WorldWideScience

Sample records for segen durch gene

  1. M&A-Transaktionen - Fluch oder Segen der Realoptionstheorie?

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hopp, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Technologische und politische Veränderungen sowie komplexere Wertschöpfungsketten haben in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu einer verstärkten Unternehmensexpansion mittels Mergers and Acquisitions geführt. Unter dem Sammelbegriff "Mergers and Acquisitions" werden strategische Entscheidungen eines Unternehmens subsumiert, ein anderes Unternehmen oder einen Geschäftsbereich eines anderen Unternehmens durch Aktientausch oder Barentschädigung zu erwerben oder sich mit einem anderen Unternehmen zusammen...

  2. Effizienzsteigerung durch intelligente Planung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Walther; Bader, Alexander

    Das Umfeld der produzierenden Unternehmen hat sich in den letzten Jahren sehr gewandelt. Dieser Wandel ist geprägt durch die Folgen der Globalisierung und deren Folgeerscheinungen. Produzierende Unternehmen versuchen auf diese geänderten Rahmenbedingungen durch Steigerung ihrer Produktivität und Flexibilität zu reagieren.

  3. Stereoskopische Visualisierung einer Infektion mammalischer Zellen durch pathogene Bakterien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granseier, Michael; Grassmé, Heike; Gulbins, Erich; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    Die Infektion mammalischer Zellen durch pathogene Bakterien ist biologisch immer noch nicht sicher geklärt. Mit Hilfe der Laserscanmikroskopie ist es mittlerweile aber möglich, räumliche Bilddaten von Zellproben zu erstellen, auf denen der Eindringvorgang der Bakterien in das Zellinnere durch verschieden leuchtende Fluoreszenzfarbstoffe visualisiert werden kann. Unter Verwendung bekannter und adaptierter 3D-Rekonstruktionsalgorithmen werden dreidimensionale Visualisierungen von Mikroskopiebildern vorgestellt, mit deren Hilfe die Analyse des Infektionsprozesses erleichtert wird. Dabei hat sich gezeigt, dass mit Oberflächenrekonstruktionsverfahren die Topografie der Zelloberfiäche korrekt dargestellt werden kann, während die Darstellung der Farbstoffverteilungen besser durch ein Texture-Mapping-Verfahren gelingt. Die Rekonstruktionen konnten insbesondere durch den Einsatz von stereoskopischen Visualisierungstechniken detailgenau analysiert werden.

  4. Fast lichtschnell durch die Stadt: Visualisierung relativistischer Effekte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Ute; Borchers, Marc P.

    2005-03-01

    Eine Computersimulation ermöglicht es uns, mit annähernd Lichtgeschwindigkeit durch die Tübinger Fußgängerzone zu fahren. Was wir dabei sehen, ist verblüffend: Die Häuser vor uns rücken umso weiter in die Ferne, je mehr wir beschleunigen; gleichzeitig erscheinen die Hauskanten in unserer Nähe immer stärker gekrümmt. Der Grund für diese merkwürdigen Bilder ist die so genannte Aberration: Ein und derselbe Lichtstrahl hat für den fahrenden Beobachter eine andere Richtung als für denjenigen, der am Straßenrand steht. Dieser Effekt ist im Alltag klein. Wenn wir aber in der Simulation fast lichtschnell durch die Tübinger Altstadt rasen, ist er dramatisch groß.

  5. Evaluation of lung cancer risk from radon in homes. Smoking plays the important part; Bewertung des Lungenkrebsrisikos durch Wohnungsradon. Lungenkrebsrisiko ausschliesslich durch Rauchen verursacht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1999-07-01

    Studies of lung cancer risk from the beginning of the century until today are investigated and evaluated. The result shows that the risk in homes with Radon exposure is determined exclusively by the amount of smoking. Further studies of the lung cancer risk from Radon therefore should exclusively treat with non-smokers. (orig.) [German] Studien zum Lungenkrebsrisiko durch Radon vom Anfang dieses Jahrhunderts bis heute werden untersucht und bewertet. Das Ergebnis zeigt, dass das Lungenkrebsrisiko in Wohnungen mit Radonexpositionen ausschliesslich durch den Umfang des Zigarettenrauchens bestimmt wird. Untersuchungen zur Bewertung des Lungenkrebsrisikos durch Radon sollten daher ausschliesslich bei Nichtrauchern durchgefuehrt werden. (orig.)

  6. Ressourceneffizienz durch Digitalisierung: Vortrag gehalten beim Runden Tisch "Nachhaltige Digitalisierung", Digitalisierung als Motor der Nachhaltigkeit, 15. März 2017, Stuttgart

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Der Vortrag "Ressourceneffizienz durch Digitalisierung" behandelt folgende Themenkomplexe: - DigitalisierungalsInnovationstreiber - Geschäftsmodell-Innovation - Ressourceneffiziente Produktion - Expertensicht auf Unternehmenspotenziale durch Industrie 4.0

  7. Entgrenzung durch Medien: Internationalisierungsprozesse als Rahmenbedingung der Mediendidaktik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Klebl

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Mediendidaktik ist eine Teildisziplin der Medienpädagogik und hat in den vergangenen Jahren einen enormen Zuwachs an Nachfrage und Bedeutung erfahren. Dieser Bedeutungszuwachs ist bedingt durch den verstärkten Einsatz digitaler Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken in Bildungsprozessen (Stichwort «E- Learning». Der vorliegende Beitrag entwickelt die These, dass die Mediendidaktik ausgehend von medientechnischen Entwicklungen im Kontext von Globalisierung einer Entgrenzung unterworfen ist. Diese Entgrenzung ist Chance und Risiko zugleich. Der vorliegende Beitrag klärt zunächst den Begriff der Entgrenzung. Anhand dreier Phänomene werden Prozesse der Entgrenzung für die Mediendidaktik beschrieben. Ausgehend von der Problematisierung der Prozesse von Entgrenzung werden abschliessend einige Folgerungen für die Mediendidaktik als Teildisziplin der Medienpädagogik zur Diskussion gestellt.

  8. Amerikanisierung durch Internationalisierung: Die Expansion der International Communication Association (ICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wiedemann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Basierend auf der Soziologie Bourdieus problematisiert dieser Beitrag die Bemühungen der International Communication Association (ICA, sich über die Öffnung ihrer Führungsetage für Wissenschaftler außerhalb der USA in eine wahrhaft internationale Fachgesellschaft zu verwandeln und der Herausforderung einer global vernetzten Disziplin zu begegnen. Geleistet werden soll so ein kritischer Beitrag zur Selbstreflexion der Kommunikationswissenschaft, zu verstehen als Deutungsangebot und Ausgangspunkt für die wissenschaftliche Diskussion. Die Untersuchung von Habitus und Kapital der 29 ICA-Präsidenten und ICA Fellows aus der internationalen Scientific Community zeigt, dass die weltweit größte kommunikationswissenschaftliche Fachgesellschaft trotz der Ausweitung ihrer Führungsriege immer noch deutlichen US-Einflüssen unterliegt. Die neuen ICAWürdenträger, die für nationale und fachliche Vielfalt stehen sollen, stammen aus Weltregionen, die eine besondere Nähe zu den Vereinigten Staaten auszeichnet, und wurden an US-Universitäten sozialisiert oder stark von der US-amerikanischen Forschungstradition geprägt. Ausnahmen („Einkäufe“ von führenden Vertretern anderer Fachgesellschaften oder alternativer Paradigmen bestätigen die Regel. Die Internationalisierung der ICA-Führungsetage veränderte demzufolge weniger den Machtpol im Fach als vielmehr die Kommunikationswissenschaft weltweit. Zwar gelangten neue Perspektiven ins Zentrum der Disziplin. Im Gegenzug fand jedoch eine Amerikanisierung nationaler Felder statt, allen voran durch ICA Fellows als Vorbilder im Kampf um wissenschaftliches Kapital. Die Bemühungen der ICA, sich durch die Expansion ihrer Führungsriege zu internationalisieren, dürften somit die Machtstrukturen im Fach weiter verfestigt haben.

  9. Development of an early warning system for strong environmental pollution by measuring the activation of defined universally existing stress genes. Final report; Das Auftreten spezifischer Stressproteine bei Umweltbelastung in Chironomiden: Entwicklung eines neuen Fruehwarnsystems fuer starke Umweltbelastung durch Messung der Aktivierung definierter, universell vorkommender Stressgene bei ausgewaehlten Indikatororganismen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloetzel, P.M.; Mueller, W.

    1991-12-31

    In the present pilot study we established an ELISA based detection system which allows sensitive monitoring of stress induction as a result of heavy metal pollution. The system is based on the immunological detection of the stress induced hsp70 in larvae of Chironomidae. Using this system it is possible to detect environmental pollution by heavy metals far beyond lethal toxicity values. Since only very few animals are needed the system can also be used in field tests. For poluted isopodes as Oniscus asellus for example a single animal turned out be sufficient to monitor stress induction by Pb{sup +}. The established system ought to serve as basis for a more extended study in which different animals are collected from various polluted environments and tested with respect to already induced hsp synthesis. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Pilotstudie konnte ein sensitives Nachweissystem fuer die Induktion des ubiquitaeren Stresssystem durch Schwermetalle auf der Basis der immunologischen Detektion von HSP70 etabliert werden. Dieses, auf ELISA Basis arbeitende Testverfahren ermoeglicht es Schwermetallbelastungen weit unterhalb der Toxizitaetsgrenze ueber die Induktion der HSP70 Synthese in Chironomidenlarven nachzuweisen. Die Tatsache, dass nur wenige Tiere fuer eine statistische Aussage benoetigt werden laesst eine Anwendungsmoeglichkeit auch auf Freilandtiere erwarten. So reicht fuer bleibelastete Freiland-Asseln ein einziges Tier zum immunologischen Belastungsnachweis aus. Damit sind die Grundlagen fuer die zweite Phase, die Freilandphase, in welcher sowohl Freilandtiere als auch Gewaesser- und Sedimentproben von verschiedenen Standorten in die Untersuchungen miteinbezogen werden sollen; geschaffen. Es koennen jetzt Tiere aus belasteten Gewaessern bezueglich bereits erfolgter Stressproteinproduktion aber auch auf eine Neuinduzierbarkeit nach zusaetzlicher Laborbelastung untersucht werden. Ebenso koennen Labortiere auf ihre Reaktion gegenueber belasteten

  10. Israelische Public Diplomacy und ihre Wahrnehmung durch deutsche Journalisten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Fleischer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Public Diplomacy stellt insbesondere für Staaten in internationalen Konflikten wie Israel ein wichtiges Kommunikationsinstrument dar, um ausländische Bevölkerungen zu erreichen. Der Artikel zeigt die Ergebnisse einer Studie, in der untersucht wurde, wie die israelische Public Diplomacy von deutschen Journalisten aufgenommen und verarbeitet wird. Journalisten kommt dabei eine Schlüsselrolle als Mittler zwischen dem israelischen Staat und der deutschen Bevölkerung zu. In Anlehnung an den Katalog der Public Diplomacy-Maßnahmen von Gilboa (2006 wurde die Relevanz einzelner Maßnahmen für Journalisten erfragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass persönliche Kontakte für Journalisten nach wie vor eine wichtige Quelle darstellen und nicht von Cyber-Public Diplomacy ersetzt werden können. Staatliche Public Diplomacy wird zwar wahrgenommen, jedoch wird ihre Objektivität bezweifelt, während NGOs und Stiftungen als vertrauenswürdiger eingestuft werden. Des Weiteren wird Israel in der Öffentlichkeit nach wie vor dominierend mit dem Nahostkonflikt identifiziert, was sich nach Meinung der befragten Journalisten auch in Zukunft nicht durch gezielte Öffentlichkeitsarbeit verhindern lässt.

  11. Review: Findeisen, Genia: Frauen in Indonesien: Geschlechtergleichheit durch Demokratisierung? Eine Analyse des Demokratisierungsprozesses aus Frauenperspektive (2008 Buchbesprechung: Findeisen, Genia: Frauen in Indonesien: Geschlechtergleichheit durch Demokratisierung? Eine Analyse des Demokratisierungsprozesses aus Frauenperspektive (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola von der Dick

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Findeisen, Genia: Frauen in Indonesien: Geschlechtergleichheit durch Demokratisierung? Eine Analyse des Demokratisierungsprozesses aus Frauenperspektive Wettenberg: Johannes Herrmann J&J Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-937983-11-0, 434 pages Besprechung der Monographie: Findeisen, Genia: Frauen in Indonesien: Geschlechtergleichheit durch Demokratisierung? Eine Analyse des Demokratisierungsprozesses aus Frauenperspektive Wettenberg: Johannes Herrmann J&J Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-937983-11-0, 434 Seiten

  12. Multiple benefits through intelligent combination. Economic inventory optimization through the use of photovoltaics; Mehrfachnutzen durch intelligente Kombination. Wirtschaftliche Bestandsoptimierung durch Nutzung von Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-10-15

    By installing a PV system the roof areas are additionally used for power generation. To ensure the operability permanently, they must be carefully planned, built and maintained. Based on three demonstration examples it is shown how inventory optimization can be achieved by maintaining high quality standards (tennis hall Oberthal and Ottweiler, warehouse roof of the building material dealer Lauer). [German] Durch die Installation einer PV-Anlage werden die Dachflaechen zusaetzlich zur Energiegewinnung genutzt. Um die Funktionsfaehigkeit dauerhaft zu gewaehrleisten, muessen sie sorgfaeltig geplant, gebaut und gewartet werden. Anhand von drei Demonstrationsbeispielen (Tennishalle Oberthal und Ottweiler, Lagerhallendach des Baustoffhaendlers Lauer) wird gezeigt, wie die Bestandsoptimierung unter Einhaltung hoher Qualitaetsstandards geloest werden kann.

  13. Lipase-katalysierte Synthese strukturierter Triglyceride: Verfahrensoptimierung und Erzeugung selektiver Lipasemutanten durch gerichtete Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Ulrike

    1999-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde zum einen die Lipase-Katalysierte Synthese strukturierter Triglyceride, zum anderen die Veränderung der Kettenlängenselektivität der slip1-Lipase aus C. rugosa durch gerichtete Evolution untersucht. Besonderes Interesse galt der Synthese von strukturierten Triglyceriden des ABA-Typs, die aufgrund ihrer symmetrischen Struktur zur Therapie von Fettabsorptionsproblemen wie z.B. Pankreasinsuffizienz eingesetzt werden können. Besonderes Interesse galt dabei der ...

  14. Transparency and efficiency through plant operations management systems; Transparenz und Effizienz durch Betriebsfuehrungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladage, L. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Informationsmanagement

    2001-04-01

    Plant operations management systems, being IT application systems, provide integral support of the business processes making up plant operations management. The use of plant operations management systems improves mutually interdependent factors, such as high economic performance, high availability, and maximum safety. Since its commissioning in 1988, the Emsland nuclear power station (KKE) has been run with the IBFS plant operations management system. The work flow management system (WfMS), a module of IBFS, is described as an example of job order processing. IBFS-WfMS is to optimize all processes, thus cutting costs and ensuring that processes are run and documented reliably. Assessing the savings effect achieved through the use of IBFS-WfMS clearly reveals the savings in work/time achieved by the system. These savings are quoted as approx. 4 minutes and DM 10, respectively, per working step, which corresponds to several dozens of manyears or several million DM per annum in the KKE plant under consideration. This result can be extrapolated to other plants. (orig.) [German] Betriebsfuehrungssysteme stuetzen als EDV-Anwendungssystem integral die Geschaeftsprozesse der Kraftwerksbetriebsfuehrung. Durch den Einsatz von Betriebsfuehrungssystemen werden die in gegenseitiger Abhaengigkeit befindlichen Faktoren hohe Wirtschaftlichkeit, hohe Verfuegbarkeit und groesstmoegliche Sicherheit im Verbund gefoerdert. Im Kernkraftwerk Emsland (KKE) wird seit Inbetriebnahme der Anlage im Jahr 1988 das Betriebsfuehrungssystem IBFS eingesetzt. Am Beispiel des Workflowmanagementsystems (WfMS), einem Modul des IBFS, wird die Abwicklung von Arbeitsauftraegen dargestellt. Das IBFS-WfMS soll dabei durch Optimierung aller Prozesse sowohl kostensenkend wirken als auch sicherstellen, dass die Prozesse verlaesslich abgewickelt und dokumentiert werden. Eine Abschaetzung des Einspareffektes des IBFS-WfMS zeigt deutlich die durch das System erzielten Ersparnisse an Arbeits-/Zeitaufwand auf

  15. Ausschöpfung der vollen Leistungsfähigkeit von Sortiersystemen durch neue Einschleustechnik

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowsky, Volker; Semrau, Kai F.

    2012-01-01

    Die Ausschöpfung der vollen Leistungsfähigkeit von Stückgut-Sortiersystemen bedingt eine stetige Zuförderung der Stückgüter über die Einschleusungen zum Sorter. Für Sortiersysteme mit nur einer Einschleusung trifft dies in besonderer Weise zu, da in diesem Fall die maximale Durchsatzleistung des Sorters direkt durch die maximale Durchsatzleistung der Einschleusung begrenzt wird. Im Rahmen dieses Artikels werden unterschiedliche Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten für die Einschleusung am Drehsorter vorg...

  16. Effects of landfills on the limnology of associated running waters; Gefaehrdung von Oberflaechengewaessern durch Altablagerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, B. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Zoologie; Kappus, B. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Zoologie; Boehmer, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Zoologie; Nill, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Zoologie; Rahmann, H. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Zoologie

    1997-10-01

    Five small brooks influenced by runoff from landfills were surveyed from May 1993 to March 1994 using chemical and biological methods. Results showed clear impacts on the macroinvertebrate fauna as a result of pollutants in three of the five brooks studied. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Einflussbereich von Altdeponien wurden fuenf kleine Fliessgewaesser von Mai 1993 bis Maerz 1994 wasserchemisch und biologisch untersucht. Anhand der Untersuchungsergebnisse wurde eine Gefaehrdungsabschaetzung der Oberflaechengewaesser durch die Altablagerungen vorgenommen. Danach waren bei drei der fuenf untersuchten Deponien aufgrund von Schadstoffeintraegen Auswirkungen auf die Makrobenthosfauna der angrenzenden Fliessgewaesser erkennbar. (orig.)

  17. Nitrate removal through combination of nanofiltration and electrocatalysis; Nitratentfernung durch Kombination von Nanofiltration und Elektrokatalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehricht, M.; Stadlbauer, E.A.; Happel, H. [Fachhochschule Giessen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Umwelttechnik

    1999-07-01

    In a new process combination, nitrate-containing ground water is first of all separated by nanofiltration into a concentrate stream (some 25 %) and a largely nitrate-free permeate (75 %). Then the enriched nitrate in the concentrate is converted into nitrogen by means of electrocatalytic nitrate reduction. Whereas, in nanofiltration, a concentration takes place, electrocatalytic nitrate reduction is a process by which nitrate is converted into elemental nitrogen and, thus, removed. Nanofiltration is a membrane separating process making use of 'open' reverse osmosis membranes, which are characterized by high flow but also reduced retention. (orig.) [German] In einer neuen Verfahrenskombination wird das nitrathaltige Grundwasser zuerst durch Nanofiltration in einen Konzentratstrom (ca. 25%) und ein weitgehend nitratfreies Permeat (75%) aufgeteilt. Im Konzentrat wird dann mittels Elektrokatalytischer Nitratreduktion (EKN) das angereicherte Nitrat zu Stickstoff umgewandelt. Waehrend bei der Nanofiltration eine Aufkonzentrierung erfolgt, wird durch die Elektrokatalytische Nitratreduktion das Nitrat in elementaren Stickstoff umgewandelt und so entfernt. Die Nanofiltration ist ein Membrantrennverfahren, bei dem 'offene' Umkehrosmosemembranen eingesetzt werden, die einen hohen Fluss aber auch eine verminderte Rueckhaltung aufweisen. (orig.)

  18. Environmental pollution caused by coal mining and utilization in China; Umweltbelastungen durch Kohlefoerderung und -nutzung in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Fuchen [Guangdong Ocean Univ., Zhanjiang (China). Dept. of Scientific Research Management

    2013-07-15

    After the BP Statistical Review of World Energy of 2010 45.6% of coal production and 46.9% of coal consumption in the world in 2009 are accounted for China. The large-scale coal production and use cause major environmental impacts. A large environmental impact is through the emission of some unavoidable reaction products (for example waste gas, waste heat) that affect and damage the ecosystem. A steady influence can lead to long-term climate changes and medium term damage to the ecosystem. Other environmental impacts occur during mining of coal by the change in the water balance and the transformation of the landscape (surface mining, spoil tips). The environmental problems caused by coal mining and utilization can not be ignored in China. [German] Nach der BP-Statistik der Weltenergie 2010 sind 45,6% der Kohleproduktion und 46,9% des Kohleverbrauchs in der Welt im Jahr 2009 auf China entfallen. Die grossangelegte Kohlefoerderung und -verwendung fuehren zu grossen Umweltbelastungen. Eine grosse Umweltbeeinflussung erfolgt durch die Emission von zum Teil unvermeidbaren Umsetzungsprodukten (zum Beispiel Abgas, Abwaerme), die das Oekosystem beeinflussen und schaedigen. Eine stetige Beeinflussung kann langfristig zu den Klimaveraenderungen und mittelfristig zur Schaedigung des Oekosystems fuehren. Weitere Umweltbelastungen erfolgen beim Abbau der Kohle durch die Veraenderung des Wasserhaushalts und durch die Umgestaltung der Landschaft (Tagebau, Abbauhalden). Die Umweltprobleme, die durch die Kohlefoerderung und -nutzung verursacht werden, koennen in China nicht ignoriert werden.

  19. Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

    This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3)…

  20. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  1. Decontamination of contaminated soils by microwave heating; Dekontaminierung verseuchter Boeden durch Mikrowellenheizung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauli, Mario

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes a system for the thermal decontamination of contaminated soils by microwaves. In addition to the determination of the dielectric material parameters of different soils, a focus is on antennas for the efficient coupling of the microwaves into the ground. The developed simulation model takes into account the electromagnetic-thermal interaction and makes it possible to predict optimal plant configuration, duration and costs of a sanitation measure in advance. [German] Die Arbeit beschreibt ein System zur thermischen Dekontaminierung verseuchter Boeden durch Mikrowellen. Neben der Bestimmung der dielektrischen Materialparameter verschiedener Boeden liegt ein Schwerpunkt auf Antennen zur effizienten Einkopplung der Mikrowellen in den Boden. Das entwickelte Simulationsmodell beruecksichtigt die elektromagnetisch-thermische Wechselwirkung und ermoeglicht es, bereits im Vorfeld optimale Anlagenkonfiguration, Dauer und Kosten einer Sanierungsmassnahme vorherzusagen.

  2. Auto-ignition generated combustion. Pt. 2. Thermodynamic fundamentals; Verbrennungssteuerung durch Selbstzuendung. T. 2. Experimentelle Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert, P. [Paris-6 Univ. (France). Lab. de Mecanique Physique; Morin, C. [Paris-6 Univ. (France); Mokhtari, S.

    2004-02-01

    The combustion initiation by auto-ignition demonstrates benefits in NO{sub x} reduction and in process stability for both spark-ignited and compression ignited engines. Based on the better thermodynamic particularities of the auto-ignition, which have been presented in the first part, the characteristics of this process are demonstrated in the second part by experimental analysis. For comparison with similar studies, the analyses have been carried out in base of a two stroke loop scavenged spark-ignition single cylinder engine. (orig.) [German] Die Steuerung der Verbrennung durch Selbstzuendung zeigt Vorteile bezueglich Senkung der NO{sub x}-Emission und Prozessstabilitaet, sowohl bei Otto- als auch bei Dieselmotoren. Auf Grundlage der thermodynamischen Besonderheiten der Selbstzuendvorgaenge, die im ersten Teil praesentiert wurden, erfolgt im zweiten Teil eine experimentelle Betrachtung der Prozesscharakteristika. Zur Vergleichbarkeit mit aehnlichen Untersuchungen wird die experimentelle Analyse auf Basis eines Zweitakt-Einzylinder-Ottomotors mit Umkehrspuelung durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  3. Effects of sorption agents on heavy metal release form incinerator slag; Laesst sich die Freisetzung von Schwermetallen aus MVA-Schlacken durch Zugabe von Sorbenten veraendern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, U. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Kersten, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften

    2003-11-01

    It was investigated inhowfar additions of sorption agents will influence the solution of heavy metals in incinerator slag. [German] Es wurde untersucht, ob nicht durch Zugabe bestimmter Stoffe zur Muellschlacke die Loesung von Schwermetallen beschleunigt werden kann. (orig.)

  4. Komplexitätsbeherrschung in der wertschöpfungspartnerschaftsübergreifenden Produktspezifikationserstellung bei unvollkommenen Informationen durch Simplifizierungsregeln

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Probleme/Forschungsfragen: Ein stetiger Komplexitätsanstieg des Produktes und der Produktentwicklungsumgebung erschweren in Wertschöpfungspartnerschaften das Erreichen einer gemeinsamen Win-Win-Situation. Bei der frühen Erarbeitung der Produktauslegung oder im Rahmen der Produktspezifikationserstellung ist durch die hohe Komplexität von Entwicklungsaufgabe und -umgebung eine umfassende gesamtheitliche Berücksichtigung der wirtschaftlichen Erfolgsdeterminanten nur sehr begrenzt möglich. Ein...

  5. Objektverfolgung durch Fusion von Radar- und Monokameradaten auf Merkmalsebene für zukünftige Fahrerassistenzsysteme

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt eine neuartige Objektverfolgung durch Fusion von Radar- und Monokameradaten auf Merkmalsebene. Dabei werden zuerst die statistischen Fehlermodelle der Sensoren analysiert. Anschließend wird ein neues Assoziationsverfahren auf Basis der PDA-Methodik untersucht. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit ist die Behandlung der Objektdynmaik mit Hilfe eines adaptiven IMM-Filters. Schließlich wird die Thematik Objektklassifikation sowie Gassenbreiteschätzung beleuchtet.

  6. Heating power stations - influencing costs by organisational measures; Heizkraftwerke - Kostenbeeinflussung durch organisatorische Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedlinger, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    The products of district heating and, in the foreseeable future also electrical power, must compete in the market with low prices. Low prices, which still provide a profit, are only possible based on low costs. Low costs are achieved by cost control. The basis for cost control is transparency of costs. Mainly organisational measures were proposed and described. From the individual stages of the organisation, the organisational build-up is obtained, the important feature of which is the allocation of competence to make decisions. (orig./KO) [Deutsch] Die Produkte Fernwaerme und in absehbarer Zeit auch elektrische Energie, muessen sich im Markt mit niedrigen Preisen behaupten. Niedrige Preise, die trotzdem einen Gewinn erbringen sollen, sind nur auf der Basis niedriger Kosten moeglich. Niedrige Kosten erreicht man durch Kostensteuerung, Controlling. Grundlage der Kostensteuerung ist Kostentransparenz. Es wurden im wesentlichen ablauforganisatorische Massnahmen vorgeschlagen und beschrieben. Aus den einzelnen Stationen der Ablauforganisation ergibt sich letztendlich die Aufbauorganisation, deren wesentliches Merkmal die Zuordnung von Entscheidungskompetenz ist. (orig./KO)

  7. Processing of maize plants by rotary kiln pyrolysis; Veredlung von Maispflanzen durch Pyrolyse im Drehrohrreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, W.; Wiest, W. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik

    1996-12-31

    The fuel quality of maize plants is to be characterized by short, elementary and thermonalysis. The plants will be pyrolyzed in order to facilitate transport and storage. The formal kinetic parameters of three parallel reactions describing solid matter decomposition are defined by means of TG-DSC, and the reaction enthalpy is measured. Pyrolysis experiments in a rotary kiln converter in the kg range show a strong dependence of the product spectrum on process temperature. In particular, the pyrolysis gas yield increases with temperature at the expense of pyrolysis oil and water. (orig) [Deutsch] Zur energetischen Nutzung von Kulturpflanzen wird die brennstofftechnische Charakterisierung von Maispflanzen durch Kurz-, Elementar- und Thermoanalyse durchgefuehrt. Zur Reduzierung des Aufwands fuer Transport und Lagerung sollen die Pflanzen pyrolysiert weren. Mit Hilfe der TG-DSC werden formalkinetische Parameter von drei Parallelreaktionen zur Beschreibung der Feststoffzersetzung bestimmt und die Reaktionsenthalpie gemessen. Pyrolyseversuche in einem Drehrohrreaktor im Kilogramm-Massstab ergeben eine starke Abhaengigkeit des Produktspektrums von der Prozesstemperatur. Insbesondere steigt die Pyrolysegasausbeute auf Kosten der Bildung von Pyrolyseoel und Wasser mit der Temperatur stark an. (orig)

  8. Processing of maize plants by rotary kiln pyrolysis; Veredlung von Maispflanzen durch Pyrolyse im Drehrohrreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, W; Wiest, W [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Energietechnik

    1997-12-31

    The fuel quality of maize plants is to be characterized by short, elementary and thermonalysis. The plants will be pyrolyzed in order to facilitate transport and storage. The formal kinetic parameters of three parallel reactions describing solid matter decomposition are defined by means of TG-DSC, and the reaction enthalpy is measured. Pyrolysis experiments in a rotary kiln converter in the kg range show a strong dependence of the product spectrum on process temperature. In particular, the pyrolysis gas yield increases with temperature at the expense of pyrolysis oil and water. (orig) [Deutsch] Zur energetischen Nutzung von Kulturpflanzen wird die brennstofftechnische Charakterisierung von Maispflanzen durch Kurz-, Elementar- und Thermoanalyse durchgefuehrt. Zur Reduzierung des Aufwands fuer Transport und Lagerung sollen die Pflanzen pyrolysiert weren. Mit Hilfe der TG-DSC werden formalkinetische Parameter von drei Parallelreaktionen zur Beschreibung der Feststoffzersetzung bestimmt und die Reaktionsenthalpie gemessen. Pyrolyseversuche in einem Drehrohrreaktor im Kilogramm-Massstab ergeben eine starke Abhaengigkeit des Produktspektrums von der Prozesstemperatur. Insbesondere steigt die Pyrolysegasausbeute auf Kosten der Bildung von Pyrolyseoel und Wasser mit der Temperatur stark an. (orig)

  9. Optimization of sewage treatment plants through adjustment of the acid capacity; Optimierung von Klaeranlagen durch Saeurekapazitaetseinstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, B.; Soelter, K. [Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In many areas with soft water (low water hardness), variations of degradation behaviour are noted in the biological cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water. The use of acidic precipitation agents and processes of biological ammonium oxidation (nitrification) reduce the acid capacity of water. Addition of lime in different forms can prevent this drop in acid capacity. As a new development in this field, lime hydrate can be added in dry form. This form of application dispenses with some of the elements normally installed at sewage treatment plants. Several examples demonstrate the advantages offered by this technique, especially the need for less metal salts to eliminate phosphate. (orig.) [German] In vielen Weichwassergebieten (geringer Wasserhaerte) treten bei der biologischen Reinigung von kommunalen und industriellen Abwaessern Schwankungen des Abbauverhaltens auf. Der Einsatz von sauren Faellmitteln und die Prozesse der biologischen Ammoniumoxidation (Nitrifikation) senken die Saeurekapazitaet des Wassers ab. Durch die Zugabe von Kalk in verschiedenen Dosierformen kann die Saeurekapazitaetsabsenkung verhindert werden. Eine neue Entwicklung auf diesem Gebiet ist die Trockendosierung von Kalkhydrat. Wesentliche Teile der sonst installierten Anlagentechnik sind bei dieser Art der Dosierung nicht mehr notwendig. Anhand von mehreren Beispielen wird erlaeutert, welche Vorteile dieses Verfahren bieten kann, insbesondere bei der Einsparung von Metallsalzen zur Phosphatentfernung. (orig.)

