Sample records for segmental border zone

  1. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

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    Saskia Sassen


    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  2. First Philosophy in the Border Zone

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    Viggo Rossvaer


    Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.

  3. Russia-Kazakhstan Border-Zone: Sociological Analysis

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    Eliza Kamchybekovna Biizhanova


    Full Text Available The article, based on the research conducted by the Center for Regional Sociology and Conflictology Studies of the Institute of Sociology of RAS, discusses the features of cross-border cooperation of Russia and Kazakhstan. It considers works of Western and Russian scientists to identify major approaches to the study of cross-border cooperation. It discusses strengthening of inter-ethnic and socio-economic integration and cross-border cooperation at the regional level. The borderland as a social phenomenon is an object of our study; the research is focused on local communities, understood as residents of Russian regions bordering with neighboring countries. This means that the research is devoted to local communities of the areas, located on Russia’s borders with different states – with the new neighbors, which appeared after the USSR collapse (e.g., Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States in the West, Kazakhstan in the East and the long-existing ones – Turkey, China, Mongolia, etc. For analysis we select the Orenburg Oblast, which has one of the longest border lines with Kazakhstan. We make an attempt to identify whether the border-zone can serve as a frontier base for the creation of a successful brand of the region based on the self-identification of local people and thereby increase the level of socio-cultural and socio-economic development of the region through the attraction of additional tourist flows and investment in the region. What is the specificity of self-identification of the border region population and how can border relations become a tool for development of socio-economic, socio-cultural and inter-state relations?

  4. Myofilament dysfunction contributes to impaired myocardial contraction in the infarct border zone. (United States)

    Shimkunas, Rafael; Makwana, Om; Spaulding, Kimberly; Bazargan, Mona; Khazalpour, Michael; Takaba, Kiyoaki; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Lovett, David H; Simpson, Paul C; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Baker, Anthony J


    After myocardial infarction, a poorly contracting nonischemic border zone forms adjacent to the infarct. The cause of border zone dysfunction is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the myofilament mechanisms involved in postinfarction border zone dysfunction. Two weeks after anteroapical infarction of sheep hearts, we studied in vitro isometric and isotonic contractions of demembranated myocardium from the infarct border zone and a zone remote from the infarct. Maximal force development (Fmax) of the border zone myocardium was reduced by 31 ± 2% versus the remote zone myocardium (n = 6/group, P < 0.0001). Decreased border zone Fmax was not due to a reduced content of contractile material, as assessed histologically, and from myosin content. Furthermore, decreased border zone Fmax did not involve altered cross-bridge kinetics, as assessed by muscle shortening velocity and force development kinetics. Decreased border zone Fmax was associated with decreased cross-bridge formation, as assessed from muscle stiffness in the absence of ATP where cross-bridge formation should be maximized (rigor stiffness was reduced 34 ± 6%, n = 5, P = 0.011 vs. the remote zone). Furthermore, the border zone myocardium had significantly reduced phosphorylation of myosin essential light chain (ELC; 41 ± 10%, n = 4, P < 0.05). However, for animals treated with doxycycline, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, rigor stiffness and ELC phosphorylation were not reduced in the border zone myocardium, suggesting that doxycycline had a protective effect. In conclusion, myofilament dysfunction contributes to postinfarction border zone dysfunction, myofilament dysfunction involves impaired cross-bridge formation and decreased ELC phosphorylation, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition may be beneficial for limiting postinfarct border zone dysfunction.

  5. Tracking fuzzy borders using geodesic curves with application to liver segmentation on planning CT. (United States)

    Yuan, Yading; Chao, Ming; Sheu, Ren-Dih; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Lo, Yeh-Chi


    This work aims to develop a robust and efficient method to track the fuzzy borders between liver and the abutted organs where automatic liver segmentation usually suffers, and to investigate its applications in automatic liver segmentation on noncontrast-enhanced planning computed tomography (CT) images. In order to track the fuzzy liver-chestwall and liver-heart borders where oversegmentation is often found, a starting point and an ending point were first identified on the coronal view images; the fuzzy border was then determined as a geodesic curve constructed by minimizing the gradient-weighted path length between these two points near the fuzzy border. The minimization of path length was numerically solved by fast-marching method. The resultant fuzzy borders were incorporated into the authors' automatic segmentation scheme, in which the liver was initially estimated by a patient-specific adaptive thresholding and then refined by a geodesic active contour model. By using planning CT images of 15 liver patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, the liver contours extracted by the proposed computerized scheme were compared with those manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The proposed automatic liver segmentation method yielded an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.930 ± 0.015, whereas it was 0.912 ± 0.020 if the fuzzy border tracking was not used. The application of fuzzy border tracking was found to significantly improve the segmentation performance. The mean liver volume obtained by the proposed method was 1727 cm(3), whereas it was 1719 cm(3) for manual-outlined volumes. The computer-generated liver volumes achieved excellent agreement with manual-outlined volumes with correlation coefficient of 0.98. The proposed method was shown to provide accurate segmentation for liver in the planning CT images where contrast agent is not applied. The authors' results also clearly demonstrated that the application of tracking the fuzzy

  6. Feed-forward segmentation of figure-ground and assignment of border-ownership.

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    Hans Supèr

    Full Text Available Figure-ground is the segmentation of visual information into objects and their surrounding backgrounds. Two main processes herein are boundary assignment and surface segregation, which rely on the integration of global scene information. Recurrent processing either by intrinsic horizontal connections that connect surrounding neurons or by feedback projections from higher visual areas provide such information, and are considered to be the neural substrate for figure-ground segmentation. On the contrary, a role of feedforward projections in figure-ground segmentation is unknown. To have a better understanding of a role of feedforward connections in figure-ground organization, we constructed a feedforward spiking model using a biologically plausible neuron model. By means of surround inhibition our simple 3-layered model performs figure-ground segmentation and one-sided border-ownership coding. We propose that the visual system uses feed forward suppression for figure-ground segmentation and border-ownership assignment.

  7. Electro-mechanical characteristics of myocardial infarction border zones and ventricular arrhythmic risk: novel insights from grid-tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Dennis T.L.; Weightman, Michael J.; Baumert, Mathias; Tayeb, Hussam; Richardson, James D.; Puri, Rishi; Bertaso, Angela G.; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C.; Sanders, Prashanthan; Worthley, Matthew I. [University of Adelaide, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Royal Adelaide Hospital and Discipline of Medicine, SA (Australia); Worthley, Stephen G. [University of Adelaide, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Royal Adelaide Hospital and Discipline of Medicine, SA (Australia); Royal Adelaide Hospital, Cardiovascular Investigational Unit, SA (Australia)


    To investigate whether grid-tag myocardial strain evaluation can characterise 'border-zone' peri-infarct region and identify patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia as the peri-infarct myocardial zone may represent an important contributor to ventricular arrhythmia following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Forty-five patients with STEMI underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging on days 3 and 90 following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Circumferential peak circumferential systolic strain (CS) and strain rate (CSR) were calculated from grid-tagged images. Myocardial segments were classified into 'infarct', 'border-zone', 'adjacent' and 'remote' regions by late-gadolinium enhancement distribution. The relationship between CS and CSR and these distinct myocardial regions was assessed. Ambulatory Holter monitoring was performed 14 days post myocardial infarction (MI) to estimate ventricular arrhythmia risk via evaluation of heart-rate variability (HRV). We analysed 1,222 myocardial segments. Remote and adjacent regions had near-normal parameters of CS and CSR. Border-zone regions had intermediate CS (-9.0 {+-} 4.6 vs -5.9 {+-} 7.4, P < 0.001) and CSR (-86.4 {+-} 33.3 vs -73.5 {+-} 51.4, P < 0.001) severity compared with infarct regions. Patients with 'border-zone' peri-infarct regions had reduced very-low-frequency power on HRV analysis, which is a surrogate for ventricular arrhythmia risk (P = 0.03). Grid-tagged CMR-derived myocardial strain accurately characterises the mechanical characteristics of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region. Presence of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region correlated with a surrogate marker of heightened arrhythmia risk following STEMI. (orig.)

  8. Tracking fuzzy borders using geodesic curves with application to liver segmentation on planning CT

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    Yuan, Yading, E-mail:; Chao, Ming; Sheu, Ren-Dih; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Lo, Yeh-Chi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029 (United States)


    Purpose: This work aims to develop a robust and efficient method to track the fuzzy borders between liver and the abutted organs where automatic liver segmentation usually suffers, and to investigate its applications in automatic liver segmentation on noncontrast-enhanced planning computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: In order to track the fuzzy liver–chestwall and liver–heart borders where oversegmentation is often found, a starting point and an ending point were first identified on the coronal view images; the fuzzy border was then determined as a geodesic curve constructed by minimizing the gradient-weighted path length between these two points near the fuzzy border. The minimization of path length was numerically solved by fast-marching method. The resultant fuzzy borders were incorporated into the authors’ automatic segmentation scheme, in which the liver was initially estimated by a patient-specific adaptive thresholding and then refined by a geodesic active contour model. By using planning CT images of 15 liver patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, the liver contours extracted by the proposed computerized scheme were compared with those manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. Results: The proposed automatic liver segmentation method yielded an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.930 ± 0.015, whereas it was 0.912 ± 0.020 if the fuzzy border tracking was not used. The application of fuzzy border tracking was found to significantly improve the segmentation performance. The mean liver volume obtained by the proposed method was 1727 cm{sup 3}, whereas it was 1719 cm{sup 3} for manual-outlined volumes. The computer-generated liver volumes achieved excellent agreement with manual-outlined volumes with correlation coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The proposed method was shown to provide accurate segmentation for liver in the planning CT images where contrast agent is not applied. The authors’ results also clearly

  9. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces TILEC DP 2010-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.


    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,

  10. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces CentER DP 2010-096)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.


    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,

  11. Regulation of ion gradients across myocardial ischemic border zones: a biophysical modelling analysis.

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    Steven Niederer

    Full Text Available The myocardial ischemic border zone is associated with the initiation and sustenance of arrhythmias. The profile of ionic concentrations across the border zone play a significant role in determining cellular electrophysiology and conductivity, yet their spatial-temporal evolution and regulation are not well understood. To investigate the changes in ion concentrations that regulate cellular electrophysiology, a mathematical model of ion movement in the intra and extracellular space in the presence of ionic, potential and material property heterogeneities was developed. The model simulates the spatial and temporal evolution of concentrations of potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, hydrogen and bicarbonate ions and carbon dioxide across an ischemic border zone. Ischemia was simulated by sodium-potassium pump inhibition, potassium channel activation and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. The model predicted significant disparities in the width of the border zone for each ionic species, with intracellular sodium and extracellular potassium having discordant gradients, facilitating multiple gradients in cellular properties across the border zone. Extracellular potassium was found to have the largest border zone and this was attributed to the voltage dependence of the potassium channels. The model also predicted the efflux of [Formula: see text] from the ischemic region due to electrogenic drift and diffusion within the intra and extracellular space, respectively, which contributed to [Formula: see text] depletion in the ischemic region.

  12. 22 CFR 123.6 - Foreign trade zones and U.S. Customs and Border Protection bonded warehouses. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign trade zones and U.S. Customs and Border... IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.6 Foreign trade zones and U.S. Customs and Border Protection bonded warehouses. Foreign trade zones in the United States and U.S. Customs...

  13. Dor procedure for dyskinetic anteroapical myocardial infarction fails to improve contractility in the border zone. (United States)

    Sun, Kay; Zhang, Zhihong; Suzuki, Takamaro; Wenk, Jonathan F; Stander, Nielen; Einstein, Daniel R; Saloner, David A; Wallace, Arthur W; Guccione, Julius M; Ratcliffe, Mark B


    Endoventricular patch plasty (Dor) is used to reduce left ventricular volume after myocardial infarction and subsequent left ventricular remodeling. End-diastolic and end-systolic pressure-volume and Starling relationships were measured, and magnetic resonance images with noninvasive tags were used to calculate 3-dimensional myocardial strain in 6 sheep 2 weeks before and 2 and 6 weeks after the Dor procedure. These experimental results were previously reported. The imaging data from 1 sheep were incomplete. Animal specific finite element models were created from the remaining 5 animals using magnetic resonance images and left ventricular pressure obtained at early diastolic filling. Finite element models were optimized with 3-dimensional strain and used to determine systolic material properties, T(max,skinned-fiber), and diastolic and systolic stress in remote myocardium and border zone. Six weeks after the Dor procedure, end-diastolic and end-systolic stress in the border zone were substantially reduced. However, although there was a slight increase in T(max,skinned-fiber) in the border zone near the myocardial infarction at 6 weeks, the change was not significant. The Dor procedure decreases end-diastolic and end-systolic stress but fails to improve contractility in the infarct border zone. Future work should focus on measures that will enhance border zone function alone or in combination with surgical remodeling. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  14. Cross-Border Clusters in Coastal Zones: Factors and Characteristics of Development

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    Druzhinin A.G.


    Full Text Available The article highlights the current issues of coastal zones’ development through the prism of the cluster approach. Coastal zone is viewed to be the area with high potential of cluster formation, including cross-border clustering. Based on the modeling of inter-organizational interactions within the cluster, the research identifies the main factors and conditions, as well as the specifics of the formation of cross-border clusters in coastal zones. The classification of cross-border clusters, based on territorial, market and other factors of their life is given. Cross-aquatorial cluster is identified to be an independent typological unit. Its characteristics and the conditions of formation and development are viewed within the framework of contemporary globalization trends. The main cross-border clusters, forming and existing in the regions of Russia and abroad are reviewed. The specificity of cross-aquatory clusters and the large number of species are predetermined by the conditions of the development of international cooperation in coastal zones, as well as the logistical specifics of port facilities as key points of contact economic counterparties belonging to different jurisdictions. The relevance of the identification and cultivation of observation of cross-border clusters in the sustainable development of coastal zones and the building of a multi-vector foreign economic interactions steadily increases, including for Russia.

  15. 77 FR 47558 - Extension of Border Zone in the State of New Mexico (United States)


    ... intended to promote commerce and tourism in southern New Mexico while still ensuring that sufficient... commerce, trade, and tourism in southern New Mexico, while still ensuring that sufficient safeguards are in... travel and tourism industry in the U.S.- Mexico border zone. CBP seeks comment on the possible savings...

  16. 78 FR 35103 - Extension of Border Zone in the State of New Mexico (United States)


    ... in the business and academic communities. Many commenters stated that the expanded border zone will... the United States. See 67 FR 71443. The BCC is an approved document to establish identity and... academic communities. The two comments opposing the expansion were both from individuals. \\3\\ Four of the...

  17. Czech Post-industrial Landscapes in the Border Zone with Austria: Identification, Typology nad Value

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Klimánek, M.; Hrádek, Mojmír; Kirchner, Karel


    Roč. 159, č. 159 (2017), s. 221-242 ISSN 0029-9138 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300860903 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : post-industrial landscape * mapping * GIS * border zone with Austria * classification Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.167, year: 2016

  18. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Military Personnel Stationed at Border-Crossing Zones in the Dominican Republic (United States)


    dos al personal militar de esta región deben incorporar como temas esenciales la coacción sexual y la salud mental. Conducta sexual ; personal militar...Rev Panam Salud Publica 28(5), 2010 361 Sexual risk behavior among military personnel stationed at border-crossing zones in the Dominican Republic...Michael P. Anastario,1 Maria Isabel Tavarez,2 and Helen Chun3 Objective. To estimate the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among military personnel

  19. Cardiac MRI of myocardial salvage at the peri-infarct border zones after primary coronary intervention


    O'Regan, Declan P.; Ahmed, Rizwan; Neuwirth, Clare; Tan, Yvonne; Durighel, Giuliana; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Nadra, Imad; Corbett, Simon J.; Cook, Stuart A.


    The purpose of this study was to use cardiac MRI to define the morphology of the reversibly injured peri-infarct border zone in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. In 15 patients, T2-weighted myocardial edema imaging was used to identify the ischemic bed or area at risk (AAR), and late gadolinium enhancement imaging was used to measure infarct size. Images were coregistered, and the boundaries of edema and necro...

  20. Cardiac MRI of myocardial salvage at the peri-infarct border zones after primary coronary intervention. (United States)

    O'Regan, Declan P; Ahmed, Rizwan; Neuwirth, Clare; Tan, Yvonne; Durighel, Giuliana; Hajnal, Joseph V; Nadra, Imad; Corbett, Simon J; Cook, Stuart A


    The purpose of this study was to use cardiac MRI to define the morphology of the reversibly injured peri-infarct border zone in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. In 15 patients, T2-weighted myocardial edema imaging was used to identify the ischemic bed or area at risk (AAR), and late gadolinium enhancement imaging was used to measure infarct size. Images were coregistered, and the boundaries of edema and necrosis were defined using an edge-detection methodology. We observed that infarction always involved the subendocardium but showed variable transmural extension within the AAR. The mean infarct size was 22 +/- 19% (range: 8-48%), and the mean AAR was 34 +/- 12% (range: 20-57%). The infarcted myocardium was always smaller than the ischemic AAR and involved between 34% and 99% (mean 72 +/- 21%) of the ischemic bed primarily due to variation in transmural infarct extension. Although a lateral border zone of potentially viable myocardium was often present, its extent was limited (range: 0-11 mm, mean: 5 +/- 4 mm). As a result of this, infarcts occupied the majority (range: 70-100%, mean: 82 +/- 13%) of the width of the AAR. The mean fractional wall thickening in the infarcted, peri-infarcted, and remote myocardium was 3.6 +/- 16.0%, 40.5 +/- 26.4%, and 88.2 +/- 39.3%, respectively. These findings demonstrate that myocardial salvage is largely determined by epicardial limitation of the infarct within the ischemic AAR after PPCI. The lateral boundaries of necrosis approximate to the lateral extent of the ischemic bed and systolic wall motion abnormalities extend well beyond the infarct border zone.

  1. Pseudotransition zone in long segment Hirschsprung's disease

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    Johnson, J.F.; Cronk, R.L.


    Two cases of Hirschsprung's disease with pseudotransition zones are presented. The location and appearance of the transition zone, transverse contractions proximal to the radiographic transition zone, and a delayed film aid in distinguishing a false transition zone from a true transition zone.

  2. Sister cities and easy passage: HIV, mobility and economies of desire in a Thai/Lao border zone. (United States)

    Lyttleton, Chris; Amarapibal, Amorntip


    It is recognised that people movement can increase potential risk of HIV transmission. In recent years, mobile populations moving across national borders have become a focus for HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. These programs generally target border "hot zones" that produce high levels of HIV vulnerability due to the degree of mobility and the risk behaviours fostered by these marginal environments. However, high degrees of movement and social exploitation need not be the only criteria for borders to exacerbate HIV vulnerability. The types of social interactions promoted by mobility take many forms. In this paper we consider a border zone between Thailand and Laos to show that the links between movement and HIV vulnerability are not confined to stereotypical instances of coercion and exploitation. Rather we demonstrate that HIV risk in this area is a product of both a sense of community and a sense of difference that together foster a range of interactions based on mobility back and forth across the border. As HIV/AIDS prevention programs increasingly control forms of sexual interaction, the border provides a practical and symbolic opportunity to establish new forms of sexual relationship falling outside these constraints. This tendency to move outside bounds is not limited to border areas but has implications for prevention programs everywhere.

  3. Delimitation of the continental shelf and exclusive economic Zone the Sea Border between Romania and Ukraine

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    Mihai Mereuţă


    Full Text Available Decision I.C.J. from The Hague, since 3rd February 2009, in the case of “Romania vs. Ukraine - the maritime delimitation in the Black Sea”, has an important role in bilateral relations and regional plans of the riparian states and thus also eliminating a potential factor of instability at the sea border between the two countries and in the Black Sea. Drawing a line of demarcation equitable maritime economic zone and continental shelf between the two countries was an example of dispute settlement in the wider Black Sea area. Snake Island was not considered relevant in substantiating the court decision, because the I.C.J. has not declared it a rock, giving it a length of 12 nautical miles territorial sea and has not ruled on the nature of this formation, in accordance with the provisions of art. 121 of the Montego Bay Convention of 1982.

  4. A coastal zone segmentation variational model and its accelerated ADMM method (United States)

    Huang, Baoxiang; Chen, Ge; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yang, Huan


    Effective and efficient SAR image segmentation has a significant role in coastal zone interpretation. In this paper, a coastal zone segmentation model is proposed based on Potts model. By introducing edge self-adaption parameter and modifying noisy data term, the proposed variational model provides a good solution for the coastal zone SAR image with common characteristics of inherent speckle noise and complicated geometrical details. However, the proposed model is difficult to solve due to to its nonlinear, non-convex and non-smooth characteristics. Followed by curve evolution theory and operator splitting method, the minimization problem is reformulated as a constrained minimization problem. A fast alternating minimization iterative scheme is designed to implement coastal zone segmentation. Finally, various two-stage and multiphase experimental results illustrate the advantage of the proposed segmentation model, and indicate the high computation efficiency of designed numerical approximation algorithm.

  5. Lateral border zone: quantitation of lateral extension of subendocardial infarction in the dog. (United States)

    Forman, R; Cho, S; Factor, S M; Kirk, E S


    This study was undertaken to quantitate the lateral extension that occurs concomitantly with the transmural extension of a subendocardial infarction. A subendocardial infarct was produced in 12 dogs by a 40 minute temporary coronary artery occlusion. Infarct extension was induced 7 days later by permanent occlusion of the same vessel. Regional myocardial blood flows confirmed that ischemia had been produced with both coronary artery occlusions. The vascular boundaries between the normally perfused and ischemic beds were defined by perfusion with different-colored Microfil solutions. The extent of subendocardial infarction and subsequent transmural and lateral extensions were assessed by point counting of histologic specimens. The initial temporary occlusion produced a 30.0 +/- 4.2% transmural infarct and the subsequent permanent occlusion a 29.2 +/- 3.5% transmural extension in a risk region of 39 +/- 4 g. Lateral extension was not measured in four dogs because the initial subendocardial infarct was patchy with markedly irregular lateral borders. In eight dogs the size of the measured lateral infarct extension from each lateral margin from two histologic sections was 0.63 +/- 0.013 cm2. The area of both lateral extensions was 1.7 +/- 0.1% of the cross-sectional area of its risk region as determined by planimetry. Using a model of the risk region, the mass of the lateral extension was estimated to be 1.4 +/- 0.3 g or 3.5 +/- 0.6% of the region at risk. Thus, at the lateral margin of a subendocardial infarct there is a border zone that is small relative to the size of the region at risk and infarcted myocardium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Establishment and modification of the border along the segment of southern Bessarabia throughout the 19th century

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    Zoreana Muţac


    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 19th century the Russian Empire managed to seize the territory of the eastern part of Moldova, located between the rivers of Dniester, Prut, and Danube and the Black Sea, which has since been called Bessarabia. The inclusion of only this territory of the Romanian principalities in the Russian Empire was not the initial plan of the Russian authorities, but it was the last opportunity, in the run-up to the French offensive, at least with some result, to end the war of 1806-1812 with the Sublime Porte, a state that was considered much weaker than Russia. Although the unbending position of the Ottoman Porte in the negotiations between two parties to the armed conflict didn’t allow the Russian Empire to take possession of the two Romanian principalities, Moldova and Wallachia, which had been requested from the very beginning of the confrontation, the war ended with a cession of the Moldavian territory of the left side of the Prut in favor of the Russian Empire. At the same time, Russia for the first time in history gained access to the Danube, or more precisely to the lower reaches of this river, which had a great economic potential of international importance. Thus, the portion of this river, beginning from the point where Prut joins Danube and up to the confluence of the Chilia branch into the Black Sea, became a part of the Russian border along the Bessarabian segment. During the 19th century, this part of the border was subject to a number of changes. In 1829, after the end of the next Russian-Turkish war the border was established along the Sfantu Gheorghe stream (the southern branch. Thus, all the Danube branches were under the control of Russia, which created, both directly and indirectly, many obstacles to the free and safe navigation of foreign commercial vessels in the lower reaches of the river. This fact was the cause of concern and discontent of Western European states that took advantage of the right moment

  7. Megathrust splay faults, forearc basins, and segment boundaries related to the Kodiak Islands segment of the Alaska subduction zone (United States)

    Ramos, M. D.; Liberty, L. M.


    We have compiled and interpreted a comprehensive upper-crustal seismic reflection dataset revealing spatiotemporal Cenozoic deformation across the Kodiak forearc and accretionary prism. Pervasive splay faults and forearc basin growth and positioning with respect to the prism record both accreting and eroding margin episodes through time. Seafloor bathymetry, in conjunction with seismic reflection data, show that post-glacial splay fault motion can exceed 40 meters offshore Kodiak Island. We observe considerable differences in splay fault uplift rates and activation spanning the near-shore region to the continental shelf, with significant tsunamigenic fault motion from the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake concentrated along the Kodiak Island shelf fault zone system. We utilize potential fields data to highlight the continuity of megathrust splay faults that span the southern Gulf of Alaska and to identify geophysical signatures of segment boundaries that represent subducting Pacific plate morphology which may define megathrust rupture limits. Constraints on interseismic deformation from compiled geodetic GPS, focal mechanism, and earthquake datasets reveal the seismotectonic character of the Kodiak segment and are consistent with the structural heterogeneity at both the plate interface and upper plate. Upper plate geometry of the Kodiak segment shows Holocene fault motion has been accommodated along distinct fault zone segments. This knowledge informs tsunami risk modelers to allow for different alternatives of coseismic splay fault uplift during megathrust rupture. Our results suggest growth of forearc structures is contemporaneous with the subduction of major Pacific plate morphologies and provide clear geophysical evidence that can explain the persistence of the Kodiak segment, which is a major step towards a composite Alaska subduction zone deformation model.

  8. Evolution of spiral and scroll waves of excitation in a mathematical model of ischaemic border zone.

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    Vadim N Biktashev

    Full Text Available Abnormal electrical activity from the boundaries of ischemic cardiac tissue is recognized as one of the major causes in generation of ischemia-reperfusion arrhythmias. Here we present theoretical analysis of the waves of electrical activity that can rise on the boundary of cardiac cell network upon its recovery from ischaemia-like conditions. The main factors included in our analysis are macroscopic gradients of the cell-to-cell coupling and cell excitability and microscopic heterogeneity of individual cells. The interplay between these factors allows one to explain how spirals form, drift together with the moving boundary, get transiently pinned to local inhomogeneities, and finally penetrate into the bulk of the well-coupled tissue where they reach macroscopic scale. The asymptotic theory of the drift of spiral and scroll waves based on response functions provides explanation of the drifts involved in this mechanism, with the exception of effects due to the discreteness of cardiac tissue. In particular, this asymptotic theory allows an extrapolation of 2D events into 3D, which has shown that cells within the border zone can give rise to 3D analogues of spirals, the scroll waves. When and if such scroll waves escape into a better coupled tissue, they are likely to collapse due to the positive filament tension. However, our simulations have shown that such collapse of newly generated scrolls is not inevitable and that under certain conditions filament tension becomes negative, leading to scroll filaments to expand and multiply leading to a fibrillation-like state within small areas of cardiac tissue.

  9. Identification of novel deletion breakpoints bordered by segmental duplications in the NF1 locus using high resolution array‐CGH (United States)

    Mantripragada, K K; Thuresson, A‐C; Piotrowski, A; de Ståhl, T Díaz; Menzel, U; Grigelionis, G; Ferner, R E; Griffiths, S; Bolund, L; Mautner, V; Nordling, M; Legius, E; Vetrie, D; Dahl, N; Messiaen, L; Upadhyaya, M; Bruder, C E G; Dumanski, J P


    Background Segmental duplications flanking the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene locus on 17q11 mediate most gene deletions in NF1 patients. However, the large size of the gene and the complexity of the locus architecture pose difficulties in deletion analysis. We report the construction and application of the first NF1 locus specific microarray, covering 2.24 Mb of 17q11, using a non‐redundant approach for array design. The average resolution of analysis for the array is ∼12 kb per measurement point with an increased average resolution of 6.4 kb for the NF1 gene. Methods We performed a comprehensive array‐CGH analysis of 161 NF1 derived samples and identified heterozygous deletions of various sizes in 39 cases. The typical deletion was identified in 26 cases, whereas 13 samples showed atypical deletion profiles. Results The size of the atypical deletions, contained within the segment covered by the array, ranged from 6 kb to 1.6 Mb and their breakpoints could be accurately determined. Moreover, 10 atypical deletions were observed to share a common breakpoint either on the proximal or distal end of the deletion. The deletions identified by array‐CGH were independently confirmed using multiplex ligation‐dependent probe amplification. Bioinformatic analysis of the entire locus identified 33 segmental duplications. Conclusions We show that at least one of these segmental duplications, which borders the proximal breakpoint located within the NF1 intron 1 in five atypical deletions, might represent a novel hot spot for deletions. Our array constitutes a novel and reliable tool offering significantly improved diagnostics for this common disorder. PMID:15944227

  10. Fault segmentation: New concepts from the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah, USA (United States)

    Duross, Christopher; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Olig, Susan S.; Hylland, Michael D.; Lund, William R.; Schwartz, David P.


    The question of whether structural segment boundaries along multisegment normal faults such as the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) act as persistent barriers to rupture is critical to seismic hazard analyses. We synthesized late Holocene paleoseismic data from 20 trench sites along the central WFZ to evaluate earthquake rupture length and fault segmentation. For the youngest (segment boundaries, especially for the most recent earthquakes on the north-central WFZ, are consistent with segment-controlled ruptures. However, broadly constrained earthquake times, dissimilar event times along the segments, the presence of smaller-scale (subsegment) boundaries, and areas of complex faulting permit partial-segment and multisegment (e.g., spillover) ruptures that are shorter (~20–40 km) or longer (~60–100 km) than the primary segment lengths (35–59 km). We report a segmented WFZ model that includes 24 earthquakes since ~7 ka and yields mean estimates of recurrence (1.1–1.3 kyr) and vertical slip rate (1.3–2.0 mm/yr) for the segments. However, additional rupture scenarios that include segment boundary spatial uncertainties, floating earthquakes, and multisegment ruptures are necessary to fully address epistemic uncertainties in rupture length. We compare the central WFZ to paleoseismic and historical surface ruptures in the Basin and Range Province and central Italian Apennines and conclude that displacement profiles have limited value for assessing the persistence of segment boundaries but can aid in interpreting prehistoric spillover ruptures. Our comparison also suggests that the probabilities of shorter and longer ruptures on the WFZ need to be investigated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Codrin POPA


    Full Text Available In today’s economy, marketers have been facing two challenging trends: fierce competition between companies offering essentially similar products, and dealing with customers that are increasingly informed and demanding, but less and less loyal. Under these conditions, it has become imperative for managers and for marketing professionals to invest in business intelligence in order to find patterns in the consumers’ behavior that could predict their future buying decisions. In this report we have presented how Decision Support Systems, data analysis and customer segmentation can help companies to know their customers better in order to predict (and influence their future actions. At the same time, we have argued that Business Intelligence should meet psychology and neurology halfway, and accept that there is a very high emotional subconscious component that produces a high degree of unpredictability in consumers’ behavior.

  12. Ankyrin-G participates in INa remodeling in myocytes from the border zones of infarcted canine heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Dun

    Full Text Available Cardiac Na channel remodeling provides a critical substrate for generation of reentrant arrhythmias in border zones of the infarcted canine heart. Recent studies show that Nav1.5 assembly and function are linked to ankyrin-G, gap, and mechanical junction proteins. In this study our objective is to expound the status of the cardiac Na channel, its interacting protein ankyrinG and the mechanical and gap junction proteins at two different times post infarction when arrhythmias are known to occur; that is, 48 hr and 5 day post coronary occlusion. Previous studies have shown the origins of arrhythmic events come from the subendocardial Purkinje and epicardial border zone. Our Purkinje cell (Pcell voltage clamp study shows that INa and its kinetic parameters do not differ between Pcells from the subendocardium of the 48hr infarcted heart (IZPCs and control non-infarcted Pcells (NZPCs. Immunostaining studies revealed that disturbances of Nav1.5 protein location with ankyrin-G are modest in 48 hr IZPCs. Therefore, Na current remodeling does not contribute to the abnormal conduction in the subendocardial border zone 48 hr post myocardial infarction as previously defined. In addition, immunohistochemical data show that Cx40/Cx43 co-localize at the intercalated disc (IDs of control NZPCs but separate in IZPCs. At the same time, Purkinje cell desmoplakin and desmoglein2 immunostaining become diffuse while plakophilin2 and plakoglobin increase in abundance at IDs. In the epicardial border zone 5 days post myocardial infarction, immunoblot and immunocytochemical analyses showed that ankyrin-G protein expression is increased and re-localized to submembrane cell regions at a time when Nav1.5 function is decreased. Thus, Nav1.5 and ankyrin-G remodeling occur later after myocardial infarction compared to that of gap and mechanical junctional proteins. Gap and mechanical junctional proteins remodel in IZPCs early, perhaps to help maintain Nav1.5 subcellular

  13. Ankyrin-G Participates in INa Remodeling in Myocytes from the Border Zones of Infarcted Canine Heart (United States)

    Dun, Wen; Lowe, John S.; Wright, Patrick; Hund, Thomas J.; Mohler, Peter J.; Boyden, Penelope A.


    Cardiac Na channel remodeling provides a critical substrate for generation of reentrant arrhythmias in border zones of the infarcted canine heart. Recent studies show that Nav1.5 assembly and function are linked to ankyrin-G, gap, and mechanical junction proteins. In this study our objective is to expound the status of the cardiac Na channel, its interacting protein ankyrinG and the mechanical and gap junction proteins at two different times post infarction when arrhythmias are known to occur; that is, 48 hr and 5 day post coronary occlusion. Previous studies have shown the origins of arrhythmic events come from the subendocardial Purkinje and epicardial border zone. Our Purkinje cell (Pcell) voltage clamp study shows that INa and its kinetic parameters do not differ between Pcells from the subendocardium of the 48hr infarcted heart (IZPCs) and control non-infarcted Pcells (NZPCs). Immunostaining studies revealed that disturbances of Nav1.5 protein location with ankyrin-G are modest in 48 hr IZPCs. Therefore, Na current remodeling does not contribute to the abnormal conduction in the subendocardial border zone 48 hr post myocardial infarction as previously defined. In addition, immunohistochemical data show that Cx40/Cx43 co-localize at the intercalated disc (IDs) of control NZPCs but separate in IZPCs. At the same time, Purkinje cell desmoplakin and desmoglein2 immunostaining become diffuse while plakophilin2 and plakoglobin increase in abundance at IDs. In the epicardial border zone 5 days post myocardial infarction, immunoblot and immunocytochemical analyses showed that ankyrin-G protein expression is increased and re-localized to submembrane cell regions at a time when Nav1.5 function is decreased. Thus, Nav1.5 and ankyrin-G remodeling occur later after myocardial infarction compared to that of gap and mechanical junctional proteins. Gap and mechanical junctional proteins remodel in IZPCs early, perhaps to help maintain Nav1.5 subcellular location position and

  14. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance to Predict Appropriate Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy in Ischemic and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy Patients Using Late Gadolinium Enhancement Border Zone: Comparison of Four Analysis Methods. (United States)

    Jablonowski, Robert; Chaudhry, Uzma; van der Pals, Jesper; Engblom, Henrik; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar; Wu, Katherine C; Borgquist, Rasmus; Carlsson, Marcus


    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) border zone on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has been proposed as an independent predictor of ventricular arrhythmias. The purpose was to determine whether size and heterogeneity of LGE predict appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) patients and to evaluate 4 LGE border-zone algorithms. ICM and NICM patients who underwent LGE cardiac magnetic resonance imaging prior to ICD implantation were retrospectively included. Two semiautomatic algorithms, expectation maximization, weighted intensity, a priori information and a weighted border zone algorithm, were compared with a modified full-width half-maximum and a 2-3SD threshold-based algorithm (2-3SD). Hazard ratios were calculated per 1% increase in LGE. A total of 74 ICM and 34 NICM were followed for 63 months (1-140) and 52 months (0-133), respectively. ICM patients had 27 appropriate ICD events, and NICM patients had 7 ICD events. In ICM patients with primary prophylactic ICD, LGE border zone predicted ICD therapy in univariable and multivariable analysis measured by the expectation maximization, weighted intensity, a priori information, weighted border zone, and modified full-width half-maximum algorithms (hazard ratios 1.23, 1.22, and 1.05, respectively; P<0.05; negative predictive value 92%). For NICM, total LGE by all 4 methods was the strongest predictor (hazard ratios, 1.03-1.04; P<0.05), though the number of events was small. Appropriate ICD therapy can be predicted in ICM patients with primary prevention ICD by quantifying the LGE border zone. In NICM patients, total LGE but not LGE border zone had predictive value for ICD therapy. However, the algorithms used affects the predictive value of these measures. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Evaluating social-ecological aspects of buffer zones at the borders of Etosha National Park, Namibia (United States)

    Lelani M. Mannetti; Ulrich Zeller; Karen J. Esler


    The study aims to investigate the premise that the implementation of a buffer zone around a national park provides opportunities for local communities to become active in the management of such areas. The study focuses on the Etosha National Park in Namibia, where the implementation of a buffer zone has been proposed, since the park fence is a potential barrier for...

  16. Paleoseismology of the Palu-Lake Hazar segment of the East Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey (United States)

    Cetin, Hasan; Güneyli, Hakan; Mayer, Larry


    The East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) is among the most important active continental transform fault zones in the world as testified by major historical and minor instrumental seismicity. The first paleoseismological exploratory trenching study on the EAFZ was done on the Palu-Lake Hazar segment (PLHS), which is one of the six segments forming the fault zone, in order to determine its past activity and to assess its earthquake hazard. The results of trenching indicate that the latest surface rupturing earthquakes on this segment may be the Ms=7.1+ 1874 and Ms=6.7 1875 events, and there were other destructive earthquakes prior to these events. The recurrence interval for a surface rupturing large ( M>7) earthquake is estimated as minimum 100±35 and maximum 360 years. Estimates for the maximum possible paleoearthquake magnitude are (Mw) 7.1-7.7 for the Palu-Lake Hazar segment based on empirical magnitude fault rupture relations. An alluvial fan dated 14,475-15,255 cal years BP as well as another similar age fan with an abandoned stream channel on it are offset in a left-lateral sense 175 and 160.5 m, respectively, indicating an average slip rate of 11 mm/year. Because 127 years have elapsed since the last surface rupturing event, this slip rate suggests that 1.4 m of left-lateral strain has accumulated along the segment, ignoring possible creep effects, folding and other inelastic deformation. A 2.5 Ma age for the start of left-lateral movement on the segment, and in turn the EAFZ, is consistent with a slip rate of 11 mm/year and a previously reported 27 km total left-lateral offset. The cumulative 5-6 mm/year vertical slip rate near Lake Hazar suggests a possible age of 148-178 ka for the lake. Our trenching results indicate also that a significant fraction of the slip across the EAFZ zone is likely to be accommodated seismically. The present seismic quiescence compared with the past activity (paleoseismic and historic) indicate that the EAFZ may be "locked" and

  17. Simultaneous Segmentation of Prostatic Zones Using Active Appearance Models With Multiple Coupled Levelsets. (United States)

    Toth, Robert; Ribault, Justin; Gentile, John; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant


    In this work we present an improvement to the popular Active Appearance Model (AAM) algorithm, that we call the Multiple-Levelset AAM (MLA). The MLA can simultaneously segment multiple objects, and makes use of multiple levelsets, rather than anatomical landmarks, to define the shapes. AAMs traditionally define the shape of each object using a set of anatomical landmarks. However, landmarks can be difficult to identify, and AAMs traditionally only allow for segmentation of a single object of interest. The MLA, which is a landmark independent AAM, allows for levelsets of multiple objects to be determined and allows for them to be coupled with image intensities. This gives the MLA the flexibility to simulataneously segmentation multiple objects of interest in a new image. In this work we apply the MLA to segment the prostate capsule, the prostate peripheral zone (PZ), and the prostate central gland (CG), from a set of 40 endorectal, T2-weighted MRI images. The MLA system we employ in this work leverages a hierarchical segmentation framework, so constructed as to exploit domain specific attributes, by utilizing a given prostate segmentation to help drive the segmentations of the CG and PZ, which are embedded within the prostate. Our coupled MLA scheme yielded mean Dice accuracy values of .81, .79 and .68 for the prostate, CG, and PZ, respectively using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme over 40 patient studies. When only considering the midgland of the prostate, the mean DSC values were .89, .84, and .76 for the prostate, CG, and PZ respectively.

