and gravity inversion have been applied to the S Angolan and SE Brazilian margins to determine OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type. Knowledge of these margin parameters are of critical importance for understanding rifted continental margin formation processes and in evaluating petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration. The OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the S Angolan and SE Brazilian rifted continental margins are much debated; exhumed and serpentinised mantle have been reported at these margins. Gravity anomaly inversion, incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction, has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning. Residual Depth Anomaly (RDA) analysis has been used to investigate OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries and subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning. These techniques have been validated for profiles Lusigal 12 and ISE-01 on the Iberian margin. In addition a joint inversion technique using deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been applied to the ION-GXT BS1-575 SE Brazil and ION-GXT CS1-2400 S Angola deep seismic reflection lines. The joint inversion method solves for coincident seismic and gravity Moho in the time domain and calculates the lateral variations in crustal basement densities and velocities along the seismic profiles. Gravity inversion, RDA and subsidence analysis along the ION-GXT BS1-575 profile, which crosses the Sao Paulo Plateau and Florianopolis Ridge of the SE Brazilian margin, predict the COB to be located SE of the Florianopolis Ridge. Integrated quantitative analysis shows no evidence for exhumed mantle on this margin profile. The joint inversion technique predicts oceanic crustal thicknesses of between 7 and 8 km thickness with

  9. Redatuming of sparse 3D seismic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tegtmeier, S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of a seismic survey is to produce an image of the subsurface providing an overview of the earth's discontinuities. The aim of seismic processing is to recreate this image. The seismic method is especially well suited for the exploration and the monitoring of hydrocarbon reservoirs. A

  10. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaláb Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [10]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic.

  11. Patterns of Seismicity Associated with USGS Identified Areas of Potentially Induced Seismicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caitlin; Halihan, Todd

    2018-03-13

    A systematic review across U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) identified potentially induced seismic locations was conducted to discover seismic distance patterns and trends over time away from injection disposal wells. Previous research indicates a 10 km (6 miles) average where the majority of induced seismicity is expected to occur within individual locations, with some areas reporting a larger radius of 35 km (22 miles) to over 70 km (43 miles). This research analyzed earthquake occurrences within nine USGS locations where specified wells were identified as contributors to induced seismicity to determine distance patterns from disposal wells or outward seismic migration over time using established principles of hydrogeology. Results indicate a radius of 31.6 km (20 miles) where 90% of felt earthquakes occur among locations, with the closest proximal felt seismic events, on average, occurring 3 km (1.9 miles) away from injection disposal wells. The results of this research found distance trends across multiple locations of potentially induced seismicity. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Seismic VSP Investigations at Olkiluoto, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enescu, N.; Cosma, C.; Balu, L. (Vibrometric, Vantaa (Finland))

    2007-08-15

    Posiva Oy carries out R and D related tasks for spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. The site characterization has been conducted since 1987 in Olkiluoto in western Finland. The ONKALO underground characterization facility has been under construction since 2004. Vibrometric Oy has been contracted to carry out seismic VSP survey in four drillholes in the immediate vicinity of ONKALO, for the characterization of the seismically responsive structures. Four drillholes, KR8, KR27, KR29 and KR38 were included to the project. Seven seismic source locations on ground surface were used for each drillhole. The source locations were optimized with respect to the drillhole and ONKALO and were configured as linear arrays to produce optimum imaging focused on the ONKALO volume. A mechanical Vibsist source, using a hydraulic rock breaker mounted on a 22 t excavator, was used as source of seismic signal. The signal was recorded with downhole 3-component geophones. The recording array was 8-level long, with 5 m spacing between levels. Acquisition was run throughout the drillholes. Processing of the VSP profiles consisted of time decoding of the impact sequences, filtering and image point (IP) transform. The interpretation was carried out interactively, seeking for best match of orientation of each reflection according to different borehole profiles where the features were seen. The interpretations were built as an add-on to a previous seismic model of the site. The most distinct reflectors were interpreted, compiled to as a part of a terrain model composed of 3D surfaces, and transferred digitally together with other results (3D elements of reflector locations) into Posiva's 3D modeling system. Some of the reflectors have already received direct confirmation from ONKALO observations. (orig.)

  13. Seismic VSP Investigations at Olkiluoto, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, N.; Cosma, C.; Balu, L.

    2007-08-01

    Posiva Oy carries out R and D related tasks for spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. The site characterization has been conducted since 1987 in Olkiluoto in western Finland. The ONKALO underground characterization facility has been under construction since 2004. Vibrometric Oy has been contracted to carry out seismic VSP survey in four drillholes in the immediate vicinity of ONKALO, for the characterization of the seismically responsive structures. Four drillholes, KR8, KR27, KR29 and KR38 were included to the project. Seven seismic source locations on ground surface were used for each drillhole. The source locations were optimized with respect to the drillhole and ONKALO and were configured as linear arrays to produce optimum imaging focused on the ONKALO volume. A mechanical Vibsist source, using a hydraulic rock breaker mounted on a 22 t excavator, was used as source of seismic signal. The signal was recorded with downhole 3-component geophones. The recording array was 8-level long, with 5 m spacing between levels. Acquisition was run throughout the drillholes. Processing of the VSP profiles consisted of time decoding of the impact sequences, filtering and image point (IP) transform. The interpretation was carried out interactively, seeking for best match of orientation of each reflection according to different borehole profiles where the features were seen. The interpretations were built as an add-on to a previous seismic model of the site. The most distinct reflectors were interpreted, compiled to as a part of a terrain model composed of 3D surfaces, and transferred digitally together with other results (3D elements of reflector locations) into Posiva's 3D modeling system. Some of the reflectors have already received direct confirmation from ONKALO observations. (orig.)

  14. Interpretation of reflection seismics in the area North of Laegeren - Zurich Weinland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naef, H.; Birkhaeuser, P.; Roth, P.

    1995-05-01

    The investigations of potential siting areas for a repository for high-level radioactive waste which are concentrated in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland have been expanded since the late 1980s to include suitable sedimentary units. After extensive desk study evaluation, the approximately 100 m thick Opalinus Clay of the Tabular Jura east of the Aare river was chosen as the most promising sedimentary option. In this area not only the Opalinus Clay but also the over- and underlying units are clay-rich, in contrast to the tabular Jura west of the Aare river. In the area North of Laegeren - Zurich Weinland, where the Opalinus Clay is situated in the optimum depth range of 400 to 1000 m below surface, approximately 220 km of new high-resolution seismic profiles were recorded and interpreted together with existing seismic lines. Due to thorough field work and data processing, a very good quality of seismic lines was obtained. This allowed precise mapping of the marker horizons in general and the Opalinus Clay in detail. The goal of this study was to determine and delineate the most important tectonic units as well as to describe the potential host rocks in these units. By way of interactive interpretation of all available seismic lines, borehole data and surface data from the investigation area, depth maps of the most prominent marker horizons have been calculated and geological cross-sections constructed along the new seismic lines. The regional seismic character of the Middle Mesozoic units was modelled using borehole data from Weiach and Herdern. From this model the thickness of the Opalinus Clay along the new seismic lines was determined. The results indicate a relatively constant thickness of 95 to 120 m in the investigation area. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Nuclear power plants seismic review programme in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Cabanero, J.G.; Jimenez Juan, A.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation deals with seismic design and seismic reevaluation of Spanish operating nuclear power plants. The Spanish NPPs owners Probabilistic seismic hazard study requires an independent and deep review of methodology, modelling techniques, data management and method of eliciting in order to make decision on its acceptability. It reflects the opinion of only one expert tem and it would be necessary to involve more expert opinions to consider the uncertainties. It is proposed to evaluate the probabilistic seismic hazard study and the seismic categorisation

  16. A linear motor as seismic horizontal vibrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijkoningen, G.; Veltman, A.; Hendrix, W.H.A.; Brouwer, J.; Hemstede, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use the concept of linear synchronous motors to act as a seismic shear-wave vibratory source. We show that a linear motor, even with a design that is not focussed on application of seismic surveying, gives seismic records that are convincing and comparable with an

  17. Seismic data processing for domestic seismic survey over the continental shelf of Korea using the Geobit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Yong [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The `Geobit`, a new seismic data processing software introduced by the Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials recently, is the token of the achievement for the development of technology in the oil exploration over the Korean continental shelf. In comparison with the foreign seismic data processing systems previously used in Korea, the Geobit system has some advanced facilities; it provides an interactive mode which makes the seismic processing easier and has the user-friendly programs which allow the construction of a job control file simpler. Most of all, the Geobit can be run with many computer hardware systems, from PC to supercomputer. The current version of the Geobit can take care of the two-dimensional multi-channel seismic data and is open to the public for an education tool and a research purpose. To demonstrate the ability of the Geobit, a multi-channel field data acquired in the domestic continental shelf over the Yellow Sea in 1970 has been selected and processed with standard seismic data processing techniques. In this report, the Geobit job files and the corresponding results for the construction of a stack are provided. (author). 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Seismic measurements of explosions in the Tatum Salt Dome, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Healy, J.H.; Jackson, W.H.; Warren, D.R.

    1967-01-01

    Project Sterling provided for the detonation of a nuclear device in the cavity resulting from the Salmon nuclear explosion in the Tatum salt dome in southern Mississippi. It also provided for a high explosive (HE) comparison shot in a nearby drill hole. The purpose of the experiment was to gather information on the seismic decoupling of a nuclear explosion in a cavity by comparing seismic signals from a nuclear shot in the Salmon cavity with seismic signals recorded from Salmon and with seismic signals recorded from a muall (about 2 tons) HE shot in the salt dome. Surface seismic measurements were made by the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the Air Force Technical Applications Center with coordination and overall direction by the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. This report covers only the seismic measurements made by the U. S. Geological Survey. The first objective of this report is to describe the field recording procedures and the data obtained by the U. S. Geological Survey from these events. The second objective is to describe the spectral analyses which have been made on the data and the relative seismic amplitudes which have been determined from these analyses.

  19. FY 1997 basic survey for coal resource development. Data collection of the joint research of new technology in the geophysical exploration of coal resources (water area medium depth seam survey); 1997 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa shiryoshu. Shintansa gijutsu chosa kaihatsu (suiiki chushindoso tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In 'the new exploration technology test on coal resource' (water area medium depth seam exploration) jointly conducted between Japan and China, tests have been carried out for 5 years on the BDR-5 test boring measurement monitoring system and the diamond bit which are items of the technology development of high resolution seismic survey system and high efficiency test boring system. As a result, the new technology test was successful, and technical economic effects were obtained. The situation of the test was summarized. The following data were compiled as shown in Data No.1-12. 1. The proceedings of the FY 1997 Japan-China steering committee (No.9). 2. Report on the survey of China verification field South Sihu water level situation. 3. The proceedings of the FY 1997 Japan-China steering committee (final). 4. Report on the FY 1997 reflection seismic exploration survey. 5. Report on the FY 1997 No.2 test boring survey. 6. Summarization of the test on 'the new exploration technology of coal source' conducted between Japan and China. 7. Report on the drilling data measurement. 8. Various sections of the reflection seismic survey data processing. 9. Traverse line chart. 10. T3 isochrone chart. 11. T3 depth structural chart. 12. Report on the new exploration technology survey development (water area medium depth seam exploration) geological model making. (NEDO)

  20. Piedmont seismic reflection study: A program integrated with tectonics to probe the cause of eastern seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, L. III; Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.; Bollinger, G.A. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-03-01

    A new tectonic model of the Appalachian orogen indicates that one, not two or more, terrane boundaries is present in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge of the central and southern Appalachians. This terrane boundary is the Taconic suture, it has been transported in the allochthonous Blue Ridge/Piedmont crystalline thrust nappe, and it is repeated at the surface by faulting and folding associated with later Paleozoic orogenies. The suture passes through the lower crust and lithosphere somewhere east of Richmond. It is spatially associated with seismicity in the central Virginia seismic zone, but is not conformable with earthquake focal planes and appears to have little causal relation to their localization.

  1. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  2. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  3. Seismic source characterization for the 2014 update of the U.S. National Seismic Hazard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetti, Morgan P.; Powers, Peter; Petersen, Mark D.; Boyd, Oliver; Chen, Rui; Field, Edward H.; Frankel, Arthur; Haller, Kathleen; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles S.; Wheeler, Russell; Zeng, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    We present the updated seismic source characterization (SSC) for the 2014 update of the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) for the conterminous United States. Construction of the seismic source models employs the methodology that was developed for the 1996 NSHM but includes new and updated data, data types, source models, and source parameters that reflect the current state of knowledge of earthquake occurrence and state of practice for seismic hazard analyses. We review the SSC parameterization and describe the methods used to estimate earthquake rates, magnitudes, locations, and geometries for all seismic source models, with an emphasis on new source model components. We highlight the effects that two new model components—incorporation of slip rates from combined geodetic-geologic inversions and the incorporation of adaptively smoothed seismicity models—have on probabilistic ground motions, because these sources span multiple regions of the conterminous United States and provide important additional epistemic uncertainty for the 2014 NSHM.

  4. A critique of the UK's JNCC seismic survey guidelines for minimising acoustic disturbance to marine mammals: Best practise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, E.C.M.; Dolman, Sarah J.; Jasny, Michael; Rose, Naomi A.; Simmonds, Mark P.; Wright, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The United Kingdom's statutory conservation agency, the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), developed guidelines in 1995 to minimise acoustic disturbance of marine mammals by oil and gas industry seismic surveys. These were the first national guidelines to be developed and have subsequently become the standard, or basis, of international mitigation measures for noise pollution during seismic surveys. However, relatively few aspects of these measures have a firm scientific basis or proven efficacy. Existing guidelines do not offer adequate protection to marine mammals, given the complex propagation of airgun pulses; the difficulty of monitoring in particular the smaller, cryptic, and/or deep-diving species, such as beaked whales and porpoises; limitations in monitoring requirements; lack of baseline data; and other biological and acoustical complications or unknowns. Current guidelines offer a 'common sense' approach to noise mitigation, but in light of recent research and ongoing concerns, they should be updated, with broader measures needed to ensure adequate species protection and to address data gaps.

  5. Using 3D Reflection Seismics for Deep Platinum Mine Planning and Risk Mitigation: A Case Study from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Manzi, M. S.; Webb, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Loss-of-ground in mining is a common problem. Using the integration of high resolution aeromagnetic and 3D reflection seismic data to delineate the causative geological features allows for more efficient mine planning and risk reduction. High resolution data from Impala Platinum mine in the western Bushveld Complex are used to image potholes, iron-rich ultramafic pegmatoids (IRUPs), faults, dykes and diapirs that may impact the economic horizons (UG2). Imaging of these structures was previously limited to outcrop, both on surface and underground, as well as 2D seismic data. These high resolution seismic data are able to resolve faults with throws as small as 10 m. A diapir is imaged in the southwest of the study area with a diameter of approximately 6 km. The diapir has a depth extend of around 4 km below the UG2 horizon and displaces the horizon by 350 m. It has been suggested that topographic highs in the Transvaal Supergroup basement initiate the formation of these diapirs as new magma is injected into the chamber. The origin of the diapir within the layered basement rocks, and disruption of layering within the complex is visible on the seismic section. In the north of the study area a large region of slumping or several merged potholes is identified that is up to 2.5 km in length, with up to 700 m of vertical displacement. Ductile deformation that formed the potholes is imaged on the seismic section, with the UG2 cutting down into the footwall. However, brittle deformation of the UG2 is also imaged with faulting at the edges of the regions of slumping. The edges of these slump regions are also characterised by the emplacement of iron-rich ultramafic pegmatoids (IRUPs), which show up as regions of diffuse reflectivity on the seismic data and magnetic highs. The proximity of these faults and IRUPs to the edges of the slump structure brings in to question whether they contribute to pothole formation. The diapir and slump structure displaces the economic UG2

  6. Seismic reflection and structuring characterization of deep aquifer system in the Dakhla syncline (Cap Bon, North-Eastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Abir; Jarraya Horriche, Faten; Gabtni, Hakim; Bédir, Mourad

    2018-04-01

    The Dakhla syncline is located in the North-Eastern Tunisia. It is bounded by Abd El Rahmene anticline to the North-West, El Haouaria Graben to the North-East, Grombalia Graben to the South-West and the Mediterranean Sea to the East. The main aquifer reservoirs of Dakhla syncline are constituted by stacks of fluvial to deltaic Neogene sequences and carbonates. The interpretation of eight seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by wire line logging data of three oil wells, hydraulic wells and geologic field sections highlighted the impact of tectonics on the structuring geometry of aquifers and their distribution in elevated structures and subsurface depressions. Lithostratigraphic correlations and seismic profiles analysis through the syncline show that the principal aquifers are thickest within the central and northern part of the study area and thinnest to the southern part of the syncline. Seismic sections shows that the fracture/fault pattern in this syncline is mainly concentrated along corridors with a major direction of NW-SE and secondary directions of N-S, E-W and NE-SW with different release. This is proved by the complexity structure of Eastern Tunisia, resulted from the interaction between the African and Eurasiatic plates. Isochron maps of aquifers systems exhibited the structuring of this syncline in sub-surface characterized by important lateral and vertical geometric and thickness variations. Seismic sections L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 and petroleum wells showed an heterogeneous multilayer aquifers of Miocene formed by the arrangement of ten sandstone bodies, separated by impermeable clay packages. Oligo-Miocene deposits correspond to the most great potential aquifers, with respectively an average transmissivity estimated: Somaa aquifer 6.5 10-4 m2/s, Sandstone level aquifer 2.6 10-3 m2/s, Beglia aquifer 1.1 10-3 m2/s, Ain Ghrab aquifer 1.3 10-4 m2/s and Oligocene aquifer 2 10-3 m2/s. The interpretation of spatial variations of seismic units and the

  7. Thickness of the oligo-neogene sedimentary cover in the Central Depression, northern Chile (Pampa del Tamarugal, 20°45'-21°30'S), based on seismic reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M.; Simicic, Y.; Contreras Reyes, E.; Charrier, R.