  10. Mechatronics in the car: success through efficient methodological development; Mechatronik im Kraftfahrzeug: Erfolg durch effiziente Entwicklungsmethodik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieterle, W.; Dilger, E. [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Gerlingen (Germany). Zentralbereich Forschung und Vorausentwicklung; Buerger, K.G. [Bosch (R.) GmbH (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    The ever increasing requirements with respect to fuel consumption, emissions as well as safety and comfort necessitate ever increasing complex functionalities in the car. They are realized, as a rule, by a combination of mechanics, hydraulics, electrics/electronics and, more and more, software. In the past, the development of the various electric/electronic, mechanical or hydraulic components tended to happen at separate levels, nowadays the focus is more on a comprehensive approach to the overall system. In this context, the integrated development of 'mechatronic' components, including the respective software, leads to a targeted solution. (orig.) [German] Staendig steigende Anforderungen hinsichtlich Kraftstoffverbrauch, Emissionen sowie Sicherheit und Komfort bedingen immer komplexere Funktionalitaeten im Kraftfahrzeug. Sie werden in der Regel durch eine Kombination von Mechanik, Hydraulik, Elektrik/Elektronik und zunehmend auch Software realisiert. Nachdem in der Vergangenheit die Entwicklung meist noch auf getrennten Ebenen verlief, steht heute ein uebergreifender, das Gesamtsystem umfassender Ansatz im Vordergrund. Dieser Beitrag der Robert Bosch GmbH berichtet ueber aktuelle Mechatronik-Entwicklungen. Dabei sorgt die integrierte Entwicklung der 'mechatronischen' Komponenten unter Einbezug der zugehoerigen Software fuer eine zielgerichtete Loesung. (orig.)

  11. Biosorption of heavy metals by immobilized microalgae; Biosorption von Schwermetallen durch immobilisierte Mikroalgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, A.; Bunke, G.; Goetz, P.; Buchholz, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Bioverfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    . Durch geeignete Versuche muessen die verschiedenen Stofftransportwiderstaende (Filmwiderstand, Diffusionswiderstand im Innern der Partikel) voneinander entkoppelt werden, damit eine Bestimmung derselben ermoeglicht wird. (orig.)

  12. Continuous high-temperature recycling of waste by the Thermoselect process; Unterbrechungsloses Hochtemperaturrecycling - Abfallveredelung durch Thermoselect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlberg, R [Thermoselect Engineering S.r.l., Verbania (Italy)

    1998-09-01

    Based on the experience with the Thermoselect plant at Fondotoce, Italy (100 Mg/d), which was commissioned in 1992, a 225,000 Mg/a plant with three units (720 Mg/d) is being constructed at Karlsruhe, Germany. The plant is scheduled for commissioning in 1998. The contribution presents the product balance, the approved emission levels, and the energy uses envisaged for the Karlsruhe project. Final product quality data and energy yields illustrate the differences from conventional thermal processes. An ecobalance comparing the Thermoselect process with grate furnaces shows that water, soil and air pollution is much reduced by the new Termoselect process. Apart from high product quality, the plant also has the advantage of reduced dumping cost and no long-term ecological hazards. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Auf Basis der grosstechnischen Erfahrung mit einer seit 1992 in Fondotoce (Italien) betriebenen THERMOSELECT-Anlage (Kapazitaet 100 Mg/d), Restmuell umweltgerecht zu behandeln, wird 1998 der Aufbau einer 225.000 Mg/a-Anlage mit 3 Linien (720 Mg/d) in Karlsruhe (Deutschland) abgeschlossen. Die Produktebilanz und die genehmigten Emissionswerte sind in dem Artikel belegt. Gezeigt wird die fuer das Projekt Karlsruhe vorgesehene Energienutzung. Die Endprodduktqualitaeten und die Energieausbeute verdeutlichen die Unterschiede zu bisherigen konventionellen thermischen Verfahren. Eine erarbeitete Oekobilanz mit einem Vergleich von THERMOSELECT und Rostfeuerung zeigt die deutlich geringe Belastung der Umweltkompartimente Wasser, Boden und Luft durch das neue THERMOSELECT-Verfahren. Neben hohen Produktqualitaeten wird - verglichen mit traditionellen Techniken - ein deutlich verringerter Entsorgungspreis erreicht, wobei gleichzeitig oekologische Belastungen auszuschliessen sind. (orig./SR)

  13. Untersuchungen der Narbenqualität nach unterschiedlichen Verfahren des Wundverschlusses und der Wundbehandlung durch autologe Hauttransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Zeplin, Philip Helge

    2005-01-01

    Die qualitative und quantitative Narbenqualitätsmessungen im Verlauf der Wundheilung ist von großer Bedeutung, da durch sie Einflussgrößen, die mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit zu pathologischen Narbenformationen führen, frühzeitig erkannt werden könnten und Rückschlüsse auf die jeweils angewandten Techniken und Materialien zulassen würden. Dass für die Analyse der Heilung von Schnitt- und Defektwunden objektive Messungen unabdingbar sind, sollte am Beispiel des Göttinger Miniaturschweins gezeigt...

  14. Microbiological studies in enhanced sewage sludge degradation through cell membrane break-up; Mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zum verbesserten Klaerschlammabbau durch Zellaufschluss. Mechanische und thermische Behandlung von Schlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battenberg, S.; Naeveke, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Bereich Mikrobiologie

    1999-07-01

    Mechanical disintegration breaks up the flake structure of excess sludge and solubilizes organic constituents. Bacterial cells are rendered soluble. Thermal conditioning of excess sludge, too, can release sludge constituents. This makes for enhanced and accelerated hydrolysis of polymeric sludge constituents in subsequent anaerobic processing. The yield of useful biogas is increased. (orig.) [German] Durch die mechanische Desintegration von Ueberschussschlamm wird die Flockenstruktur zerschlagen und organische Inhaltsstoffe werden in Loesung gebracht. Bakterienzellen werden aufgeschlossen. Auch durch eine thermische Behandlung von Ueberschussschlamm koennen Schlamminhaltsstoffe freigesetzt werden. Dadurch wird bei einer anschliessenden anaeroben Behandlung die Hydrolyse der polymeren Schlamminhaltsstoffe gefoerdert und beschleunigt. Die Ausbeute an verwertbarem Biogas wird gesteigert. (orig.)

  15. Energy saving by hot operating bearings in high temperature kilns. Final report; Energieeinsparung durch Heisslager in Hochtemperaturanlagen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.R.

    2003-07-01

    The project intended to show that ceramic sliding bearings will ensure longer life, energy and cost savings, reduced environmental pollution, and functional improvements. Ceramic sliding bearings were tested at high temperatures of up to 1400 C and low sliding rates, with and without lubrication. High-temperature test stands were constructed in the two partner institutes and adapted to the specifications of the industrial partners concerning the parameters to be investigated. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens 'Energieeinsparung durch Heisslager in Hochtemperaturanlagen' (EHIH) ist nachzuweisen, dass durch den Einsatz von keramischen Gleitlagern im Hochtemperaturbereich Standzeiterhoehungen, Energie- und Kosteneinsparungen, Umweltentlastungen und Funktionsverbesserungen moeglich sind. Auf der Basis der Anforderungsprofile der Industrie- und Forschungspartner waren umfangreiche Verschleisstests keramischer Gleitlager bei hohen Temperaturen (bis 1400 C) sowie niedrigen Gleitgeschwindigkeiten ohne und mit Feststoff-Schmierung vorgesehen. Hierzu wurden an beiden beteiligten Instituten Hochtemperatur-Pruefstaende aufgebaut, die den Anforderungen der jeweiligen Industriepartner hinsichtlich der zu testenden Lagerparameter (Drehzahl, Flaechenpressung, Temperaturprofile, etc.) angepasst wurden. (orig.)

  16. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); Belastung durch Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renger, M.; Mekiffer, B. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologie-Bodenkunde

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the present follow-up project was to examine the contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of different anthropogenic urban soils including clay soils containing demolition waste, household waste, ash, and residues from a coking plant. A further task was to analyse, or infer from other part-projects, standard soil parameters such as organic carbon content, pH, and anion levels in order to clarify any relationships between PAH contamination and the more easily determinable soil characteristics. Furthermore, the sorption behaviour for PAH of selected anthropogenic urban soils was to be characterised by means of batch experiments. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Anschlussvorhabens sollte die Kontamination von anthropogenen Stadtboeden- darunter Truemmerschutt-, Hausmuell-, Asche- sowie Kokereilehmboden- durch polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) untersucht werden. Zusaetzlich sollten die bodenkundlichen Standardparameter Corg, pH-Wert, Anionengehalte und KAKpot analysiert bzw. von den anderen Teilvorhaben uebernommen werden, um Zusammenhaenge zwischen der PAK-Kontamination und relativ leicht zu bestimmenden bodenkundlichen Kennwerten klaeren zu koennen. Das Sorptionsverhalten ausgewaehlter anthropogener Stadtboeden fuer PAK sollte durch Batchversuche charakterisiert werden. (orig./SR)

  17. Verbesserung der Lebensqualität bei Kinderwunsch-Behandlung durch den Gebrauch patientenfreundlicher Follitropin-Fertigpens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitzer J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zur Behandlung des unerfüllten Kinderwunsches unterziehen sich viele Frauen einer assistierten Reproduktionstherapie mit ovarieller Stimulation. Dazu erfolgen tägliche subkutane Injektionen mit Gonadotropinen, welche die Patientinnen eigenständig durchführen können. Häufig haben Patientinnen dabei Angst vor Spritzen und injektionsbedingten Schmerzen. Die vorliegende Beobachtungsstudie zum Einfluss der Anwendung des Follitropin alfa-Fertigpens (Gonal-f®-Pen auf die Lebensqualität der Patientinnen zeigt die Ergebnisse einer Befragung von 170 Frauen zu Angst und Zufriedenheit mit diesem Applikationssystem. Die Erfahrungen wurden vor und nach den Behandlungszyklen auf numerischen Analogskalen quantifiziert und nachfolgend verglichen. Die Studie ergab, dass durch die Verwendung des Gonal-f®-Pens die Angst vor der Injektion und vor Schmerzen signifikant abnahm. Zudem waren die Patientinnen mit dem Applikationssystem äußerst zufrieden.

  18. Energy conservation by technical means: the control systems matter.; Energiesparen durch technische Hilfsmittel: auf die Regelkreise kommt es an.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benecke, J. [Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI), Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The new German regulation on energy conservation in buildings (draft) offers certain flexibility for choosing the quality of the building envelope (thermal resistance and air tightness) and of the HV equipment (AC not considered) in order to balance and minimize the yearly heating-energy demand. Up to now, there was little consideration given to control systems which are able to assist the inhabitants in using heating and ventilation efficiently. The performance of such systems is being discussed. (orig.) [German] In Deutschland betraegt der Anteil der Raumheizenergie am Endenergieverbrauch rund 35%; ihr Anteil am Endenergieverbrauch der Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher betraegt rund 76%. Die Vorgaben der bisherigen Waermeschutzverordnungen und der geplanten Energieeinsparverordnung veranschaulichen das Energieeinsparpotential, das durch effizientere Energienutzung im Gebaeudebereich erschlossen werden kann. (orig.)

  19. Contrast generation in the nuclear-spin tomography by pulsed ultrasound; Kontrasterzeugung in der Kernspintomographie durch gepulsten Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehms, Ole Benjamin

    2009-07-10

    In the framework of this thesis a combined method of ultrasound and nuclear-spin tomography is presented. Via ultrasound pulses by the sound-radiation force in liquids and tissue phantoms motions are generated, which depend on ther viscoelastic properties. This motions are made visible by a motion-sensitive tomograph sequence in the phase image of the tomograph in form of a phase change. The first measurements on simple phantoms and liquids are presented. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird eine kombinierte Methode aus Ultraschall und Kernspintomographie vorgestellt. Ueber Ultraschallpulse werden durch die Schallstrahlungskraft in Fluessigkeiten und Gewebephantomen Bewegungen erzeugt, die von den viskoelastischen Eigenschaften abhaengen. Diese Bewegungen werden mit einer bewegungssensitiven Tomographensequenz im Phasenbild des Tomographen in Form einer Phasenaenderung sichtbar gemacht. Die ersten Messungen an einfachen Phantomen und Fluessigkeiten werden praesentiert. (orig.)

  20. [Peter von Brackel. Christlich Gesprech von der grawsamen Zerstörung in Lifland durch den Muscowiter vom 58. Jar her geschehenn...] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Christlich Gesprech von der grawsamen Zerstörung in Lifland durch den Muscowiter vom 58. Jar her geschehenn: auch ihren Ursachen mit einer kurtzen Predig und Vermanung, wie beid, Gotlosenn unnd Frommen, diese schreckliche Mutation fruchtbarlich behertzigen und ihnen zu Nutz machen sollen: durch Timannum Brakel Livoniensem, der Gemeine Christi vonn der Augsburgischen Confession Prediger zu Anttorf einfeltig gestellet unnd inn Druck verfertiget = Darstellung der Geschichte Livlands vor und während des "Livländischen Krieges" bis 1578 in gereimter Dialogform und Prosa von dem Prediger und Geschichtsschreiber Timann Brakel : Originaltext und Übersetzung ins Hochdeutsche mit Kommentaren, Ergänzungen, Bildern und dem Lebenslauf des Timann Brakel. (Beiträge zur baltischen Geschichte, 19). Verlag Harro von Hirschheydt. Wedemark 2012

  1. Regenerierung fester Katalysatoren für die Isobutan-Buten-Alkylierung durch hydrierende Behandlung in flüssiger Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Klingmann, Raoul

    2005-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Regenerierung fester Katalysatoren für die Isobutan/Buten-Alkylierung durch hydrierende Behandlung in flüssiger Phase untersucht. Als Katalysatoren dienten edelmetallhaltige Zeolithe des Typs La-X (FAU). Die Alkylierungs- und Regenerierungsexperimente wurden in einer Apparatur mit kontinuierlich betriebenem Rührkesselreaktor und Analytikeinheit mit On-line-Probenahmevorrichtung durchgeführt. Zunächst wurde der Aufbau der Koksdeposite in Abhängigkeit von...

  2. Aktive Steuerung des Transmissionsverhaltens stochastischer Störquellen durch flächige Leichtbaustrukturen [Active feedforward control of the transmission of stochastic disturbances through lightweight panel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Misol, Malte

    2014-01-01

    Leichtbaustrukturen weisen eine geringe Schalldämmung bei tiefen Frequenzen auf. Ihr Einsatz bei Gebäuden, Fahr- oder Flugzeugen ist daher mit negativen Auswirkungen auf die Innenraumakustik verbunden. Adaptronische Maßnahmen, wie die aktive Struktur-Akustik-Regelung (ASAC), können passive Maßnahmen der Schalldämmung flankieren oder ersetzen. Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Beeinflussung der Transmission stochastischer Störquellen durch ein- und doppelwandige Leichtbaustruktursysteme mithilf...

  3. THESEUS - achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation; THESEUS - Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechsterreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompe, K.; Heuser, G.

    1996-03-01

    In spring 1990, the Federal German Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) commissioned the team from the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler-Benz, the Federal Road Research Institute (BASt) with the University of Cologne, Ellinghaus and TUeV Rheinland (project leader) to perform the research project `THESEUS` (the acronym THESEUS comes from the German `Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation`, which translates as `achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation`). Arting from an analysis of road transport tanker accidents, crash tests and overturn tests were performed and supplemented by investigations of road transport tanker components and accompanying complex calculations of the failure processes. Parallel to this, the static side-tilt stability of road transport tankers was determined on a tilting test platform. The causes of and constructive possibilities for avoiding overturning, which is the most common cause of accidents in which hazardous materials escape, wewre analysed in dynamic driving tests with supplementary computer simulation. Various measures for improving the safety of road transport tankers were determined and subjected to a cost-benefit analysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie hat seit 1990 das Forschungsproject `THESEUS` (Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation) der Arbeitsgemeinschaft aus TUeV Rheinland (Federfuehrung), Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler Benz, Bundesanstalt fuer Strassenwesen (BASt), Universitaet Koeln und Ellinghaus gefoerdert. Ausgehend von der detaillierten Analyse von 231 Tankfahrzeugunfaellen wurden Tankfahrzeug-Crashversuche und Tankfahrzeug-Umsturzversuche durchgefuehrt. Diese Messungen an kompletten Fahrzeugen

  4. Reuse of filter backwash water with a submerged microfiltration membrane system; Wiederverwendung von Filterspuelwaessern durch Mikrofiltration mit getauchten Membranen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetzle, T.; Merkl, G.; Wilderer, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Lab. fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Backhaus, J. [Erlanger Stadtwerke AG, Erlangen (Germany); Hagen, K. [VA TECH WABAG GmbH Kulmbach, Kulmbach (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    During the treatment of groundwater by filtration for drinking water purposes, approximately 3% of the treated water volume has to be used as filter backwash water. Until now this backwash water charged with the accumulated filtrate is then redirected into sewers or receiving waters, either directly or after a sedimentation step. With sufficient separation of the filtered substances from backwash water this could again be used for drinking water purposes. This conserves natural groundwater resources and significantly reduces the volume of wastewater discharged. Especially in the face of the increasing shortage of useable groundwater resources in many countries, this will become increasingly important in the future. In our project, supported by 'EU-Life', the Technical University of Munich will examine on a large-scale plant according to the WABAG-SMS-Process, how far cross-flow microfiltration is capable of purifying the backwash waters for drinking water purposes again. The pilot-plant consists of two treatment parts, one charged with backwash water from the iron-, manganese- and arsenic-elimination, the other charged with backwash water from the deacidification. The membrane modules are submerged in closed storage basins for backwash water. Air is supplied under the modules to generate a defined cross-flow. This article discusses the results after one year of operation of the plant. (orig.) [German] Bei der Aufbereitung von Grundwasser durch Filtration in der Trinkwasseraufbereitung muessen etwa 3% der aufbereiteten Wassermenge zur Rueckspuelung der Filter verwendet werden. Bisher werden die hierbei anfallenden und mit den zuvor abfiltrierten Stoffen belasteten Filterspuelwaesser je nach den oertlichen Gegebenheiten unmittelbar oder nach einer Sedimentationsstufe in Vorfluter oder die oeffentliche Sammelkanalisation abgeschlagen. Durch eine hinreichende Trennung der abfiltrierten Stoffe vom Filterspuelwasser koennte dieses wieder der

  5. Replacement of coal-fuelled stoves by modern room heating systems in multistorey dwellings; Abloesung der Kohle-Einzelofenheizung durch moderne Raumheizungssysteme in Mehrgeschossbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, K. [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    In eastern Germany, approximately one million residential units in multi-storey apartment buildings are still heated with coal-fired stoves. Not all building societies or private house-owners can afford to substitute modern heating systems for individual coal stoves within the foreseeable future. Problems encountered when modernizing heating systems are described. A way of pre-financing modernization is by loans given by the tenants to the building society. The paper deals with individual aspects, such as contract conditions, organization and experience with this model, as well as its advantages for the landlord and tenant. (MSK) [Deutsch] In Ostdeutschland werden noch rund 1 Million Wohnungen in mehrgeschossigen Wohnhaeuern mit Kohle geheizt. Nicht alle Wohnungsgenossenschaften oder privaten Hauseigentuemer sind finanziell in der Lage in absehbarer Zeit die Kohle-Einzelheizung durch moderne Heizungssysteme abzuloesen. Im Folgenden werden die Probleme bei der Heizungsmodernisierung beschrieben. Der Weg Heizungsmodernisierung durch Mieterdarlehen wird in einzelnen Punkten wie Finanzierung durch Mieterdarlehen, deren Organisation und Erfahrungen mit diesem Modell sowie die Vorteile fuer Vermieter und Mieter dargelegt.

  6. Climate protection by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases in households and the tertiary sector through climate-conscious behaviour. Vol. 1; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Treibhausgasemissionen im Bereich Haushalte und Kleinverbrauch durch klimagerechtes Verhalten. Bd. 1. Private Haushalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brohmann, B; Cames, M

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the project was to identify areas in households and the tertiary sector in which changes in behaviour could result in energy conservation and thus a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and to quantify the potentials for 1995, 2005 and 2020. A second focus was on the analysis and evaluation of programmes and instruments to realise the potentials. With literature evaluation, expert interviews, and a household servey potentials and further technical development have been identified. In sum, behavioural measures can contribute to the CO2 reduction by 64 million tons in 1995 in households and 27 in the commercial sector in which the potential decreases to 18 million tons in 2020 due to the autonomous technical development. Adequate promotion programmes can help to realise 20-30% of the potential by 2020. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Vorhabens war, im Sektor private Haushalte und Kleinverbrauch Bereiche zu identifizieren, in denen Verhaltensaenderungen zur Energieeinsparung fuehren koennen, und diese Potenziale fuer 1995, 2005 und 2020 zu quantifizieren. Darauf aufbauend waren Programme und Instrumente zur Umsetzung aufzuzeigen und zu bewerten. Gestuetzt auf Literaturrecherchen und Expertengespraeche wurden Einzelpotenziale, Rahmenbedingungen, Entwicklungstrends in der Technik und im Ausstattungsgrad ermittelt. Insgesamt koennten Verhaltensmassnahmen im Haushaltssektor die CO2-Emissionen im Basisjahr 1995 um 64 Mio, im Kleinverbrauch um 27 Mio t vermindern. Bis 2020 bleibt dieses Potenzial im Haushaltssektor in etwa gleich. Im Kleinverbrauch sinkt es infolge der autonomen Technikentwicklung auf 18 Mio t ab. Durch geeignete Programme koennen bis 2020 etwa 20-30% des Potenzials erreicht werden. (orig.)

  7. On-line analysis of water contamination by organic compounds; On-line-Analytik der Wasserverschmutzung durch organische Substanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagt, R. van der; Vos, F. de [Skalar Analytical (Netherlands); Babichenko, S.; Poryvkina, L. [Institute of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-08-01

    In many environmental applications decomposing the mixture of substances in the water into its various chemical ingredients, for subsequent analysis, is a very complicated task. The most productive approach to on-line diagnosis is to treat the object as an integral spectroscopic sample, characterized by certain specific Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS). The SFS are recorded as a matrix of fluorescent intensity of organic compounds in water, in co-ordinates of excitation and emission spectra, providing a three-dimensional spectrum. Spectral windows of SFS are defined by fluorescent characteristics of basic groups of organic substances in the water sample. The novel Skalar Fluo Imager, based on this principle, is intended for the analysis of organic compounds in natural, domestic, and technological waters in an on-line mode. (orig.) [German] In vielen Umweltschutzanwendungen stellt die Auftrennung eines Substanzgemisches zum Zweck der Analyse eine sehr komplizierte Aufgabe dar. Ein erfolgversprechender Ansatz fuer eine on-line-Diagnostik besteht darin, das Objekt als integrale Spektroskopieprobe zu betrachten, die durch bestimmte spezifische Spektral-Fluoreszenz-Signaturen (SFS) charakterisiert wird. Diese werden als Fluoreszenz-Intensitaets-Matrix organischer Verbindungen in Wasser dargestellt, mit Anregungs- und Emissionsspektren als weiteren Koordinaten, wodurch ein dreidimensionales Spektrum entsteht. Spektrale Fenster der SFS sind definiert als Fluoreszenzcharakteristika von Funktionsgruppen organischer Substanzen in der Wasserprobe. Der auf diesem Prinzip basierende Skalar Fluo Imager ist fuer die on-line-Analyse organischer Bestandteile in natuerlichen, Haus- und technischen Waessern gedacht. (orig.)

  8. Neue Möglichkeiten in der archäologischen arbeit durch den Einsatz digitales Bildauswertung und photogrammetrischer Messtechniken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Wesbuer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Die digitale Bildbearbeitung und die digitale Photogrammetrie haben in den letzten Jahren, neben vielen anderen Gebieten, die Dokumentation von Ausgrabungsstätten beeinflusst. Die Photogrammetrie hat ihren Ursprung in der Vermessungskunde. Sie wird heutzutage in vielen Bereichen der Ingenieurwissenschaften eingesetzt und hat somit viele Schnittbereiche zu angrenzenden wissenschaftlichen Gebieten. In der Archäologie hat sie daher die Möglichkeit, in vielen Bereichen die herkömmliche Geodäsie zu erweitern bzw. neue Möglichkeiten der Visualisierung zu schaffen oder bei der Bildauswertung zu helfen.Durch die Bildbearbeitung ist es heutzutage möglich, schnell und vor Ort die Dokumentation vorzunehmen. Mit ihrer Hilfe können z.B. nicht orthogonale Aufnahmen perspektivisch entzerrt werden, so dass in ihnen wieder gemessen werden kann.Der Artikel unterteilt sich in 3 Bereiche:• als erstes werden die Möglichkeiten der digitalen Bildbearbeitung bzw. Auswertung von Photos dargestellt.• danach wird auf die photogrammetrische Auswertung und Vermessung von Ausgrabungsstätten eingegangen. • und zuletzt werden einige Visualisierungsmöglichkeiten gezeigt, die mit Hilfe der photogrammetrischen Auswertung und 3DModellerstellung realisiert werden können.

  9. Advantages of variable-speed operation of hydraulic turbo-engines; Vorteile durch den drehzahlvariablen Betrieb von hydraulischen Stroemungsmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbort, T. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    1997-12-31

    The performance of current hydraulic turbo-engines in the variable speed sector is monitored and judged. The study covers radial and axial engines as well as Pelton turbines. Variable-speed operation of hydraulic turbo-engines can be realized by means of different combinations of electrical rotating machines and frequency converters. The operating range of the frequency converter plays an important role in the optimization of performance and is taken into account. The smoothness of run of reaction turbines and their cavitation performance can be enhanced by speed regulation. But above all, efficiency is more or less substantially enhanced during partial load or in the case of greatly varying heights of drop. The latter holds true also of Pelton turbines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Betriebsverhalten der gaengigen hydraulischen Stroemungsmaschinen wird in Hinblick auf den drehzahlvariablen Betrieb erfasst und beurteilt. Die Untersuchung erfolgt fuer Radialmaschinen, Axialmaschinen und Peltonturbinen. Der drehzahlvariable Betrieb hydraulischer Stroemungsmaschinen kann mit verschiedenen Kombinationen von elektrischen Maschinen und Frequenzumrichtern realisiert werden. Der Arbeitsbereich des Frequenzumrichters spielt eine wichtige Rolle fuer die Optimierung des Betriebsverhaltens und wird beruecksichtigt. Bei Ueberdruckturbinen kann man durch Drehzahlregelung eine groessere Laufruhe sowie ein guenstigeres Kavitationsverhalten erreichen. Vor allem aber sind im Teillastbereich oder bei stark schwankenden Fallhoehen mehr oder weniger grosse Wirkungsgradgewinne erzielbar. Das letztere gilt auch fuer Peltonturbinen. (orig.)

  10. Altitude dependence of trace substance deposition from clouds to forests. Final report; Hoehenabhaengigkeit der Spurenstoffdeposition durch Wolken auf Waelder. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahl, S.; Winkler, P.