  18. Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP expands neural progenitors and regulates Pax3 expression in the neural plate border zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Gee

    Full Text Available Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP contains multiple protein-protein interaction domains and functions as both a transcriptional co-activator and as a scaffolding protein. Mouse embryos lacking YAP did not survive past embryonic day 8.5 and showed signs of defective yolk sac vasculogenesis, chorioallantoic fusion, and anterior-posterior (A-P axis elongation. Given that the YAP knockout mouse defects might be due in part to nutritional deficiencies, we sought to better characterize a role for YAP during early development using embryos that develop externally. YAP morpholino (MO-mediated loss-of-function in both frog and fish resulted in incomplete epiboly at gastrulation and impaired axis formation, similar to the mouse phenotype. In frog, germ layer specific genes were expressed, but they were temporally delayed. YAP MO-mediated partial knockdown in frog allowed a shortened axis to form. YAP gain-of-function in Xenopus expanded the progenitor populations in the neural plate (sox2(+ and neural plate border zone (pax3(+, while inhibiting the expression of later markers of tissues derived from the neural plate border zone (neural crest, pre-placodal ectoderm, hatching gland, as well as epidermis and somitic muscle. YAP directly regulates pax3 expression via association with TEAD1 (N-TEF at a highly conserved, previously undescribed, TEAD-binding site within the 5' regulatory region of pax3. Structure/function analyses revealed that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP contributes to the inhibition of epidermal and somitic muscle differentiation, but a complete, intact YAP protein is required for expansion of the neural plate and neural plate border zone progenitor pools. These results provide a thorough analysis of YAP mediated gene expression changes in loss- and gain-of-function experiments. Furthermore, this is the first report to use YAP structure-function analyzes to determine which portion of YAP is involved in specific gene expression changes and the

  19. Slow conduction in the border zones of patchy fibrosis stabilises the drivers for atrial fibrillation: Insights from multi-scale human atrial modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Morgan


    stabilised in fibrotic regions. The rotors propagated slowly around the border zones of patchy fibrosis (levels 3-4, failing to spread into inner areas of dense fibrosis.Conclusion. Rotors stabilise in the border zones of patchy fibrosis in 3D atria, where slow conduction enable the development of circuits within relatively small regions. Our results can provide a mechanistic explanation for the clinical efficacy of ablation around fibrotic regions.

  20. Texture-based segmentation of temperate-zone woodland in panchromatic IKONOS imagery (United States)

    Gagnon, Langis; Bugnet, Pierre; Cavayas, Francois


    We have performed a study to identify optimal texture parameters for woodland segmentation in a highly non-homogeneous urban area from a temperate-zone panchromatic IKONOS image. Texture images are produced with the sum- and difference-histograms depend on two parameters: window size f and displacement step p. The four texture features yielding the best discrimination between classes are the mean, contrast, correlation and standard deviation. The f-p combinations 17-1, 17-2, 35-1 and 35-2 are those which give the best performance, with an average classification rate of 90%.

  1. Geodetic Observations of Interseismic Strain Segmentation at the Sumatra Subduction Zone (United States)

    Prawirodirdjo, L.; Bock, Y.; McCaffrey, R.; Genrich, J.; Calais, E.; Puntodewo, S. S. O.; Subarya, C.; Rais, J.; Zwick, P.; Fauzi


    Deformation above the Sumatra subduction zone, revealed by Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic surveys, shows nearly complete coupling of the forearc to the subducting plate south of 0.5 deg S and half as much to north. The abrupt change in plate coupling coincides with the boundary between the rupture zones of the 1833 and 1861 (Mw greater than 8) thrust earthquakes. The rupture boundary appears as an abrupt change in strain accumulation well into the interseismic cycle, suggesting that seismic segmentation is controlled by properties of the plate interface that persist occupied through more than one earthquake cycle. Structural evidence indicates that differences in basal shear stress may be related to elevated pore pressure in the north.

  2. Improved Beach Zone Segmentation From Airborne Lidar Measurements Using Intensity Measures (United States)

    Starek, M. J.; Vemula, R. K.; Slatton, C.; Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, W. E.


    In an effort to monitor beach zone stability along the St. Augustine Beach region of Florida, high-resolution airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) data are routinely acquired by the University of Florida's Geosensing and Engineering Mapping (GEM) Center. ALSM, often referred to as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), systems enable sub-meter sampling of the near-shore coastal topography and the subsequent creation of digital elevation images with rms errors of less than 10cm over minimally-vegetated surfaces, such as beaches. Currently, there are seven collection dates spanning August 2003 to February 2007. This high spatial resolution coupled with the multiple acquisitions through time provided several results: two separate beach nourishment efforts were captured in the data allowing sediment spreading rate to be modeled and volume loss quantified, shoreline change rates were estimated for temporal scales ranging from a few months to over two years at various spatial frequencies from 300m, storm and seasonal wave climate induced shoreline response were modeled, and novel approaches to morphological feature extraction and identification of localized erosional hot- spots were developed. All previous analyses are based on range measurements; however, the ALSM system also records the intensity (peak voltage from the APD) for each return. Intensity has traditionally been under utilized as a feature for image classification because it does not represent true terrain radiance. We show that in areas with minimal topographic relief, such as beaches, intensity measures have great potential for improved beach zone segmentation. Segmentation of the beach zone is important for several factors including identification of the wet-dry line for traditional shoreline comparison and change-detection, and removal of water points to allow analysis of beach-only zones. Several intensity-based features are extracted from ALSM training data collected along the St. Augustine beach and

  3. Earthquake swarm activity in the Oaxaca segment of Middle American Subduction Zone (United States)

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Cabral, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.


    An outstanding question in geophysics is the degree to which the newly discovered family of slow fault slip behaviors is related to more traditional earthquakes, especially since theoretical predictions indicate slip in the deeper transitional zone promotes failure in the shallower seismogenic zone. The Oaxacan segment of the Middle American Subduction zone is a natural region to pursue detailed studies of the spectrum of fault slip due to the unusually shallow subduction angle and short trench-to-coast distances that bring broad portions of the seismogenic and transitional zones of the plate interface inland. A deployment of broadband seismometers in this region has improved the network coverage to ~70 km station spacing since 2006, providing new opportunities to investigate smaller seismic phenomena. While characterization of tectonic tremor has been a prominent focus of this deployment, the improved network has also revealed productive earthquake swarms, whose sustained periods of similar magnitude earthquakes are also thought to be driven by slow slip. We identify a particularly productive earthquake swarm in July 2006 (~600 similar earthquakes detected), which occurred during a week-long episode of tectonic tremor and geodetically detected slow slip. Using a multi-station "template matching" waveform cross correlation technique, we have been able to detect and locate swarm earthquakes several orders of magnitude smaller than that of traditional processing, particularly during periods of increased background activity, because the detector is finely tuned to events with similar hypocentral location and focal mechanism. When we scan for repeats of the event families detected in the July 2006 sequence throughout the 6+ years since, we find these families were also activated during several other slow slip episodes, which indicates a link between slow slip in the transition zone and earthquakes at the downdip end of the seismogenic portion of the megathrust.

  4. Seismic anisotropy in the Hellenic subduction zone: Effects of slab segmentation and subslab mantle flow (United States)

    Evangelidis, C. P.


    The segmentation and differentiation of subducting slabs have considerable effects on mantle convection and tectonics. The Hellenic subduction zone is a complex convergent margin with strong curvature and fast slab rollback. The upper mantle seismic anisotropy in the region is studied focusing at its western and eastern edges in order to explore the effects of possible slab segmentation on mantle flow and fabrics. Complementary to new SKS shear-wave splitting measurements in regions not adequately sampled so far, the source-side splitting technique is applied to constrain the depth of anisotropy and to densify measurements. In the western Hellenic arc, a trench-normal subslab anisotropy is observed near the trench. In the forearc domain, source-side and SKS measurements reveal a trench-parallel pattern. This indicates subslab trench-parallel mantle flow, associated with return flow due to the fast slab rollback. The passage from continental to oceanic subduction in the western Hellenic zone is illustrated by a forearc transitional anisotropy pattern. This indicates subslab mantle flow parallel to a NE-SW smooth ramp that possibly connects the two subducted slabs. A young tear fault initiated at the Kefalonia Transform Fault is likely not entirely developed, as this trench-parallel anisotropy pattern is observed along the entire western Hellenic subduction system, even following this horizontal offset between the two slabs. At the eastern side of the Hellenic subduction zone, subslab source-side anisotropy measurements show a general trench-normal pattern. These are associated with mantle flow through a possible ongoing tearing of the oceanic lithosphere in the area. Although the exact geometry of this slab tear is relatively unknown, SKS trench-parallel measurements imply that the tear has not reached the surface yet. Further exploration of the Hellenic subduction system is necessary; denser seismic networks should be deployed at both its edges in order to achieve

  5. Thinking science with thinking machines: The multiple realities of basic and applied knowledge in a research border zone. (United States)

    Hoffman, Steve G


    Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course.

  6. Acquired hemophilia A associated with internal border-zone infarction triggered by major hemorrhage of thigh and leg: a case report. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masayuki; Nagami, Shuuhei; Shimizu, Hisao; Takahashi, Nobuyuki


    It is unusual to be complicated with cerebral infarction for bleeding disorders. We describe a first case of internal border-zone infarction (I-BZI) complicated with acquired hemophilia A. A 79-year-old man was introduced from other hospital by cerebral infarction and severe anemia. His left thigh and leg were swollen with subcutaneous bleeding. Activated partial thromboplastin time was 99.4 seconds. Factor VIII activity was less than 1% and Factor VIII inhibitor concentration was 85 BU, respectively. The platelet count and prothrombin time were normal. These results were consistent with the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed multiple small infarction in bilateral internal border zone. To our knowledge, this is the first case of I-BZI complicated with acquired hemophilia A. This case suggested that major hemorrhage is one of the sole causes of I-BZI. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aphasia in border-zone infarcts has a specific initial pattern and good long-term prognosis. (United States)

    Flamand-Roze, C; Cauquil-Michon, C; Roze, E; Souillard-Scemama, R; Maintigneux, L; Ducreux, D; Adams, D; Denier, C


    While border-zone infarcts (BZI) account for about 10% of strokes, studies on related aphasia are infrequent. The aim of this work was to redefine specifically their early clinical pattern and evolution. We prospectively studied consecutive patients referred to our stroke unit within a 2-year period. Cases of aphasia in right-handed patients associated with a MRI confirmed left-sided hemispheric BZI were included. These patients had a standardized language examination in the first 48 h, at discharge from stroke unit and between 6 and 18 months later. Eight patients were included. Three had anterior (MCA/ACA), two posterior (MCA/PCA), two both anterior and posterior, and one bilateral BZI. All our patients initially presented transcortical mixed aphasia, characterized by comprehension and naming difficulties associated with preserved repetition. In all patients, aphasia rapidly improved. It fully recovered within a few days in three patients. Initial improvement was marked, although incomplete in the five remaining patients: their aphasias specifically evolved according to the stroke location toward transcortical motor aphasia for the three patients with anterior BZI and transcortical sensory aphasia for the two patients with posterior BZI. All patients made a full language recovery within 18 months after stroke. We report a specific aphasic pattern associated with hemispheric BZI, including an excellent long-term outcome. These findings appear relevant to (i) clinically suspect BZI and (ii) plan rehabilitation and inform the patient and his family of likelihood of full language recovery. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  8. Fully automated segmentation of prostate whole gland and transition zone in diffusion-weighted MRI using convolutional neural networks. (United States)

    Clark, Tyler; Zhang, Junjie; Baig, Sameer; Wong, Alexander; Haider, Masoom A; Khalvati, Farzad


    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among men. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential part of the diagnostic evaluation of prostate cancer. The internationally accepted interpretation scheme (Pi-Rads v2) has different algorithms for scoring of the transition zone (TZ) and peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate as tumors can appear different in these zones. Computer-aided detection tools have shown different performances in TZ and PZ and separating these zones for training and detection is essential. The TZ-PZ segmentation which requires the segmentation of prostate whole gland and TZ is typically done manually. We present a fully automatic algorithm for delineation of the prostate gland and TZ in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) via a stack of fully convolutional neural networks. The proposed algorithm first detects the slices that contain a portion of prostate gland within the three-dimensional DWI volume and then it segments the prostate gland and TZ automatically. The segmentation stage of the algorithm was applied to DWI images of 104 patients and median Dice similarity coefficients of 0.93 and 0.88 were achieved for the prostate gland and TZ, respectively. The detection of image slices with and without prostate gland had an average accuracy of 0.97.

  9. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael


    border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...

  10. Correlates of sexual risk behavior in sexually active male military personnel stationed along border-crossing zones in the Dominican Republic. (United States)

    Tavarez, Maria I; Chun, Helen; Anastario, Michael P


    A survey was conducted of sexually active male military personnel stationed along major border-crossing zones between the Dominican Republic (DR) and Haiti, taking an applied scientific approach, to better inform prevention programming with military personnel in the region. A subsample of 470 sexually active male military personnel was drawn from a stratified systematic sample of military personnel stationed along the three largest border-crossing zones on the western border of the Dominican Republic. Using a verbally administered questionnaire, an examination of how foci of current HIV prevention programming with military personnel correlated with key sexual risk behavioral outcomes was conducted. Mental health factors such as probable alcohol abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder showed consistent associations with sexual risk behaviors. Participants showed a relatively high level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, a moderate level of negative attitudes toward condoms, and a moderate level of stigma toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Psychosocial factors, which are typically preventive in nature, were not associated with decreased sexual risk behaviors. Gaps were identified in HIV prevention programming that need to be addressed in this population of sexually active male military personnel. Although knowledge, attitudes, and psychosocial factors are important foci of HIV prevention programming, they were not associated with sexual risk behaviors, particularly after controlling for mental health factors. The authors suggest that prevalent psychiatric disorders in military personnel, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, should be factored in to the development of HIV prevention programs for military personnel.

  11. The Northern Central Indian Ridge: Geology and tectonics of fracture zones-dominated spreading ridge segments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Drolia, R.K.; Iyer, S.D.; Chakraborty, B; Kodagali, V.N.; Ray, Dwijesh; Misra, S.; Andrade, R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Rajasekhar, R.P.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    . The ridge segments are characterized by along-axis depth variation: deepening at segment ends and shallowing at the centre. Both the ridge axis and TF areas are complex with intra- and inter-segmental morphotectonic and magnetic variations. Basalts collected...

  12. The history of late holocene surface-faulting earthquakes on the central segments of the Wasatch fault zone, Utah (United States)

    Duross, Christopher; Personius, Stephen; Olig, Susan S; Crone, Anthony J.; Hylland, Michael D.; Lund, William R; Schwartz, David P.


    The Wasatch fault (WFZ)—Utah’s longest and most active normal fault—forms a prominent eastern boundary to the Basin and Range Province in northern Utah. To provide paleoseismic data for a Wasatch Front regional earthquake forecast, we synthesized paleoseismic data to define the timing and displacements of late Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes on the central five segments of the WFZ. Our analysis yields revised histories of large (M ~7) surface-faulting earthquakes on the segments, as well as estimates of earthquake recurrence and vertical slip rate. We constrain the timing of four to six earthquakes on each of the central segments, which together yields a history of at least 24 surface-faulting earthquakes since ~6 ka. Using earthquake data for each segment, inter-event recurrence intervals range from about 0.6 to 2.5 kyr, and have a mean of 1.2 kyr. Mean recurrence, based on closed seismic intervals, is ~1.1–1.3 kyr per segment, and when combined with mean vertical displacements per segment of 1.7–2.6 m, yield mean vertical slip rates of 1.3–2.0 mm/yr per segment. These data refine the late Holocene behavior of the central WFZ; however, a significant source of uncertainty is whether structural complexities that define the segments of the WFZ act as hard barriers to ruptures propagating along the fault. Thus, we evaluate fault rupture models including both single-segment and multi-segment ruptures, and define 3–17-km-wide spatial uncertainties in the segment boundaries. These alternative rupture models and segment-boundary zones honor the WFZ paleoseismic data, take into account the spatial and temporal limitations of paleoseismic data, and allow for complex ruptures such as partial-segment and spillover ruptures. Our data and analyses improve our understanding of the complexities in normal-faulting earthquake behavior and provide geological inputs for regional earthquake-probability and seismic hazard assessments.

  13. Strain Localisation at Rift Segment Boundaries: An Example from the Bocana Transfer Zone in Central Baja California, Mexico (United States)

    Seiler, C.; Gleadow, A. J.; Kohn, B. P.


    Rifts are commonly segmented into several hundred kilometre long zones of opposing upper-plate transport direction with boundaries defined by accommodation and transfer zones. A number of such rift segments have been recognized in the northern Gulf of California, a youthful oceanic basin that is currently undergoing the rift-drift transition. However, detailed field studies have so far failed to identify suitable structures that could accommodate the obvious deformation gradients between different rift segments, and the nature of strain transfer at segment boundaries remains enigmatic. The situation is even less clear in central and southern Baja California, where a number of rift segments have been hypothesized but it is unknown whether the intervening segment boundaries facilitate true reversals in the upper-plate transport direction, or whether they simply accommodate differences in the timing, style or magnitude of deformation. The Bocana transfer zone (BTZ) in central Baja California is a linear, WNW-ESE striking structural discontinuity separating two rift segments with different magnitudes and styles of extensional deformation. North of the BTZ, the Libertad fault is part of the Main Gulf Escarpment, which represents the breakaway fault that separates the Gulf of California rift to the east from the relatively stable western portion of the Baja peninsula. The N-striking Libertad escarpment developed during the Late Miocene (~10-8Ma) and exhibits a topographic relief of ca. 1,000m along a strike-length of ca. 50km. Finite displacement decreases from ~1000m in the central fault segment to ~500m further south, where the fault bends SE and merges with the BTZ. In the hanging wall of the Libertad fault, a series of W-tilted horsts are bound along their eastern margins by two moderate-displacement E-dipping normal faults. South of the BTZ, extension was much less than further north, which explains the comparatively subdued relief and generally shallower tilt of

  14. Slip Distribution of Two Recent Large Earthquakes in the Guerrero Segment of the Mexican Subduction Zone, and Their Relation to Previous Earthquakes, Silent Slip Events and Seismic Gaps (United States)

    Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Ji, C.; Iglesias, A.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Singh, S. K.


    In 2012 and 2014 mega-thrust earthquakes occurred approximately 300 km apart, in the state of Guerrero, Mexico. The westernmost half of the segment between them has not had a large earthquake in at least 100 years and most of the easternmost half last broke in 1957. However, down dip of both earthquakes, silent slip events have been reported, as well as in the gap between them (Kostoglodov et al 2003, Graham 2014). There are indications that the westernmost half has different frictional properties than the areas surrounds it. However, the two events at the edges of the zone also seem to behave in different manners, indicating a broad range of frictional properties in this area, with changes occurring over short distances. The 2012/03/20, M7.5 earthquake occurred near the Guerrero-Oaxaca border, between the towns of Ometepec (Gro.) and Pinotepa Nacional (Oax.). This earthquake is noteworthy for breaking the same asperities as two previously recorded earthquakes, the M7.2 1937 and M6.9 1982(a) earthquakes, in very large "repeating earthquakes". Furthermore, the density of repeating smaller events is larger in this zone than in other parts of the subduction zone (Dominguez et al, submitted) and this earthquake has had very many aftershocks for its size (UNAM Seis. group, 2013). The 2012 event may have broken two asperities (UNAM Seis. group, 2013). How the two asperities relate to the previous relatively smaller "large events", to the repeating earthquakes, the high number of aftershocks and to the slow slip event is not clear. The 2014/04/18 M 7.2 earthquake broke a patch on the edge of the Guerrero gap, that previously broke in the 1979 M7.4 earthquake as well as the 1943 M 7.4 earthquake. This earthquake, despite being smaller, had a much larger duration, few aftershocks and clearly ruptured two separate patches (UNAM Seis. group 2015). In this work we estimate the slip distributions for the 2012 and 2014 earthquakes, by combining the data used separately in

  15. Reactivation of a segmented hyper-extended rift system: the example of the Pamplona transfer zone in the western Pyrenees (United States)

    Lescoutre, Rodolphe; Schaeffer, Frédéric; Masini, Emmanuel; Manatschal, Gianreto


    Numerous studies have revealed the importance of rift-inheritance on the formation of orogens but little consideration was given to rift segmentation and the role of transfer zones on the architecture of mountain chains. Indeed, structural mapping of passive margins pointed out the occurrence of a strong variability in the rift architecture along the margin when crossing through peculiar features that represent transfer zones. These transfer zones are generally oriented in the extension direction and relay the deformation between rift segments. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) characterize and define the Pamplona fault system as well as the structures and architecture of the basins bounding this major paleo-transfer fault located in the Western Pyrenees, and 2) understand its role during the subsequent Pyrenean convergence. The influence of the Pamplona fault system on the structuration of the Mauléon basin to the northeast and the Basque-Cantabrian basin to the southwest is substantial as expressed by their large offset and the occurrence of exhumed deep crustal and mantle rocks flooring the two basins. On the one hand, field work in the Labourd Massif and the western termination of the Mauléon basin enabled to describe faults and their relations to sedimentary sequences. This work also allowed describing the formation and reactivation of faults according to their orientation and their activity with respect to key markers (pre-Trias and post-Cenomanian). A strong relationship between rift architecture (proximal to distal domains) and structural inheritance is suggested. On the other hand, preliminary results from fieldwork, literature compilation and new tomographic imaging enable to determine the role and the history of the Pamplona fault system during Late Cretaceous compression. A significant work of this starting PhD project will be to determine the rift structures that have been reactivated and to assess their influence on the final architecture of the

  16. Modeling slow-slip segmentation in Cascadia subduction zone constrained by tremor locations and gravity anomalies (United States)

    Li, Duo; Liu, Yajing


    Along-strike segmentation of slow-slip events (SSEs) and nonvolcanic tremors in Cascadia may reflect heterogeneities of the subducting slab or overlying continental lithosphere. However, the nature behind this segmentation is not fully understood. We develop a 3-D model for episodic SSEs in northern and central Cascadia, incorporating both seismological and gravitational observations to constrain the heterogeneities in the megathrust fault properties. The 6 year automatically detected tremors are used to constrain the rate-state friction parameters. The effective normal stress at SSE depths is constrained by along-margin free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies. The along-strike variation in the long-term plate convergence rate is also taken into consideration. Simulation results show five segments of ˜Mw6.0 SSEs spontaneously appear along the strike, correlated to the distribution of tremor epicenters. Modeled SSE recurrence intervals are equally comparable to GPS observations using both types of gravity anomaly constraints. However, the model constrained by free-air anomaly does a better job in reproducing the cumulative slip as well as more consistent surface displacements with GPS observations. The modeled along-strike segmentation represents the averaged slip release over many SSE cycles, rather than permanent barriers. Individual slow-slip events can still propagate across the boundaries, which may cause interactions between adjacent SSEs, as observed in time-dependent GPS inversions. In addition, the moment-duration scaling is sensitive to the selection of velocity criteria for determining when SSEs occur. Hence, the detection ability of the current GPS network should be considered in the interpretation of slow earthquake source parameter scaling relations.

  17. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Late Triassic – Jurassic development of the Danish Basin and the Fennoscandian Border Zone, southern Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik


    Full Text Available The continental to marine Upper Triassic – Jurassic succession of the Danish Basin and the Fennoscandian Border Zone is interpreted within a sequence stratigraphic framework, and the evolution of the depositional basin is discussed. The intracratonic Permian–Cenozoic Danish Basin was formed by Late Carboniferous – Early Permian crustal extension followed by subsidence governed primarily by thermal cooling and local faulting. The basin is separated from thestable Precambrian Baltic Shield by the Fennoscandian Border Zone, and is bounded by basement blocks of the Ringkøbing–Fyn High towards the south. In Late Triassic – Jurassic times, the basin was part of the epeiric shallow sea that covered most of northern Europe. The Upper Triassic – Jurassic basin-fill is subdivided into two tectono-stratigraphic units by a basinwide intra-Aalenian unconformity. The Norian – Lower Aalenian succession was formed under relative tectonic tranquillity and shows an overall layer-cake geometry, except for areas with local faults and salt movements.Deposition was initiated by a Norian transgression that led to shallow marine deposition and was accompanied by a gradual climatic change to more humid conditions. Extensive sheets of shoreface sand and associated paralic sediments were deposited during short-lived forced regressions in Rhaetian time. A stepwise deepening and development of fully marine conditions followed in the Hettangian – Early Sinemurian. Thick uniform basinwide mud blankets weredeposited on an open storm-influenced shelf, while sand was trapped at the basin margins. This depositional pattern continued until Late Toarcian – Early Aalenian times when the basin became restricted due to renewed uplift of the Ringkøbing–Fyn High. In Middle Aalenian – Bathonian times, the former basin area was subjected to deep erosion, and deposition became restricted to the fault-bounded Sorgenfrei–Tornquist Zone. Eventually the fault margins

  18. Estimating the Relative Sociolinguistic Salience of Segmental Variables in a Dialect Boundary Zone (United States)

    Llamas, Carmen; Watt, Dominic; MacFarlane, Andrew E.


    One way of evaluating the salience of a linguistic feature is by assessing the extent to which listeners associate the feature with a social category such as a particular socioeconomic class, gender, or nationality. Such ‘top–down’ associations will inevitably differ somewhat from listener to listener, as a linguistic feature – the pronunciation of a vowel or consonant, for instance – can evoke multiple social category associations, depending upon the dialect in which the feature is embedded and the context in which it is heard. In a given speech community it is reasonable to expect, as a consequence of the salience of the linguistic form in question, a certain level of intersubjective agreement on social category associations. Two metrics we can use to quantify the salience of a linguistic feature are (a) the speed with which the association is made, and (b) the degree to which members of a speech community appear to share the association. Through the use of a new technique, designed as an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test, this paper examines levels of agreement among 40 informants from the Scottish/English border region with respect to the associations they make between four key phonetic variables and the social categories of ‘Scotland’ and ‘England.’ Our findings reveal that the participants exhibit differential agreement patterns across the set of phonetic variables, and that listeners’ responses vary in line with whether participants are members of the Scottish or the English listener groups. These results demonstrate the importance of community-level agreement with respect to the associations that listeners make between social categories and linguistic forms, and as a means of ranking the forms’ relative salience. PMID:27574511

  19. Identification of source lithology at south segment of Kamchatka subduction zone (United States)

    Gavrilenko, M.; Herzberg, C. T.; Portnyagin, M.; Ozerov, A.


    Kamchatka peninsula (Russia) is an island-arc with a complex geological history and structure. It has three distinct volcanic fronts, the origin of which is still debated. Moreover, a junction with the Aleutian Arc (at ~56°N) complicates the understanding of geodynamics at the region. However, the south part (from ~53°N) of Kamchatka peninsula is thought to be a "textbook case" of subduction zone with relatively rapid (over 8 cm/yr) near-normal convergence and a steep (over 50°) angle of subduction. Kamchatka is unusual in the world because its volcanoes contain a significant amount of primitive high MgO lavas that are rich in olivine crystals. Furthermore, high precision contents of Ni, Ca, and Mn can help to constrain the source lithology. Straub et al. (2008) reported high Ni contents on olivines from a limited number of samples from the Mexican Volcanic Front, and concluded that pyroxenite melting was important. Portnyagin et al. (2009) reported high precision Ni, Ca, and Mn contents of olivines from a wide range of volcanoes from Kamchatka, and similarly concluded that pyroxenite melting is widespread. We have extended the work of Portnyagin et al. (2009) by analyzing olivine phenocrysts from volcanoes in the southernmost Kamchatka peninsula. Our work confirms that there are regional variations in olivine phenocryst composition that likely arises from variations in pyroxenite composition, the amount of peridotite melt that mixes with pyroxenite melts, and a variable role played by magnetite fractionation. We conclude that pyroxenite melting is likely to be important in subduction zones world-wide, but its significance has been underestimated because of the general rarity of olivine-bearing high MgO lavas.

  20. A novel method for quantifying in-vivo regional left ventricular myocardial contractility in the border zone of a myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Lee, Lik Chuan; Wenk, Jonathan F; Klepach, Doron; Zhang, Zhihong; Saloner, David; Wallace, Arthur W; Ge, Liang; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M


    Homogeneous contractility is usually assigned to the remote region, border zone (BZ), and the infarct in existing infarcted left ventricle (LV) mathematical models. Within the LV, the contractile function is therefore discontinuous. Here, we hypothesize that the BZ may in fact define a smooth linear transition in contractility between the remote region and the infarct. To test this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model of a sheep LV having an anteroapical infarct with linearly-varying BZ contractility. Using an existing optimization method (Sun et al., 2009, "A Computationally Efficient Formal Optimization of Regional Myocardial Contractility in a Sheep With Left Ventricular Aneurysm," J. Biomech. Eng., 131(11), pp. 111001), we use that model to extract active material parameter T(max) and BZ width d(n) that "best" predict in-vivo systolic strain fields measured from tagged magnetic resonance images (MRI). We confirm our hypothesis by showing that our model, compared to one that has homogeneous contractility assigned in each region, reduces the mean square errors between the predicted and the measured strain fields. Because the peak fiber stress differs significantly (~15%) between these two models, our result suggests that future mathematical LV models, particularly those used to analyze myocardial infarction treatment, should account for a smooth linear transition in contractility within the BZ.

  1. Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Interpretations and 2.5D Cross-Section Models over the Border Ranges Fault System and Aleutian Subduction Zone, Alaska (United States)

    Mankhemthong, N.; Doser, D. I.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G.; Jones, S.; Eslick, B. E.; Budhathoki, P.


    Quaternary glacial covers and lack of dense geophysical data on the Kenai Peninsula cause a location and geometry of the Border Ranges fault system (BRFS) within a recent forearc-accretionary boundary of Aleutian subduction zone in southern Alaska are unclear. Using new ~1,300 gravity collections within the Anchorage and Kenai Peninsula regions complied with prior 1997 gravity and aeromagnetic data help us better imaging these fault and the subduction structures. Cook Inlet forearc basin is corresponded by deep gravity anomaly lows; basin boundaries are characterized by a strong gravity gradient, where are considered to be traces of Border Ranges fault system on the east and Castle Mountain and Bruin Bay fault system on the west and northwest of the forearc basin respectively. Gravity anomaly highs over accreted rocks generally increase southeastward to the Aleutian trench, but show a gravity depression over the Kenai Mountains region. The lineament between gravity high and low in the same terrenes over the Kenai Peninsula is may be another evidence to determine the Southern Edge of the Yakutat Microplate (SEY) as inferred by Eberhart-Phillips et al. (2006). Our 2.5-D models illustrate the main fault of the BRFS dips steeply toward the west with a downslip displacement. Gravity and Magnetic anomaly highs, on the east of the BRFS, probably present a slice of the ultramafic complex emplaced by faults along the boundary of the forearc basin and accretionary wedge terranes. Another magnetic high beneath the basin in the southern forearc basin support a serpentiznied body inferred by Saltus et al. (2001), with a decreasing size toward the north. Regional density-gravity models show the Pacific subducting slab beneath the foreacre-arc teranes with a gentle and flatted dip where the subducting plate is located in north of SEY and dips more steeply where it is located on the south of SEY. The gravity depression over the accreted terrene can be explained by a density low

  2. Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa (United States)

    Plasman, M.; Tiberi, C.; Ebinger, C.; Gautier, S.; Albaric, J.; Peyrat, S.; Déverchère, J.; Le Gall, B.; Tarits, P.; Roecker, S.; Wambura, F.; Muzuka, A.; Mulibo, G.; Mtelela, K.; Msabi, M.; Kianji, G.; Hautot, S.; Perrot, J.; Gama, R.


    Rifting in a cratonic lithosphere is strongly controlled by several interacting processes including crust/mantle rheology, magmatism, inherited structure and stress regime. In order to better understand how these physical parameters interact, a 2 yr long seismological experiment has been carried out in the North Tanzanian Divergence (NTD), at the southern tip of the eastern magmatic branch of the East African rift, where the southward-propagating continental rift is at its earliest stage. We analyse teleseismic data from 38 broad-band stations ca. 25 km spaced and present here results from their receiver function (RF) analysis. The crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio are retrieved over a ca. 200 × 200 km2 area encompassing the South Kenya magmatic rift, the NTD and the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic chain. Cratonic nature of the lithosphere is clearly evinced through thick (up to ca. 40 km) homogeneous crust beneath the rift shoulders. Where rifting is present, Moho rises up to 27 km depth and the crust is strongly layered with clear velocity contrasts in the RF signal. The Vp/Vs ratio reaches its highest values (ca. 1.9) beneath volcanic edifices location and thinner crust, advocating for melting within the crust. We also clearly identify two major low-velocity zones (LVZs) within the NTD, one in the lower crust and the second in the upper part of the mantle. The first one starts at 15-18 km depth and correlates well with recent tomographic models. This LVZ does not always coexist with high Vp/Vs ratio, pleading for a supplementary source of velocity decrease, such as temperature or composition. At a greater depth of ca. 60 km, a mid-lithospheric discontinuity roughly mimics the step-like and symmetrically outward-dipping geometry of the Moho but with a more slanting direction (NE-SW) compared to the NS rift. By comparison with synthetic RF, we estimate the associated velocity reduction to be 8-9 per cent. We relate this interface to melt ponding

  3. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Early and Middle Jurassic mires of Bornholm and the Fennoscandian Border Zone: a comparison of depositional environments and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppelhus, Eva B.


    Full Text Available Suitable climatic conditions for peat formation existed during Early–Middle Jurassic times in the Fennoscandian Border Zone. Autochthonous peat and allochthonous organic matter were depositedfrom north Jylland, south-east through the Kattegat and Øresund area, to Skåne and Bornholm. The increase in coal seam abundance and thickness from north Jylland to Bornholm indicates that the most favourable peat-forming conditions were present towards the south-east. Peat formation and deposition of organic-rich muds in the Early Jurassic coastal mires were mainly controlled by a continuous rise of relative sea level governed by subsidence and an overall eustatic rise. Watertable rise repeatedly outpaced the rate of accumulation of organic matter and terminated peat formationby lacustrine or lagoonal flooding. Organic matter accumulated in open-water mires and in continuously waterlogged, anoxic and periodically marine-influenced mires. The latter conditionsresulted in huminite-rich coals containing framboidal pyrite. The investigated Lower Jurassic seams correspond to peat and peaty mud deposits that ranged from 0.5–5.7 m in thickness, but were generallyless than 3 m thick. It is estimated that on Bornholm, the mires existed on average for c. 1200 years in the Hettangian–Sinemurian and for c. 2300 years in the Late Pliensbachian; the Early Jurassic(Hettangian–Sinemurian mires in the Øresund area existed for c. 1850 years. Aalenian uplift of the Ringkøbing–Fyn High and major parts of the Danish Basin caused a significant change in the basinconfiguration and much reduced subsidence in the Fennoscandian Border Zone during the Middle Jurassic. This resulted in a more inland position for the Middle Jurassic mires which on occasionenabled peat accumulation to keep pace with, or temporarily outpace, watertable rise. Thus, peat formation was sometimes sustained for relatively long periods, and the mires may have existed for up to 7000 years in the

  4. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier


    regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...... to challenge the conventional wisdom and put border markets at the center of trade policies....... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...

  5. Crustal Anisotropy Beneath the Western Segment of North Anatolian Fault Zone from Local Shear-Wave Splitting (United States)

    Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Teoman, U.; Kahraman, M.; Turkelli, N.; Rost, S.; Thompson, D. A.; Houseman, G.


    Shear-wave splitting from local earthquakes provides valuable knowledge on anisotropy of the upper crust. Upper-crustal anisotropy is widely interpreted as due to aligned fluid-filled cracks or pores. Differential stress is thought to close cracks aligned perpendicular to the maximum principal stress and leaves cracks open that are aligned perpendicular to the minimum horizontal compressional stress. In other cases local shear-wave splitting has been found to be aligned with regional faulting. Temporal variations in local splitting patterns might provide hints of changes in stress orientation related to earthquakes or volcanoes. North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is a large-scale continental strike slip fault system originating at the Karlıova Junction in the east where it intersects the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) and extends west cutting across the entire Northern Turkey towards the Aegean Sea and the mainland Greece. Our primary focus is to provide constraints on the crustal anisotropy beneath the western segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone with the use of a data set collected from a dense temporary seismic network consisting of 70 stations that was deployed in early May 2012 and operated for 18 months in the Sakarya region and the surroundings during the Faultlab experiment. For the local shear wave splitting analysis, out of 1344 events, we extracted 90 well located earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 2.0. Local shear-wave splitting makes use of earthquakes close to and nearly directly below the recording station. Incidence angles of less than 45 degrees were used to avoid the free-surface effect and resulting non-linear particle motion. Basically, two essential parameters for each station-event pair is needed for shear wave splitting calculations. One of them is fast polarization direction (ɸ) and the other is delay time (δt) between the fast and slow components of the shear wave. In this study, delay times vary between 0,02 and 0,25 seconds

  6. Structure and development of the subesophageal zone of the Drosophila brain. I. Segmental architecture, compartmentalization, and lineage anatomy. (United States)

    Hartenstein, Volker; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Wong, Darren; Kuert, Philipp A; Reichert, Heinrich; Lovick, Jennifer K; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia


    The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain houses the circuitry underlying feeding behavior and is involved in many other aspects of sensory processing and locomotor control. Formed by the merging of four neuromeres, the internal architecture of the SEZ can be best understood by identifying segmentally reiterated landmarks emerging in the embryo and larva, and following the gradual changes by which these landmarks become integrated into the mature SEZ during metamorphosis. In previous works, the system of longitudinal fibers (connectives) and transverse axons (commissures) has been used as a scaffold that provides internal landmarks for the neuromeres of the larval ventral nerve cord. We have extended the analysis of this scaffold to the SEZ and, in addition, reconstructed the tracts formed by lineages and nerves in relationship to the connectives and commissures. As a result, we establish reliable criteria that define boundaries between the four neuromeres (tritocerebrum, mandibular neuromere, maxillary neuromere, labial neuromere) of the SEZ at all stages of development. Fascicles and lineage tracts also demarcate seven columnar neuropil domains (ventromedial, ventro-lateral, centromedial, central, centrolateral, dorsomedial, dorsolateral) identifiable throughout development. These anatomical subdivisions, presented in the form of an atlas including confocal sections and 3D digital models for the larval, pupal and adult stage, allowed us to describe the morphogenetic changes shaping the adult SEZ. Finally, we mapped MARCM-labeled clones of all secondary lineages of the SEZ to the newly established neuropil subdivisions. Our work will facilitate future studies of function and comparative anatomy of the SEZ. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sponge Borders


    Cimadomo, Guido; Martínez Ponce, Pilar


    The latest expansion of the EU towards the East has again modified its borders, showing once again the intangibility and flexibility of the latter. The very definition of border acquires different meanings depending on which theme is being discussed: an impenetrable barrier against migratory flows and the introduction of goods, transforming itself into a strainer for the exporting of national products. The new Internal Affairs Commissioner for the EU, Rocco Buttiglione, affirms on the on...

  8. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.