    2013-12-01

    The estimation of the Pampa de Tamarugal oligo-neogene sedimentary cover thickness from seismic interpretation is crucial for scientific and applied subjects, such as placing aquifers traps and Mesozoic-Paleogene basement top location for mining exploration drilling. The Chilean National Petroleum Company (ENAP) has explored hydrocarbon resources in the area, raising several reflection seismic lines and drilling some wells. Previous studies used the paper seismic data by determining the cover geometry and defining the basement-cover boundary. We have obtained directly SGY digital files, which allow a better definition and modeling of stratigraphy and cover thickness. This thickness was estimated by the travel time in the seismic reflection lines and the value of the p-wave propagation velocity (0.91 to 1.97 km/s for cover). The last value was obtained by density measurements of field samples, which resulted from 1,895 to 2,065 g/cm3. In the central-south part of the Pampa del Tamarugal, immediately south of Cerro Challacollo, the west-east-oriented 99_7 seismic line shows a 'basement high' whose top is at 100 m from the surface. The basement was uplift by a north-trend west-verging reverse fault and separates two sub-basins of 9.5 km and 13.8 km wide, and maximum cover thicknesses of 600 and 850 m, west and east respectively. To the north of Cerro Challacollo, the subparallel 99_6 line shows a similar geometry, and increasing the depth of the basement high top up to 350 m in the central part of the section. For seismic lines south of Cerro Challacollo, the basement high disappears and the cover thickness increases. To improve the accuracy of the cover thickness estimations, we will test directly measurements of p-wave propagation velocity in field samples of basement and cover (instead of approximations from the density measurements).

  8. Towards a quantitative interpretation of global seismic tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trampert, Jeannot; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2005-01-01

    We review the success of seismic tomography in delineating spatial variations in the propagation speed of seismic waves on length scales from several hundreds to many thousands of kilometers. In most interpretations these wave speed variations are thought to reflect variations in temperature.

  9. The reevaluation of seismic safety of existing nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Shohei; Kumagai, Chiyoshi; Koshiba, Koremutsu; Kono, Tomonori; Agawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuwata, Kenichiro

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out additional geological surveys in order to enrich our database on geological faults in the vicinity of Shimane Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Prior to additional geological surveys, given the social importance of nuclear power plants, we hypothetically assumed that almost the whole length of an area covered by surveys would be an active fault that must be considered in seismic design, and tried to reevaluate the seismic safety of the NPP by applying an input earthquake ground motion larger than the level at the design stage. As a result, we have confirmed that seismic safety of the NPP can be maintained. This paper describes the method that we employed to reevaluate the seismic safety of Shimane NPP. (author)

  10. Preliminary Interpretations of Multi-Channel Seismic Reflection and Magnetic Data on North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözde Okut Toksoy, Nigar; Kurt, Hülya; İşseven, Turgay

    2017-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is 1600 km long, right lateral strike-slip fault nearly E-W elongated between Karlıova in the east and Saros Gulf in the west. NAF splays into two major strands near the west of Bolu city as Northern and Southern strands. Northern strand passes Sapanca Lake and extends towards west and reaches Marmara Sea through the Gulf of Izmit. The area has high seismicity; 1999 Kocaeli (Mw=7.4) and 1999 Düzce (Mw=7.2) earthquakes caused approximately 150 km long surface rupture between the Gulf of Izmit and Bolu. The rupture has four distinct fault segments as Gölcük, Sapanca, Sakarya, and Karadere from west to east. In this study multi-channel seismic and magnetic data are collected for the first time on the Sapanca Segment to investigate the surficial and deeper geometry of the NAF. Previously, the NAF in the eastern Marmara region is investigated using by paleo-seismological data from trenches on the surface rupture of fault or the geomorphological data (Lettis et al., 2000; Dikbaş and Akyüz, 2010) which have shallower depth targets. Crustal structure and seismic velocities for Central Anatolia and eastern Marmara regions are obtained from deeper targeted refraction data (Gürbüz et al., 1992). However, their velocity models do not have the spatial resolution to determine details of the fault zone structure. Multi-channel seismic and magnetic data in this study were acquired on two N-S directed profiles crossing NAF perpendicularly near Kartepe on the western part of the Sapanca Lake in October 2016. The receiver interval is 5 m, shot interval is 5-10 m, and the total length of the profiles are approximately 1400 m. Buffalo Gun is used as a seismic source for deeper penetration. Conventional seismic reflection processing steps are applied to the data. These are geometry definition, editing, filtering, static correction, velocity analysis and deconvolution, stacking and migration. Echos seismic software package in Geophysical Department

  11. Acquisition and preliminary analysis of multi-channel seismic reflection data, acquired during the oceanographic cruises of the TOMO-ETNA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Firetto Carlino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The TOMO-ETNA experiment was performed in the framework of the FP7 “MED-SUV” (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes in order to gain a detailed geological and structural model of the continental and oceanic crust concerning Etna and Aeolian Islands volcanoes (Sicily, Italy, by means of active and passive seismic exploration methodologies. Among all data collected, some 1410 km of marine multi-channel seismic (MCS reflection profiles were acquired in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas during two of the three oceanographic cruises of the TOMO-ETNA experiment, in July and November 2014, with the aim of shading light to deep, intermediate and shallow stratigraphy and crustal structure of the two above mentioned areas. The MCS sections, targeted to deep exploration, were acquired during the oceanographic cruise on board the R/V “Sarmiento de Gamboa”, using an active seismic source of 16 air-guns, for a total volume of 4340 cu. in., and a 3000 m long, 240-channels digital streamer as receiving system. High-resolution seismic profiles were instead collected through the R/V “Aegaeo”, using two smaller air-guns (overall 270 cu. in. volume and a 96 channels, 300 m long digital streamer. This paper provides a detailed description of the acquisition parameters and main processing steps adopted for the MCS data. Some processed lines are shown and preliminarily interpreted, to highlight the overall good quality and the high potential of the MCS sections collected during the TOMO-ETNA experiment.

  12. Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos Nur

    2009-01-08

    We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

  13. Report (summarized) for fiscal 2000 on survey for demonstration of geothermal exploration technologies. Development of exploration method using reservoir bed fluctuation (Theme 4. Development of seismic wave exploration method); 2000 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu to kensho chosa hokokusho (yoyaku). Choryuso hendo tansaho kaihatsu - 4 (jishinha tansaho kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of developing a method effective to evaluate reservoir beds in the initial stage of development, to maintain output stability of power plants after having started the operation and to extract reservoirs existing in the vicinity of areas that have already been developed, research has been performed on a method to forecast spread of the reservoir beds and future variation, by identifying distribution of very small earthquakes generated by steam production activities, and change in three-dimensional velocity structure of elastic waves. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the research of the seismic wave variation monitoring technology, AE observation was performed during a long-term blowout test of geothermal survey wells in the Akinomiya area in Ak ita Prefecture, wherein it was verified that the reservoir bed fluctuation can be identified as the number of AE occurrence. In the research of the three dimensional seismic wave variation analysis, a three dimensional velocity structure analyzing program was used to analyze the status in the Kakkonda area. In the survey of elastic wave velocity structure, a survey was carried out in the Akinomiya area in Akita Prefecture by using the reflection method. As a result, sharp fall was verified in the western side of side tracks of basic rocks, which corresponds to the past survey result. A plurality of reflection events corresponding to depths of geothermal reservoir beds were detected successfully. (NEDO)

  14. The availability of hydrogeologic data associated with areas identified by the US Geological Survey as experiencing potentially induced seismicity resulting from subsurface injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caitlin; Halihan, Todd

    2018-05-01

    A critical need exists for site-specific hydrogeologic data in order to determine potential hazards of induced seismicity and to manage risk. By 2015, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) had identified 17 locations in the USA that are experiencing an increase in seismicity, which may be potentially induced through industrial subsurface injection. These locations span across seven states, which vary in geological setting, industrial exposure and seismic history. Comparing the research across the 17 locations revealed patterns for addressing induced seismicity concerns, despite the differences between geographical locations. Most induced seismicity studies evaluate geologic structure and seismic data from areas experiencing changes in seismic activity levels, but the inherent triggering mechanism is the transmission of hydraulic pressure pulses. This research conducted a systematic review of whether data are available in these locations to generate accurate hydrogeologic predictions, which could aid in managing seismicity. After analyzing peer-reviewed research within the 17 locations, this research confirms a lack of site-specific hydrogeologic data availability for at-risk areas. Commonly, formation geology data are available for these sites, but hydraulic parameters for the seismically active injection and basement zones are not available to researchers conducting peer-reviewed research. Obtaining hydrogeologic data would lead to better risk management for injection areas and provide additional scientific evidential support for determining a potentially induced seismic area.

  15. A Survey study on design procedure of Seismic Base Isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Base Isolation Systems that is flexible approach to decrease the potential damage. In this ... In addition, we analyze the seismic responses of isolated structures. The seismic ..... Equation 3.7, is examined; it is realized that the inequality ...

  16. Hydrogeological study of the Triassic series in the JeffaraDahar region (Southern part of Tunisia): Contribution of well logs data and seismic reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Lasmar, R.; Guellala, R.; Zouhri, L.; Sarsar Naouali, B.; Garrach, M.; Inoubli, M.H.

    2016-07-01

    The present study concentrates on the interpretation of well logs and seismic reflection data in the JeffaraDahar region (Southeast part of Tunisia) for a better characterization of the Triassic aquifer, a potential target of water supply. Lithological columns and their corresponding well logs reveal that Sidi Stout, Kirchaou and Touareg. sandstones as well as Mekraneb and Rehach dolomites are the main reservoirs of the Triassic aquifer. Well log analysis highlights many permeable and fractured layers that could play an important role in the groundwater circulation. The interpreted seismic sections and the resulting isochrone maps show a tectonic influence on the Triassic aquifer geometry in the Jeffara-Dahar region. The normal faulting of E-W and NW-SE accidents created an aquifer compartmentalized by raised and tilted blocks. Seismic cross-sections reveal that this structure controls the depth of permeable formations and the circulation of groundwater. These results will be useful for rationalising the future hydrogeological research that will be undertaken in the Jeffara-Dahar area. (Author)

  17. Acoustic reflections in the water column of Krishna-Godavari offshore basin, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sinha, S.K.; Dewangan, P.; Sain, K.

    reflection seismic data. Remarkable similarities between the reflection seismic and the salinity profile in the upper thermocline suggest the importance of salinity variations on the water column reflection. Furthermore, impedance inversion...

  18. Assessing the Nature of Crust in the Central Red Sea Using Potential Fields and Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W.; Mitchell, N. C.; Kalnins, L. M.; A Y, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Red Sea is considered an important example of a rifted continental shield proceeding to a seafloor spreading stage of development, and the transition of crustal types there from stretched continental to oceanic should mark the onset of significant mantle melting. However, whether the crust in the central Red Sea is continental or oceanic has been controversial. To contribute to this debate, we assessed the geometry of the basement from potential fields and seismic reflection data. Prior interpretations of basement in deep seismic reflection profiles were first verified using Werner deconvolution of marine magnetic data. The seismic depths were then used to reconstruct basement depth corrected for evaporite and other sediment loading. We found that the basement deepening with distance is similar to that of oceanic crust near mantle plumes such as the Reykjanes Ridge. In both cases, the data show a 35-80 km wide axial plateau followed by a steep 0.4-1.7 km deepening over 30-50 km distance. It has also been suggested that the variability of free-air anomalies observed in lines parallel to the axis is due to crossing oceanic short-offset fracture zones. We assessed this idea by inverting the gravity anomalies for basement relief. Using densities appropriate for oceanic crust and a modified slab formula, we found values for root-mean square (RMS) relief that are comparable to those of weakly sedimented regions of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Forward calculations using 2D modelling revealed that the errors in RMS basement relief caused by the slab approximation are 30%, leaving true RMS basement relief still within the range of values for oceanic crust. While these observations by themselves do not rule out an extremely extended continental crust interpretation, combined with previous analysis of refraction velocities, which are oceanic-like, they are supportive of an oceanic crustal interpretation. Additionally, the RMS values and the cross-axis basement relief both

  19. Estimation of Dry Fracture Weakness, Porosity, and Fluid Modulus Using Observable Seismic Reflection Data in a Gas-Bearing Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaizhen; Zhang, Guangzhi

    2017-05-01

    Fracture detection and fluid identification are important tasks for a fractured reservoir characterization. Our goal is to demonstrate a direct approach to utilize azimuthal seismic data to estimate fluid bulk modulus, porosity, and dry fracture weaknesses, which decreases the uncertainty of fluid identification. Combining Gassmann's (Vier. der Natur. Gesellschaft Zürich 96:1-23, 1951) equations and linear-slip model, we first establish new simplified expressions of stiffness parameters for a gas-bearing saturated fractured rock with low porosity and small fracture density, and then we derive a novel PP-wave reflection coefficient in terms of dry background rock properties (P-wave and S-wave moduli, and density), fracture (dry fracture weaknesses), porosity, and fluid (fluid bulk modulus). A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo nonlinear inversion method is proposed to estimate fluid bulk modulus, porosity, and fracture weaknesses directly from azimuthal seismic data. The inversion method yields reasonable estimates in the case of synthetic data containing a moderate noise and stable results on real data.

  20. Time-lapse seismic analysis of the North Sea Fulmar Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, David H.; McKenny, Robert S.; Burkhart, Tucker D.

    1998-12-31

    Time-lapse seismic analysis has been applied to two 3-D seismic surveys acquired over the central North Sea Fulmar field in a pre-production survey shot in 1977, reprocessed in 1987, and a survey in 1992. The Upper Jurassic reservoirs in the field have been under production since 1982. Differences in averaged impedance between the 1977 and 1992 surveys clearly show the effects of water influx and pressure decline. The changes observed in the seismic data are overall consistent with predictions obtained from a full-field, history-matched simulation. Differences in details may suggest areas of bypassed oil. Dta quality is not sufficient to serve as the sole basis for drilling decisions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  1. Virtual source reflection imaging of the Socorro Magma Body, New Mexico, using a dense seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, T. S.; Worthington, L. L.; Schmandt, B.; Hansen, S. M.; Bilek, S. L.; Aster, R. C.; Ranasinghe, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Socorro Magma Body (SMB) is one of the largest known actively inflating continental magmatic intrusions. Previous studies have relied on sparse instrument coverage to determine its spatial extent, depth, and seismic signature, which characterized the body as a thin sill with a surface at 19 km below the Earth's surface. However, over the last two decades, InSAR and magneto-telluric (MT) studies have shed new light on the SMB and invigorated the scientific debate of the spatial distribution and uplift rate of the SMB. We return to seismic imaging of the SMB with the Sevilleta Array, a 12-day deployment of approximately 800 vertical component, 10-Hz geophones north of Socorro, New Mexico above and around the estimated northern half of the SMB. Teleseismic virtual source reflection profiling (TVR) employs the free surface reflection off of a teleseismic P as a virtual source in dense arrays, and has been used successfully to image basin structure and the Moho in multiple tectonic environments. The Sevilleta Array recorded 62 teleseismic events greater than M5. Applying TVR to the data collected by the Sevilleta Array, we present stacks from four events that produced the with high signal-to-noise ratios and simple source-time functions: the February 11, 2015 M6.7 in northern Argentina, the February 19, 2015 M5.4 in Kamchatka, Russia, and the February 21, 2015 M5.1 and February 22, 2015 M5.5 in western Colombia. Preliminary results suggest eastward-dipping reflectors at approximately 5 km depth near the Sierra Ladrones range in the northwestern corner of the array. Further analysis will focus on creating profiles across the area of maximum SMB uplift and constraining basin geometry.

  2. Angola Seismicity MAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  3. Seismic architecture of the Chalk Group from onshore reflection data in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Anderskouv, Kresten; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    with the seismic stratigraphy. Several seismic facies are identified in the Chalk Group: the 'transparent' (white chalk), the stratified (marl-chalk alternations), the crudely stratified (flint-rich chalk) and the hummocky (bryozoan mounds). The units notably vary in thickness at a relatively small scale...... of the deformations appear to be restricted to the white chalk, whereas the stratified seismic facies are comparatively less disturbed. The origin of the structures observed in the white chalk can either be associated with the regional stress field or with differential diagenetic evolution between strata inducing...

  4. Integrated seismic interpretation of the Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans; Jørgensen, Mette Iwanouw

    2005-01-01

    the fault zone. The fault zone is a shadow zone to shots detonated outside the fault zone. Finite-difference wavefield modelling supports the interpretations of the fan recordings. Our fan recording approach facilitates cost-efficient mapping of fault zones in densely urbanized areas where seismic normal......We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone along a 12-km-long trace in the Copenhagen city centre by seismic refraction, reflection and fan profiling. The Carlsberg Fault is located in a NNW-SSE striking fault system in the border zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent...... earthquakes indicate that this area is tectonically active. A seismic refraction study across the Carlsberg Fault shows that the fault zone is a low-velocity zone and marks a change in seismic velocity structure. A normal incidence reflection seismic section shows a coincident flower-like structure. We have...

  5. Seismic Structure of the Oceanic Plate Entering the Central Part of the Japan Trench Obtained from Ocean-Bottom Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, A.; Kodaira, S.; Fujie, G.; No, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.

    2017-12-01

    In trench-outer rise regions, the normal faults develop due to the bending of the incoming plate, which cause numerous normal-faulting earthquakes and systematic structural variations toward trenches. In addition to the effects on the bend-related normal fault, structural variations which are interpreted to be attributed to pseudofaults, a fracture zone, and petit-spot volcanic activities are observed in the oceanic plate entering the central part of the Japan Trench, off Miyagi. In May-June 2017, to understand detail structural variations and systematic structural changes of the oceanic plate toward the trench, we conducted an active-source seismic survey off Miyagi using R/V Kaimei, a new research vessel of JAMSTEC. Along a 100 km-long seismic profile which is approximately perpendicular to the trench axis, we deployed 40 ocean-bottom seismometers at intervals of 2 km and fired a large airgun array (total volume 10,600 cubic inches) with 100 m shooting intervals. Multi-channel seismic reflection data were also collected along the profile. On OBS records we observed refractions from the sedimentary layer and the oceanic crust (Pg), wide-angle reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (PmP), and refractions from the uppermost mantle (Pn). Pg is typically observed clearly at near offsets (approximately 20 km) but it highly attenuates at far offsets (> 20 km). A triplication of Pg-PmP-Pn with strong amplitudes is observed at ranges from 30 km to 60 km offsets. Pn is typically weak and its apparent velocity is approximately 8 km/sec. High attenuation of Pg and weak Pn may indicate the complex crustal structure related to petit-spot volcanic activities and/or a fracture zone, which are recognized in bathymetry data around the profile.