    1995-12-31

    Novel forest decline is particularly pronounced in the area of the ridges of medium-range mountains. Whereas acid precipitation was viewed as its sole cause early on in the discussions, it turned out later that the impact of trace gases, too, contributes to the damaging of forests. This report wants to point out the importance of fog interception, which equally plays a part in the pollutant receipts of forests. The deposition of fog water to a forest stand depends very much on altitude, so that trace substance deposition, too, is to be expected to be dependent on altitude. By attempting to quantify this effect, the report helps to pinpoint areas of relevance of this deposition pathway (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Die neuartigen Waldschaeden sind in den Kammlagen der Mittelgebirge besonders ausgepraegt. Waehrend in der anfaenglichen Diskussion die sauren Niederschlaege als alleinige Ursache angesehen wurden, zeigte sich spaeter, dass auch Einwirkungen von Spurengasen zur Schaedigung des Waldes beitragen. Dieser Bericht soll auf die Bedeutung der Nebelinterzeption aufmerksam machen, die ebenfalls zum Schadstoffeintrag in den Wald beitraegt. Die Deposition von Wolkenwasser auf einen Waldbestand ist stark abhaengig von der Hoehenlage, in der sich der Waldbestand befindet, so dass auch eine Hoehenabhaengigkeit des Spurenstoffeintrages zu erwarten ist. Durch den Versuch der Quantifizierung traegt dieser Bericht dazu bei, Gebiete zu erkennen, in denen dieser Eintragspfad eine Rolle spielt. (orig./KW)

  11. Retrospektive Analyse von Zufallsbefunden, die bei Patienten mit kutanem malignen Malignom durch (18) F-Fluordeoxyglucose-PET/CT erhoben wurden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Franziska; Winkens, Thomas; Kaatz, Martin; Goetze, Steven; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Bei der (18) F-Fluordeoxyglucose-Positronenemissionstomographie/Computertomographie (FDG-PET/CT) ergeben sich häufig Zufallsbefunde. In der vorliegenden Studie konzentrierten wir uns auf mittels FDG-PET/CT erhaltene Zufallsbefunde bei Patienten mit kutanem Melanom und überprüften deren Relevanz hinsichtlich weiterer diagnostischer Maßnahmen und Interventionen. Die Krankenakten von 181 konsekutiven Melanom-Patienten wurden retrospektiv ausgewertet, um das Management von Zufallsbefunden zu dokumentieren. Der Schwerpunkt lag dabei auf den histologischen Befunden. Bei 33 von 181 (18 %) Patienten lagen 39 relevante Zufallsbefunde vor, und zwar im Kolorektalbereich (n = 15 Patienten), in der Schilddrüse (n = 8), der Prostata (n = 2), dem Bewegungsapparat (n = 2), in Lymphknoten (n = 2), der Parotis (n = 1), den Mandeln (n = 1), den Nieren (n = 1) und der Gallenblase (n = 1). Bei 25 Patienten schlossen sich weitere diagnostische Verfahren an, wobei in 21 Fällen ein klinisches Korrelat nachgewiesen wurde. Bei 16 von 21 Patienten ergab sich eine Neoplasie, darunter fünf maligne Läsionen (vier Kolonkarzinome und ein Prostatakarzinom). Die Malignome wurden frühzeitig diagnostiziert und in der Mehrzahl der Fälle erfolgreich entfernt. Der Einsatz der FDG-PET/CT als Routine-Diagnostik wird in den Leitlinien empfohlen und ist indiziert bei malignem Melanom ab Stadium IIC. In dieser Studie wurden auf effektive Weise ansonsten nicht erkannte Krebserkrankungen, insbesondere Kolonkarzinome, detektiert. In den meisten Fällen war eine frühe Intervention möglich. Zufallsbefunde durch FDG-PET/CT sollten, unter Berücksichtigung des Zustands und der Wünsche des Patienten, mit den geeigneten diagnostischen Maßnahmen abgeklärt werden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Potential and possibilities of supplying energy from biomass and biogas; Potentiale und Moeglichkeiten der Energiebereitstellung durch Biomasse und Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenberg, H. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Betriebstechnik; Weiland, P.; Ahlgrimm, H.J. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie

    1998-06-01

    Agriculture`s potential contribution to the energy supply of the ``town of the future`` through the conversion of biomass to energy, including biogas production, is a rather modest one. Supposing that the share of total renewable energy in Germany`s primary energy demand rises to approximately 4%, then the proportion of biomass from biotic raw materials especially produced for the purpose will at the most make up an eighth of this amount. Beyond this, biomass is burdened with other drawbacks such as low supply efficiency, limited availability, and weather-dependent reliability. On the other hand, biomass is well suited for conversion to solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, including inexpensive ones with low energy density (solid fuels), mostly used for stationary heating applications, as well as more expensive ones such as liquid fuels with a high energy density for mobile applications in the automotive sector. Thanks to its capacity to regenerate, biomass is an inexhaustible resource. Moreover, its natural life cycle has a small impact on the environment. [Deutsch] Der Beitrag, den die Landwirtschaft durch energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, z.B. auch mit der Erzeugung von Biogas, zur Energieversorgung der `Stadt der Zukunft` leisten kann, nimmt sich bescheiden aus. Wird erwartet, dass innerhalb des naechsten Jahrzehnts der Anteil regenerativer Energien insgesamt auf etwa 4% des Primaerenergie-Verbrauchs Deutschlands ansteigen koennte, so duerfte Biomasse als speziell zur Energiegewinnung angebaute nachwachsende Rohstoffe mit bestensfalls 0,5 Prozentpunkten daran beteiligt sein. Es beduerfen darueber hinaus auch Nachteile, wie geringe Bereitstellungseffizienz, beschraenkte Verfuegbarkeit und witterungsabhaengige Zuverlaessigkeit, der Beachtung. Die Biomasse kann jedoch mit Erfolg in feste, fluessige und gasfoermige Energietraeger konvertiert werden, sowohl in preiswerte mit geringer Energiedichte (Festbrennstoffe) fuer bevorzugt stationaeren Heizungs-Einsatz als auch

  13. Higher efficiency of steam flooding projects with horizontal production wells; Verbesserung der Effizienz von Dampfflutprojekten durch horizontale Foerderbohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, B. [Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke, Barnstorf (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    For 50 years, the Emlichheim oil field has had a production level of about 150,000 t.p.a. of crude oil. Reinjection of deposit water was started in 1952 already in order to maintain the required pressure. Until 1997, all wells were sunk vertically as the loose sandstone was considered unstable. The Emlichheim 300 well was constructed in 1999; it was the first horizontal well that proved that horizontal drilling is possible in this bedrock material. The contribution describes the history of this field and the projecting and implementation of a steam flooding project involving horizontal production wells. [German] Das Erdoelfeld Emlichheim weist seit nunmehr 50 Jahren ein Foerderplateau von rund 150.000 Jahrestonnen Reinoel auf. Nach der Produktionsaufnahme in 1944 wurde dieses Niveau erstmals 1950 erreicht. Bereits 1952 musste zur Druckerhaltung mit der Reinjektion von Lagerstaettenwasser begonnen werden. Bis 1997 wurden alle Bohrungen im Erdoelfeld Emlichheim vertikal abgeteuft. Als groesstes Problem fuer Horizontalbohrungen wurde die Bohrlochstabilitaet in der Bohr- und Komplettierungsphase erachtet, da der Bentheimer Sandstein unverfestigt ist. Mit dem Abteufen der Emlichheim 300 im Jahre 1999 wurde der Nachweis erbracht, dass das Bohren und Komplettieren einer ca. 280 m langen Horizontalstrecke in diesem Traeger erfolgreich moeglich ist. Vorliegende Publikation gibt einen kurzen Einblick in die Geschichte des Feldes, die Planung und Realisierung eines laufenden Dampfflutprojektes unter Einbindung von horizontalen Foerderbohrungen und vergleicht deren Performance mit frueheren Projekten. Zusaetzlich wird auf gewonnene Erkenntnisse durch das Abteufen von Horizontalbohrungen im nicht verfestigten Sandstein eingegangen. Abschliessend soll ein Ausblick auf die weitere Feldentwicklung gegeben werden. (orig.)

  14. Detection of partial discharges in oil transformers with the aid of acoustic emission analysis; Detektion von Teilentladungen in Oeltransformatoren durch die Schallemissionsanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehr, M. [Physical Acoustics BV - Deutschland, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Since the early eighties, acoustic emission analysis has been used for functional testing of transformers. Partial discharges of 150 pC and above are detected reliably. Transformers with oil/paper insulation as a rule are inspected during operation by analysis of the transformer oil at regular intervals or continuously. This integral method provides no information on the operating conditions causing partial discharge and no information on their location. This information gap may be closed by acoustic emission analysis, which will provide the key information required for selective planning of preventive measures. Physical Acoustics (PAC) tested several hundreds of transformers successfully for their operating performance (see also EPRI Project I.D. No. 051481). As a result, e.g., transformers can now be operated for a longer period of time below critical load. [German] Die Schallemissionsanalyse wird seit den fruehen 80-iger Jahren letzten Jahrhunderts von Transformator-Herstellern bei der Funktionspruefung eingesetzt. Hierbei werden Teilentladungen von 150 pC und mehr zuverlaessig detektiert. Oel-papierisolierte Transformatoren werden in der Regel waehrend des Betriebs durch eine Analyse des Transformator-Oels inspeziert. Die Oelanalyse kann in regelmaessigen Abstaenden oder dauerhaft erfolgen. Als integrales Verfahren bietet diese Methode keine Information zu den Betriebsbedingungen unter den Teilentladungen auftreten und gibt auch keine Information zum Ort deren Auftretens. Diese Informationsluecke kann durch den Einsatz einer Schallemissionspruefung (AT) geschlossen werden. Mit dem Messen der Schallemission durch am Trafokessel angebrachte Sensoren kann der Ort und der Zeitpunkt von Stoerungen festgestellt werden. Mit diesen Schluesselinformationen wird es moeglich, die weiteren notwendigen Massnahmen gezielt zu planen. Physical Acoustics (PAC) hat mehrere hunderte von Transformatoren erfolgreich auf ihr Betriebsverhalten untersucht (siehe auch EPRI-Projekt I

  15. Wir überwachen uns. Wie die Sicherheit durch die Digitalisierung immer tiefer in den Alltag eingreift und warum uns das nicht interessiert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schinagl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Der Bereich der Überwachung und Sicherheit unterliegt einer neoliberalen Neuausrichtung. Mit der Entstehung unheiliger Allianzen zwischen Staat und Wirtschaft, gezielter Privatisierung und einer neuen Warenförmigkeit von Sicherheit entgrenzen sich zunehmend auch deren Produktionsprozesse. Das Subjekt wird durch eine Digitalisierung der Alltagswelten zunehmend in die Sicherheitsarbeit mit eingebunden und übernimmt zentrale Aufgaben. Der Mensch, ohne dessen Zutun das digitale Überwachungssystem nicht so gut funktionieren würde, erscheint außerstande und unwillig, sich dieser Entwicklung zu entziehen.

  16. Attenuation corrections through energy spectra analysis of whole body and partial body measurements applying gamma spectroscopy; Schwaechungskorrektur bei gammaspektroskopischen Ganz- und Teilkoerpermessungen durch Analyse der Energiespektren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelper, L.F.; Lassmann, M.; Haenscheid, H.; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-12-01

    The study was carried out within the framework of activities for testing means of direct determination of radioactivity levels in the human body due to incorporated, inhomogenously distributed radionuclides. A major task was to derive the average depth of activity distributions, particularly from photon radiation at energies below 500 keV, for the purpose of making suitable attenuation corrections. The paper presents two applicable methods which yield information on the mean depths of activity distributions, obtained through additional analyses of the energy spectra. The analyses are based on measuring the dependence of intensity of the Compton radiation on the length of pathways of the photons penetrating the soft tissue, or on measuring the energy-dependent absorption effects with photons. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der direkten Aktivitaetsbestimmung bei inhomogener Radionukliddeposition im menschlichen Koerper mittels Ganz- oder Teilkoerpermessanlagen im klinischen Bereich oder im Strahlenschutz sollte besonders bei Photonenstrahlung mit Energien von weniger als 500 keV eine Ermittlung der mittleren Tiefe der Aktivitaetsverteilung zur Schwaechungskorrektur erfolgen. Im klinischen Umfeld ist es haeufig moeglich, zur Tiefenkorrektur die mittlere Organtiefe und damit die schwaechende Gewebsschicht mittels Ultraschall zu bestimmen. Ergaenzend hierzu werden im Folgenden zwei Methoden vorgestellt, welche Aussagen ueber die mittlere Tiefe von Aktivitaetsverteilungen durch Gewinnung von Zusatzinformationen aus dem Energiespektrum im Rahmen von gamma-spektroskopischen Personenmessungen ermoeglichen. Dazu werden einerseits die Abhaengigkeit der Intensitaet der Comptonstrahlung von der Laenge der Wegstrecke von Photonen durch Weichgewebe und andererseits energieabhaengige Absorptionseffekte bei Photonen als Grundlage herangezogen. (orig.)

  17. Fetal lung development on MRI. Normal course and impairment due to premature rupture of membranes; Fetale Lungenentwicklung in der MRT. Normaler Verlauf und Beeintraechtigung durch vorzeitigen Blasensprung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik; Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Brugger, P.C. [Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Helmer, H.; Langer, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde; Balassy, C.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2006-02-15

    A well-organized interplay between many molecular factors as well as mechanical forces influence fetal lung development. At the end of this complex process a sufficiently sized and structurally mature organ should ensure the postnatal survival of the newborn. Besides prenatal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now be used to investigate normal and pathological human lung growth in utero. Oligohydramnios, due to premature rupture of membranes (PROM), is an important risk factor for compromised fetal lung growth. In these situations MR volumetry can be used to measure the size of the fetal lung quite accurately. Together with the evaluation of lung signal intensities on T2-weighted sequences, fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia can be readily detected. (orig.) [German] Die fetale Lungenentwicklung wird einerseits durch eine Vielzahl molekularer Faktoren und andererseits durch mechanisch-physiologische Kraefte beeinflusst. Ein geordnetes Zusammenspiel dieser Mechanismen fuehrt zu einem ausreichend grossen und strukturell reifen Organ, das sofort nach der Geburt das Ueberleben des Neugeborenen sicherstellt. Neben der praenatalen Ultraschalluntersuchung bietet nun auch die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) die Moeglichkeit, die normale und pathologische fetale Lungenentwicklung zu untersuchen. Ein wesentlicher Risikofaktor fuer eine Beeintraechtigung der Lungenentwicklung ist die verminderte Fruchtwassermenge nach vorzeitigem Blasensprung. In diesen Faellen kann die MR-Volumetrie dazu eingesetzt werden, die Groesse der fetalen Lungen relativ genau zu bestimmen. Gemeinsam mit der Beurteilung der MR-Signalintensitaeten des Lungengewebes auf T2-gewichteten Sequenzen koennen Feten mit hypoplastischen Lungen mit zunehmender Sicherheit bereits praenatal identifiziert werden. (orig.)

  18. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  19. Mobilization of PAH by synthetic gastrointestinal juice from contaminated soil of a former landfill area; Mobilisierung von PAK durch synthetische Verdauungssaefte aus dem kontaminierten Bodenmaterial einer Altlastenflaeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, A.; Selenka, F.; Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1998-10-01

    In the present study, the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in contaminated soil material, which may be available for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, is estimated by means of evaluating the PAH mobilization by synthetic gastric and intestinal juice in an in vitro test system. Five contaminated soil materials from a former landfill site are analysed in this gastrointestinal model for the PAH of the U.S.EPA-standard. For quantification, an HPLC method with reversed-phase chromatography and on line fluorescence detection is used. The PAH concentration of the contaminated soil materials ranged from 37 {mu}g/g up to 196 {mu}g/g in total. The mobilization of the PAH in the gastrointestinal model ranged from 0.3% up to 1.3% when gastrointestinal juice was used alone. In the presence of whole milk powder, however, the mobilization was enhanced to values from 10.8% up to 14.5%. Since the soil material was taken from different parts of the contaminated area, and since the mobilization of the PAH from the different materials shows only minor differences, the mobilization data evaluated may be considered as representative for the whole contaminated area. Compared to other contaminated soil materials, especially those from gas work areas or coke plants, the mobilization rate of PAH by the gastrointestinal model from the soil materials used in this study is low. The health risk caused, by ingestion of this soil material, as far as PAH are concerned, is actually smaller than the risk calculated from the total content of PAH of the contaminated soil. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im allgemeinen wird nur ein Teil der Schadstoffe aus oral aufgenommenem kontaminiertem Bodenmaterial im Gastrointestinaltrakt resorbiert. In der vorliegenden Studie wird der resorptionsverfuegbare Anteil der PAK aus dem real kontaminierten Bodenmaterial einer ehemaligen Deponie aus dem sueddeutschen Raum anhand der Mobilisierbarkeit der PAK durch die Verdauungssaefte des oberen

  20. Durch Zwang zur Freiheit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Collin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic self-government occurs when organized economic actors fulfill public duties, participate in providing law and law enforcement, and are given scope for the exercise of their interests. It takes place in advisory boards, chambers and cooperatives regulated by public law. Economic self-government emerged in the 19th century. Its importance increased primarily from the end of the 19th century, the time of the emergence of the interventionist state. This development seemed to be accompanied by a loss of freedom because self-government was legally constructed as a state-dependent form of organization. Above all, it was subject to state supervision. However, this review would be one-sided. The establishment of self-government, simultaneously, created the possibility of increased influence on public affairs. The semi-official character of self-government institutions strengthened the legitimacy of the economic representation of interests and the power of enforcement in relation to government authorities and other organized societal actors. Economic self-government was a way of coordinating divergent interests more effectively in a highly differentiated society and enlarging the space for the collective exercise of freedom. The resulting increased dependence on the state was a price which large parts of society were willing to pay.

  1. Hautreizungen durch Propylenglykol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Storrs, F J

    1982-01-01

    Propylene glycol is used in foods, medicine and cosmetics because it is a good solvent which has, simultaneously, moisture-regulating, antiseptic, and preservative effects. Propylene glycol may produce eczematous skin reactions of toxic and, more rarely, of allergic nature. Positive patch test...... by dermatologists as propylene glycol is used in local steroids and other topical preparations....

  2. Properties of polymer-silver nanocomposites fabricated by co-sputtering; Eigenschaften von Polymer-Silber-Nanokompositen hergestellt durch Co-Sputtern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, Ulrich

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis polymer-metal nanocomposites were fabricated by simultaneous sputtering of silver and polymers from two independent magnetron sputtering sources. By the netted structure and the dielectric properties PTFE is suited for the use as matrix material. The metal content of the composite films was determined via the measurement of EDX intensities. The size of the nanoparticles was determined by means of TEM and XRD and lies in the range of 10 nm. The composite materials show at the percolation limit a sudden transition of the properties from polymer- to metal-like behaviour. The specific resistance decreases in a range between 35 and 40 % silver content by at least nine orders of magnitude. The optical properties change with the metal content. The absorption caused by plasmon resonance, which has at small filling degrees its maximum at about 000 nm and has an intense yellow colour of the composite material as consequence shifts with increasing silver content to longer wavelengths. The difference in the optical.behaviour of the nanocomposites and the pure polymers can be used for the fabrication of Bragg reflectors. Small changes in the metal content can in the polymer-silver nanocomposites in the range of the percolation threshold effect a drastic change in ther properties, by which applications as sensors are thinkable. [German] In dieser Arbeit wurden Polymer-Metall-Nanokomposite durch gleichzeitiges Sputtern von Silber und Polymeren aus zwei unabhaengigen Magnetron-Sputterquellen hergestellt. Durch die vernetzte Struktur und die dielektrischen Eigenschaften eignet sich PTFE zur Verwendung als Matrixmaterial. Der Metallgehalt der Kompositfilme wurde ueber die Messung von EDX-Intensitaeten ermittelt. Die Groesse der Nanopartikel wurde mit Hilfe von TEM und XRD bestimmt und liegt im Bereich von 10 nm. Die Kompositmaterialien zeigen an der Perkolationsgrenze einen schlagartigen Uebergang der Eigenschaften vom polymer- zum metallaehnlichen Verhalten. Der

  3. BioCrack {sup registered}. Enhanced gas yield by electrokinetic disintegration; BioCrack {sup registered}. Steigerung der Gasausbeute durch elektrokinetische Desintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebich, Markus [Hugo Vogelsang Maschinenbau GmbH (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the electrokinetic disintegration process, the fluid flows through a pipeline system to which a HV field is applied. The electric forces of the HV field deform and destabilise the cell membrane. Once the deformation exceeds the elastic resistance of the cell membrane, the cell membrane will become permeable, and the cell content will be released and can be used for gas production. The advantages of theprocess are the low investment cost, simple retrofitting, high availability, and low energy cost (35 W per module). [German] Bei der elektrokinetischen Desintegration durchfliesst das Medium ein Rohrleitungssystem in dem ein Hochspannungsfeld anliegt. Durch die auftretenden elektrischen Kraefte im Hochspannungsfeld wird die Zellmembran verformt und destabilisiert. Uebersteigt die Verformung die elastische Widerstandkraft der Zellmembran, so wird diese durchlaessig. Dadurch werden die Zellinhaltsstoffe freigesetzt und koennen zur Gaserzeugung genutzt werden. Die Vorteile dieses Verfahrens liegen in den geringen Investitionskosten gegenueber anderen Desintegrationsverfahren, der einfachen Nachruestbarkeit, der hoher Anlagenverfuegbarkeit sowie in den geringen Energiekosten (35 W pro Modul).

  4. A practical example of how companies can cut down their costs by means of an environmental management system; Moeglichkeit der Kostensenkung in Betrieben durch Umweltmanagement am praktischen Beispiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grooterhorst, A. [SIG Consult GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    Regular acquisition of environmentally relevant data permits systematic monitoring of the environmental impact of industrial operations. This, together with a systematic documentation and the efficient organization of operations, creates the basis for an environmental management system. When designing an environmental protection concept or introducing an environmental management system, it may be convenient to make use of the services of consultancies. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Durch regelmaessige Erfassung umweltrelevanter Daten wird eine systematische Kontrolle betrieblicher Umweltauswirkungen moeglich. Zusammen mit einer systematischen Dokumentation und einer nachweislichen Regelung zur Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation ist damit die Grundlage fuer ein Umweltmanagementsystem geschaffen. Bei der Erarbeitung eines Umweltschutzkonzeptes und der Einfuehrung eines Umweltmanagementsystems kann es sinnvoll sein einen externen Berater einzuschalten. (orig./ABI)

  5. Revolution by way of technical transfer in the development of locomotive brake systems; Revolutionierung in der Entwicklung von Bremssystemen bei Lokomotiven durch Technologietransfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, E.C. [New York Air Brake (United States). Bereich Engineering; Sinn, R. [New York Air Brake (United States). Bereich Elektronik und Software

    1997-12-31

    With the use of components from other sectors and orientation on the technologies of other fields it has been possible to enhance the standard of electronic braking systems. The reliability of the CCBII is ten times greater than with conventional systems. The physical volume could be reduced by 40 percent and the weight by 30 percent. The CCBII has functional redundancy and the Locotrol Distributed Power System is already integrated. A diagnostics system allows repair times to be reduced to 20 minutes. Production is now commencing and it is planned to make the first deliveries starting from January 1998. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch das Einbinden von Entwurfsverfahren aus der Luft- und Raumfahrtindustrie sowie der Verwendung von Komponenten aus dem Automobilsektor, hochentwickelter Werkstoffe und Techniken ist es moeglich, neue Wege bei Bremssystemen zu gehen. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung einer neuen Generation von computergesteuerten Bremssystemen fuer Lokomotiven. (orig.)

  6. Efficient turbine control. Advantages through controlling internal turbine power in place of turbo generator output; Effektive Turbinenregelung. Vorteile durch die Regelung der inneren Turbinenleistung anstelle der Turbogeneratorleistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.

    1999-07-01

    Hitherto, the electrical output of turbo generators has generally been controlled by means of power output controllers. Load changes caused, for example, by changeovers to isolated unit operation where the load requirements are unknown at first, often resulted in `wrong way control` effects that sometimes even caused entire turbine generator sets to fail. Controlling the internal turbine power makes it possible to avoid such consequences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die elektrische Leistung eines Turbogenerators wurde bislang durch Leistungsregler geregelt. Im Falle einer Lastaenderung, wie sie beispielsweise beim Uebergang in den Betrieb auf ein Teilnetz (Insel-) mit vorher unbekannter Last vorkommt, trat ein Falschregeleffekt auf. Auf diesen wurden bereits Turbosatzausfaelle zurueckgefuehrt. Wird anstelle der elektrischen Leistung allerdings die innere Turbinenleistung geregelt, so tritt der Falschregeleffekt nicht ein. (orig.)

  7. Reducing available amounts of heavy metals in contaminated soils by adding iron oxides. Final report; Verringerung der Bioverfuegbarkeit von Schwermetallen in kontaminierten Boeden durch Zugabe von Eisenoxiden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluquet, E; Mueller, I

    1998-02-01

    This project was part of a German-French research co-operation and investigated the practicability to immobilize heavy metals by adding iron oxides to contaminated soils (harbour sediment, bracky marsh contaminated by emission of a zinc/lead smelter, alluvial Gley soil contaminated by mining activity). Pot and field trials were carried out using three different soils. Five iron bearing materials were added to the soil (1% pure Fe in soil dry matter): Red mud from Al-industry, Fe-precipitation sludge from drinking water treatment, bog iron ore, unused steel shot and steel shot waste from surface treatment of rolled steel plates. When mixed with the soil NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and DTPA extractable amounts of heavy metals and uptake by plants was markedly reduced. It was demonstrated that precipitated Fe-bearing sludge from drinking water treatment was a very effective material reducing the NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} soluble amounts by 40-50% (DTPA 30-40%) in the pot tests while the uptake by plants was reduced by 40% and more. Heavy metals were strongly bound in a fixed order Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu and stayed immobilized until the end of project. Heavy metals were immobilized to a certain extent in field trials, but less effect was observed on concentration in plants and soil extracts compared with the pot tests. In practice the treatment should exceed the 1% pure Fe tested and the application should more homogeneously affect the soil layer where the plant roots mainly grow. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines deutsch-franzoesischen Projektverbundes wurde die Moeglichkeit der Immobilisierung von Schwermetallen in kontaminierten Boeden durch gezielte Zufuhr von Eisenoxiden untersucht. Die praxisorientierten Untersuchungen wurden in Gefaess- und Feldversuchen mit drei unterschiedlichen Boeden (Spuelfeldboden aus Hafenschlick, immissionsbelastete Brackmarsch, durch Bergbau belasteter Auenboden) ausgefuehrt. Dazu wurden fuenf eisen(oxid)haltige Materialien (Rotschlamm aus der Al

  8. Optimizing biological waste water cleaning by means of modern control systems (fuzzy logic); Optimierung der biologischen Abwasserreinigung durch moderne Regelsysteme (Fuzzy-Logik)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohse, M.; Boening, T.; Hegemann, G. [Fachhochschule Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfall- und Abwasserwirtschaft e.V.

    1999-07-01

    Within the framework of a project sponsored by EUREGIO, test series with the biological activation stages of a German and a Dutch sewage treatment plant each are carried out using different process concepts for the control of oxygen supply by fuzzy logic. As the currently available results demonstrate, the developed fuzzy-logic fields of characteristic curves permit establishing a stable and, thus, little energy-consuming process with optimum oxygen supply in comparison with conventional control. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines von der EUREGIO gefoerderten Forschungsprojektes werden Versuchsreihen im Bereich der biologischen Belebungsstufen einer deutschen und einer niederlaendischen Abwasserreinigungsanlage (ARA) mit unterschiedlichen Verfahrenskonzepten hinsichtlich der Regelung der Sauerstoffzufuhr mit Hilfe der Fuzzy-Logik Technik durchgefuehrt. Die bisherigen Versuchsergebnisse zeigen, dass - im Vergleich zur konventionellen Regelung - durch die entwickelten Fuzzy-Logik Kennfelder ein stabiler und damit energiearmer Prozess mit optimaler Sauerstoffzufuhr erzeugt wird. (orig.)

  9. Minimisation of loads on the azimuthal drive by control of the slip brake momentum; Minimierung der Azimutantriebsbelastungen durch Steuerung des Schleifbremsen-Momentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmeke, G. [PVO Engineering OY, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The influence of the slip brake momentum on the load acting on the azimuthal drives is investigated and is minimised by a variable, optimised braking momentum. An option for automatic control is proposed. Measures to improve the availability of wind power systems in cold climates were developed in the context of a development study, including closer investigations of the azimuthal region. [German] Der Einfluss des Schleifbremsenmomentes auf die Belastung der Azimut-Verstellantriebe wird untersucht und durch variables stets optimales Bremsmoment minimiert. Eine Option zur automatisierten Steuerung wird vorgeschlagen. Im Rahmen einer Entwicklungsstudie wurden Massnahmen zur Erhoehung der Betriebssicherheit von Windkraftanlagen in kaltem Klima ausgearbeitet, und unter anderem auch der Azimutbereich naeher untersucht. (orig.)

  10. Material modifications in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate crystals by ion irradiation; Materialmodifikationen in Lithiumniobat- und Lithiumtantalat-Kristallen durch Ionenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeth, Niels Lennart

    2017-02-17

    ''. An explanation for the different behavior of the refractive index changes after irradiation of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} is provided by the following model: The refractive index changes caused by effects such as volume increase, change in polar polarizabilities, and decrease of spontaneous polarization partially cancel each other out, so that the change of ordinary and extraordinary refractive index in LiNbO{sub 3} just coincidentally the same amount fails. In LiTaO{sub 3}, the compensating fraction is normally insufficient to cause a positive change in the extraordinary refractive index. [German] Die kuenstlich hergestellten Kristalle Lithiumniobat (LiNbO{sub 3}) und das eng verwandte Lithiumtantalat (LiTaO{sub 3}) sind bewaehrte Ausgangsmaterialien zur Herstellung aktiver und passiver Bauelemente, die Licht fuehren, verstaerken, schalten und verarbeiten koennen. Hierfuer ist es oft notwendig, den Brechungsindex des Substrats gezielt beeinflussen zu koennen, was neben anderer Methoden auch durch Bestrahlung der Materialien mit schnellen leichten Ionen moeglich ist. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden Lithiumniobat- und Lithiumtantalat-Kristalle mit Alphateilchen, {sup 3}He-Ionen, Deuteronen und Protonen bei Projektilenergien von bis zu 14 MeV/Nukleon bestrahlt. Energie und Kristalldicke sind dabei so gewaehlt, dass die Projektile die gesamte Probe durchdringen und nicht implantiert werden. Alle fuer die unerwuenschte, durch die Bestrahlung entstehende, nukleare Aktivierung der Kristalle verantwortlichen Isotope sind relativ kurzlebig und insgesamt nimmt die Aktivierung schnell genug ab, um nach einer Lagerfrist von einigen Tagen bis wenigen Wochen den gefahrlosen Umgang mit den bestrahlten Proben zu ermoeglichen. Die in Lithiumniobat und Lithiumtantalat durch die Bestrahlung mit den verschiedenen Projektilen erzeugten Brechungsindexaenderungen werden interferometrisch bestimmt und koennen durch geeignete Wahl der Probengeometrie auch in Abhaengigkeit von der

  11. Regulation der FOXO-Gene durch E2F-1und die induzierbare systemische Rekombination eines konditionellen Allels in der Maus

    OpenAIRE

    Geßner, Christine Ruth

    2010-01-01

    1.) FOXO1 und FOXO3A sind Zielgene von E2F-1 in Neuroblastomzellen. 2.) In einem Mausstamm, der ubiquitär ein CRE-ER Fusionsprotein exprimiert, konnte nach Tamoxifen Gabe die Rekombination des konditionellen mutierten p300 AS Gens in der untersuchten Geweben des entsprechenden Mausstammes nachgewiesen werden. Auf Basis dieses Experimentes kann nun die Tumorsuppressor von p300 in vivo untersucht werden.