    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  9. ST segment elevation at the surface of a healed transmural myocardial infarction in pigs. Conditions for passive transmission from the ischemic peri-infarction zone. (United States)

    Cinca, J; Bardají, A; Carreño, A; Mont, L; Bosch, R; Soldevilla, A; Tapias, A; Soler-Soler, J


    Ischemia of the myocardium surviving an infarction induces ST segment elevation in infarct-related ECG leads. In cases with no viable tissues, ischemia adjacent to the infarction could induce a similar ECG pattern if there is ST segment potential transmission through the necrotic scar. We analyzed whether acute ischemia adjacent to a healed infarction with no viable tissue may induce ST segment elevation on the surface of the necrotic scar. Epicardial ST segment changes elicited during 30 minutes of acute reocclusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery 2 cm above the first diagonal branch were analyzed by 32-channel mapping in 18 chloralose-anesthetized open-chest pigs with 1-month-old anterior infarctions induced by permanent ligature below the first diagonal branch (group 1). The effect of a previous infarction on the magnitude of ischemic ST segment changes was assessed by similar mapping in 21 control pigs submitted to a LAD ligature 2 cm above the first diagonal branch (group 2, n = 11) or just below this branch (group 3, n = 10). Myocardial perfusion after coronary ligature was estimated in 7 pigs with chronic infarction and in 3 control pigs by mapping of myocardial technetium-99m-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) activity in transmural samples underlying each epicardial electrode. The width of cell layers surviving the infarction was measured and their viability after 60 minutes of coronary reocclusion was assessed by intracellular glycogen staining. Reocclusion of the LAD induced parallel ST segment elevation at the periinfarction zone and at the necrotic scar, although in the latter region the changes were less marked (maximal ST segment, 8.4 +/- 3.0 mV versus 2.7 +/- 1.8 mV, ANOVA, P extension.

  10. The E-W segments of the contact between the external and internal zones of the Betic and Rif cordilleras and the E-W corridors of the internal zone (a combined explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz de Galdeano, C.


    Full Text Available The contact between the Internal Betic-Rif Zone and the corresponding external zones is not regular, sorne sections having a NNE-SSW direction and others approximately EW. These latter coincide with sorne of the corridors of the Internal Zone, and have continuity with those within this zone. A model which relates the two features is proposed, in which the corridors originally corresponds to faults or fault zones which are the eastern continuation of the transcurrent contacts, by means of which the Internal Zone advanced westwardly more easily on its collision with the External Betic Zone. This means that the Internal Zone is divided into various cortical segments and advanced towards the west. The proposal of the model ineludes a discussion of the Alpujarras and Colmenar corridors, which continue each other, and provides values for the displacement of the zone of faults. With this model, both the transcurrent E-W fauits of the Internal Zone, as well as at least part of the extensional movements affecting this zone, remain subordinate to the shifting of the Internal Zone towards the west.El contacto entre la Zona Interna Bético-Rifeña y las correspondientes zonas externas no es regular. Muestra unos sectores de dirección NNE-SSW y otros que son aproximadamente E-W; estos últimos coinciden con algunos de los corredores de la Zona Interna y están en continuidad con los que existen dentro de la misma. Se propone un modelo en el que se relacionan genéticamente ambos rasgos, de manera que los corredores corresponden originalmente a fallas o zonas de fallas que son la continuación de los contactos transcurrentes más occidentales, por medio de los cuales la Zona Interna ha logrado avanzar con más facilidad hacia el W en su choque con la Zona Externa Bética. Esto significa que la Zona Interna está dividida en varios segmentos corticales y que el avance de la misma se hizo fundamentalmente hacia el W. En la propuesta del modelo se discuten los

  11. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols


    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  12. Forearc structure from legacy multichannel seismic data linked to mechanical variability and rupture segmentation on the central Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone (United States)

    Roland, E. C.; von Huene, R.; Miller, J.; Haeussler, P. J.; Scholl, D. W.; Ryan, H. F.; Kirby, S. H.


    The historical earthquake record, geodetic observations, and modern interseismic seismicity patterns indicate along-strike variability in the mechanical behavior of the subduction zone extending from the central Alaska peninsula west to the eastern Aleutian Islands. This region spans the rupture areas of several historical megathrust earthquakes, including the 1938 M8.3 Semidi Islands event, the 1946 M8.5 earthquake near Unimak Pass, and the 1957 M8.6 Andreanof Islands earthquake. Each of these events produced tsunamis that affected Alaska and/or far-field coastal regions in Hawaii and the mainland U.S. The '38 and '46 rupture areas are separated by a segment of the subduction zone in the vicinity of the Shumagin Islands where, based on plate velocities from GPS, plate coupling decreases from nearly fully locked in the east, to very low coupling in the western Shumagins, indicating an important change in seismic style along-strike. Changes in the degree of interseismic coupling are often attributed to variability in the mechanical strength of the thrust interface, influenced by heterogeneity in the material properties and subducted topographic relief. Furthermore, the expression of forearc structural features along the margin may indicate the width and up-dip limit of the locked zone. We explore structural characteristics of the shallow portion of the subduction system related to variations in the mechanical properties of the megathrust and interseismic coupling using legacy multichannel seismic (MCS) data from several segments along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Critical images were reprocessed with modern seismic processing systems. We characterize structural features of the downgoing plate and forearc, including the variation in thickness and character of subducted sediment, the geometry of the upper plate wedge, the distribution of imbricate thrust faults, the transition from outer prism to margin rock framework and extensional faulting. These

  13. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. II. Knowledge, perception, practice and treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants in malaria endemic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewkungwal Jaranit


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98% with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77% and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99% and accessed public health services in Thailand (63% for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%. Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%, self-treated (11%, or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%. Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of

  14. Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and surrounding the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11 (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Lambert, Rebecca B.


    The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water, the transition zone. As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), San Antonio Water System (SAWS), and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone.

  15. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE


    Full Text Available border environment. This environment includes land border lines and ports of entry; the harbours, coastline and Exclusive Economic Zone in the sea; and the airports and air borders that can essentially be anywhere in the country where international...

  16. SU-F-J-171: Robust Atlas Based Segmentation of the Prostate and Peripheral Zone Regions On MRI Utilizing Multiple MRI System Vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padgett, K; Pollack, A; Stoyanova, R [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Swallen, A; Nelson, A [MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Purpose: Automatically generated prostate MRI contours can be used to aid in image registration with CT or ultrasound and to reduce the burden of contouring for radiation treatment planning. In addition, prostate and zonal contours can assist to automate quantitative imaging features extraction and the analyses of longitudinal MRI studies. These potential gains are limited if the solutions are not compatible across different MRI vendors. The goal of this study is to characterize an atlas based automatic segmentation procedure of the prostate collected on MRI systems from multiple vendors. Methods: The prostate and peripheral zone (PZ) were manually contoured by an expert radiation oncologist on T2-weighted scans acquired on both GE (n=31) and Siemens (n=33) 3T MRI systems. A leave-one-out approach was utilized where the target subject is removed from the atlas before the segmentation algorithm is initiated. The atlas-segmentation method finds the best nine matched atlas subjects and then performs a normalized intensity-based free-form deformable registration of these subjects to the target subject. These nine contours are then merged into a single contour using Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE). Contour comparisons were made using Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and Hausdorff distances. Results: Using the T2 FatSat (FS) GE datasets the atlas generated contours resulted in an average DSC of 0.83±0.06 for prostate, 0.57±0.12 for PZ and 0.75±0.09 for CG. Similar results were found when using the Siemens data with a DSC of 0.79±0.14 for prostate, 0.54±0.16 and 0.70±0.9. Contrast between prostate and surrounding anatomy and between the PZ and CG contours for both vendors demonstrated superior contrast separation; significance was found for all comparisons p-value < 0.0001. Conclusion: Atlas-based segmentation yielded promising results for all contours compared to expertly defined contours in both Siemens and GE 3T systems providing

  17. Persistence of Infarct Zone T2 Hyperintensity at 6 Months After Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Incidence, Pathophysiology, and Prognostic Implications. (United States)

    Carberry, Jaclyn; Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Ahmed, Nadeem; Mordi, Ify; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Lindsay, Mitchell; Davie, Andrew; Mahrous, Ahmed; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Oldroyd, Keith G; Berry, Colin


    The incidence and clinical significance of persistent T2 hyperintensity after acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is uncertain. Patients who sustained an acute STEMI were enrolled in a cohort study (BHF MR-MI: NCT02072850). Two hundred eighty-three STEMI patients (mean age, 59±12 years; 75% male) had cardiac magnetic resonance with T2 mapping performed at 2 days and 6 months post-STEMI. Persisting T2 hyperintensity was defined as infarct T2 >2 SDs from remote T2 at 6 months. Infarct zone T2 was higher than remote zone T2 at 2 days (66.3±6.1 versus 49.7±2.1 ms; P20% change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume; 21.91 [2.75-174.29]; P=0.004). Persistent T2 hyperintensity was associated with all-cause death and heart failure, but the result was not significant (P=0.051). ΔT2 was associated with all-cause death and heart failure (P=0.004) and major adverse cardiac events (P=0.013). Persistent T2 hyperintensity occurs in two thirds of STEMI patients. Persistent T2 hyperintensity was associated with the initial STEMI severity, adverse remodeling, and long-term health outcome. URL: Unique identifier: NCT02072850. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Russia’s Coastal Zone as a Social and Geographic Phenomenon: Conceptualisation and Delimitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin Aleksandr


    Full Text Available This article defines coastal zones as a priority subject of studies in social geography and interprets coastalisation of population and economy as a key indicator of the development of a coastal zone. The author stresses the inverted coastalisation in Russia at the macro- and meso-levels and identifies its causes. The article defines the coastal zone as a full-scale, continuum-discrete phenomenon with clear crossborder characteristics and increased potential for cluster formation in the economy. Marine cross-border clusters are identified as independent typological units. Characteristics and conditions for their formation and development are described in view of contemporary geoeconomic trends. The author examines the conditions and prospects for the formation of marine cross-border clusters in the key segments of Russia’s coastal zone.

  19. Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes at the Spring Lake and North Creek Sites on the Wasatch Fault Zone: Evidence for complex rupture of the Nephi Segment (United States)

    Duross, Christopher; Hylland, Michael D.; Hiscock, Adam; Personius, Stephen; Briggs, Richard; Gold, Ryan D.; Beukelman, Gregg; McDonald, Geg N; Erickson, Ben; McKean, Adam; Angster, Steve; King, Roselyn; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon


    The Nephi segment of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) comprises two fault strands, the northern and southern strands, which have evidence of recurrent late Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes. We excavated paleoseismic trenches across these strands to refine and expand their Holocene earthquake chronologies; improve estimates of earthquake recurrence, displacement, and fault slip rate; and assess whether the strands rupture separately or synchronously in large earthquakes. Paleoseismic data from the Spring Lake site expand the Holocene record of earthquakes on the northern strand: at least five to seven earthquakes ruptured the Spring Lake site at 0.9 ± 0.2 ka (2σ), 2.9 ± 0.7 ka, 4.0 ± 0.5 ka, 4.8 ± 0.8 ka, 5.7 ± 0.8 ka, 6.6 ± 0.7 ka, and 13.1 ± 4.0 ka, yielding a Holocene mean recurrence of ~1.2–1.5 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~0.5–0.8 mm/yr. Paleoseismic data from the North Creek site help refine the Holocene earthquake chronology for the southern strand: at least five earthquakes ruptured the North Creek site at 0.2 ± 0.1 ka (2σ), 1.2 ± 0.1 ka, 2.6 ± 0.9 ka, 4.0 ± 0.1 ka, and 4.7 ± 0.7 ka, yielding a mean recurrence of 1.1–1.3 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~1.9–2.0 mm/yr. We compare these Spring Lake and North Creek data with previous paleoseismic data for the Nephi segment and report late Holocene mean recurrence intervals of ~1.0–1.2 kyr for the northern strand and ~1.1–1.3 kyr for the southern strand. The northern and southern strands have similar late Holocene earthquake histories, which allow for models of both independent and synchronous rupture. However, considering the earthquake timing probabilities and per-event vertical displacements, we have the greatest confidence in the simultaneous rupture of the strands, including rupture of one strand with spillover rupture to the other. Ultimately, our results improve the surface-faulting earthquake history of the Nephi segment and enhance our understanding of how structural barriers


    Saxena, Sandeep; Ruia, Surabhi; Prasad, Senthamizh; Jain, Astha; Mishra, Nibha; Natu, Shankar M; Meyer, Carsten H; Gilhotra, Jagjit S; Kruzliak, Peter; Akduman, Levent


    To evaluate the role of serum urea and creatinine as surrogate markers for disruption of retinal photoreceptor external limiting membrane (ELM) and inner segment ellipsoid zone (EZ) in Type 2 diabetic retinopathy (DR) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, for the first time. One hundred and seventeen consecutive cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes without retinopathy [No DR; n = 39], nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR; n = 39], proliferative diabetic retinopathy [PDR; n = 39]) and 40 healthy control subjects were included. Serum levels of urea and creatinine were assessed using standard protocol. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to grade the disruption of ELM and EZ as follows: Grade 0, no disruption of ELM and EZ; Grade 1, ELM disrupted, EZ intact; Grade 2, ELM and EZ disrupted. Data were analyzed statistically. Increase in serum levels of urea (F = 22.93) and creatinine (F = 15.82) and increased grades of disruption of ELM and EZ (γ = 116.3) were observed with increased severity of DR (P urea (F = 10.45) and creatinine (F = 6.89) was observed with increased grades of disruption of ELM and EZ (P = 0.001). Serum levels of urea and creatinine are surrogate markers for disruption of retinal photoreceptor ELM and EZ on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in DR.

  1. Border information flow architecture (United States)


    This brochure describes the Border Information Flow Architecture (BIFA). The Transportation Border Working Group, a bi-national group that works to enhance coordination and planning between the United States and Canada, identified collaboration on th...

  2. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides border scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  3. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  4. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  5. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occuring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  6. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occuring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  7. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations (United States)


    declared anyone found within the restricted zones hostile. Friendly population buffers involved screening and removing all guerrilla supporters and...terrain was advantageous to infiltrators. The difficulty to secure border regions intensified if adjacent states were weak, developing or hostile to...region facilitated infiltration into South Vietnam because of mountainous terrain, double canopy jungle, and opportunistic international border seams. The

  8. Detection of Multiple Innervation Zones from Multi-Channel Surface EMG Recordings with Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Using Graph-Cut Segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Marateb

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the location of muscle Innervation Zones (IZs is important in many applications, e.g. for minimizing the quantity of injected botulinum toxin for the treatment of spasticity or for deciding on the type of episiotomy during child delivery. Surface EMG (sEMG can be noninvasively recorded to assess physiological and morphological characteristics of contracting muscles. However, it is not often possible to record signals of high quality. Moreover, muscles could have multiple IZs, which should all be identified. We designed a fully-automatic algorithm based on the enhanced image Graph-Cut segmentation and morphological image processing methods to identify up to five IZs in 60-ms intervals of very-low to moderate quality sEMG signal detected with multi-channel electrodes (20 bipolar channels with Inter Electrode Distance (IED of 5 mm. An anisotropic multilayered cylinder model was used to simulate 750 sEMG signals with signal-to-noise ratio ranging from -5 to 15 dB (using Gaussian noise and in each 60-ms signal frame, 1 to 5 IZs were included. The micro- and macro- averaged performance indices were then reported for the proposed IZ detection algorithm. In the micro-averaging procedure, the number of True Positives, False Positives and False Negatives in each frame were summed up to generate cumulative measures. In the macro-averaging, on the other hand, precision and recall were calculated for each frame and their averages are used to determine F1-score. Overall, the micro (macro-averaged sensitivity, precision and F1-score of the algorithm for IZ channel identification were 82.7% (87.5%, 92.9% (94.0% and 87.5% (90.6%, respectively. For the correctly identified IZ locations, the average bias error was of 0.02±0.10 IED ratio. Also, the average absolute conduction velocity estimation error was 0.41±0.40 m/s for such frames. The sensitivity analysis including increasing IED and reducing interpolation coefficient for time samples was

  9. Holocene and latest Pleistocene paleoseismology of the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah, at the Penrose Drive Trench Site (United States)

    DuRoss, Christopher B.; Hylland, Michael D.; McDonald, Greg N.; Crone, Anthony J.; Personius, Stephen F.; Gold, Ryan D.; Mahan, Shannon


    The Salt Lake City segment (SLCS) of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) and the West Valley fault zone (WVFZ) compromise Holocene-active normal faults that bound a large intrabasin graben in northern Salt Lake Valley and have evidence of recurrent, large-magnitude (M ~6-7) surface-faulting earthquakes. However, at the time of this investigation, questions remained regarding the timing, displacement, and recurrence of latest Pleistocene and Holocene earthquakes on the northern SLCS and WVFZ , and whether the WVFZ is seismically independent of, or moves coseismically with, the SLCS. To improve paleoseismic data for the SLCS, we conducted a fault-trench investigation at the Penrose Drive site on the northern SLCS. Two trenches, excavated across an 11-m-high scarp near the northern end of the East Bench fault, exposed colluvial-wedge evidence for fize of six (preferred) surface-faulting earthquakes postdating to Provo-phase shoreline of Lake Bonneville (~14-18 ka). Radiocarbon and luminescence ages support earthquake times at 4.0 ± 0.5 ka (2σ) (PD1), 5.9 ± 0.7 ka (PD2), 7.5 ± 0.8 ka (PD3a), 9.7 ± 1.1 ka (PD3b), 10.9 ± 0.2 ka (PD4), and 12.1 ± 1.6 ka (PD5). At least one additional earthquake occurred at 16.5 ± 1.9 ka (PD6) based on an erosional unconformity that separates deformed Lake Bonneville sily and flat-lying Provo-phase shoreline gravel. Earthquakes PD5-PD1 yield latest Pleistocene (post-Provo) and Holocene mean recurrence intervals of ~1.6 kyr and ~1.7-1.9 kyr, respectively. Using 1.0-1.4 m of per-event vertical displacement for PD5-PD3b corroborate previously identified SLCS earthquakes at 4-10 ka. PD4 and PD5 occurred within an ~8-kyr *17-9 ka) time interval on the SLCS previously interpreted as a period of seismic quiescence, and PD6 possibly corresponds with a previously identified earthquake at ~17 ka (although both events have large timing uncertainties). The Penrose data, when combined with previous paleoseismic results, improve the latest Pleistocene

  10. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  11. Late Holocene paleoseismology of Shuyak Island, Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska - surface deformation and plate segmentation within the 1964 Alaska M 9.2 earthquake rupture zone (United States)

    Brader, Martin; Shennan, Ian; Barlow, Natasha; Davies, Frank; Longley, Chris; Tunstall, Neil


    Recent paleoseismological studies question whether segment boundaries identified for 20th and 21st century great, >M 8, earthquakes persist through multiple earthquake cycles, or whether smaller segments with different boundaries rupture and cause significant hazards. The smaller segments may include some that are currently slipping rather than locked. The 1964 Alaska M 9.2 earthquake was the largest of five earthquakes of >M 7.9 between 1938 and 1965 along the Aleutian chain and coast of southcentral Alaska that helped define models of rupture segments along the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust. The 1964 M 9.2 earthquake ruptured ˜950 km of the megathrust, involving two main asperities focussed on Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound and crossed the Kenai segment, which is currently creeping. Paleoseismic studies of coastal sediments currently provide a long record of previous large earthquakes for the Prince William Sound segment, with widespread evidence of seven great earthquakes in the last 4000 years and more restricted evidence for three earlier ones. Shorter and more fragmentary records from the Kenai Peninsula, Yakataga and Kodiak Archipelago raise the hypothesis of different patterns of surface deformation during past great earthquakes. We present new evidence from coastal wetlands on Shuyak Island, towards the hypothesised north-eastern boundary of the Kodiak segment, to illustrate different detection limits of paleoseismic indicators and how these influence the identification of segment boundaries in late Holocene earthquakes. We compare predictions of co-seismic uplift and subsidence derived from geophysical models of earthquakes with different rupture modes. The spatial patterns of agreement and misfit between model predictions and quantitative reconstructions of co-seismic submergence and emergence suggest that no earthquake within the last 4000 years had the same rupture pattern as the 1964 M 9.2 earthquake.

  12. Border Crossing Points, US-Mexico Border, 2015, NAVTEQ (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for the United States. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other...

  13. Border Crossings, US-Mexico Border, 2010, NAVTEQ (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for Region 9. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other important...

  14. Late Holocene earthquake history of the Brigham City segment of the Wasatch fault zone at the Hansen Canyon, Kotter Canyon, and Pearsons Canyon trench sites, Box Elder County, Utah (United States)

    DuRoss, Christopher B.; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; McDonald, Greg N.; Briggs, Richard W.


    Of the five central segments of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) having evidence of recurrent Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes, the Brigham City segment (BCS) has the longest elapsed time since its most recent surface-faulting event (~2.1 kyr) compared to its mean recurrence time between events (~1.3 kyr). Thus, the BCS has the highest time-dependent earthquake probability of the central WFZ. We excavated trenches at three sites––the Kotter Canyon and Hansen Canyon sites on the north-central BCS and Pearsons Canyon site on the southern BCS––to determine whether a surface-faulting earthquake younger than 2.1 ka occurred on the BCS. Paleoseismic data for Hansen Canyon and Kotter Canyon confirm that the youngest earthquake on the north-central BCS occurred before 2 ka, consistent with previous north-central BCS investigations at Bowden Canyon and Box Elder Canyon. At Hansen Canyon, the most recent earthquake is constrained to 2.1–4.2 ka and had 0.6–2.5 m of vertical displacement. At Kotter Canyon, we found evidence for two events at 2.5 ± 0.3 ka and 3.5 ± 0.3 ka, with an average displacement per event of 1.9–2.3 m. Paleoseismic data from Pearsons Canyon, on the previously unstudied southern BCS, indicate that a post-2 ka earthquake ruptured this part of the segment. The Pearsons Canyon earthquake occurred at 1.2 ± 0.04 ka and had 0.1–0.8 m of vertical displacement, consistent with our observation of continuous, youthful scarps on the southern 9 km of the BCS having 1–2 m of late Holocene(?) surface offset. The 1.2-ka earthquake on the southern BCS likely represents rupture across the Weber–Brigham City segment boundary from the penultimate Weber-segment earthquake at about 1.1 ka. The Pearsons Canyon data result in a revised length of the BCS that has not ruptured since 2 ka (with time-dependent probability implications), and provide compelling evidence of at least one segment-boundary failure and multi-segment rupture on the central WFZ. Our

  15. 76 FR 66862 - Opening of Boquillas Border Crossing and Update to the Class B Port of Entry Description (United States)


    ... ports are designated for all aliens and designed to provide full processing at the border, Class B ports are designed for processing a more limited segment of those aliens entering the United States. Class B... side of the border for food, souvenirs, and a unique cultural experience. The number of border crossers...

  16. Border Crossing Entry Data (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  17. 78 FR 34395 - Announcement of Foreign-Trade Zones Test (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Announcement of Foreign-Trade Zones Test AGENCY: U.S. Customs... announces U.S. Customs and Border Protection's (``CBP's'') plan to conduct a voluntary general test regarding certain foreign-trade zone (``FTZ'' or ``zone'') activities. Pursuant to the FTZ test, under...

  18. Geoelectrical behavior of a Fault Zone: the meaning of the electrical resistivity of metric-scale segments of the Liquiñe-Ofqui and the Arc-oblique Long-lived Fault Systems, Southern Andes (United States)

    Roquer, T.; Arancibia, G.; Yanez, G. A.; Estay, N.; Rowland, J. V.; Figueroa, R.; Iturrieta, P. C.


    The geoelectrical behavior of blind fault zones has been studied by different authors at decametric-to-kilometric scales, and inferred to reveal the dimensions of the main structural domains of a fault zone (core vs. damage zone). However, there is still a lack in the application of electrical methods in exposed fault zones, despite the importance of validating the inferences based on electrical measurements with direct geologic observation. In this study we correlate the results of structural mapping and geoelectrical measurements in two metric-scale, very well exposed segments of the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and the Arc-oblique Long-lived Fault System (ALFS), Southern Andes. The LOFS is an active dextral and dextral-normal ca. 1200-km-long Cenozoic intra-arc structure that strikes NNE to NE. Although the LOFS and the ALFS cross-cut each other, the ALFS is an apparently older basement NW-striking fault system where mainly sinistral movement is recorded. Two 22-m-long transects were mapped revealing in both examples a simple core and an assymetric damage zone with more frequency of fractures in the hanging wall than in the footwall. The LOFS outcrop showed a WNW-striking, 65°S-dipping core; the ALFS, a NW-striking, 60°SW-dipping core. A 2D direct-current electrical survey was made at each locality, orthogonal to the respective strike of the core. The field installation of the electrical survey used two electrode configurations for each outcrop: (1) electrodes were put in a vertical wall of rock, which gives a resistivity profile in plan view; and (2) electrodes were put in the ground, which gives a cross-section resistivity profile. The combined structural and electrical results suggest that: (1) it is possible to discriminate the geoelectrical response of the main metric-scale structural domains: the core and the fractured damage zones are relative conductors (20-200 ohm-m), whereas the less fractured damage zones are relative resistive volumes (500

  19. An L-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar study on the Ganos section of the north Anatolian fault zone between 2007 and 2011: Evidence for along strike segmentation and creep in a shallow fault patch. (United States)

    de Michele, Marcello; Ergintav, Semih; Aochi, Hideo; Raucoules, Daniel


    We utilize L-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in this study to retrieve a ground velocity map for the near field of the Ganos section of the north Anatolian fault (NAF) zone. The segmentation and creep distribution of this section, which last ruptured in 1912 to generate a moment magnitude (Mw)7.3 earthquake, remains incompletely understood. Because InSAR processing removes the mean orbital plane, we do not investigate large scale displacements due to regional tectonics in this study as these can be determined using global positioning system (GPS) data, instead concentrating on the close-to-the-fault displacement field. Our aim is to determine whether, or not, it is possible to retrieve robust near field velocity maps from stacking L-band interferograms, combining both single and dual polarization SAR data. In addition, we discuss whether a crustal velocity map can be used to complement GPS observations in an attempt to discriminate the present-day surface displacement of the Ganos fault (GF) across multiple segments. Finally, we characterize the spatial distribution of creep on shallow patches along multiple along-strike segments at shallow depths. Our results suggest the presence of fault segmentation along strike as well as creep on the shallow part of the fault (i.e. the existence of a shallow creeping patch) or the presence of a smoother section on the fault plane. Data imply a heterogeneous fault plane with more complex mechanics than previously thought. Because this study improves our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the GF, our results have implications for local seismic hazard assessment.

  20. Sources of groundwater based on Helium analyses in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas, 2002-03 (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Fahlquist, Lynne


    This report evaluates dissolved noble gas data, specifically helium-3 and helium-4, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, during 2002-03. Helium analyses are used to provide insight into the sources of groundwater in the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Sixty-nine dissolved gas samples were collected from 19 monitoring wells (categorized as fresh, transitional, or saline on the basis of dissolved solids concentration in samples from the wells or from fluid-profile logging of the boreholes) arranged in five transects, with one exception, across the freshwater/saline-water interface (the 1,000-milligrams-per-liter dissolved solids concentration threshold) of the Edwards aquifer. The concentration of helium-4 (the dominant isotope in atmospheric and terrigenic helium) in samples ranged from 63 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature (20 degrees Celsius) and pressure (1 atmosphere) in a well in the East Uvalde transect to 160,587 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature and pressure in a well in the Kyle transect. Helium-4 concentrations in the 10 saline wells generally increase from the western transects to the eastern transects. Increasing helium-4 concentrations from southwest to northeast in the transition zone, indicating increasing residence time of groundwater from southwest to northeast, is consistent with the longstanding conceptualization of the Edwards aquifer in which water recharges in the southwest, flows generally northeasterly (including in the transition zone, although more slowly than in the fresh-water zone), and discharges at major springs in the northeast. Excess helium-4 was greater than 1,000 percent for 60 of the 69 samples, indicating that terrigenic helium is largely present and that most of the excess helium-4 comes from sources other than the atmosphere. The helium data of this report cannot be

  1. Water Bodies and Vegetation in the California-Baja California Border Region a Remote Sensors Perspective. (United States)

    Hinojosa, A.; Mexicano-Vargas, M. L.; Serrato, B. A.


    The California-Baja California border region although they share watersheds, similar climate and landscape, there is a big contrast in the vegetation cover and water bodies between the two countries as seen from remote sensors. There is a stronger signature of vegetation and larger number of water bodies in the California side. To do a quantitative estimate of these differences, a comparative analysis of vegetation and water bodies was perfomerd along a strip of 100 km from both sides of the border with remote sensing techniques using Landsat TM images from 1984 to 2006. The strong absorption of water to short wave infrared radiation captured by band 5 of TM Landsat sensor (1.55- 1.75 micrometers) is use to detect water bodies. The histogram segmentation technique was used with TM 5/1 band ratios reinforced with a shades prediction technique using the sun position and a digital elevation model. The aerial extent of detected water bodies is estimated. Also an analysis from 1972 trough 2002 of the Mexican portion of Colorado river delta will be presented, with emphasis on flood events induced by abnormal snowmelts and higher precipitations in the high basin; 250 Landsat image previews were collected , from which 157 were selected to integrate 63 scenes that provide a dynamic picture of the Colorado delta river over 30 years. A regression with the annual averages of inundated areas and annual water flow data from E.U. to Mexico was made with a correlation coefficient of 0.912. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to estimate the vegetation greenness in the agricultural valleys and in natural vegetated areas along the mountains on both sides of the border. The spatial distribution of the NDVI and the differences between zones with the same land use regime on both sides of the border is presented.

  2. Conformation of marginalized micro companies in Mexico’s northern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aguilar Barceló


    Full Text Available Using some methods of multivariate analysis, particularly the cluster and discriminate analysis, we study 174 microcompanies and/or microbusiness mainly dedicated to the elaboration of foods and drinks. They belong to the marginalized segment of entrepreneurs in the Mexican border state of Baja California. We wanted to know how they behave and what the variables that define this behavior are. The results show a differentiated behavior among entrepreneurs depending on variables as age, familiar condition, education and geographic zone of origin. Nevertheless, we must emphasize the relevance of education in the quality of the management of the company as well as a signal in the market that bring up confidence to suppliers and clients. On the other hand, we corroborate that microcredits could help to improve the efficiency of many of these microcompanies and/or microbusiness under certain circumstances.

  3. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also study the trade-offs faced by traders between embeddedness and brokerage and find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties...... origin of the traders engaged in cross-border activities. In those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots....

  4. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel


    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...... of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...

  5. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan


    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  6. Ovarian ultrasound image analysis: follicle segmentation. (United States)

    Krivanek, A; Sonka, M


    Ovarian ultrasound is an effective tool in infertility treatment. Repeated measurements of the size and shape of follicles over several days are the primary means of evaluation by physicians. Currently, follicle wall segmentation is achieved by manual tracing which is time consuming and susceptible to inter-operator variation. An automated method for follicle wall segmentation is reported that uses a four-step process based on watershed segmentation and knowledge-based graph search algorithm which utilizes priori information about follicle structure for inner and outer wall detection. The automated technique was tested on 36 ultrasonographic images of women's ovaries. Validation against manually traced borders has shown good correlation of manually defined and computer-determined area measurements (R2 = 0.85 - 0.96). The border positioning errors were small: 0.63+/-0.36 mm for inner border and 0.67+/-0.41 mm for outer border detection. The use of watershed segmentation and graph search methods facilitates fast, accurate inner and outer border detection with minimal user-interaction.

  7. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Vatrapu, Ravi


    This paper address indirect global interactions that involve collaboration across continents involving different cultures, languages, technologies and nations. Specifically, we are concerned with analyzing international trade of avocados from trees in Africa to grocery store shelves in the Europe......, the description format developed for this case can be useful for visualizing and analyzing other supply chains involving collaborations across borders....

  8. Borders of Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Janni Berthou


    This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration func...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...

  9. Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the origin and development of Illela Border Market in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The paper shows that attempts by Nigeria to promote social and economic activities with her neighbours encourage the establishment of Border Markets and Illela Border Market is not an exception. The article sheds light on the ...

  10. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education (United States)

    Ryan, John


    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  11. Fault damage zone origin of the Teufelsmauer, Subhercynian Cretaceous Basin, Germany (United States)

    Klimczak, Christian; Schultz, Richard A.


    Recognition of fractures as porosity-reducing deformation bands pervading all sandstone segments of the Teufelsmauer, Subhercynian Creatceous Basin, Germany, motivates a study relating the observed macroscopic and microscopic deformation to the damage zone of the nearby Harz border fault. Deformation bands, confirmed and documented by several porosity-reducing micro-mechanisms, such as cataclasis, particulate flow, pressure solution and a heavy quartz cementation, were mapped and analyzed in terms of the kinematics and deformation intensities expressed by them. Deformation band kinematics are uniform throughout the entire basin and consistent with the large-scale tectonic structures of the area. A strain intensity study highlights two narrow but long zones of deformation bands, sub-parallel to the Harz border fault. Deformation band kinematics, strain intensity, as well as micro-mechanisms are all consistent with a continuous but internally diverse deformation band damage zone of the entire Teufelsmauer structure along the Harz border fault, bringing new insights into the tectonic evolution and the origin of the heavy quartz cementation of the sandstones in the Subhercynian Cretaceous Basin.

  12. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  13. Healthy Border 2020 Embassy Launch (United States)

    The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.

  14. Segmental neurofibromatosis


    Galhotra, Virat; Sheikh, Soheyl; Jindal, Sanjeev; Singla, Anshu


    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder, characterized by neurofibromas or cafι-au-lait macules limited to one region of the body. Its occurrence on the face is extremely rare and only few cases of segmental neurofibromatosis over the face have been described so far. We present a case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the buccal mucosa, tongue, cheek, ear, and neck on the right side of the face.

  15. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman


    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  16. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata


    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... the borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...

  17. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef


    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  18. The Enemy at the Gates: International Borders, Migration and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Oberoi


    Full Text Available This article considers contemporary border management regimes from a human rights perspective. It demonstrates how a preoccupation with border controls and enforcement has led to serious concerns for the safety and protection of migrants. As border zones have expanded, border crossing has become a more stigmatized and dangerous activity, and even as globalization has given rise to easier and faster international travel, for some, such movement has been outlawed and stigmatized. Measures to strengthen and “secure” borders have paradoxically made migrants, particularly irregular and vulnerable migrants, more at risk of violence and exploitation by non-State and State actors. Migration governance regimes at international borders are thus increasingly located within security and enforcement frameworks that pay little attention to the principles and standards of international human rights law. The paper argues that a human rights-based approach to such regimes is urgently needed, in order to address a growing human rights crisis at international borders.

  19. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  20. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico (United States)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.


    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  1. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann


    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  2. Methodological Options in International Market Segmentation


    Bastian, Iryna


    The last decades were marked with an increasing involvement of multi-product manufacturers into cross-border business activities. Dealing with heterogeneous needs of consumers in different countries is one of the biggest challenges in the modern business. Correspondingly, special importance is being attached to international market segmentation. Finding transnational segments and developing standardized marketing programs for targeting them gain on popularity. The doctoral research of Dr. Iry...

  3. Segmental Neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesudian Devakar


    Full Text Available Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis in which the lesions are confined to one segment or dermatome of the body. They resemble classical neurofibromas in their morphology, histopathology and electron microscopy. However, systemic associations are usually absent. We report one such case with these classical features.

  4. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail:


    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  5. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc. (United States)

    Blok, J


    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the "technosphere" and the "target zone" beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The "technosphere" of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle "free zone" that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m(2) year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m(2) year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  6. Recent (2008-10) water quality in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer and its contributing zone, central Texas, with emphasis on factors affecting nutrients and bacteria (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Sample, Thomas L.; Wong, Corinne I.


    The Barton Springs zone, which comprises the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer and the watersheds to the west that contribute to its recharge, is in south-central Texas, an area with rapid growth in population and increasing amounts of land area affected by development. During November 2008-March 2010, an investigation of factors affecting the fate and transport of nutrients and bacteria in the Barton Springs zone was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The primary objectives of the study were to characterize occurrence of nutrients and bacteria in the Barton Springs zone under a range of flow conditions; to improve understanding of the interaction between surface-water quality and groundwater quality; and to evaluate how factors such as streamflow variability and dilution affect the fate and transport of nutrients and bacteria in the Barton Springs zone. The USGS collected and analyzed water samples from five streams (Barton, Williamson, Slaughter, Bear, and Onion Creeks), two groundwater wells (Marbridge and Buda), and the main orifice of Barton Springs in Austin, Texas. During the period of the study, during which the hydrologic conditions transitioned from exceptional drought to wetter than normal, water samples were collected routinely (every 3 to 4 weeks) from the streams, wells, and spring and, in response to storms, from the streams and spring. All samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, the bacterium Escherichia coli, and suspended sediment. During the dry period, the geochemistry of groundwater at the two wells and at Barton Springs was dominated by flow from the aquifer matrix and was relatively similar and unchanging at the three sites. At the onset of the wet period, when the streams began to flow, the geochemistry of groundwater samples from the Marbridge well and Barton Springs changed rapidly, and concentrations of most major ions and nutrients and

  7. Consistency of Border-Ownership Cells across Artificial Stimuli, Natural Stimuli, and Stimuli with Ambiguous Contours. (United States)

    Hesse, Janis K; Tsao, Doris Y


    Segmentation and recognition of objects in a visual scene are two problems that are hard to solve separately from each other. When segmenting an ambiguous scene, it is helpful to already know the present objects and their shapes. However, for recognizing an object in clutter, one would like to consider its isolated segment alone to avoid confounds from features of other objects. Border-ownership cells (Zhou et al., 2000) appear to play an important role in segmentation, as they signal the side-of-figure of artificial stimuli. The present work explores the role of border-ownership cells in dorsal macaque visual areas V2 and V3 in the segmentation of natural object stimuli and locally ambiguous stimuli. We report two major results. First, compared with previous estimates, we found a smaller percentage of cells that were consistent across artificial stimuli used previously. Second, we found that the average response of those neurons that did respond consistently to the side-of-figure of artificial stimuli also consistently signaled, as a population, the side-of-figure for borders of single faces, occluding faces and, with higher latencies, even stimuli with illusory contours, such as Mooney faces and natural faces completely missing local edge information. In contrast, the local edge or the outlines of the face alone could not always evoke a significant border-ownership signal. Our results underscore that border ownership is coded by a population of cells, and indicate that these cells integrate a variety of cues, including low-level features and global object context, to compute the segmentation of the scene. To distinguish different objects in a natural scene, the brain must segment the image into regions corresponding to objects. The so-called "border-ownership" cells appear to be dedicated to this task, as they signal for a given edge on which side the object is that owns it. Here, we report that individual border-ownership cells are unreliable when tested across

  8. Identifying spatial segments in international markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hofstede, F; Wedel, M; Steenkamp, JBEM


    The identification of geographic target markets is critical to the success of companies that are expanding internationally. Country borders have traditionally been used to delineate such target markets, resulting in accessible segments and cost efficient entry strategies. However, at present such

  9. Segmental Vitiligo. (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart


    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier


    The objective of this paper is to show how a formal approach to networks can make a significant contribution to the study of cross-border trade in West Africa. Building on the formal tools and theories developed by Social Network Analysis, we examine the network organization of 136 large traders...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  11. Collaborating Across Borders (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  12. Surface creep and slip-behavior segmentation along the northwestern Xianshuihe fault zone of southwestern China determined from decades of fault-crossing short-baseline and short-level surveys (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wen, Xue-ze; Cao, Jian-ling; Yan, Wei; Yang, Yong-lin; Su, Qin


    This study examines the 200-km-long northwestern Xianshuihe fault zone (NWXFZ), southwestern China, using more than three decades of geodetic observations from fault-crossing short-baseline and short-leveling surveys at seven sites. These data enable estimates of creep rates and depths, and examination of the long-term slip behavior. The surface motion of the NWXFZ is dominated by sinistral creep, although sinistral, transverse, and vertical slip components show spatio-temporal variations. Combining these slip variations with data of earthquake rupture, coseismic slip, seismicity, fault geometry, and far-fault movement velocity, and using the velocity-and-state friction theory, our analysis indicates that the surface slip behavior of the NWXFZ is segmented along strike. The 1973 rupture section of this fault zone exhibits spatio-temporally variable slip behavior, showing time-decaying post-1973 afterslip on the northwestern and southeastern parts of the rupture at depths above 5.8 - 7.0 km with average sinistral-creep rates of 1.3 and 3.5 mm/yr, respectively, but being relocked in the central part of the rupture. The 1923/1981 rupture section is generally in locking state, with postseismic and interseismic sinistral-creep at 1.1 mm/yr on its central part at depths above 2.0-2.8 km. The 1893 rupture section has been tightly locked without creep since at least the early 1980s. The thickness of the shallow velocity-strengthening (or creep) layer and the restraining bend geometry of the NWXFZ are the key factors that control spatio-temporal variations in surface creep rates. Two surface-observed locked fault portions are located within two different restraining bends in the NWXFZ, both of which act as compressive asperities and hence have enabled the long-term locking of these portions. Creep along the NWXFZ has also been affected to varying degrees by M6.5 - Mw9.2 earthquakes at distances of 50 - 3800 km from the fault zone. Most of these effects have been removed

  13. International market segmentation based on consumer-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M

    With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain

  14. Three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Border defence is predominately against the armed forces of other states requiring tanks, aircraft and ships. Traditionally, border security includes the mission roles of immigration, crime, agriculture, finance, disease control and terrorism. Intelligence gathering and analysis using three methodologies - trends and patterns, ...