  6. On the accuracy of Rüger's approximation for reflection coefficients in HTI media: implications for the determination of fracture density and orientation from seismic AVAZ data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Aamir; Jakobsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the accuracy of Rüger's approximation for PP reflection coefficients in HTI media (relative to an exact generalization of Zoeppritz to anisotropy derived by Schoenberg and Protazio) within the context of seismic fracture characterization. We consider the inverse problem of seismic amplitude-versus-angle and azimuth (AVAZ) inversion with respect to fracture density and azimuthal fracture orientation, as well as the forward problem of calculating PP reflection coefficients for different contrasts and anisotropy levels. The T-matrix approach was used to relate the contrast and anisotropy level to the parameters of the fractures (in the case of a single set of vertical fractures). We have found that Rüger's approximation can be used to recover the true fracture density with small uncertainty if, and only if, the fracture density and contrast are significantly smaller than the values that are believed to occur in many practically interesting cases of fractured (carbonate) reservoirs. In one example involving a minimal contrast and a fracture density in the range 0.05–0.1, Rüger's approximation performed satisfactorily for inversion, although the forward modelling results were not very accurate at high incident angles. But for fracture densities larger than 0.1 (which we believe may well occur in real cases), Rüger's approximation did not perform satisfactorily for forward or inverse modelling. However, it appears that Rüger's approximation can always be used to obtain estimates of the azimuthal fracture orientation with small uncertainty, even when the contrast and anisotropy levels are extremely large. In order to illustrate the significance of our findings within the context of seismic fracture characterization, we analysed a set of synthetic seismic AVAZ data associated with a fault facies model where the fracture density decreases exponentially with distance from the fault core, and a set of real seismic AVAZ data involving offset

  7. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brune, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  8. Seismically induced landslides: current research by the US Geological Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, E.L.; Wilson, R.C.; Keefer, D.K.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    We have produced a regional seismic slope-stability map and a probabilistic prediction of landslide distribution from a postulated earthquake. For liquefaction-induced landslides, in situ measurements of seismically induced pore-water pressures have been used to establish an elastic model of pore pressure generation. -from Authors

  9. The utility of petroleum seismic exploration data in delineating structural features within salt anticlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, S.L.; Balch, Alfred H.

    1978-01-01

    The Salt Valley anticline, in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, is under investigation for use as a location for storage of solid nuclear waste. Delineation of thin, nonsalt interbeds within the upper reaches of the salt body is extremely important because the nature and character of any such fluid- or gas-saturated horizons would be critical to the mode of emplacement of wastes into the structure. Analysis of 50 km of conventional seismic-reflection data, in the vicinity of the anticline, indicates that mapping of thin beds at shallow depths may well be possible using a specially designed adaptation of state-of-the-art seismic oil-exploration procedures. Computer ray-trace modeling of thin beds in salt reveals that the frequency and spatial resolution required to map the details of interbeds at shallow depths (less than 750 m) may be on the order of 500 Hz, with surface-spread lengths of less than 350 m. Consideration should be given to the burial of sources and receivers in order to attenuate surface noise and to record the desired high frequencies. Correlation of the seismic-reflection data with available well data and surface geology reveals the complex, structurally initiated diapir, whose upward flow was maintained by rapid contemporaneous deposition of continental clastic sediments on its flanks. Severe collapse faulting near the crests of these structures has distorted the seismic response. Evidence exists, however, that intrasalt thin beds of anhydrite, dolomite, and black shale are mappable on seismic record sections either as short, discontinuous reflected events or as amplitude anomalies that result from focusing of the reflected seismic energy by the thin beds; computer modeling of the folded interbeds confirms both of these as possible causes of seismic response from within the salt diapir. Prediction of the seismic signatures of the interbeds can be made from computer-model studies. Petroleum seismic-reflection data are unsatisfactory for

  10. Use of seismic attributes for sediment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Radomille Santana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study to understand the relationships between seismic attributes extracted from 2D high-resolution seismic data and the seafloor's sediments of the surveyed area. As seismic attributes are features highly influenced by the medium through which the seismic waves are propagated, the authors can assume that it would be possible to characterise the geological nature of the seafloor by using these attributes. Herein, a survey was performed on the continental margin of the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica, where both 2D high-resolution seismic data and sediment gravity cores samples were simultaneously acquired. A computational script was written to extract the seismic attributes from the data, which have been statistically analysed with clustering analyses, such as principal components analysis, dendrograms and k-means classification. The extracted seismic attributes are the amplitude, the instantaneous phase, the instantaneous frequency, the envelope, the time derivative of the envelope, the second derivative of the envelope and the acceleration of phase. Statistical evaluation showed that geological classification of the seafloor's sediments is possible by associating these attributes according to their coherence. The methodologies here developed seem to be appropriate for glacio-marine environment and coarse-to-medium silt sediment found in the study area and may be applied to other regions in the same geological conditions.

  11. Detailed structure of the top of the melt body beneath the East Pacific Rise at 9°40'N from waveform inversion of seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. S.; Singh, S. C.

    1997-01-01

    We have applied waveform inversion to multichannel seismic reflection data collected at the East Pacific Rise at 9°40'N in order to determine the precise velocity structure of the magma body causing the axial magma chamber reflection. Our analysis supports the idea of a molten sill as previously suggested from forward modeling of seismic data from this location. Our inverted solution has a 30-m-thick sill with a P wave seismic velocity of 2.6 km s-1. Although not well constrained by the data we believe that the S wave velocity in the sill is not significantly different from 0.0 km s-1. The low P- and S wave velocities in the sill imply that it contains less than 30% crystals. The molten sill is underlain by a velocity gradient in which the P wave velocity increases from 2.6 to 3.5 km s-1 over a vertical distance of 50-m. The shape of our velocity-depth profile implies that accretion of material to the roof of the sill is minor compared to accretion to the floor. The underlying velocity gradient zone may represent crystal settling under gravity. We suggest that only material from the 30-m-thick layer can erupt.

  12. Structural variation of the oceanic Moho in the Pacific plate revealed by active-source seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Akane; Kodaira, Shuichi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fujie, Gou; Arai, Ryuta; Miura, Seiichi

    2017-10-01

    The characteristics of the oceanic Moho are known to depend on various factors, such as seafloor spreading rate, crustal age, and accretionary processes at a ridge. However, the effect of local magmatic activities on the seismic signature of the Moho is poorly understood. Here an active-source reflection and refraction survey is used to investigate crustal structure and Moho characteristics along a >1000-km-long profile southeast of the Shatsky Rise in a Pacific Ocean basin formed from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and spanning the onset of Shatsky Rise volcanism. Although the seismic velocity structure estimated from the refraction data showed typical characteristics of the oceanic crust of the old Pacific plate, the appearance of the Moho reflections was spatially variable. We observed clear Moho reflections such as those to be expected where the spreading rate is fast to intermediate only at the southwestern end of the profile, whereas Moho reflections were diffuse, weak, or absent along other parts of the profile. The poor Moho reflections can be explained by the presence of a thick crust-mantle transition layer, which is temporally coincident with the formation of the Shatsky Rise. We inferred that the crust-mantle transition layer was formed by changes in on-axis accretion process or modification of the primary Moho by off-axis magmatism, induced by magmatic activity of the Shatsky Rise.

  13. Spatial distribution of reflection intensity of the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate, near the main slip area of the Boso Slow Slip Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, A.; Sato, T.; Shinohara, M.; Mochizuki, K.; Yamada, T.; Uehira, K.; Shimbo, T.; Machida, Y.; Hino, R.; Azuma, R.

    2017-12-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, Japan, the Pacific plate (PAC) is subducting westward beneath the Honshu Island Arc (HIA) and the Philippine Sea plate (PHS), while the PHS is subducting northwestward under the HIA. Such tectonic interactions have caused various seismic events such as the Boso Slow Slip Events (SSEs). To better understand these seismic events, it is important to determine the structure under this region. In May 2017, we published 2D P-wave velocity structure under the survey area, and showed geometry of the upper surface of PHS (UPHS) and reflection intensity variation along it. From our result and previous studies, relatively strong reflection from the UPHS can be observed near the main slip area of Boso SSEs, and such reflective area may relate with the Boso SSEs. However, it is still insufficient to link both only from the 2D models and further work is needed to reveal spatial distribution of the strong reflection area. From July to August 2009, we conducted a marine seismic experiment using airgun as source off the east coast of the Boso Peninsula. Airgun was shot along the 4 survey lines, and 27 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were deployed in the survey area. In our presentation, we used 18 OBSs to determine 3D P-wave velocity structure. We estimated 3D velocity structure from airgun data recorded in the OBSs by using the FAST (Zelt and Barton, 1998). Next, we picked the reflection traveltimes likely reflected from the UPHS and applied them to the Traveltime mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006) to estimate spatial locations of the reflectors. As a result, reflections from the UPHS seem to concentrate near the main slip area of the Boso SSEs and an area where the serpentine seamount chain of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone is subducting. Acknowledgement The marine seismic experiment was conducted by R/V Hakuhou-maru of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, and the OBSs were retrieved by Shincho-maru of Shin-Nihon-Kaiji co. Ltd. (Present

  14. Seismic reflection and vibracoring studies of the continental shelf offshore central and western Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, W.M.; Albanese, J.R.; Coch, N.K.; Harsch, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ridge-and-swale topography on the continental shelf south of Fire Island, New York, is characterized by northeast-trending linear shoals that are shore attached and shore oblique on the inner shelf and isolated and shore parallel on the middle shelf. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that the ridges and swales occur independent of, and are not controlled by, the presence of internal structures (for example, filled tidal inlet channels, paleobarrier strata) or underlying structure (for example, high-relief Cretaceous unconformity). Grab samples of surficial sediments on the shelf south of Fire Island average 98% sand. Locally, benthic fauna increase silt and clay content through fecal pellet production or increase the content of gravel-size material by contribution of their fragmented shell remains. Surficial sand on the ridges is unimodal at 0.33 mm (medium sand, about 50 mesh), and surficial sand in troughs is bimodal at 0.33 mm and 0.15 mm (fine sand, about 100 mesh). In addition to seismic studies, 26 vibracores were recovered from the continental shelf in state and federal waters from south of Rockaway and Long Beaches, Long Island, New York. Stratigraphic and sedimentological data gleaned from these cores were used to outline the geologic framework in the study area. A variety of sedimentary features were noted in the cores, including burrow-mottled sections of sand in a finer silty-sand, rhythmic lamination of sand and silty-sand that reflect cyclic changes in sediment transport, layers of shell hash and shells that probably represent tempestites, and changes from dark color to light color in the sediments that probably represent changes in the oxidation-reduction conditions in the area with time. The stratigraphic units identified are an upper, generally oxidized, nearshore facies, an underlying fine- to medium-sand and silty-clay unit considered to be an estuarine facies, and a lower, coarse-grained deeply oxidized, cross-laminated pre

  15. Use of three-dimensional, high-resolution seismic technology to optimize the location of remedial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainer, R.W.; Adams, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    Two three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution seismic reflection pilot studies were conducted in California at two sites, where the primary contaminants of concern are solvents. Identify pathways of contaminant migration. Determine the subsurface stratigraphy and structure to optimize the location for placement of remedial systems. The geology at the first site, located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, is characterized by unconsolidated alluvium. Ground water varies in depth from about 30 to 100 ft. The site typically is subjected to extensive cultural noise. The second site, in Southern California, is located in a broad, synclinal depression in the Transverse Range. Shallow alluvium overlies a marine turbidite sequence that crops out as massive sandstone beds. Field work for both surveys took place in August 1992. A Bison Model 90120-A, 120-channel (DIFP) seismograph was used to record the data. Thirty-hertz, natural-frequency geophones were used to receive the data, and an Elastic Wave Generator (EWG) was used as the seismic source. The use of a signal-stacking, noninvasive source was found to be an effective method of overriding background noise at the sites. Prior to the commencement of the 3-D pilot studies, a two-dimensional (2-D) profile was recorded to test the acquisition parameters, which included the geometry of the survey, digital sample rate, and analog filter settings. The data were monitored in the field with a Bison 486 Explorer outdoor computer. The 2-D data were processed and displayed in the field. Both sites displayed coherent seismic reflections from the depths of interest on the field-stacked sections

  16. A Survey study on design procedure of Seismic Base Isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adding shear walls or braced frames can decrease the potential damage caused by earthquakes.We can isolate the structures from the ground using the Seismic Base Isolation Systems that is flexible approach to decrease the potential damage. In this research we present information on the design procedure of seismic ...

  17. Annual Hanford seismic report - fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic monitoring (SM) at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the US Atomic Energy Commission. Since 1980, the program has been managed by several contractors under the US Department of Energy (USDOE). Effective October 1, 1996, the Seismic Monitoring workscope, personnel, and associated contracts were transferred to the USDOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SM is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection and archives of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) located on and encircling the Hanford Site. SM is also tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data compiled are used by SM, Waste Management, and engineering activities at the Hanford Site to evaluate seismic hazards and seismic design for the Site

  18. FY 1995 report on verification of geothermal exploration technology. Development of fracture reservoir exploration technology (development of seismic exploration); 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsunado kensho chosa. Danretsugata choryuso tansaho kaihatsu (danseiha riyo tansaho kaihatsu) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report provides the development of new exploration technology using elastic waves, such as reflection seismic survey, VSP, and seismic tomography, for precisely characterizing subsurface fractures in geothermal reservoirs. In order to investigate and improve the effective data acquisition and analysis methods for detecting a fault type of fractures, an experiment of a seismic tomography method was conducted using wells drilled in the Ogiri geothermal field, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. An experiment of propagation characteristics of piezo type underground seismic source in the volcanic field was also conducted as a trend survey of underground seismic sources. The fracture type in the model field was systematically analyzed by measuring the core samples obtained in the demonstration test field through remanence measurement, fluid inclusion measurement, and zircon measurement using test equipment, and by analyzing results obtained from cores and results of seismic tomography obtained from the wells. Based on these results, the effectiveness and practical application of exploration methods using elastic waves were investigated. 80 refs., 250 figs., 49 tabs.

  19. Seismic Structure of Perth Basin (Australia) and surroundings from Passive Seismic Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, N.; Saygin, E.; Lumley, D. E.; Hoskin, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    We image the subsurface structure of Perth Basin, Western Australia and surroundings by using ambient seismic noise data from 14 seismic stations recently deployed by University of Western Australia (UWA) and other available permanent stations from Geoscience Australia seismic network and the Australian Seismometers in Schools program. Each of these 14 UWA seismic stations comprises a broadband sensor and a high fidelity 3-component 10 Hz geophone, recording in tandem at 250 Hz and 1000 Hz. The other stations used in this study are equipped with short period and broadband sensors. In addition, one shallow borehole station is operated with eight 3 component geophones at depths of between 2 and 44 m. The network is deployed to characterize natural seismicity in the basin and to try and identify any microseismic activity across Darling Fault Zone (DFZ), bounding the basin to the east. The DFZ stretches to approximately 1000 km north-south in Western Australia, and is one of the longest fault zones on the earth with a limited number of detected earthquakes. We use seismic noise cross- and auto-correlation methods to map seismic velocity perturbations across the basin and the transition from DFZ to the basin. Retrieved Green's functions are stable and show clear dispersed waveforms. Travel times of the surface wave Green's functions from noise cross-correlations are inverted with a two-step probabilistic framework to map the absolute shear wave velocities as a function of depth. The single station auto-correlations from the seismic noise yields P wave reflectivity under each station, marking the major discontinuities. Resulting images show the shear velocity perturbations across the region. We also quantify the variation of ambient seismic noise at different depths in the near surface using the geophones in the shallow borehole array.