  12. Integrated power-heat-cold-coupling by switchable Stirling-Vuilleumier-Hybrid-Machines; Integrierte Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung durch umschaltbare Stirling-Vuilleumier-Hybrid-Maschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, Hans-Detlev [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2017-07-01

    experimental effort, a similarity-theoretical scaling was carried out while keeping all dimensionless parameters relevant to the internal gas circulation process constant. Although the experimental results presented in this article therefore require a correction due to some external, not correctly scalable friction and insulation losses, they nevertheless prove that the realization of such switchable systems for decentralized, demand-oriented energy supply of buildings in a practical size and performance class is possible. In coordinated operation of a larger number of such systems - e.g. via ripple control or network load-dependent power consumption tariffs and power feed-in tariffs - can respond by appropriate switching between the operating conditions on load fluctuations in the public grid and so valuable, short-term retrievable control energy can be provided. Furthermore, applications in the field of drive-independent air conditioning, heating and power supply of vehicles are conceivable. [German] Ein Stirlingmotor besteht in seiner sogenannten Gamma-Bauart zum einen aus einem thermischen Verdichter, in dem ein doppelseitig wirkender Verdraengerkolben das Arbeitsgas zwischen einem heissen'' und einem ''warmen'' (d. h. auf dem Waermenutzungstemperaturniveau der KWK-Anwendung befindlichen) Zylinderraum isochor ueber einen Regenerator periodisch hin- und herschiebt. Zum anderen besitzt er ein hiervon raeumlich getrenntes, einseitig wirkendes Arbeitskolben-Zylinder-System, das mit der ''warmen'' Seite des thermischen Verdichters durch einen Ueberstroemkanal verbunden ist und sich somit auf aehnlichem Temperaturniveau befindet. Fuegt man in diesen Ueberstroemkanal einen zusaetzlichen Regenerator ein, so kommt es zu einer Trennung der Temperaturniveaus, da die Waermeabgabe des Prozesses primaer ueber den warmen Zylinderraum des Verdraengersystems erfolgt, waehrend der Zylinderraum des Arbeitskolbens eine Waermesenke darstellt

  13. Transport of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Mucor hiemalis f. irnsingii spores through water-saturated quartz sands; Transport von Phanerochaete chrysosporium- und Mucor hiemalis f. irnsingii-Sporen durch wassergesaettigten Quarzsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, E.; Klotz, D.; Teichmann, G.; Lang, H.; Wolf, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie; Beisker, W. [GSF, Inst. fuer Pathologie (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    Just as bacteria so can aquatic fungi contribute effectively to pollutant elimination, at least in superficial groundwaters. However, very little is known about this. Nor is it known whether fungal spores are capable of being transported through sedimentary cavities. At least fungal spores are for some part of similar size as bacteria. We here report for the first time on a demonstration of the migration through quartz sand of spores of the two fungal species Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Mucor hiemalis f. irnsingii. [German] Neben Bakterien koennen auch aquatische Pilze, zumindest im oberflaechennahen Grundwasser, effiziente Beitraege zur Schadstoffentgiftung leisten. Darueber ist aber sehr wenig bekannt. Es ist auch nicht bekannt, ob ueberhaupt Pilzsporen durch Sedimenthohlraeume transportiert werden koennen, obwohl die Pilzsporen z.T. aehnliche Abmessungen wie Bakterien haben. Hier berichten wir erstmalig ueber den Nachweis der Migration von Sporen der beiden Pilzarten Phanerochaete chrysosporium und Mucor hiemalis f. irnsingii durch Quarzsand. (orig.)

  14. Increase of the efficiency of heat pumps by partial defrosting of evaporator during the heating operation; Effizienzsteigerung von Waermepumpen durch partielle Verdampferabtauung waehrend des Heizbetriebs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Gunda; Thybo, Claus [Danfoss A/S, Nordborg (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    eine regelmaessige Abtauung des Verdampfers vorgenommen werden. Eine weitverbreitete Methode dazu ist die Umkehrung des Kaeltemittelstroms, bei der heisses Gas aus dem Verdichter in den Verdampfer eingeleitet wird. Neben deutlichen Effizienzverlusten entstehen dabei Probleme der Materialbelastung und bei manchen Anlagentypen Komforteinbussen. Die Methode der partiellen Abtauung zielt darauf ab, die Haeufigkeit der Kreislaufumkehr zu reduzieren oder ganz zu vermeiden. Das Prinzip beruht darauf, einzelne Straenge des Verdampfers abwechselnd zu deaktivieren um dort eine energiesparende Abtauung durch die ueberstroemende Luft zu ermoeglichen. In den uebrigen Bereichen des Verdampfers wird weiterhin Waerme von der Aussenluft auf das Kaeltemittel uebertragen, so dass der Betrieb der Anlage kontinuierlich aufrecht erhalten werden kann. Ermoeglicht wird dies durch ein spezielles Ventil, welches Expansion und Verteilung kombiniert und damit erlaubt, die Kaeltemittelmassenstroeme in den einzelnen Verdampferstraengen gezielt einzustellen. Anhand eines mathematischen Modells werden Details der Methode vorgestellt und diskutiert. Durch experimentelle Untersuchungen an Luft-Luft-Waermepumpen wird gezeigt, dass unter Standard-Betriebsbedingungen mit Lufttemperaturen ueber dem Gefrierpunkt waehrend der Deaktivierungsphase der gesamte Reif abgetaut werden kann und somit keine Kreislaufumkehr erforderlich ist.

  15. Energy saving by enhanced temperature measurement of stock materials of heat- and heat treatment process. Final report; Energieeinsparung durch verbesserte Nutzguttemperaturbestimmung bei Waerm- und Waermebehandlungsprozessen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, I.; Klima, R.

    1999-06-01

    Thermoelementes, welches moeglichst gut im Strahlungsaustausch mit dem Nutzgut steht, gemessen. Somit kann die Oberflaechentemperatur weitgehend unabhaengig vom Emissionsgrad des Nutzgutes gemessen werden. Die Vorteile der Thermoelementsonde konnten durch eine Installation an einem Waermeofen und einer Waermebehandlungsanlage deutlich aufgezeigt werden. Durch die dauerhafte betriebliche Installation konnten umfangreiche Verbesserungsmassnahmen zur Energieeinsparung und zur Qualitaetsverbesserung an den Oefen realisiert werden. Die Thermoelementsonde ermoeglicht eine strenge Optimierung mittels modellgestuetzter Steuerung und damit deutliche Produktverbesserungen und Energieeinsparungen. (orig.)

  16. Teleradiology - a blessing or a curse; Teleradiologie - Segen oder Fluch? Vier Jahre Routine im Teleradiologischen Datennetz Nordhessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodemeyer, J.; Mariss, G. [Radiologisches Inst. in der Hardtwaldklinik I - Praxis Dres. med. Mariss/Aref, Bad Zwesten (Germany); Gursky, S. [Medos AG, Langenselbold GSt., Eilenburg (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Several hospitals in northern Hessen, not having their own radiology departments, want to run CT-scanners with the goal of improving medical quality. They requested co-operation from the Radiological Institute in the Hardtwaldklinik 1 in Bad Zwesten. Therefore a teleradiological network was developed, which enables the exchange of radiological-images and -reports between 19 hospitals today. An elementary requirement for this co-operation is an efficient and functional computer infrastructure and verified co-operation contracts. The conception, structure and development of the program, as well as associated difficulties are presented and discussed from different perspectives in the light of the controversy among experts. The results, experiences and benefits gained in four years, in which the teleradiological network of northern Hessen has been in place, demonstrate the importance and possibilities of teleradiology as an element of telemedicine. Teleradiology/telediagnostics improves the quality of patient care in smaller hospitals located in less-populated areas and present possibilities to optimize and integrate health care structures, taking economic considerations into account. (orig.) [German] Mehrere Krankenhaeuser der Grund- und Regelversorgung in Nordhessen, die nicht ueber eine eigene radiologische Fachabteilung verfuegen, wollen eigene Computertomographen mit dem Ziel der medizinischen Qualitaetsverbesserung betreiben und traten 1997 mit dem Wunsch nach Kooperation an das Radiologische Institut der Hardtwaldklinik I, Bad Zwesten - Praxis Dres. med. Mariss/Aref, heran. Es entwickelte sich daraus ein Datennetz, mit dem heute 19 Krankenhaeuser radiologische Bild- und Befunddaten via ISDN austauschen koennen. Elementare Voraussetzung hierfuer sind eine effiziente und funktionale EDV-Infrastruktur und juristisch abgesicherte Kooperationsvertraege. Konzeption, Aufbau und Entwicklung der teleradiologischen Kooperationen sowie verbundene Probleme werden dargestellt und vor dem Hintergrund kontroverser Ansichten in Fachkreisen unter verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse, Erfahrungen und Benefits aus 4 Jahren Teleradiologie Datennetz Nordhessen zeigen die wichtige Bedeutung und die Moeglichkeiten von Teleradiologie als Bestandteil der Telemedizin. Teleradiologie/Telediagnostik verbessert die Patientenversorgung in duennbesiedelten Regionen an kleineren Krankenhaeusern und eroeffnet Moeglichkeiten zur Optimierung integrativer Versorgungsstrukturen, auch unter wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten. (orig.)

  17. Purification of industrial effluents with a high load of organic pollutants by a combined anaerobic/aerobic process; Reinigung organisch hochbelasteter Industriebwaesser durch eine anaerob/aerobe Verfahrenskombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidl, H.H. [AEW ESMIL GmbH fuer Wasser- und Abwassersyteme, Ratingen (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Organically polluted sewage water can be economically cleaned in an aerobic biological sewage treatment plant with upstream anaerobic as this saves activation volume and ventilation energy. This was demonstrated in the sewage treatment plant of the PWA in Redenfelden, where an anaerobic stage was installed which uses the BIOTHANE{sup R} process. The CARROUSEL-system of the anaerobic stage has proved a istself both in the PWA ans in municipal plants between 5000 to 100000 EW. It is a robust system with uncomplicated control which guarantees observance of maximum values and allows elimation of P and N. (orig.) [Deutsch] Organisch hochbelastete Abwaesser werden oekonomisch durch eine aerobe biologische Klaeranlage mit vorgeschalteter Anaerobie gereinigt, weil dadurch Belebungsvolumen und Belueftungsenergie eingespart werden. Dies wurde am Beispiel der Abwasserreinigungsanlage der PWA Redenfelden gezeigt, bie der eine Anaerobstufe nach den BIOTHANE{sup R}-Verfahren installiert ist. Das dort eingesetzte CARROUSEL-System fuer die Aerobstufe hat sich sowohl bei der PWA als auch im kommunalen Bereich bei Anlagen zwischen 5000 und 100000 EW, als robustes System mit unkomplizierter Steuerung bewaehrt, das eine sichere Einhaltung der Grenzwerte garantiert und die Moeglichkeit zur P- und N-Elimination bietet. (orig.)

  18. Efficient sorting of waste by means of dry stabilisation and separation of inert materials; Effiziente Sortierung von Restabfall durch Trockenstabilisierung und Inertstoffabscheidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heering, B.M. [Herhof-Umwelt GmbH, Solms-Niederbiel (Germany); Heil, J. [Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Kokereiwesen, Brikettierung und Thermische Abfallbehandlung, Aachen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Sorting of waste takes place in two stages: First, the waste is dried to a moisture of 15 % by weight, making use of its microbial activities. After this, the stabilised residue is sorted according to grain size, density, magnetic susceiptibility, electric conductivity, and comminution characteristics. This way, recyclable materials are recovered almost completely (e.g. metals, stone, ceramics, glass). The refuse-derived fuel fraction has significantly lower heavy metal concentrations because the metals were sorted out, and its calorific value and homogemeity are optimised as well. The fuel fraction can be combusted at once or stored for further use. [German] Die stoffliche Trennung des Restabfalls kann in zwei aufeinander folgende Schritte unterteilt werden. Den ersten Schritt stellt eine Trocknung unter Ausnutzung der mikrobiellen Aktivitaeten des Materials dar. Durch diese Massnahme wird ein trockenes Material mit einer Restfeuchte von unter 15 Gew.-% erzeugt. Den zweiten Verfahrensschritt stellt die Sortierung des stabilisierten Restabfall dar. Als Sortierkriterium werden die Eigenschaften Korngroesse, Dichte, magnetische Suszeptibilitaet, elektrische Leitfaehigkeit und Zerkleinerungsverhalten angewandt. Hierdruch ist eine nahezu vollstaendige und sortenreine Rueckgewinnung der im Abfall enthaltenen Wertstoffe wie Eisen-/Nichteisenmetalle, Steine/Keramik und Glas sichergestellt. Weiterhin erhaelt man als Brennstofffraktion das Trockenstabilat {sup circledR}. Aufgrund der Abtrennung der hauptsaechlichen Schwermetalltraeger, Eisen- und Nichteisenmetalle, besitzt dieser Sekundaerbrennstoff gegenueber dem unbehandeltem Restabfall deutlich verminderte Schwermetallkonzentrationen. Zudem sind seine verbrennungstechnisch relevanten Eigenschaften Heizwert und Homogenitaet deutlich optimiert. Das Trockenstabilat {sup circledR} wird sofort oder zeitversetzt der energetischen Verwertung zugefuehrt. (orig.)

  19. THERMOSELECT. Continuous environment-friendly treatment of residues by gasification and direct melting; THERMOSELECT. Unterbrechungslose umweltgerechte Restabfallbehandlung durch Vergasung und Direkteinschmelzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeng, P.; Klein, K.; Stahlberg, R.; Weisenburger, P. [Thermoselect Suedwest GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The Thermoselect process comprises waste compaction, degassing, gasification with pure oxygen, and melting of inorganic components in a continuous closed cycle process. The high-quality products can be recycled almost completely: The synthesis gas can be used as feedstock or combusted, also in high-efficiency power generation processes. The other products, e.g. the high-grade mineral and metal granulates, can be utilized without restrictions. The residual fraction which must be dumped is very small. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit Thermoselect ist eine neue Technik auf dem Markt, die durch die konsequente Umsetzung der Verfahrensschritte Abfallverdichtung, Entgasung, Vergasung mit reinem Sauerstoff und Einschmelzung der anorganischen Muellbestandteile in einem unterbrechungslosen geschlossenen Prozess hochwertige Produkte aus Abfaellen erzeugt, die nahezu vollstaendig verwertet werden koennen. Das erzeugte Synthesegas kann sowohl stofflich als auch thermisch genutzt werden, wobei der Einsatz von stromerzeugungsverfahren mit hohen Wirkungsgraden moeglich ist. Die ubrigen Produkte, z.B. das mineralische und das metallische Granulat, erreichen eine Qualitaet, die eine uneingeschraenkte Nutzung zulaesst. Die Anteile der z.Zt. noch zu entsorgenden Reststoffe ist gering, wobei derzeit meist wirtschafatliche Gruende deren Entsorgung nahelegen. (orig)

  20. Use of dexpanthenol and aloe vera to influence the irradiation response of the oral mucous membrane (mouse); Beeinflussung der Strahlenreaktion der Mundschleimhaut (Maus) durch Dexpanthenol {+-} Aloe vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlichting, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Dresden Univ. (Germany); Spekl, K.; Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Dresden Univ. (Germany)]|[Experimentelles Zentrum, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden Univ. (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In summarising the outcome of the present study it can be said spraying the agent on the oral mucous membrane once a day had an effect on the incidence of mucous membrane ulceration in the case of both placebo and dexpanthenol treatment. However, there was no significant difference between placebo and dexpanthenol treatment, the only finding being a slight prolongation of latency time through aloe vera. These experimental findings give good reason to critically reconsider the clinical use of dexpanthenol as a supportive treatment for the prevention of radiogenic mucositis enoralis following irradiation of tumours in the head and neck region. However thorough oral lavage is an effective means of moderating the irradiation response of the oral mucous membrane. [German] Zusammenfassend ist festzustellen, dass in den vorliegenden Versuchen mit einmal taeglichem Aufspruehen des Praeparates auf die Mundschleimhaut sowohl die Placebo - wie auch die Dexpanthenol-Behandlung die Inzidenz von Schleimhautulzerationen modifiziert hat; zwischen Placebo- und Dexpanthenol-Behandlung ergab sich jedoch kein signifikanter Unterschied. Lediglich eine geringe Verlaengerung der Latenzzeit durch Aloe vera war zu beobachten. Auf der Basis dieser experimentellen Ergebnisse muss der klinische Einsatz von Dexpanthenol im Rahmen der Supportivtherapie zur Prophylaxe der radiogenen Mucositis enoralis bei der Bestrahlung von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren kritisch ueberdacht werden. Regelmaessige, intensive Mundspuelungen sind jedoch ein probates Mittel zur Verminderung der Strahlenreaktion der Mundschleimhaut. (orig.)

  1. THERMOSELECT. Continuous environment-friendly treatment of residues by gasification and direct melting; THERMOSELECT. Unterbrechungslose umweltgerechte Restabfallbehandlung durch Vergasung und Direkteinschmelzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeng, P; Klein, K; Stahlberg, R; Weisenburger, P [Thermoselect Suedwest GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The Thermoselect process comprises waste compaction, degassing, gasification with pure oxygen, and melting of inorganic components in a continuous closed cycle process. The high-quality products can be recycled almost completely: The synthesis gas can be used as feedstock or combusted, also in high-efficiency power generation processes. The other products, e.g. the high-grade mineral and metal granulates, can be utilized without restrictions. The residual fraction which must be dumped is very small. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit Thermoselect ist eine neue Technik auf dem Markt, die durch die konsequente Umsetzung der Verfahrensschritte Abfallverdichtung, Entgasung, Vergasung mit reinem Sauerstoff und Einschmelzung der anorganischen Muellbestandteile in einem unterbrechungslosen geschlossenen Prozess hochwertige Produkte aus Abfaellen erzeugt, die nahezu vollstaendig verwertet werden koennen. Das erzeugte Synthesegas kann sowohl stofflich als auch thermisch genutzt werden, wobei der Einsatz von stromerzeugungsverfahren mit hohen Wirkungsgraden moeglich ist. Die ubrigen Produkte, z.B. das mineralische und das metallische Granulat, erreichen eine Qualitaet, die eine uneingeschraenkte Nutzung zulaesst. Die Anteile der z.Zt. noch zu entsorgenden Reststoffe ist gering, wobei derzeit meist wirtschafatliche Gruende deren Entsorgung nahelegen. (orig)

  2. Bubble-free ozone addition through ceramic membranes for wet-oxidative waste water treatment; Blasenfreier Ozoneintrag durch keramische Membranen zur nassoxidativen Abwasserbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janknecht, P.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    A prerequisite for successful wet oxidation is very accurately tuned and carefully monitored process control. In the alternative, a decline in water quality is actually possible. In particular, earlier studies in the ozonification of landfill leachate encountered problems in reducing levels of AOX in the presence of halogenated hydrocarbons. Serious problems in process control may arise when ozone is conventionally added and forms bubbles in the presence of surface-active substances; this foam accumulates and is so persistent as to evade mechanical control. Since the formation of foam is directly due to gas bubbles carried in, bubble-free addition of ozone through a membrane may be a viable approach. (orig.) [German] Voraussetzung fuer den Erfolg einer Nassoxidation ist eine sehr genau eingestellte und sorgfaeltig ueberwachte Prozessfuehrung, da anderenfalls auch eine Verschlechterung der Wasserqualitaet eintreten kann; insbesondere haben sich hier bei frueheren Untersuchungen zur Ozonung von Deponiesickerwaessern Schwierigkeiten bei der Reduzierung des AOX-Wertes in Anwesenheit von halogenierten Kohlenwasserstoffen ergeben. Gravierende Schwierigkeiten in der Prozessfuehrung kann Schaum bereiten, der sich bei konventionellem Blaseneintrag des Ozons in Anwesenheit von oberflaechenaktiven Substanzen bildet, sich in der Anlage ansammelt und dabei so bestaendig ist, dass er auf mechanische Weise nicht zu kontrollieren ist. Da die Schaumbildung direkt auf die eingetragenen Gasblasen zurueckzufuehren ist, stellt der blasenfreie Eintrag von Ozon durch eine Membran einen moeglichen Loesungsansatz dar. (orig.)

  3. Control-technical optimization of topped denitrification through fuzzy control; Regelungstechnische Optimierung der vorgeschalteten Denitrifikation durch Anwendung von Fuzzy-Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, U. [Hydroplan Ingenieurgesellschaft, Worms (Germany); Poepel, H.J. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. WAR - Wasserversorgung, Abwassertechnik, Abfalltechnik, Umwelt- und Raumplanung

    1999-07-01

    The present paper describes complex fuzzy systems for controlling nitrogen elimination at plants with topped denitrification. For the design and testing of the fuzzy systems, dynamic simulation calculations and experimental tests were carried out in a semi-technical pilot plant. The controlling fuzzy systems indicate the supposed oxygen values for individual tank areas and the most appropriate partitioning of the activated sludge tank (anoxic/aerobic zone) as a function of the input quantities used. It is established that, with the more flexible control behaviour, a more stable nitrogen elimination and, at the same time, a cut in the amount of air transferred to the system can be attained in comparison with a conventional control. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags werden komplexe Fuzzy-Systeme zur Regelung der Stickstoffelimination in Anlagen mit vorgeschalteter Denitrifikation vorgestellt. Zum Entwurf und zur Erprobung der Fuzzy-Systeme wurden dynamische Simulationsrechnungen und experimentelle Untersuchungen an einer halbtechnischen Versuchsanlage durchgefuehrt. Die uebergeordneten Fuzzy-Systeme geben in Abhaengigkeit der verwendeten Eingangsgroessen Sauerstoffsollwerte fuer die einzelnen Beckenbereiche und die jeweils guenstigste Aufteilung des Belebungsbeckens (anoxische/aerobe Zone) vor. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass durch das flexible Reglerverhalten eine stabilere Stickstoffelimination und gleichzeitig eine Einsparung an eingetragener Luftmenge im Vergleich zu einem konventionellen Regelsystem erreicht werden kann. (orig.)

  4. Self-management by firm, non-elastic adjustable compression wrap device [Translation of Druckmessungen unter Klettverschluss-Kompression - Selbstbehandlung durch feste, unelastische Beinwickelung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mosti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe forms of chronic venous insufficiency and lymphedema require strong compression-pressure, which exceeds the pressure exerted by medical compression stockings (>40 mmHg. The aim was to investigate if patients are able to apply a Velcro-band compression device (Circaid Juxta Lite™ themselves with sufficient pressure. Thirty-one patients (CEAP C6=23, C5=5, C3=2, mixed ulcer=1 applied Juxta Lite™ on their own legs after a short instruction and were asked to readjust the pressure by their subjective feeling. Sub- bandage pressure was measured after application and 24 h later. In 30 patients without arterial occlusive disease the median sub- bandage pressure values on day 1 and day 2 were 44,5 mmHg (IQR 42-48, and 46 mmHg (IQR 44-48,25 respectively. One patient with an arterialvenous leg ulcer showed pressures of 34 and 36 mmHg. All measured pressure values corresponded to the pursued target range, demonstrating that adequate self application of Velcro bands is feasible and that patents can maintain this pressure by re-adjustment. Source: this paper is an abridged translation of Mosti G, Partsch H. Druckmessungen unter Klettverschluss-Kompression - Selbstbehandlung durch feste, unelastische Beinwickelung. Vasomed 2017;5:212-6.

  5. Substitution of wastes for fuels and raw materials in high-temperature processes; Substitution von Brennstoffen und Rohstoffen durch Abfaelle in Hochtemperaturprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, R. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik; Beckmann, M. [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    burning processes in the cement industry. To do justice to the steel and iron industry it also deals with fuel substitution in a natural gas fired cokeless cupola furnace. [Deutsch] Die energetische und die stoffliche Verwertung von Abfaellen ist ein bereits seit langem diskutiertes Thema. Dabei interessieren zunaechst die Fragestellungen im Zusammenhang mit dem jeweils spezifischen Einsatz wie z.B. bei der Co-Verbrennung von Klaerschlamm in Kraftwerksfeuerungen, der Substitution von Primaerbrennstoffen durch Kunststoffabfaelle beim Brennprozess in der Zementindustrie usw. Darueber hinaus wird weiter der Vergleich der jeweiligen Anwendung untereinander sowie die Gegenueberstellung mit den zum Stand der Technik gehoerenden thermischen Abfallbehandlungsverfahren diskutiert. Diese Verfahrensvergleiche muessen selbstverstaendlich unter Einbeziehung aller insgesamt erforderlichen Aufwendungen an Zusatzstoffen und Zusatzenergie mit gleichen Randbedingungen durchgefuehrt werden. Dabei sind u.a. die sich aus den spezifischen Eigenschaften der Abfallstoffe fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsfall ergebenden Besonderheiten zu beruecksichtigen. Das betrifft insbesondere die Auswirkungen einer Substitution von Primaerbrennstoffen durch Ersatzbrennstoffe aus Abfaellen (Sekundaerbrennstoffe) z.B. bei einem Brennprozess auf die Waermeuebertragungsbedingungen, die Stroemungsverhaeltnisse und damit zusammenhaengend auf die Temperaturverteilungen, den Guttransport und den spezifischen Energieaufwand. Ersatzbrennstoffe muessen sich sowohl aus stofflicher Sicht als auch aus brennstoff- und waermetechnischer Sicht fuer eine Substitution eignen. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag wird insbesondere auf die Anforderungen an Abfaellen, die zur Substitution von Primaerbrennstoffen dienen aus brennstoff- und waermetechnischer Sicht eingegangen. Hierzu werden zunaechst kurz einige wesentliche Gesichtspunkte der Waermeuebertragung in Feuerungen und Industrieoefen eroertert. Wichtig fuer die Bewertung einer

  6. Degradation of organic pollutants in sewage sludge by aerobic-thermophilic sludge treatment. Final report; Abbau organischer Schadstoffe im Klaerschlamm durch aerob-thermophile Schlammbehandlung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S.