  15. three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Johnston (2005:12) in identifying various methods and a taxonomy for intelligence analysis. Of these there are ..... It follows that accurate intelligence prediction and forecasting in trends and patterns will determine ... for power projection and not based on territorial border threats for her land borders with Canada and Mexico ...

  16. Automated Segmentation of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Nilsson, Jens Chr.; Grønning, Bjørn A.


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be an accurate and precise technique to assess cardiac volumes and function in a non-invasive manner and is generally considered to be the current gold-standard for cardiac imaging [1]. Measurement of ventricular volumes, muscle mass and function...... is based on determination of the left-ventricular endocardial and epicardial borders. Since manual border detection is laborious, automated segmentation is highly desirable as a fast, objective and reproducible alternative. Automated segmentation will thus enhance comparability between and within cardiac...... studies and increase accuracy by allowing acquisition of thinner MRI-slices. This abstract demonstrates that statistical models of shape and appearance, namely the deformable models: Active Appearance Models, can successfully segment cardiac MRIs....

  17. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander


    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re......-enter Karen state in Eastern Burma as humanitarians, providing medical, educational resources and help to document human rights violations and do advocacy work. In addition, local missionaries and faith-based groups also use the corridor to spread the word of God. I argue that Karen humanitarian community......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  18. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.


    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  19. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta


    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  20. Microsensors for border patrol applications (United States)

    Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian; Shimazu, Ron; Berglund, Victor


    A top concern in homeland security efforts is the lack of ability to monitor the thousands of miles of open border with our neighbors. It is not currently feasible to continually monitor the borders for illegal intrusions. The MicroSensor System (MSS) seeks to achieve a low-cost monitoring solution that can be efficiently deployed for border patrol applications. The modifications and issues regarding the unique requirements of this application will be discussed and presented. The MicroSensor System was developed by the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) for military applications, but border patrol applications, with their unique sensor requirements, demand careful adaptation and modification from the military application. Adaptation of the existing sensor design for border applications has been initiated. Coverage issues, communications needs, and other requirements need to be explored for the border patrol application. Currently, border patrol has a number of deficiencies that can be addressed with a microsensor network. First, a distributed networked sensor field could mitigate the porous border intruder detection problem. Second, a unified database needs to be available to identify aliens attempting to cross into the United States. This database needs to take unique characteristics (e.g. biometrics, fingerprints) recovered from a specialized field unit to reliably identify intruders. Finally, this sensor network needs to provide a communication ability to allow border patrol officers to have quick access to intrusion information as well as equipment tracking and voice communication. MSS already addresses the sensing portion of the solution, including detection of acoustic, infrared, magnetic, and seismic events. MSS also includes a low-power networking protocol to lengthen the battery life. In addition to current military requirements, MSS needs a solar panel solution to extend its battery life to 5 years, and an additional backbone communication link

  1. 3D ground‐motion simulations of Mw 7 earthquakes on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault zone: Variability of long‐period (T≥1  s) ground motions and sensitivity to kinematic rupture parameters (United States)

    Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hartzell, Stephen; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Frankel, Arthur; Angster, Stephen J.; Stephenson, William J.


    We examine the variability of long‐period (T≥1  s) earthquake ground motions from 3D simulations of Mw 7 earthquakes on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault zone, Utah, from a set of 96 rupture models with varying slip distributions, rupture speeds, slip velocities, and hypocenter locations. Earthquake ruptures were prescribed on a 3D fault representation that satisfies geologic constraints and maintained distinct strands for the Warm Springs and for the East Bench and Cottonwood faults. Response spectral accelerations (SA; 1.5–10 s; 5% damping) were measured, and average distance scaling was well fit by a simple functional form that depends on the near‐source intensity level SA0(T) and a corner distance Rc:SA(R,T)=SA0(T)(1+(R/Rc))−1. Period‐dependent hanging‐wall effects manifested and increased the ground motions by factors of about 2–3, though the effects appeared partially attributable to differences in shallow site response for sites on the hanging wall and footwall of the fault. Comparisons with modern ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) found that the simulated ground motions were generally consistent, except within deep sedimentary basins, where simulated ground motions were greatly underpredicted. Ground‐motion variability exhibited strong lateral variations and, at some sites, exceeded the ground‐motion variability indicated by GMPEs. The effects on the ground motions of changing the values of the five kinematic rupture parameters can largely be explained by three predominant factors: distance to high‐slip subevents, dynamic stress drop, and changes in the contributions from directivity. These results emphasize the need for further characterization of the underlying distributions and covariances of the kinematic rupture parameters used in 3D ground‐motion simulations employed in probabilistic seismic‐hazard analyses.

  2. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben


    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products....... The traditionalists are characterised by favouring pork, poultry and beef. Since it is difficult to change consumers' tastes, the short-term consequence may be to focus on the "fish lovers" and target the communication towards these consumers. In the long run, "traditionalists" may be persuaded to revise...

  3. Jobs at the Borders: What policies can promote gender equality and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These zones host labour-intensive industries such as garment production, which predominantly employ young, migrant women. But because these zones are in border areas, they represent both opportunities and risks in creating an empowering labour environment for women. This project examines how employment of ...

  4. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia


    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  5. Greening transportation at the border. (United States)


    On February 2324, 2011, Federal agencies from the United : States, Canada, and Mexico sponsored a workshop in San : Diego, California, to discuss opportunities for improvement : regarding the greening of transportation at the borders.1 : The works...

  6. The Finne fault zone (central Germany): structural analysis of a partially inverted extensional fault zone by balanced cross-sections (United States)

    Malz, Alexander; Kley, Jonas


    The Finne fault zone, located in central Germany to the southwest of the Harz mountains, was studied by means of detailed map analysis, investigations of fault displacement and balanced cross-sections for the most strongly deformed area in the center of the fault zone (ca. 50 % of total fault zone length). The system of the Finne fault zone shows a nearly 100-km-long straight flexure that symbolizes the morphological and geological northeastern border of the Thuringian basin. In the central part, which should be surveyed here, the fault zone corresponds to a distinctive narrow band of highly deformed Triassic sedimentary rocks. The northwestern and especially the southeastern parts of the research area are developed as several parallel branch faults. In the southeastern elongation of the fault zone, which is not part of our survey, the sedimentary cover is missing. Here, it is possible to gain insight to the fact that the basement is also involved to the kinematics of the fault zone. Based on our results, we propose a subdivision of the fault zone into four sectors. From the northwest to the southeast, we interpret the structure of these sectors to reflect (1) a compressional flexure, (2) an overthrust graben, and (3) a partially inverted and folded half graben. In the extreme southeast (4), the fault zone is characterized by an anticline with some strike-slip movement parallel to the fold axis. This segmentation is caused by a thrust fault system whose strike direction deviates slightly from that of the earlier formed graben system. The structural configuration can be explained by a two-phase deformation, in which the contractional strain exceeded the preceding extensional deformation. In the investigated area, the horizontal shortening attains a maximum of ca. 1 km. The present study confirms many earlier hypotheses, presents new results on the deformation history of the fault zone, and attempts to evaluate the deformation in a regional geological context. The

  7. Geothermal resources in the northwestern border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibenschutz, J.


    The Valley of Mexicali, located in one of the rifting zones of the world, has been assessed to contain a potential of between 850 and 1700 MW of electric capacity with present technology. Cerro Prieto, one of the areas in the valley, has a present operating capacity of 180 MW. Two more plants with a capacity of 220 MW each are being built for operation in 1983 and 1984 respectively. Aside from the electricity producing application of geothermal fluids, a process has been developed for the production of potassium chloride by evaporating the brine in a solar pond and further crystallizing the residues. Some processes are also being developed to use the hot water in hydroponics, aqua culture, etc. Collaboration with bordering bodies involved in geothermal energy has been very fruitful for the exchange of technical information. Agreements have been signed with San Diego Gas and Electric Company and Southern California Edison for the export of a total capacity of 275 MW.

  8. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten; Hansen, Allan Grutt

    content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits....... Innovatively, the research process is documented via an interactive data-visualization tool by which readers and fellow peers can access and, by using various filtering options, further analyze the results and, ultimately, reformulate the problem field....

  9. [Segmental neurofibromatosis]. (United States)

    Wagner, G; Meyer, V; Sachse, M M


    Thirteen years ago, a 48-year-old man developed numerous neurofibromas in a circumscribed area on the right chest. At the same time, a bilateral seminoma was diagnosed and treated curatively. There was no evidence for other complications of neurofibromatosis. The family history was inconspicuous. The segmental neurofibromatosis (SN) presented in this patient is the result of a mosaic formation resulting from a mutation of the NF1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene. Concomitant, typical diseases of neurofibromatosis generalisata (NFG), including malignant neoplasms, are the exception to SN.

  10. Segmental neurofibromatosis. (United States)

    Sobjanek, Michał; Dobosz-Kawałko, Magdalena; Michajłowski, Igor; Pęksa, Rafał; Nowicki, Roman


    Segmental neurofibromatosis or type V neurofibromatosis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas limited to a circumscribed body region. The disease may be associated with systemic involvement and malignancies. The disorder has not been reported yet in the Polish medical literature. A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of multiple, flesh colored, dome-shaped, soft to firm nodules situated in the right lumbar region. A histopathologic evaluation of three excised tumors revealed neurofibromas. No neurological and ophthalmologic symptoms of neurofibromatosis were diagnosed.

  11. Ventriculogram segmentation using boosted decision trees (United States)

    McDonald, John A.; Sheehan, Florence H.


    Left ventricular status, reflected in ejection fraction or end systolic volume, is a powerful prognostic indicator in heart disease. Quantitative analysis of these and other parameters from ventriculograms (cine xrays of the left ventricle) is infrequently performed due to the labor required for manual segmentation. None of the many methods developed for automated segmentation has achieved clinical acceptance. We present a method for semi-automatic segmentation of ventriculograms based on a very accurate two-stage boosted decision-tree pixel classifier. The classifier determines which pixels are inside the ventricle at key ED (end-diastole) and ES (end-systole) frames. The test misclassification rate is about 1%. The classifier is semi-automatic, requiring a user to select 3 points in each frame: the endpoints of the aortic valve and the apex. The first classifier stage is 2 boosted decision-trees, trained using features such as gray-level statistics (e.g. median brightness) and image geometry (e.g. coordinates relative to user supplied 3 points). Second stage classifiers are trained using the same features as the first, plus the output of the first stage. Border pixels are determined from the segmented images using dilation and erosion. A curve is then fit to the border pixels, minimizing a penalty function that trades off fidelity to the border pixels with smoothness. ED and ES volumes, and ejection fraction are estimated from border curves using standard area-length formulas. On independent test data, the differences between automatic and manual volumes (and ejection fractions) are similar in size to the differences between two human observers.

  12. Methods of evaluating segmentation characteristics and segmentation of major faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary.

  13. Safety Zones (United States)

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  14. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl


    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  15. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl


    of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and R&D intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level of innovativeness increase the likelihood...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  16. "The perfect business": human trafficking and Lao-Thai cross-border migration. (United States)

    Molland, Sverre


    Over the past few years some governments and development organizations have increasingly articulated cross-border mobility as "trafficking in persons". The notion of a market where traffickers prey on the "supply" of migrants that flows across international borders to meet the "demand" for labour has become a central trope among anti-trafficking development organizations. This article problematizes such economism by drawing attention to the oscillating cross-border migration of Lao sex workers within a border zone between Laos and Thailand. It illuminates the incongruity between the recruitment of women into the sex industry along the Lao-Thai border and the market models that are employed by the anti-trafficking sector. It discusses the ways in which these cross-border markets are conceived in a context where aid programming is taking on an increasingly important role in the politics of borders. The author concludes that allusions to ideal forms of knowledge (in the guise of classic economic theory) and an emphasis on borders become necessary for anti-trafficking programmes in order to make their object of intervention legible as well as providing post-hoc rationalizations for their continuing operation.

  17. ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY: Structural and Functional Analysis Across the Transition Zone Between Healthy and Diseased Retina. (United States)

    Duncker, Tobias; Lee, Winston; Jiang, Fan; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Hood, Donald C; Tsang, Stephen H; Sparrow, Janet R; Greenstein, Vivienne C


    To assess structure and function across the transition zone (TZ) between relatively healthy and diseased retina in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Six patients (6 eyes; age 22-71 years) with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, color fundus photography, and fundus perimetry were performed and images were registered to each other. The retinal layers of the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans were segmented and the thicknesses of two outer retinal layers, that is, the total receptor and outer segment plus layers, and the retinal nerve fiber layer were measured. All eyes showed a TZ on multimodal imaging. On spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, the TZ was in the nasal retina at varying distances from the fovea. For all eyes, it was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band, significant thinning of the two outer retinal layers, and in three eyes with thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer. On fundus autofluorescence, all eyes had a clearly demarcated peripapillary area of abnormal fundus autofluorescence delimited by a border of high autofluorescence; the latter was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band and with a change from relatively normal to markedly decreased or nonrecordable visual sensitivity on fundus perimetry. The results of multimodal imaging clarified the TZ in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. The TZ was outlined by a distinct high autofluorescence border that correlated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. However, in fundus areas that seemed healthy on fundus autofluorescence, thinning of the outer retinal layers and thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer were observed near the TZ. The TZ was also characterized by a decrease in visual sensitivity.

  18. Image Segmentation Algorithms Overview


    Yuheng, Song; Hao, Yan


    The technology of image segmentation is widely used in medical image processing, face recognition pedestrian detection, etc. The current image segmentation techniques include region-based segmentation, edge detection segmentation, segmentation based on clustering, segmentation based on weakly-supervised learning in CNN, etc. This paper analyzes and summarizes these algorithms of image segmentation, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different algorithms. Finally, we make a predi...

  19. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  20. Integrated seismic interpretation of the Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans; Jørgensen, Mette Iwanouw


    We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone along a 12-km-long trace in the Copenhagen city centre by seismic refraction, reflection and fan profiling. The Carlsberg Fault is located in a NNW-SSE striking fault system in the border zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent...... the fault zone. The fault zone is a shadow zone to shots detonated outside the fault zone. Finite-difference wavefield modelling supports the interpretations of the fan recordings. Our fan recording approach facilitates cost-efficient mapping of fault zones in densely urbanized areas where seismic normal...

  1. Border governance in Mozambique : The intersection of international border controls, regional integration and cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.M. Seda (Fulgêncio)


    markdownabstractA tension exists between the interests of states in protecting national security through border controls and those of communities in cross-border regions, to whom frequent border crossing is part of daily life – a necessary part of achieving their own wellbeing. The interplay between

  2. ARCOCT: Automatic detection of lumen border in intravascular OCT images. (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Riga, Maria; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Doulaverakis, Charalambos; Tsamboulatidis, Ioannis; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Giannoglou, George D; Maglaveras, Nicos


    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable tool for the detection of pathological features on the arterial wall and the investigation of post-stenting complications. Computational lumen border detection in OCT images is highly advantageous, since it may support rapid morphometric analysis. However, automatic detection is very challenging, since OCT images typically include various artifacts that impact image clarity, including features such as side branches and intraluminal blood presence. This paper presents ARCOCT, a segmentation method for fully-automatic detection of lumen border in OCT images. ARCOCT relies on multiple, consecutive processing steps, accounting for image preparation, contour extraction and refinement. In particular, for contour extraction ARCOCT employs the transformation of OCT images based on physical characteristics such as reflectivity and absorption of the tissue and, for contour refinement, local regression using weighted linear least squares and a 2nd degree polynomial model is employed to achieve artifact and small-branch correction as well as smoothness of the artery mesh. Our major focus was to achieve accurate contour delineation in the various types of OCT images, i.e., even in challenging cases with branches and artifacts. ARCOCT has been assessed in a dataset of 1812 images (308 from stented and 1504 from native segments) obtained from 20 patients. ARCOCT was compared against ground-truth manual segmentation performed by experts on the basis of various geometric features (e.g. area, perimeter, radius, diameter, centroid, etc.) and closed contour matching indicators (the Dice index, the Hausdorff distance and the undirected average distance), using standard statistical analysis methods. The proposed method was proven very efficient and close to the ground-truth, exhibiting non statistically-significant differences for most of the examined metrics. ARCOCT allows accurate and fully-automated lumen border

  3. 76 FR 30907 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-Eloy, AZ; Application (United States)


    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone--Eloy, AZ; Application An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of Eloy to establish a general-purpose foreign- trade zone at sites in Pinal County, Arizona, adjacent to the Phoenix U.S. Customs and Border...

  4. 76 FR 19746 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 133; Quad-Cities, IL/IA (United States)


    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 133; Quad-Cities, IL/IA Pursuant to its...-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, the Quad-City Foreign Trade Zone, Inc... in the Quad-Cities, Iowa/Illinois area, adjacent to the Quad-Cities Customs and Border Protection...

  5. Cardiac right ventricular segmentation via point correspondence. (United States)

    Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Noga, Michelle; Boulanger, Pierre


    This study presents an approach to the segmentation of the right ventricle (RV) from a sequence of cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images. Automatic delineation of the RV is difficult because of its complex morphology, thin and ill-defined borders, and the photometric similarities between the connected cardiac regions such as papillary muscles and heart wall. Further, geometric/photometric models are hard to build from a finite training set because of the significant differences in size, shape, and intensity between subjects. In this study, we propose to use a non-rigid registration method developed recently to obtain the point correspondence in a sequence of cine MR images. Given the segmentation on the first frame, the proposed method segments both endocardial and epicardial borders of the RV using the obtained point correspondence, and relaxes the need of a training set. The proposed method is evaluated quantitatively on common data set by comparison with manual segmentation, which demonstrated competitive results in comparison with recent methods.

  6. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  7. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen


    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  8. Challenges and Opportunities in Border Health


    Joel Rodríguez-Saldaña, MD


    Approximately 11.5 million people reside in the 42 counties and 39 Mexican municipalities located along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 86% of those people reside in 14 pairs of sister cities, metropolitan areas divided by the international border (1). Border residents share similar resources and environmental problems: issues of great concern include air quality, water quantity and quality, and animal control. The communities along the border are economically and socially interdependent, with mo...

  9. Methods for converting industrial zones (United States)

    Talipova, L.; Kosyakov, E.; Polyakova, Irina


    In this article, industrial zones of Saint Petersburg and Hong Kong were considered. Competitive projects aimed at developing the grey belt of Saint Petersburg were considered. The methodology of the survey of reconstruction of the industrial zone of Hong Kong is also analyzed. The potential of the city’s grey belt lies in its location on the border of the city’s historical centre. Rational use of this potential will make it possible to achieve numerous objectives, including development of the city’s transport infrastructure, positioning of business functions, and organization of housing and the city’s system of green public spaces.

  10. Lithologic and physicochemical properties and hydraulics of flow in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, based on water-level and borehole geophysical log data, 1999-2007 (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Nyman, Michael B.


    The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas (hereinafter, the Edwards aquifer) is bounded to the south and southeast by a zone of transition from freshwater to saline water (hereinafter, the transition zone). The boundary between the two zones is the freshwater/saline-water interface (hereinafter, the interface), defined as the 1,000-milligrams per liter dissolved solids concentration threshold. This report presents the findings of a study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, to obtain lithologic properties (rock properties associated with known stratigraphic units) and physicochemical properties (fluid conductivity and temperature) and to analyze the hydraulics of flow in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer on the basis of water-level and borehole geophysical log data collected from 15 monitoring wells in four transects during 1999-2007. No identifiable relation between conductivity values from geophysical logs in monitoring wells in all transects and equivalent freshwater heads in the wells at the times the logs were run is evident; and no identifiable relation between conductivity values and vertical flow in the boreholes concurrent with the times the logs were run is evident. The direction of the lateral equivalent freshwater head gradient and thus the potential lateral flow at the interface in the vicinity of the East Uvalde transect fluctuates between into and out of the freshwater zone, depending on recharge and withdrawals. Whether the prevailing direction on average is into or out of the freshwater zone is not clearly indicated. Equivalent freshwater head data do not indicate a prevailing direction of the lateral gradient at the interface in the vicinity of the Tri-County transect. The prevailing direction on average of the lateral gradient and thus potential lateral flow at the interface in the vicinity of the Kyle transect likely is from the

  11. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.


    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  12. Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border. The northern border of Ecuador has been prone to conflict over the past several years. Security policy as applied in the area is based on the presumption that the northern border is homogeneous. In fact, however, the three provinces that make up the area - Esmeraldas, ...

  13. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara


    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  14. Briefing : the Eritrean-Ethiopian border dispute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.


    On 6 May 1998, a violent conflict erupted in the Ethiopian-Eritrean border area. This article contends that this border crisis is neither unexpected nor the result of a real border dispute. Rather, it is due to three factors: the particular history and relationship of the two insurgent movements

  15. Asymmetry and irregularity border as discrimination factor between melanocytic lesions (United States)

    Sbrissa, David; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvadori; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo


    Image processing tools have been widely used in systems supporting medical diagnosis. The use of mobile devices for the diagnosis of melanoma can assist doctors and improve their diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. This study proposes a method of image analysis for melanoma discrimination from other types of melanocytic lesions, such as regular and atypical nevi. The process is based on extracting features related with asymmetry and border irregularity. It were collected 104 images, from medical database of two years. The images were obtained with standard digital cameras without lighting and scale control. Metrics relating to the characteristics of shape, asymmetry and curvature of the contour were extracted from segmented images. Linear Discriminant Analysis was performed for dimensionality reduction and data visualization. Segmentation results showed good efficiency in the process, with approximately 88:5% accuracy. Validation results presents sensibility and specificity 85% and 70% for melanoma detection, respectively.

  16. Strategic market segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maricic, Branko; Djordjevic, Aleksandar


    ..., requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation...

  17. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan


    The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...... elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration....

  18. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig


    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  19. Segmentation of vessels: the corkscrew algorithm (United States)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Firle, Evelyn A.


    Medical imaging is nowadays much more than only providing data for diagnosis. It also links 'classical' diagnosis to modern forms of treatment such as image guided surgery. Those systems require the identification of organs, anatomical regions of the human body etc., i. e. the segmentation of structures from medical data sets. The algorithms used for these segmentation tasks strongly depend on the object to be segmented. One structure which plays an important role in surgery planning are vessels that are found everywhere in the human body. Several approaches for their extraction already exist. However, there is no general one which is suitable for all types of data or all sorts of vascular structures. This work presents a new algorithm for the segmentation of vessels. It can be classified as a skeleton-based approach working on 3D data sets, and has been designed for a reliable segmentation of coronary arteries. The algorithm is a semi-automatic extraction technique requiring the definition of the start and end the point of the (centerline) path to be found. A first estimation of the vessel's centerline is calculated and then corrected iteratively by detecting the vessel's border perpendicular to the centerline. We used contrast enhanced CT data sets of the thorax for testing our approach. Coronary arteries have been extracted from the data sets using the 'corkscrew algorithm' presented in this work. The segmentation turned out to be robust even if moderate breathing artifacts were present in the data sets.

  20. Border malaria in Yunnan, China. (United States)

    Xu, J; Liu, H


    Yunnan Province, due its international borders with Myanmar, Vietnam and Lao PDR has a large number of imported cases of malaria, including a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum, as a result of the mobility of the population. This movement is due to workers coming from other provinces where there is no malaria to work in the productive tropical lowlands. Chinese nationals who have gone to work in neighboring countries, border trade and refugees from Myanmar. Much of Yunnan is peopled by ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous and forested areas which are difficult to reach. However, surveillance has been strengthened by training 3,900 primary health care workers and combining the search for visiting foreigners, returning Chinese and people from other provinces with public security, customs formalities and employers. Any visitor detected by these services is obliged to have a blood slide taken. This has resulted in an earlier and more complete detection of malaria cases, reducing incidence from 19.19 to 12.12/10,000 in the border area over the last 10 years. This is despite a considerable increase in population movement and the threat of drug resistant malaria.

  1. [U.S.-Mexico cross-border cooperation in research on diabetes mellitus type 2]. (United States)

    Canela-Soler, Jaume; Frontini, María; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ruiz-Holguín, Rosalba; Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A


    To describe and analyze, utilizing a case study approach, the U.S.- Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a health research cooperation initiative incorporating the participation of federal, state, and local institutions of both countries. A model of equal representation, participation, consensus, and shared leadership was used, with the participation of more than 130 institutions. A sample of 4 020 people over 18 years of age was obtained by a random, multistage, stratified, clustered design. A questionnaire about diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and health was applied. The statistical analysis took into account the design effect. The prevalence of diagnosed DM2 was 14.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 12.5-17.6) and the prevalence of diagnosed DM2 adjusted by age was 19.5% (95% CI: 16.8-22.6) on the Mexican side of the border and 16.1% (IC95%: 13.5-19.2) on the U.S. border side. There were differences between the DM2 prevalence and risk factors along the border. The U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project allowed the border zone between the two countries to be considered, for the first time ever, as a unit for epidemiological research. A shared understanding among all participating institutions and entities of sociopolitical structures and procedures is required for effective border health cooperation initiatives.

  2. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation]. (United States)

    Ham Chande, R


    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  3. Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus) (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson; Giancarlo Sadoti


    The Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus) might well be dubbed "the Great Pretender" because it so closely resembles the ubiquitous Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) in appearance and behavior as to be frequently mistaken for it. In the border regions where it lives, it may be confused as well with another "Mexican" raptor, the Common Black-Hawk (...

  4. Novel Method for Border Irregularity Assessment in Dermoscopic Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska


    Full Text Available Background. One of the most important lesion features predicting malignancy is border irregularity. Accurate assessment of irregular borders is clinically important due to significantly different occurrence in benign and malignant skin lesions. Method. In this research, we present a new approach for the detection of border irregularities, as one of the major parameters in a widely used diagnostic algorithm the ABCD rule of dermoscopy. The proposed work is focused on designing an efficient automatic algorithm containing the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, borderline calculation, and irregularities detection. The challenge lies in determining the exact borderline. For solving this problem we have implemented a new method based on lesion rotation and borderline division. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 350 dermoscopic images and achieved accuracy of 92% indicating that the proposed computational approach captured most of the irregularities and provides reliable information for effective skin mole examination. Compared to the state of the art, we obtained improved classification results. Conclusions. The current study suggests that computer-aided system is a practical tool for dermoscopic image assessment and could be recommended for both research and clinical applications. The proposed algorithm can be applied in different fields of medical image analysis including, for example, CT and MRI images.

  5. Human-Like Room Segmentation for Domestic Cleaning Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fleer


    Full Text Available Autonomous mobile robots have recently become a popular solution for automating cleaning tasks. In one application, the robot cleans a floor space by traversing and covering it completely. While fulfilling its task, such a robot may create a map of its surroundings. For domestic indoor environments, these maps often consist of rooms connected by passageways. Segmenting the map into these rooms has several uses, such as hierarchical planning of cleaning runs by the robot, or the definition of cleaning plans by the user. Especially in the latter application, the robot-generated room segmentation should match the human understanding of rooms. Here, we present a novel method that solves this problem for the graph of a topo-metric map: first, a classifier identifies those graph edges that cross a border between rooms. This classifier utilizes data from multiple robot sensors, such as obstacle measurements and camera images. Next, we attempt to segment the map at these room–border edges using graph clustering. By training the classifier on user-annotated data, this produces a human-like room segmentation. We optimize and test our method on numerous realistic maps generated by our cleaning-robot prototype and its simulated version. Overall, we find that our method produces more human-like room segmentations compared to mere graph clustering. However, unusual room borders that differ from the training data remain a challenge.

  6. Winning hearts and minds in the Namibian border war | de Visser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the Namibian border war, South African counterinsurgency doctrine acknowledged the importance of securing the allegiance and cooperation of the population. This article demonstrates that, in the operational zone, the responsibility of winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian people largely fell to the SADF ...

  7. Petrology of tectonically segmented Central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Distribution and mineralogy of various rock types along the 4200-km-long slow-spreading Central Indian Ridge, between Owen fracture zone in the north and Indian Ocean triple junction in the south, is studied in the light of ridge segmentation...

  8. Regional Features and National Differences in Population Distribution in China’s Border Regions (2000–2015)


    Zhen You; Zhiming Feng; Yalin Lei; Yanzhao Yang; Fangzhou Li


    China is of great geostrategic significance not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also in the wider world. The population distribution in China’s border regions is of significance for the development of China and neighboring countries. Based on the LandScan Population Distribution Database, this study used GIS spatial analysis and statistics to investigate national trends in the population distribution of China’s border regions. The study areas were the buffer zones within specified Euclid...

  9. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  10. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann


    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  11. Chapter 4. Fayuca Hormiga: The Cross-border Trade of Used Clothing between the United States and Mexico


    Gauthier, Mélissa


    Borders, regardless of their location, represent lucrative zones of exchange and trade, often illicit and clandestine. Along the US-Mexico border there is a lively trade taking second-hand clothing into Mexico through a complex system of smuggling, which is locally known as fayuca. Although used clothing is a restricted import in Mexico, it is sold everywhere in urban markets. This chapter details the “unauthorized” flow of used clothing across the US-Mexico border in light of ethnographic fi...

  12. 78 FR 59650 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 65 Under Alternative Site Framework, Panama City, Florida (United States)


    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 65 Under Alternative Site Framework, Panama... establishment or reorganization of zones; Whereas, the Panama City Port Authority, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone... Panama City Customs and Border Protection port of entry, to reinstate acreage at Site 3, to remove...

  13. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  14. Interoperability at the Border: Coordinated Border Management Best Practices & Case Studies


    Inter-American Development Bank


    Interoperability among government agencies at national borders, also known as coordinated border management (CBM), is a fundamental component of a nation's modernized customs and border control strategy. It comprises the streamlining of parallel processes and technologies enabling different government agencies to effectively work together on border issues. By 4 implementing CBM strategies at both the domestic and international levels, countries can reduce internal costs and inefficiencies, im...

  15. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov


    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.

  16. Measurements on a prototype segmented Clover detector

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, S L; Cullen, D M; Appelbe, D E; Simpson, J; Gerl, J; Kaspar, M; Kleinböhl, A; Peter, I; Rejmund, M; Schaffner, H; Schlegel, C; France, G D


    The performance of a segmented Clover germanium detector has been measured. The segmented Clover detector is a composite germanium detector, consisting of four individual germanium crystals in the configuration of a four-leaf Clover, housed in a single cryostat. Each crystal is electrically segmented on its outer surface into four quadrants, with separate energy read-outs from nine crystal zones. Signals are also taken from the inner contact of each crystal. This effectively produces a detector with 16 active elements. One of the purposes of this segmentation is to improve the overall spectral resolution when detecting gamma radiation emitted following a nuclear reaction, by minimising Doppler broadening caused by the opening angle subtended by each detector element. Results of the tests with sources and in beam will be presented. The improved granularity of the detector also leads to an improved isolated hit probability compared with an unsegmented Clover detector. (author)

  17. 77 FR 52310 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico (United States)


    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its...-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, the Puerto Rico Trade and Export... FTZ 61 to include a site in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, adjacent to the San Juan U.S. Customs and Border...

  18. 19 CFR 146.70 - Transfer of zone-restricted merchandise into Customs territory. (United States)


    ... Customs territory. 146.70 Section 146.70 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... a Zone § 146.70 Transfer of zone-restricted merchandise into Customs territory. (a) General. Zone-restricted merchandise may be transferred to Customs territory only for entry for exportation, for entry for...

  19. 77 FR 63320 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones (United States)


    ... in Foreign Trade Sub-zones AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade... Trade Sub-zones. OMB Number: 1651-0063. Form Number: None. Abstract: The Foreign Trade Zones Act, 19 U.S...

  20. 19 CFR 146.23 - Accountability for merchandise in a zone. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability for merchandise in a zone. 146.23 Section 146.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....23 Accountability for merchandise in a zone. (a) Identification of merchandise—(1) General. A zone...

  1. Determination of border irregularity in dermoscopic color images of pigmented skin lesions. (United States)

    Jaworek-Korjakowska, J; Tadeusiewicz, R


    Malignant melanoma, which is the most dangerous type of skin cancer, is commonly diagnosed in all people, regardless of age, gender, or race. In the last several years an increasing melanoma incidence and mortality rate has been observed worldwide. In this research we present a new approach to the detection and classification of border irregularity, one of the major parameter in a widely used diagnostic algorithm ABCD rule of dermoscopy. Accurate assessment of irregular borders is clinically important due to a significantly different occurrence in benign and malignant skin lesions. In this paper we describe a complex algorithm containing following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, border irregularity detection as well as classification. The algorithm has been tested on 300 dermoscopic images and achieved a detection of 79% and classification accuracy of 90%. Compared to state-of-the-art, we obtain improved classification accuracy.

  2. Segmented trapped vortex cavity (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)


    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  3. Multi-segmental neurofibromatosis


    Kumar Sudhir; Kumar Ravi


    Neurofibromatosis (NF), one of the commonest phakomatoses, is characterized by varied clinical manifestations. Segmental NF is one of the uncommon subtypes of NF. We report a young adult presenting with asymptomatic skin lesions- neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules- over localized areas of the lower back, affecting more than one segment. None of the family members were found to have features of segmental NF. Segmental NF may be misdiagnosed as a birthmark or remain undiagnosed for l...

  4. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara


    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  5. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites (United States)

    Uwe Friedel


    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  6. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  7. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo


    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  8. Tissue Border Enhancement by inversion recovery MRI at 7.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costagli, Mauro; Tiberi, Gianluigi [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Kelley, Douglas A.C. [GE Healthcare Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Symms, Mark R. [GE Applied Science Laboratory, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, Laura; Tosetti, Michela [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Stara, Riccardo; Cosottini, Mirco [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Maggioni, Eleonora [IRCCS Scientific Institute E. Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Barba, Carmen [Children' s Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, Neuroscience Department, Florence (Italy); Guerrini, Renzo [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Children' s Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, Neuroscience Department, Florence (Italy)


    This contribution presents a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition technique named Tissue Border Enhancement (TBE), whose purpose is to produce images with enhanced visualization of borders between two tissues of interest without any post-processing. The technique is based on an inversion recovery sequence that employs an appropriate inversion time to produce images where the interface between two tissues of interest is hypo-intense; therefore, tissue borders are clearly represented by dark lines. This effect is achieved by setting imaging parameters such that two neighboring tissues of interest have magnetization with equal magnitude but opposite sign; therefore, the voxels containing a mixture of each tissue (that is, the tissue interface) possess minimal net signal. The technique was implemented on a 7.0 T MRI system. This approach can assist the definition of tissue borders, such as that between cortical gray matter and white matter; therefore, it could facilitate segmentation procedures, which are often challenging on ultra-high-field systems due to inhomogeneous radiofrequency distribution. TBE allows delineating the contours of structural abnormalities, and its capabilities were demonstrated with patients with focal cortical dysplasia, gray matter heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. This technique provides a new type of image contrast and has several possible applications in basic neuroscience, neurogenetic research, and clinical practice, as it could improve the detection power of MRI in the characterization of cortical malformations, enhance the contour of small anatomical structures of interest, and facilitate cortical segmentation. (orig.)

  9. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle


    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu


    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  11. Global correlations between maximum magnitudes of subduction zone interface thrust earthquakes and physical parameters of subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.


    The maximum earthquake magnitude recorded for subduction zone plate boundaries varies considerably on Earth, with some subduction zone segments producing giant subduction zone thrust earthquakes (e.g. Chile, Alaska, Sumatra-Andaman, Japan) and others producing relatively small earthquakes (e.g.

  12. In silico evo-devo: reconstructing stages in the evolution of animal segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, Paulien; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H. W. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271539879; Davis, GK; Patel, NH; Peel, A; Akam, M; Couso, JP; Budd, GE; Seaver, EC; Minelli, A; Fusco, G; Tautz, D; Jacobs, DK; Hughes, NC; Fitz-Gibbon, ST; Winchell, CJ; Blair, SS; Wanninger, A; Kristof, A; Brinkmann, N; Chipman, AD; Richmond, DL; Oates, AC; Gold, DA; Runnegar, B; Gehling, JG; Jacobs, DK; Rivera, A; Weisblat, D; Williams, T; Blachuta, B; Hegna, TA; Nagy, LM; Balavoine, G; Peel, A; Bénazéraf, B; Pourquié, O; Mayer, G; Kato, C; Quast, B; Chisholm, RH; Landman, KA; Quinn, LM; Nakamoto, A; Hester, SD; Constantinou, SJ; Blaine, WG; Tewksbury, AB; Matei, MT; Nagy, LM; Williams, TA; Graham, A; Butts, T; Lumsden, A; Kiecker, C; François, P; Hakim, V; Siggia, ED; Fujimoto, K; Ishihara, S; Kaneko, K; Tusscher, KH; Hogeweg, P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073710725; Crombach, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834882; Hogeweg, P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073710725; Salazar-Ciudad, I; Newman, SA; Solé, RV; Pankratz, MJ; Jäckle, H; Crampin, EJ; Hackborn, WW; Maini, PK; Harper, JL; Rosen, BR; White, J; Tusscher, KHWJ; Petersen, CP; Reddien, PW; Martin, BL; Kimelman, D; Young, T; Rowland, JE; Ven, C; Bialecka, M; Novoa, A; Carapuco, M; Nes, J; Graaff, W; Duluc, I; Freund, J-N; Beck, F; Mallo, M; Deschamps, J; Meinhardt, H; Kappen, C; Schughart, K; Ruddle, FH


    The evolution of animal segmentation is a major research focus within the field of evolutionary–developmental biology. Most studied segmented animals generate their segments in a repetitive, anterior-to-posterior fashion coordinated with the extension of the body axis from a posterior growth zone.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hb"'/ H“ —_'~. Fig. l: Schematic plan showing the incident wave and subsequent breaking in the nearshore zone. The still-water line indicates the mean water level and .... obtained by taking the square of the high frequency velocity components.

  14. Waiting line, the border and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Tejeda González


    Full Text Available The philosophic discussion is the departure point related to Nietzsche and Heiddeger, about the coming of the nihilism to introduce us in the subjects of the border in the modern and postmodern world. That existencial condition approaches us the experience in the border, and to the fact to transfer and to live in the edges. In other dimensions, we found the present time of that philosophic debate, since the border subject acquires centrality. In the social, politic, and cultural land we paradoxically see as globalization leads to an weakeing of the borders and an increase of its importances. The border demarcation continues being important, but now it has to do with the proliferation of agents, regional and global forces, and tendencies make of the border a blurred and opened institution. The increase of the interdependence are causing that migration and border transfering to be changing the face of communities of many countries of the present world. The national states are painted of color by those migratory movements that give the diversity, the pluralidad and the multiculturalismo in the before homogeneous societies.

  15. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch


    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  16. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli


    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  17. Segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy. (United States)

    Dang, Julie D; Cohen, Philip R


    Segmental neurofibromatosis is an uncommon variant of neurofibromatosis type I characterized by neurofibromas and/or café-au-lait macules localized to one sector of the body. Although patients with neurofibromatosis type I have an associated increased risk of certain malignancies, malignancy has only occasionally been reported in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis. The published reports of patients with segmental neurofibromatosis who developed malignancy were reviewed and the characteristics of these patients and their cancers were summarized. Ten individuals (6 women and 4 men) with segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy have been reported. The malignancies include malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (3), malignant melanoma (2), breast cancer (1), colon cancer (1), gastric cancer (1), lung cancer (1), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1). The most common malignancies in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis are derived from neural crest cells: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and malignant melanoma. The incidence of malignancy in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis may approach that of patients with neurofibromatosis type I.