  20. Seismic Refraction & Wide-angle Reflection Experiment on the Northern Margin of North China Craton -Data Acquisition and Preliminary Processing Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Gao, R.; Keller, G. R.; Hou, H.; Li, Q.; Cox, C. M.; Chang, J. C.; Zhang, J.; Guan, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution history of Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB) is still the main tectonic problems in northeastern Asia. The Siberia Craton (NC), North China Craton (NCC) and several blocks collided, and the resulting tectonic collage formed as the Paleo-Asian Ocean disappeared. Concerning the northern margin of North China Craton, many different geological questions remain unanswered, such as: the intracontinental orogenic process in the Yanshan orogen and the nature and location of the suture between the southern NC and the northern NCC. In Dec 2009, a 400 km long seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection profile was completed jointly by Institute of Geology, CAGS and University of Oklahoma. The survey line extended from the west end of the Yanshan orogen, across a granitoid belt to the Solonker suture zone. The recording of seismic waves from 8 explosions (500~1500 kg each) was conducted in four deployments of 300 Reftek125 (Texan) seismic recorders, with an average spacing of 1 km. For the calculations, we used the Rayinvr, Vmed and Zplot programs for ray tracing, model modification and phase picking. The initial result show that: 1)the depth of low velocity sediment cover ranges from 0.6 to 2.7 km (velocity: 2.8~5.6 km/s); 2)the depth of basement is 5.6~10 km (the depth of basement under the granitoid belt deepens to 10 km and velocity increases to 6.2 km/s); 3)the upper crust extends to a depth of 15.5~21 km and has the P-wave velocities between 5.6 and 6.4 km/s; 4)the thickness of the lower crust ranges from 22~28 km(velocity: 6.4~6.9 km/s); and 5)the depth of Moho varies from 39.5 km under the granitoid belt to 49 km under the Yanshan orogen. Based on these results, we can preliminarily deduce that: 1) the concave depression of the Moho observed represents the root of the Yanshan orogen, and it may prove that the orogen is dominated by thick-skinned tectonics; 2) the shape of velocity variations under the granitoid belt is suggestive of a magma conduit. It

  1. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  2. Megaptera Novaeangliae sightings recorder (Borowski, 1781) in the capixaba coast during marine seismic survey; Registro de avistagens de Megaptera Novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781) no litoral capixaba durante levantamento sismico maritimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Leandro Damiao S. da; Almeida, Alexandre N. Ferraz de [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil); Uller, George A.; Oliveira, Joao Luiz Martinez de [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Derntl, Jose Renato; Pereira, Edisio; Silva, Camila C. da [GEOCOOP Cooperativa de Trabalho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Cristina M. de [Nautilus Cooperativa de Trabalho (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale) sightings recorded during CGG seismic survey along south of Espirito Santo coast. The seismic vessel executed transects perpendicular to the coastline between 50 and 3.200 m depth. Two environmental technicians recorded all sightings during seismic survey; They worked on the highest point of the vessel (bridge) observing the presence and behavior of the marine biota around vessel. There were recorded 38 sightings of Humpback Whales and a total of 81 organisms. 61% of the sightings were concentrated between 40 and 80 m depth. About 60,5% of the sightings were recorded females with puppies, mainly in the afternoon. There were observed no difference between sightings with the source working on and off. The results obtained suggest similarity between the number of sightings and the distance of the animals related to seismic source activity, suggesting non evasive behavior, as well as any indicative change on the behavior regarding to the presence of the Seismic Vessel. Nevertheless, we know that it's necessary to make more studies to obtain definitive conclusions about the subject. (author)

  3. Megaptera Novaeangliae sightings recorder (Borowski, 1781) in the capixaba coast during marine seismic survey; Registro de avistagens de Megaptera Novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781) no litoral capixaba durante levantamento sismico maritimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Leandro Damiao S. da; Almeida, Alexandre N. Ferraz de [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil); Uller, George A; Oliveira, Joao Luiz Martinez de [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Derntl, Jose Renato; Pereira, Edisio; Silva, Camila C. da [GEOCOOP Cooperativa de Trabalho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Cristina M. de [Nautilus Cooperativa de Trabalho (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale) sightings recorded during CGG seismic survey along south of Espirito Santo coast. The seismic vessel executed transects perpendicular to the coastline between 50 and 3.200 m depth. Two environmental technicians recorded all sightings during seismic survey; They worked on the highest point of the vessel (bridge) observing the presence and behavior of the marine biota around vessel. There were recorded 38 sightings of Humpback Whales and a total of 81 organisms. 61% of the sightings were concentrated between 40 and 80 m depth. About 60,5% of the sightings were recorded females with puppies, mainly in the afternoon. There were observed no difference between sightings with the source working on and off. The results obtained suggest similarity between the number of sightings and the distance of the animals related to seismic source activity, suggesting non evasive behavior, as well as any indicative change on the behavior regarding to the presence of the Seismic Vessel. Nevertheless, we know that it's necessary to make more studies to obtain definitive conclusions about the subject. (author)

  4. Poisson's ratio model derived from P- and S-wave reflection seismic data at the CO2CRC Otway Project pilot site, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilecke, Thies; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Tanner, David C.; Ziesch, Jennifer; Research Group Protect

    2014-05-01

    Compressional wave (P-wave) reflection seismic field measurements are a standard tool for subsurface exploration. 2-D seismic measurements are often used for overview measurements, but also as near-surface supplement to fill gaps that often exist in 3-D seismic data sets. Such supplementing 2-D measurements are typically simple with respect to field layout. This is an opportunity for the use of shear waves (S-waves). Within the last years, S-waves have become more and more important. One reason is that P- and S-waves are differently sensitive to fluids and pore fill so that the additional S-wave information can be used to enhance lithological studies. Another reason is that S-waves have the advantage of higher spatial resolution. Within the same signal bandwidth they typically have about half the wavelength of P-waves. In near-surface unconsolidated sediments they can even enhance the structural resolution by one order of magnitude. We make use of these capabilities within the PROTECT project. In addition to already existing 2-D P-wave data, we carried out a near surface 2-D S-wave field survey at the CO2CRC Otway Project pilot site, close to Warrnambool, Australia in November 2013. The combined analysis of P-wave and S-wave data is used to construct a Poisson's Ratio 2-D model down to roughly 600 m depth. The Poisson's ratio values along a 1 km long profile at the site are surprisingly high, ranging from 0.47 in the carbonate-dominated near surface to 0.4 at depth. In the literature, average lab measurements of 0.22 for unfissured carbonates and 0.37 for fissured examples have been reported. The high values that we found may indicate areas of rather unconsolidated or fractured material, or enhanced fluid contents, and will be subject of further studies. This work is integrated in a larger workflow towards prediction of CO2 leakage and monitoring strategies for subsurface storage in general. Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored in part by the Australian

  5. Toe-of-slope of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in outcrop, seismic model and offshore seismic data (Apulia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco Gartner, Guido; Morsilli, Michele; Schlager, Wolfgang; Bosellini, Alfonso

    Synthetic seismic models of outcrops in the Early Cretaceous slope of a carbonate platform on the Gargano Promontory (southern Italy) were compared to an offshore seismic section south of the Promontory. Outcrops of the same age on the promontory have the same sequence stratigraphic characteristics as their offshore equivalent, and are the only areas where the transition from platform to basin of Early Cretaceous is exposed on land. Two adjacent outcrop areas were combined into one seismic-scale lithologic model with the aid of photo mosaics, measured sections, and biostratigraphic data. Velocity, density, and porosity measurements on spot samples were used to construct the impedance model. Seismic models were generated by vertical incidence and finite difference programs. The results indicate that the reflections in the seismic model are controlled by the impedance contrast between low porous intervals rich in debris from the platform and highly porous intervals of pelagic lime mudstone, nearly devoid of debris. Finite difference seismic display showed best resemblance with the real seismic data, especially by mapping a drowning unconformity.

  6. Oklahoma seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr.; Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK

    1993-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent

  7. Discovery of source fault in the region without obvious active fault. Geophysical survey in the source area of the 1984 western Nagano prefecture earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Abe, Shintaro

    2009-01-01

    The 1984 Western Nagano Prefecture Earthquake (MJ6.8) occurred at shallow part of the southern foot of Mt. Ontake volcano, central Japan. Despite the large magnitude neither clear surface rupture nor active fault has been found around the source area. Therefore the earthquake is an issue for seismic assessment based on active fault survey. The purpose of this study is to find any tectonic geomorphologic features in the source area and to elucidate its relation to the source fault. In order to achieve it, an integrated survey with (1) micro earthquake observation, (2) airborne LIDAR, and (3) seismic reflection survey was demonstrated in the source area from 2006 to 2008. The survey area of airborne LIDAR (18 km x 4 km) covers main part of the aftershock distribution just after the mainshock. A linear zone with abrupt change of topographic roughness was found in ENE-WSW direction at the center of the LIDAR target area. River valleys flowing down to SSE direction change their directions and widths abruptly across the linear zone. Seismic reflection survey across the source region detect deformation zone just beneath the linear zone. These features of topographic and crustal deformation coincide well with the aftershock distribution. Therefore they indicate an active structure formed by the cumulative displacement of the source fault. (author)

  8. Cetaceans and chelonians stranding coastal monitoring: fundamental tool to mitigate impacts of seismic survey activities; Projeto de monitoramento costeiro de encalhes de cetacoes e quelonios: ferramenta fundamental para mitigacao de impactos em atividades de pesquisa sismica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to highlight PMVE implementation as a basic tool to conservation of marine cetaceans and turtles. These organisms are threaten to extinction and are pointed out as the organisms potentially affected by the seismic survey. The monitoring of the seismic survey activity realized in blocks BM-C-26 e BM-C-27 lasted six months embracing 200 km of beaches, from Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was realized by thirty four monitors, who covered a beach section daily registering the founded animal. 159 chelonians occurrence registers were realized and fifteen registers of cetaceans. The results gotten in PMVE give additional information for the evaluation of possible impacts of seismic survey's activities in registered species. Besides, these information contribute to increase technical scientific knowledge related to effect of seismic survey activity in marine biot at Campos Basin. (author)

  9. Cetaceans and chelonians stranding coastal monitoring: fundamental tool to mitigate impacts of seismic survey activities; Projeto de monitoramento costeiro de encalhes de cetacoes e quelonios: ferramenta fundamental para mitigacao de impactos em atividades de pesquisa sismica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G.; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to highlight PMVE implementation as a basic tool to conservation of marine cetaceans and turtles. These organisms are threaten to extinction and are pointed out as the organisms potentially affected by the seismic survey. The monitoring of the seismic survey activity realized in blocks BM-C-26 e BM-C-27 lasted six months embracing 200 km of beaches, from Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was realized by thirty four monitors, who covered a beach section daily registering the founded animal. 159 chelonians occurrence registers were realized and fifteen registers of cetaceans. The results gotten in PMVE give additional information for the evaluation of possible impacts of seismic survey's activities in registered species. Besides, these information contribute to increase technical scientific knowledge related to effect of seismic survey activity in marine biot at Campos Basin. (author)

  10. Seismic investigation of the Kunlun Fault: Analysis of the INDEPTH IV 2-D active-source seismic dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, William George

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced significant crustal thickening and deformation since the continental subduction and collision of the Asian and Indian plates in the Eocene. Deformation of the northern Tibetan Plateau is largely accommodated by strike-slip faulting. The Kunlun Fault is a 1000-km long strike-slip fault near the northern boundary of the Plateau that has experienced five magnitude 7.0 or greater earthquakes in the past 100 years and represents a major rheological boundary. Active-source, 2-D seismic reflection/refraction data, collected as part of project INDEPTH IV (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya, phase IV) in 2007, was used to examine the structure and the dip of the Kunlun fault. The INDEPTH IV data was acquired to better understand the tectonic evolution of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, such as the far-field deformation associated with the continent-continent collision and the potential subduction of the Asian continent beneath northern Tibet. Seismic reflection common depth point (CDP) stacks were examined to look for reflectivity patterns that may be associated with faulting. A possible reflection from the buried North Kunlun Thrust (NKT) is identified at 18-21 km underneath the East Kunlun Mountains, with an estimated apparent dip of 15°S and thrusting to the north. Minimally-processed shot gathers were also inspected for reflections off near-vertical structures such as faults and information on first-order velocity structure. Shot offset and nearest receiver number to reflection was catalogued to increase confidence of picks. Reflections off the North Kunlun (NKF) and South Kunlun Faults (SKF) were identified and analyzed for apparent dip and subsurface geometry. Fault reflection analysis found that the North Kunlun Fault had an apparent dip of approximately 68ºS to an estimated depth of 5 km, while the South Kunlun Fault dipped at approximately 78ºN to an estimated 3.5 km depth. Constraints on apparent dip and

  11. Seismic reflection results of the GYRE 1997 Cruise at the Bryant Canyon of the Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealon, Jeffrey W.; Dillon, William P.; Twichell, David

    2000-01-01

    The TexasLouisiana continental slope is one of the few remaining frontiers for hydrocarbon exploration within the US Exclusive Economic Zone.  This area has a complex seafloor morphology and highly discontinuous shallow stratigraphy that are the result of deformation by the highly mobile Louann salt that underlies much of this margin shoreward of the Sigsbee Escarpment.Gas hydrates exist both on the sea floor and at depth throughout the gas hydrate stability zone which extends to several hundred meters beneath the sea floor at greater water depths.  Multibeam bathymetry, GLORIA sidescan sonar imagery, and site-specific studies have identified the presence of faults, mass-wasting deposits, variable sediment types, and gas hydrates exposed on the seafloor.  The expression of these features on the seafloor suggests a tectonically active area.  The distribution of these different processes and their relation to the subsurface stratigraphy and tectonic setting are not well understood, yet an understanding of these issues is essential as exploration extends into this deep-water area.To address the questions of surficial processes and their connection with deeper structures underlying this continental margin, a three-week cruise was conducted by the USGS in April, 1997 aboard the RV GYRE. The study area focussed on Bryant Canyon, a former submarine canyon, through which turbidity currents transported sands from a shelf-edge delta upslope of the study area to the Bryant Fan on the rise seaward of the base of the slope.  The cruise was divided into two parts.  The first part was devoted to collecting seismic-reflection profiles across parts of the canyon system to define the shallow stratigraphy and to determine the presence and distribution of gas hydrates in this area.  Approximately 555 km of single-channel seismic-reflection data were collected during this first part of the cruise.  A track map showing the locations of the profiles, low-resolution images of the

  12. Coherent Waves in Seismic Researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    Development of digital processing algorithms of seismic wave fields for the purpose of useful event picking to study environment and other objects is the basis for the establishment of new seismic techniques. In the submitted paper a fundamental property of seismic wave field coherence is used. The authors extended conception of coherence types of observed wave fields and devised a technique of coherent component selection from observed wave field. Time coherence and space coherence are widely known. In this paper conception "parameter coherence" has been added. The parameter by which wave field is coherent can be the most manifold. The reason is that the wave field is a multivariate process described by a set of parameters. Coherence in the first place means independence of linear connection in wave field of parameter. In seismic wave fields, recorded in confined space, in building-blocks and stratified mediums time coherent standing waves are formed. In prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping head waves are coherent by parallel correlation course or, in other words, by one measurement on generalized plane of observation system. For detail prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping on basis of coherence property by one measurement of area algorithms have been developed, permitting seismic records to be converted to head wave time sections which have neither reflected nor other types of waves. Conversion in time section is executed on any specified observation base. Energy storage of head waves relative to noise on basis of multiplicity of observation system is realized within area of head wave recording. Conversion on base below the area of wave tracking is performed with lack of signal/noise ratio relative to maximum of this ratio, fit to observation system. Construction of head wave time section and dynamic plots a basis of automatic processing have been developed, similar to CDP procedure in method of

  13. A simple method for migrating narrow aperture, noisy seismic reflection data and application to Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya) deep seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, Doug

    1997-08-01

    Migration of deep seismic data is often hindered by a narrow recording aperture (line length by record length) and a low signal-to-noise ratio. The severity of typical migration artifacts (e.g., lateral smearing of discontinuous reflections into synforms, "smiles") increases with travel time such that interpreters of deep seismic data have often substituted migrated line drawings for the actual sections. As part of Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya), a new migration method was developed to address both the noise and migration issues. The method works in the time-space domain and uses the simple, constant velocity, straight ray path to perform the migration. First, only amplitudes within a given range are retained for migration, thus avoiding high-amplitude noise bursts and low-amplitude background noise. Then, the local dip of a reflection is found by automatically fitting a straight line to the highest amplitudes within a small window (several time samples by several traces) and calculating the dip of the line using a constant velocity. Finally, using this dip, the method migrates a selected amplitude value. The dips, lateral positions, and depths of the migrated events compare very well with output from more conventional algorithms (e.g.,fk-Stolt, finite difference, etc.). The advantages of the new method include fewer artifacts, fast computer run times, low memory use and the ability to migrate long profiles and travel times (e.g., 50 s). The output of the method is a grid of migrated amplitudes (not wavelets) or dip values which is particularly effective for making small figures, such as those needed for publication. The principal disadvantage is the use of a constant migration velocity.

  14. Seismic imaging of small horizontal scale structures of the shallow thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf (North-East Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piete, H.; Marié, L.; Marsset, B.; Gutscher, M.

    2012-12-01

    The recent development of the seismic oceanography technique has made possible the imaging of a variety of deep oceanographic structures (Holbrook et al., 2003); however, until now this method has remained ill suited for the study of shallow (environment) and 2- spectral contents offering high vertical resolutions (relevant to the mapping of small vertical wavelength structures). In this study we defined and tested a new experimental seismic acquisition system capable of imaging the ~10 m thick seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. To accomplish this task, we pursued two complementary approaches: 1. Analysis of legacy seismic data (multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired on the East-Corsican margin, Bahamas Plateau and Gulf of Cadiz in various oceanographic environments) featuring reflectors at depths between 25 and 150 m, in order to identify and quantify the influence of acquisition parameters (seismic trace length, offsets, emission level and frequency content). 2. Incorporation of new oceanographic data acquired during the FROMVAR cruise (July 28th to August 10th 2010) on the western Brittany shelf in thermally stratified waters for use in the simulation of the seismic acquisition, in order to further define the optimal parameters for the system. Finally a 3D seismic system has emerged and was tested during the ASPEX scientific cruise led from June 17th to 19th 2012 across the western Brittany shelf. The device featured: i- four seismic streamers, each consisting of 6 traces at a spacing of 1.80 m; ii- a 1000 J SIG Sparker producing a 400 Hz signal with a 220 dB re 1μPa @1m level of emission, towed at a 8 m distance of the first seismic trace. This survey provided high lateral resolution images of the seasonal thermocline located at a 30 m depth with vertical displacements induced by internal waves. References Holbrook, W.S., Paramo, P., Pearse, S. and Schmitt, R.W., 2003. Thermohaline Fine Structure in an Oceanographic

  15. Seismic Linear Noise Attenuation with Use of Radial Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Małysa, Żaneta

    2018-03-01

    One of the goals of seismic data processing is to attenuate the recorded noise in order to enable correct interpretation of the image. Radial transform has been used as a very effective tool in the attenuation of various types of linear noise, both numerical and real (such as ground roll, direct waves, head waves, guided waves etc). The result of transformation from offset - time (X - T) domain into apparent velocity - time (R - T) domain is frequency separation between reflections and linear events. In this article synthetic and real seismic shot gathers were examined. One example was targeted at far offset area of dataset where reflections and noise had similar apparent velocities and frequency bands. Another example was a result of elastic modelling where linear artefacts were produced. Bandpass filtering and scaling operation executed in radial domain attenuated all discussed types of linear noise very effectively. After noise reduction all further processing steps reveal better results, especially velocity analysis, migration and stacking. In all presented cases signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased and reflections covered previously by noise were revealed. Power spectra of filtered seismic records preserved real dynamics of reflections.