    1999-07-01

    Klaerschlamm. Im organischen Anteil des Klaerschlammfeststoffes sind bis heute ueber 300 verschiedene organische Spurenstoffe nachgewiesen worden. Neben den in der Klaerschlammverordnung erfassten Stoffgruppen (Dioxine/Furane und PCB) sind weitere Stoffgruppen als relevant eingestuft worden. Um die in diesem Bereich z.T. noch unzureichende Datenlage zu erweitern wurde im Forschungsvorhaben die Moeglichkeit untersucht, durch eine aerob-thermophile Schlammbehandlung (ATS) eine Verbesserung der Klaerschlammqualitaet, bei der Stoffgruppe der Phthalate (Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalat), den polyzklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) und beim 4-Nonylphenol (Abbauprodukt von nichtionischen Tensiden), zu erreichen. Zur Beurteilung der Abbaueffektivitaet aus der komplexen Matrix Klaerschlamm bildete die Schadstoffanalytik mittels HPLC und GC/MS einen Schwerpunkt des Vorhabens. Der Gehalt an Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalat (DEHP) und 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) konnte in Laborversuchen mit dotierten Schlaemmen um 70% bzw. 50% und in undotierten Schlaemmen um 61% bzw. 53% reduziert werden. Bei halbtechnischen Versuchen lag die Reduktion fuer DEHP bei 14% und fuer 4-NP bei 68%. Fuer Pyren liess sich in Laborversuchen ein Abbau bis zu 57% erreichen, im Vergleich zu halbtechnischen Untersuchungen mit 22% Abbau. Die Ergebnisse erster grundlegender Untersuchungen zu einer Verfahrenskombination aus verkuerzter Faulstufe und ATS-Folgestufe zeigten fuer DEHP eine Reduktion von ca. 60%. Der Gehalt an einzelnen PAK konnten bis Anthracen reduziert werden. Fuer hoeherkondensierte PAK (Grundbelastung im ppb-Bereich) ergab sich keine einheitliche Aussage. Ein Abbau von 4-NP wurde bei den Versuchen zur Verfahrenskombination durch die Neubildung von 4-NP aus Alkylphenolethoxylaten unter anaeroben und aeroben Bedingungen ueberdeckt. Die erhaltenen Untersuchungsergebnisse bestaetigen die Korrelation zwischen einer Hygienisierung des Klaerschlamms und der entsprechenden Verweilzeit im Reaktorsystem. Sowohl in der

  7. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  8. Epiphyseal injuries of the distal tibia. Does MRI provide useful additional information?; Epiphysenfugenverletzungen der distalen Tibia. Sinnvolle Mehrinformation durch die MRT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwinska-Zelder, J.; Schmidt, S.; Ishaque, N.; Klose, K.J.; Hoppe, M. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Schmitt, J.; Gotzen, L. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Operative Medizin

    1999-01-01

    Plain film radiography often underestimates the extent of injury in children with epiphyseal fracture. Especially Salter-Harris V fractures (crush fracture of the epiphyseal plate) are often primarily not detected. MRI of the ankle was performed in 10 children aged 9-17 (mean 14) years with suspected epiphyseal injury using 1.0-T Magnetom Expert. The fractures were classified according to the Salter-Harris-Rang-Odgen classification and compared with the results of plain radiography. In one case MRI could exclude epiphyseal injury; in four cases the MRI findings changed the therapeutic management. The visualisation of the fracture in three orthogonal planes and the possibility of detection of cartilage and ligamentous injury in MR imaging makes this method superior to conventional radiography and CT. With respect to radiation exposure MRI instead of CT should be used for the diagnosis of epiphyseal injuries in children. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die konventionelle Roentgendiagnostik unterschaetzt haeufig das Ausmass der kindlichen Extremitaetenfrakturen mit Epiphysenbeteiligung (Typ Salter-Harris). Insbesondere werden die Kompressionsfrakturen der Wachstumsfuge (Salter-Harris V) primaer haeufig nicht erkannt. Prospektiv wurden 10 Kinder im Alter von 9-17 Jahren (Durchschnittsalter = 14 J.) mit Verdacht auf eine epiphysaere Fraktur der distalen Tibia magnetresonanztomographisch (1.0-Tesla Magnetom Expert), untersucht. Die MRT-Ergebnisse wurden auf der Basis der Klassifikation nach Salter-Harris-Rang-Odgen mit den konventionellen Roentgenbildern verglichen. In einem Fall, bei einem 15jaehrigen Patienten, gelang durch die MRT der Ausschluss einer epiphysaeren Verletzung. In 7 Faellen fuehrte der MRT-Einsatz zu einer Aenderung der Klassifikation nach Salter-Harris. Hieraus resultierte bei 4 Patienten ein Therapiewechsel. Da Frakturen, die sie begleitenden Knorpellaesionen und ligamentaere Verletzungen multiplanar dargestellt werden koennen, weist die MRT deutliche Vorteile

  9. Study on the planning of a demonstration plant for hydrogen fuel production by electrolysis using caching in salt caverns under pressure; Studie ueber die Planung einer Demonstrationsanlage zur Wasserstoff-Kraftstoffgewinnung durch Elektrolyse mit Zwischenspeicherung in Salzkavernen unter Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-05

    In a two year research project the long-term storage of hydrogen as energy carrier has been assessed in detail for large renewable electricity quantities in underground storage caverns in Germany. Next to a regions analysis for potential storage sites, the benchmarking against other large scale storage concepts, a comparative and perspective analysis of alkaline and PEM-electrolysers also potential business cases for Power-to-Hydrogen in the mobility sector as well as for the chemical, electricity and natural gas industry have been analysed. [German] Durch den geplanten Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus fluktuierenden, erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland ruecken Speichertechnologien fuer elektrische Energie immer staerker in den Fokus des industriellen und politischen Interesses. Eine vielversprechende Moeglichkeit fuer eine Langzeitspeicherung bei hohen Anteilen von Wind- und Photovoltaikanlagen sind Speichertechnologien wie die Wasserstoffspeicherung mit Hilfe von Wasserelektrolyseuren. Diese koennen erneuerbaren Strom in grossen Mengen und bei entsprechender Steuerung selektiv in Zeiten mit hohem Dargebot z.B. an Windstrom chemisch speichern. Der gespeicherte Wasserstoff kann dann entweder zu einem spaeteren Zeitpunkt wieder rueckverstromt oder direkt stofflich verwertet werden, z.B. als Kraftstoff fuer den Verkehrssektor, als chemischer Rohstoff oder fuer den Hausenergiebereich durch Einspeisung in das Erdgastransportnetz. Thema der vorliegenden Studie sind Analysen und Planungen fuer die Erprobung des Gesamtsystems ''Wasserstoff-Elektrolyse-Speicherung'' in energiewirtschaftlich relevanten Dimensionen. Dazu werden mit einem neuen Ansatz techno-oekonomische Entwicklungspfade fuer Wasserstoff-Systeme unterschiedlicher Groesse und Technologien charakterisiert und technologische Risiken bei der Realisierung dieser Systeme identifiziert und bewertet. Diese Arbeiten werden ergaenzt durch Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Salzkavernenspeicherung in Form

  10. Optimizing customer contact management to bolster loyalty and profitability. Optimizing specifically quality of service and cost; Loyalitaet und Profitabilitaet von Privat- und Gewerbekunden durch optimiertes Kundenkontaktmanagement steigern. Servicequalitaet und Kosten zielgerichtet optimieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillebrand, S.; Fratzke-Weiss, B.; Handschuh, M.; Muench, U.; Kreuz, W. [A.T. Kearney Management Consultants, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2003-09-08

    Building on the sales strategy, the customer care center's processes, systems, and organization can be optimized in a focused way. Based on the set of success factors described by the authors private and commercial customers' value can be increased significantly. (orig.) [German] Eine klar definierte Vertriebsstrategie ist von elementarer Bedeutung, um das Kundenkontaktmanagement so auszurichten, dass es maximalen Wert fuer das Unternehmen generiert. Ausgehend von der Vertriebsstrategie koennen die Prozesse, die Systeme und die Organisation von Customer Care Centern zielgerichtet optimiert werden. Durch die Beruecksichtigung der von den Verfassern beschriebenen Erfolgsfaktoren kann der Wert von Privat- und Gewerbekunden dabei signifikant gesteigert werden. (orig.)

  11. Climate protection by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases in households and the tertiary sector through climate-conscious behaviour. Vol. 2; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Treibhausgasemissionen im Bereich Haushalte und Kleinverbrauch durch klimagerechtes Verhalten. Bd. 2. Gewerbe, Handel und Dienstleistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boede, U; Gruber, E [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutscher, P; Elsberger, M; Rouvel, L [Technische Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Innovationsforschung; Brakhage, A; Jaekel, M [Abacus, Trier (Germany); Renner, G [Innovative Energieberatung, Koeln (Germany); Brohmann, B; Cames, M; Herold, A

    2000-08-01

    The aim of the project was to identify areas in households and the tertiary sector in which changes in behaviour could result in energy conservation and thus a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and to quantify the potentials for 1995, 2005 and 2020. A second focus was on the analysis and evaluation of programmes and instruments to realise the potentials. With literature evaluation, expert interviews, and a household servey potentials and further technical development have been identified. In sum, behavioural measures can contribute to the CO2 reduction by 64 million tons in 1995 in households and 27 in the commercial sector in which the potential decreases to 18 million tons in 2020 due to the autonomous technical development. Adequate promotion programmes can help to realise 20-30% of the potential by 2020. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Vorhabens war, im Sektor private Haushalte und Kleinverbrauch Bereiche zu identifizieren, in denen Verhaltensaenderungen zur Energieeinsparung fuehren koennen, und diese Potenziale fuer 1995, 2005 und 2020 zu quantifizieren. Darauf aufbauend waren Programme und Instrumente zur Umsetzung aufzuzeigen und zu bewerten. Gestuetzt auf Literaturrecherchen und Expertengespraeche wurden Einzelpotenziale, Rahmenbedingungen, Entwicklungstrends in der Technik und im Ausstattungsgrad ermittelt. Insgesamt koennten Verhaltensmassnahmen im Haushaltssektor die CO2-Emissionen im Basisjahr 1995 um 64 Mio, im Kleinverbrauch um 27 Mio t vermindern. Bis 2020 bleibt dieses Potenzial im Haushaltssektor in etwa gleich. Im Kleinverbrauch sinkt es infolge der autonomen Technikentwicklung auf 18 Mio t ab. Durch geeignete Programme koennen bis 2020 etwa 20-30% des Potenzials erreicht werden. (orig.)

  12. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Bregas, J. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und

  13. Workflow improvement and efficiency gain with near digitalization of a Radiology Department; Workflowverbesserung und Effizienzsteigerungsaspekte durch nahezu vollstaendige Digitalisierung einer Roentgenabteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langen, H.L.; Bielmeier, J.; Selbach, R. [Missionsaerztlichen Klinik Wuerzburg (Germany). Radiologische Abteilung; Wittenberg, G. [Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Feustel, H. [Missionsaerztlichen Klinik Wuerzburg (Germany). Chirurgische Abteilung

    2003-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the temporal changes of the workflow caused by digitalization of the radiology department after installation of digital luminescence-radiography (DLR), a radiology information system (RIS) and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) at the Missionsaerztliche Klinik in April 2000. Materials and methods: In a comparative study, a workflow analysis by manual registration of different work steps was performed before (1999) and after (2001) digitalization of a radiology department. Results: The digitalization shortened the examination time for patients from a mean of 8 min to 5 min. The time the patient is absent from the emergency room did not change. Reporting radiographic examinations including comparison with previous studies begins earlier from a mean of 2 h 37 min to 17 min. Using PACS, 85.9% of all cases could be interpreted on the day of the examination (without PACS 41.2%) and 87.2% of the reports were completed the day after the examination (without PACS 64.5%). No time differences were found between reading conventional studies on the monitor or as soft-copy. Conclusion: Compared to conventional film-screen systems, complete digitalization of a radiology department is time saving at nearly all steps of the workflow, with expected positive effects on the workflow quality of the entire hospital. (orig.) [German] Fragestellung/Zielsetzung: An der Missionsaerztlichen Klinik folgte im April 2000 mit der Einfuehrung der digitalen Lumineszenzradiographie (DLR), eines radiologischen Informationssystems (RIS) und eines Bildarchivierungs- und Kommunkationssystems (PACS) die vollstaendige Digitalisierung der Roentgenabteilung. Die durch diese Umstellung bedingten zeitlichen Veraenderungen der Prozessablaeufe in der Roentgenabteilung wurden untersucht. Material und Methode: In Form einer Vorher-Nachher-Studie wurde 1999 im konventionellen und 2001 im digitalen Routinebetrieb anhand von Analysen der Prozessablaeufe eine manuelle

  14. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U; Hellmann, R [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W; Wortmann, K; Bregas, J [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz (BUND) 1998 und

  15. MTBE experts' discussion: Environmental pollution from MTBE fuel additives. Proceedings; MTBE-Fachgespraech: Umweltbelastungen durch die Nutzung von MTBE (Methyl-tertiaer-butylether) als Kraftstoffzusatz. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Normalbenzin bei uns durchschnittlich 0,3% und Super 1,6% MTBE enthalten, liegen die Werte fuer SuperPlus und Optimax bei etwa 6-12% Vol-%. In neun Fachvortraegen und einer ausfuehrlichen Diskussionsrunde, die in dem vorliegenden Tagungsband wiedergegeben sind, wurden Messdaten zur Konzentration von MTBE in Luft, Niederschlag, Oberflaechen- und Grundwasser vorgestellt und die Moeglichkeiten einer Modellbildung eroertert. Die Teilnehmer des Fachgespraechs waren sich einig, dass die derzeitige Datenlage und die Kenntnisse zum Vorkommen und zu den Verbreitungswegen von MTBE in den Umweltmedien keinesfalls geeignet sind, abschliessend Entwarnung zu geben und eine Grundwassergefaehrdung durch MTBE auszuschliessen. (orig.)

  16. Low-cost development of the Algyoefield in Hungary by means of horizontal re-entry boreholes; Die kostenguenstige Entwicklung des Algyoe-West-Feldes in Ungarn durch horizontale Re-Entry-Bohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzel, H. [Weatherford Oil Tool GmbH, Langenhagen (Germany); Osz, A. [Magyar Olaj (MOL), Budapest (Hungary); Kerk, T. [Becfield Drilling Services, Edemissen-Berkhoepen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Planning and implementation of a typical re-entry borehole in southern Hungary are described. The cost is about half that of a new borehole, and the available infrastructure can be used. The production index of a typical Algyoehorizontal borehole is higher by a factor of 12 than for a vertical borehole in the same field. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Beispielbohrung (Algyoe488) wird die Planung und Durchfuehrung einer typischen Re-Entry Bohrung in Suedungarn beschrieben. Durch die weitgehende Verwendung von standardisierten Komponenten und Verfahren sowie durch die enge Zusammenarbeit zweier deutscher Service Unternehmen mit dem Auftraggeber wurde bei insgesamt 35 Horizontalbohrungen in Ungarn der Effekt der Lernkurve zur optimierten Erstellung der Bohrung und damit zur Kostensenkung effektiv eingesetzt. Die so aufgearbeiteten Bohrungen werden im Vergleich zu einer neuen Bohrung fuer etwa die Haelfte der Kosten erstellt. Die vorhandene Infrastruktur des Feldes kann weiter verwendet werden. Der Produktionsindex einer typischen AlgyoeHorizontalbohrung liegt um den Faktor 12 hoeher als eine Vertikalbohrung im gleichen Feld. (orig.)

  17. Attempted treatment of meningeosis leucaemica by intrathecal application of 90-silicate and 90Y-citrate colloid in a case of chronic myleoic leukaemia; Behandlungsversuch einer Meningeosis leucaemica durch intrathekale Applikation von {sup 90}Y-Silikat- und {sup 90}Y-Zitrat-Kolloid bei chronisch-myleoischer Leukaemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittner, C.; Schuemichen, C. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Steiner, B.; Kahl, C.; Wolff, D.; Freund, M. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin, Abt. fuer Haematologie; Putzar, H.; Roesler, K.; Hauenstein, K.H. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionalle Radiologie

    2003-12-01

    A 41-year-old man with chronic myeoloic leukaemia was treated for Meningeosis leucaemica by intrathecal application of yttrium-90-citrate colloide as palliative therapy. (orig.) [German] Wir berichten ueber einen 41-jaehrigen Mann mit chronisch-myeloischer Leukaemie bei dem eine Meningeosis leucaemica durch eine intrathekale Applikation von Yttrium-90-Zitrat-Kolloid palliativ therapiert wurde. (orig.)

  18. Energy conservation in refrigerating machines by combining of thermo-static expansion valve and interior heat transfer material; Energieeinsparung in Kaelteanlagen durch Kombination von thermostatischem Expansionsventil und innerem Waermeuebertrager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambovtsev, Alexander

    2007-12-15

    bekannten Komponenten TEV und IWUeals inkompatibel miteinander, weil die einfache Aneinanderreihung zu einem instabilen Regelverhalten fuehrt. Nach detaillierter Analyse der Ursachen dieser Instabilitaet wird die Hypothese aufgestellt, dass durch eine absichtliche ''Verschlechterung'' des IWUeein stabiler Arbeitsbereich gefunden werden kann. Bei dieser ''Verschlechterung'' kann es sich z. B. um den Bypass eines Teils des Hochdruckstromes oder um eine Gleichstromanordnung der Stroeme im Waermeuebertrager handeln. Diese Hypothese wurde primaer durch Experimente, aber zusaetzlich auch durch Simulationsrechnungen bestaetigt. Dafuer wurde ein Versuchsstand aufgebaut, mit welchem verschiedene Konfigurationen und Regelstrategien getestet wurden. Es wurde eine deutliche Verringerung des Energieverbrauchs gegenueber herkoemmlichen Anordnungen erreicht. (orig.)

  19. Remediation of heavy-metal contaminated sediments by means of bioleaching. Study: project results - economic efficiency - market assessment. Final report; Reinigung schwermetallbelasteter Sedimente durch Bioleaching. Studie: Projektergebnisse - Wirtschaftlichkeit - Marktbewertung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeser, C; Zehnsdorf, A; Hoffmann, P; Seidel, H; Schmerold, R

    2002-07-01

    Sedimente mit Sauerstoff in Kontakt, gehen die Schwermetalle durch mikrobielle Oxidations- und Versauerungsprozesse teilweise in Loesung. Dieses natuerliche Bioleaching, welches unkontrolliert ein Gefahrenpotential fuer die Umwelt darstellt, soll durch Aktivierung der autochthonen schwefeloxidierenden Bakterien (z.B. Thiobacilli) beschleunigt und zur Reinigung der Sedimente genutzt werden. Ziel ist es, ein naturnahes Verfahren zur Sedimentdekontamination unter Nutzung des natuerlichen biologischen Solubilisierungspotentials bereitzustellen. Die gereinigten Sedimente sollen in den Stoffkreislauf als Bodensubstrat zurueckgefuehrt werden. Die Verfahrensentwicklung erfolgte am Beispiel von hochbelasteten Sedimenten der Weissen Elster aus dem Suedraum Leipzig. Aus oekonomischen Gruenden soll das Bioleaching der Schwermetalle durch Festbettlaugung nach dem Perkolationsprinzip erfolgen. Das Verfahren erfordert mehrere Prozessstufen. Der Schwerpunkt der Untersuchungen im Labor- und Technikumsmassstab lag auf der Erarbeitung und technischen Umsetzung von Massnahmen zur Beschleunigung der Metallsolubilisierung. (orig.)

  20. Measurements of size distributions of radon progeny for improved quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products; Messungen der Groessenverteilungen von Radon-Folgeprodukten zur Verbesserung der Quantifizierung des durch Radonexposition verursachten Lungenkrebsrisikos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haninger, T

    1998-12-31

    A major issue in radiation protection is to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to radon and radon progeny. Quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products in residential and working environments poses problems, as epidemiologic studies yield information deviating from the results obtained by the indirect method of assessment based on dosimetric respiratory tract models. One important task of the publication here was to characterize the various exposure conditions and to quantify uncertainties that may result from application of the ``dose conversion convention``. A special aerosol spectrometer was therefore designed and built in order to measure the size distributions of the short-lived radon decay products in the range between 0.5 nm and 10 000 nm. The aerosol spectrometer consists of a three-step diffusion battery with wire nets, an 11-step BERNER impactor, and a detector system with twelve large-surface proportional detectors. From the measured size distributions, dose conversion coefficients, E/P{sup eq}, were calculated using the PC software RADEP; the RADEP program was developed by BIRCHALL and JAMES and is based on the respiratory tract model of the ICRP. The E/P{sup eq} coefficients indicate the effective dose E per unit exposure P{sup eq} to radon decay products. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Eines der groessten Probleme des Strahlenschutzes ist der Schutz der Bevoelkerung vor einer Strahlenexposition durch Radon und seine Folgeprodukte. Die Quantifizierung des Lungenkrebsrisikos, das durch Radonexpositionen in Wohnungen und an Arbeitsplaetzen verursacht wird, ist ein grosses Problem, weil epidemiologische Studien ein anderes Ergebnis liefern, als die indirekte Methode der Abschaetzung mit dosimetrischen Atemtrakt-Modellen. Eine wichtige Aufgabe der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, unterschiedliche Expositionsbedingungen zu charakterisieren und die Unsicherheiten zu quantifizieren, die sich aus der

  1. Racism, Ethnicity and the Media in Africa: Reflections Inspired by Studies of Xenophobia in Cameroon and South Africa Rassismus, Ethnizität und die Medien in Afrika: Reflektionen angeregt durch Studien zu Fremdenfeindlichkeit in Kamerun und Südafrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis B. Nyamnjoh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the extent to which the media and belonging in Africa are torn between competing and often conflicting claims of bounded and flexible ideas of culture and identity. It draws on studies of xenophobia in Cameroon and South Africa, inspired by the resilience of the politicization of culture and identity, to discuss the hierarchies and inequalities that underpin political, economic and social citizenship in Africa and the world over, and the role of the media in the production, enforcement and contestation of these hierarchies and inequalities. In any country with liberal democratic aspirations or pretensions, the media are expected to promote national citizenship and its emphasis on large-scale, assimilationist and territorially bounded belonging, while turning a blind eye to those who fall through the cracks as a result of racism and/or ethnicity. Little wonder that such an exclusionary articulation of citizenship is facing formidable challenges from its inherent contradictions and closures, and from an upsurge in the politics of recognition and representation by small-scale communities claiming autochthony at a historical juncture where the rhetoric espouses flexible mobility, postmodern flux and discontinuity. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt auf, inwieweit die Medien und gesellschaftliche Bindungen in Afrika zwischen konfligierenden Ansprüchen abgegrenzter und sich wandelnder kultureller Identitäten zerrissen sind. Angeregt durch die Erfahrung der kontinuierlichen Politisierung kultureller und sozialer Identitäten zieht der Autor Studien zu Fremdenfeindlichkeit in Kamerun und Südafrika heran, um die Hierarchien und Ungleichheiten zu diskutieren, auf denen politische, wirtschaftliche und soziale Staatsbürgerschaft in Afrika und darüber hinaus basiert, sowie die Rolle der Medien bei der Entstehung, Verstärkung und im Wettstreit dieser Hierarchien und Ungleichheiten. In jedem liberal-demokratisch ausgerichteten Staat

  2. Measurements of size distributions of radon progeny for improved quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products; Messungen der Groessenverteilungen von Radon-Folgeprodukten zur Verbesserung der Quantifizierung des durch Radonexposition verursachten Lungenkrebsrisikos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haninger, T.

    1997-12-31

    A major issue in radiation protection is to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to radon and radon progeny. Quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products in residential and working environments poses problems, as epidemiologic studies yield information deviating from the results obtained by the indirect method of assessment based on dosimetric respiratory tract models. One important task of the publication here was to characterize the various exposure conditions and to quantify uncertainties that may result from application of the ``dose conversion convention``. A special aerosol spectrometer was therefore designed and built in order to measure the size distributions of the short-lived radon decay products in the range between 0.5 nm and 10 000 nm. The aerosol spectrometer consists of a three-step diffusion battery with wire nets, an 11-step BERNER impactor, and a detector system with twelve large-surface proportional detectors. From the measured size distributions, dose conversion coefficients, E/P{sup eq}, were calculated using the PC software RADEP; the RADEP program was developed by BIRCHALL and JAMES and is based on the respiratory tract model of the ICRP. The E/P{sup eq} coefficients indicate the effective dose E per unit exposure P{sup eq} to radon decay products. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Eines der groessten Probleme des Strahlenschutzes ist der Schutz der Bevoelkerung vor einer Strahlenexposition durch Radon und seine Folgeprodukte. Die Quantifizierung des Lungenkrebsrisikos, das durch Radonexpositionen in Wohnungen und an Arbeitsplaetzen verursacht wird, ist ein grosses Problem, weil epidemiologische Studien ein anderes Ergebnis liefern, als die indirekte Methode der Abschaetzung mit dosimetrischen Atemtrakt-Modellen. Eine wichtige Aufgabe der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, unterschiedliche Expositionsbedingungen zu charakterisieren und die Unsicherheiten zu quantifizieren, die sich aus der

  3. Mathematical modelling of transport of gaseous and liquid substances induced by pyrite oxidation in spoil banks of lignite mines; Mathematische Modellierung der durch Pyritoxidation induzierten Stofftransporte in Braunkohleabraumkippen in gasfoermiger und fluessiger Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, R.

    2001-07-01

    Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) oxidation due to open-pit lignite mining activities may result in acid mine drainage and dissolved metals in the soil and ground water of the overburden spoil piles. The pyrite oxidation takes place firstly during the mining process and at the temporary surfaces of the mine, secondly in deep zones of the overburden spoil pile as a result of gas transport through the unsaturated zone. The second process continues after mine closure possibly over several decades and therefore contaminates the environment for a long time. Whereas some studies deal with a minimisation by geochemical means, this research focuses on a minimisation by impacting the physical boundary conditions. Special attention is given to the transport of oxygen from the soil surface to the pyrite oxidation zone. Soil column experiments with columns of 2.90 m height yield experimental data concerning the pyrite oxidation and the related transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Experimental data are compared to simulation results obtained with the model MUSIC; it calculates coupled reaction and transport processes in a one-dimensional soil profile using the finite volume method. Pyrite oxidation is described by means of a first order kinetics, the gas transport takes place by diffusion as well as convection. The transport of solutes in the soil water is described by the convection-dispersion equation (Cl{sup -}, Fe{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). The simulations are able to reproduce the measured time series of oxygen concentrations in the soil profile. (orig.) [German] Die durch Braunkohlegewinnung im Tagebau hervorgerufene Pyritoxidation (Pyrit: FeS{sub 2}) kann zu Versauerung, Schwermetallfreisetzung und Aufmineralisierung des Boden- und Grundwassers in den Abraumkippen fuehren. Die Pyritoxidation findet zum einen waehrend des Abbaubetriebs und an den temporaeren Oberflaechen des Tagebaus statt, zum anderen in tieferen Bereichen der Abraumkippe durch Gastransport durch die

  4. Rezension von: Ulf Gebken, Söhnke Vosgerau (Hg.: Fußball ohne Abseits. Ergebnisse und Perspektiven des Projekts ‚Soziale Integration von Mädchen durch Fußball‘. Wiesbaden: Springer VS 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Claus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seit 2006 wurden im Rahmen des vom Deutschen Fußball-Bund durchgeführten Modellprojektes „Soziale Integration von Mädchen durch Fußball“ an über 200 Standorten Schul-AGs in sogenannten Brennpunktbezirken aufgebaut. Im vorliegenden Sammelband beleuchten die Autor/-innen ausführlich die Funktion von Sport für die pädagogische Kompetenzvermittlung. Zudem erbringen sie einen umfassenden Projektbericht und leisten ein Plädoyer für die Modernisierung des Verhältnisses zwischen Schule und Vereinen, Lehrplan und Ehrenamt. Somit stellt das Buch, wie auch das Projekt, einen enorm wichtigen Beitrag zur Geschlechtergerechtigkeit im Sport dar. Gleichzeitig jedoch liest sich eine Reihe an Texten etwas zu sperrig für den Bericht einer Praxisforschung, und Begriffe im Feld der ‚Integration’ bleiben schwammig.

  5. Superconductors for the medium-voltage grid. A superconducting power cable running through the inner city of Essen passes a two-year field test; Supraleiter fuer das Mittelspannungsnetz. Ein supraleitendes Stromkabel quer durch die Essener Innenstadt besteht zweijaehrigen Feldtest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Franz

    2017-04-01

    Scientists are testing the longest high-temperature superconducting cable in the world under real conditions in Essen. One kilometre long, it connects two substations in the inner city. It replaces a conventional 110 kV line and renders one substation in the inner city obsolete. After two years of testing, it has passed the field test. It could be a blueprint for the future power supply system in urban areas. [German] Wissenschaftler testen in Essen das laengste Hochtemperatur-Supraleiterkabel der Welt unter realen Bedingungen. Mit einer Laenge von einem Kilometer verbindet es zwei Umspannstationen quer durch die Innenstadt. Es ersetzt eine konventionelle 110-kV-Leitung und macht eine Umspannanlage im Stadtzentrum ueberfluessig. In einer zweijaehrigen Erprobung hat es den Praxistest bestanden. Es koennte eine Blaupause fuer die kuenftige Stromversorgung in Ballungsraeumen sein.

  6. Tests in excess sludge minimization through cell membrane break-up by means of ozone at a municipal sewage treatment plant; Versuche zur Ueberschussschlamm-Minimierung durch Zellaufschluss mit Ozon auf einer kommunalen Klaeranlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ried, A.; Peters, B. [WEDECO Umweltdienstleistungen GmbH, Herford (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Disposing of sewage sludge involves high cost. Therfore, processes to reduce sewage sludge are more and more in demand. One such process is the treatment with ozone. The company WEDESCO GmbH is also concerned with ozonification of sewage sludge and carries out tests on a technical scale at a municipal sewage treatment plant. The objective is to reduce the amount of sewage sludge by approximately 50 %, corresponding, in the present case, to the organic sludge portion. (orig.) [German] Da die Entsorgung dieses Klaerschlamms hohe Kosten verursacht, gewinnen Verfahren zur Klaerschlammreduzierung zunehmend an Bedeutung. Eine Moeglichkeit der Reduzierung des Klaerschlamms besteht in der Behandlung mit Ozon. Auch die WEDECO GmbH befasst sich mit der Ozonung von Klaerschlamm und fuehrt Versuche im grosstechnischen Massstab auf einer kommunalen Klaeranlage durch. Ziel dieser Versuche ist es, den anfallenden Klaerschlamm um ca. 50% zu reduzieren, was in diesem Anwendungsfall dem organischen Anteil des Schlamms entspricht. (orig.)

  7. Water pollution potential of mineral oils with high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extracts); Untersuchungen zur Wassergefaehrdung durch Mineraloele mit hohen Gehalten an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (Heizoel Schwer und Extrakte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, G. [Mobil Schmierstoff GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    A data base on highly aromatic mineral oils has been compiled to classify mineral oil products according to their water-pollution potential (water hazard class or Wassergefaehrdungsklasse, WGK). This activity has been undertaken through the Commission for Water Hazardous Materials (Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe, KBwS). In this special case, highly aromatic mineral oils containing a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, PAK) were evaluated. A test method for measuring the elution potential of PAK into water was developed on petroleum products with high viscosity and high freeze point. This method was applied to determine the solubility of 23 PAK (including 16 PAK according to EPA 610 and 6 PAK according to the German drinking water regulation (Trinkwasserverordnung, TVO)) from heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extract in the aqueous phase. For the 6 PAK, according to TVO, a sum limit of 0,2 {mu}g/l in drinking water is permitted by German legislation. This limit was not exceeded in any of the water phases examined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Einstufung von Mineraloelprodukten in die Wassergefaehrdungsklassen (WGK) durch die Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe ist es notwendig, Basisdaten zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Im speziellen Fall handelt es sich um die Bewertung von Mineraloelen, die sich durch einen hohen Gehalt an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) auszeichnen. Zur Eluierbarkeit von PAK`s aus Produkten mit hoher Viskosiaet bzw. mit hohem Stockpunkt wurde eine Pruefmethode entwickelt. Diese Methode wurde zur Bestimmung der Loeslichkeit von 23 PAK`s (16 PAK`s nach EPA-Liste incl. 6 PAK`s der TVO) aus den Mineraloelen Heizoel Schwer und Neutralextrakt in der Wasserphase eingesetzt. Fuer die PAK der TVO ist in der TVO ein Summengrenzwert von 0,2 {mu}g/l Trinkwasser angegeben. Dieser Grenzwert wurde in keiner der untersuchten Wasserphasen ueberschritten. (orig.)