  18. Elastic and hegemonic borders and discourse theory: Mexico’s southern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marengo Camacho


    Full Text Available Discourse theory is useful for understanding the creation of borders, whether material or imaginary. This paper addresses three situations on Mexico’s southern border between 2000 and 2015 in which elements of discourse theory may be applied. The outcomes were the following: 1 correlations may be made between the elements of the discourse moving from the northern to the southern border, but not in the opposite direction; 2 the process of securitising the discourse about migrants is continuous, and new securitising elements are regularly added; 3 an “elastic borders” phenomenon exists, where borders extend or retract, thereby creating new border regions; and 4 discourses around the southern border are constructed with more pejorative elements than the northern, despite the fact that crime rates are higher in the north.

  19. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen


    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  20. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts......This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates...... in political philosophy concerning coercion, entry/exit, protection elsewhere and self-determination, and against the backdrop of empirical cases, such as the EU Commission’s UNHCR-donations, the Dublin II Regulation and the export of migrant camps to North Africa. In the third article the governance of asylum...

  1. Networks communities within and across borders

    CERN Document Server

    Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo


    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...

  2. Conservative Libertarianism and the Ethics of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Camacho Beltran


    Full Text Available Many conservatives endorse a defence of closed borders grounded in basic liberal rights such as the basic right of association. Some conservatives also endorse libertarian principles of legitimacy. It is not clear though that this sort of defence of closed borders is somehow coherent with these libertarian ideals. I argue that conservative libertarians of this kind must reject this defence of closed borders because either it collapses into a form of statism incoherent with libertarian principles of legitimacy, or into an ideal precept without appeal regarding reality in the here and now that could only be applied to changing the very nature of the societies we know. As a result, at least conservative libertarians need to find a different source of justification for closed borders.

  3. Border Position as a Factor of Strategic and Territorial Planning in Russian Regions in the Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov G.


    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization, Russian border regions can form transborder regions through cooperation with the neighbouring territories of other states. The optimisation of spatial organisation of economy, social sphere, and nature management using the tools of spatial planning is fully justified in the case of transborder regions as well as in that of national ones. However, in Russia, spatial (strategic and territorial planning does not imply joint development of documents with the border regions of neighbouring states. Nevertheless, the border position of a region (at least, due to the presence of border zones has a significant effect on the content of regional strategies for socioeconomic development and schemes for territorial planning of constituent entities and municipal districts. The result is a combination of measures aimed simultaneously at solving defence problems, delivering economic security, and supporting trans-border cooperation. The Baltic macroregion has vast experience in developing joint Russia-EU programmes. This experience of coordinating activities in the economic and sociocultural spheres, as well as international spatial planning innovations (German landscape planning, etc., can be adopted in Russia.

  4. A Perspective On Segment Reporting Choices And Segment Reconciliations


    Dana Hollie; Shaokun£¨Carol) Yu


    In 2014, segment reporting gained third place in SEC comment letters. This article reviews the history of segment reporting including segment reporting choices and segment reconciliations, the current concerns as the level of detail in segment disclosures varies widely across organizations, the value relevance of segment reconciliations and its market consequences, and the importance of segment reporting to management. The following are highlights of the manuscript: The third-most-common area...

  5. Cross-border regional innovation system integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan


    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  6. Slow Active Intraplate Faults: The Paleoseismology Of The Irtysh Fault Zone, Eastern Kazakhstan (United States)

    Baize, S.; Reicherter, K. R.; Avagyan, A.; Belyashov, A.; Pestov, E.; Eutizio, V.; Arakelyan, A.


    The Asian plate interiors are known to host strong earthquakes with magnitudes up to M 8, especially around the border area between Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan and China. Their recurrence times are long, because of the low slip rates of faults smaller than 1 mm/yr. Geodynamically, our study region in eastern Kazakhstan is set in the frame of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone situated on the Eurasian craton. Major plate tectonic forces are induced by the indentation of the Indian plate into Eurasia. As a consequence, in the foreland a set of very long and large strike-slip fault zones developed, the western of which all have in common a dextral sense of shear. The more than 250 km long Irtysh Fault Zone (IFZ) marks a major tectonic block boundary separating two different units with granitoid intrusions, Silurian-Devonian magmatic rocks, and, thick deposits of Late Paleozoic age with coal measures of the Carboniferous and Permian. The formation of the IFZ probably dates back into Paleozoic times, it was repeatedly reactivated in later times. The IFZ is one potential source of large earthquakes in easternmost Kazakhstan. Tectonic-morphological analyses revealed the occurrence of a set of lineaments offsetting or deflecting streamlets and lithology. Geophysical data (GPR and seismics) helped to identify fault strands and trenching sites. Across three main segments, all longer than 50 km, a series of paleoseismic trenches was excavated. Within the trenches, faulted Holocene-Late Pleistocene deposits with organic soils, loess layers and colluvium directly overlying the Paleozoic rocks were encountered and 14C-dated. Astonishingly, no older Pleistocene rocks have been found suggesting complete erosion during/after glacial periods. Our findings lead to the conclusions that the IFZ and all segments are clearly active during the Holocene with surface ruptures displacements of around 2.0±0.2 meters, suggesting events with a magnitude around M≈7 along the individual

  7. Attitudes of inhabitants of border areas of Slovenia towards the Slovene-Croatian state border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Špes


    Full Text Available Article represents basic geographical characteristics of four sample border areas (Slovenska Istra, Bela Krajina, Spodnje Posavje and Spodnje Podravje, which were included in the research about the effects of a new state border on the living of inhabitants. We analysed their comprehension of changes in economic and social conditions, traffic currencies, interethnic relations, etc. Questioned persons (1200 questionnaires were estimating also development possibilities of domestic region in the light of its border position as well as obstacles for cooperation with the neighbouring Croatia and first of all with its border regions. Also current projects of transborder cooperation are represented.

  8. Speech segmentation in aphasia. (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Benetello, Annalisa; Tuomiranta, Leena; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria Carmen; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni


    Speech segmentation is one of the initial and mandatory phases of language learning. Although some people with aphasia have shown a preserved ability to learn novel words, their speech segmentation abilities have not been explored. We examined the ability of individuals with chronic aphasia to segment words from running speech via statistical learning. We also explored the relationships between speech segmentation and aphasia severity, and short-term memory capacity. We further examined the role of lesion location in speech segmentation and short-term memory performance. The experimental task was first validated with a group of young adults (n = 120). Participants with chronic aphasia (n = 14) were exposed to an artificial language and were evaluated in their ability to segment words using a speech segmentation test. Their performance was contrasted against chance level and compared to that of a group of elderly matched controls (n = 14) using group and case-by-case analyses. As a group, participants with aphasia were significantly above chance level in their ability to segment words from the novel language and did not significantly differ from the group of elderly controls. Speech segmentation ability in the aphasic participants was not associated with aphasia severity although it significantly correlated with word pointing span, a measure of verbal short-term memory. Case-by-case analyses identified four individuals with aphasia who performed above chance level on the speech segmentation task, all with predominantly posterior lesions and mild fluent aphasia. Their short-term memory capacity was also better preserved than in the rest of the group. Our findings indicate that speech segmentation via statistical learning can remain functional in people with chronic aphasia and suggest that this initial language learning mechanism is associated with the functionality of the verbal short-term memory system and the integrity of the left inferior frontal region.

  9. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin


    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  10. Transboundary ecological networks as an adaptation strategy to climate change: The example of the Dutch - German border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rüter, S.; Vos, C.C.; Eupen, van M.; Rühmkorf, H.


    Establishing ecological networks across national boundaries is essential for species to adapt to shifts in future suitable climate zones. This paper presents a method to assess whether the existing ecological network in the Dutch – German border region is “climate proof”. Using distribution data and

  11. Initiation and development of the Kivu rift segment in Central Africa by reactivating un-favorably oriented structural weaknesses (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Smets, Benoît


    The Kivu rift region forms the central segment of the western branch of the East African rift system, between the northern termination of the Tanganyika rift and the southern extension of the Edward-George rift. Its structure and geological evolution has been revised in the light of a compilation of existing data on earthquake epicenters, focal depth, focal mechanisms, thermal springs and neotectonic faults. It has long been shown that the link between the Kivu rift basin and the Northern termination of the Tanganyika rift basin forms an accommodation zone in which the Rusizi tectonic depression occupies a central place (Ebinger, 1989). In addition, our compilation suggests that the NNE-trending Kivu rift basin and the N-S northern half of the Tanganyika rift basin initiated as separated, partly overlapping and differently oriented basins. The orientation and development of the Kivu rift basin was controlled by an inferred Mid-Proterozoic crustal shear zone and a Pan-African reverse fault front. It was not optimally oriented with the general (first-order) stress field characterized by roughly E-W extension. In a later stage, the more optimally N-S oriented North Tanganyika basin progressed towards the North and connected to Kivu rift in its middle in a region now occupied by the town of Bukavu. This accommodation zone is marked by Quaternary volcanism, warm thermal springs, frequent and relatively shallow seismicity. The southwestern part of the Kivu rift became progressively abandoned but it is still seismically active and hosts a number of warm thermal springs. This particular architecture influences the present-day stress field. This work is a contribution to the Belgian GeoRisCA project. Ebinger, C.J. 1989. Geometric and kinematic development of border faults and accommodation zones, Kivu-Rusizi Rift, Africa. Tectonics, 8, 117-133

  12. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of ...

  13. Segmentation, advertising and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga-González, José Luis

    This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two

  14. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of varying ...

  15. 75 FR 29727 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 37 Under Alternative Site Framework Orange County, NY (United States)


    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 37 Under Alternative Site Framework Orange...; Whereas, Orange County, New York, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 37, submitted an application to the Board... of Orange County, New York, adjacent to the New York/Newark Customs and Border Protection port of...

  16. 75 FR 38979 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 204, Tri-Cities Area, TN/VA (United States)


    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 204, Tri-Cities Area, TN/VA...), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, the Tri-Cities Airport... FTZ 204 to include a site in Bristol, Tennessee, adjacent to the Tri-Cities Customs and Border...

  17. Multi-segmental neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhir


    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF, one of the commonest phakomatoses, is characterized by varied clinical manifestations. Segmental NF is one of the uncommon subtypes of NF. We report a young adult presenting with asymptomatic skin lesions- neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules- over localized areas of the lower back, affecting more than one segment. None of the family members were found to have features of segmental NF. Segmental NF may be misdiagnosed as a birthmark or remain undiagnosed for long periods of time, as the patients are often asymptomatic. Moreover, the clinical features are highly variable and range from a small area of skin involvement to involvement over the entire half of the body. This variation is explained by the fact that segmental NF is thought to arise from a postzygotic NF1 gene mutation, leading to somatic mosaicism. We have also reviewed the relevant literature on this subject.

  18. Multi-segmental neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhir


    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF, one of the commonest phakomatoses, is characterized by varied clinical manifestations. Segmental NF is one of the uncommon subtypes of NF. We report a young adult presenting with asymptomatic skin lesions- neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules- over localized areas of the lower back, affecting more than one segment. None of the family members were found to have features of segmental NF. Segmental NF may be misdiagnosed as a birthmark or remain undiagnosed for long periods of time, as the patients are often asymptomatic. Moreover, the clinical features are highly variable and range from a small area of skin involvement to involvement over the entire half of the body. This variation is explained by the fact that segmental NF is thought to arise from a postzygotic NF1 gene mutation, leading to somatic mosaicism. We have also reviewed the relevant literature on this subject.

  19. Regional Features and National Differences in Population Distribution in China’s Border Regions (2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen You


    Full Text Available China is of great geostrategic significance not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also in the wider world. The population distribution in China’s border regions is of significance for the development of China and neighboring countries. Based on the LandScan Population Distribution Database, this study used GIS spatial analysis and statistics to investigate national trends in the population distribution of China’s border regions. The study areas were the buffer zones within specified Euclidean distances from the land borders of China. The results showed that: (1 Although the population agglomeration index and population size inside China’s border areas have increased, the population density inside China’s border areas is still far below China’s average population density; (2 Over the last 15 years, the population of China’s northwestern border has been sparse, with small increases in the population agglomeration index and population size. China’s northeastern and southwestern border regions have several average population density areas, but the northeastern regions have seen a substantial reduction in population size since 2000. Based on our analysis, we propose that the Chinese government introduce supporting policies for the development of border regions to maintain the population size. At the same time, considering the varied living suitability of the natural environment along the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern borders, “moderate agglomeration” and “moderate evacuation” population development strategies should be implemented in specified areas. Tilt policy should also be implemented in areas of rapid population decline.

  20. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border. (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey


    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring cross-border travel times for freight : Otay Mesa international border crossing. (United States)


    Cross border movement of people and goods is a vital part of the North American economy. : Accurate real-time data on travel times along the US-Mexico border can help generate a range : of tangible benefits covering improved operations and security, ...

  2. Pancreas and cyst segmentation (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie


    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  3. Border regions as the tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Vukica


    Full Text Available Tourism, as a global phenomenon, has found its place in every corner of the world. During a certain period of time, the tourism market has become saturated by mass tourism causing the creation of new attractive destinations for tourists. Thus, some of the border areas in the world attract and keep passers-by while transforming into the new tourist destinations. In this paper, it is possible to see relations and interconnections between tourism and international boundaries. Tourism in border regions has an opportunity to activate these areas that are often neglected by the state. Some European countries have taken advantage of this opportunity and they improved their tourism industry by developing their border regions. This kind of tourism development can be applied in Serbia and, in that way, activate the border areas of our country. However, in order to develop tourism in these areas, it is necessary to have an adequate international cooperation between two or more states. This can be achieved by various instruments of cross-border cooperation in tourism through the engagement of neighbouring countries in joint plans and cooperation.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuruoka, S.; Adachi, Y.; Yoshikawa, T.


    For printed documents, the projection analysis of black pixels is widely used for the segmentation of a text line. However, for handwritten documents, we think that the projection analysis is not appropriate, as the separating border line of a text line is not a straight line on a paper with no

  5. Familial segmental neurofibromatosis. (United States)

    Oguzkan, Sibel; Cinbis, Mine; Ayter, Sükriye; Anlar, Banu; Aysun, Sabiha


    Segmental neurofibromatosis is considered to be the result of postzygotic NF1 gene mutations. We present a family in which the proband has generalized neurofibromatosis 1, whereas members of previous generations manifest segmental skin lesions. All, including the clinically asymptomatic grandmother, carry the same haplotype. This is the only case in the literature in which a parent with segmental skin findings has a child with full-blown neurofibromatosis 1 disease. The genetic mechanisms underlying this association are discussed. This family can be further investigated by examination of tissue samples from affected and unaffected sites for mutations.

  6. The U.S.-Mexico Border and Children’s Social Imaginary: An Analysis of Wacha el Border and Beyond the Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Iglesias-Prieto


    Full Text Available Norma Iglesias-Prieto’s article is based on the films Wacha el border, created by twelve children from Tijuana, and Beyond the Border, created by ten children from San Diego. It aims at understanding the extent to which the U.S.-Mexico border is significant in children’s social representations of themselves and others. Focusing on the Tijuana/San Diego transboundary urbanized region, Iglesias-Prieto questions traditional representations and perceptions of the border.

  7. Coastal zone management around the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, R.; Van de Wetering, B.G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.


    The Southern North Sea is bordered by Great-Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The North Sea basin and its adjacent shorelines are intensively used. Management of the basin and the coastal zone is therefore essential. Because of the small scale of the area, the dense

  8. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20 (United States)

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen


    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  9. 76 FR 771 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 14 Under Alternative Site Framework; Little Rock, AR (United States)


    ... Framework; Little Rock, AR Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... White Counties, Arkansas, within and adjacent to the Little Rock Customs and Border ] Protection port of...

  10. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad


    structure of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, detailed description of the deep structure of Caspian zone, Kur and Caspian megadepressions, identification of nappe-folded structure of the Absheron Peninsula and the Absheron threshold at the border of Middle and South Caspian, justification of the possible hydrocarbon concentration at the tectonically stratified substantial complexes of mountain and foothill areas, etc. Based on the outcomes of implemented researches, some general conclusions and schemes were drawn for some parts of the project region within the plate tectonics conceptual frameworks, to include the territories of Lesser Caucasus and South Caspian. Analysis and comparison of these data with macroseismic and instrumental data allowed us to conduct seismotectonic studies in a region and develop a new scheme of seismotectonic map with outlined recent and forecasted seismic activity. There also correlated foci zones of earthquakes with subhorizontal and subvertical borders in earth crust, which shows their structure-dynamic relationship. In the one hand, the earthquake foci zones belong to the faults of the basement which extend to sedimentary cover and their intersection knots. On the other hand, there appearing inner-block seismogenic levels, namely, in seismic generation acts all the earth crust: tectonic stress results on movements along fault zones, as well as lateral displacements along non-stable contacts of the structure-substance complexes of different competency.

  11. Automatic Segmentation of Dermoscopic Images by Iterative Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Zortea


    Full Text Available Accurate detection of the borders of skin lesions is a vital first step for computer aided diagnostic systems. This paper presents a novel automatic approach to segmentation of skin lesions that is particularly suitable for analysis of dermoscopic images. Assumptions about the image acquisition, in particular, the approximate location and color, are used to derive an automatic rule to select small seed regions, likely to correspond to samples of skin and the lesion of interest. The seed regions are used as initial training samples, and the lesion segmentation problem is treated as binary classification problem. An iterative hybrid classification strategy, based on a weighted combination of estimated posteriors of a linear and quadratic classifier, is used to update both the automatically selected training samples and the segmentation, increasing reliability and final accuracy, especially for those challenging images, where the contrast between the background skin and lesion is low.

  12. Seismofocal zones and mid-ocean ridges - look outside of the plate paradigm (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmianskii, Mikhail


    Seismofocal zones and mid-ocean ridges - look outside of the plate paradigm Vladimir M. Anokhin, Mikhail A. Kholmianskii Configuration of the seismofocal zones (SFZ), visible in a real position of the focuses of earthquakes, has a significant step component (jagged) expressed by the presence of several sub-horizontal "seismoplanes", which concentrates focuses of earthquakes (depths 10, 35 km and other). Orientation of seismolines inside of SFZ tends to 4 main directions: 0-5 dgr, 120-145 dgr, 40-55 dgr, 85-90 dgr. These facts suggest significantly block, a terraced structure of the body of Benioff zone. The borders of blocks have orientation according directions regmatic net of the Earth. In accordance with this, SFZ can be presented as the most active segments of the border of the crossing: «continent-ocean», having the following properties: - block (terraced) structure; - in some sites - dive under the continental crust (in present time); - prevailing compression (in present time), perhaps, as the period of the oscillatory cycle; Infinite "subduction" in SFZ is unlikely. One of the areas where there is proof of concept of far "spreading" is the southernmost tip of the mid-oceanic Gakkel ridge in the Laptev sea (Arctic ocean). Here active "spreading" ridge normal approaches to the boundary of the continental crust - the shelf of the Laptev sea. On the shelf there are a number of subparallel NW grabens. NE fault zone Charlie, controlling the continental slope is established stepped fault without shift component. This means that the amount of extending of the offshore grabens does not significantly differ from the scale of spreading in the Gakkel ridge. However, the total spreads grabens (50-100 km) 6-10 times less than the width of the oceanic crust (600 km) in the surrounding area. Conclusion: the oceanic crust in the Laptev sea was formed mainly not due to "spreading". It is very likely that here was sinking and the processing of continental crust in the ocean

  13. Imaging of the Rupture Zone of the Magnitude 6.2 Karonga Earthquake of 2009 using Electrical Resistivity Surveys (United States)

    Clappe, B.; Hull, C. D.; Dawson, S.; Johnson, T.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Nyalugwe, V.; Atekwana, E. A.; Salima, J.


    The 2009 Karonga earthquakes occurred in an area where active faults had not previously been known to exist. Over 5000 buildings were destroyed in the area and at least 4 people lost their lives as a direct result of the 19th of December magnitude 6.2 earthquake. The earthquake swarms occurred in the hanging wall of the main Livingstone border fault along segmented, west dipping faults that are synthetic to the Livingstone fault. The faults have a general trend of 290-350 degrees. Electrical resistivity surveys were conducted to investigate the nature of known rupture and seismogenic zones that resulted from the 2009 earthquakes in the Karonga, Malawi area. The goal of this study was to produce high-resolution images below the epicenter and nearby areas of liquefaction to determine changes in conductivity/resistivity signatures in the subsurface. An Iris Syscal Pro was utilized to conduct dipole-dipole resistivity measurements below the surface of soil at farmlands at 6 locations. Each transect was 710 meters long and had an electrode spacing of 10 meters. RES2DINV software was used to create 2-D inversion images of the rupture and seismogenic zones. We were able to observe three distinct geoelectrical layers to the north of the rupture zone and two south of the rupture zone with the discontinuity between the two marked by the location of the surface rupture. The rupture zone is characterized by ~80-meter wide area of enhanced conductivity, 5 m thick underlain by a more resistive layer dipping west. We interpret this to be the result of fine grain sands and silts brought up from depth to near surface as a result of shearing along the fault rupture or liquefaction. Electrical resistivity surveys are valuable, yet under-utilized tools for imaging near-surface effects of earthquakes.

  14. A Fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Hougaard, Kristina Dupont


    Introduction: Perfusion- and diffusion weighted MRI (PWI/DWI) is widely used to select patients who are likely to benefit from recanalization therapy. The visual identification of PWI-DWI-mismatch tissue depends strongly on the observer, prompting a need for software, which estimates potentially...... salavageable tissue, quickly and accurately. We present a fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation (APS) algorithm using PWI and DWI images. We compare automatically generated PWI-DWI mismatch mask to mask outlined manually by experts, in 168 patients. Method: The algorithm initially identifies PWI lesions...... by applying a connected component-labeling algorithm on thresholded Time-To-Peak maps (TTP > 4 seconds). Smooth PWI lesion borders are then identified by applying a level-set algorithm on the initial PWI lesion mask. The initial DWI lesion was located by thresholding Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC...

  15. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.


    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  16. Segmentation of antiperspirants and deodorants


    Král, Tomáš


    The goal of Master's Thesis on topic Segmentation of antiperspirants and deodorants is to discover differences in consumer's behaviour, determinate and describe segments of consumers based on these differences and propose marketing strategy for the most attractive segments. Theoretical part describes market segmentation in general, process of segmentation and segmentation criteria. Analytic part characterizes Czech market of antiperspirants and deodorants, analyzes ACNielsen market data and d...

  17. Sclerosing segmental neurofibromatosis. (United States)

    Lee, Joong Sun; Kim, You Chan


    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder characterized by cafe-au-lait macules and/or neurofibromas limited to a single body segment. The neurofibromas in segmental neurofibromatosis are usually soft, non-tender nodules as in other types of neurofibromatosis. Histopathologically, they are usually non-encapsulated, loosely textured dermal tumors. We report a case of sclerosing segmental neurofibromatosis, in which the patient presented with several grouped, erythematous to brownish, firm tender nodules on the left side of the posterior neck. Histopathologically, the stroma was mostly very fibrotic, especially around hair follicles, in addition to the usual features of neurofibroma. The atypical clinical feature, hardness, and tenderness of the lesions may be associated with the fibrosis.

  18. 77 FR 69591 - Expansion and Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 33 Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion and Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 33 Pittsburgh, PA Pursuant to... Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area, adjacent to the Pittsburgh Customs and Border Protection port of entry (FTZ...

  19. 75 FR 13488 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 33: Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 33: Pittsburgh, PA Pursuant to its authority... 5 on a permanent basis, and to add proposed Sites 6-17 in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area, adjacent to the Pittsburgh Customs and Border Protection port of entry (FTZ Docket 13-2009, filed 04/07/09...

  20. 77 FR 69435 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-Tunica County, MS; Under Alternative Site Framework (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone--Tunica County, MS; Under Alternative Site Framework... Customs and Border Protection port of entry, under the alternative site framework (ASF) adopted by the...

  1. Universal Numeric Segmented Display


    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sharmeen, Rezwana; S. M. Kamruzzaman


    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform...

  2. Automated carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation (United States)

    Meiburger, Kristen M.; Molinari, Filippo; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Saba, Luca; Rodrigues, Paulo; Liboni, William; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S.


    Evaluation of the carotid artery wall is essential for the assessment of a patient's cardiovascular risk or for the diagnosis of cardiovascular pathologies. This paper presents a new, completely user-independent algorithm called carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation (CAILRS, a class of AtheroEdge™ systems), which automatically segments the intima layer of the far wall of the carotid ultrasound artery based on mean shift classification applied to the far wall. Further, the system extracts the lumen-intima and media-adventitia borders in the far wall of the carotid artery. Our new system is characterized and validated by comparing CAILRS borders with the manual tracings carried out by experts. The new technique is also benchmarked with a semi-automatic technique based on a first-order absolute moment edge operator (FOAM) and compared to our previous edge-based automated methods such as CALEX (Molinari et al 2010 J. Ultrasound Med. 29 399-418, 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CULEX (Delsanto et al 2007 IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56 1265-74, Molinari et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CALSFOAM (Molinari et al Int. Angiol. (at press)), and CAUDLES-EF (Molinari et al J. Digit. Imaging (at press)). Our multi-institutional database consisted of 300 longitudinal B-mode carotid images. In comparison to semi-automated FOAM, CAILRS showed the IMT bias of -0.035 ± 0.186 mm while FOAM showed -0.016 ± 0.258 mm. Our IMT was slightly underestimated with respect to the ground truth IMT, but showed uniform behavior over the entire database. CAILRS outperformed all the four previous automated methods. The system's figure of merit was 95.6%, which was lower than that of the semi-automated method (98%), but higher than that of the other automated techniques.

  3. Automated carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiburger, Kristen M; Molinari, Filippo [Biolab, Department of Electronics, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Acharya, U Rajendra [Department of ECE, Ngee Ann Polytechnic (Singapore); Saba, Luca [Department of Radiology, A.O.U. di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Rodrigues, Paulo [Department of Computer Science, Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Liboni, William [Neurology Division, Gradenigo Hospital, Torino (Italy); Nicolaides, Andrew [Vascular Screening and Diagnostic Centre, London (United Kingdom); Suri, Jasjit S, E-mail: [Fellow AIMBE, CTO, Global Biomedical Technologies Inc., CA (United States)


    Evaluation of the carotid artery wall is essential for the assessment of a patient's cardiovascular risk or for the diagnosis of cardiovascular pathologies. This paper presents a new, completely user-independent algorithm called carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation (CAILRS, a class of AtheroEdge(TM) systems), which automatically segments the intima layer of the far wall of the carotid ultrasound artery based on mean shift classification applied to the far wall. Further, the system extracts the lumen-intima and media-adventitia borders in the far wall of the carotid artery. Our new system is characterized and validated by comparing CAILRS borders with the manual tracings carried out by experts. The new technique is also benchmarked with a semi-automatic technique based on a first-order absolute moment edge operator (FOAM) and compared to our previous edge-based automated methods such as CALEX (Molinari et al 2010 J. Ultrasound Med. 29 399-418, 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CULEX (Delsanto et al 2007 IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56 1265-74, Molinari et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CALSFOAM (Molinari et al Int. Angiol. (at press)), and CAUDLES-EF (Molinari et al J. Digit. Imaging (at press)). Our multi-institutional database consisted of 300 longitudinal B-mode carotid images. In comparison to semi-automated FOAM, CAILRS showed the IMT bias of -0.035 {+-} 0.186 mm while FOAM showed -0.016 {+-} 0.258 mm. Our IMT was slightly underestimated with respect to the ground truth IMT, but showed uniform behavior over the entire database. CAILRS outperformed all the four previous automated methods. The system's figure of merit was 95.6%, which was lower than that of the semi-automated method (98%), but higher than that of the other automated techniques.

  4. The changing forms and nature of borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther


    Full Text Available Contemporary borders are not always where you would expect them to be. On a flight to America, for instance, the crew will inform you that passengers are not allowed to congregate in groups around the toilets or anywhere in the aircraft. This US State Department regulation applies whether you are on Swiss soil waiting for takeoff, contemplating the Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of 33’000 feet above international waters, or landing at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York City. Borders are no lo...

  5. A CART extension using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten


    -space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature...

  6. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten


    -space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature...

  7. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet


    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  8. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M


    The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC, sucrase-isomaltase (EC, aminopeptidase A (EC 3...... appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied...

  9. The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte


    The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya (EUBAM), with the objective of supporting Libyan authorities in improving and developing the security of the country’s borders, was launched in May 2013 but suspended during the summer of 2014, because the security situation in Libya deteriorated. Therefore......’s assessment of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission, EUBAM Libya, and its contribution to the country’s overall security situation12. It takes departure in the complete deliverables of the Work Package 3, with The Libyan Review as the main source of reference. The aim of this chapter...

  10. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.


    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  11. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation. (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela


    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  12. Fauna vertebrada de les zones semiàrides protegides de Catalunya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanuy Castells, D.


    Full Text Available Vertebrate fauna of the protected semiarid zones in the south west of CataloniaThis work describes fauna and habitats within the semiarid zones in the south west of Catalonia, bordering with Monegros. The fauna in the Peins area is studied and an approximation of the vertebrate species therein is given. As parts of the area surveyed are legally protected, their future is considered stable. The eight areas studied include steppe zones, chalky mountain ranges bordering the pre-Pyrenean region, Pinus halepensis forest and a dam.

  13. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health. (United States)

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D


    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health."

  14. The first report on natural Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. infections in wild East-European House Mice (Mus musculus musculus) and West-European House Mice (M. m. domesticus) in a hybrid zone across the Czech Republic-Germany border. (United States)

    Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Albrecht, Tomáš; Piálek, Jaroslav


    To determine the occurrence of potentially human pathogenic microsporidia (Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp.) in wild mice, we examined 289 East-European House Mice (Mus musculus musculus) and West-European House Mice (M. m. domesticus) trapped at 74 localities in an area across the Czech-German border. Microsporidia were detected at 33 localities, in 34% of M. m. musculus and 33% of M. m. domesticus examined specimens. Single-species infection was detected in 23 mice for E. hellem, 42 mice for E. cuniculi and 25 mice for E. bieneusi. No Encephalitozoon intestinalis positive animals were identified. Moreover, co-infections were detected in 6 animals; E. bieneusi co-existed with E. cuniculi or E. hellem in 3 mice. The natural infection of E. hellem has never been recorded in mice before. No differences were found by a statistical analysis of microsporidia occurrence between the House Mouse subspecies. Although the gender-dependent infestation of microsporidia was statistically supported in M. m. musculus, no significant differences were observed when the occurrence of microsporidia was estimated for all males and females irrespective of the House Mouse subspecies. The results of this report document the low host specificity of detected microsporidia species and imply the importance of synanthropic rodents as a potential source of human microsporidial infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interactive Tele-Radiological Segmentation Systems for Treatment and Diagnosis (United States)

    Zimeras, S.; Gortzis, L. G.


    Telehealth is the exchange of health information and the provision of health care services through electronic information and communications technology, where participants are separated by geographic, time, social and cultural barriers. The shift of telemedicine from desktop platforms to wireless and mobile technologies is likely to have a significant impact on healthcare in the future. It is therefore crucial to develop a general information exchange e-medical system to enables its users to perform online and offline medical consultations through diagnosis. During the medical diagnosis, image analysis techniques combined with doctor's opinions could be useful for final medical decisions. Quantitative analysis of digital images requires detection and segmentation of the borders of the object of interest. In medical images, segmentation has traditionally been done by human experts. Even with the aid of image processing software (computer-assisted segmentation tools), manual segmentation of 2D and 3D CT images is tedious, time-consuming, and thus impractical, especially in cases where a large number of objects must be specified. Substantial computational and storage requirements become especially acute when object orientation and scale have to be considered. Therefore automated or semi-automated segmentation techniques are essential if these software applications are ever to gain widespread clinical use. The main purpose of this work is to analyze segmentation techniques for the definition of anatomical structures under telemedical systems. PMID:22611384

  16. Interactive Tele-Radiological Segmentation Systems for Treatment and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zimeras


    Full Text Available Telehealth is the exchange of health information and the provision of health care services through electronic information and communications technology, where participants are separated by geographic, time, social and cultural barriers. The shift of telemedicine from desktop platforms to wireless and mobile technologies is likely to have a significant impact on healthcare in the future. It is therefore crucial to develop a general information exchange e-medical system to enables its users to perform online and offline medical consultations through diagnosis. During the medical diagnosis, image analysis techniques combined with doctor’s opinions could be useful for final medical decisions. Quantitative analysis of digital images requires detection and segmentation of the borders of the object of interest. In medical images, segmentation has traditionally been done by human experts. Even with the aid of image processing software (computer-assisted segmentation tools, manual segmentation of 2D and 3D CT images is tedious, time-consuming, and thus impractical, especially in cases where a large number of objects must be specified. Substantial computational and storage requirements become especially acute when object orientation and scale have to be considered. Therefore automated or semi-automated segmentation techniques are essential if these software applications are ever to gain widespread clinical use. The main purpose of this work is to analyze segmentation techniques for the definition of anatomical structures under telemedical systems.

  17. Crossing the Borders: An Eco-cinecritical Analysis of Plant Wars and Bird Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ching Li


    Full Text Available This essay reads two Asian nature-oriented films from the perspective of ecocinecriticism,an ecologically minded film criticism. Plant Wars, produced by PTSTaiwan, questions the demarcation between native plants and exotic plants as well asbetween plants and human beings so as to remap the in-between border area. Thestorytelling method it applies is to feature 14 currently native plants as the maincharacters, and illustrates their relationship to aboriginal people, farmers, beekeepersand to other insect species. Bird Without Borders, also produced by PTS, tells the storyof the migration journey of a group of black-faced spoonbills flying 16,000 kilometersall the way from Tainan, Taiwan, to Japan, along the border of South and North Korea,to a remote island of China to look for feeding places and then back to Taiwan to spendthe winter. Different layers of border-crossing are shown in Bird. One similarity ofthese two PTS productions is the search for border-crossing so as to redefine or revisewhat the border means. Plant questions the biological categorization of the native plantsand the exotic plants; Bird illustrates how the crew physically follows the route of thebirds’ flight which crosses the national borders to provide a vision of remapping thenatural territory through challenging the idea of a fixed “place.” Both are seeking forways to trespass the man-made borders: Plant via environmental imagination; Bird viasome physical movement. While the title of Plant Wars seemingly expresses its positionmore strongly through “wars,” Bird Without Borders explicitly asserts a dream of noborders.

  18. Rediscovering market segmentation. (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David


    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  19. Demographic Processes in the Southern Part of the Hungarian – Romanian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper is a demographic comparative study of two neighboring regions along the southern part of the Romanian-Hungarian border region, which serves as a fundament for further analyses concerning the verification of cohesion between the two parts of the border. We have concluded our study with the statement that in spite of its traditionally low population increase, the Romanian Timiş and Arad counties have a more advantageous demographical condition than the neighboring Hungarian Békés and Csongrád counties, which can be described as having a generalized demographical decline. Though in Romania the Banat region for many decades is classified as a crisis-zone from a demographical point of view, it can show off an impressive attractiveness in terms of inner-migration in contrast to its Hungarian neighbors. In contrast with the northern part of the Romanian-Hungarian border, in this region the border strip does not overlap with a socio-economic periphery, because this phenomenon is more scattered in space.

  20. Crimmigration at the Internal Borders of Europe?
    Examining the Schengen Governance Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje A.H. van der Woude


    Full Text Available This article focuses on how the Schengen Governance Package, and in particular the revised legal framework on the temporary reinstatement of internal border checks, should be valued within the broader process of crimmigration. First we elaborate upon both the recent incidents that underline the criminalization of migration in Europe and the recent developments in the Schengen legal framework on internal border control.  Subsequently, based on an analysis of official notification letters issued by the respective Member States, we analyse the development of how often, and on which grounds, they temporarily closed their internal borders in the period of January 2000 - March 2014. In doing so, we pay attention not only to the question whether Member States have been using (the fear of (crimmigration as a reason to invoke the exception clause, but also to the transparency of the procedures that were followed. Following an assessment of the Schengen Governance Package in light of this analysis, we address certain other forms of border control developing within the Schengen zone. In conclusion, we argue that the way in which the European Commission and the Council responded to immigration-related anxieties is understandable but might have contrary effects in the long run.

  1. Border Security: A Conceptual Model of Complexity (United States)


    and poverty issues),89 distance to POEs, and risk of deportation , cross-border attendance has reduced significantly, in turn slowing the passing down...plants eradicated in Colombia , or the number of illegal immigrants apprehended, or the number of assault weapons interdicted enroute to Mexico, for

  2. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.


    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  3. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto


    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax ev...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem Scholtz

    spare parts, etc. This was true of the Border War as well. In general, the troops fighting the counter-insurgency war in the north of Namibia were well supplied. Most of the ... body. This meant that the loading of supplies were undertaken haphazardly, without the needs of the frontline troops being taken into account, with the.

  5. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  6. Sharing Knowledge and Experience Across Borders | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Yemeni farmers have to drill their wells as deep as six metres to get enough water to irrigate crops. In this parched country — bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the east ... Qahtan has noticed that engineering students are now working at a faster pace. "Designs are readily available on the Internet," he adds.

  7. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan


    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  8. Border Lakes land-cover classification (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman


    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  9. Developing a simulation for border safeguarding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, S


    Full Text Available ). It deals with situations such as rhino poaching, smuggling of narcotics into South Africa, and transporting stolen goods and vehicles out and across the border. In Section 2 we discuss the JC2 concept as well as the role of the Interoperability...

  10. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo


    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate...... the variability in the implementation of the EU Data Protection Directive (DPD) across participating centres....

  11. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  12. e Ethiopia-Eritrea Border Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siphamandla Zondi and Emmanuel Réjouis the ruling of the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) as agreed at. Algiers, and Eritrea laments the disregard of agreements, especially by the inter- national community that witnessed them. The Boundary Commission, charged with adjudicating a ruling on the border ...

  13. Leishmaniasis: sickness without borders | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A fly carrying a deadly parasite is endemic in the jungles of the Iguazu Falls, located where the borders of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay meet. For centuries, this insect did not bother anyone in this remote area. But as its territory has been encroached on by settlements, the disease has spread. With IDRC's support ...

  14. Location of the Carlsberg Fault zone from seismic controlled-source fan recordings (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans


    We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone in the city of Copenhagen from seismic fan recordings. The fault is part of a fault system close to the border between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent earthquakes indicate that this area is tectonically active. The fault zone is a seismic low-velocity zone. Fan shots were recorded on three receiver arrays (1.5-2.4 km long arcs) across the fault. Sources were placed inside and up to ~500 m away from the ~400-700 m wide fault zone at offsets of up to ~7 km. Shots inside the fault zone show: 1) weak, delayed first arrivals inside the fault zone; 2) stronger first arrivals outside the fault zone; 3) guided waves inside the fault zone. The fault is a shadow zone for shots detonated outside the fault zone. Our approach facilitates fault mapping in densely urbanized areas where seismic profiling is not feasible.