  16. Reducing the uncertainty in the fidelity of seismic imaging results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. W.; Zou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A key aspect in geoscientific inversion is quantifying the quality of the results. In seismic imaging, we must quantify the uncertainty of every imaging result based on field data, because data noise and methodology limitations may produce artifacts. Detection of artifacts is therefore an important aspect in uncertainty quantification in geoscientific inversion. Quantifying the uncertainty of seismic imaging solutions means assessing their fidelity, which defines the truthfulness of the imaged targets in terms of their resolution, position error and artifact. Key challenges to achieving the fidelity of seismic imaging include: (1) Difficulty to tell signal from artifact and noise; (2) Limitations in signal-to-noise ratio and seismic illumination; and (3) The multi-scale nature of the data space and model space. Most seismic imaging studies of the Earth's crust and mantle have employed inversion or modeling approaches. Though they are in opposite directions of mapping between the data space and model space, both inversion and modeling seek the best model to minimize the misfit in the data space, which unfortunately is not the output space. The fact that the selection and uncertainty of the output model are not judged in the output space has exacerbated the nonuniqueness problem for inversion and modeling. In contrast, the practice in exploration seismology has long established a two-fold approach of seismic imaging: Using velocity modeling building to establish the long-wavelength reference velocity models, and using seismic migration to map the short-wavelength reflectivity structures. Most interestingly, seismic migration maps the data into an output space called imaging space, where the output reflection images of the subsurface are formed based on an imaging condition. A good example is the reverse time migration, which seeks the reflectivity image as the best fit in the image space between the extrapolation of time-reversed waveform data and the prediction

  17. Crustal structure beneath discovery bank in the South Scotia Sea from group velocity tomography and seismic reflection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuan, A.; Lodolo, E.; Panza, G.F.

    2003-09-01

    Bruce, Discovery, Herdman and Jane Banks, all located along the central-eastern part of the South Scotia Ridge (i.e., the Antarctica-Scotia plate boundary), represent isolated topographic reliefs surrounded by relatively young oceanic crust, whose petrological and structural nature is still the subject of speculations due to the lack of resolving data. In the Scotia Sea and surrounding regions negative anomalies of about 34% are reported in large-scale group velocity tomography maps. The spatial resolution (∼500 km) of these maps does not warrant any reliable interpretation of such anomalies. A recent surface wave tomography in the same area, performed using broad band seismic stations and 300 regional events, shows that in the period range from 15 s to 50 s the central-eastern part of the South Scotia Ridge is characterized by negative anomalies of the group velocities as large as 6. The resolution of our data set (∼300 km) makes it possible to distinguish an area (centered at 61 deg S and 36 deg W) with a crust thicker than 25 km, and a shear wave velocity vs. depth profile similar to that found beneath the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America. Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves are inverted in the period range from 15 s to 80 s to obtain shear wave velocity profiles that suggest a continental nature of Discovery Bank. The continental-type crust of this topographic relief is in agreement with the interpretation of a multi-channel seismic reflection profile acquired across this rise. Peculiar acoustic facies are observed in this profile and are interpreted as thinned and faulted continental plateau. The boundaries of the negative group velocity anomalies are marked by a high seismicity rate. Historical normal faulting earthquakes with magnitude around 7 are localised between the low velocity anomaly region in the eastern South Scotia Ridge and the high velocity anomaly region associated with the surrounding oceanic crust

  18. Stochastic Gabor reflectivity and acoustic impedance inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith; Ferguson, Angus John

    2018-02-01

    To delineate subsurface lithology to estimate petrophysical properties of a reservoir, it is possible to use acoustic impedance (AI) which is the result of seismic inversion. To change amplitude to AI, removal of wavelet effects from the seismic signal in order to get a reflection series, and subsequently transforming those reflections to AI, is vital. To carry out seismic inversion correctly it is important to not assume that the seismic signal is stationary. However, all stationary deconvolution methods are designed following that assumption. To increase temporal resolution and interpretation ability, amplitude compensation and phase correction are inevitable. Those are pitfalls of stationary reflectivity inversion. Although stationary reflectivity inversion methods are trying to estimate reflectivity series, because of incorrect assumptions their estimations will not be correct, but may be useful. Trying to convert those reflection series to AI, also merging with the low frequency initial model, can help us. The aim of this study was to apply non-stationary deconvolution to eliminate time variant wavelet effects from the signal and to convert the estimated reflection series to the absolute AI by getting bias from well logs. To carry out this aim, stochastic Gabor inversion in the time domain was used. The Gabor transform derived the signal’s time-frequency analysis and estimated wavelet properties from different windows. Dealing with different time windows gave an ability to create a time-variant kernel matrix, which was used to remove matrix effects from seismic data. The result was a reflection series that does not follow the stationary assumption. The subsequent step was to convert those reflections to AI using well information. Synthetic and real data sets were used to show the ability of the introduced method. The results highlight that the time cost to get seismic inversion is negligible related to general Gabor inversion in the frequency domain. Also

  19. Structure and petroleum plays of the St. Lawrence Platform and Appalachians in southern Quebec : insights from interpretation of MRNQ seismic reflection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, S.; Lavoie, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Quebec Division; Dietrich, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Laliberte, J.Y. [Ministere des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune du Quebec, Charlesbourg, QC (Canada). Direction generale des hydrocarbures et des biocarburants

    2010-09-15

    This paper presented the results of a study in which 3 regional seismic reflection lines originally acquired in 1978 were reprocessed and reinterpreted using current techniques and methodologies. The profiles cross the Chambly-Fortierville syncline and provide images of the St. Lawrence Platform and the Appalachian foreland thrust belt of southern Quebec, including one that spans the entire width of the southern Quebec Appalachians. Post-stack seismic data processing and time migration were used to improve the quality of the original seismic sections, allowing interpretations that provide new information on subsurface geology, such as the recognition of complex structural patterns in platform and foreland units, the presence of a triangle zone at the structural front, and the geometry of thrust slices of platform units and Appalachian thrust beds, as well as images of the internal Humber Zone, including back-thrust faults and mega thrust wedges. The Saint-Flavien natural gas-field and other potential targets in the St. Lawrence Platform and Appalachian Foreland are imaged in the seismic profiles. The study provided new insights into the structure, geological evolution, and petroleum potential of the St. Lawrence Platform and the Appalachian foreland thrust belt of southern Quebec, including a potential, previously unrecognized Ordovician hydrothermal dolomite play. The new subsurface interpretations give a clearer view of the major structure affecting the Utica Shale, providing new insights into the limits of the unconventional shale gas play in the St. Lawrence Platform. 53 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Detection capability of the IMS seismic network based on ambient seismic noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection threshold can be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  1. A 80 OBS and 30 Land 3-component seismometers array encompassing the 280 km segment of the Lesser Antilles subduction megathrust seismogenic zone: view of current seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laigle, Mireille; Sapin, Martine; Ruiz, Mario; Diaz, Jordi; Kissling, Edi; Charvis, Philippe; Flueh, Ernst; Hirn, Alfred

    2010-05-01

    An extensive onshore and offshore seismic station array in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone allows to monitor microearthquake activity for a period of 4 months in a region previously outside of reach for detailed observation. Such a network has been possible thanks to a cluster of 3 seismic surveys (TRAIL - F/S Merian, SISMANTILLESII - N/O Atalante, and OBSANTILLES - N/O Antea) for deploying and recovering the instruments from several pools (Geoazur, INSU-IPGP, IFM-GEOMAR, AWI ). It has been followed by an additional deployment of the 28 GeoAzur OBSs (OBSANTILLES - N/O Antea) during 5 months in the south-western half. These operations have been carried out for the seismic investigation of the Antilles megathrust seismogenic zone in the framework of the THALES WAS RIGHT european project, and with also the financial support of the french ANR Catastrophes Telluriques et Tsunamis (SUBSISMANTI) and by the EU SALVADOR Programme of IFM-GEOMAR. Onshore, 30 3-components land stations (CSIC Barcelone, IPG Paris, INSU-RLBM and -LITHOSCOPE) have been temporarily deployed. The deep seismic structure of the whole area has been investigated during these seismic surveys by wide-angle reflection and refraction seismics recorded by these instruments as well as multi-channel reflection seismic imaging (MCS) along a dense grid of crossing profiles at the OBS positions providing excellent velocity information for the upper plate. Both the location and the interpretation of the recorded earthquake activity require constraints on the deep seismic structure, which will be discussed with respect to the 3D geometry of the interplate boundary and oceanic Moho, as well as those of the forearc basement and Moho. Preliminary locations have been obtained within a simple 1D velocity model by taking into account corrections for the variable thickness of the mud- and sediments layers beneath each OBS. The latter are estimated for both P- and S-waves to compensate for the huge structural

  2. Structuring agreements for seismic group shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Sigma Explorations Inc. sells licenses to use Sigma owned seismic data. The company participates with exploration and production companies in the joint acquisition of semi-private participation surveys. This paper discusses three major types of seismic group shoots and the essential elements of the agreements that govern or should govern them. They are: (1) exploration and production company joint ventures, (2) publicly offered spec shoots, and (3) semi-private participation surveys. The key issue with the exploration and production company joint ventures is that the companies are owners of the seismic data in proportion to their contribution towards the cost of the program. Their use of the data should be restricted to those situations permitted by the other owners. These are not often well documented, and there is much concern in the industry as a result. The key issue with publicly offered spec shoots is that the seismic company ultimately owns the data and the client exploration and production company is a licensee and must behave as such. In most such cases the rights and responsibilities are well documented in formal agreements that are signed in advance of the program's beginning date

  3. Aspects of the Quaternary evolution of the Southern Kattegat and the central North Sea based on interpretation of 2D and 3D marine reflection seismic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina

    In this PhD study interpretation of 2D shallow seismic data in the Kattegat region (Pinger, Sparker and Innomar parametric sub-bottom profiler), 3D conventional seismic data in the central North Sea, combined with sediment core interpretation and radiocarbon dating has been carried out in order...... to outline the geological development of the southwestern part of the Kattegat region, from the Late Weichselian to Early Holocene and to investigate the potential of using 3D seismic in Quaternary geology. Within the study area of the Kattegat region Late Weichselian (Lateglacial - LG) sediments...... are widespread and seen as semi-transparent reflections. The LG deposits drape the surface of the underlying till and were deposited during a period of relative high sea level (highstand system tract). The following postglacial (PG - Holocene) sediments represent a full depositional sequence including lowstand...

  4. Seismic velocity uncertainties and their effect on geothermal predictions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbel, Wolfgang; Köhn, Daniel; Bahadur Motra, Hem; Niederau, Jan; Thorwart, Martin; Wuttke, Frank; Descramble Working Group

    2017-04-01

    Geothermal exploration relies in large parts on geophysical subsurface models derived from seismic reflection profiling. These models are the framework of hydro-geothermal modeling, which further requires estimating thermal and hydraulic parameters to be attributed to the seismic strata. All petrophysical and structural properties involved in this process can be determined only with limited accuracy and thus impose uncertainties onto the resulting model predictions of temperature-depth profiles and hydraulic flow, too. In the present study we analyze sources and effects of uncertainties of the seismic velocity field, which translate directly into depth uncertainties of the hydraulically and thermally relevant horizons. Geological sources of these uncertainties are subsurface heterogeneity and seismic anisotropy, methodical sources are limitations in spread length and physical resolution. We demonstrate these effects using data of the EU-Horizon 2020 project DESCRAMBLE investigating a shallow super-critical geothermal reservoir in the Larderello area. The study is based on 2D- and 3D seismic reflection data and laboratory measurements on representative rock samples under simulated in-situ conditions. The rock samples consistently show P-wave anisotropy values of 10-20% order of magnitude. However, the uncertainty of layer depths induced by anisotropy is likely to be lower depending on the accuracy, with which the spatial orientation of bedding planes can be determined from the seismic reflection images.

  5. Improvement of seismic observation systems in JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumino, Kozo; Suto, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the experimental fast reactor 'Joyo' in order to perform the seismic observation in and around the building block and ground, SMAC type seismographs had continuously been used for about 38 years. However, this equipment aged, and the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake on Mach 11, 2011 increased the importance of seismic data of the reactor facilities from the viewpoint of earthquake-proof safety. For these reasons, Joyo updated the system to the seismic observation system reflecting the latest technology/information, while keeping consistency with the observation data of the former seismographs (SMAC type seismograph). This updating improved various problems on the former observation seismographs. In addition, the installation of now observation points in the locations that are important in seismic safety evaluation expanded the data, and further improved the reliability of the seismic observation and evaluation on 'Joyo'. (A.O.)

  6. Advanced Seismic Data Analysis Program (The Hot Pot Project), DOE Award: DE-EE0002839, Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oski Energy, LLC,

    2013-03-28

    A five-line (23 mile) reflection- seismic survey was conducted at the Hot Pot geothermal prospect area in north-central Nevada under the USDOE (United States Department of Energy) Geothermal Technologies Program. The project objective was to utilize innovative seismic data processing, integrated with existing geological, geophysical and geochemical information, to identify high-potential drilling targets and to reduce drilling risk. Data acquisition and interpretation took place between October 2010 and April 2011. The first round of data processing resulted in large areas of relatively poor data, and obvious reflectors known from existing subsurface information either did not appear on the seismic profiles or appeared at the wrong depth. To resolve these issues, the velocity model was adjusted to include geologic input, and the lines were reprocessed. The resulting products were significantly improved, and additional detail was recovered within the high-velocity and in part acoustically isotropic basement. Features visible on the improved seismic images include interpreted low angle thrust faults within the Paleozoic Valmy Formation, which potentially are reactivated in the current stress field. Intermediate-depth wells are currently targeted to test these features. The seismic images also suggest the existence of Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks which potentially may function as a near- surface reservoir, charged by deeper structures in Paleozoic rocks.

  7. Seismic tomography investigation of the Down Ampney fault research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.D.; Greenwood, P.G.; Raines, M.G.; Rainsbury, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution tomographic cross-hole seismic surveys have been designed and undertaken for fault characterisation in mudrocks at a higher resolution than is currently used in site investigations. Compressional waves were generated at a frequency of 1.04 kHz and a wavelength of 1.6 m in the formation, and were used to tomographically image a normally faulted clay sequence (Oxford Clay and Kellaways Beds) overlying limestone. The fault plane and lithologies are clearly visible in the tomograms, a 10% difference in velocity between the Oxford Clay and Kellaways Beds, being particularly prominent. A zone of 5% lower ''tomographic - velocity'' was observed to correspond with the fault zone within the Oxford Clay (as predicted from the geological logging of the core) which indicates substantial alteration that could be fluid affected. Geological constraints were found to be a crucial imput to the tomographic inversion, and examples show erroneous results that can arise. Seismic attenuation was very low (reflection observed from 80 m depth) and larger ranges could have been used to investigate larger scale geological structures. (author)

  8. Automatic interpretation of seismic micro facies using the fuzzy mathematics method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongrun, G.; Gardner, G.H.F.

    1988-01-01

    The interpretation of seismic micro facies concentrates on changes involving single reflection or several reflections, and endeavors to explain the relations between these changes and stratigraphic variation or hydrocarbon accumulation. In most cases, one can not determine the geological significance of reflection character anomalies on single or several seismic sections. But when one maps them on a plane, their distribution may on the whole indicate the geological significance. It is stated how the fuzzy method is used on a VAX computer to automatically construct a plane map of the reflection character changes in a time window. What an interpreter needs to do for whole interpretation is only to provide some parameters, such as time window, threshold, weight coefficients etc.

  9. Effective updating process of seismic fragilities using Bayesian method and information entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaaki; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessment (SPSA) is an effective method for evaluating overall performance of seismic safety of a plant. Seismic fragilities are estimated to quantify the seismically induced accident sequences. It is a great concern that the SPSA results involve uncertainties, a part of which comes from the uncertainty in the seismic fragility of equipment and systems. A straightforward approach to reduce the uncertainty is to perform a seismic qualification test and to reflect the results on the seismic fragility estimate. In this paper, we propose a figure-of-merit to find the most cost-effective condition of the seismic qualification tests about the acceleration level and number of components tested. Then a mathematical method to reflect the test results on the fragility update is developed. A Bayesian method is used for the fragility update procedure. Since a lognormal distribution that is used for the fragility model does not have a Bayes conjugate function, a parameterization method is proposed so that the posterior distribution expresses the characteristics of the fragility. The information entropy is used as the figure-of-merit to express importance of obtained evidence. It is found that the information entropy is strongly associated with the uncertainty of the fragility. (author)

  10. Subsurface geology by shallow seismic reflection survey and microgravity survey in Kobe area; Senso hanshaho danseiha tansa oyobi seimitsu juryoku tansa ni yoru Kobe chiiki no chika chishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, H; Makino, M; Murata, Y; Watanabe, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports discussions on subsurface structure of the Kobe area by means of microgravity survey. A Bouguer anomaly distribution graph was obtained (which is close to a near straight line) by measuring the gravity at measurement points with an interval of about 25 m along a traverse line (with a total length of about 1.7 km) in an approximately NNW-SSE direction crossing the downtown of the city of Kobe. Viewing the residuals to a straight line linking the values at both ends of the traverse line revealed that the gradient in the Bouguer anomaly distribution changes as if it is bent at a point near the center of the traverse line as a boundary. Deriving the residuals from fine changes seen in a distribution graph for the residuals made clear that this residual distribution has two discontinuous points. The paper indicates that the bending point in the former case corresponds to a reverse fault in a base bed of a flat land as compared with the result of model calculation on the base structure and gravity distribution. The discontinuous points in the latter case agree with positions of fault distribution derived by a reflection elastic wave survey. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Seismic hazard maps for earthquake-resistant construction designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Izuru

    2004-01-01

    Based on the idea that seismic phenomena in Japan varying in different localities are to be reflected in designing specific nuclear facilities in specific site, the present research program started to make seismic hazard maps representing geographical distribution of seismic load factors. First, recent research data on historical earthquakes and materials on active faults in Japan have been documented. Differences in character due to different localities are expressed by dynamic load in consideration of specific building properties. Next, hazard evaluation corresponding to seismic-resistance factor is given as response index (spectrum) of an adequately selected building, for example a nuclear power station, with the help of investigation results of statistical analysis. (S. Ohno)

  12. Toward long-term all-sky time domain surveys-SINDICS: a prospective concept for a Seismic INDICes Survey of half a million red giants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Eric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler have brought a new and deep experience in long-term photometric surveys and how to use them. This is true for exoplanets characterizing, stellar seismology and beyond for studying several other phenomena, like granulation or activity. Based on this experience, it has been possible to propose new generation projects, like TESS and PLATO, with more specific scientific objectives and more ambitious observational programs in terms of sky coverage and/or duration of the observations. In this context and as a prospective exercise, we explore here the possibility to set up an all-sky survey optimized for seismic indices measurement, providing masses, radii and evolution stages for half a million solar-type pulsators (subgiants and red giants, in our galactic neighborhood and allowing unprecedented stellar population studies.