  8. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn 2+ or Cd 2+ . We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  9. Radiation exposure to the patient caused by single-photon transmission measurement for 3D whole-body PET; Die Strahlenexposition des Patienten durch die Einzelphotonen-Transmissionsmessung bei der PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A.; Donsch, P.; Kirsch, C.M. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Seifert, H. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. Strahlentherapie der Radiologischen Klinik

    2000-11-01

    Patienten durch die Transmissionsmessung mittels Einzelphotonenquellen bei der PET. Material und Methode: Zwei Cs-137-Punktquellen (E{gamma}=662 keV, A=614 MBq) werden zur Transmissionsmessung im Einzelphotonenmodus an einem 3D-Scanner (ECAT ART) eingesetzt. Bei der Simulation einer Ganzkoerper-Transmission (axiale Laenge: 75 cm, 6 ueberlappende Bettpositionen), werden Dosismessungen mit Thermolumineszenzdosimetern unter Verwendung eines Thorax- und eines Abdomenphantoms durchgefuehrt. Aus den Messwerten wurde in Anlehnung an den Report Nr. 60 der ICRP die effektive Dosis fuer die Transmissionsmessung abgeschaetzt. Ergebnisse: Bei einer Gesamtaufnahmedauer von 360 min (60 min pro Bettposition) ergaben sich folgende Energiedosen: Oberflaeche (Xyphoid) 189 {mu}Gy, Herz 196 {mu}Gy, Lunge 234 {mu}Gy, BWS 240 {mu}Gy, Niere 207 {mu}Gy, Leber 204 {mu}Gy, Gonaden 205 {mu}Gy, Schilddruese 249 {mu}Gy und Blase 185 {mu}Gy, aus denen sich ein Konversionsfaktor von 1,7*10{sup -4} mSv/(h*MBq) errechnete. Die Abschaetzung der effektiven Dosis fuer den Patienten aufgrund einer Transmissionsmessung (Akquisitionszeit von 3,2 min pro Bettposition) ergab einen Wert von 11 {mu}Sv. Die Abschaetzung des Verhaeltnisses der Konversionsfaktoren durch Transmissionsmessung im Einzelphotonen- und im Koinzidenzmodus (zwei Ge-68/Ga-68-Linienquellen mit jeweils 40 MBq) ergab einen Wert von 0,18. Der Vergleich zwischen den effektiven Dosen durch die Transmission im Einzelphotonen-Modus und die Emission (bei Injektion von 250 MBq FDG) ergab ein Verhaeltnis von 2,3*10{sup -3}. Schlussfolgerung: Die Strahlenexposition der Patienten durch die Transmissionsmessung in der 3D-PET ist vernachlaessigbar gering. Sie wird durch die Verwendung der Einzelphotonenmethode mit kollimierten Punktquellen relativ hoher Aktivitaet im Vergleich zur Koinzidenzmethode mit nicht-kollimierten Linienquellen relativ niedriger Aktivitaet weiter reduziert. (orig.)

  10. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  11. Improved patient repositioning accuracy by integrating an additional jaw fixation into a high precision face mask system in stereotactic radiotherapy of the head; Verbesserte lagerungsreproduzierbarkeit eines nichtinvasiven hochpraezisionsmaskensystems in der stereotaktischen Radiotherapie durch eine integrierte kieferfixierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopatta, E.; Liesenfeld, S.M.; Bank, P.; Guenther, R.; Wiezorek, T.; Wendt, T.G. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany); Wurm, R. [Campus Charite Mitte, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Strahlentherapie. Material und Methoden: 29 Patienten wurden unter stereotaktischen Bedingungen fraktioniert bestrahlt. Jeder Patient erhielt das individuell angepasste Zwei-Halbschalen-Maskensystem (BrainLab trademark). Bei 18 dieser Patienten kam eine zusaetzliche Kieferfixierung entweder als Oberkieferfixierung (OKF) oder als zusaetzliche Unterkieferfixierung (UKF) zum Einsatz. Die Reproduzierbarkeit der Lagerung wurde durch Ausmessung von Verschiebungen anatomischer Strukturen auf Filmebene in 0 und 90 bestimmt. Vor den Aufnahmen in Gantryposition 0 und 90 erfolgte die Feinjustierung des Simulators ueber ein optisches Ringsystem. Insgesamt wurden waehrend der 2- bis 7-woechigen Therapie 844 Messungen an einem digitalen Bildverarbeitungssystem erhoben. Ergebnisse: Im Vergleich der Standardabweichungen der Messergebnisse ergibt sich unter Verwendung einer zusaetzlichen Kieferfixierung eine signifikante Verbesserung der Lagerungsreproduzierbarkeit in den drei Freiheitsgraden: Lateralverschiebung 0,6 mm mit Kieferfixierung vs. 0,7 mm ohne Fixierung (p < 0,001); Longitudinalverschiebung in 0 Aufnahme gemessen 0,5 vs. 1,3 mm (p < 0,001), Longitudinalverschiebung in 90 -Aufnahme gemessen 0,5 mm vs. 1,5 mm (p < 0,001), Vertikalverschiebung 0,6 vs. 0,9 mm (p = 0,001). Kein signifikanter Unterschied der Abweichungen ergibt sich im Vergleich zwischen OKF und UKF. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Untersuchung konnte eine signifikante Verbesserung der Lagerungspraezision durch die Verwendung einer zusaetzlichen, individuell geformten Kieferfixierung mit dem BrainLab trademark -Maskensystem nachweisen. Die Lagerungsvariabilitaet betraegt in allen Richtungen weniger als 2 mm. Somit kann der Sicherheitssaum um das klinische Zielvolumen insbesondere bei benignen Tumoren durch verbesserte Fixierung entscheidend verkleinert werden. (orig.)

  12. Formation of formaldehyde in biogas-engines and methods for reducing these emissions by exhaust-gas after-treatment; Entstehung von Formaldehydemissionen in Biogasmotoren und deren Verminderung durch inner- und nachmotorische Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Markus; Wachtmeister, Georg; Prager, Maximilian [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    2011-07-01

    (BMU) following a resolution by the German Federal Parliament and attended by a Working Group of the Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen e.V (FVV, Research Association for Combustion Engines). (orig.) [German] In der Vergangenheit wurden an Biogasmotoren immer wieder Grenzwertueberschreitungen der in der Technischen Anweisung zur Reinhaltung der Luft (TA Luft) limitierten Formaldehydemissionen festgestellt. Fuer die zukuenftige Einhaltung dieses Grenzwertes an bestehenden und neuen Anlagen wurden am Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen im Rahmen des FVV-Forschungsvorhabens 918 die Ursachen und die Moeglichkeiten zur innermotorischen Verminderung dieser Emissionen untersucht. Dabei zeigte sich, dass die Formaldehydemissionen nur sehr eingeschraenkt durch innermotorische Massnahmen verringert werden koennen, ohne Wirkungsgrad und Stickoxidemissionen negativ zu beeinflussen. Dies und eine zusaetzliche Verschaerfung der Grenzwerte im Januar 2009 durch LAI-Beschluss machen den Einsatz von Abgasnachbehandlungstechniken notwendig. Wegen der fehlenden Datenbasis ueber das Langzeitverhalten solcher Systeme im Biogasbetrieb wurden deshalb in einem weiteren Vorhaben zwei Modellanlagen mit unterschiedlichen Technologien zur Abgasnachbehandlung ueber sechs Monate hinweg hinsichtlich ihrer Formaldehydemissionen ueberwacht. Im Hinblick auf die aktuelle Klimadebatte und die Klimawirksamkeit von Methan, die eine zukuenftige Begrenzung dieser Emissionen erwarten laesst, wurden darueber hinaus auch die Methanemissionen dieser Anlagen untersucht. Die Untersuchungen zeigten, dass beide betrachteten Abgasnachbehandlungstechnologien, Regenerative Thermische Oxidation (RTO) und Oxidationskatalysator (Oxi-Kat) grundsaetzlich geeignet sind, die geltenden Formaldehydgrenzwerte sicher zu unterschreiten. Es wurde jedoch auch klar, dass weiterer Forschungsbedarf hinsichtlich der Dauerhaltbarkeit des Oxi-Kats und dem Instationaerbetrieb des RTO

  13. Inhibitor efficiency in long-time protection of steel tanks for the chemical surface preparation against local corrosion by process solutions containing hydrochloric acid; Inhibitorwirksamkeit beim Langzeitschutz von Stahlbehaeltern fuer die chemische Oberflaechenvorbereitung gegen oertliche Korrosion durch salzsaeurehaltige Prozessloesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, U.; Schulz, W.D. [Institut fuer Korrosionsschutz Dresden GmbH, Gostritzer Str. 61-63, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The efficiency of prevailing acid inhibitors is examined by age hardening heavy tank-steel plates in technically usual hot-galvanizing solutions for 1000 hours. With acid inhibitors local corrosion emerged as shallow pit formation first and foremost in hydrochlorid acid pickles (20 g/l HCl) at ambient temperature as well as in cleaners containing hydrochloric acid (10-30 g/l HCl) at 40 C when other conditions also applied. Above all, local corrosion was produced if the inhibitor concentration became too low (0.2 g/l) in connection with a minimum hydrochloric acid concentration (10-30 g/l). However, oxidizing agents like iron(III)-ions (5-10 g/l), atmospheric oxygen and free chlorine (100-1000 mg/l) lead to local corrosion, too. Local corrosion did not emerge in rinse baths (2-10 g/l HCl) and fluxing material solutions of zinc chloride and ammonium chloride (pH value: 2.0-5.5). Here uniform corrosion developed. Acid inhibitors turned out to be very effective against uniform corrosion in the examined long-time period (inhibiting values up to 99%). (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Wirksamkeit handelsueblicher Saeureinhibitoren wird durch eine Auslagerung von Grobblechen aus Behaelterstahl ueber 1000 Stunden in technisch gebraeuchlichen Loesungen der Feuerverzinkung untersucht. Oertliche Korrosion ist als Muldenkorrosion in Gegenwart von Saeureinhibitoren vor allem in Salzsaeurebeizen (20 g/l HCl) bei Raumtemperatur und in salzsaeurehaltigen Reinigern (10-30 g/l HCl) bei 40 C aufgetreten, wenn Zusatzbedingungen erfuellt sind. Oertliche Korrosion wird vorwiegend durch eine Unterschreitung der Inhibitorkonzentration (0,2 g/l) in Verbindung mit einer minimalen Salzsaeurekonzentration (10-30 g/l) ausgeloest. Aber auch Oxidationsmittel wie Eisen(III)-Ionen (5-10 g/l), Luftsauerstoff und freies Chlor (100-1000 mg/l) fuehren zu oertlicher Korrosion. In Spuelbaedern (2-10 g/l HCl) und Flussmittelloesungen aus Zinkchlorid und Ammoniumchlorid (p

  14. Ageing genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    The idea of gerontogenes is in line with the evolutionary explanation of ageing as being an emergent phenomenon as a result of the imperfect maintenance and repair systems. Although evolutionary processes did not select for any specific ageing genes that restrict and determine the lifespan...... of an individual, the term ‘gerontogenes’ primarily refers to any genes that may seem to influence ageing and longevity, without being specifically selected for that role. Such genes can also be called ‘virtual gerontogenes’ by virtue of their indirect influence on the rate and process of ageing. More than 1000...... virtual gerontogenes have been associated with ageing and longevity in model organisms and humans. The ‘real’ genes, which do influence the essential lifespan of a species, and have been selected for in accordance with the evolutionary life history of the species, are known as the longevity assurance...

  15. The production of wear protection coatings reinforced with tungsten carbide by temperature-controlled welding with the CO{sub 2} laser; Herstellung wolframkarbidverstaerkter Verschleissschutzschichten durch temperaturgeregeltes Auftragschweissen mit dem CO{sub 2}-Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, S.; Boddin, G.C.; Luft, A.; Techel, A. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Werkstoffphysik und Schichttechnologie, Dresden (Germany); Uelze, A. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Protective coatings can be produced by laser coating with metal alloys reinforced by carbide, whose resistance to abrasive wear with a content of 40 to 50% by volume of hard material is comparable to sintered TC-Co hard metal. Due to the remaining ductile material behaviour and the metallurgical binding to the substrate, the coatings have high impact, fatigue and adhesion strengths. The use of process control leads to a stable coating process and to increased safety and reproduceability when working in narrow parameter areas. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Durch das Laserbeschichten mit karbidverstaerkten Metallegierungen koennen Schutzschichten erzeugt werden, deren Widerstand gegen Abrasivverschleiss bereits bei einem Hartstoff-Volumengehalt von 40 bis 50% gesintertem WC-Co-Hartmetall vergleichbar ist. Aufgrund des verbleibenden duktilen Werkstoffverhaltens und der metallurgischen Bindung zum Substrat verfuegen die Schichten ueber hohe Schlag-, Ermuedungs- und Haftfestigkeiten. Der Einsatz der Prozessregelung fuehrt zu einem stabilen Beschichtungsvorgang und zu einer erhoehten Sicherheit und Reproduzierbarkeit beim Arbeiten in eng begrenzten Parameterbereichen. (orig./RHM)

  16. New epoxide polymers generated by metal organic catalysts (chelates) and their application in composite structures. Pt. 2. Final report; Neue Epoxidpolymere durch Metallorgano-Katalysatoren und ihr Einsatz in Faserverbundstrukturen. T. 2. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, T.; Raeckers, B.

    1999-08-01

    Epoxy resins cured by catalysts based on chelate compound can offer an additional potential concerning storage and heat stability, toughness and curing characteristic. To prove these advantages and to prepare a serial application was target of the project, by which physico-chemical investigations, determination of mechanical properties and component tests were used. Besides an improvement of storage time and a minimized curing cycle a satisfactory processing behaviour and mechanical properties approaching currently used aircraft materials became evident. Serial production of fibre reinforced components for automotive industry is basically possible, because all requirements concerning costs, performance and station time were met. The results can also be used for new applications in other technical fields like apparatus construction or sporting goods industry. (orig.) [German] Mittels Metallorganokatalysatoren gehaertete Epoxidharze versprechen gegenueber herkoemmlichen Systemen zusaetzliche Potentiale hinsichtlich Lager- und Waermestabilitaet sowie Zaehigkeit und Haertungscharakteristik. Diese nachzuweisen und eine zukuenftige Serienanwendung vorzubereiten war Ziel des Projektes, wozu physico-chemische Untersuchungen, mechanische Kennwertermittlungen und Bauteilversuche dienten. Neben verbesserter Lagerstabilitaet und minimierten Haertungszyklen konnten gute Verarbeitungseingeschaften und ein Leistungsprofil nachgewiesen werden, das nahe an das heutiger Luftfahrtwerkstoffe heranreicht. Die Serienherstellung von Faserverbundbauteilen im Automobilbau ist prinzipiell moeglich, da durch die entwickelten Katalysatoren alle Vorgaben hinsichtlich Kosten, Leistungsfaehigkeit und Taktzeiten erreicht werden konnten. Hierdurch koennen sich auch fuer andere Bereiche (z.B. Geraetebau, Sportartikelindustrie) neue Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten eroeffnen. (orig.)

  17. Enhancing the dewatering properties of sludge through aimed building-up of floc structures on the basis of detailed morphological analyses; Verbesserung der Entwaesserungseigenschaften von Schlaemmen durch den gezielten Aufbau von Flockenstrukturen auf der Basis detaillierter morphologischer Analysen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, M.; Ay, P. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl Aufbereitungstechnik

    1999-07-01

    Aimed building-up of aggregates as they originate in flocculation processes, for instance in sewage and sludge treatment, have especially lately been meeting with increasing resonance: they permit to influence, inter alia, important properties (e.g., the dewatering properties) of such systems. As conventional mathematical methods for the characterization of flocs - as a basis for process optimization - are inadequate or flawed, a concept for the effective characterization of the inner getup of such structures needs to be sought. One approach is cluster analysis, which is demonstrated and discussed in the present paper by means of the evaluation of sectional views of floc structures. (orig.) [German] Der gezielte Aufbau von Aggregaten, wie sie bei Flockungsprozessen z.B. in der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung entstehen, findet besonders in juengerer Zeit zunehmend Beachtung, da sich damit unter anderem wichtige Eigenschaften (z.B. die Entwaesserungseigenschaften) dieser Systeme beeinflussen lassen. Da herkoemmliche mathematische Methoden zur Charakterisierung von Flocken - als Basis fuer eine Prozessoptimierung - nur unzureichend bzw. fehlerbehaftet sind, ergibt sich daraus die Notwendigkeit, nach einem Konzept zur effektiven Charakterisierung des inneren Aufbaus solcher Strukturen zu suchen. Ein Ansatz ist die Clusteranalyse, die im Beitrag durch die Auswertung von Schnittbildern von Flockenstrukturen vorgestellt und diskutiert wird. (orig.)

  18. New epoxide polymers generated by metal organic catalysts (chelates) and their application in composite structures. Pt. 1. Final report; Neue Epoxidpolymere durch Metallorgano-Katalysatoren und ihr Einsatz in Faserverbundstrukturen. T. 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, T.; Raeckers, B.; Boettcher, A.; Haessler, R.; Renner, M.; Schmidtke, K.

    1999-08-01

    Epoxy resins cured by catalysts based on chelate compound can offer an additional potential concerning storage and heat stability, toughness and curing characteristic. To prove these advantages and to prepare a serial application was target of the project, by which physico-chemical investigations, determination of mechanical properties and component tests were used. Besides an improvement of storage time and a minimized curing cycle a satisfactory processing behaviour and mechanical properties approaching currently used aircraft materials became evident. Serial production of fibre reinforced components for automotive industry is basically possible, because all requirements concerning costs, performance and station time were met. The results can also be used for new applications in other technical fields like apparatus construction or sporting goods industry. (orig.) [German] Mittels Metallorganokatalysatoren gehaertete Epoxidharze versprechen gegenueber herkoemmlichen Systemen zusaetzliche Potentiale hinsichtlich Lager- und Waermestabilitaet sowie Zaehigkeit und Haertungscharakteristik. Diese nachzuweisen und eine zukuenftige Serienanwendung vorzubereiten war Ziel des Projektes, wozu physico-chemische Untersuchungen, mechanische Kennwertermittlungen und Bauteilversuche dienten. Neben verbesserter Lagerstabilitaet und minimierten Haertungszyklen konnten gute Verarbeitungseingeschaften und ein Leistungsprofil nachgewiesen werden, das nahe an das heutiger Luftfahrtwerkstoffe heranreicht. Die Serienherstellung von Faserverbundbauteilen im Automobilbau ist prinzipiell moeglich, da durch die entwickelten Katalysatoren alle Vorgaben hinsichtlich Kosten, Leistungsfaehigkeit und Taktzeiten erreicht werden konnten. Hierdurch koennen sich auch fuer andere Bereiche (z.B. Geraetebau, Sportartikelindustrie) neue Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten eroeffnen. (orig.)

  19. Optimisation of the energy potential of low-CO2 gas turbines by using large monocrystal turbine blades. Final report; Optimierung des Energiepotentials fuer CO{sub 2}-arme Gasturbinen durch grosse Einkristall-Turbinenschaufeln. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, J.

    2002-07-01

    Apart from the experimental identification and assessment of process characteristics during industrial-scale application of the so-called liquid metal cooling (LPC) process, the project focused on the characterisation of monocrystalline, directionally solidified materials and components. This involved the construction and commissioning of appropriate production and test aggregates, i.e. the LMC casting system and a Laue orientation testing unit, as well as the modification of a vacuum heat treatment furnace to meet the specific requirement of glow annealing of monocrystalline, directionally solidified turbine blades. [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens (Laufzeit: 01. Juli 1997 bis 31. Dezember 2001) 'Optimierung des Energiepotentials fuer CO{sub 2}-arme Gasturbinen durch grosse Einkristall-Turbinenschaufeln' lag neben der experimentellen Bestimmung und Bewertung von Verfahrens- und Prozesskennwerten bei der industriellen Umsetzung des sogenannten Liquid-Metal-Cooling-Verfahrens (LMC) in der Eigenschaftscharakterisierung von einkristallin-gerichtet erstarrten Proben und Bauteilen, die mittels dieser neuartigen Giesstechnologie dargestellt wurden. Grundvoraussetzung fuer die umfassende Bearbeitung der o.g. Arbeitsinhalte war die Konstruktion und Inbetriebnahme der notwendigen Fertigungs- und Pruefaggregate, d.h. der LMC-Giessanlage und einer Laue-Orientierungspruefeinrichtung bzw. der Abstimmung eines Vakuum-Waermebehandlungsofens auf die spezifischen Anforderungen der Loesungsgluehung einkristallin-gerichtet erstarrter Turbinenlaufschaufeln. (orig.)

  20. Gene doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisma, H J; de Hon, O

    2006-04-01

    Together with the rapidly increasing knowledge on genetic therapies as a promising new branch of regular medicine, the issue has arisen whether these techniques might be abused in the field of sports. Previous experiences have shown that drugs that are still in the experimental phases of research may find their way into the athletic world. Both the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) have expressed concerns about this possibility. As a result, the method of gene doping has been included in the list of prohibited classes of substances and prohibited methods. This review addresses the possible ways in which knowledge gained in the field of genetic therapies may be misused in elite sports. Many genes are readily available which may potentially have an effect on athletic performance. The sporting world will eventually be faced with the phenomena of gene doping to improve athletic performance. A combination of developing detection methods based on gene arrays or proteomics and a clear education program on the associated risks seems to be the most promising preventive method to counteract the possible application of gene doping.

  1. Mining and burden of the past - mercy or bane for a region? Proceedings; Bergbau und Altlasten - Segen und Fluch einer Region? Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helling, Claudia (comp.)

    2008-10-29

    The volume contains 21 contributions covering the following topics: mining remediation in eastern Germany; brown coal mining area remediation in the Lausitz, the reference project WISMUT: remediation of uranium mining areas; cases of old environmental damage due to coal processing; sulfate in the ground water in the Lausitz; potential hazard of the black coal stockpiles in Sachsen (Saxonia); natural pollutants reduction processes in mining regions; microbial sulfate reduction as remediation measure in contaminated mining areas; use of hydrogeological models; process oriented laboratory experiments concerning leachate behaviour; passive biological treatment of leakage water from the WISMUT stockpile 371; planning of a mine water treatment installation for the Vietnamese anthracite mining; remediation measures for the uranium mining and uranium ore processing in Mailuu-Suu (South Kirgistan); consequences of the German radiation protection law amendment on the evaluation of terminated Mining remediation projects.

  2. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...... of flexibility in calculating genetic linkage and displaying linkage group. Among other features, this software enables user to identify linkage groups with output visualized graphically. The program calculates interference and coefficient of coincidence with elevated accuracy in sample datasets. AVAILABILITY...

  3. Engine 3E. NO{sub x} reduction by means of homogenisation of mixtures inside combustion chambers. Final report; Engine 3E. NO{sub x}-Reduktion durch Homogenisierung des Gemisches in Brennkammern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzalis, N.; Homann; Schubert

    1999-11-05

    This is the final report of the Technology Project 'NO{sub x} reduction by means of homogenisation of mixtures inside combustion chambers', which is part of the Engine 3E 2010 programme of the BMBF, which was to promote research in aircraft engineering. In this project, technologies were developed to achieve a 60% reduction of NO{sub x} emissions as compared to ICAO '95 in an annular combustion chamber in realistic operating conditions where the emissions of substances oher than NO{sub x} were to be of the same level as the emissions of modern jet drives. Further, the design of the new combustion chamber was to be conventional in order to retain the possibility of converting existing propulsion systems to the new technology. [German] Diese Notiz enthaelt den Abschlussbericht des Technologievorhabens 'NO{sub x}-Reduktion durch Homogenisierung des Gemisches in Brennkammern'. Das Vorhaben ist Teil des Luftfahrtfoerderprogramms Engine 3E 2010 der Bundesregierung und wird vom Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF) unter dem Foerderkennzeichen 20T9540 gefoerdert. Das Programm wurde am 01. Juli 1995 begonnen und endete am 30. Juni 1999. Entsprechend dem Foerderantrag wurden in dem Vorhaben Einzeltechnologien erarbeitet, die erforderlich sind, um eine 60% Reduktion der NO{sub x}-Emissionen gegenueber ICAO '95 in einer Ringbrennkammer unter realistischen Betriebsbedingungen zu demonstrieren, wobei die restlichen Emissionen das Emissionsniveau moderner Triebwerke nicht ueberschreiten sollten. Darueber hinaus sollte das aeussere Design der zu entwickelnden Brennkammer sind von konventionellen Brennkammern nicht unterscheiden, um die Moeglichkeit der Umruestung von alten Triebwerken mit der Brennkammern der neuen Technologie offen zu halten. (orig.)

  4. Reduction of construction cost and carbon dioxide emissions by heat contracting. Obstacles and solutions. Final report; Baukostensenkung und CO{sub 2}-Minderung durch Waerme-Contracting. Hemmnisse und Loesungswege. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, V.; Liebernickel, T.; Froemel, T.; Kues, H.

    2000-11-01

    The poor condition of many heating systems is caused by a conflict of interest between investors and users. Landlords tended to opt for low investment cost, while the accompanying higher consumption cost was paid by their tenants. The only thing that has changed here is the fact that the 'secondary cost' has become a criterion for new tenants' decision to rent an apartment. Heat contracting may be a way out of the problem as contractors are interested in high-efficiency heating systems and optimally controlled operation. Heat contracting is a service concept of private and communal organisations that involves payment, construction and operation of a heating system by the contractor depending on the contracting model used. [German] Die relativ schlechte und veraltete heizungstechnische Ausruestung der Wohngebaeude in Deutschland ist auf den lange Jahre bestehenden Interessenkonflikt zwischen Investor und Nutzer im Mietwohnungsbau zurueckzufuehren. Durch die Umlagefaehigkeit der Heizkosten auf die Nutzer (Mieter) war der Gebaeudeeigentuemer i.d.R. bestrebt, eine Anlage zu guenstigen Investitionskosten zu erwerben. Die daraus resultierenden, relativ hoeheren Verbrauchskosten waren als Betriebskosten auf die Mieter umlegbar und belasteten den Vermieter nicht. An dieser Situation hat sich bis heute prinzipiell nichts geaendert; allerdings sind die Nebenkosten mit der Hauptkostenposition 'Heizkosten' zu einem Kriterium der Vermietbarkeit geworden, so dass der Vermieter heute die Kosten moeglichst niedrig halten muss. Ein Ausweg aus dem Interessenkonflikt und der neuen Vermietsituation koennte das Waerme-Contracting sein. Seitens des Contractors ist der Einsatz hocheffizienter Anlagentechnik und optimale, d.h. ueberwachte Betriebsbedingungen fuer einen wirtschaftlichen Erfolg unabdingbar. Waerme-Contracting ist ein Dienstleistungskonzept von privatwirtschaftlichen und kommunalen Unternehmen, die - je nach Contracting

  5. Stabilization of the cleaning of anaerobic waste water with the aid of activated sludge following receipts of hydrogen peroxide; Stabilisierung der anaeroben Abwasserreinigung durch Belebtschlamm nach Eintrag von Wasserstoffperoxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupperich, E. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie; Gerstmeir, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie; Marqua, J. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie; Rothfuss, A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie

    1996-12-31

    Some municipal and industrial sewage treatment plants comprise an aerobic and an anaerobic unit. However, discharge conditions may be such as to cause strong oxidants like hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to enter the anaerobic unit. As measurements of the reduction-oxidation potential in an acidification stage showed, small concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, already, may cause irreversible damage to the anaerobic bacterial strains living there. Adding activated sludge from the aerobic unit to such a system can prevent the damage. Probably, the enzyme catalase protects the anaerobic system against the oxydizing effect of hydrogen peroxide: this enzyme from aerobic bacteria and optionally aerobic bacteria causes the ecologically compatible decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, which is substantially less reactive. Optionally aerobic bacteria, which are also added, protect the anaerobic system further by consuming this oxygen. (orig.) [Deutsch] Manche kommunalen und industriellen Klaeranlagen bestehen aus einer Aerobie und einer Anaerobie. Verschiedene Einleitungsbedingungen koennen aber dazu fuehren, dass in die Anaerobie starke Oxidationsmittel wie Wasserstoffperoxid (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) gelangen. Messungen des Redoxpotentials in einer Versaeuerungsstufe zeigen, dass bereits geringe Konzentrationen an H{sub 2}O{sub 2} die dort lebenden anaeroben Bakterienkulturen irreversibel schaedigen. Wird aber einem solchen System Belebtschlamm aus der Aerobie zudosiert, so kann diese Schaedigung verhindert werden. Wahrscheinlich schuetzt das Enzym Katalase die Anaerobie vor der oxidierenden Wirkung des Wasserstoffperoxids. Dieses Enzym aus aeroben und fakultativ aeroben Bakterien zersetzt naemlich Wasserstoffperoxid oekologisch vertraeglich in Wasser und den bedeutend weniger reaktiven Sauerstoff. Zum Schutz der Anaerobie wird auch dieser Sauerstoff durch die zudosierten fakultativ aeroben Bakterien verbraucht. (orig.)

  6. If science does create more than knowledge. A congress is asking for 'education by science'; Wenn Wissenschaft mehr als Wissen schafft. Ein Kongress fragt nach 'Bildung durch Wissenschaft'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuissl, E. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    The role of science in the development of the so-called 'knowledge society' was investigated at this interdisciplinary congress. Three problem areas were identified: 1. Science itself must constantly review its own ethical fundamentals and investigate and extend its ability to keep a dialogue running. 2. Society is asked to provide an ethical and moral orientation for dealing with newly acquired knowledge and to define the social standing of science. 3. Each and every individual must work on maintaining and extending his or her level of knowledge in order to cope with everyday life and perform social functions. [German] Ziel des Kongresses ''Bildung durch Wissenschaft'' war es, im interdisziplinaeren Austausch die Rolle der Wissenschaft bei der Entwicklung der so genannten ''Wissensgesellschaft'' zu eroertern. Der enorme Wissenszuwachs des vergangenen Jahrhunderts bedeutet eine Zunahme des ''Machbaren'', von dessen positiven wie negativen Folgen die Gesellschaft und der Einzelne gleichermassen betroffen ist. Das gilt gerade fuer diejenigen Technologien und Wissensbestaende, die im Alltag von Bedeutung sind. Der Kongress beschaeftigte sich mit diesen Entwicklungen und mit den Problemen, die sich daraus ergeben. Der erste Problemkreis betrifft die Wissenschaft selbst: Sie muss sich ihrer eigenen ethischen Grundlagen wieder neu vergewissern, ihre Dialogfaehigkeit ueberpruefen und erweitern. Ein zweiter Problemkreis ist auf Seiten der Oeffentlichkeit auszumachen: Die Gesellschaft wird ethische und moralische Orientierungen fuer den Umgang mit dem neu erworbenen Wissen schaffen und grundsaetzlich den gesellschaftlichen Stellenwert der Wissenschaft bestimmen muessen. Der dritte Problemkreis stellt sich dem Einzelnen: Jeder ist gefordert, kontinuierlich sein Wissensniveau zu erhalten und zu erweitern, um den Alltag bewaeltigen und gesellschaftliche Aufgaben wahrnehmen zu koennen. (orig.)