  15. An automated method for accurate vessel segmentation (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Liu, Chaoyue; Le Minh, Hung; Wang, Zhiwei; Chien, Aichi; (Tim Cheng, Kwang-Ting


    Vessel segmentation is a critical task for various medical applications, such as diagnosis assistance of diabetic retinopathy, quantification of cerebral aneurysm’s growth, and guiding surgery in neurosurgical procedures. Despite technology advances in image segmentation, existing methods still suffer from low accuracy for vessel segmentation in the two challenging while common scenarios in clinical usage: (1) regions with a low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and (2) at vessel boundaries disturbed by adjacent non-vessel pixels. In this paper, we present an automated system which can achieve highly accurate vessel segmentation for both 2D and 3D images even under these challenging scenarios. Three key contributions achieved by our system are: (1) a progressive contrast enhancement method to adaptively enhance contrast of challenging pixels that were otherwise indistinguishable, (2) a boundary refinement method to effectively improve segmentation accuracy at vessel borders based on Canny edge detection, and (3) a content-aware region-of-interests (ROI) adjustment method to automatically determine the locations and sizes of ROIs which contain ambiguous pixels and demand further verification. Extensive evaluation of our method is conducted on both 2D and 3D datasets. On a public 2D retinal dataset (named DRIVE (Staal 2004 IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23 501-9)) and our 2D clinical cerebral dataset, our approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art methods including a vesselness based method (Frangi 1998 Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention) and an optimally oriented flux (OOF) based method (Law and Chung 2008 European Conf. on Computer Vision). An evaluation on 11 clinical 3D CTA cerebral datasets shows that our method can achieve 94% average accuracy with respect to the manual segmentation reference, which is 23% to 33% better than the five baseline methods (Yushkevich 2006 Neuroimage 31 1116-28; Law and Chung 2008

  16. Segmental neurofibromatosis in childhood. (United States)

    Listernick, Robert; Mancini, Anthony J; Charrow, Joel


    Segmental neurofibromatosis refers to individuals who have manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) limited to one area of the body. It results from a post-conceptional mutation in the NF-1 gene leading to somatic mosaicism. Although it is generally considered a rare condition, this report of 39 children with segmental NF-1 demonstrates that it is commonly seen in a pediatric NF-1 referral center. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.8 years (range: 2-25 years). Twenty-nine patients had only pigmentary manifestations of segmental NF-1, including seven who had only café-au-lait macules and 22 who had café-au-lait macules and freckling. Two patients had isolated plexiform neurofibromas; a third patient had a plexiform neurofibroma of the eyelid in addition to ipsilateral dysplasia of the sphenoid wing and Lisch nodules. A 12-year-old girl had an isolated tibial pseudarthrosis. An 8-year-old boy had an isolated optic pathway tumor, which behaved both biologically and radiographically as an NF1-associated tumor. While most children with segmental NF-1 have only localized pigmentary changes, some children will have isolated plexiform neurofibromas, pseudarthroses, or optic pathway tumors. Accurate diagnosis of segmental NF-1 is crucial for both management and genetic counseling. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Cooperative processes in image segmentation (United States)

    Davis, L. S.


    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  18. Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunez-Neto, Blas


    .... Today, the USBP's primary mission is to detect and prevent the entry of terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and illegal aliens into the country, and to interdict drug smugglers and other criminals along the border...

  19. Population mobility and spread of HIV across the Indo-Nepal border. (United States)

    Nepal, Binod


    The article reviews information on the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and behavioural networking to examine the role of population mobility in spreading HIV across the Indo-Nepal border. Documents were collected through a systematic search of electronic databases and web-based information resources, and the review focuses on studies about types of the virus, prevalence of HIV, and sexual and injecting networking. HIV-1 (subtype C) and HIV-2 were identified in Nepal. The prevalence of HIV was higher among male labour migrants and female sex workers (FSWs) who returned from India, especially from Mumbai, than in similar non-migrant groups. In the early 2000s, about 6-10% of Mumbai returnee men, compared to up to 4% of India returnee men and up to 3% of non-migrant men in the far-west Nepal, were identified with HIV. Likewise, when the prevalence of HIV among sex workers in Kathmandu was found to be 17% in 1999-2000, up to 44% of India returnee and 73% of Mumbai returnee FSWs were identified with the virus. These data are, however, based on small samples with questionable representativeness of the target populations and need to be interpreted cautiously. They also generate a biased impression that HIV was coming into Nepal from India. Recently, the possibility of a two-way flow of HIV across the Indo-Nepal border through injecting and sexual networking have been indicated by serological and behavioural data from a south-eastern cluster of Nepal and a north-eastern district of India. Although similar behavioural networks exist along other segments of the border, serological data are unavailable to assess whether and how extensively this phenomenon has caused the spread of HIV. Collaborative research and interventions covering both sides of the border are desirable to fully understand and address the prospect of HIV epidemics associated with cross-border population mixing.

  20. Population Mobility and Spread of HIV Across the Indo-Nepal Border (United States)

    Nepal, Binod


    The article reviews information on the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and behavioural networking to examine the role of population mobility in spreading HIV across the Indo-Nepal border. Documents were collected through a systematic search of electronic databases and web-based information resources, and the review focuses on studies about types of the virus, prevalence of HIV, and sexual and injecting networking. HIV-1 (subtype C) and HIV-2 were identified in Nepal. The prevalence of HIV was higher among male labour migrants and female sex workers (FSWs) who returned from India, especially from Mumbai, than in similar non-migrant groups. In the early 2000s, about 6–10% of Mumbai returnee men, compared to up to 4% of India returnee men and up to 3% of non-migrant men in the far-west Nepal, were identified with HIV. Likewise, when the prevalence of HIV among sex workers in Kathmandu was found to be 17% in 1999–2000, up to 44% of India returnee and 73% of Mumbai returnee FSWs were identified with the virus. These data are, however, based on small samples with questionable representativeness of the target populations and need to be interpreted cautiously. They also generate a biased impression that HIV was coming into Nepal from India. Recently, the possibility of a two-way flow of HIV across the Indo-Nepal border through injecting and sexual networking have been indicated by serological and behavioural data from a south-eastern cluster of Nepal and a north-eastern district of India. Although similar behavioural networks exist along other segments of the border, serological data are unavailable to assess whether and how extensively this phenomenon has caused the spread of HIV. Collaborative research and interventions covering both sides of the border are desirable to fully understand and address the prospect of HIV epidemics associated with cross-border population mixing. PMID:18330059

  1. Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M


    .... Prior to the terrorist attacks, the priorities for border security policy were beginning to shift from immigration-related issues to issues related to facilitating legitimate cross-border commerce...

  2. API and PNR data in use for border control authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Chang; McGauran, Rachel; Nelen, Hans

    Airplanes transport a large number of travelers simultaneously, and airports are often described as inland borders where strangers converge and disperse. They are also a conduit for terrorism and transnational crimes. Border control authorities have endeavored to obtain information regarding

  3. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu


    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...... and tourism firms. Based on the empirical evidence it seems that the positive impact that cross-border shopping can have on attracting large numbers of tourists into the region can outweigh the negative impact of tourists preferring border shops to local products and services: cross-border shopping has become...

  4. Fully automated lumen segmentation of intracoronary optical coherence tomography images (United States)

    Athanasiou, L. S.; Rikhtegar, Farhad; Galon, Micheli Zanotti; Lopes, Augusto Celso; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Edelman, Elazer R.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-resolution cross-sectional images of arterial luminal morphology. Traditionally lumen segmentation of OCT images is performed manually by expert observers; a laborious, time consuming effort, sensitive to inter-observer variability process. Although several automated methods have been developed, the majority cannot be applied in real time because of processing demands. To address these limitations we propose a new method for rapid image segmentation of arterial lumen borders using OCT images that involves the following steps: 1) OCT image acquisition using the raw OCT data, 2) reconstruction of longitudinal cross-section (LOCS) images from four different acquisition angles, 3) segmentation of the LOCS images and 4) lumen contour construction in each 2D cross-sectional image. The efficiency of the developed method was evaluated using 613 annotated images from 10 OCT pullbacks acquired from 10 patients at the time of coronary arterial interventions. High Pearson's correlation coefficient was obtained when lumen areas detected by the method were compared to areas annotated by experts (r=0.98, R2=0.96); Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant bias with good limits of agreement. The proposed methodology permits reliable border detection especially in lumen areas having artifacts and is faster than traditional techniques making it capable of being used in real time applications. The method is likely to assist in a number of research and clinical applications - further testing in an expanded clinical arena will more fully define the limits and potential of this approach.

  5. Chan-Vese Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Getreuer


    Full Text Available While many segmentation methods rely heavily in some way on edge detection, the "Active Contours Without Edges" method by Chan and Vese ignores edges completely. Instead, the method optimally fits a two-phase piecewise constant model to the given image. The segmentation boundary is represented implicitly with a level set function, which allows the segmentation to handle topological changes more easily than explicit snake methods. This article describes the level set formulation of the Chan–Vese model and its numerical solution using a semi-implicit gradient descent. We also discuss the Chan–Sandberg–Vese method, a straightforward extension of Chan–Vese for vector-valued images.

  6. Border bases and order ideals: a polyhedral characterization


    Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian


    Border bases arise as a canonical generalization of Gr\\"obner bases. We provide a polyhedral characterization of all order ideals (and hence border bases) that are supported by a zero-dimensional ideal: order ideals that support a border basis correspond one-to-one to integral points of the order ideal polytope. In particular, we establish a crucial connection between the ideal and its combinatorial structure. Based on this characterization we adapt the classical border basis algorithm to all...

  7. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  8. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha


    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  9. Incorporation of an iterative, linear segmentation routine into a mammographic mass CAD system. (United States)

    Catarious, David M; Baydush, Alan H; Floyd, Carey E


    In previous research, we have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system designed to detect masses in mammograms. The previous version of our system employed a simple but imprecise method to localize the masses. In this research, we present a more robust segmentation routine for use with mammographic masses. Our hypothesis is that by more accurately describing the morphology of the masses, we can improve the CAD system's ability to distinguish masses from other mammographic structures. To test this hypothesis, we incorporated the new segmentation routine into our CAD system and examined the change in performance. The developed iterative, linear segmentation routine is a gray level-based procedure. Using the identified regions from the previous CAD system as the initial seeds, the new segmentation algorithm refines the suspicious mass borders by making estimates of the interior and exterior pixels. These estimates are then passed to a linear discriminant, which determines the optimal threshold between the interior and exterior pixels. After applying the threshold and identifying the object's outline, two constraints on the border are applied to reduce the influence of background noise. After the border is constrained, the process repeats until a stopping criterion is reached. The segmentation routine was tested on a study database of 183 mammographic images extracted from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography. Eighty-three of the images contained 50 malignant and 50 benign masses; 100 images contained no masses. The previously developed CAD system was used to locate a set of suspicious regions of interest (ROIs) within the images. To assess the performance of the segmentation algorithm, a set of 20 features was measured from the suspicious regions before and after the application of the developed segmentation routine. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed on the ROIs to examine the discriminatory capabilities of each

  10. Segmental Neurofibromatosis: Atypical Localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Topaloğlu Demir


    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF is a genetic disease leading pathological findings in skin, soft tissue, bone and nervous system by affecting neural crest cells. Due to its heterogeneity neurofibromatosis was divided into eight different subgroups (NF-I NF-VIII by Riccardi. Segmental neurofibromatosis (NF type V is characterized by cutaneous neurofibromas and Café-au-lait spots limited with a segment of dermatome. Here we report this case with numerous, painless cutaneous nodules showing extension from the shoulder to the dorsal aspect of the right hand, since it a rare case.

  11. [Priority health problems in the Mexico-United States border]. (United States)

    Ortega, H


    This paper shows a general scope of migration and border health in the US-Mexico border. Project CONSENSO's methodology and the results founded by the local and state health personnel are presented. This activity enabled health personnel from both countries to identify the most relevant health problems at the Northern and Southern US and Mexico border.

  12. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study of the Burmese-Thai Border. Burmese women workers in Thai border factories are generally excluded from the benefits and protection that define citizenship entitlements. Their employment contracts are not protected by the regulations drawn up for ...

  13. Proceedings of Border Institute VI: transboundary ecosystem management (United States)

    D. Rick Van Schoik


    Ecosystems are bisected by international borders along the United States-Mexican border; infrastructure and the heightened security activities bisect the north-south cores, corridors, and buffers essential to preservation of ecosystems. The Southwest Consortium for Environmental Research and Policy (SCERP) and its partners convened an annual policy conference, Border...

  14. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security...

  15. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office of...

  16. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca


    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  17. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013 (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  18. Cross-border Movement of People between Russia and Poland and Their Influence on the Economy of Border Regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalia A Zaitseva; Valentin S Korneevets; Elena G Kropinova; Tatyana Yu Kuznetsova; Ludmila V Semenova


      The ever-increasing role of cross-border movement for the development of the economies of the regions of neighboring countries located in the immediate vicinity of the border defines the topicality of this research...

  19. Improved border sharpness of post-infarct scar by a novel self-navigated free-breathing high-resolution 3D whole-heart inversion recovery magnetic resonance approach. (United States)

    Rutz, Tobias; Piccini, Davide; Coppo, Simone; Chaptinel, Jerome; Ginami, Giulia; Vincenti, Gabriella; Stuber, Matthias; Schwitter, Juerg


    The border zone of post-infarction myocardial scar as identified by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has been identified as a substrate for arrhythmias and consequently, high-resolution 3D scar information is potentially useful for planning of electrophysiological interventions. This study evaluates the performance of a novel high-resolution 3D self-navigated free-breathing inversion recovery magnetic resonance pulse sequence (3D-SN-LGE) vs. conventional 2D breath-hold LGE (2D-LGE) with regard to sharpness of borders (SBorder) of post-infarction scar. Patients with post-infarction scar underwent two magnetic resonance examinations for conventional 2D-LGE and high-resolution 3D-SN-LGE acquisitions (both 15 min after 0.2 mmol/kg Gadobutrol IV) at 1.5T. In the prototype 3D-SN-LGE sequence, each ECG-triggered radial steady-state-free-precession read-out segment is preceded by a non-slice-selective inversion pulse. Scar volume and SBorder were assessed on 2D-LGE and matching reconstructed high-resolution 3D-SN-LGE short-axis slices. In 16 patients (four females, 58 ± 10y) all scars visualized by 2D-LGE could be identified on 3D-SN-LGE (time between 2D-LGE and 3D-SN-LGE 48 ± 53 days). A good agreement of scar volume by 3D-SN-LGE vs. 2D-LGE was found (Bland-Altman: -3.7 ± 3.4 ml, correlation: r = 0.987, p scar volume (20.5 (15.8, 35.2) ml vs. 24.5 (20.0, 41.9)) ml, respectively, p = 0.002] and a good intra- and interobserver variability (1.1 ± 4.1 and -1.1 ± 11.9 ml, respectively). SBorder of border "scar to non-infarcted myocardium" was superior on 3D-SN-LGE vs. 2D-LGE: 0.180 ± 0.044 vs. 0.083 ± 0.038, p scar by 3D-SN-LGE is feasible and accurate in comparison to 2D-LGE. The high spatial resolution of the 3D sequence improves delineation of scar borders.

  20. The Dipole Segment Model for Axisymmetrical Elongated Asteroids (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangyuan; Zhang, Yonglong; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xiangdong


    Various simplified models have been investigated as a way to understand the complex dynamical environment near irregular asteroids. A dipole segment model is explored in this paper, one that is composed of a massive straight segment and two point masses at the extremities of the segment. Given an explicitly simple form of the potential function that is associated with the dipole segment model, five topological cases are identified with different sets of system parameters. Locations, stabilities, and variation trends of the system equilibrium points are investigated in a parametric way. The exterior potential distribution of nearly axisymmetrical elongated asteroids is approximated by minimizing the acceleration error in a test zone. The acceleration error minimization process determines the parameters of the dipole segment. The near-Earth asteroid (8567) 1996 HW1 is chosen as an example to evaluate the effectiveness of the approximation method for the exterior potential distribution. The advantages of the dipole segment model over the classical dipole and the traditional segment are also discussed. Percent error of acceleration and the degree of approximation are illustrated by using the dipole segment model to approximate four more asteroids. The high efficiency of the simplified model over the polyhedron is clearly demonstrated by comparing the CPU time.

  1. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen


    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  2. Thoracoscopic Subsuperior Segment Segmentectomy. (United States)

    Shimizu, Kimihiro; Mogi, Akira; Yajima, Toshiki; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Obayashi, Kai; Nakazawa, Seshiru; Kosaka, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki


    To date, anatomic subsuperior segment (S∗) segmentectomy has not yet been reported. Herein we report the technical details of thoracoscopic anatomic S∗ segmentectomy and the anatomic features of the S∗. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Segmentation and crustal structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N; J. Geophys. Res. 105 8205–8226. Kamesh Raju K A, Ramprasad T and Subrahmanyam C. 1997 Geophysical investigations over a segment of the. Central Indian Ridge, Indian Ocean; Geo-Marine Lett. 17. 195–201. Kamesh Raju K A, Chaubey A K, Amarnath Dileep and. Mudholkar Abhay 2008 Morphotectonics of the ...

  4. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels


    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......-alone computers and in local and global digital networks....

  5. Sipunculans and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora


    Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups- Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata-use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different m...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 4, 2016 ... 24. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology / Supplement 1 - 2014 - Volume 22. S24. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT. A Comparison of Visual Outcomes after Extracapsular Cataract. Surgery and Phacoemulsification in Eye Foundation Hospital. Lagos Nigeria. Oderinlo O. O., Hassan A. O., Oluyadi F. O., ...

  7. Labor market segmentation


    Berndt Christian


    This contribution to the International Encyclopedia of Geography is a reinterpretation of labor market segmentation theories mapping the evolution of this perspective on labor markets and using the findings of the care market project to reflect on the rising importance of female migrant labor in the domestic sphere and the question of diversity and inequalities in the labor market.

  8. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič


    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  9. Deaths at the borders database : evidence of deceased migrants’ bodies found along the southern external borders of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Last, T.K.; Mirto, Giorgia; Ulusoy, O.; Urquijo, Ignacio; Harte, J.M.; Bami, Nefeli; Pérez Pérez, Marta; Macias Delgado, Flor; Tapella, Amélie; Michalaki, Alexandra; Michalitsi, Eirini; Latsoudi, Efi; Tselepi, Naya; Chatziprokopiou, Marios; Spijkerboer, T.P.


    Irregular migrants and asylum seekers have died and continue to die attempting to cross the external borders of the EU without authorisation, seeking to enter the territories of its Member States. Yet, remarkably little is known about these ‘border deaths’. In 2015, the Human Costs of Border Control

  10. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz


    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  11. Off-shoring and out-sourcing the borders of EUrope: Libya and EU border work in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.


    The article examines some of the novel ways in which the European Union carries out its ‘border-work’- border-work that stretches far beyond the external borders of the current Union. It highlights, in particular, the role of EUrope's neighbours in new strategies of securitisation, drawing attention

  12. Žumberačka Gora – Transformation from a Refuge to an Exodus Zone


    Crkvenčić, Ivan


    This article provides an analysis of the problem of immigration from Žumberačka gora, a highland region that lies on the border between Croatia and Slovenia. Due consideration is given to its border-zone character, basic features and later colonization during the mid-sixteenth century. A dual social organization and even social relations emerged in the region, reflecting the contrast between the Military Frontier and the civilian portion. The consequences of long settlement and secondary colo...

  13. Killing King Kong: the camera at the borders of the tropical island, 1767-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riquet


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of the border of the island as a complex aesthetic zone in the journals of early European and American navigators in the South Seas (such as George Robertson, James Cook, Benjamin Morrell and Charles Wilkes and in 1920s/1930s American films set on tropical islands. The fascination of the early explorers’ descriptions of islands as viewed from the water, across a distance that is physical as much as cultural, resides in the entanglement of perception, expectation and imagination that marks these journeys as both intense and profoundly uncertain visual experiences. In the 1920s, US-American representations of tropical islands gained new currency as American tourists trooped to the South Seas. As I argue, the strong visuality of the early accounts is one of the reasons why cinema could so readily pick up on them. In films like White Shadows in the South Seas (1929 and The Hurricane (1937, the imaginative transformation in the gaze from the water is associated with the camera as it explores the island in lateral tracking shots. These films cast a critical look on contemporary Western enthusiasm for ‘exotic’ cultures and locations in which they nevertheless participate. Resonating with contemporary anthropological and documentary film practices, emphasizing authentic representation of native cultures (Malinowski and Flaherty, respectively, they nevertheless point to the camera’s own crossing of the island’s border as an act of appropriation. This appropriation becomes explicit in King Kong (1933 as, armed with cameras and guns, the diegetic film crew violently crosses the borders of/on the island. Significantly, it is only after Kong’s death at the highest point of another island (Manhattan and at another border, now between land and sky, that he fascinates the masses as an aesthetic spectacle. The film, then, meditates on the relations between border crossing, death and the production of aesthetics.

  14. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach. (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José


    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  15. PNMBG: Point Neighborhood Merging with Border Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxia Wan


    Full Text Available The special clustering algorithm is attractive for the task of grouping arbitrary shaped database into several proper classes. Up to now, a wide variety of clustering algorithms designed for this task have been proposed, the majority of these algorithms is density-based. But the effectivity and efficiency still is the great challenges for these algorithms as far as the clustering quality of such task is concerned. In this paper, we propose an arbitrary shaped clustering method with border grids (PNMBG, PNMBG is a crisp partition method. It groups objects to point neighborhoods firstly, and then iteratively merges these point neighborhoods into clusters via grids, only bordering grids are considered during the merging stage. Experiments show that PNMBG has a good efficiency especially on the database with high dimension. In general, PNMBG outperforms DBSCAN in the term of efficiency and has an almost same effectivity with the later.

  16. Cross-border emergency management. Grenzueberschreitender Notfallschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.; Lombard, J.; Rauber, D. (eds.)


    The papers presented at the seminar give a survey of the cooperative activities, the national organisations, and the main aspects involved in cross-border emergency management by the neighbour states Germany, France, Switzerland and Austria. These major aspects are the leading themes of the various sessions of the seminar, devoted to: The legal bases and their implementation within national law; tasks and means in emergency management; bilateral agreements; decision-making processes in the early phase of an event, and in the late phase of an event; determination of the radiological situation; procedures of information and data exchange; information of the population; experience gained from cross-border emergency management exercises, and provision of bilateral assistance. (orig./CB)

  17. Borders, Tensegrity and Development in Dialogue. (United States)

    Marsico, Giuseppina; Tateo, Luca


    In this article we propose a development of the Dialogical Self Theory by introducing the notions of borders, cogenetic logic and tensegrity that we have elaborated during the last 5 years, in order to introduce a stronger developmental and dynamic perspective within the theory. We start from the discussion of some recent advancements of the model proposed by Hermans et al. (Integrative Psychological and Behavioural Science, 51(4), 2017), who refer to the metaphor of democratic society of the Self to understand the challenges and possible directions of adaptation that the persons can face in those border-crossing processes characterizing contemporary western societies. We conceptualized the Self as a dynamic semiotic system in constant evolutive tension, rather than a system in equilibrium adapting to the environmental changing conditions. Then, we propose to replace the concept of stability and continuity of the Self with the more fruitful idea of tensional integrity.

  18. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu


    a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks......-border regions....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  20. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas (United States)


    and deterrents to participate in that activity because the risk premium creates high rewards for successful entrepreneurs . This also attracts comes to the rights of individual citizens. For example, U.S. officials have found it more difficult to collaborate with Canadian than Mexican ...Security.” 13 Phil Williams, “ Mexican Drug Violence: Contextual or Contagious?” Paper presented at workshop Borders and Borderlands in the

  1. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent......, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance....

  2. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest


    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration ext......, with the aim to empirically investigate their relative importance and joint effect on the performance of cross-border acquisitions. Such integrative understanding of how and why these actions explain acquisition success also yields important implications for managers.......This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...... impact on the success, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance. Taking a process perspective, this study specially focuses on the main implementation activities during acquisition process...

  3. Segmentation in Tardigrada and diversification of segmental patterns in Panarthropoda. (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Goldstein, Bob


    The origin and diversification of segmented metazoan body plans has fascinated biologists for over a century. The superphylum Panarthropoda includes three phyla of segmented animals-Euarthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada. This superphylum includes representatives with relatively simple and representatives with relatively complex segmented body plans. At one extreme of this continuum, euarthropods exhibit an incredible diversity of serially homologous segments. Furthermore, distinct tagmosis patterns are exhibited by different classes of euarthropods. At the other extreme, all tardigrades share a simple segmented body plan that consists of a head and four leg-bearing segments. The modular body plans of panarthropods make them a tractable model for understanding diversification of animal body plans more generally. Here we review results of recent morphological and developmental studies of tardigrade segmentation. These results complement investigations of segmentation processes in other panarthropods and paleontological studies to illuminate the earliest steps in the evolution of panarthropod body plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles


    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  5. Cloud field segmentation via multiscale convexity analysis (United States)

    Lim, Sin Liang; Daya Sagar, B. S.


    Cloud fields retrieved from remotely sensed satellite data resemble functions depicting spectral values at each spatial position (x,y). Segmenting such cloud fields through a simple thresholding technique may not provide any structurally significant information about each segmented category. An approach based on the use of multiscale convexity analysis to derive structurally significant regions from cloud fields is addressed in this paper. This analysis requires (1) the generation of cloud fields at coarser resolutions and (2) the construction of convex hulls of cloud fields, at corresponding resolutions by employing multiscale morphologic opening transformation and half-plane closings with certain logical operations. The three basic parameters required from these generated multiscale phenomena in order to accomplish the structure-based segmentation include (1) the areas of multiscale cloud fields, (2) the areas of corresponding convex hulls, and (3) the estimation of convexity measures at corresponding resolutions by employing the areas of cloud fields and areas of corresponding convex hulls. These convexity measures computed for multiscale cloud fields are plotted as a function of the resolution imposed owing to multiscale opening to derive a causal relationship. The scaling exponents derived from these graphical plots are taken as the basis for (1) determining the transition zones between the regimes and (2) segmenting the cloud fields into morphologically significant regions. We demonstrated this approach on two different cloud fields retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The segmented regions from these cloud fields possess different degrees of spatial complexities. As many macroscale and microscale atmospheric fields are classified according to spatial variability indexes, the framework proposed here would supplement those existing atmospheric field classification methodologies.

  6. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata


    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  7. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ’ and internationally minded ‘new citizens’ has left some in poverty, unemployment and social insecurity, leading them to rely on normative coping and semi-autonomous strategies for security and social guarantees. This anthology explores how grey zones of governance, borders, relations and invisibilities affect......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...

  8. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay


    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  9. Compresso: Efficient Compression of Segmentation Data for Connectomics

    KAUST Repository

    Matejek, Brian


    Recent advances in segmentation methods for connectomics and biomedical imaging produce very large datasets with labels that assign object classes to image pixels. The resulting label volumes are bigger than the raw image data and need compression for efficient storage and transfer. General-purpose compression methods are less effective because the label data consists of large low-frequency regions with structured boundaries unlike natural image data. We present Compresso, a new compression scheme for label data that outperforms existing approaches by using a sliding window to exploit redundancy across border regions in 2D and 3D. We compare our method to existing compression schemes and provide a detailed evaluation on eleven biomedical and image segmentation datasets. Our method provides a factor of 600–2200x compression for label volumes, with running times suitable for practice.

  10. Crowdsourcing the creation of image segmentation algorithms for connectomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eArganda-Carreras


    Full Text Available To stimulate progress in automating the reconstruction of neural circuits,we organized the first international challenge on 2D segmentationof electron microscopic (EM images of the brain. Participants submittedboundary maps predicted for a test set of images, and were scoredbased on their agreement with ground truth from human experts. Thewinning team had no prior experience with EM images, and employeda convolutional network. This ``deep learning'' approach has sincebecome accepted as a standard for segmentation of EM images. The challengehas continued to accept submissions, and the best so far has resultedfrom cooperation between two teams. The challenge has probably saturated,as algorithms cannot progress beyond limits set by ambiguities inherentin 2D scoring. Retrospective evaluation of the challenge scoring systemreveals that it was not sufficiently robust to variations in the widthsof neurite borders. We propose a solution to this problem, which shouldbe useful for a future 3D segmentation challenge.

  11. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana


    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  12. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart


    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  13. Labor market segmentation


    Berndt, Christian


    Labor market segmentation theories arose as an alternative to neoclassical notions of labor and labor markets in the 1970s. After briefly revisiting the strengths and the weaknesses of this approach, the article discusses more recent developments around the question of difference and diversity in labor markets, directing attention to three key developments associated with the rise of neoliberal capitalism: (i) the formation of entrepreneurial subjectivities and the treatment of labor as a div...

  14. Integrated seismic interpretation of the Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans; Jørgensen, Mette I.


    We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone along a 12-km-long trace in the Copenhagen city centre by seismic refraction, reflection and fan profiling. The Carlsberg Fault is located in a NNW-SSE striking fault system in the border zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent earthquakes indicate that this area is tectonically active. A seismic refraction study across the Carlsberg Fault shows that the fault zone is a low-velocity zone and marks a change in seismic velocity structure. A normal incidence reflection seismic section shows a coincident flower-like structure. We have recorded seismic signals in a fan geometry from shots detonated both inside the low-velocity fault zone and up to ~500 m away from the fault zone. The seismic energy was recorded on three receiver arrays (1.5- to 2.4-km-long arcs) across the expected location of the ~400- to 700-m-wide fault zone at distances of up to ~7 km from the shots. Shots detonated inside the fault zone result in (1) weak and delayed first arrivals on the receivers located inside the fault zone compared to earlier and stronger first arrivals outside the fault zone; (2) strong guided P and S waves as well as surface waves inside the fault zone. The fault zone is a shadow zone to shots detonated outside the fault zone. Finite-difference wavefield modelling supports the interpretations of the fan recordings. Our fan recording approach facilitates cost-efficient mapping of fault zones in densely urbanized areas where seismic normal incidence and refraction profiling are not feasible.

  15. Cross-border policy effects on alcohol outcomes: drinking without thinking on the u.s.-Mexico border? (United States)

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice


    Rates of alcohol-related outcomes are sensitive to policy differences in politically distinct, adjacent territories. Factors that shape these cross-border effects, particularly when the policy differences are longstanding, remain poorly understood. We compared the ability of 2 classes of variables with theoretical relevance to the U.S.-Mexico border context-bar attendance and alcohol-related social-cognitive variables-to explain elevated drinking on the U.S. side of the border relative to other areas of the United States. Data were collected from multistage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border (current drinker N = 1,351). Structural equation models were used to test drinking context (frequency of bar attendance) and 6 different social-cognitive variables (including alcohol-related attitudes, norms, motives, and beliefs) as mediators of border effects on a composite drinking index. The border effect on drinking varied by age (with younger adults showing a stronger effect), consistent with previous findings and known risk factors in the region. Contrary to theoretical expectations, 6 different social-cognitive variables-despite relating strongly with drinking-were comparable in border and nonborder areas (within and across age) and played no role in elevated drinking on the border. Conversely, elevated drinking among border youth was mediated by bar attendance. This mediated moderation effect held after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and neighborhood-level confounders. Increased drinking among U.S.-Mexico border youth is explained by patterns of bar attendance, but not by more permissive alcohol-related social-cognitive variables in border areas: Border youth attend bars and drink more than their nonborder counterparts, despite having comparable alcohol-related beliefs, attitudes, norms, and motives for use. Alcohol's heightened availability and visibility on both sides of the border may create opportunities for

  16. 78 FR 1197 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 8 Under Alternative Site Framework; Toledo, OH (United States)


    ... Framework; Toledo, OH Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... establishment or reorganization of zones; Whereas, the Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, grantee of Foreign..., Lucas and Defiance Counties, Ohio, in and adjacent to the Toledo- Sandusky Customs and Border Protection...

  17. Bridging Plate Development for Treatment of Segmental Bone Defects of the Canine Mandible: Mechanical Tests and Finite Element Method. (United States)

    de Freitas, Elisângela Perez; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; El-Warrak, Alexander Oliveira; Melchert, Alessandra


    With regard to the canine mandible, a mistaken concept of application is to assume that systemic plate-bone resistance is provided by the implant so that biomechanical position could be ignored. Because the alveolar border of the mandible is a tensile zone, the plate would ideally be positioned near this area while avoiding important structures. The aim of this study was to develop 2 bridging plates for the treatment of a segmental bone defect of the canine mandible using monocortical screws to avoid damage to the tooth roots and remaining neurovascular structures. Computed tomography images of the heads of 4 dogs (rottweiler, Doberman, boxer, and miniature poodle breeds) were used as models to develop the project. The images were reconstructed in 3-dimensional (3D) format. For each dog breed, 6 mandible prototypes were produced, each with a segmental bone defect in the right mandible. The mandibular reconstruction was performed with pure titanium bridging plate and locking screws. One plate model was developed for medium- and large-breed dogs and another for small-breed dogs. Mechanical testing showed the platemandible system resists the bite forces in all dog breeds. All safety factors were greater than I in the platemandible system for medium- and large-breed dogs and greater than 10 in the plate-mandible system for small-breed dogs. Thus, bridging plates designed with differentiated geometry and monocortical locking screws showed mechanical resistance to support simulated induced bone model defects and were able to support at least 5 times the value of bite force for each evaluated dog.

  18. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)


    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  19. Augmenting CT cardiac roadmaps with segmented streaming ultrasound (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Shechter, Guy; Gutiérrez, Luis F.; Stanton, Douglas; Zagorchev, Lyubomir; Laine, Andrew F.; Elgort, Daniel R.


    Static X-ray computed tomography (CT) volumes are often used as anatomic roadmaps during catheter-based cardiac interventions performed under X-ray fluoroscopy guidance. These CT volumes provide a high-resolution depiction of soft-tissue structures, but at only a single point within the cardiac and respiratory cycles. Augmenting these static CT roadmaps with segmented myocardial borders extracted from live ultrasound (US) provides intra-operative access to real-time dynamic information about the cardiac anatomy. In this work, using a customized segmentation method based on a 3D active mesh, endocardial borders of the left ventricle were extracted from US image streams (4D data sets) at a frame rate of approximately 5 frames per second. The coordinate systems for CT and US modalities were registered using rigid body registration based on manually selected landmarks, and the segmented endocardial surfaces were overlaid onto the CT volume. The root-mean squared fiducial registration error was 3.80 mm. The accuracy of the segmentation was quantitatively evaluated in phantom and human volunteer studies via comparison with manual tracings on 9 randomly selected frames using a finite-element model (the US image resolutions of the phantom and volunteer data were 1.3 x 1.1 x 1.3 mm and 0.70 x 0.82 x 0.77 mm, respectively). This comparison yielded 3.70+/-2.5 mm (approximately 3 pixels) root-mean squared error (RMSE) in a phantom study and 2.58+/-1.58 mm (approximately 3 pixels) RMSE in a clinical study. The combination of static anatomical roadmap volumes and dynamic intra-operative anatomic information will enable better guidance and feedback for image-guided minimally invasive cardiac interventions.

  20. A local segmentation parameter optimization approach for mapping heterogeneous urban environments using VHR imagery (United States)

    Grippa, Tais; Georganos, Stefanos; Lennert, Moritz; Vanhuysse, Sabine; Wolff, Eléonore


    Mapping large heterogeneous urban areas using object-based image analysis (OBIA) remains challenging, especially with respect to the segmentation process. This could be explained both by the complex arrangement of heterogeneous land-cover classes and by the high diversity of urban patterns which can be encountered throughout the scene. In this context, using a single segmentation parameter to obtain satisfying segmentation results for the whole scene can be impossible. Nonetheless, it is possible to subdivide the whole city into smaller local zones, rather homogeneous according to their urban pattern. These zones can then be used to optimize the segmentation parameter locally, instead of using the whole image or a single representative spatial subset. This paper assesses the contribution of a local approach for the optimization of segmentation parameter compared to a global approach. Ouagadougou, located in sub-Saharan Africa, is used as case studies. First, the whole scene is segmented using a single globally optimized segmentation parameter. Second, the city is subdivided into 283 local zones, homogeneous in terms of building size and building density. Each local zone is then segmented using a locally optimized segmentation parameter. Unsupervised segmentation parameter optimization (USPO), relying on an optimization function which tends to maximize both intra-object homogeneity and inter-object heterogeneity, is used to select the segmentation parameter automatically for both approaches. Finally, a land-use/land-cover classification is performed using the Random Forest (RF) classifier. The results reveal that the local approach outperforms the global one, especially by limiting confusions between buildings and their bare-soil neighbors.

  1. Spinal segmental dysgenesis CASE SERIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality seen in neonates and infants, in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally. The condition is segmental in nature, with vertebrae above and below the malformation. It is commonly associated with various abnormalities that ...

  2. Market Segmentation for Information Services. (United States)

    Halperin, Michael


    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  3. Segmenting the Adult Education Market. (United States)

    Aurand, Tim


    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  4. Alcohol Use Patterns and DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder on Both Sides of the U.S.-Mexico Border. (United States)

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Ye, Yu; Lown, E Anne; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Zemore, Sarah; Borges, Guilherme


    Alcohol consumption patterns on the U.S.-Mexico border and their relationships with DSM-5 alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been understudied. Yet, the effects of drinking by Mexican-origin individuals may differ between cities on versus off the border both in the United States and in Mexico. We characterize prior 12-month drinking patterns and examine their relationships with AUD, in border and off-border cities of Texas and adjacent Mexican states. Data come from the U.S.-Mexico Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions involving 2,336 Mexican Americans in Texas and 2,460 Mexicans in bordering states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas in Mexico. Drinking pattern was defined as an interaction between volume and maximum amount, or intensity (never vs. ever 5+/4+ [men/women], 8+, and 12+ drinks in a day). DSM-5 AUD was assessed using an adaptation of the Alcohol Section of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview core. Separately by gender, 5 logistic regressions models controlling for age were estimated predicting symptoms in 2 or more AUD criteria domains from volume, heavy pattern and, successively, effects of country, and (by country) residing on vs. off the border, or in each of 3 cities/country. A segmentation analysis for Texas males based on rate of experiencing AUD generated several distinct volume groups, each partitioned by an empirically selected maximum, and helped identify a drinking-pattern typology. In gender-stratified models of AUD rates using this typology, adjusting for age, significant volume and intensity effects were seen, more strongly in the United States. Border versus interior differences implied more AUD for given patterns at the border in the United States and the reverse in Mexico, with some city differences also evident. Drinking-pattern analyses confirm that border proximity may affect drinking problems but in opposite directions in the United States and Mexico, possibly related to economic and psychological

  5. Stratigraphy of the Roraima Supergroup along the Brazil-Guyana border in the Guiana shield, Northern Amazonian Craton - results of the Brazil-Guyana Geology and Geodiversity Mapping Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Joaquim Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Geological and Geodiversity Mapping binational program along the Brazil-Guyana border zone allowed reviewing and integrating the stratigraphy and nomenclature of the Roraima Supergroup along the Pakaraima Sedimentary Block present in northeastern Brazil and western Guyana. The area mapped corresponds to a buffer zone of approximately 25 km in width on both sides of the border, of a region extending along the Maú-Ireng River between Mount Roraima (the triple-border region and Mutum Village in Brazil and Monkey Mountain in Guyana. The south border of the Roraima basin is overlain exclusively by effusive and volcaniclastic rocks of the Surumu Group of Brazil and its correlated equivalent the Burro-Burro Group of Guyana.

  6. Cassiterides Islands: in the borders of reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cassiterides Islands are mentioned, since the first moments in the texts, as a place of the western extremes, where the valuable products proceed. Any way, the attraction of wealthy rises the imagination. In references apparently far of epic traditions, tha names on Artabri, cited as a people from Norwest of Iberian Peninsula, can do allu- sion to the region of South of Galicia and North of Portugal, «last of Lusitania through North and South West», as a border and mysterious space.

  7. Early seismicity of the Scottish Borders Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson


    Full Text Available This paper considers the seismicity of Southern Scotland and Northern England up to the year 1750. This area was formerly a border area between two states that eventually became politically united. Much of the area is uplands, and the seismicity is moderate to low. This makes for some problems in studying historical seismicity, yet the area provides a number of case studies of general interest in the field of historical seismology, including a rare case of being able to track down a «missing» earthquake.

  8. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David


    in Kazakhstan shows that the naming of a state-controlled space on the Internet, through the use of country code top-level domain names (ccTLDs), does in fact matter to the average user. People are aware of national boundary traversals as they navigate the Internet. Respondents in our study identified...... their activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that cc...

  9. Unsettled borders and memories: a “local” indigenous perspective on contemporary globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Watson


    Full Text Available This article provides a case study of decolonial counter-memory in contemporary indigenous artist Alan Michelson's 2009 Third Bank of the River. Installed inside the lobby of the tri-national border station between the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation, Canada, and the United States—the most legally disputed territory in North America—Michelson's artwork recovers the seventeenth-century Two Row wampum belt as model for reforming relationships at the border. This wampum belt memorializes a commitment between the Haudenosaunee and European settlers to co-exist in balanced interdependence and remains a key touchstone in indigenous political philosophy and activism. Interpreted in the post-9/11 build-up of state power at the disputed border zone, Third Bank proposes a model of international dialogue and nation-to-nation diplomacy that contrasts with the ongoing conditions of settler colonialism. It thus stands out as an important indigenous perspective on the widespread interest in memory in global contemporary art, in which artists are recovering a new viewpoint on contemporaneity through the reconceptualization of historical pasts.