  13. Elements of seismic imaging and velocity analysis – Forward modeling and diffraction analysis of conventional seismic data from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-01

    comprises important oil and gas reservoirs. By application of well-established conventional velocity analysis methods and high-quality diffraction imaging techniques, this study aims to increase the resolution and the image quality of the seismic data. In order to analyze seismic wave propagation......-outs and salt delineations, which can be extracted from the diffractions. The potential of diffraction imaging techniques was studied for 2D seismic stacked data from the North Sea. In this approach, the applied plane-wave destruction method was successful in order to suppress the reflections from the stacked....... This improved seismic imaging is demonstrated for a salt structure as well as for Overpressured Shale structures and the Top Chalk of the North Sea....

  14. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  15. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  16. Performance-based methodology for assessing seismic vulnerability and capacity of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibin, Lin; Lili, Xie; Maosheng, Gong; Ming, Li

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a performance-based methodology for the assessment of seismic vulnerability and capacity of buildings. The vulnerability assessment methodology is based on the HAZUS methodology and the improved capacitydemand-diagram method. The spectral displacement ( S d ) of performance points on a capacity curve is used to estimate the damage level of a building. The relationship between S d and peak ground acceleration (PGA) is established, and then a new vulnerability function is expressed in terms of PGA. Furthermore, the expected value of the seismic capacity index (SCev) is provided to estimate the seismic capacity of buildings based on the probability distribution of damage levels and the corresponding seismic capacity index. The results indicate that the proposed vulnerability methodology is able to assess seismic damage of a large number of building stock directly and quickly following an earthquake. The SCev provides an effective index to measure the seismic capacity of buildings and illustrate the relationship between the seismic capacity of buildings and seismic action. The estimated result is compared with damage surveys of the cities of Dujiangyan and Jiangyou in the M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, revealing that the methodology is acceptable for seismic risk assessment and decision making. The primary reasons for discrepancies between the estimated results and the damage surveys are discussed.

  17. Did you smooth your well logs the right way for seismic interpretation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, Mathieu J; Gaillot, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Correlations between physical properties and seismic reflection data are useful to determine the geological nature of seismic reflections and the lateral extent of geological strata. The difference in resolution between well logs and seismic data is a major hurdle faced by seismic interpreters when tying both data sets. In general, log data have a resolution of at least two orders of magnitude greater than seismic data. Smoothing physical property logs improves correlation at the seismic scale. Three different approaches were used and compared to smooth a density log: binomial filtering, seismic wavelet filtering and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) filtering. Regression plots between the density logs and the acoustic impedance show that the data smoothed with the DWT is the only method that preserves the original relationship between the raw density data and the acoustic impedance. Smoothed logs were then used to generate synthetic seismograms that were tied to seismic data at the borehole site. Best ties were achieved using the synthetic seismogram computed with the density log processed with the DWT. The good performance of the DWT is explained by its adaptive multi-scale characteristic which preserved significant local changes of density on the high-resolution data series that were also pictured at the seismic scale. Since synthetic seismograms are generated using smoothed logs, the choice of the smoothing method impacts on the quality of seismic-to-well ties. This ultimately can have economical implications during hydrocarbon exploration or exploitation phases

  18. Issues related to seismic surveys in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence : public inquiry report; Les enjeux lies aux leves sismiques dans l'estuaire et le golfe du Saint-Laurent : rapport d'enquete et d'audience publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    Quebec's Office of Public Inquiry on the Environment (Bureau d'audiences publiques sur l'environnement) conducted public hearings on the environmental issues associated with seismic surveys carried out in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and its estuaries for the purpose of petroleum and natural gas exploration. The inquiry focused on the effect of sound waves on aquatic ecosystems and marine organisms and the associated environmental, social and economic consequences of seismic surveys. Environmental groups, scientists, fishermen and the maritime tourist industry have been concerned with the impact of seismic surveys in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence since the autumn of 2002, when Hydro-Quebec publicized its 2002-2010 plan for oil and gas exploration and when Geophysical Service Inc. received a mandate from Hydro-Quebec to carry out seismic surveys in the area. This report presents 10 recommendations and 16 opinions resulting from 18 public hearings held in communities along the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Although the thousands of kilometres of seismic survey lines acquired in the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence since 1960 do not seem to have had any visible impact on the marine environment, the Commission has taken a precautionary approach and recommends that some practices should be limited until a review of literature demonstrates that seismic surveys do not affect the ecological integrity of the St. Lawrence for fisheries or ecotourism. 16 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  19. Development of Deep-tow Autonomous Cable Seismic (ACS) for Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMSs) Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Saito, Shutaro; Lee, Sangkyun; Tara, Kenji; Kato, Masafumi; Jamali Hondori, Ehsan; Sumi, Tomonori; Kadoshima, Kazuyuki; Kose, Masami

    2017-04-01

    Within the EEZ of Japan, numerous surveys exploring ocean floor resources have been conducted. The exploration targets are gas hydrates, mineral resources (manganese, cobalt or rare earth) and especially seafloor massive sulphide (SMS) deposits. These resources exist in shallow subsurface areas in deep waters (>1500m). For seismic explorations very high resolution images are required. These cannot be effectively obtained with conventional marine seismic techniques. Therefore we have been developing autonomous seismic survey systems which record the data close to the seafloor to preserve high frequency seismic energy. Very high sampling rate (10kHz) and high accurate synchronization between recording systems and shot time are necessary. We adopted Cs-base atomic clock considering its power consumption. At first, we developed a Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) system that uses hydrophone arrays moored vertically from the ocean bottom to record close to the target area. This system has been successfully applied to SMS exploration. Specifically it fixed over known sites to assess the amount of reserves with the resultant 3D volume. Based on the success of VCS, we modified the VCS system to use as a more efficient deep-tow seismic survey system. Although there are other examples of deep-tow seismic systems, signal transmission cables present challenges in deep waters. We use our autonomous recording system to avoid these problems. Combining a high frequency piezoelectric source (Sub Bottom Profiler:SBP) that automatically shots with a constant interval, we achieve the high resolution deep-tow seismic without data transmission/power cable to the board. Although the data cannot be monitored in real-time, the towing system becomes very simple. We have carried out survey trial, which showed the systems utility as a high-resolution deep-tow seismic survey system. Furthermore, the frequency ranges of deep-towed source (SBP) and surface towed sparker are 700-2300Hz and 10-200Hz

  20. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    The Imperial and Coachella Valleys are being formed by active plate-tectonic processes. From the Imperial Valley southward into the Gulf of California, plate motions are rifting the continent apart. In the Coachella Valley, the plates are sliding past one another along the San Andreas and related faults (fig. 1). These processes build the stunning landscapes of the region, but also produce damaging earthquakes. Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard that California will face in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of infrastructure (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that might bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the nation’s efforts to avert a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects have been undertaken to more fully understand and mitigate the effects of such an event. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded jointly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), seeks to understand, through seismic imaging, the structure of the Earth surrounding the SAF, including the sedimentary basins on which cities are built. The principal investigators (PIs) of this collaborative project represent the USGS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and Stanford University. SSIP will create images of underground structure and sediments in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and adjacent mountain ranges to investigate the earthquake hazards posed to cities in this area. Importantly, the images will help determine the underground geometry of the SAF, how deep the sediments are, and how fast

  1. Two types of SDR recognised in pre-stack velocity analysis of ultra-long-offset seismic reflection data in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J.; McDermott, C.; Lonergan, L.; McDermott, K.; Bellingham, P.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of continental breakup at volcanic margins has lagged behind that of non-volcanic margins in recent years. This is largely due to seismic imaging problems caused by the presence of thick packages of Seaward-Dipping Reflectors (SDRs) in the continent-ocean transition zone. These packages consist of interbedded tholeiitic lava flows, volcanic tuffs and terrestrial sediment that results in scattering, peg-leg multiples and defocusing of seismic energy. Here we analyse three ultra-long-offset (10.2 km), wide-bandwidth (5-100 Hz) seismic reflection profiles acquired by ION-GXT offshore South America during 2009-12 to gain new insights into the velocity structure of the SDRs and hence pattern of magmatism during continental breakup. We observe two seismic velocity patterns within the SDRs. The most landward packages show high velocity anomaly "bulls-eyes" of up to 1 km s-1. These highs occur where the stacked section shows them to thicken at the down-dip end of individual packages that are bounded by faults. All lines show 5-6 velocity highs spaced approximately 10 km apart. We interpret the velocity bulls-eyes as depleted mafic or ultramafic bodies that fed the sub-aerial tholeiitic lava flows during continental stretching. Similar relationships have been observed in outcrop onshore but have not been previously demonstrated in seismic data. The bulls-eye packages pass laterally into SDR packages that show no velocity highs. These packages are not associated with faulting and become more extensive going north towards the impact point of the Tristan da Cunha hotspot. This second type of SDR coincides with linear magnetic anomalies. We interpret these SDRs as the products of sub-aerial oceanic spreading similar to those seen on Iceland and described in the classic "Hinz model" and marine geophysical literature. Our work demonstrates that these SDRs are preceded by ones generated during an earlier phase of mechanical thinning of the continental crust. The

  2. Violet Grove CO{sub 2} injection project : monitoring with timelapse VSP surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coueslan, M.; Lawton, D. [Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada); Jones, M. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Several oil and gas fields in western Canada have been depleted through primary production and secondary recovery methods. Injecting carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into a reservoir can enhance oil recovery (EOR) and has the potential benefit of CO{sub 2} sequestration, which reduces greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. It has been estimated that western Canada has a practical CO{sub 2} storage capacity of about 3.3 Gt in its oil and gas reservoirs. In order to claim a reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, however, the injected CO{sub 2} must be monitored to prove that it is being trapped in these reservoirs. For that reason, the Violet Grove site, near Drayton Valley, Alberta was chosen as a pilot site to study CO{sub 2} injection into a reservoir for enhanced recovery and carbon sequestration purposes. The reservoir is located in the Cardium Formation in the Pembina Field. It was expected that the CO{sub 2} would flow preferentially in the reservoir's dominant fracture orientation, which is northeast-southwest. Simultaneously acquired time-lapse multicomponent surface and borehole seismic surveys were used to monitor changes in the reservoir. Prior to CO{sub 2} injection, a baseline survey was acquired in March 2005. A second survey was acquired 8 months after CO{sub 2} injection. The borehole seismic data displayed higher bandwidth and increased resolution compared to the surface seismic data. The PS-wave borehole seismic data in particular showed much better results. Together, these seismic surveys provide lateral coverage of the area as well as high resolution images near the observation well. Preliminary results from the time-lapse analysis show an increase of 30 to 60 per cent in the reservoir reflectivity amplitudes in the 8 months between the baseline and monitor surveys, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} flood has progressed southwest of the injector, most likely along the dominant fracture trend. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. From obc seismic to porosity volume: A pre-stack analysis of a turbidite reservoir, deepwater Campos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz M. R.

    The Campos Basin is the best known and most productive of the Brazilian coastal basins. Turbidites are, by far, the main oil-bearing reservoirs. Using a four component (4-C) ocean-bottom-cable (OBC) seismic survey I set out to improve the reservoir characterization in a deep-water turbidite field in the Campos Basin. In order to achieve my goal, pre-stack angle gathers were derived and PP and PS inversion were performed. The inversion was used as an input to predict the petrophysical properties of the reservoir. Converting seismic reflection amplitudes into impedance profiles not only maximizes vertical resolution but also minimizes tuning effects. Mapping the porosity is extremely important in the development of a hydrocarbon reservoirs. Combining seismic attributes derived from the P-P data and porosity logs I use linear multi-regression and neural network geostatistical tools to predict porosity between the seismic attributes and porosity logs at the well locations. After predicting porosity in well locations, those relationships were applied to the seismic attributes to generate a 3-D porosity volume. The predicted porosity volume highlighted the best reservoir facies in the reservoir. The integration of elastic impedance, shear impedance and porosity improved the reservoir characterization.

  4. A comparison of seismic velocity inversion methods for layered acoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, T.; Mulder, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    In seismic imaging, one tries to infer the medium properties of the subsurface from seismic reflection data. These data are the result of an active source experiment, where an explosive source and an array of receivers are placed at the surface. Due to the absence of low frequencies in the data, the

  5. Visualization of volumetric seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickermann, Dela; Böttinger, Michael; Ashfaq Ahmed, Khawar; Gajewski, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Mostly driven by demands of high quality subsurface imaging, highly specialized tools and methods have been developed to support the processing, visualization and interpretation of seismic data. 3D seismic data acquisition and 4D time-lapse seismic monitoring are well-established techniques in academia and industry, producing large amounts of data to be processed, visualized and interpreted. In this context, interactive 3D visualization methods proved to be valuable for the analysis of 3D seismic data cubes - especially for sedimentary environments with continuous horizons. In crystalline and hard rock environments, where hydraulic stimulation techniques may be applied to produce geothermal energy, interpretation of the seismic data is a more challenging problem. Instead of continuous reflection horizons, the imaging targets are often steep dipping faults, causing a lot of diffractions. Without further preprocessing these geological structures are often hidden behind the noise in the data. In this PICO presentation we will present a workflow consisting of data processing steps, which enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, followed by a visualization step based on the use the commercially available general purpose 3D visualization system Avizo. Specifically, we have used Avizo Earth, an extension to Avizo, which supports the import of seismic data in SEG-Y format and offers easy access to state-of-the-art 3D visualization methods at interactive frame rates, even for large seismic data cubes. In seismic interpretation using visualization, interactivity is a key requirement for understanding complex 3D structures. In order to enable an easy communication of the insights gained during the interactive visualization process, animations of the visualized data were created which support the spatial understanding of the data.

  6. Final recommendations of the Peer Review Panel on the use of seismic methods for characterizing Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Peer Review Panel was charged with deciding whether seismic methods, which had been utilized at Yucca Mountain with mixed results in the past, could provide useful information about the Tertiary structure in the Yucca Mountain area. The objectives of using seismic methods at Yucca Mountain are to: (a) obtain information about the structural character of the Paleozoic-Tertiary (Pz-T) contact, and (b) obtain information about the structural and volcanic details within the Tertiary and Quaternary section. The Panel recommends that a four part program be undertaken to test the utility of seismic reflection data for characterizing the structural setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The Panel feels strongly that all four parts of the program must be completed in order to provide the highest probability of success. The four parts of the program are: (a) drill or extend a deep hole in Crater Flat to provide depth control and allow for the identification of seismic reflectors in an area where good quality seismic reflection data are expected; (b) undertake a full seismic noise test in Crater Flat, test 2D receiver arrays as well as linear arrays; perform an expanding spread test using both P and S wave sources to obtain a quick look at the reflection quality in the area and see if shear wave reflections might provide structural information in areas of unsaturated rock; (c) acquire a P wave seismic reflection profile across Crater Flat through the deep control well, across Yucca Mountain, and continuing into Jackass Flats; and (d) acquire a standard VSP (vertical seismic profiling) in the deep control well to tie the seismic data into depth and to identify reflectors correctly

  7. Seismic research on graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Shigang; Sun Libin; Zhang Zhengming

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reactors with graphite core structure include production reactor, water-cooled graphite reactor, gas-cooled reactor, high-temperature gas-cooled reactor and so on. Multi-body graphite core structure has nonlinear response under seismic excitation, which is different from the response of general civil structure, metal connection structure or bolted structure. Purpose: In order to provide references for the designing and construction of HTR-PM. This paper reviews the history of reactor seismic research evaluation from certain countries, and summarizes the research methods and research results. Methods: By comparing the methods adopted in different gas-cooled reactor cores, inspiration for our own HTR seismic research was achieved. Results and Conclusions: In this paper, the research ideas of graphite core seismic during the process of designing, constructing and operating HTR-10 are expounded. Also the project progress of HTR-PM and the research on side reflection with the theory of similarity is introduced. (authors)

  8. Seismic motions from project Rulison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    In the range from a few to a few hundred km, seismic measurements from the Rulison event are shown and compared with experimentally and analytically derived pre-event estimates. Seismograms, peak accelerations, and response spectra are given along with a description of the associated geologic environment. Techniques used for the pre-event estimates are identified with emphasis on supportive data and on Rulison results. Of particular interest is the close-in seismic frequency content which is expected to contain stronger high frequency components. This higher frequency content translates into stronger accelerations within the first tens of km, which in turn affect safety preparations. Additionally, the local geologic structure at nearby population centers must be considered. Pre-event reverse profile refraction surveys are used to delineate the geology at Rifle, Rulison, Grand Valley, and other sites. The geologic parameters are then used as input to seismic amplification models which deliver estimates of local resonant frequencies. Prediction of such resonances allows improved safety assurance against seismic effects hazards. (author)

  9. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the SE Brazilian & S Angolan margins from integrated quantitative analysis of deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Horn, B.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure, continent-ocean boundary (COB) location and magmatic type are of critical importance for understanding rifted continental margin formation processes and in evaluating petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration. The OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the SE Brazilian and S Angolan rifted continental margins are much debated; exhumed and serpentinised mantle have been reported at these margins. Integrated quantitative analysis using deep seismic reflection data and gravity inversion have been used to determine OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type for the SE Brazilian and S Angolan margins. Gravity inversion has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning. Residual Depth Anomaly (RDA) analysis has been used to investigate OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries and subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning. These techniques have been validated on the Iberian margin for profiles IAM9 and ISE-01. In addition a joint inversion technique using deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been applied to the ION-GXT BS1-575 SE Brazil and ION-GXT CS1-2400 S Angola. The joint inversion method solves for coincident seismic and gravity Moho in the time domain and calculates the lateral variations in crustal basement densities and velocities along profile. Gravity inversion, RDA and subsidence analysis along the S Angolan ION-GXT CS1-2400 profile has been used to determine OCT structure and COB location. Analysis suggests that exhumed mantle, corresponding to a magma poor margin, is absent beneath the allochthonous salt. The thickness of earliest oceanic crust, derived from gravity and deep seismic reflection data is approximately 7km. The joint inversion predicts crustal basement densities and seismic velocities which are