  7. Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston K. Mazandu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide coverage and biological relevance of the Gene Ontology (GO, confirmed through its successful use in protein function prediction, have led to the growth in its popularity. In order to exploit the extent of biological knowledge that GO offers in describing genes or groups of genes, there is a need for an efficient, scalable similarity measure for GO terms and GO-annotated proteins. While several GO similarity measures exist, none adequately addresses all issues surrounding the design and usage of the ontology. We introduce a new metric for measuring the distance between two GO terms using the intrinsic topology of the GO-DAG, thus enabling the measurement of functional similarities between proteins based on their GO annotations. We assess the performance of this metric using a ROC analysis on human protein-protein interaction datasets and correlation coefficient analysis on the selected set of protein pairs from the CESSM online tool. This metric achieves good performance compared to the existing annotation-based GO measures. We used this new metric to assess functional similarity between orthologues, and show that it is effective at determining whether orthologues are annotated with similar functions and identifying cases where annotation is inconsistent between orthologues.

  8. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, David

    2012-01-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called ‘gene doping’. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted...

  9. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  10. Gene expression and gene therapy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, Claire; Couillaud, Franck; Moonen, Chrit T.W.

    2007-01-01

    The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

  11. Imaging reporter gene for monitoring gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, V. de; Baillet, G.; Tamgac, F.; Tofighi, M.; Weinmann, P.; Vergote, J.; Moretti, J.L.; Tamgac, G.

    2002-01-01

    Scintigraphic images can be obtained to document gene function at cellular level. This approach is presented here and the use of a reporter gene to monitor gene therapy is described. Two main ways are presented: either the use of a reporter gene coding for an enzyme the action of which will be monitored by radiolabeled pro-drug, or a cellular receptor gene, the action of which is documented by a radio labeled cognate receptor ligand. (author)

  12. Optimised utilisation of existing incinerators by installation of upstream reactors for treatment of waste with high calorifica value - HYBRID waste treatment plants; Optimierte Nutzung bestehender Abfallverbrennungsanlagen durch Errichtung vorgeschalteter Reaktoren zur Behandlung heizwertreicher Abfaelle - HYBRID-Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Labani, M

    2000-07-01

    Abfallverbrennungsanlagen nachtraeglich um leistungsfaehige Rauchgasreinigungssysteme ergaenzt werden. Dies fuehrte zu einem erheblichen Anstieg der Kosten und Behandlungsgebuehren mit dem entsprechenden Druck zur optimierten Nutzung. Zusaetzliche Behandlungskapazitaeten werden benoetigt fuer heizwertreiche Abfaelle. Sie koennen zwar in konventionellen Abfallverbrennungsanlagen fuer Hausmuell behandelt werden, bedingen aber aufgrund des hoeheren Heizwertes eine Durchsatzreduzierung was die Kostensituation weiter negativ beeinflusst. Daher favorisieren aktuelle Konzepte die Behandlung heizwertreicher Abfaelle in spezifischen, dezentralen Anlagen. Die ueblicherweise kleinen Anlagen gehen einher mit hohen Nebenkosten der Errichtung. Zur Abschaetzung des Optimierungspotentials bestehender Abfallverbrennungsanlagen wurde deren Auslastungssituation untersucht. Bei umfangreichen Messkampagnen am MHKW Darmstadt konnte selbst bei 100%iger Auslastung der Verbrennungseinheit in der Rauchgasreinigungsanlage eine Luecke aufgezeigt werden, die durch eine entsprechend angepasste Vorschaltanlage aufgefuellt werden koennte. Eine solche Vorschaltanlage definiert zusammen mit der bestehenden Abfallverbrennungsanlage eine HYBRID-Abfallbehandlungsanlage. Die Bereitstellung eines Instrumentariums zur Unterstuetzung der Entscheidungsfindung bei der Konzeption solcher Anlagen ist Gegenstand dieser Arbeit. (orig.)

  13. Durch Kooperation und Vernetzung zu neuen Aufgabenfeldern – Serviceentwicklung in der Bibliothek der Medizinischen Fakultät Mannheim [Opening up new tasks through cooperation and networking – service development in the Library for the Medical Faculty of Mannheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semmler-Schmetz, Martina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The Library for the Medical Faculty of Mannheim of the University of Heidelberg supplies literature and information for research, teaching and further education purposes at the “Universitätsmedizin Mannheim”. Cooperation and networking with the central facilities, departments, working groups, and information multipliers result in new, future-oriented areas of work that go beyond traditional library tasks. New services for students focus primarily on academic research and writing skills, while information and consulting services which are flexible in terms of time and location are being developed for staff members of the clinical departments and institutes. The recent cooperation with actors in the field of evidence-based medicine has yielded the innovative service “systematic literature search” which is designed to support doctors and scientists in the preparation of grant proposals for clinical trials, systematic reviews, and guidelines. Currently, the library is widening access to its new services to include doctors, scientists, and other health practitioners in the region, and evaluating chargeable services for these user groups.[german] Die Bibliothek der Medizinischen Fakultät Mannheim der Universität Heidelberg dient der Literatur- und Informationsversorgung für Forschung, Lehre, Fort- und Weiterbildung an der Universitätsmedizin Mannheim. Neue, zukunftsorientierte Aufgabenfelder, die über die klassischen bibliothekarischen Arbeitsschwerpunkte hinausgehen, erschließt sich die Bibliothek durch enge Kooperation und Vernetzung mit den zentralen Einrichtungen und Abteilungen, Arbeitskreisen und Multiplikatoren innerhalb der Universitätsmedizin Mannheim. Neue Services für die Zielgruppe der Studierenden richten sich vor allem auf den Bereich des wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens, während für Mitarbeiter in den Einrichtungen, Kliniken und Instituten der Universitätsmedizin zeitlich und räumlich flexible Informations

  14. Internationale Wachstumsstrategien produzierender Familienunternehmen durch Mergers & Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachs, Andreas Fabian Constantin Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Family businesses are experiencing a revival in the German economy. In the face of the challenges of globalization and the ongoing relocation of production facilities, “home base oriented” enterprises meet with increasing attention and gain in importance. Family-owned enterprises have indeed been

  15. Wolframcarbid/Silber-Kontaktwerkstoffe durch Gasdruckinfiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    von Thomas Stadler Arbeit an der Bibliothek noch nicht eingelangt - Daten nicht geprueft Abweichender Titel nach Übersetzung der Verfasserin/des Verfassers Technische Universität Wien, Univ., Diplomarbeit, 2017

  16. Erkenntnisgewinnn durch Virtuelle Realitäten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiner, Tobias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality will gain a more and more important role in our everyday life. So it is very important to understand fully the impact and influence virtual reality will have on or view of the world. This article reveals that the interdependencies between the real space and the virtual space are much more subtle and profound then on first sight. Especially the value of several mathematical, physical and biological models and simulation methodologies will be reestimated by the use of virtual reality in the long term. As an example the article describes the historical chain from quaternions to quaoaring and how this may lead to a paradigm change in biology.

  17. Safety by simulation; Sicherheit durch Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Eberhard [KSG Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany); GfS Gesellschaft fuer Simulatorschulung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Simulator training is a key component in achieving and preserving on the long term the necessary expertise of plant personnel also required by the authorities. In this way, it makes an important contribution to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Simulators are a component in the training of operating personnel of nuclear power plants which allows nuclear power plant operators to be prepared in a focused and practice-oriented way for their activity in everyday plant operation and for possible accident simulation. The simulator center is supported by 5 nuclear power plant operators: the German E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, RWE Power AG, EnBW Kraftwerke AG, and Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmbH companies as well as the Netherlands N.V. Electriciteits-Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland. They established a joint enterprise in Essen which performs in one central place the duty of simulator training incumbent upon all nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  18. Health injuries by noise; Gesundheitsgefahren durch Laerm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plath, P [Klinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie, Bochum Univ., Prosper-Hospital, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Within the civilized world, noise is a common danger for health. There is not only the well known hearing loss by occupational noise, but there are also a lot of noise induced hearing losses by noise injuries in private life which are comparable to the occupational ones. The sources of these injuries within private life mostly are unknown and can be found in household goods as well as from listening to loud music. Also the danger from loud cracks mostly is underestimated, so as the cracks from children toys often reach more than 150 dB(Al). Alladay`s noise levels, e.g. in public trafic, also reach dangerous levels, and the sum of all these noise injuries results in a lesion of the cilias of the outer hair cells in the Corti`s organ. The resulting hearing loss is called `sociacusis` and increases the effect of physiological presbyacusis to an amount that results in the fact, that more than 10% of all adults in civilized countries have a severe, handicapping deafness. The immediate effect of noise in this regard is intensified by the effects of disturbing noise onto the psychovegetative and hormonal regulations by chronical stress. So people in civilized countries are going to become a society of hard hearing subjects, and deafness will become a common peoples` disease. (orig.) [Deutsch] Laerm ist in der zivilisierten Welt ein allgemeines Gesundheitsproblem. Es gibt nicht nur die berufliche Laermschwerhoerigkeit, die gut erforscht ist, sondern schaedlicher Laerm tritt sehr oft auch im Privatleben auf und verursacht Gehoerschaeden, die der beruflich bedingten Laermschwerhoerigkeit vergleichbar sind. Die Gehoergefaehrdung im Privatleben ist oft unbekannt und betrifft neben lauten Geraeten im Haushalt und dem Hoeren zu lauter Musik auch die oft in ihrer Gefaehrlichkeit unterschaetzten Knalle, die selbst bei Kinderspielzeug Spitzenwerte der Pegel von ueber 150 dB(Al) erreichen. Die allgemeine zivilisatorische Laermbelastung, z.B. im oeffentlichen Verkehr, die oft schaedigende Ausmasse erreicht, im Beurteilungspegel aber unter den Grenzwerten bleibt, bewirkt im Laufe der Jahre ebenfalls bleibende Schaeden an der Zilien der aeusseren Haarzellen des Corti-Organs, die eine ueber die physiologische Alterung hinausgehende `Soziakusis` bewirken. Schliesslich haben die staendigen Geraeusch- und Laermbelaestigungen und -stoerungen des Alltagslebens deutliche Effekte auf die neurovegetativen und hormonellen Regulationen des Organismus und verursachen somit mittelbar ueber Stressreaktionen ebenfalls Hoerstoerungen in Form von Hoerstuerzen und Tinnitus. Der alltaegliche Laerm, dem zu wenig Bedeutung zugemessen wird, droht Schwerhoerigkeit, von der mehr als 10% aller Erwachsenen betroffen sind, zur Volkskrankheit werden zu lassen. (orig.)

  19. "Fine-tuning" durch interkulturelles Coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Steixner, Margret

    2009-01-01

    Margret Steixner plädiert in ihrem Beitrag für eine Integration des interkulturellen Coachings in andere Bereiche des Coachings. Basierend auf einer Coaching-Fallstudie entwickelt die Autorin einen hilfreichen Fragenkatalog für das interkulturelle Coaching. Intercultural Coaching identifies and develops intercultural competence as a key to success in the international and globalised work environment. Coaching in general has gained recognition as a very suitable method for competence develo...

  20. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, Leonard I.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k + ) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k + gene expression where the H S V-1 t k + gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([ 18 F]F H P G; [ 18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([ 123 / 131 I]I V R F U; [ 124 / 131I ]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [ 123 / 131I ]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k + reporter gene will be presented

  1. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, Leonard I. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on `suicide gene therapy` of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k{sup +}) has been use for `suicide` in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene expression where the H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([{sup 18} F]F H P G; [{sup 18} F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([{sup 123}/{sup 131} I]I V R F U; [{sup 124}/{sup 131I}]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [{sup 123}/{sup 131I}]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k{sup +} reporter gene will be presented

  2. „Wir verbrachten mehr als 24 Stunden, ohne etwas anderes als Schokolade und Limonade zu uns zu nehmen“. Hinweise in Alexander von Humboldts Tagebuchaufzeichnungen zu Fragen der Verpflegung auf der Forschungsreise durch Spanisch-Amerika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Thiemer-Sachse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung In Alexander von Humboldts Tagebüchern seiner berühmten Forschungsreise durch Spanisch-Amerika finden sich Bemerkungen und Hinweise für künftige Leser seiner Reisedarstellungen zu Problemen der Verpflegung. Zumeist werden Engpässe und Missstände erwähnt sowie Fragen soziopolitischer Situation verdeutlicht. Sie beziehen sich auf Extrembedingungen in stadtfernen Gebieten und im Kontakt mit den indigenen Trägern und Helfern während der einzelnen Exkursionen. Die Darstellungen der alltäglichen Gegebenheiten sind zugleich eine interessante Quelle für Verhaltensmuster der verschiedenen Schichten der spanischkolonialen Gesellschaft wie der Forschungsreisenden, die mit den Schwierigkeiten umzugehen hatten, sich anzupassen verstanden oder ihre eigenen Verhaltensmuster entwickelt haben. Damit ermöglichen Humboldts Aufzeichnungen zugleich auch auf diesem Gebiet manchen Blick auf den seither erfolgten Kulturwandel. Resumen En los diarios del famoso viaje de estudios de Alejandro de Humboldt por la América española se encuentran observaciones y notas sobre problemas de aprovisionamiento, en favor de lectores futuros de sus relaciones de viaje. En la mayoría de los casos Humboldt menciona situaciones precarias o ilustra cuestiones de carácter sociopolítico. Frecuentemente, sus apuntes se refieren a condiciones extremas en regiones remotas y en contacto con los cargadores y ayudantes indígenas durante las diferentes excursiones. Las descripciones de los acontecimientos cotidianos al mismo tiempo son una fuente interesante sobre los modos de proceder de las diferentes capas de la sociedad colonial española así como de los viajeros científicos que tuvieron que enfrentar dificultades a las cuales había que adaptarse o desarrollar modelos propios de comportamiento. Por esto al mismo tiempo las noticias de Humboldt también en este asunto posibilitan más de una vez la atención al cambio cultural que se ha realizado hasta hoy

  3. Der Einfluss von Anonymität in der Lehrevaluation durch Studierende [The Effects of Anonymity on Student Ratings of Teaching and Course Quality in a Bachelor Degree Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffner, Noemi

    2013-08-01

    is being taken seriously; consequently, they feel able to provide a constructive and honest evaluation.[german] Zielsetzung und Fragestellung: Unterscheiden sich die Ergebnisse anonymisierter und personalisierter Evaluationen? Methodik: Während zweier Jahre wurden bei jeder Modulevaluation alle Studierenden randomisiert den Halbgruppen „anonym“ und „personalisiert“ zugeteilt. Die Qualität des Moduls in seinen relevanten Aspekten wurde mit einem standardisierten Fragebogen erhoben. Zusätzlich konnten optionale Textantworten formuliert werden. Drei unabhängige Personen bewerteten die Aussagequalität der Antworten gemäss einem Leitfaden. Dieser beinhaltete die fünf Dimensionen positiv-negativ, differenziert-absolut, Nennung einer Person-allgemein, Befehl enthaltend-neutral und optisch akzentuiert-blank. Der Datensatz bestand aus 615 Fragebogen, davon waren 306 in anonymer Form. Mit einer multivariaten Varianzanalyse wurde überprüft, ob sich zwischen anonym und personalisiert erhobenen Daten ein Unterschied sowohl bei den durch Skalen bewerteten Aspekten als auch bei der Qualität der optionalen Textantworten zeigte. Zusätzlich wurde untersucht, ob sich die Häufigkeit der optionalen Textantworten unterschied.Ergebnisse: In der Aussagequalität liess sich kein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen anonym und personalisiert erhobenen Daten nachweisen. Hingegen haben Studierende aus der personalisierten Gruppe tendenziell häufiger optionale Textantworten geliefert.Schlussfolgerung: Personalisierte Evaluationen generieren dann keine verfälschten Resultate im Sinne der sozialen Erwünschtheit, wenn der Evaluationszirkel geschlossen und transparent ist: Die Verantwortlichen melden den Studierenden die Evaluationsergebnisse konsequent zurück und Änderungs-, Optimierungswünsche und Umsetzungsmöglichkeiten werden mit ihnen diskutiert. Die Studierenden erfahren so, dass ihre Rückmeldungen ernst genommen werden. So können sie sich echte Kritik erlauben.

  4. Parameters for characterisation of the ecochemical soil status and the potential hazards of acidification and nitrogen saturation in level II forest sites; Kennwerte zur Charakterisierung des oekochemischen Bodenzustandes und des Gefaehrdungspotentials durch Bodenversauerung und Stickstoffsaettigung an Level II-Waldoekosystem-Dauerbeobachtungsflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The ad hoc working group on soil acidification and nitrogen saturation of the Federal Government/Laender Working Group level II primarily aimed at drafting a manual for the interpretation of soil data (soil solid phase, soil solution) acquired on Level II plots. The manual contains parameters and proposals for evaluating the acid/base-status of forest soils, the nutrient supply and nitrogen status as well as for assessing the risks caused by aluminium, acid and heavy metal stress. Further parameters and proposals for evaluation concern the risks for spring and ground water quality through acidification and elevated nitrate concentrations. All parameters are described in detail, their informative value is discussed and examples are given for their use. A distinction is made between indicators to show the current ecochemical situation and to describe future risks, e.g. through progressive soil acidification, nutrient depletion and increasing nitrogen saturation. The manual thus fits in right with the overall objectives of the Level II Programme to reveal cause-effect relations in the forest damage situation and to give advice on timely counteraction via forecasts of the future development. (orig.) [German] Das vorrangige Ziel des Arbeitskreises 'Bodenversauerung und Stickstoffsaettigung' der Bundes-Laender-Arbeitsgruppe Level II war die Erarbeitung eines Auswerteleitfadens fuer die Bodendaten (Bodenfestphase, Sickerwasser) der Level II-Flaechen. Der Leitfaden enthaelt Kennwerte und Bewertungsvorschlaege zum Saeure-Base-Zustand des Waldbodens, zur Naehrstoffbereitstellung, zum Stickstoffstatus, zur Abschaetzung von Risiken durch Aluminium-, Saeure- und Schwermetallstress und zur Gefaehrdung des Quell- und Grundwassers durch Versauerung und steigende Nitratgehalte. Alle Kennwerte werden eingehend beschrieben, ihre Aussagekraft diskutiert und ihre Anwendung an Beispielen dargestellt. Unterschieden wird zwischen Indikatoren zur Darstellung der aktuellen

  5. Reduction of {sup 137}caesium contamination in wild boars by supplementing offered food with ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate; Reduktion der {sup 137}Caesium-Aktivitaet in Wildschweinen durch Zusatz von Ammonium-Eisen-Hexacyanoferrat (''Berliner Blau'') zum Kirrfutter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfeld, P. [Evonik Industries AG, Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie und Risikobewertung in der Arbeitswelt (IERA); Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Umweltmedizin und Praeventionsforschung; Reddemann, J.; Schungel, P. [Landesjagdverband Bayern e.V., Feldkirchen (Germany); Kienzle, E. [Muenchen Univ., Oberschleissheim (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Tierernaehrung und Diaetetik

    2014-06-15

    This replication study investigated whether the {sup 137}caesium ({sup 137}Cs) contamination of wild boars could be relevantly reduced under field conditions by adding ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate (AFCF; Prussian blue) to the food. In 285 wild boars that had been shot in six Bavarian hunting territories during the season (November until May) between 01 November 2010 and 10 December 2011 {sup 137}Cs contamination was analysed. Thirty-five animals originated from two hunting territories in which offered food had been supplemented with 1250 mg AFCF per kilogram food. The control animals showed a mean {sup 137}Cs contamination of 522 Bq/kg lean skeletal muscle meat. Direct (univariable) comparisons of the two experimental territories with the four control territories yielded a mean reduction in {sup 137}Cs contamination due to Prussian bluefeeding by -211 Bq/kg (p < 0.001). Multivariable mo dels that took potential confounders into account (age, weight, sex, hunting date, territory) estimated the effect to be -344 Bq/kg (p < 0.05). This replication study confirmed the finding of Kienzle et al. (12) who described a statistically significant reduction in {sup 137}Cs contamination by -380 Bq/kg due to the feeding of Prussian blue in other territories. [German] Gegenstand und Ziel: Diese Replikationsstudie pruefte, ob unter Feldbedingungen die Kontamination von Wildschweinen mit {sup 137}Caesium ({sup 137}Cs) durch Zugabe vn Ammonium-Eisen-Hexacyanoferrat (AFCF, ''Berliner Blau'') zum ausgelegten Futter relevant verringert werden kann. Material und Methoden: Bei 285 Wildschweinen, die zwischen dem 01.11.2010 und dem 10.12.2011 waehrend der Jagdsaison (November bis Mai) in sechs bayerischen Jagdrevieren erlegt worden waren, erfolgte eine Analyse der {sup 137}Cs-Aktivitaet. Von diesen Tieren stammten 35 aus zwei Revieren, in denen das ausgelegte Futter mit 1250 mg AFCF/kg Futter supplementiert worden war. Ergebnisse: Die Kontrolltiere wiesen eine

  6. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Evolution of homeobox genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter W H

    2013-01-01

    Many homeobox genes encode transcription factors with regulatory roles in animal and plant development. Homeobox genes are found in almost all eukaryotes, and have diversified into 11 gene classes and over 100 gene families in animal evolution, and 10 to 14 gene classes in plants. The largest group in animals is the ANTP class which includes the well-known Hox genes, plus other genes implicated in development including ParaHox (Cdx, Xlox, Gsx), Evx, Dlx, En, NK4, NK3, Msx, and Nanog. Genomic data suggest that the ANTP class diversified by extensive tandem duplication to generate a large array of genes, including an NK gene cluster and a hypothetical ProtoHox gene cluster that duplicated to generate Hox and ParaHox genes. Expression and functional data suggest that NK, Hox, and ParaHox gene clusters acquired distinct roles in patterning the mesoderm, nervous system, and gut. The PRD class is also diverse and includes Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7, Pax4/6, Gsc, Hesx, Otx, Otp, and Pitx genes. PRD genes are not generally arranged in ancient genomic clusters, although the Dux, Obox, and Rhox gene clusters arose in mammalian evolution as did several non-clustered PRD genes. Tandem duplication and genome duplication expanded the number of homeobox genes, possibly contributing to the evolution of developmental complexity, but homeobox gene loss must not be ignored. Evolutionary changes to homeobox gene expression have also been documented, including Hox gene expression patterns shifting in concert with segmental diversification in vertebrates and crustaceans, and deletion of a Pitx1 gene enhancer in pelvic-reduced sticklebacks. WIREs Dev Biol 2013, 2:31-45. doi: 10.1002/wdev.78 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gene cluster statistics with gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Narayanan; Durand, Dannie

    2009-05-01

    Identifying genomic regions that descended from a common ancestor is important for understanding the function and evolution of genomes. In distantly related genomes, clusters of homologous gene pairs are evidence of candidate homologous regions. Demonstrating the statistical significance of such "gene clusters" is an essential component of comparative genomic analyses. However, currently there are no practical statistical tests for gene clusters that model the influence of the number of homologs in each gene family on cluster significance. In this work, we demonstrate empirically that failure to incorporate gene family size in gene cluster statistics results in overestimation of significance, leading to incorrect conclusions. We further present novel analytical methods for estimating gene cluster significance that take gene family size into account. Our methods do not require complete genome data and are suitable for testing individual clusters found in local regions, such as contigs in an unfinished assembly. We consider pairs of regions drawn from the same genome (paralogous clusters), as well as regions drawn from two different genomes (orthologous clusters). Determining cluster significance under general models of gene family size is computationally intractable. By assuming that all gene families are of equal size, we obtain analytical expressions that allow fast approximation of cluster probabilities. We evaluate the accuracy of this approximation by comparing the resulting gene cluster probabilities with cluster probabilities obtained by simulating a realistic, power-law distributed model of gene family size, with parameters inferred from genomic data. Surprisingly, despite the simplicity of the underlying assumption, our method accurately approximates the true cluster probabilities. It slightly overestimates these probabilities, yielding a conservative test. We present additional simulation results indicating the best choice of parameter values for data

  9. Carboxylesterase 1 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Madsen, Majbritt Busk

    2018-01-01

    The carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) encodes a hydrolase that metabolizes commonly used drugs. The CES1-related pseudogene, carboxylesterase 1 pseudogene 1 (CES1P1), has been implicated in gene exchange with CES1 and in the formation of hybrid genes including the carboxylesterase 1A2 gene (CES1A2...

  10. The bioenergy village - preconditions and consequences of autonomous heat and power supply on the basis of biomass for agricultrue, ecology and lifestyle in rural regions. Final report phase I; Das Bioenergiedorf - Voraussetzungen und Folgen einer eigenstaendigen Waerme- und Stromversorgung durch Biomasse fuer Landwirtschaft, Oekologie und Lebenskultur im laendlichen Raum. Endbericht Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, H.; Ahl, C.; Girschner, W.; Krumbein, W.; Marggraf, R.; Scheffer, K.; Schmuck, P. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    With support from the Federal Minister of Consumer Protection, Nutrition and Agriculture through the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Renewable Fuels Agency), a project group of Goettingen University was able to demonstrate how complete conversion to biomass of heat and power supply can be achieved for a whole village with maximum social acceptance, environmental compatibility, and economic and technical efficiency. This and further projects will provide flexible, generally applicable concepts for wider use and are expected to give new impetus to bioenergy and help reduce CO2 emissions. This documentation presents the results of the first project phase, which lasted from October 2000 through November 2002. After describing the criteria for which the model village was selected, the work carried out by the various scientific disciplines cooperating in the project (environmental geoscience, crop research, soil research, agricultural economy, psychology, sociology and political science) is described, and the current project status is outlined. (orig.) [German] Mit Unterstuetzung des Bundesministeriums fuer Verbraucherschutz, Ernaehrung und Landwirtschaft durch die Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. konnte die Projektgruppe der Universitaet damit beginnen, beispielhaft in einem Dorf zu demonstrieren, wie eine komplette Umstellung der Strom- und Waermeversorgung auf den Energietraeger Biomasse sozial, umweltvertraeglich, wirtschaftlich und technisch erfolgen kann. Auf der Basis dieser konkreten Umstellugsarbeiten und Erfahrungen aus anderen aehnlichen Projekten sollen uebertragbare, flexible Konzepte erarbeitet werden, die der Nutzung der Bioenergie einen deutlichen Auftrieb geben und dadurch auch erhebliche Kohlendioxid-Einsparpotentiale erschliessen koennen. In dieser Dokumentation sind die Ergebnisse der ersten Phase des Projektes 'Das Bioenergiedorf' vom Oktober 2000 bis November 2002 niedergelegt. Es wird zunaechst in einem Ueberblick

  11. Dexamethasone-induced radioresistance occurring independent of human papilloma virus gene expression in cervical carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutz, H.P.; Mariotta, M.; Mirimanoff, R.O. [Lab. de Radiobiologie, Service de Radio-Oncologie, CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland); Knebel Doeberitz, M. von [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Virusforschung

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HPV 18 E6 and E7 gene products with respect to radiosensitivity of two cervical carcinoma cell lines. The two cervical carcinoma lines C4-1 and SW 756 were used in which treatment with dexamethasone allows to modulate expression levels of HPV 18 E6 and E7 genes: Upregulation in C4-1, down-regulation in SW 756. Effects of treatment with dexamethasone on plating efficiency and radiosensitivity were assessed using a clonogenic assay. Treatment with dexamethasone increased plating efficiency of the C4-1 cells, but did not affect plating efficiency of SW 756 cells. Treatment with dexamethasone induced enhanced radioresistance in both cell lines. Thus, in C4-1 cells the observed changes in radioresistance correlate to the enhancement in expression of HPV 18 genes E6/E7, whereas in SW 756, a reduced expression correlates negatively with the enhanced radioresistance. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Das Ziel dieser Studie lag darin, die Rolle der HPV-18-Gene E6 und E7 in bezug auf die Strahlenempfindlichkeit von menschlichen Zervixkarzinomzellen zu untersuchen. Wir verwendeten zwei menschliche Zervixkarzinomzellinien, C4-1 und SW 756, in welchen die Expression der viralen Gene HPV 18 E6 und E7 mit Dexamethason moduliert werden kann: In C4-1 bewirkt die Behandlung mit Dexamethason eine Erhoehung der Expression dieser Gene, in SW 756 eine Verminderung. Die Wirkung auf die Wachstumsfaehigkeit der Zellen und auf die Wachstumshemmung durch die Bestrahlung wurde unter Verwendung eines klonogenen Assays bestimmt. Dexamethason bewirkte eine erhoehte Wachstumsfaehigkeit der C4-1 Zellen, ohne die Wachstumsfaehigkeit der SW-756-Zellen zu beeinflussen, wie schon frueher beschrieben. Die Resistenz beider Zellinien gegenueber Bestrahlung wurde erhoeht. Somit besteht in den C4-1-Zellen eine Korrelation der Expression der viralen Gene mit der Zunahme der Strahlenresistenz, wogegen in den SW-756-Zellen die Abnahme der Expression im Gegensatz zu

  12. Gene doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement. Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV

  13. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  14. German RPV safety assessment. Underpinning of the procedure by complementary test results measured in the hot cells; Der deutsche RDB-Sicherheitsnachweis. Untermauerung der Vorgehensweise durch ergaenzende Kennwertermittlung in den Heissen Zellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Elisabeth; Hein, Hieronymus; Gundermann, Arnulf [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany); Hoffmann, Harald [VGB (Germany); Koenig, Guenter; Ilg, Ulf [EnBW (Germany); Nagel, Gerhard [e-on Kernkraft (Germany); Widera, Martin [RWE (Germany); Rebsamen, Daniel [KKW Goesgen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    , um beide Konzepte miteinander vergleichen zu koennen. Die Auswertung der generierten Datenbasis fuehrte zu folgenden wesentlichen Ergebnissen des Vorhabens: -Die ''lower bound'' ASME K{sub Ic}-Kurve fuer Rissinitiierung (Sprodbruchversagen) konnte durch die gemessenen Bruchzaehigkeitswerte fuer den bestrahlten Werkstoffzustand bestaetigt werden. -Der signifikante Einfluss der Legierungselemente Kupfer und Nickel auf das Bestrahlungsverhalten von RDB-Werkstoffen wurde mit beiden Konzepten bestaetigt. -Die Uebergangstemperaturverschiebungen beider Konzepte {delta}T{sub 41} und {delta}T{sub 0} korrelieren relativ gut miteinander. -Bruchmechanikproben vom Typ SE(B) 10 mm x 10 mm sind fuer die T{sub 0}-Bestimmung geeignet und ergeben tendenziell etwas niedrigere T{sub 0}-Werte als Kompakt-Proben. -Die gemessenen Crack Arrest Zaehigkeitswerte werden weitestgehend von der ''lower bound'' ASME K{sub Ia}-Kurve eingehuellt. (orig.)