  10. Validation tools for image segmentation (United States)

    Padfield, Dirk; Ross, James


    A large variety of image analysis tasks require the segmentation of various regions in an image. For example, segmentation is required to generate accurate models of brain pathology that are important components of modern diagnosis and therapy. While the manual delineation of such structures gives accurate information, the automatic segmentation of regions such as the brain and tumors from such images greatly enhances the speed and repeatability of quantifying such structures. The ubiquitous need for such algorithms has lead to a wide range of image segmentation algorithms with various assumptions, parameters, and robustness. The evaluation of such algorithms is an important step in determining their effectiveness. Therefore, rather than developing new segmentation algorithms, we here describe validation methods for segmentation algorithms. Using similarity metrics comparing the automatic to manual segmentations, we demonstrate methods for optimizing the parameter settings for individual cases and across a collection of datasets using the Design of Experiment framework. We then employ statistical analysis methods to compare the effectiveness of various algorithms. We investigate several region-growing algorithms from the Insight Toolkit and compare their accuracy to that of a separate statistical segmentation algorithm. The segmentation algorithms are used with their optimized parameters to automatically segment the brain and tumor regions in MRI images of 10 patients. The validation tools indicate that none of the ITK algorithms studied are able to outperform with statistical significance the statistical segmentation algorithm although they perform reasonably well considering their simplicity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole


    Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  12. Weighted entropy for segmentation evaluation (United States)

    Khan, Jesmin F.; Bhuiyan, Sharif M.


    In many image, video and computer vision systems the image segmentation is an essential part. Significant research has been done in image segmentation and a number of quantitative evaluation methods have already been proposed in the literature. However, often the segmentation evaluation is subjective that means it has been done visually or qualitatively. A segmentation evaluation method based on entropy is proposed in this work which is objective and simple to implement. A weighted self and mutual entropy are proposed to measure the dissimilarity of the pixels among the segmented regions and the similarity within a region. This evaluation technique gives a score that can be used to compare different segmentation algorithms for the same image, or to compare the segmentation results of a given algorithm with different images, or to find the best suited values of the parameters of a segmentation algorithm for a given image. The simulation results show that the proposed method can identify over-segmentation, under-segmentation, and the good segmentation.

  13. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena


    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  14. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach. (United States)

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie


    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems.

  15. Algeria Post Arab Spring : The Forced Virtualisation of the Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Dris-Aït Hamadouche


    Full Text Available Algeria is the core of the Maghreb and shares land borders with seven countries Maghreb and Sahel countries. However, since 2011, none of the seven land borders is stable and se-cure. So, even if Algeria is considered as a stable country, this stability is fragile and is likely to be more precarious if the country has to face simultaneously an economic crisis and deli-cate presidential succession. Domestic incertitude coupled to regional conflicts puts the Algerian borders under unprecedented pressure. Consequently, almost all the governmental declarations expressed worries about the vulnerability of the borders, and assurances about the security services determination to assure the state security. However, to what extant this promise can be entirely fulfilled, regarding the borders’ characteristics and the specificity of the context? Why is the virtualization of the borders forced? As regards to the growing per-meability of the borders, can their militarization guarantee their security?

  16. Automatic comic page image understanding based on edge segment analysis (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Yongtao; Tang, Zhi; Li, Luyuan; Gao, Liangcai


    Comic page image understanding aims to analyse the layout of the comic page images by detecting the storyboards and identifying the reading order automatically. It is the key technique to produce the digital comic documents suitable for reading on mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a novel comic page image understanding method based on edge segment analysis. First, we propose an efficient edge point chaining method to extract Canny edge segments (i.e., contiguous chains of Canny edge points) from the input comic page image; second, we propose a top-down scheme to detect line segments within each obtained edge segment; third, we develop a novel method to detect the storyboards by selecting the border lines and further identify the reading order of these storyboards. The proposed method is performed on a data set consisting of 2000 comic page images from ten printed comic series. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves satisfactory results on different comics and outperforms the existing methods.

  17. A perceptually oriented method for contrast enhancement and segmentation of dermoscopy images. (United States)

    Abbas, Qaisar; Garcia, Irene Fondón; Emre Celebi, M; Ahmad, Waqar; Mushtaq, Qaisar


    Dermoscopy images often suffer from low contrast caused by different light conditions, which reduces the accuracy of lesion border detection. Accordingly for lesion recognition, automatic melanoma border detection (MBD) is an initial as well as crucial task. In this article, a novel perceptually oriented approach for MBD is presented by combing region and edge-based segmentation techniques. The MBD system for color contrast and segmentation improvement consists of four main steps: first, the RGB dermoscopy image is transformed to CIE L*a*b* color space, lesion contrast is then enhanced by adjusting and mapping the intensity values of the lesion pixels in the specified range using the three channels of CIE L*a*b*, a hill-climbing algorithm is used later to detect region-of-interest (ROI) map in a perceptually oriented color space using color channels (L*,a*,b*) and finally, an adaptive thresholding is applied to determine the optimal lesion border. Manually drawn borders obtained from an experienced dermatologist are utilized as a ground truth for performance evaluation. The proposed MBD method is tested on a total of 100 dermoscopy images. A comparative study with three state-of-the-art color and texture-based segmentation techniques (JSeg, dermatologists-like tumor area extraction: DTEA and region-based active contours: RAC), is also conducted to show the effectiveness of our MBD method using measures of true positive rate (TPR), false positive rate (FPR), and error probability (EP). Among different algorithms, our MBD algorithm achieved TPR of 94.25%, FPR of 3.56%, and EP of 4%. The proposed MBD approach is highly accurate to detect the lesion border area. The MBD software and sample of dermoscopy images can be downloaded at © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Segmental neurofibromatosis of face. (United States)

    Agarwal, Anuja; Thappa, Devinder M; Jayanthi, S; Shivaswamy, K N


    A 38-year-old man presented with asymptomatic skin lesions over the left side of the face of 5-years duration. He had multiple discrete soft-to-firm papules and nodules on the left side of the face along the distribution of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Histopathology examination of one of the nodules (face) showed a non-encapsulated tumor of the dermis with normal overlying epidermis. The tumor consisted of loosely spaced spindle cells and wavy collagenous strands in a clear matrix. These features were consistent with our clinical diagnosis of segmental neurofibromatosis. This case is reported for its rarity and typical manifestations.

  19. Electricity without borders - The need for cross-border transmission investment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martínez-Anido, C.


    An increase in cross-border electricity flows is foreseen in Europe in the coming decades due to large-scale penetration of renewable energy, the electrical integration of the Euro-Mediterranean region, the electrification of transport, and possible shifts in electricity generation dispatch caused

  20. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia


    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  1. Health, migration and border management: analysis and capacity-building at Europe's borders. (United States)

    Hollings, Jennifer; Samuilova, Mariya; Petrova-Benedict, Roumyana


    Three key elements were analysed in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia as a basis for strengthening the capacity of staff and structures related to health, migration and border management: public health concerns linked to migration, health needs and rights of migrants and the occupational health of staff. This IOM project was implemented through an in-depth situation analysis as well as the development of training modules and public health guidelines. Findings indicate a paucity of existing data, gaps in the health care for migrants and few existing tools for border officials and health professionals. Sets of training modules were developed for each of these groups, including common modules on migration and the right to health and intercultural communication, as well as targeted health modules. The guidelines promote good practices in the context of border management and detention. The EU is working towards a common immigration policy and integrated border management; however, a harmonized approach to migration and health is still lacking. Further research and piloting of the developed materials is needed to fully establish an adaptable, common toolkit.

  2. Nonstate Actors and the Open Border Policy: The Border Security Case Study of Nepal and India (United States)


    Cross-Border Labour Mobility,” 9. 265 Jaroslaw Brezezinksi, “Poland in the European Union -Experiences First Year of Membership,” 2005, accessed... Labour Mobility,” 9. 267 Brzezinski, “Poland in the European Union ,” 47. 268 Ibid., 46. 66 expansion in air transport. Jaroslaw Brzezinski, a...a. Joining the European Union ..................................................60 6. Crime

  3. The posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its anatomic relationship. (United States)

    Mérida-Velasco, J Ramón; Rodríguez, J Francisco; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Peces, M Dolores; Mérida, J Antonio; Sánchez, Indalecio


    The aim of this work was to clarify the arrangement of the posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its pertinent relationships. The temporomandibular region was dissected bilaterally in 20 adult cadavers. Natural stained latex was injected into 16 cadavers through the external carotid artery to facilitate the dissection of the arterial vessels. The posterior segment of the joint capsule is made up of the so-called "bilaminar zone" of the articular disc. The upper internal portion of the posterior segment of the capsule was reinforced by the discomalleolar ligament. The retroarticular space was filled with loose connective tissue and the anterior branches of the anterior tympanic artery were distributed throughout the posterior segment of the joint capsule. The posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule corresponds to the bilaminar zone of the articular disc. The structures of the retroarticular space are extracapsular.

  4. Cross-Border Political Donations and Pareto-Efficient Tariffs


    Endoh, Masahiro


    This paper examines the effects of lobbying activities across international borders, on determining each country’s import tariff in a multi-principal, multi-agent, menu-auction model. Cross-border political donations could promote international policy cooperation because of two of their distinctive characteristics. First, special interest groups use cross-border donations as tools to wield their influence on ruling parties of other countries directly, which promotes efficiency of policy forma...

  5. Safe safekeeping: Protection for peace keepers / border control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ahmed, R


    Full Text Available for Peace Keepers / Border Control 4th Biennial Conference Rayeesa Ahmed 10 October 2012 Outline ? Introduction ? Landward Sciences competency areas ? Border safeguarding: ? Mobility packages ? Protection against dangerous animals ? Camouflage... and equipment against both existing and emerging threats, the threats must be researched and new protection concepts devised. ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 Outline ? Introduction ? Landward Sciences key competency areas ? Border safeguarding: ? Mobility packages...

  6. European Union and the Smart Borders Package: A Critical Analysis


    Valkama, Tuuli


    The European Commission suggested in 2008 that the EU border management should take a step forward to combat organised crime and illegal immigration. In 2013 the European Commission published its legislative proposal on the European Smart Borders package for automated border controls. The legislative proposal included three regulations: (1) a proposal to establish the Entry/Exit System that would automatically alert the authorities if a visa holder has exceed his/her stay; (2) a proposal...

  7. Beneficial insect borders provide northern bobwhite brood habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Moorman

    Full Text Available Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes, including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus, but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species. Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds.

  8. Spectrum of critical illness in undocumented border crossers. The Arizona-Mexico border experience. (United States)

    Wong, Candy; Hsu, Wendy; Carr, Gordon E


    Approximately 150-250 migrants die each year while attempting to cross the border from Mexico to the Southwest United States. Many border crossers survive the journey, but some develop life-threatening medical complications. Such complications have been subject to little formal analysis. We sought to determine the causes of critical illness in this population and to analyze the hospital course and outcomes of these patients. We retrospectively identified border crossers admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of two major teaching hospitals in southern Arizona. We recorded admitting diagnoses, severity of illness, length of stay, resource use, discharge diagnoses, and mortality. Our investigation identified 55 admissions to adult ICUs between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012. The median age of patients was 27 years. The median hospital length of stay was 7 days, with a median ICU length of stay of 3 days. The median temperature on arrival to the emergency department was 36.8°C. The most common admission diagnoses included trauma (40), rhabdomyolysis (27), acute liver injury (25), dehydration (24), acute kidney injury (19), and encephalopathy (17). Thirteen patients presented with respiratory failure, six patients with severe sepsis, and two with septic shock. A total of 19 patients required ventilator support during their hospital stay, and 30 required at least one surgical intervention. One patient required renal replacement therapy. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 6. All but one patient survived to discharge from the hospital. Border crossers are a unique population of young individuals exposed to high temperatures and extreme conditions. Our review of border crosser admissions showed that most patients demonstrated signs of dehydration and leukocytosis, despite a normal median temperature. The median ICU stay was short, despite a high number of patients requiring ventilator support and surgical intervention. Only

  9. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...

  10. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-


    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  11. Segmented Target Design (United States)

    Merhi, Abdul Rahman; Frank, Nathan; Gueye, Paul; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration


    A proposed segmented target would improve decay energy measurements of neutron-unbound nuclei. Experiments like this have been performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) located at Michigan State University. Many different nuclei are produced in such experiments, some of which immediately decay into a charged particle and neutron. The charged particles are bent by a large magnet and measured by a suite of charged particle detectors. The neutrons are measured by the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and Large Multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA). With the current target setup, a nucleus in a neutron-unbound state is produced with a radioactive beam impinged upon a beryllium target. The resolution of these measurements is very dependent on the target thickness since the nuclear interaction point is unknown. In a segmented target using alternating layers of silicon detectors and Be-targets, the Be-target in which the nuclear reaction takes place would be determined. Thus the experimental resolution would improve. This poster will describe the improvement over the current target along with the status of the design. Work supported by Augustana College and the National Science Foundation grant #0969173.

  12. Sport mobilities across borders: postcolonial perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.


    The circulation of mobile professional athletes, a phenomenon whose visibility increased exponentially in the last couple of decades of the twentieth century, poses important questions for postcolonial approaches to the human condition. At first glance, the orientation of entire segments of the

  13. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroy, Renaud; Boisgard, Raphaël; Comtat, Claude


    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new...... method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together...

  14. Skip segment Hirschsprung's disease: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Anne-Marie


    PURPOSE: Hirschsprung\\'s disease is characterised by the congenital absence of ganglion cells beginning in the distal rectum and extending proximally for varying distances. \\'Zonal aganglionosis\\' is a phenomenon involving a zone of aganglionosis occurring within normally innervated intestine. \\'Skip segment\\' Hirschsprung\\'s disease (SSHD) involves a \\'skip area\\' of normally ganglionated intestine, surrounded proximally and distally by aganglionosis. While Hirschsprung\\'s disease is believed to be the result of incomplete craniocaudal migration of neural crest-derived cells, the occurrence of SSHD has no clear embryological explanation. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of SSHD, reported in the literature between 1954 and 2009, in order to determine the clinical characteristics of this rare entity and its significance. METHODS: The first reported case of SSHD was published in 1954. A systematic review of SSHD cases in the literature, from 1954 to 2009, was carried out using the electronic database \\'Pubmed\\'. Detailed information was recorded regarding the age, gender, presenting symptoms and location of the skip segment in each patient. RESULTS: 24 cases of SSHD have been reported in the literature to date. 18\\/24 (75%) of these cases were males and 6\\/24 (25%) were females. Of these, 22\\/24 (92%) were cases of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA), and 2\\/24 (8%) were rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease. Of the 22 TCA cases, 9 (41%) had a skip segment in the transverse colon, 6 (27%) in the ascending colon, 2 (9%) in the caecum and 5 (23%) had multiple skip segments. In both rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease cases, the skip segment was in the sigmoid colon. Overall, the length of the skip segment was variable, with the entire transverse colon ganglionated in some cases. CONCLUSION: SSHD occurs predominantly in patients with TCA. The existence of a skip area of normally innervated colon in TCA may influence surgical

  15. Expanding extension, subsidence and lateral segmentation within the Santorini - Amorgos basins during Quaternary: Implications for the 1956 Amorgos events, central - south Aegean Sea, Greece (United States)

    Nomikou, P.; Hübscher, C.; Papanikolaou, D.; Farangitakis, G. P.; Ruhnau, M.; Lampridou, D.


    New bathymetric and seismic reflection data from the Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone in the southern Cyclades have been analysed and a description of the morphology and tectonic structure of the area has been presented. The basins of Anhydros, Amorgos and Santorini-Anafi have been distinguished together with the intermediate Anhydros Horst within the NE-SW oriented Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone which has a length of 60-70 km and a width of 20-25 km. The basins represent tectonic grabens or semi-grabens bordered by the active marginal normal faults of Santorini-Anafi, Amorgos, Ios, Anhydros and Astypalaea. The Santorini-Anafi, Amorgos and Ios marginal faults have their footwall towards the NW where Alpine basement occurs in the submarine scarps and their hangingwall towards the southeast, where the Quaternary sediments have been deposited with maximum thickness of 700 m. Six sedimentary Units 1-6 have been distinguished in the stratigraphic successions of the Santorini-Anafi and the western Anhydros Basin whereas in the rest area only the upper four Units 3-6 have been deposited. This shows the expansion of the basin with subsidence during the Quaternary due to ongoing extension in a northwest-southeast direction. Growth structures are characterized by different periods of maximum deformation as this is indicated by the different sedimentary units with maximum thickness next to each fault. Transverse structures of northwest-southeast direction have been identified along the Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone with distinction of the blocks/segments of Santorini, Anhydros/Kolumbo, Anhydros islet and Amorgos. Recent escarpments with 7-9 m offset observed along the Amorgos Fault indicate that this was activated during the first earthquake of the 7.5 magnitude 1956 events whereas no recent landslide was found in the area that could be related to the 1956 tsunami.

  16. Seismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift segment based on a new seismotectonic zonation model (western branch, East African Rift system) (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Mulumba, Jean-Luc; Sebagenzi, Mwene Ntabwoba Stanislas; Bondo, Silvanos Fiama; Kervyn, François; Havenith, Hans-Balder


    In the frame of the Belgian GeoRisCA multi-risk assessment project focusing on the Kivu and northern Tanganyika rift region in Central Africa, a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed for the Kivu rift segment in the central part of the western branch of the East African rift system. As the geological and tectonic setting of this region is incompletely known, especially the part lying in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we compiled homogeneous cross-border tectonic and neotectonic maps. The seismic risk assessment is based on a new earthquake catalogue based on the ISC reviewed earthquake catalogue and supplemented by other local catalogues and new macroseismic epicenter data spanning 126 years, with 1068 events. The magnitudes have been homogenized to Mw and aftershocks removed. The final catalogue used for the seismic hazard assessment spans 60 years, from 1955 to 2015, with 359 events and a magnitude of completeness of 4.4. The seismotectonic zonation into 7 seismic source areas was done on the basis of the regional geological structure, neotectonic fault systems, basin architecture and distribution of thermal springs and earthquake epicenters. The Gutenberg-Richter seismic hazard parameters were determined by the least square linear fit and the maximum likelihood method. Seismic hazard maps have been computed using existing attenuation laws with the Crisis 2012 software. We obtained higher PGA values (475 years return period) for the Kivu rift region than the previous estimates. They also vary laterally in function of the tectonic setting, with the lowest value in the volcanically active Virunga - Rutshuru zone, highest in the currently non-volcanic parts of Lake Kivu, Rusizi valley and North Tanganyika rift zone, and intermediate in the regions flanking the axial rift zone.

  17. Segmentation and Simulation of Objects Represented in Images using Physical Principles


    Patrícia C. T. Gonçalves; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.; Natal Jorge, R.M.


    The main goals of the present work are to automatically extract the Contour of an object and to simulate its deformation using a physical approach. In this work, to segment an object represented in an image, an initial contour is manually defined for it that will then automatically evolve until it reaches the border of the desired object. In this approach, the contour is modelled by a physical formulation using the finite element method. and its temporal evolution to the desired final Contour...

  18. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market


    Hrůzová, Daniela


    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  19. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  20. Segmentation of dermatoscopic images by frequency domain filtering and k-means clustering algorithms. (United States)

    Rajab, Maher I


    Since the introduction of epiluminescence microscopy (ELM), image analysis tools have been extended to the field of dermatology, in an attempt to algorithmically reproduce clinical evaluation. Accurate image segmentation of skin lesions is one of the key steps for useful, early and non-invasive diagnosis of coetaneous melanomas. This paper proposes two image segmentation algorithms based on frequency domain processing and k-means clustering/fuzzy k-means clustering. The two methods are capable of segmenting and extracting the true border that reveals the global structure irregularity (indentations and protrusions), which may suggest excessive cell growth or regression of a melanoma. As a pre-processing step, Fourier low-pass filtering is applied to reduce the surrounding noise in a skin lesion image. A quantitative comparison of the techniques is enabled by the use of synthetic skin lesion images that model lesions covered with hair to which Gaussian noise is added. The proposed techniques are also compared with an established optimal-based thresholding skin-segmentation method. It is demonstrated that for lesions with a range of different border irregularity properties, the k-means clustering and fuzzy k-means clustering segmentation methods provide the best performance over a range of signal to noise ratios. The proposed segmentation techniques are also demonstrated to have similar performance when tested on real skin lesions representing high-resolution ELM images. This study suggests that the segmentation results obtained using a combination of low-pass frequency filtering and k-means or fuzzy k-means clustering are superior to the result that would be obtained by using k-means or fuzzy k-means clustering segmentation methods alone. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Liminality and Border Crossing in Ádám Bodor’s Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapodi Zsuzsa


    Full Text Available The plots of the novels The Sinistra Zone (1992, The Archbishop’s Visit (1999 and The Birds of Verhovina (2011 by Ádám Bodor unfold in border zones, in spaces of liminal existence. By investigating the intricate relationship between the Self and the Other, using particular space forming techniques with shifts and displacements, these novels extend the scope of postmodern fragmentariness to identity construction as well. In these literary works enforced journeys or travels with well-defined purposes should not be merely understood in their physical sense: identity also undergoes a change, becomes hybrid. In a space characterized by a labyrinth of ethnic diversity, identities distorted by a dictatorial regime often go beyond the border of the human, the characters being endowed with animal features. Starting from Merleau-Ponty’s idea according to which action is not set in space, but rather comes into being through space (Faragó 2001, 7, the consequences of spatial changes must also be taken into account.

  2. Vadose zone microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.


    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

  3. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam


    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  4. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    ), the classical reconstruction methods suffer from their inability to handle limited and/ or corrupted data. Form any analysis tasks computationally demanding segmentation methods are used to automatically segment an object, after using a simple reconstruction method as a first step. In the literature, methods...... such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction...... problem. The tests showed a clear improvement for realistic materials simulations and that the one-stage method was clearly more robust toward noise. The noise-robustness result could be a step toward making this method more applicable for lab-scale experiments. We have introduced a segmentation...

  5. Cavity contour segmentation in chest radiographs using supervised learning and dynamic programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduskar, Pragnya, E-mail:; Hogeweg, Laurens; Sánchez, Clara I.; Ginneken, Bram van [Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6525 GA (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX (Netherlands); Peters-Bax, Liesbeth [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6525 GA (Netherlands); Dawson, Rodney [University of Cape Town Lung Institute, Cape Town 7700 (South Africa); Ayles, Helen [Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: Efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is often monitored using chest radiography. Monitoring size of cavities in pulmonary tuberculosis is important as the size predicts severity of the disease and its persistence under therapy predicts relapse. The authors present a method for automatic cavity segmentation in chest radiographs. Methods: A two stage method is proposed to segment the cavity borders, given a user defined seed point close to the center of the cavity. First, a supervised learning approach is employed to train a pixel classifier using texture and radial features to identify the border pixels of the cavity. A likelihood value of belonging to the cavity border is assigned to each pixel by the classifier. The authors experimented with four different classifiers:k-nearest neighbor (kNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), GentleBoost (GB), and random forest (RF). Next, the constructed likelihood map was used as an input cost image in the polar transformed image space for dynamic programming to trace the optimal maximum cost path. This constructed path corresponds to the segmented cavity contour in image space. Results: The method was evaluated on 100 chest radiographs (CXRs) containing 126 cavities. The reference segmentation was manually delineated by an experienced chest radiologist. An independent observer (a chest radiologist) also delineated all cavities to estimate interobserver variability. Jaccard overlap measure Ω was computed between the reference segmentation and the automatic segmentation; and between the reference segmentation and the independent observer's segmentation for all cavities. A median overlap Ω of 0.81 (0.76 ± 0.16), and 0.85 (0.82 ± 0.11) was achieved between the reference segmentation and the automatic segmentation, and between the segmentations by the two radiologists, respectively. The best reported mean contour distance and Hausdorff distance between the reference and the automatic segmentation were

  6. SU-C-207B-04: Automated Segmentation of Pectoral Muscle in MR Images of Dense Breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, E; Waard, SN de; Veldhuis, WB; Gils, CH van; Gilhuijs, KGA [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a fully automated method for segmentation of the pectoral muscle boundary in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of dense breasts. Methods: Segmentation of the pectoral muscle is an important part of automatic breast image analysis methods. Current methods for segmenting the pectoral muscle in breast MRI have difficulties delineating the muscle border correctly in breasts with a large proportion of fibroglandular tissue (i.e., dense breasts). Hence, an automated method based on dynamic programming was developed, incorporating heuristics aimed at shape, location and gradient features.To assess the method, the pectoral muscle was segmented in 91 randomly selected participants (mean age 56.6 years, range 49.5–75.2 years) from a large MRI screening trial in women with dense breasts (ACR BI-RADS category 4). Each MR dataset consisted of 178 or 179 T1-weighted images with voxel size 0.64 × 0.64 × 1.00 mm3. All images (n=16,287) were reviewed and scored by a radiologist. In contrast to volume overlap coefficients, such as DICE, the radiologist detected deviations in the segmented muscle border and determined whether the result would impact the ability to accurately determine the volume of fibroglandular tissue and detection of breast lesions. Results: According to the radiologist’s scores, 95.5% of the slices did not mask breast tissue in such way that it could affect detection of breast lesions or volume measurements. In 13.1% of the slices a deviation in the segmented muscle border was present which would not impact breast lesion detection. In 70 datasets (78%) at least 95% of the slices were segmented in such a way it would not affect detection of breast lesions, and in 60 (66%) datasets this was 100%. Conclusion: Dynamic programming with dedicated heuristics shows promising potential to segment the pectoral muscle in women with dense breasts.

  7. Segmented heat exchanger (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann


    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  8. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.


    Purpose: The manual delineation of gross tumour volume(GTV) for radiation therapy for head and neck cancer patients relies in some degree of pathological deviation from normal anatomical symmetry. The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel method for 3-dimensional determination of GTV...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated...... segmentations on manual contours was evaluated using concordance index and sensitivity for the hypopharyngeal patients. The resulting concordance index and sensitivity was compared with the result of using a threshold of 3 SUV using a paired t-test. Results: The anatomical and symmetrical atlas was constructed...

  9. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices....... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  10. Generalizing cell segmentation and quantification. (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhou; Li, Haixing


    In recent years, the microscopy technology for imaging cells has developed greatly and rapidly. The accompanying requirements for automatic segmentation and quantification of the imaged cells are becoming more and more. After studied widely in both scientific research and industrial applications for many decades, cell segmentation has achieved great progress, especially in segmenting some specific types of cells, e.g. muscle cells. However, it lacks a framework to address the cell segmentation problems generally. On the contrary, different segmentation methods were proposed to address the different types of cells, which makes the research work divergent. In addition, most of the popular segmentation and quantification tools usually require a great part of manual work. To make the cell segmentation work more convergent, we propose a framework that is able to segment different kinds of cells automatically and robustly in this paper. This framework evolves the previously proposed method in segmenting the muscle cells and generalizes it to be suitable for segmenting and quantifying a variety of cell images by adding more union cases. Compared to the previous methods, the segmentation and quantification accuracy of the proposed framework is also improved by three novel procedures: (1) a simplified calibration method is proposed and added for the threshold selection process; (2) a noise blob filter is proposed to get rid of the noise blobs. (3) a boundary smoothing filter is proposed to reduce the false seeds produced by the iterative erosion. As it turned out, the quantification accuracy of the proposed framework increases from 93.4 to 96.8% compared to the previous method. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed framework is also better in quantifying the muscle cells than two available state-of-the-art methods. The proposed framework is able to automatically segment and quantify more types of cells than state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Shear zones formed along long, straight traces of fault zones during the 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake (United States)

    Johnson, Arvid M.; Fleming, Robert W.; Cruikshank, Kenneth M.


    Surface rupturing during the 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake, east of Los Angeles, accommodated right-lateral offsets up to about 6 m along segments of distinct, en-echelon fault zones with a total length of 80 km. The offsets were accommodated generally not by faults—distinct slip surfaces—but rather by shear zones, tabular bands of localized shearing. Along simple stretches of fault zones at Landers the rupture is characterized by telescoping of shear zones and intensification of shearing: broad shear zones of mild shearing, containing narrow shear zones of more intense shearing, containing even narrower shear zones of very intense shearing, which may contain a fault. Thus the ground ruptured across broad belts of shearing with clearly defined, subparallel walls, oriented NW. Each broad belt consists of a broad zone of mild shearing, extending across its entire width (50 to 200 m), and much narrower (a few meters wide) shear zones that accommodate most of the offset of the belt and are portrayed by en-echelon tension cracks. In response to right-lateral shearing, the slices of ground bounded by the tension cracks rotated in a clockwise sense, producing left-lateral shearing, and the slices were forced against the walls of the shear zone, producing thrusting. Even narrower shear zones formed within the narrow shear zones. Although these probably are guides to right-lateral fault segments below, the surface rupturing during the earthquake is characterized not by faulting, but by the formation of shear zones at various scales.

  12. Comparison of upwards splaying and upwards merging segmented normal faults (United States)

    Freitag, U. A.; Sanderson, D. J.; Lonergan, L.; Bevan, T. G.


    A common model for normal fault growth involves a single fault at depth splaying upwards into a series of en-echelon segments. This model is applied to faults as well as a range of extension fractures, including veins, joints and igneous dykes. Examples of splaying growth fault systems in the Columbus Basin, offshore Trinidad, are presented. They include the commonly described upwards splaying type, but also one fault zone with an upward change from disconnected overlapping synthetic faults to a continuous fault. One fault zone with high-displacement fault segments is separated by a relay ramp at depth, becomes breached higher up, developing into a continuous fault at its upper part, where displacements are least. This example suggests that whilst kinematic linkage typically precedes geometric linkage in the evolution of relay ramps, low-displacement parts of a fault system may be geometrically linked whereas higher displacement areas are only kinematically linked.

  13. Image segmentation by graph partitioning (United States)

    Torres, Ana Sofia; Monteiro, Fernando C.


    In this paper we propose an hybrid method for the image segmentation which combines the edge-based, region-based and the morphological techniques in conjunction through the spectral based clustering approach. An initial partitioning of the image into atomic regions is set by applying a watershed method to the image gradient magnitude. This initial partition is the input to a computationally efficient region segmentation process which produces the final segmentation. We have applied our approach on several images of the Berkeley Segmentation Dataset. The results reveal the accuracy of the propose method.

  14. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neeraj


    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kesavaraja


    Full Text Available This paper presents efficient and portable implementations of a useful image segmentation technique which makes use of the faster and a variant of the conventional connected components algorithm which we call parallel Components. In the Modern world majority of the doctors are need image segmentation as the service for various purposes and also they expect this system is run faster and secure. Usually Image segmentation Algorithms are not working faster. In spite of several ongoing researches in Conventional Segmentation and its Algorithms might not be able to run faster. So we propose a cluster computing environment for parallel image Segmentation to provide faster result. This paper is the real time implementation of Distributed Image Segmentation in Clustering of Nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our method on a set of Medical CT Scan Images. Our general framework is a single address space, distributed memory programming model. We use efficient techniques for distributing and coalescing data as well as efficient combinations of task and data parallelism. The image segmentation algorithm makes use of an efficient cluster process which uses a novel approach for parallel merging. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and practical results. It provides the faster execution time for segmentation, when compared with Conventional method. Our test data is different CT scan images from the Medical database. More efficient implementations of Image Segmentation will likely result in even faster execution times.

  16. European Enlargement Across Rounds and Beyond Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enlargement has been an almost constant part of European integration history – going from an improvised exercise to the EU’s most developed foreign policy tool. However, neither the longevity nor the complexity of enlargement has been properly historicised. European Enlargement across Rounds...... and Beyond Borders offers three interdisciplinary, innovative, and indeed radical, new ways of understanding and analysing EC/EU enlargements: first, tracing Longue Durée developments; second, investigating enlargement Beyond the Road to Membership; and third, exploring the Entangled Exchanges and synergies...... between the EC/EU and its outside. This edited volume will provide fresh perspectives on enlargement as one of the defining processes in Europe in the second half of the 20th century: How are we to understand enlargement as a policy? How has it changed the EU? What is the historical role of the British...

  17. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster


    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  18. A Practical Spanish Grammar for Border Patrol Officers. (United States)

    Border Patrol Academy, El Paso, TX.

    Designed to be used in the Spanish training program for probationary officers at the Border Patrol Academy in El Paso, Texas, this revised 21-lesson traditional grammar text includes special features that make it pertinent to the job of a patrol inspector in the Mexican border area. An extensive appendix is comprised of exercise translations,…

  19. Geology of the border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloten, van Roger


    The border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas is part of the mountainous country south of Parras in northeastern Mexico. It includes a thickness of about 2,600 meters of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks that were deposited along the northern border of the Mexican geosyncline along the southern

  20. Communicative challenges of interpreting in cross-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the challenges encountered by court interpreters who interpret in cross-border languages, i.e. languages spoken across the borders of two neighbouring countries. Data used in the article were collected from participants by adopting a qualitative approach, based on the observation of courtroom ...

  1. Cross-Border Banking in Europe : What's Next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, F.; Beck, T.H.L.; Carletti, E.; Lane, P.; Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.


    Understanding the role of banks in cross-border finance has become an urgent priority. Cross-border banks have played a central role in the dynamics of the global crisis of 2007-2009. First, European banks had a surprisingly large exposure to the US securitised asset markets, which arose to a

  2. Cross-border insolvencies as a global economic problem | Stander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the continuing expansion of international trade and investment, there has been an increase in the occurrence of cross-border insolvencies. National insolvency laws have not kept pace with the trend, and there is a need to develop an efficient and fair system for the administration of cross-border insolvencies.

  3. The Green Room: How Border Walls Affect Wildlife (United States)

    Beckrich, Amanda


    The proposed wall along the U.S.-Mexico border would significantly affect wildlife. Most animals cannot get past walls that are hundreds of miles long and many meters tall. Some species along parts of the border where a wall already exists, such as jaguars and ocelots, suffer from dwindling populations and difficulty finding mates. This column…

  4. The National Guard on the Southwest Border: Defining The Role (United States)


    The National Guard On The Southwest Border: Defining The Role by Colonel Tim Lawson United States Army National Guard...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The National Guard On The Southwest Border: Defining The Role 5b. GRANT NUMBER...for Strategic Leadership of the U.S. Army War College Homeland Defense and Security Issues Group 9. SPONSORING

  5. Cross border mobility of nurse educators: Case studies from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on cross border mobility of nurse educators and draw on Foucault's analysis to conceptualise the means by which cross border migration of nurse educators could be revisited. A case study design of seven nurse educators who had migrated and came back to their countries ...

  6. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR 192...

  7. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Robinson International (USA) Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products for customs purposes, in...

  8. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance...

  9. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: General notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 641 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, (19 U.S.C. 1641) and the U.S. Customs and...

  10. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P


    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  11. Cross-border firing and injury patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nital Gupta


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cross-border firing are increasingly being common in the modern era. The injuries resulting from these low intensity conflicts are a source of anxiety among treating physicians and their respective governments. The provisions are required to minimise the suffering of the victims viz. Mode of injuries, mortality patterns, adequacy of treatment at pre-hospital and tertiary care hospital and provisions to decrease morbidity and mortality for the people living in these areas. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in GMCH, Jammu who suffered injuries due to cross border firing in the month of October, 2014. 68 patients were reported in the causality wing. All the patients were referred from level 2 trauma centre. There were 51 males and 17 females out of which 5 were children. The cause of injury, involvement of organ system, cause of mortality and morbidity and loopholes in prehospital management were identified. Results: Sharpnel were the most common cause of injury followed by indirect trauma. The common cause of mortality was abdominal and thoracic injuries. There were 4 deaths at hospital 2 of which were brought dead and 2 died during the course of treatment. There were twenty patients with extremity injuries, fourteen with chest trauma, eleven with abdomen including parineal injuries, three with head injuries, eight with ENT injuries, three with eye injuries and nine with splinters in the back out of which two were in the spinal canal. Conclusion: Prehospital stabilisation, early transport, in-transit resuscitation, immediate surgery if required and implementation of triage model and ATLS protocol has been the key to reduce mortality and morbidity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurt


    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of postmodernism on education and investigates the main effects ofpostmodern philosophy on social sciences. It is clearly stated in the article that the effects of postmodernism cannotonly be limited to art and logically it should have an effect on education as well. This effect, described as thepostmodern educational approach, emphasizes that the rudiments of popular culture should also be incorporated toeducation and therefore to curricula. Postmodern educational approach also accentuates the significance of allowing‘others’ who have never possessed the opportunity to articulate their standpoints and desires to have a say in their owneducation. The concrete reflections of postmodern educational approach can be perceived in Critical and BorderPedagogies theorized by Henry A. Giroux. Critical pedagogy aspires to educate individuals who do not acceptoccurrences as they are and are critical of the knowledge they construct all through their education. Only by this waythese individuals will be able to discover their own voices, improve their civilian consciousness by taking risks, andacquire the ability of staying alive and functioning within social relations, traditions and experiences. Border pedagogyis as well a product of postmodern philosophy. It defends counter-text as opposed to the official ones offered, presentedand imposed to learners. Counter-consciousness represents the critical analysis of how the present reads the past andhow the past informs the present. This practice of course results in the re-evaluation of memories and traditions.Memories are the stories which were forgotten or ignored with the support of preserved traditions. It is thereforeconcluded in the article that postmodern educational approach is the critical examination towards dismissing the mainnarratives and discourses which manipulate and configure the curriculum of schools. It is the struggle exercisedtowards the recognition

  13. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans. (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain; Vaeth, Patrice A C


    This paper examines differences in drinking and binge drinking between Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in 2 metropolitan areas away from the border (Houston, Texas and Los Angeles, California). Respondents in the non-border area (Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N = 1,288), who were interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N = 1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the U.S.-Mexico border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer-assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76 and 67%, respectively. There were no differences between border and non-border Mexican American men in the proportion of drinkers, the proportion who binge drink at least once a year, and volume of alcohol consumption. However, within each location, there were significant differences in drinking by age, indicating that younger men drank more than men who were older. Border women showed significant differences across age-groups in the proportion of drinkers, in binge drinking, and volume of alcohol consumption, which were not seen among non-border women. Women's drinking seems to be more affected than men's by their residence on or off the U.S.-Mexico border. This is seen most clearly among young women 18 to 29 years old, and it is associated with an increased proportion of drinkers, a higher volume of drinking, and an increased proportion of women who report binge drinking. Increased drinking in this group of younger women seems to be associated with drinking in Mexico. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Gene expression suggests decoupled dorsal and ventral segmentation in the millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda). (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Damen, Wim G M


    Diplopods (millipedes) are known for their irregular body segmentation. Most importantly, the number of dorsal segmental cuticular plates (tergites) does not match the number of ventral structures (e.g., sternites). Controversial theories exist to explain the origin of this so-called diplosegmentation. We have studied the embryology of a representative diplopod, Glomeris marginata, and have analyzed the segmentation genes engrailed (en), hedgehog (hh), cubitus-interruptus (ci), and wingless (wg). We show that dorsal segments can be distinguished from ventral segments. They differ not only in number and developmental history, but also in gene expression patterns. engrailed, hedgehog, and cubitus-interruptus are expressed in both ventral and dorsal segments, but at different intrasegmental locations, whereas wingless is expressed only in the ventral segments, but not in the dorsal segments. Ventrally, the patterns are similar to what has been described from Drosophila and other arthropods, consistent with a conserved role of these genes in establishing parasegment boundaries. On the dorsal side, however, the gene expression patterns are different and inconsistent with a role in boundary formation between segments, but they suggest that these genes might function to establish the tergite borders. Our data suggest a profound and rather complete decoupling of dorsal and ventral segmentation leading to the dorsoventral discrepancies in the number of segmental elements. Based on gene expression, we propose a model that may resolve the hitherto controversial issue of the correlation between dorsal tergites and ventral leg pairs in basal diplopods (e.g., Glomeris) and is suggestive also for derived, ring-forming diplopods (e.g., Juliformia).