  10. The preglacial sediment record of Lake Ladoga, Russia - first results from a seismic survey and sediment coring in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, Martin; Krastel, Sebastian; Fedorov, Grigory; Subetto, Dmitry A.; Savelieva, Larisa A.; Andreev, Andrej; Wagner, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    The new German-Russian project PLOT (Paleolimnological Transect) aims at investigating the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history along a more than 6000 km long longitudinal transect crossing northern Eurasia. Special emphasis is put on the preglacial history. For this purpose shallow and deep seismic surveys shall be carried out on five lakes, which potentially host preglacial sediment records, followed by sediment coring based on the results of the seismic campaigns. The well-studied Lake El'gygytgyn represents the eastern-most location of the transect and acts as reference site. Within the scope of a pilot phase for the PLOT project, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, we were able to investigate Lake Ladoga, which is located close to St. Petersburg at the western end of the transect. Lake Ladoga is the largest lake in Europe, covering an area of almost 18.000 km2. The modern sedimentation as well as the late glacial and Holocene history of the lake were already studied in detail over the past decades. The older, preglacial lake history, however, is only rudimentary known from a core transect drilled in the southern lake in the 1930th. The cores of up to about 60 m length were only briefly described and are not existing any more. The results from these cores, known from unpublished reports only, suggest the existence of marine sediments of presumably Eemian age, representing a time when Lake Lagoga was part of a precursor of the Baltic Sea, which had a connection via Ladoga and Onega Lakes to the White Sea and further to the Arctic Ocean. In late August/early September 2013 we carried out a seismic survey on Lake Ladoga using a Mini-GI-Gun and a 32-channel seismic streamer. In total, 1500 km of seismic profiles were measured, covering most parts of the lake. The seismic lines typically show acoustically well stratified Holocene muds overlaying rather transparent postglacial varves. These sediment successions can reach

  11. Assessing the deep drilling potential of Lago de Tota, Colombia, with a seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, B. W.; Wattrus, N. J.; Fonseca, H.; Velasco, F.; Escobar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reconciling orbital-scale patterns of inter-hemispheric South American climate during the Quaternary requires continuous, high-resolution paleoclimate records that span multiple glacial cycles from both hemispheres. Southern Andean Quaternary climates are represented by multi-proxy results from Lake Titicaca (Peru-Bolivia) spanning the last 400 ka and by pending results from the Lago Junin Drilling Project (Peru). Although Northern Andean sediment records spanning the last few million years have been retrieved from the Bogota and Fúquene Basins in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, climatic reconstructions based on these cores have thus far been limited to pollen-based investigations. When viewed together with the Southern Hemisphere results, these records suggest an anti-phased hemispheric climatic response during glacial cycles. In order to better assess orbital-scale climate responses, however, independent temperature and hydroclimate proxies from the Northern Hemisphere are needed in addition to vegetation histories. As part of this objective, an effort is underway to develop a paleoclimate record from Lago de Tota (3030 m asl), the largest lake in Colombia and the third largest lake in the Andes. One of 17 highland tectonic basins in Eastern Cordillera, Lago de Tota formed during Tertiary uplift that deformed pre-foreland megasequences, synrift and back-arc megasequences. The precise age and thickness of sediments in the Lago de Tota basin has not previously been established. Here, we present results from a recent single-channel seismic reflection survey collected with a small (5 cubic inch) air gun and high-resolution CHIRP sub-bottom data. With these data, we examine the depositional history and sequence stratigraphy of Lago de Tota and assess its potential as a deep drilling target.

  12. NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

    2004-05-06

    Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas

  13. Relationships among seismic velocity, metamorphism, and seismic and aseismic fault slip in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Lohman, Rowena B.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Goldman, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal Field is one of the most geothermally and seismically active areas in California and presents an opportunity to study the effect of high-temperature metamorphism on the properties of seismogenic faults. The area includes numerous active tectonic faults that have recently been imaged with active source seismic reflection and refraction. We utilize the active source surveys, along with the abundant microseismicity data from a dense borehole seismic network, to image the 3-D variations in seismic velocity in the upper 5 km of the crust. There are strong velocity variations, up to ~30%, that correlate spatially with the distribution of shallow heat flow patterns. The combination of hydrothermal circulation and high-temperature contact metamorphism has significantly altered the shallow sandstone sedimentary layers within the geothermal field to denser, more feldspathic, rock with higher P wave velocity, as is seen in the numerous exploration wells within the field. This alteration appears to have a first-order effect on the frictional stability of shallow faults. In 2005, a large earthquake swarm and deformation event occurred. Analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data and earthquake relocations indicates that the shallow aseismic fault creep that occurred in 2005 was localized on the Kalin fault system that lies just outside the region of high-temperature metamorphism. In contrast, the earthquake swarm, which includes all of the M > 4 earthquakes to have occurred within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the last 15 years, ruptured the Main Central Fault (MCF) system that is localized in the heart of the geothermal anomaly. The background microseismicity induced by the geothermal operations is also concentrated in the high-temperature regions in the vicinity of operational wells. However, while this microseismicity occurs over a few kilometer scale region, much of it is clustered in earthquake swarms that last from

  14. How Educators Conceptualize and Teach Reflective Practice: A Survey of North American Pediatric Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butani, Lavjay; Bannister, Susan L; Rubin, Allison; Forbes, Karen L

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore pediatric undergraduate medical educators' understanding of reflective practice, the barriers they face in teaching this, the curricular activities they use, and the value they assign to reflective practice. Nine survey questions were sent to members of the Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics, an international pediatric undergraduate medical educator group. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Open-ended responses were analyzed qualitatively through an iterative process to establish themes representing understanding of reflective practice and barriers in teaching this. Respondents representing 56% of all North American schools answered at least 1 survey question. Qualitative analysis of understanding of reflection revealed 11 themes spanning all components of reflective practice, albeit with a narrow view on triggers for reflection and a lower emphasis on understanding the why of things and on perspective-taking. The most frequent barriers in teaching this were the lack of skilled educators and limited time. Most respondents valued reflective skills but few reported confidence in their ability to teach reflection. Several curricular activities were used to teach reflection, the most common being narrative writing. Pediatric undergraduate medical educators value reflection and endorse its teaching. However, many do not have a complete understanding of the construct and few report confidence in teaching this. Implementing longitudinal curricula in reflective practice may require a culture change; opportunities exist for faculty development about the meaning and value of reflective practice and how best to teach this. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical evaluation of seismic qualification of safety-related equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yang Hui; Park, Heong Gee; Park, Yeong Seok [Univ. of Incheon, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    This study is purposed to evaluate the technical acceptability of the procedures and techniques of seismic qualifications which were performed for the YGN 3 and 4 safety-related equipment.This study is also targeted to suggest a systematized technical procedure guide for the effective performance and review of the seismic qualification, which reflects the most up-to-date licensing requirements and state-of the-art.

  16. Ensuring seismic safety of Blahutovice nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartak, V.; David, M.; Hrabe, T.; Simunek, P.

    1989-01-01

    The results are presented of the seismic and geological survey of the Blahutovice nuclear power plant site. The variants are discussed of laying foundations and securing earthquake protection of the reactor building. The calculations made show that all variants are suitable with respect to seismic effects because the acceleration of seismic vibrations at the foundation slab level reaches the maximum intensity of 8deg MSK 64. The variant envisaging that the reactor building should be supported on spring insulators with viscous dampers is considered most advanced. (J.B.). 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Tectonic Inversion Along the Algerian and Ligurian Margins: On the Insight Provided By Latest Seismic Processing Techniques Applied to Recent and Vintage 2D Offshore Multichannel Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenini, L.; Beslier, M. O.; Sage, F.; Badji, R.; Galibert, P. Y.; Lepretre, A.; Dessa, J. X.; Aidi, C.; Watremez, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on the Algerian and the North-Ligurian margins in the Western Mediterranean have evidenced inversion-related superficial structures, such as folds and asymmetric sedimentary perched basins whose geometry hints at deep compressive structures dipping towards the continent. Deep seismic imaging of these margins is difficult due to steep slope and superficial multiples, and, in the Mediterranean context, to the highly diffractive Messinian evaporitic series in the basin. During the Algerian-French SPIRAL survey (2009, R/V Atalante), 2D marine multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data were collected along the Algerian Margin using a 4.5 km, 360 channel digital streamer and a 3040 cu. in. air-gun array. An advanced processing workflow has been laid out using Geocluster CGG software, which includes noise attenuation, 2D SRME multiple attenuation, surface consistent deconvolution, Kirchhoff pre-stack time migration. This processing produces satisfactory seismic images of the whole sedimentary cover, and of southward dipping reflectors in the acoustic basement along the central part of the margin offshore Great Kabylia, that are interpreted as inversion-related blind thrusts as part of flat-ramp systems. We applied this successful processing workflow to old 2D marine MCS data acquired on the North-Ligurian Margin (Malis survey, 1995, R/V Le Nadir), using a 2.5 km, 96 channel streamer and a 1140 cu. in. air-gun array. Particular attention was paid to multiple attenuation in adapting our workflow. The resulting reprocessed seismic images, interpreted with a coincident velocity model obtained by wide-angle data tomography, provide (1) enhanced imaging of the sedimentary cover down to the top of the acoustic basement, including the base of the Messinian evaporites and the sub-salt Miocene series, which appear to be tectonized as far as in the mid-basin, and (2) new evidence of deep crustal structures in the margin which the initial processing had failed to

  18. Revision of IRIS/IDA Seismic Station Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Davis, P.; Auerbach, D.; Klimczak, E.

    2017-12-01

    Trustworthy data quality assurance has always been one of the goals of seismic network operators and data management centers. This task is considerably complex and evolving due to the huge quantities as well as the rapidly changing characteristics and complexities of seismic data. Published metadata usually reflect instrument response characteristics and their accuracies, which includes zero frequency sensitivity for both seismometer and data logger as well as other, frequency-dependent elements. In this work, we are mainly focused studying the variation of the seismometer sensitivity with time of IRIS/IDA seismic recording systems with a goal to improve the metadata accuracy for the history of the network. There are several ways to measure the accuracy of seismometer sensitivity for the seismic stations in service. An effective practice recently developed is to collocate a reference seismometer in proximity to verify the in-situ sensors' calibration. For those stations with a secondary broadband seismometer, IRIS' MUSTANG metric computation system introduced a transfer function metric to reflect two sensors' gain ratios in the microseism frequency band. In addition, a simulation approach based on M2 tidal measurements has been proposed and proven to be effective. In this work, we compare and analyze the results from three different methods, and concluded that the collocated-sensor method is most stable and reliable with the minimum uncertainties all the time. However, for epochs without both the collocated sensor and secondary seismometer, we rely on the analysis results from tide method. For the data since 1992 on IDA stations, we computed over 600 revised seismometer sensitivities for all the IRIS/IDA network calibration epochs. Hopefully further revision procedures will help to guarantee that the data is accurately reflected by the metadata of these stations.

  19. Waveform modeling of the seismic response of a mid-ocean ridge axial melt sill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Stephen, R. A.; Canales, J. Pablo

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflections from axial magma lens (AML) are commonly observed along many mid-ocean ridges, and are thought to arise from the negative impedance contrast between a solid, high-speed lid and the underlying low-speed, molten or partially molten (mush) sill. The polarity of the AML reflection ( P AML P) at vertical incidence and the amplitude vs offset (AVO) behavior of the AML reflections (e.g., P AML P and S-converted P AML S waves) are often used as a diagnostic tool for the nature of the low-speed sill. Time-domain finite difference calculations for two-dimensional laterally homogeneous models show some scenarios make the interpretation of melt content from partial-offset stacks of P- and S-waves difficult. Laterally heterogeneous model calculations indicate diffractions from the edges of the finite-width AML reducing the amplitude of the AML reflections. Rough seafloor and/or a rough AML surface can also greatly reduce the amplitude of peg-leg multiples because of scattering and destructive interference. Mid-crustal seismic reflection events are observed in the three-dimensional multi-channel seismic dataset acquired over the RIDGE-2000 Integrated Study Site at East Pacific Rise (EPR, cruise MGL0812). Modeling indicates that the mid-crustal seismic reflection reflections are unlikely to arise from peg-leg multiples of the AML reflections, P-to- S converted phases, or scattering due to rough topography, but could probably arise from deeper multiple magma sills. Our results support the identification of Marjanović et al. (Nat Geosci 7(11):825-829, 2014) that a multi-level complex of melt lenses is present beneath the axis of the EPR.

  20. Shallow Reflection Method for Water-Filled Void Detection and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, M. N. H.; Madun, A.; Dahlan, S. H.; Joret, A.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Mohammad, A. H.; Izzaty, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Shallow investigation is crucial in enhancing the characteristics of subsurface void commonly encountered in civil engineering, and one such technique commonly used is seismic-reflection technique. An assessment of the effectiveness of such an approach is critical to determine whether the quality of the works meets the prescribed requirements. Conventional quality testing suffers limitations including: limited coverage (both area and depth) and problems with resolution quality. Traditionally quality assurance measurements use laboratory and in-situ invasive and destructive tests. However geophysical approaches, which are typically non-invasive and non-destructive, offer a method by which improvement of detection can be measured in a cost-effective way. Of this seismic reflection have proved useful to assess void characteristic, this paper evaluates the application of shallow seismic-reflection method in characterizing the water-filled void properties at 0.34 m depth, specifically for detection and characterization of void measurement using 2-dimensional tomography.

  1. Seismic Velocity Structure across the Hayward Fault Zone Near San Leandro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, L. M.; Catchings, R.; Chan, J. H.; Richardson, I. S.; McEvilly, A.; Goldman, M.; Criley, C.; Sickler, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    In Fall 2016 we conducted the East Bay Seismic Investigation, a NEHRP-funded collaboration between California State University, East Bay and the United State Geological Survey. The study produced a large volume of seismic data, allowing us to examine the subsurface across the East Bay plain and hills using a variety of geophysical methods. We know of no other survey performed in the past that has imaged this area, at this scale, and with this degree of resolution. Initial models show that seismic velocities of the Hayward Fault Zone (HFZ), the East Bay plain, and the East Bay hills are illuminated to depths of 5-6 km. We used explosive sources at 1-km intervals along a 15-km-long, NE-striking ( 055°), seismic line centered on the HFZ. Vertical- and horizontal-component sensors were spaced at 100 m intervals along the entire profile, with vertical-component sensors at 20 m intervals across mapped or suspected faults. Preliminary seismic refraction tomography across the HFZ, sensu lato, (includes sub-parallel, connected, and related faults), shows that the San Leandro Block (SLB) is a low-velocity feature in the upper 1-3 km, with nearly the same Vp as the adjacent Great Valley sediments to the east, and low Vs values. In our initial analysis we can trace the SLB and its bounding faults (Hayward, Chabot) nearly vertically, to at least 2-4 km depth. Similarly, preliminary migrated reflection images suggest that many if not all of the peripheral reverse, strike-slip and oblique-slip faults of the wider HFZ dip toward the SLB, into a curtain of relocated epicenters that define the HFZ at depth, indicative of a `flower-structure'. Preliminary Vs tomography identifies another apparently weak zone at depth, located about 1.5 km east of the San Leandro shoreline, that may represent the northward continuation of the Silver Creek Fault. Centered 4 km from the Bay, there is a distinctive, 2 km-wide, uplifted, horst-like, high-velocity structure (both Vp & Vs) that bounds the

  2. Seismic Imaging of the West Napa Fault in Napa, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M.; Catchings, R.; Chan, J. H.; Sickler, R. R.; Nevitt, J. M.; Criley, C.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2016, we acquired high-resolution P- and S-wave seismic data along a 120-m-long, SW-NE-trending profile in Napa, California. Our seismic survey was designed to image a strand of the West Napa Fault Zone (WNFZ), which ruptured during the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa Earthquake. We separately acquired P- and S-wave data at every station using multiple hammer hits, which were edited and stacked into individual shot gathers in the lab. Each shot was co-located with and recorded by 118 P-wave (40-Hz) geophones, spaced at 1 m, and by 180 S-wave (4.5-Hz) geophones, spaced at 1 m. We developed both P- and S-wave tomographic velocity models, as well as Poisson's ratio and a Vp/Vs ratio models. We observed a well-defined zone of elevated Vp/Vs ratios below about 10 m depth, centered beneath the observed surface rupture. P-wave reflection images show that the fault forms a flower-structure in the upper few tens of meters. This method has been shown to delineate fault structures even in areas of rough terrain.

  3. Seismic qualification of civil engineering structures - Temelin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schererova, K.; Holub, I.; Stepan, J.; Maly, J.

    2004-01-01

    Basic information is presented about the input data and methodology used for evaluation of Temelin NPP civil structures. The existing conditions as listed in POSAR report for the two reactor units are considered. The original design of the power plant assumed a lower level of locality seismic hazard, as followed from seismological surveys that where then available. Later the seismic assessment was updated while fully respecting IAEA recommendations and using a minimum value of acceleration in the horizontal direction PGAHOR = 0.1 g at free field level for SL-2. In relation to the new seismic project, new qualification of the structures, components and systems classed as seismic resistance category 1 was carried out. Since the Czech Republic has no specific technical standards for seismic resistance evaluation of nuclear power plants, a detailed methodology was elaborated, comprising principles of seismic resistance evaluation based on IAEA guides and on common practice in countries with advanced nuclear power engineering. (P.A.)

  4. Calculating seismic of slabs ITA NNP Garona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeberry, J. I.; Guerrero, A.; Gamarra, J.; Beltran, F.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the methodology that Idom has employed to perform the seismic evaluation of slabs within the ITA project of the NPP Santa Maria de Garona. Seismic calculations that have been conducted include consideration of the effects of the interaction of soil structure as well as the possible take-off containers with respect to slab during the earthquake. Therefore, the main contribution of the work is the study of the coupling of rolling containers with the flexibility of the whole ground-slab For calculations has been used ABAQUS/Explicit program, allowing to solve effectively the nonlinearities listed above using explicit integration algorithms over time. The results of the calculations reflect the importance of jointly analyse the seismic responses of slab and containers. (Author)

  5. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants require exceptional safety guarantees which are reflected in a rigorous control of the employed materials, advanced construction technology, sophisticated methods of analysis and consideration of non conventional load cases such as the earthquake loading. In this paper, the current procedures used in the seismic analysis of Nuclear Power Plants are presented. The seismic analysis of the structures has two objectives: the determination of forces in the structure in order to design it against earthquakes and the generation of floor response spectra to be used in the design of mechanical and electrical components and piping systems. (Author) [pt

  6. Seismic qualification of PWR plant auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Tsai, N.C.

    1983-08-01

    The NRC Standard Review Plan specifies that the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a safeguard system that functions in the event of a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) to remove the decay heat via the steam generator. Only recently licensed PWR plants have an AFW system designed to the current Standard Review Plan specifications. The NRC devised the Multiplant Action Plan C-14 in order to make a survey of the seismic capability of the AFW systems of operating PWR plants. The purpose of this survey is to enable the NRC to make decisions regarding the need of requiring the licensees to upgrade the AFW systems to an SSE level of seismic capability. To implement the first phase of the C-14 plan, the NRC issued a Generic Letter (GL) 81-14 to all operating PWR licensees requesting information on the seismic capability of their AFW systems. This report summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's efforts to assist the NRC in evaluating the status of seismic qualification of the AFW systems in 40 PWR plants, by reviewing the licensees' responses to GL 81-14

  7. Outline of the report on the seismic safety examination of nuclear facilities based on the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake (tentative translation) - September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    From the standpoint of thoroughly confirming the seismic safety of nuclear facilities, Nuclear Safety Commission established an Examination Committee on the Seismic Safety of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities (hereinafter called Seismic Safety Examination Committee) based on the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake on January 19, 1995, two days after the occurrence of the earthquake, in order to examine the validity of related guidelines on the seismic design to be used for the safety examination. This report outlines the results of the examinations by the Seismic Safety Examination Committee: basic principle of examinations at the seismic safety examination committee, overview on the related guidelines of the seismic design, information and knowledge obtained on the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, examination of validity of the guidelines based on various information of the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. The Seismic Design Examination Committee surveyed the related guidelines on seismic design, selected the items to be examined, and examined on those items based on the knowledge obtained from the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. As a result, the Committee confirmed that the validity of the guidelines regulating the seismic design of nuclear facilities is not impaired even though on the basis of the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. However, the people related to the nuclear facilities may not be content with the above result, but continuously put efforts in doing the following matters to improve furthermore the reliability of seismic design of nuclear facilities by always reflecting the latest knowledge on the seismic design. 1) - The people related to nuclear facilities must seriously accept the fact that valuable knowledge could be obtained from the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake, try to study and analyze the obtained data, and reflect the results of investigations, studies, and examinations conducted appropriately to the seismic design of nuclear facilities referring to the investigations

  8. Seismic investigation of an ocean-continent transition zone in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Qiu, X.; Xu, H.; Zhan, W.; Sun, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Rifted continental margins and basins are mainly formed by the lithospheric extension. Thined lithosphere of passive continental margins results in decompression melt of magma and created oceanic crust and thined ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone. Two refraction profiles used ocean bottom seismometers deployed in the broad continental shelf and three multi-channel seismic reflection lines in the northern South China Sea, acquired by the ship "Shiyan 2" of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2010, are processed and interpreted in this study. Seismic reflection lines cut through the Dongsha rise, Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression within a Tertiary basin, Pear River Mouth basin (called as Zhujiangkou basin). These tectonic features are clear imaged in the seismic reflection records. Numerous normal faults, cutted through the basement and related to the stretch of the northern South China Sea margin, are imaged and interpreted. Reflection characteristics of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone are summaried and outlined. The COT zone is mainly divided into the northern syn-rift subsidence zone, central volcano or buried volcano uplift zone and tilt faulted block near the South Chia Sea basin. Compared to the previous seismic reflection data and refraction velocity models, the segmentation range of the OCT zone is outlined, from width of about 225 km in the northeastern South China Sea , of 160 km in the central to of 110 km in the north-central South China Sea. Based on the epicenter distribution of sporadic and large than 6 magnitude earthquakes, it suggests the OCT zone in the northern South China Sea at present is still an active seismic zone.

  9. Delineation of spall zone from pre/post shot reflections studies: Preliminary results from BEXAR. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.R.; Cogbill, A.H.; Weaver, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, R.; Steeples, D. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In order to delineate the lateral and depth extent of spall from a buried nuclear explosion, we have performed a high-resolution pre- and post-shot seismic reflection survey from BEXAR. Although the data quality were marginal due to poor wave propagation through the volcanic tuffs of Pahute Mesa, a number of interesting differences are observed on the pre- and post-shot surveys. On the pre-shot survey, a reflector (reflector `` 1 ``) is observed at 250 ms (or about 150 m depth) using a stacking velocity of 1300 m/s. On the post-shot survey two reflectors are observed and a stacking velocity of 1150 m/s was used representing a 12% reduction in compressional velocity. With this stacking velocity, reflector `` 1 `` is recorded at 290 ms (still at about 150 m depth) and a new reflector ``2`` is observed at 210 ms (or about 100 m depth). These stacking velocities correspond well with available uphole travel times collected in U19ba and nearby U19ax (BEXAR and KEARSARGE emplacement holes, respectively). The cause for the differences observed in the pre- and post-shot surveys may be due to one of two reasons. First, it is possible that the near-surface rocks were damaged as part of the spallation process (thus reducing the in situ velocities) and reflector ``2`` represents a spall detachment surface. However, analysis of acceleration data collected close to the reflection line suggests that the ground motions were probably inadequate to damage the tuffs. Also, no evidence of actual spallation was actually observed. The second hypothesis is that the near-surface velocities of the tuffs were altered by the change in saturation state due to extensive rains occurring between the pre- and postshot surveys. Although the dependence of seismic velocity on saturation state is controlled by a number of complex factors, it cannot be ruled out.

  10. Seismic reflection data processing in active volcanic areas: an application to Campi Flegrei and Somma Vesuvius offshore (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rapolla

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The Campanian volcanism develops near the sea. Therefore, the geophysical study of the marine environment is a key to a better understanding of the tectonic evolution and the origin of volcanism in the area. An abundance of high quality seismic data in the marine sector, where little direct information is available, is critical to the study of Campanian volcanism. This paper concerns the reprocessing of a seismic reflection dataset acquired in Naples Bay and processed during 1973. Even though the overall data quality was high for that time, of course their acquisition technological limits have been overcome by the new processing. Our reprocessing aimed at: 1 reduction of random noise in the data; 2 removal of unwanted coherent events; 3 reduction of spatial aliasing by means of trace interpolation on Commod Shot Point (CSP gathering; 4 improvement of resolution of the seismic wavelet with spiking deconvolution algorithms and finally 5 reposition of reflectors in their correct locations in the space-TWT domain by means of dip moveout and post-stack time migration. A comparison between the new and old data shows that the new sections are characterized by a much higher S/N ratio. Diffraction hyperbole has been collapsed. Reverberations, ghosts and multiples have been removed or greatly attenuated, especially between the reflectors of interest, allowing us to follow them with more detail and with greater continuity. Furthermore, data resolution has been boosted by the reprocessing, allowing the interpreter to evaluate reflector position and continuity in greater detail. The reinterpretation phase of such lines, that is already in an advanced stage, will therefore allow us to gain new insights into the structural setting of the bay, with the aim of exploring the connection between tectonics and volcanism.

  11. Survey of coherent ion reflection at the quasi-parallel bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.; Thomsen, M.F.; Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; Russell, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    Ions coherently reflected off the Earth's bow shock have previously been observed both when the upstream geometry is quasi-perpendicular and when it is quasi-parallel. In the case of quasiperpendicular geometry, the ions are reflected in a nearly specular manner and are quickly carried back into the shock by the convecting magnetic field. In the quasi-parallel geometry, however, near-specularly reflected ions' guiding center velocities would on the average be directed away from the shock, allowing the ions to escape into the upstream region. The conditions under which coherent reflection occurs and the subsequent coupling of the reflected ions to the incoming solar wind plasma are important factors when assessing the contribution of the reflected ions to the downstream temperature increase and the shock structure. The survey presented in this paper, along with previously reported observations, suggests that near-specularly reflected ions are indeed an important aspect of energy dissipation at the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. The authors find that (1) cool, coherent, near-specularly reflected ion beams are detected over nearly the full range of upstream plasma paraameters commonly found at the Earth's bow shock; (2) the beams are typically observed only near the shock ramp or some shock-like feature; and (3) the observed beam velocities are almost always consistent with what one would expect for near-specularly reflected ions after only a small fraction of a gyroperiod following reflection. The second and third points indicate that the beams spread very quickly in velocity space. This spread in velocities could be due either to interactions between the beam and incoming solar wind ions or to some initially small velocity spread in the beam

  12. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    maximize the energy of the seismic source in order to reach a sufficient exploration range. The next step for focusing is to use the method of phased array. Dependent of the seismic wave velocities of the surrounding rock, the distance of the actuators to each other and the used frequencies the signal phases for each actuator can be determined. Since one year several measurements with the prototype have been realized under defined conditions at a test site in a mine. The test site consists of a rock block surrounded from three galleries with a dimension of about 100 by 200 meters. For testing the prototype two horizontal boreholes were drilled. They are directed to one of the gallery to get a strong reflector. The quality of the data of the borehole seismics in amplitude and frequency spectra show overall a good signal-to-noise ratio and correlate strongly with the fracture density along the borehole and are associated with a lower signal-to-noise ratio. Additionally, the geophones of the prototype show reflections from ahead and rearward in the seismic data. In particular, the reflections from the gallery ahead are used for the calibration of focusing. The direct seismic wave field indicates distinct compression and shear waves. The analysis of several seismic measurements with a focus on the direct seismic waves shows that the phased array technology explicit can influence the directional characteristics of the radiated seimic waves. The amplitudes of the seismic waves can be enhanced up to three times more in the desired direction and simultaneously be attenuated in the reverse direction. A major step for the directional investigation in boreholes has accomplished. But the focusing of the seismic waves has to be improved to maximize the energy in the desired direction in more measurements by calibrating the initiating seismic signals of the sources. A next step this year is the development of a wireline prototype for application in vertical boreholes with depths not

  13. Information system evolution at the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, F.; Grunberg, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aging information system of the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS), located in Strasbourg (EOST), needed to be updated to satisfy new practices from Computer science world. The latter means to evolve our system at different levels : development method, datamining solutions, system administration. The new system had to provide more agility for incoming projects. The main difficulty was to maintain old system and the new one in parallel the time to validate new solutions with a restricted team. Solutions adopted here are coming from standards used by the seismological community and inspired by the state of the art of devops community. The new system is easier to maintain and take advantage of large community to find support. This poster introduces the new system and choosen solutions like Puppet, Fabric, MongoDB and FDSN Webservices.

  14. The communication in the sea as efficient tool to minimize the conflicts between seismic survey and fisheries; A comunicacao no mar como ferramenta eficaz de minimizacao dos conflitos entre pesquisa sismica e pesca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, D.H.X.B.C.; Oliveira, M.R.; Carloni, G.G.; Rezende, A.R. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, G.A. [CGGVeritas, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    In the period from February 14th to July 14th, 2007, CGGVeritas performed marine seismic survey (Class 1), in BM-C-26 and BM-C-27 Blocks, located in the Campos Basin. The Social Communication Project - SCP had as main objectives provide to stakeholders information related to the potential impact generated by the activity and a communication channel with the company. This article is focused on the Direct Contact Strategy, which played the role of making contact with all the fishing vessels sailing on the route of the seismic vessel. This strategy has three functions: to contact the fishing vessels near the seismic vessel; communicate through radio announcements informing the exact position of the seismic vessel and; investigate all incidents. There were 547 fishing vessels contacted of the total 692 observed. Only 5 incidents involving loss of fishing equipment were registered. All potential impacts associated with the seismic survey have been significantly minimized. The successful performance of the assistant boats also assured the great performance of the Project, interrupted a few times due to the presence of fishing vessels. It follows that the strategy was an important factor of success for the Social Communication Project. (author)

  15. The Global Detection Capability of the IMS Seismic Network in 2013 Inferred from Ambient Seismic Noise Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, P. J.; Ceranna, L.

    2016-12-01

    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection thresholdcan be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  16. New High-Resolution Multibeam Mapping and Seismic Reflection Imaging of Mudflows on the Mississippi River Delta Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Baldwin, W. E.; Danforth, W. W.; Bentley, S. J.; Miner, M. D.; Damour, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mudflows (channelized and unconfined debris flows) on the Mississippi River Delta Front (MRDF) are a recognized hazard to oil and gas infrastructure in the shallow Gulf of Mexico. Preconditioning of the seafloor for failure results from high sedimentation rates coupled with slope over-steepening, under-consolidation, and abundant biogenic gas production. Cyclical loading of the seafloor by waves from passing major storms appears to be a primary trigger, but the role of smaller (more frequent) storms and background oceanographic processes are largely unconstrained. A pilot high-resolution seafloor mapping and seismic imaging study was carried out across portions of the MRDF aboard the R/V Point Sur from May 19-26, 2017, as part of a multi-agency/university effort to characterize mudflow hazards in the area. The primary objective of the cruise was to assess the suitability of seafloor mapping and shallow sub-surface imaging tools in the challenging environmental conditions found across delta fronts (e.g., variably-distributed water column stratification and wide-spread biogenic gas in the shallow sub-surface). More than 600 km of multibeam bathymetry/backscatter/water column data, 425 km of towed chirp data, and > 500 km of multi-channel seismic data (boomer/mini-sparker sources, 32-channel streamer) were collected. Varied mudflow (gully, lobe), pro-delta morphologies, and structural features, some of which have been surveyed more than once, were imaged in selected survey areas from Pass a Loutre to Southwest Pass. The present location of the SS Virginia, which has been moving with one of the mudflow lobes since it was sunk in 1942, was determined and found to be 60 m SW of its 2006 position, suggesting movement not linked to hurricane-induced wave triggering of mudflows. Preliminary versions these data were used to identify sediment sampling sites visited on a cruise in early June 2017 led by scientists from LSU and other university/agency partners.

  17. P-wave and surface wave survey for permafrost analysis in alpine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godio, A.; Socco, L. V.; Garofalo, F.; Arato, A.; Théodule, A.

    2012-04-01

    In various high mountain environments the estimate of mechanical properties of slope and sediments are relevant for the link of the geo-mechanical properties with the climate change effects. Two different locations were selected to perform seismic and georadar surveying, the Tsanteleina glacier (Gran Paradiso) and the Blue Lake in Val d'Ayas in the massif of Monterosa. The analysis of the seismic and GPR lines allowed to characterize the silty soil (top layer) and underlying bedrock. We applied seismic survey in time lapse mode to check the presence of "active" layer and estimate the mechanical properties of the moraines material and their sensitivity to the permafrost changes. Mechanical properties of sediments and moraines in glacial areas are related to the grain-size, the compaction of the material subjected to the past glacial activity, the presence of frozen materials and the reactivity of the permafrost to the climate changes. The test site of Tsanteleina has been equipped with sensors to monitor the temperature of soil and air and with time domain reflectometry to estimate the soil moisture and the frozen and thawing cycle of the uppermost material. Seismic reflections from the top of the permafrost layer are difficult to identify as they are embedded in the source-generated noise. Therefore we estimate seismic velocities from the analysis of traveltime refraction tomography and the analysis of surface wave. This approach provides information on compressional and shear waves using a single acquisition layout and a hammer acts as source. This reduces the acquisition time in complex logistical condition especially in winter period. The seismic survey was performed using 48 vertical geophones with 2 m spacing. The survey has been repeated in two different periods: summer 2011 and winter 2011. Common offset reflection lines with a 200 MHz GPR system (in summer) permitted to investigate the sediments and obtain information on the subsoil layering. The processing

  18. Steep-dip seismic imaging of the shallow San Andreas fault near Parkfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, J A; Catchings, R D; St Clair, K C; Rymer, M J; Okaya, D A; Carney, B J

    2001-11-16

    Seismic reflection and refraction images illuminate the San Andreas Fault to a depth of 1 kilometer. The prestack depth-migrated reflection image contains near-vertical reflections aligned with the active fault trace. The fault is vertical in the upper 0.5 kilometer, then dips about 70 degrees to the southwest to at least 1 kilometer subsurface. This dip reconciles the difference between the computed locations of earthquakes and the surface fault trace. The seismic velocity cross section shows strong lateral variations. Relatively low velocity (10 to 30%), high electrical conductivity, and low density indicate a 1-kilometer-wide vertical wedge of porous sediment or fractured rock immediately southwest of the active fault trace.

  19. Mobility Effect on Poroelastic Seismic Signatures in Partially Saturated Rocks With Applications in Time-Lapse Monitoring of a Heavy Oil Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luanxiao; Yuan, Hemin; Yang, Jingkang; Han, De-hua; Geng, Jianhua; Zhou, Rui; Li, Hui; Yao, Qiuliang

    2017-11-01

    Conventional seismic analysis in partially saturated rocks normally lays emphasis on estimating pore fluid content and saturation, typically ignoring the effect of mobility, which decides the ability of fluids moving in the porous rocks. Deformation resulting from a seismic wave in heterogeneous partially saturated media can cause pore fluid pressure relaxation at mesoscopic scale, thereby making the fluid mobility inherently associated with poroelastic reflectivity. For two typical gas-brine reservoir models, with the given rock and fluid properties, the numerical analysis suggests that variations of patchy fluid saturation, fluid compressibility contrast, and acoustic stiffness of rock frame collectively affect the seismic reflection dependence on mobility. In particular, the realistic compressibility contrast of fluid patches in shallow and deep reservoir environments plays an important role in determining the reflection sensitivity to mobility. We also use a time-lapse seismic data set from a Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage producing heavy oil reservoir to demonstrate that mobility change coupled with patchy saturation possibly leads to seismic spectral energy shifting from the baseline to monitor line. Our workflow starts from performing seismic spectral analysis on the targeted reflectivity interface. Then, on the basis of mesoscopic fluid pressure diffusion between patches of steam and heavy oil, poroelastic reflectivity modeling is conducted to understand the shift of the central frequency toward low frequencies after the steam injection. The presented results open the possibility of monitoring mobility change of a partially saturated geological formation from dissipation-related seismic attributes.

  20. Seismic activity in northeastern Brazill-new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J. M.; Do Nascimento, A. F.; Vilar, C. S.; Bezerra, F. H.; Assumpcao, M.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R. A.

    2007-05-01