  15. Automatic media-adventitia IVUS image segmentation based on sparse representation framework and dynamic directional active contour model. (United States)

    Zakeri, Fahimeh Sadat; Setarehdan, Seyed Kamaledin; Norouzi, Somayye


    Segmentation of the arterial wall boundaries from intravascular ultrasound images is an important image processing task in order to quantify arterial wall characteristics such as shape, area, thickness and eccentricity. Since manual segmentation of these boundaries is a laborious and time consuming procedure, many researchers attempted to develop (semi-) automatic segmentation techniques as a powerful tool for educational and clinical purposes in the past but as yet there is no any clinically approved method in the market. This paper presents a deterministic-statistical strategy for automatic media-adventitia border detection by a fourfold algorithm. First, a smoothed initial contour is extracted based on the classification in the sparse representation framework which is combined with the dynamic directional convolution vector field. Next, an active contour model is utilized for the propagation of the initial contour toward the interested borders. Finally, the extracted contour is refined in the leakage, side branch openings and calcification regions based on the image texture patterns. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by comparing the results to those manually traced borders by an expert on 312 different IVUS images obtained from four different patients. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed method in the media-adventitia border detection with enough consistency in the leakage and calcification regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of immobilization on thickness of superficial zone of articular cartilage of patella in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Iqbal


    Conclusion: Each segment of superficial zone behaves differentially on immobilization and remobilization. Perhaps a much longer duration of remobilization is required to reverse changes of immobilization in articular cartilage and plays a significant role in knee joint movements.

  17. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm


    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  18. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update. (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C


    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Rethinking Borders in Japan: Internal, Cultural, and Geopolitical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyu Oh


    Full Text Available Christopher Bondy. Voice, Silence, and Self: Negotiations of Buraku Identity in Contemporary Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 184 pp. $40 (cloth. Koichi Iwabuchi. Resilient Borders and Cultural Diversity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015. 137 pp. $75 (cloth/e-book. Akihiro Iwashita. Japan’s Border Issues: Pitfalls and Prospects. New York: Routledge, 2016. 144 pp. $160 (cloth. The books reviewed here address three different borders in present-day Japanese society: internal, cultural, and geopolitical. It is rare for three different authors to concurrently publish monographs on Japanese borders from three different angles. This may be a sign of increasing consciousness within Japan on the issues of diversity, multiethnicity, old and new forms of discrimination, and continuing border conflicts with neighboring countries...

  20. The influence of craniofacial morphology on mandibular border movements. (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoki; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Shiraga, Noriko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Deguchi, Toru; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi


    Although they are widely used as diagnostic signs of temporomandibular disorders, mandibular border movements reflect not only condylar movement, but also other factors. In the present study, the authors investigated the effect of craniofacial morphology on three different mandibular border movements: maximum jaw opening, maximum jaw protrusion, and maximum jaw laterotrusion. One hundred female subjects were selected from outpatients visiting the orthodontic clinic of Okayama University Hospital. The mandibular border movements were measured using an optical recording system in three dimensions as six degrees of freedom. The craniofacial morphology was evaluated using lateral cephalograms. The results suggest that craniofacial morphology had different influences on each mandibular border movement. In particular, during maximum jaw laterotrusion, lower incisor movement strongly reflected condylar movement, and the influence of craniofacial morphology on mandibular border movement was minimal. Therefore, lower incisor movement during maximum jaw laterotrusion appears suitable to evaluate condylar movement.

  1. Cross-Border Tourism and its Significance for Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article is concerned with cross-border tourism. It enhances the importance of cross-border cooperation in tourism. Cross-border cooperation is a form of international cooperation, along with interregional, transitional and trans-frontier cooperation. Cross-border regions often share the same historical and cultural traditions and attractive natural landscapes, such is the case of the Republic of Moldova and Romania. In both cases, cross-border regions can benefit from cooperation – cooperation can help create greater diversity and differentiation of the range of tourism and environmental products; create economies of scale and make promotion more effective, and can help better address specific problems or issues for tourism development.

  2. Does smoke cross the border? Cigarette tax avoidance in France. (United States)

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles


    This paper examines the impact on cigarette sales of the successive increases in cigarette prices in France from 2002 to 2004. Since the price differential between France and neighboring countries increased over the period in question, cross-border purchases became more financially attractive for smokers living near borders. Results from difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the decrease in cigarette sales observed in French border departments was around 20 % higher from 2004 to 2007 compared to non-border departments. The loss of fiscal revenue due to cross-border shopping since the tax increase amounts to 2 billion euros over the period 2002-2007. Our findings highlight the need for improved coordination of policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption across European Union countries.

  3. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail:; Tufaile, A.P.B.


    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  4. Border Cracks: Approaching Border Security From a Complexity Theory and Systems Perspective (United States)


    mid-1950s. Additionally, the INS launches targeted investigation and deportation programs, most notably Operation Wetback targeting Mexicans in 1954...The operation deported over one million illegal immigrants during its duration.153 Following the end of World War II, border security’s focus...initiation of the balloon effect. Beau Kilmar et al. explain, “Until the 1990s, most cocaine shipped from Colombia entered the United States through the

  5. Can spectral-spatial image segmentation be used to discriminate experimental burn wounds? (United States)

    Paluchowski, Lukasz A.; Nordgaard, Håvard B.; Bjorgan, Asgeir; Hov, Håkon; Berget, Sissel M.; Randeberg, Lise L.


    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a noncontact and noninvasive optical modality emerging the field of medical research. The goal of this study was to determine the ability of HSI and image segmentation to discriminate burn wounds in a preclinical porcine model. A heated brass rod was used to introduce burn wounds of graded severity in a pig model and a sequence of hyperspectral data was recorded up to 8-h postinjury. The hyperspectral images were processed by an unsupervised spectral-spatial segmentation algorithm. Segmentation was validated using results from histology. The proposed algorithm was compared to K-means segmentation and was found superior. The obtained segmentation maps revealed separated zones within the burn sites, indicating a variation in burn severity. The suggested image-processing scheme allowed mapping dynamic changes of spectral properties within the burn wounds over time. The results of this study indicate that unsupervised spectral-spatial segmentation applied on hyperspectral images can discriminate burn injuries of varying severity.

  6. People, borders, trajectories: an approach to cross-border mobility and immobility in and to the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, B.M.R. van der; Naerssen, Ton van


    In this paper we present the outlines of a geographical approach to cross-border mobility, which in this article we use synonymously with international migration. The approach consists of three constitutive parts that we discern in international migration: people, borders and trajectories. People

  7. Border effects on DSM-5 alcohol use disorders on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border. (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Zemore, Sarah E; Borges, Guilherme; Greenfield, Thomas K


    Little epidemiological evidence exists on alcohol use and related problems along the U.S.-Mexico border, although the borderlands have been the focus of recent media attention related to the escalating drug/violence "epidemic". In the present study, the relationship of proximity of living at the border and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is analyzed from the U.S.-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC). Household surveys were conducted on 2336 Mexican Americans in Texas (771 in a non-border city and 1565 from three border cities located in the three poorest counties in the U.S.) and 2460 Mexicans from the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas in Mexico (811 in a non-border city and 1649 from three cities which are sister cities to the Texas border sites). Among current drinkers, prevalence of AUD was marginally greater (psister city counterparts on the same side. Border effects appeared greater for males than females in the U.S. and the opposite in Mexico. The data suggest that border proximity may affect AUD in both the U.S. and Mexico, but in the opposite direction, and may be related to the relative perceived or actual stress of living in the respective communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Humanitarian Drone and the Borders: Unveiling the Rationales Underlying the Deployment of Drones in Border Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa; Custers, Bart


    In these days economic and political pressures push for the deployment of drones’ technology in civil and commercial domains. This chapter focuses in particular on the deployment of drones in the context of border surveillance. Border surveillance is a shared competence between the European Union,

  9. Experiences in Regional Cross Border Co-operation in River Management. Comparing Three Cases at the Dutch–German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Verwijmeren, J.A.; Lulofs, K.; Feld, C.


    Cross border co-operation is increasingly viewed as an obvious and logical consequence of an integrated perspective on river management. Consequently, we would expect an increase of cross border co-operation and collaboration in EU member states, through joint planning, co-management or

  10. Negotiating mobility, debating borders: migration diplomacy in Turkey-EU relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    İçduygu, A.; Üstübici, A.; Schwenken, H.; Ruß-Sattar, S.


    The concepts of 'citizenship' and 'border' have rarely been systematically brought together. New Border and Citizenship Politics challenges this, examining the intersections and dynamics of bordering processes and citizenship politics. Case-studies from the United States, Europe, the Mediterranean

  11. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon


    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  12. Reclaiming land from urban traffic noise impact zones, "The great canyon".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, E.Ph.J.


    Sustainable building implies efficient land use in cities, and elsewhere. Zones with high noise impact along urban or suburban main roads have been used only for low-grade buildings, because of practical or legal limitations. Bordering these roads with continuous residential buildings

  13. Geohimicheskaja harakteristika donnyh otlozhenij v zone pokmarkov v vostochnoj chasti Finskogo zaliva [The geochemical characteristics of the bottom sediment in the pockmark area of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivanova Varvara; Kirievskaya Dubrava; Bolotov Alexander


    .... The analysis of the distribution of microcomponents in the bottom sediment indicates that the pockmark area is located in the geochemical barrier border zone where the reducing medium of the incoming...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  15. Segmental neurofibromatosis [NF type - v]. (United States)

    Arfan-ul-Bari; Simeen-ber-Rahman


    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis in which skin lesions are confined to a circumscribed body segment. A case of a 39-year-old man with this condition is presented, who was having multiple soft skin tumours over a localized area of back with no associated cafe au lait spots, axillary freckles or lish nodules. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of neurofibroma.

  16. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module. (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  17. Adaptive segmentation for scientific databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.; Kersten, M.L.; Nes, N.


    In this paper we explore database segmentation in the context of a column-store DBMS targeted at a scientific database. We present a novel hardware- and scheme-oblivious segmentation algorithm, which learns and adapts to the workload immediately. The approach taken is to capitalize on (intermediate)

  18. Region segmentation along image sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.


    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Market segmentation using perceived constraints (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen


    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  20. Using Predictability for Lexical Segmentation (United States)

    Çöltekin, Çagri


    This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic…





    Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  2. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation (United States)

    Martin, Gillian


    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  3. Essays in international market segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.


    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  4. Root Apex Transition Zone as Oscillatory Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Baluska


    Full Text Available Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command centre. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwins, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

  5. Intestinal, segmented, filamentous bacteria. (United States)

    Klaasen, H L; Koopman, J P; Poelma, F G; Beynen, A C


    Segmented, filamentous bacteria (SFBs) are autochthonous, apathogenic bacteria, occurring in the ileum of mice and rats. Although the application of formal taxonomic criteria is impossible due to the lack of an in vitro technique to culture SFBs, microbes with a similar morphology, found in the intestine of a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate host species, are considered to be related. SFBs are firmly attached to the epithelial cells of the distal ileal mucosa, their preferential ecological niche being the epithelium covering the Peyer's patches. Electron microscopic studies have demonstrated a considerable morphological diversity of SFBs, which may relate to different stages of a life cycle. Determinants of SFB colonization in vivo are host species, genotypical and phenotypical characteristics of the host, diet composition, environmental stress and antimicrobial drugs. SFBs can survive in vitro incubation, but do not multiply. On the basis of their apathogenic character and intimate relationship with the host, it is suggested that SFBs contribute to development and/or maintenance of host resistance to enteropathogens.

  6. [Orbitotemporal segmental neurofibromatosis]. (United States)

    Montard, R; Putz, C; Barrali, M; Kantelip, B; Montard, M


    Neurofibromatosis is a rare pathology with heterogeneous clinical presentation. We report a case of a right orbitotemporal plexiform neurofibroma in a 64-year-old woman with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. A craniofacial CT scan, with injection, showed a heterogeneous tumor in front of the skull base and the temporoparietal bone with no intracranial extension but an extension into the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity. In summery, she presented orbitotemporal segmental neurofibromatosis type 1 because of the unilateral lesion. She had a first surgery to remove her jugal and preauricular tumor with an exenteration, which provided an eye histology. The histology found no Lisch nodules but a cellular proliferation causing choroidal hyperplasia. We noted neurofibromin on choroidal cells and normal cells in addition to pathologic cells (Schwann cells and melanocytes), meaning that two cell populations were obtained in the same tissue: a somatic mosaicism. We advance the hypothesis that there was a regulation of cellular growth in a particular microenvironment because of the absence of tumor. To identify and confirm the somatic mosaicism, we would need a FISH analysis (probes containing sequences of the NF1 gene with a probe specific for the chromosome 17 centromere).

  7. CRESTA : consortium on remote sensing of freight flows in congested border crossings and work zones. (United States)


    "The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate the use of remote sensing and : geospatial information technologies to provide useful information for applications related to : the times trucks incur in various activities (activity...

  8. Delusional misidentification syndromes and dementia: a border zone between neurology and psychiatry. (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Vedovello, Marcella; Ulivi, Martina; Lucetti, Claudio; Di Fiorino, Andrea; Nuti, Angelo


    The delusional misidentification syndromes (DMSs) are psychopathologic phenomena in which a patient consistently misidentifies persons, places, objects, or events. Although often described in relation to psychotic states including schzofrenia, it is, nevertheless, widely considered that these syndromes have an anatomical basis because of their frequent association with organic brain disease; studies have pointed to the presence of identifiable lesions, especially in the right frontal lobe and adjacent regions, in a considerable proportion of patients. The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon in people with dementia. We searched the electronic databases for original research and review articles on DMS in patients with dementia using the search terms "Delusional Misidentification Syndrome, Capgras syndrome, Fregoli syndrome, reduplicative paramnesia, and dementia." The DMSs are a frequent problem in dementia. The violence and dangerousness in patients with dementia having these syndromes are well documented, and forensic aspects are highlighted. Pathogenetic viewpoint and management are considered.

  9. Mapping the geothermal potential of fault zones in the Belgium-Netherlands border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveless, S.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Lagrou, D.; Boever, E. de; Doornenbal, H.; Laenen, B.


    Faults can determine the success or failure of low enthalpy geothermal projects. This is due to their capacity to behave as pathways or baffles to geothermal water (or both simultaneously) and their prevalence throughout the subsurface. Here we present an initial assessment of the possibility for

  10. Meteorological Data Inventory, Southern California, Coastal Zone, Ragged Point (San Luis Obispo County) to Mexican Border. (United States)


    Mountains and the Sierra Madre Mountains. For a more complete discussion, one is referred to the companion report on hydrology. A.3 Climate of the...less rainfall than the surrounding areas--the "Cuyama Badlands." This area lies behind the barrier of the Sierra Madre Range ("behind," in the sense...7-59-54 25 a 1 1 o 0n 65 S" ingcam leach Fire Departmant Orange 33-39-O 117-59- 60 1927 tnow- I Coa19a jta ak-acordial City S6 rosta Masa Park orensa

  11. Ene-Liis Semper : Kohalolu piiritsoonis = Presence in the border zone / Anu Allas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allas, Anu, 1977-


    Teatri- ja videokunstnik Ene-Liis Semperi peamiselt 1990-ndate aastate videotest, mis on valdavalt rõhutatult lavastuslikud, paisutatult sümbolistlikud või kus on esitatud piirsituatsioone, ahistust ning selle teadlikku eksponeerimist väljakutsena publikule. Iseennast paljastades, alandades ja ohtu seades jääb kunstnik enamasti jahedalt distantseerituks, publikule jääb aga arusaamatuks, kas tegemist on ohvri, kangelanna või osava mänguriga

  12. Graph based hyperspectral image segmentation with improved affinity matrix (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Messinger, David W.


    Image segmentation and clustering is a method to extract a set of components whose members are similar in some way. Instead of focusing on the consistencies of local image characteristics such as borders and regions in a perceptual way, the spectral graph theoretic approach is based on the eigenvectors of an affinity matrix; therefore it captures perceptually important non-local properties of an image. A typical spectral graph segmentation algorithm, normalized cuts, incorporates both the dissimilarity between groups and similarity within groups by capturing global consistency making the segmentation process more balanced and stable. For spectral graph partitioning, we create a graph-image representation wherein each pixel is taken as a graph node, and two pixels are connected by an edge based on certain similarity criteria. In most cases, nearby pixels are likely to be in the same region, therefore each pixel is connected to its spatial neighbors in the normalized cut algorithm. However, this ignores the difference between distinct groups or the similarity within a group. A hyperspectral image contains high spatial correlation among pixels, but each pixel is better described by its high dimensional spectral feature vector which provides more information when characterizing the similarities among every pair of pixels. Also, to facilitate the fact that boundary usually resides in low density regions in spectral domain, a local density adaptive affinity matrix is presented in this paper. Results will be shown for airborne hyperspectral imagery collected with the HyMAP, AVIRIS, HYDICE sensors.

  13. Satellite Image Classification and Segmentation by Using JSEG Segmentation Algorithm


    Khamael Abbas; Mustafa Rydh


    In this paper, a adopted approach to fully automatic satellite image segmentation, called JSEG, "JPEG image segmentation" is presented. First colors in the image are quantized to represent differentiate regions in the image. Then image pixel colors are replaced by their corresponding color class labels, thus forming a class-map of the image. A criterion for “good” segmentation using this class-map is proposed. Applying the criterion to local windows in the class-map results in the “J-image”...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Conflicts on the Romanian-Ukrainian Border, a Struggle for the Danube Mouths or an Inheritance from the Soviet Period ? The dispute between Romania and Ukraine has a complex nature and goes back to the history preceding the existence of both national states. The territory belonging today to Romania, Ukraine and Moldova used to be a buffer zone between the Ottoman, Russian and Habsburg Empires, and the frontier line changed very often even in modern times. However, the present border disputes between Romania and Ukraine were inherited from the communist period (1948-1989, as the bilateral agreements did not follow exactly the terms of the Paris Treaty of 1947. The consequences emerged after 1997 when, in spite of a new official border treaty with Ukraine, Romania had to address the ICJ from the Hague on the matter of the Black Sea shelf.

  15. Solution of the multilayer multigroup neutron diffusion equation in cartesian geometry by fictitious borders power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Rodrigo; Petersen, Caudio Zen [Univ. Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Schramm, Marcello [Univ. Federal de Pelotas (Brazil). Centro de Engenharias; Zabadal, Jorge Rodolfo [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Tramandai (Brazil)


    In this paper a solution for the one-dimensional steady state Multilayer Multigroup Neutron Diffusion Equation in cartesian geometry by Fictitious Borders Power Method and a perturbative analysis of this solution is presented. For each new iteration of the power method, the neutron flux is reconstructed by polynomial interpolation, so that it always remains in a standard form. However when the domain is long, an almost singular matrix arises in the interpolation process. To eliminate this singularity the domain segmented in R regions, called fictitious regions. The last step is to solve the neutron diffusion equation for each fictitious region in analytical form locally. The results are compared with results present in the literature. In order to analyze the sensitivity of the solution, a perturbation in the nuclear parameters is inserted to determine how a perturbation interferes in numerical results of the solution.

  16. An open mind to closed borders (United States)

    Fallet, Ulrike; Lefeber, Bob


    One aspect of "Science in tomorrow's classroom" is teaching geography students the basic skills and knowledge to play an active role in society as citizens. Topics that frame the development of good citizenship are wide-ranged and include climate change, migration and integration as well as democracy and identity. Often these kinds of topics do not allow for right or wrong answers or classroom lectures; it is more important to encourage students to find and discuss arguments with which to underpin their opinion. In this way, civic education is very suitable for active learning. Active learning is described as a method of learning in which students are actively involved in the learning process through (group) discussion, experiments or games. By doing so, students are stimulated to engage in higher-order thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, which are inherent to becoming responsible, reflective and critical citizens as well as (future) scientists. It has also been shown that the use of active learning methods significantly increased the number of meaningful geographical relationships that students give in tests (Karkdijk, 2012). I, therefore, propose to use active learning to approach civic education in the classroom. Specifically, I used a "mystery" to engage students in active learning on the highly polarizing subject of migration. A mystery (Leat, 1990) is a didactic method that uses short bits of information to solve an intriguing question. A current polarizing subject in society and in the classroom is the migration from Northern Africa and the Middle East to Europe and the increasing number of terrorist attacks by individuals who have radicalised before, during or after their journey over the Mediterranean. In class, students were asked to solve this migration mystery: "Could the terrorist attack in Berlin have been stopped by closing the borders of the Mediterranean countries to migrants?" In order to solve this mystery and to find an

  17. Some variations in lymphatic drainage of selected bronchopulmonary segments in human lungs. (United States)

    Topol, Mirosław; Masłoń, Adrian


    Interest in the role of the pulmonary lymphatic system in the pathophysiology of pulmonary and systemic diseases induced us to carry out anatomical research on the lung lymphatic system in the Polish population. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether lymphatic vessels respect bronchopulmonary segment borders and to determine how often lymphatic vessels run to nodes of another lymphatic region. A block of organs comprising the lungs with the trachea, larynx and tongue, the heart and esophagus was removed from the cadavers at autopsy. The research involved 96 lungs (48 left and 48 right), which were taken from 31 male and 17 female cadavers. The lymphatic vessels were visualized at the mediastinal and interlobar surface of the lung by visual inspection. These vessels were then cannulated and injected with drawing ink. Next, the course of a lymphatic vessel was checked to see whether it was compatible with the bronchopulmonary segments or lobar borders. The first lymph node to become ink-colored via injection was dissected and histologically examined. A total of 135 images of lymphatic vessels (63 in the left lungs and 72 in the right lung) running on the mediastinal or interlobar surface of the lung were evaluated. In all, 12 out of 135 vessels (8.9%) were observed to cross the border of the segment (6/12 vessels) or the border of the lobe (6/12 vessels). We found 10/135 vessels (7.4%) running to the lymph nodes of another lymphatic region. 2009 Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Sometimes spelling is easier than phonemic segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, W.H.J. van; Duighuisen, H.C.M.


    Poor spellers from the Netherlands segmented and spelled the same words on different occasions. If they base their spellings on the segmentations that they produce in the segmentation task, the correlation between segmentation and spelling scores should be high, and segmentation should not be more

  19. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  20. Rates and predictors of DUI among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans. (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Mills, Britain A


    This paper examines driving under the influence (DUI) arrests and other related factors among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas. Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1307) were interviewed between March 2009 and July 2010 and constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Border or non-border residential location was not associated with self-reported DUI, 12 month DUI arrest, or lifetime DUI arrest. An increase in consumption of 5 drinks per week was associated with an 18% increase in the chance of self-reporting DUI and an 18% increase in the probability of a lifetime DUI arrest. Binge drinkers were more likely to self-report a DUI event (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.61-5.03; pDUI arrest (OR=2.81; 95% CI=1.43-5.53, pDUI as a major problem affecting Hispanics. However, while most correctly identified the legal blood alcohol content to drive in their state as .08 g/dl or lower, approximately one third of individuals were unaware of the legal limit. Compared to their non-border counterparts, border men were more likely to identify a bar/tavern/club and border women were more likely to identify a friend or relative's home as the places of last drink before the most recent DUI trip originated. In conclusion, border and non-border Mexican Americans are not different regarding DUI rates. These rates are high in both groups, especially among men. Intervention strategies to decrease DUI should be implemented not only in drinking establishments but also with families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Growth patterns in Onychophora (velvet worms: lack of a localised posterior proliferation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landman Kerry A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During embryonic development of segmented animals, body segments are thought to arise from the so-called "posterior growth zone" and the occurrence of this "zone" has been used to support the homology of segmentation between arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates. However, the term "posterior growth zone" is used ambiguously in the literature, mostly referring to a region of increased proliferation at the posterior end of the embryo. To determine whether such a localised posterior proliferation zone is an ancestral feature of Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda, we examined cell division patterns in embryos of Onychophora. Results Using in vivo incorporation of the DNA replication marker BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and anti-phospho-histone H3 immunolabelling, we found that a localised posterior region of proliferating cells does not occur at any developmental stage in onychophoran embryos. This contrasts with a localised pattern of cell divisions at the posterior end of annelid embryos, which we used as a positive control. Based on our data, we present a mathematical model, which challenges the paradigm that a localised posterior proliferation zone is necessary for segment patterning in short germ developing arthropods. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a posterior proliferation zone was absent in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. By comparing our data from Onychophora with those from annelids, arthropods, and chordates, we suggest that the occurrence of a "posterior growth zone" currently cannot be used to support the homology of segmentation between these three animal groups.

  2. Direct volume estimation without segmentation (United States)

    Zhen, X.; Wang, Z.; Islam, A.; Bhaduri, M.; Chan, I.; Li, S.


    Volume estimation plays an important role in clinical diagnosis. For example, cardiac ventricular volumes including left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) are important clinical indicators of cardiac functions. Accurate and automatic estimation of the ventricular volumes is essential to the assessment of cardiac functions and diagnosis of heart diseases. Conventional methods are dependent on an intermediate segmentation step which is obtained either manually or automatically. However, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming, subjective and highly non-reproducible; automatic segmentation is still challenging, computationally expensive, and completely unsolved for the RV. Towards accurate and efficient direct volume estimation, our group has been researching on learning based methods without segmentation by leveraging state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. Our direct estimation methods remove the accessional step of segmentation and can naturally deal with various volume estimation tasks. Moreover, they are extremely flexible to be used for volume estimation of either joint bi-ventricles (LV and RV) or individual LV/RV. We comparatively study the performance of direct methods on cardiac ventricular volume estimation by comparing with segmentation based methods. Experimental results show that direct estimation methods provide more accurate estimation of cardiac ventricular volumes than segmentation based methods. This indicates that direct estimation methods not only provide a convenient and mature clinical tool for cardiac volume estimation but also enables diagnosis of cardiac diseases to be conducted in a more efficient and reliable way.

  3. Position sensors for segmented mirror (United States)

    Rozière, Didier; Buous, Sébastien; Courteville, Alain


    There are currently several projects for giant telescopes with segmented mirrors under way. These future telescopes will have their primary mirror made of several thousand segments. The main advantage of segmentation is that it enables the active control of the whole mirror, so as to suppress the deformations of the support structure due to the wind, gravity, thermal inhomogeneities etc. ..., thus getting the best possible stigmatism. However, providing active control of segmented mirrors requires numerous accurate edges sensors. It is acknowledged that capacitance-based technology nowadays offers the best metrological performances-to-cost ratio. As the leader in capacitive technology, FOGALE nanotech offers an original concept which reduces the cost of instrumentation, sensors and electronics, while keeping a very high level of performances with a manufacturing process completely industrialised. We present here the sensors developed for the Segment Alignment Measurement System (SAMS) of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This patented solution represents an important improvement in terms of cost, to market the Position Sensors for Segmented Mirrors of ELTs, whilst maintaining a very high performance level. We present here the concept, the laboratory qualification, and the first trials on the 7 central segments of SALT. The laboratory results are good, and we are now working on the on-site implementation to improve the immunity of the sensors to environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky


    Full Text Available The zone-block structure of the lithosphere is represented by a hierarchically organized pattern of stable blocks and mobile zones which border such blocks and contain highly dislocated geological medium (Fig. 1. Today, different specialists adhere to different concepts of blocks and zones, which are two main elements of the lithosphere structure. Differences are most significant in determinations of ‘interblock zones’ that are named as deformation / destructive / contact / mobile / fracture zones etc. due to their diversity in different conditions of deformation. One of the most effective approaches to studying the zone-block structure of the lithosphere is a combination of geological and geophysical studies of interblock zones tectonic features on various scales, which can make it possible to reveal the most common patterns of the interblock zones, general regularities of their development and relationships between the interblock zones.The main objectives of our study were (1 to identify the zone-block structure of the crust in the southern regions of East Siberia from tectonophysical analysis of geological and geophysical surveys conducted on four different scales along the 500 km long Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect crossing the marginal segment of the Siberian block, the Baikal rift and the Transbaikalian block (Fig. 2; (2 to clarify structural features of the central part of the Baikal rift (representing the tectonic type of interblock extension zone by applying new research methods, such as radon emanation survey, to the Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect and using the previously applied methods, such as magnetotelluric sounding, on a smaller scale; and (3 to study manifestation of interblock zones of various ranks in different geological and geophysical fields, to reveal common specific features of their structural patterns for the upper crust, and to establish regularities of hierarchic and spatial relationships between the interblock

  5. Social and cultural influences among Mexican border entrepreneurs. (United States)

    Díaz Bretones, Francisco; Cappello, Héctor M; Garcia, Pedro A


    Social and cultural conditions (including U.S. border and inland influence, role models within the family, and educational background) which affect locus of control and achievement motivation among Mexican entrepreneurs were explored among 64 selected entrepreneurs in two Mexican towns, one on the Mexico-U.S. border, the other located inland. Analyses showed that the border subsample scored higher on External locus of control; however, in both subsamples the father was an important element in the locus of control variable and the entrepreneur status. No statistically significant mean difference was noted for achievement motivation. Practical applications and limitations are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Casas-Cortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The intervention of European Union border authorities in countries of Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe has shown how the European state “border” has been displaced from its national moorings and externalized across the territories of neighboring states. Our research examines the outsourcing of the southern European Union border, focusing on the case of Spain and its relationship with Morocco and countries of Western Africa. In this paper we describe the development and implementation of this strategy of migration management, signaling implications of border externalization from the point of geopolitics and legality, including a suggestive call to reclaim the legal tradition of the Right to Migrate.

  7. Social and Symbolic Capital in Border Region Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne


    to a specific industry sector. The actors have relationships characterised by interdependencies of different strength and quality that define the boundaries. Empirically this contribution is sticking to a firm cluster in the Danish - German border region in Southern Jutland/Danmark. We found global players...... with a high sensitivity regarding the importance of social capital in the process of value creation. Managers on the firm- as well as on the web-level are aware of the potential, but the border between the countries is by the same one border of the cluster as an value adding unit....

  8. Rabbit antibodies reacting with brush border of rodent renal tubules (United States)

    Ireton, H. J. C.; McGiven, A. R.


    The immunofluorescent staining characteristics of antibodies against rat and mouse kidney tubule brush border, produced in rabbits immunized with microsomal or mitochondrial fractions of rat kidney, were compared with those of human antibodies against mitochondria obtained from patients with biliary cirrhosis. With the rabbit antisera, brush border staining was confined to the epithelium of the proximal renal tubules while the human antimitochondrial sera stained proximal and distal tubules. Absorptions with a mitochondrial fraction prepared from rat liver inhibited the human serum activity but had no effect on brush border activity in the rabbit serum which was inhibited only by the rat kidney subcellular fractions. PMID:4931856

  9. Satisfaction in border tourism: An analysis with structural equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jimber del Río


    Full Text Available Border tourism is the temporary displacement of people to the dividing line between two countries contiguous areas. This activity promotes the economic development of these geographical regions. The aim of this research is to analyze visitors from the Dominican Republic and Haiti border. We propose the results of an empirical study with structural equations that show correlations between the attitude factor towards the border tourism, the value factors perceived by the tourist, satisfaction and loyalty of the visitor in the destination place.

  10. Analysis of tower locations for the secure border initiative network (United States)

    Brendley, Keith W.


    The Secure Border Initiative Network (SBInet) is a series of sensor platforms along the U.S. border areas for the purpose of better monitoring cross-border excursions. From a technical standpoint, the challenge of SBInet is to provide the necessary area coverage needed while controlling costs. This paper presents one set of methods for analyzing different tower locations and technologies. Since the purpose of the paper is to consider analytical techniques, the terrain and tower locations used do not relate to the P28 area nor any other specific approaches or tower locations currently being studied for the SBInet program.

  11. Cause of Border Conflict over the World Heritage


    Yamashita, Akihiro


    This paper attempts to show causes of border conflict between Thailand and Cambodia, and to look for the means of solving the conflict. Preah Vihear Temple is an old Khmer temple ruins situated on the border of Thailand and Cambodia. UNESCO decided to list it as a World Heritage Site on July 7, 2008. However, the two countries have been in a state of border conflict since that time. The conflict leaves dozens of casualties. This paper shows that there are two causes of conflict. The first one...

  12. Learning from Cross-Border Reproduction. (United States)

    Jackson, Emily; Millbank, Jenni; Karpin, Isabel; Stuhmcke, Anita


    Drawing upon the preliminary findings of an Australian empirical project on cross-border reproduction (CBR), this article argues that regulators and policymakers could learn from the experiences of those who travel overseas in order to access fertility treatment and surrogacy. It makes four principal observations. First, the distinction between so-called 'altruistic' and 'commercial' gamete donation and surrogacy is increasingly unsustainable and is not experienced as meaningful by many participants in CBR. Secondly, the status of the law in CBR is profoundly equivocal; for participants it is often there and not there at the same time. Thirdly, self-sourced information, from the internet and more specifically social media such as Facebook, is now the principal source of information and peer support for reproductive travellers. Fourthly, and relatedly, domestic reproductive services providers are often sidestepped. If one of the goals of regulation is to minimise the risk of harm to participants, it is not clear that it is currently achieving this aim, and this article argues that any reforms will only work if they are more responsive to the reality of CBR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Woolfian border poetics and contemporary circadian novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Ryall


    Full Text Available Virginia Woolf’s circadian novel Mrs Dalloway (1925 has inspired many successors, some of them important works in their own right. Although few of these novels are as explicitly linked to Mrs Dalloway as Michael Cunningham’s The Hours (1998, more recent novels such as Ian McEwan’s Saturday (2005 and Gail Jones’ Five Bells (2011 clearly pay homage to Woolf’s use of the one-day format to reveal whole lives and show how those individual private lives are entangled in history. The essay highlights one particular aspect of these three works, their imaginative and often transformative reworking of elements of Woolfian border poetics, particularly the predominance in Mrs Dalloway of boundary tropes – windows, doors, thresholds – that create a sense of synchronicity between present and past. Adapting Woolf’s boundary tropes to representations of contemporary realities, all three novels in different ways suggest how the present is deepened ”when backed by the past”, as Woolf puts it her memoirs; that is, when the present is not only informed by a remembered past but experienced in terms of both re-enactment and renewal, continuity and change.

  14. Polarization image segmentation of radiofrequency ablated porcine myocardial tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    Full Text Available Optical polarimetry has previously imaged the spatial extent of a typical radiofrequency ablated (RFA lesion in myocardial tissue, exhibiting significantly lower total depolarization at the necrotic core compared to healthy tissue, and intermediate values at the RFA rim region. Here, total depolarization in ablated myocardium was used to segment the total depolarization image into three (core, rim and healthy zones. A local fuzzy thresholding algorithm was used for this multi-region segmentation, and then compared with a ground truth segmentation obtained from manual demarcation of RFA core and rim regions on the histopathology image. Quantitative comparison of the algorithm segmentation results was performed with evaluation metrics such as dice similarity coefficient (DSC = 0.78 ± 0.02 and 0.80 ± 0.02, sensitivity (Sn = 0.83 ± 0.10 and 0.91 ± 0.08, specificity (Sp = 0.76 ± 0.17 and 0.72 ± 0.17 and accuracy (Acc = 0.81 ± 0.09 and 0.71 ± 0.10 for RFA core and rim regions, respectively. This automatic segmentation of parametric depolarization images suggests a novel application of optical polarimetry, namely its use in objective RFA image quantification.

  15. Use of Segmented Cell Operated in Hydrogen Recirculation Mode to Detect Water Accumulation in PEMFC


    Perez, L.C.; Ihonen J.; J. M. Sousa; Adélio Mendes


    Adequate water management is crucial to increase stability and durability of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells. In this paper, a test rig suitable for water balance and nitrogen crossover studies was built around a hydrogen-air segmented cell and used to indirectly assess flooding or drying conditions in specific zones of the active cell area. In particular, the anode of the segmented cell was operated in recirculation mode with continuous water removal. Current density distribution (CD...

  16. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred


    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...... segmentations that capture different structural elements of the image. We also apply the method to collections of images with identical pixel dimensions, which we call image stacks. Here it turns out that the method is able to both identify groups of similar images in the stack, and to provide segmentations...

  17. Open segmental fractures of the tibia treated by external fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Ivan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Open segmental fractures of the tibia are rare but severe injuries. In these fractures the wide zone of injury (damage of all structures of the lower leg creates very unsuitable biological conditions for healing of the fracture. Objective. The aim of our work was to present the results of treatment of patients with segmental open fractures of the tibia treated by external fixation. Methods. We analyzed treatment results of 21 patients with open segmental tibial fractures who were treated using the method of external fixation at the Clinical Center Niš from January 1, 1995 to July 31, 2010. The average age of the patients was 53 years; the youngest patient was 27 years and the oldest one 80 years. According to the Gustilo open fracture classification, there were 3 (14.3% type I, 6 (28.6% type II, 8 (38.1% type IIIA, and 4 (19.0% type IIIB. All the patients were treated by a unilateral type Mitković external fixator by Traffix Company. Results. Union was attained in 16 (76.2% fractures without severe complications (pseudoarthrosis, chronic osteitis and angular deformities of over 10 degrees. Among severe complications associated with open segmental tibial fractures, in two cases we registered septic pseudoarthrosis, in one aseptic pseudoarthrosis and in two large angular deformities of the tibia after union, with a valgus of over 10 degrees and extremity shortening of over 2 cm which required additional surgery. Conclusion. External fixation by the use of Mitković external fixator is one of the methods of choice in the treatment of open segmental tibial fractures, which incorporated with antibiotic therapy provides good biomehanical conditions for segmental fracture healing that enables good stability of the segmental tibial fracture and decreases the risk of deep infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017: Virtuelni koštano­zglobni sistem čoveka i njegova primena u pretkliničkoj i kliničkoj praksi

  18. Selective Segmentation for Global Optimization of Depth Estimation in Complex Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a segmentation-based global optimization method for depth estimation. Firstly, for obtaining accurate matching cost, the original local stereo matching approach based on self-adapting matching window is integrated with two matching cost optimization strategies aiming at handling both borders and occlusion regions. Secondly, we employ a comprehensive smooth term to satisfy diverse smoothness request in real scene. Thirdly, a selective segmentation term is used for enforcing the plane trend constraints selectively on the corresponding segments to further improve the accuracy of depth results from object level. Experiments on the Middlebury image pairs show that the proposed global optimization approach is considerably competitive with other state-of-the-art matching approaches.

  19. Integrated Near-Surface Seismic and Geoelectrical Mapping of the Concealed Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark (United States)

    Nielsen, L.; Thybo, H.; Jorgensen, M. I.


    The Carlsberg Fault is located in a NNW-SSE striking fault system in the border zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent earthquakes indicate that this area is tectonically active. We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone along a 12 km long trace in the Copenhagen city center by seismic refraction, reflection and fan profiling. We supplement our seismic investigations with multi-electrode geoelectrical profiling. The seismic refraction study shows that the Carlsberg Fault zone is a low-velocity zone and marks a change in seismic velocity structure. A normal-incidence reflection seismic section shows a coincident flower structure. We have recorded seismic signals in a fan geometry from shots detonated both inside the low-velocity fault zone and up to about 500 m away from the fault zone. The seismic energy was recorded on three receiver arrays (1.5-2.4 km long arcs) across the expected location of the 400-700 m wide fault zone at distances of up to 7 km from the shots. Shots detonated inside the fault zone result in: 1) weak and delayed first arrivals on the receivers located inside the fault zone compared to earlier and stronger first arrivals outside the fault zone; 2) strong guided P- and S-waves as well as surface waves inside the fault zone. The fault zone is a shadow zone to shots detonated outside the fault zone. Finite-difference wavefield modeling supports the interpretations of the fan recordings. Our fan recording approach facilitates cost-efficient mapping of fault zones in densely urbanized areas where seismic normal-incidence and refraction profiling are not feasible. The geoelectrical measurements show that the fault zone is characterized by low resistivities (lower than 5 ohmm), indicating that the fault zone is fractured and water-filled. This interpretation is supported by hydrological measurements conducted by others, which show that the Carlsberg Fault zone is highly permeable.

  20. Geophysical investigations over a segment of the Central Indian Ridge, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; Subrahmanyam, C.

    during the present study, are summarized in Fig. 8. Magnetics The magnetic anomaly pro les along with the sea- oor spreading model are presented in Fig. 3. The synthetic magnetic anomalies are generated by applying the Be- rggren et al. (1985) time scale... not simply as continuous regular zones of crustal accretion, but rather as composite zones com- prised of a large number of short active ridge segments (Parson et al. 1993). Segments of a mid-ocean ridge could be as small as 25 km, linked by complex...