  15. Reduction of radiation exposure in PET examinations by data acquisition in the 3D mode; Reduktion der Strahlenexposition bei PET-Untersuchungen durch Datenakquisition im 3D-Modus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene]|[Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie; Adam, L.E. [Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine; Zaers, J.; Trojan, H.; Doll, J. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie; Bellemann, M.E. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie]|[Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachbereich Medizintechnik; Nosske, D. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene

    1999-04-01

    , auf die abschirmende Wirkung von Septen zwischen den einzelnen Detektorringen (2D-Modus) zu verzichten, so dass auch koinzidente Ereignisse zwischen Detektoren auf weiter entfernt liegenden Ringen erfasst werden koennen (3D-Modus). Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, das Zaehlratenverhalten eines PET-Scanners der neuesten Generation im 2D- und im 3D-Modus anhand von Phantommessungen zu untersuchen und die sich daraus ergebenden Konsequenzen fuer die Strahlenhygiene bei PET-Untersuchungen mit 2-[F-18]-Fluor-2-Desoxyglukose (F-18-FDG) zu diskutieren. Methoden: Alle Messungen wurden am Ganzkoerper-PET-System ECAT EXACT HR{sup +} durchgefuehrt. Fuer die 2D-Messungen wurde ein Kollimator aus duennen Wolframlamellen in das Gesichtsfeld eingebracht. Das Zaehlratenverhalten des Scanners wurde dem NEMA-Protokoll folgend ueber einen weiten Bereich von F-18-Aktivitaetskonzentrationen untersucht. Darueber hinaus wurden PET-Aufnahmen des EEC-Ganzkoerperphantoms mit verschiedenen Einsaetzen im 2D- und im 3D-Modus jeweils ueber 15 min akquiriert, wobei die F-18-Aktivitaetskonzentrationen bei der 3D-Messung halb so hoch waren wie bei der 2D-Messung. Ergebnisse: Fuer das zylinderfoermige NEMA-Phantom (Durchmesser=19,4 cm, Laenge=19,0 cm) ergab sich im 3D-Modus eine im Vergleich zur 2D-Akquisition etwa fuenffach hoehere Systemsensitivitaet (27,7 statt 5,7 cps/Bq/ml). Die Auswertung der rekonstruierten Aktivitaetsverteilungen des EEC-Phantoms ergab, dass die Qualitaet der aus dem 3D-Projektionsdatensatz berechneten PET-Aufnahmen besser war als die der korrespondierenden 2D-Aufnahmen, obwohl die Aktivitaetskonzentrationen nur halb so hoch waren. Schlussfolgerungen: Durch die Datenakquisition im 3D-Modus kann die zu applizierende Aktivitaetsmenge bei gleichzeitiger Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet erheblich reduziert werden. Fuer Patientenuntersuchungen mit F-18-FDG im Ganzkoerperbereich reicht es unserer Erfahrung nach aus, eine Aktivitaet zwischen 150 und 200 MBq zu applizieren. Dies

  16. Tumor targeted gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms governing malignant transformation brings new opportunities for therapeutic intervention against cancer using novel approaches. One of them is gene therapy based on the transfer of genetic material to an organism with the aim of correcting a disease. The application of gene therapy to the cancer treatment had led to the development of new experimental approaches such as suicidal gene therapy, inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. Suicidal gene therapy is based on the expression in tumor cells of a gene encoding an enzyme that converts a prodrug into a toxic product. Representative suicidal genes are Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and cytosine deaminase (CD). Especially, physicians and scientists of nuclear medicine field take an interest in suicidal gene therapy because they can monitor the location and magnitude, and duration of expression of HSV1-tk and CD by PET scanner

  17. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  18. Radiotechnologies and gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jinsong

    2001-01-01

    Gene therapy is an exciting frontier in medicine today. Radiologist will make an uniquely contribution to these exciting new technologies at every level by choosing sites for targeting therapy, perfecting and establishing routes of delivery, developing imaging strategies to monitor therapy and assess gene expression, developing radiotherapeutic used of gene therapy

  19. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  20. Gene therapy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Indu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy "the use of genes as medicine" involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working copy of a gene into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. The technique may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. The objective of gene therapy is to introduce new genetic material into target cells while causing no damage to the surrounding healthy cells and tissues, hence the treatment related morbidity is decreased. The delivery system includes a vector that delivers a therapeutic gene into the patient′s target cell. Functional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal stage. The vectors used in gene therapy can be viral and non-viral. Gene therapy, an emerging field of biomedicine, is still at infancy and much research remains to be done before this approach to the treatment of condition will realize its full potential.

  1. Gene therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini

    2013-03-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  2. Primetime for Learning Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Joyce

    2017-02-11

    Learning genes in mature neurons are uniquely suited to respond rapidly to specific environmental stimuli. Expression of individual learning genes, therefore, requires regulatory mechanisms that have the flexibility to respond with transcriptional activation or repression to select appropriate physiological and behavioral responses. Among the mechanisms that equip genes to respond adaptively are bivalent domains. These are specific histone modifications localized to gene promoters that are characteristic of both gene activation and repression, and have been studied primarily for developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. In this review, studies of the epigenetic regulation of learning genes in neurons, particularly the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene ( BDNF ), by methylation/demethylation and chromatin modifications in the context of learning and memory will be highlighted. Because of the unique function of learning genes in the mature brain, it is proposed that bivalent domains are a characteristic feature of the chromatin landscape surrounding their promoters. This allows them to be "poised" for rapid response to activate or repress gene expression depending on environmental stimuli.

  3. Design criteria for crankshafts - axial slide bearing in Otto and diesel engines by means of computer-based simulations and experimental investigations. Axial slide bearing design - final report; Auslegungskriterien fuer Kurbelwellen - Axialgleitlager in Otto- und Dieselmotoren durch rechnergestuetzte Simulation und experimentelle Untersuchungen. Axialgleitlagerauslegung - Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, K. [Univ. GH Kassel (Germany). Inst. fuer Maschinenelemente und Konstruktionstechnik; Hunsicker, W. [Fachhochschule Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Tribologie; Schubert, W. [KS Gleitlager GmbH, St. Leon-Rot (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In the frame of this research project a simulation program has been developed in order to investigate suspension pressure build-up in crankshaft axial bearings taking into account mixed friction conditions. The investigated system is performing in a dynamic way taking into account the engine dynamics. Based upon the high engineering state of radial slide bearings, axial bearings as well as conical slide faces with any conical angle can be simulated in the same way. The solid body contact share in the system to be investigated is taken into account by the integral effect of the real microscopic surface structure on microhydrodynamics and contact pressure build-up. The influence of individual parameters, as e.g. macro-geometric bearing surface design can be investigated by means of simulation results. Wavy stopping faces and bearing surfaces with Rayleigh-steps are characterised by high hydrodynamic supporting pressure magnitudes in terms of macrogeometry. Elasto-hydrodynamic investigations at one stop collar and under engine-specific load on stop disks of a base bearing show the influence of structure elasticity and prove the necessity to consider them when the individual systems are analysed. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des durchgefuehrten Forschungsvorhabens wurde ein Simulationsprogramm zur Untersuchung des Tragdruckaufbaus in Kurbelwellen-Axiallagern unter Beruecksichtigung von Mischreibungszustaenden entwickelt. Das untersuchte System verhaelt sich dabei unter Beruecksichtigung der Motordynamik dynamisch. Ausgehend von dem hohen Entwicklungsstand von Radialgleitlagern koennen Axiallager sowie kegelfoermige Gleitflaechen mit beliebigen Kegelwinkeln in gleicher Weise simuliert werden. Dem hohen Festkoerperkontaktanteil in dem zu untersuchenden System wird durch die Beruecksichtigung der integralen Wirkung der realen mikroskopischen Oberflaechenstruktur auf Mikrohydrodynamik und Kontaktdruckaufbau Rechnung getragen. Anhand von Simulationsergebnissen kann der

  4. Genes and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F.

    2008-01-01

    What specific genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of brain circuits that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate these brain circuits? Here we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key “vectors of influence” that link genes, brain, and social behavior: 1) social information alters gene readout in the brain to influence beh...

  5. History of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  7. Chromatin loops, gene positioning, and gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, S.; de Laat, W.

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments and intense research over the last years have led to a better understanding of the 3D structure of the genome and its influence on genome function inside the cell nucleus. We will summarize topological studies performed on four model gene loci: the alpha- and beta-globin

  8. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  9. DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, Mitsuoki

    1995-01-01

    Fission yeast S. pombe is assumed to be a good model for cloning of human DNA repair genes, because human gene is normally expressed in S. pombe and has a very similar protein sequence to yeast protein. We have tried to elucidate the DNA repair mechanisms of S. pombe as a model system for those of mammals. (J.P.N.)

  10. Antisense gene silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels T; Nielsen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Since the first reports that double-stranded RNAs can efficiently silence gene expression in C. elegans, the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) has been intensively exploited as an experimental tool to study gene function. With the subsequent discovery that RNAi could also be applied...

  11. Risks and opportunities of the liberalized electricity market. Partial project: BoFiT, an integrated decision support system for retaining the competitiveness of the cogeneration technology. Final report; Risiken und Chancen des liberalisierten Strommarktes. Teilprojekt: Integrierte Entscheidungsunterstuetzung durch BoFiT zur Erhaltung der Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, G.; Scheidt, M.

    2002-06-04

    The energy management system called BoFiT and specific new applications are explained which have been developed as one project task of the coordinated research project sponsored by the German ministry of economics,(BMWi), entitled ''Risks and opportunities of the liberalized electricity market''. The major objective of the project is: Finding efficient strategies to ensure the competitiveness of the cogeneration technology in the deregulated power and gas markets, in particular for the purpose of enhancing the penetration of the ecologically beneficial, cogenerated district heating supply in those markets. The focus of this report is on a specific application of the integrated BoFiT decision support system, for which the ''model for microsimulation of spot transactions at the Power Exchange based on a multi-agent system'' has been developed and is explained in great detail. (orig./CB) [German] Mit dem Energiemanagementsystem BoFiT soll den Unternehmen eine effektive und operativ nutzbare Entscheidungsunterstuetzung angeboten werden. Wesentliche Ziele des Verbundprojektes des BMWi sind: Unterstuetzung der KWK und speziell der darauf basierenden oekologisch sinnvollen Fernwaermeversorgung durch Anpassung von Arbeitsablaeufen und Werkzeugen zur Findung betriebswirtschaftlich optimaler Einsatz- und Betriebsstrategien; Kostenoptimierung der Kraftwerke, Vertraege und Stromhandelsaktivitaeten unter den Randbedingungen der deregulierten Strom- und Gasmaerkte. Als Beispiel einer solchen integrierten Entscheidungsunterstuetzung wird das ''Modell zur Mikrosimulation des Spothandels von Strom auf der Basis eines Multi-Agenten-Systems'' ausfuehrlich beschrieben. (orig./CB)

  12. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  13. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  14. Gene amplification in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimari Bizari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene amplification increases the number of genes in a genome and can give rise to karyotype abnormalities called double minutes (DM and homogeneously staining regions (HSR, both of which have been widely observed in human tumors but are also known to play a major role during embryonic development due to the fact that they are responsible for the programmed increase of gene expression. The etiology of gene amplification during carcinogenesis is not yet completely understood but can be considered a result of genetic instability. Gene amplification leads to an increase in protein expression and provides a selective advantage during cell growth. Oncogenes such as CCND1, c-MET, c-MYC, ERBB2, EGFR and MDM2 are amplified in human tumors and can be associated with increased expression of their respective proteins or not. In general, gene amplification is associated with more aggressive tumors, metastases, resistance to chemotherapy and a decrease in the period during which the patient stays free of the disease. This review discusses the major role of gene amplification in the progression of carcinomas, formation of genetic markers and as possible therapeutic targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of some types of tumors.

  15. Methanogenesis and methane genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, J.N.; Shref, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the pathways leading to methane biosynthesis is presented. The steps investigated to date by gene cloning and DNA sequencing procedures are identified and discussed. The primary structures of component C of methyl coenzyme M reductase encoded by mcr operons in different methanogens are compared. Experiments to detect the primary structure of the genes encoding F420 reducing hydrogenase (frhABG) and methyl hydrogen reducing hydrogenase (mvhDGA) in methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain H are compared with each other and with eubacterial hydrogenase encoding genes. A biotechnological use for hydrogenases from hypermorphillic archaebacteria is suggested. (author)

  16. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene Expression Omnibus is a public functional genomics data repository supporting MIAME-compliant submissions of array- and sequence-based data. Tools are provided...

  17. Finding Genes for Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Karolina

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of our most common psychiatric diseases. It severely affects all aspects of psychological functions and results in loss of contact with reality. No cure exists and the treatments available today produce only partial relief for disease symptoms. The aim of this work is to better understand the etiology of schizophrenia by identification of candidate genes and gene pathways involved in the development of the disease. In a preliminarily study, the effects of medication and g...

  18. Epigenetics: beyond genes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fossey, A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available in forestry breeding. Keywords Gene regulation; chromatin; histone code hyporthesis; RNA silencing; post transcriptional gene silencing; forestry. Introduction to epigenetic phenomena Most living organisms share a vast amount of genetic information... (Rapp and Wendel, 2005). Epigenetic phenomena pervade all aspects of cell proliferation and plant development and are often in conflict with Mendelian models of genetics (Grant-Downton and Dickinson, 2005). A key element in many epigenetic effects...

  19. Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions in the Etiology of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adegoke, Olufemi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this CDA is to evaluate the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of breast cancer in two ongoing case-control studies, the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (SBCS...

  20. Radiosensitivity and genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiyue, Hu; Mingyue, Lun [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China)

    1995-07-01

    Reported effects of some oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and DNA repair genes on sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation are reviewed. The role of oncogenes in cellular response to irradiation is discussed, especially the extensively studied oncogenes such as the ras gene family. For tumour suppressor genes, mainly the p53, which is increasingly implicated as a gene affecting radiosensitivity, is reviewed. It is considered that there is a cell cycle checkpoint determinant which is postulated to be able to arrest the irradiated cells in G{sub 1} phase to allow them to repair damage before they undergo DNA synthesis. So far there are six DNA repair genes which have been cloned in mammalian cells, but only one, XRCC1, appears to be involved in repair of human X-ray damage. XRCC1 can correct high sisterchromatid exchange levels when transferred into EM{sub 9} cells, but its expression seems to have no correlation with radiosensitivity of human neck and head tumour cells. Radiosensitivity is an intricate issue which may involve many factors. A scheme of cellular reactions after exposure to irradiation is proposed to indicate a possible sequence of events initiated by ionizing radiation.

  1. Radiosensitivity and genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qiyue; Lun Mingyue

    1995-07-01

    Reported effects of some oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and DNA repair genes on sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation are reviewed. The role of oncogenes in cellular response to irradiation is discussed, especially the extensively studied oncogenes such as the ras gene family. For tumour suppressor genes, mainly the p53, which is increasingly implicated as a gene affecting radiosensitivity, is reviewed. It is considered that there is a cell cycle checkpoint determinant which is postulated to be able to arrest the irradiated cells in G 1 phase to allow them to repair damage before they undergo DNA synthesis. So far there are six DNA repair genes which have been cloned in mammalian cells, but only one, XRCC1, appears to be involved in repair of human X-ray damage. XRCC1 can correct high sisterchromatid exchange levels when transferred into EM 9 cells, but its expression seems to have no correlation with radiosensitivity of human neck and head tumour cells. Radiosensitivity is an intricate issue which may involve many factors. A scheme of cellular reactions after exposure to irradiation is proposed to indicate a possible sequence of events initiated by ionizing radiation

  2. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  3. 11. Frankfurter Medienrechtstage 2013 "Internet - Segen oder Fluch für die Medienfreicheit in Europa?" : 20-21. März 2013, Europa-Universität Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Terve ajakirja number on pühendatud konverentsi materjalidele. Muutustest meedias ja selle mõjust trükiajakirjandusele ja ajakirjandusvabadusele. Blogidest, nende tähendusest ning vajalikkusest. Ajakirjanike ja blogide rollist Ukrainas ja Venemaal. Autoriõigus ja digitaalsed väljaanded, digitaalmeedia finantseerimise küsimused

  4. Regulation of FoxO transcription factors by environmental NO(x). Influence of metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Regulation von FoxO-Transkriptionsfaktoren durch Umweltnoxen. Einfluss von Metallionen und polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckers, Anna

    2009-12-15

    FoxO transcription factors are crucial modulators of various cellular processes, controlling the expression of target genes such as those coding for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and selenoprotein P (SeP), thereby supporting defense against oxidative stress. Environmental stimuli such as heavy metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) modulate signaling pathways both by interaction with proteins or by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exposure of hepatoma cells to nickel ions at subcytotoxic doses did not translate into modulation of FoxO activity despite an activation of the Ser/Thr-kinase Akt. The cellular response to nickel ions under these conditions is most likely independent of the formation of ROS, since there were no increased levels of glutathione disulfide detectable. FoxO activity was then found to be modulated in response to exposure of cells to PAH or the tryptophan photoproduct FICZ. Both PAH and FICZ caused an increased activity of a FoxO-responsive promoter construct as well as of glucose 6-phosphatase promoter activity. In contrast, the activities of promoters of genes coding for MnSOD or SeP were decreased in response to exposure to the PAH 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC). In line with the promoter effects, 3-MC also decreased steady-state levels of SeP mRNA. The response of the SeP promoter to 3-MC was abrogated by point mutations introduced at the two identified FoxO binding elements of the SeP promoter, implying that interaction of FoxO proteins with these sites is essential for the downregulation of promoter activity. In addition to FoxO activity being modulated by xenobiotics, it was then demonstrated that FoxO expression was also modulated by exposure of cells to PAH or FICZ. FoxO4 mRNA levels were downregulated in hepatoma cells exposed to 3-MC or FICZ. Similarly, insulin treatment caused a downregulation of mRNA levels of FoxO 1a, 3a and 4 in hepatoma cells. (orig.)

  5. The Mycoplasma hominis vaa gene displays a mosaic gene structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe M. G.; Jensen, Lise T.

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis contains a variable adherence-associated (vaa) gene. To classify variants of the vaa genes, we examined 42 M. hominis isolated by PCR, DNA sequencing and immunoblotting. This uncovered the existence of five gene categories. Comparison of the gene types revealed a modular...

  6. Quantification of the magnetization-transfer contrast effect: can it yield additional information in differentiation of musculoskeletal lesions particularly in separation of benign from malignant lesions; Quantifizierung des Magnetization Transfer Contrast (MTC) Effektes durch Berechnung von MT-Quotienten: Ergeben sich Zusatzinformationen fuer die Differenzierung benigner und maligner Erkrankungen des Bewegungsapparates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Traeber, F.; Schild, H. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, J. [Philips Medizinsysteme (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential information of the amount of magnetization-transfer effect in musculoskeletal lesions and to compare MT ratios from benign and malignant musculoskeletal lesions. Material and Method: 49 patients with malignant tumors (3 osteosarcoma, 3 malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 4 chondrosarcoma, 2 Ewing sarcomas) and benign lesions (8 chondroma, 2 fibrous dysplasia, 3 osteoid-osteoma, 6 ganglion cyst, 3 cyst, 3 osteomyelitis, 4 tendinitis, 3 rotator cuff tear, 5 scar tissue) were scanned using routine MRI protocols including T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted spin echo as well as T{sub 2}*-weighted gradient echo (FFE) sequences at 1.5 Tesla (ACS II, Philips Medical). Additionally MTC images were generated by combining the FFE sequence and the off-resonance MT technique (-1500 Hz off-resonance frequency, 1770 flip angle and 50 ms pulse duration). MT ratios were calculated as SI{sub o}-SI{sub m}/SI{sub o}. Results: The MT ratio of benign lesions was 26{+-}15%, that of malignant lesions was 22{+-}6%. The difference was statistically not significant. As expected muscle showed a high MT ratio of 50{+-}8%. Scar tissue demonstrated an MT ratio of 39{+-}16% which was significantly higher than the tumor MT ratios. Conclusion: MTC (MT ratios) failed to show significant differences between benign and malignant lesions as was expected due to basic differences in cellularity, rate of mitosis and chromatin content. MTC might however gain more importance in separating scar tissue from recurrent tumor in the future. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Durch die Quantifizierung des Magnetization Transfer Contrastes sollte untersucht werden, ob sich Zusatzinformationen in der Magnetresonanztomographie des Stuetz- und Bewegungsapparates ergeben. Insbesondere sollte ermittelt werden, ob gut- und boesartige Laesionen unterschiedliche MT-Quotienten aufweisen. Material und Methode: 49 Patienten mit boesartigen Tumoren (3 Osteosarkom, 4 Chondrosarkom, 3 Malignes

  7. High-productivity laser deposition welding using powder and wire. Final report of the project 'Higher efficiency of thermal coating plants by a combination of energy sources'; Hochproduktives Laser-Auftragschweissen mit Pulver und Draht. Ergebnisbericht zum Verbundvorhaben ''Wirkungsgradsteigerung thermischer Beschichtungsanlagen durch Energiequellenkombination''. SPRAYNERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, Steffen (ed.)

    2013-05-01

    Excellent precision, maximum mechanical strength and selective properties of the generated coatings and 3D structures caused a breakthrough of laser deposition welding in industrial production. However, the technology is limited by its low deposition rates in those cases where large-surface components are to be coated while laser-typical corrosion and wear resistance characteristics are to be achieved. Examples are, e.g. hydraulic cylinders for offshore applications, tools for petroleum or gas production and mining, or large-scale conveyors. In these cases, modern laser hybrid technologies open up new applications. By effectively combining the laser energy with other energy sources, e.g. inductive heating, autogenic flames or electric resistance, high deposition rates are achieved with excellent coating qualities, which makes the laser process competitive also in the case of large-surface coatings. (orig./AKB) [German] Exzellente Praezision, hoechste mechanische Festigkeit und massgeschneiderte Eigenschaften von Oberflaechenschichten wie auch generativ erzeugten 3D-Strukturen: diese Merkmale haben dem Auftragschweissen mit Laserstrahlen zum Durchbruch in der industriellen Produktion verholfen. Die geringen Auftragraten setzen der Technologie jedoch in jenen Faellen Grenzen, wo es um Flaechenbeschichtungen grosser Bauteile geht, deren Einsatz aber dennoch die lasertypischen Schichteigenschaften hinsichtlich Korrosions- oder Verschleissbestaendigkeit erfordert. Beispiele sind lange Hydraulikzylinder im Offshore-Bereich, Werkzeuge der Oel- und Gasfoerderung und des Bergbaus sowie grosse Foerderschnecken. Hier erweitern moderne Laser-Hybridtechnologien wirkungsvoll die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten. Durch effiziente Kombination der Laserenergie mit anderen Energiequellen in Form induktiver Erwaermung, autogener Flammen oder elektrischem Widerstand werden hohe Auftragraten bei gleichzeitigem Erhalt der besonderen Schichtqualitaet erreicht, die das Laserverfahren auch bei

  8. FunGene: the functional gene pipeline and repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jordan A; Chai, Benli; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Yanni; Brown, C Titus; Tiedje, James M; Cole, James R

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA genes have become the standard molecular markers for microbial community analysis for good reasons, including universal occurrence in cellular organisms, availability of large databases, and ease of rRNA gene region amplification and analysis. As markers, however, rRNA genes have some significant limitations. The rRNA genes are often present in multiple copies, unlike most protein-coding genes. The slow rate of change in rRNA genes means that multiple species sometimes share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, while many more species share identical sequences in the short 16S rRNA regions commonly analyzed. In addition, the genes involved in many important processes are not distributed in a phylogenetically coherent manner, potentially due to gene loss or horizontal gene transfer. While rRNA genes remain the most commonly used markers, key genes in ecologically important pathways, e.g., those involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling, can provide important insights into community composition and function not obtainable through rRNA analysis. However, working with ecofunctional gene data requires some tools beyond those required for rRNA analysis. To address this, our Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository (FunGene; http://fungene.cme.msu.edu/) offers databases of many common ecofunctional genes and proteins, as well as integrated tools that allow researchers to browse these collections and choose subsets for further analysis, build phylogenetic trees, test primers and probes for coverage, and download aligned sequences. Additional FunGene tools are specialized to process coding gene amplicon data. For example, FrameBot produces frameshift-corrected protein and DNA sequences from raw reads while finding the most closely related protein reference sequence. These tools can help provide better insight into microbial communities by directly studying key genes involved in important ecological processes.

  9. FunGene: the Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A. Fish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNA genes have become the standard molecular markers for microbial community analysis for good reasons, including universal occurrence in cellular organisms, availability of large databases, and ease of rRNA gene region amplification and analysis. As markers, however, rRNA genes have some significant limitations. The rRNA genes are often present in multiple copies, unlike most protein-coding genes. The slow rate of change in rRNA genes means that multiple species sometimes share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, while many more species share identical sequences in the short 16S rRNA regions commonly analyzed. In addition, the genes involved in many important processes are not distributed in a phylogenetically coherent manner, potentially due to gene loss or horizontal gene transfer.While rRNA genes remain the most commonly used markers, key genes in ecologically important pathways, e.g., those involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling, can provide important insights into community composition and function not obtainable through rRNA analysis. However, working with ecofunctional gene data requires some tools beyond those required for rRNA analysis. To address this, our Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository (FunGene; http://fungene.cme.msu.edu/ offers databases of many common ecofunctional genes and proteins, as well as integrated tools that allow researchers to browse these collections and choose subsets for further analysis, build phylogenetic trees, test primers and probes for coverage, and download aligned sequences. Additional FunGene tools are specialized to process coding gene amplicon data. For example, FrameBot produces frameshift-corrected protein and DNA sequences from raw reads while finding the most closely related protein reference sequence. These tools can help provide better insight into microbial communities by directly studying key genes involved in important ecological processes.

  10. Gene therapy prospects--intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolska, Karolina; Stachurska, Anna; Hajdukiewicz, Karolina; Małecki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is recognized to be a novel method for the treatment of various disorders. Gene therapy strategies involve gene manipulation on broad biological processes responsible for the spreading of diseases. Cancer, monogenic diseases, vascular and infectious diseases are the main targets of gene therapy. In order to obtain valuable experimental and clinical results, sufficient gene transfer methods are required. Therapeutic genes can be administered into target tissues via gene carriers commonly defined as vectors. The retroviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated virus based vectors are most frequently used in the clinic. So far, gene preparations may be administered directly into target organs or by intravenous, intramuscular, intratumor or intranasal injections. It is common knowledge that the number of gene therapy clinical trials has rapidly increased. However, some limitations such as transfection efficiency and stable and long-term gene expression are still not resolved. Consequently, great effort is focused on the evaluation of new strategies of gene delivery. There are many expectations associated with intranasal delivery of gene preparations for the treatment of diseases. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes is regarded as one of the most promising forms of pulmonary gene therapy research. Gene therapy based on inhalation of gene preparations offers an alternative way for the treatment of patients suffering from such lung diseases as cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin defect, or cancer. Experimental and first clinical trials based on plasmid vectors or recombinant viruses have revealed that gene preparations can effectively deliver therapeutic or marker genes to the cells of the respiratory tract. The noninvasive intranasal delivery of gene preparations or conventional drugs seems to be very encouraging, although basic scientific research still has to continue.

  11. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging for cardiac gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inubushi, Masayuki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-01-01

    In the field of cardiac gene therapy, angiogenic gene therapy has been most extensively investigated. The first clinical trial of cardiac angiogenic gene therapy was reported in 1998, and at the peak, more than 20 clinical trial protocols were under evaluation. However, most trials have ceased owing to the lack of decisive proof of therapeutic effects and the potential risks of viral vectors. In order to further advance cardiac angiogenic gene therapy, remaining open issues need to be resolved: there needs to be improvement of gene transfer methods, regulation of gene expression, development of much safer vectors and optimisation of therapeutic genes. For these purposes, imaging of gene expression in living organisms is of great importance. In radionuclide reporter gene imaging, ''reporter genes'' transferred into cell nuclei encode for a protein that retains a complementary ''reporter probe'' of a positron or single-photon emitter; thus expression of the reporter genes can be imaged with positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography. Accordingly, in the setting of gene therapy, the location, magnitude and duration of the therapeutic gene co-expression with the reporter genes can be monitored non-invasively. In the near future, gene therapy may evolve into combination therapy with stem/progenitor cell transplantation, so-called cell-based gene therapy or gene-modified cell therapy. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging is now expected to contribute in providing evidence on the usefulness of this novel therapeutic approach, as well as in investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neovascularisation and safety issues relevant to further progress in conventional gene therapy. (orig.)

  12. GoGene: gene annotation in the fast lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Conrad; Royer, Loic; Winnenburg, Rainer; Hakenberg, Jörg; Schroeder, Michael

    2009-07-01

    High-throughput screens such as microarrays and RNAi screens produce huge amounts of data. They typically result in hundreds of genes, which are often further explored and clustered via enriched GeneOntology terms. The strength of such analyses is that they build on high-quality manual annotations provided with the GeneOntology. However, the weakness is that annotations are restricted to process, function and location and that they do not cover all known genes in model organisms. GoGene addresses this weakness by complementing high-quality manual annotation with high-throughput text mining extracting co-occurrences of genes and ontology terms from literature. GoGene contains over 4,000,000 associations between genes and gene-related terms for 10 model organisms extracted from more than 18,000,000 PubMed entries. It does not cover only process, function and location of genes, but also biomedical categories such as diseases, compounds, techniques and mutations. By bringing it all together, GoGene provides the most recent and most complete facts about genes and can rank them according to novelty and importance. GoGene accepts keywords, gene lists, gene sequences and protein sequences as input and supports search for genes in PubMed, EntrezGene and via BLAST. Since all associations of genes to terms are supported by evidence in the literature, the results are transparent and can be verified by the user. GoGene is available at http://gopubmed.org/gogene.

  13. Genes and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelton, L A; Peters, K F

    2001-10-01

    The information gained from the Human Genome Project and related genetic research will undoubtedly create significant changes in healthcare practice. It is becoming increasingly clear that nurses in all areas of clinical practice will require a fundamental understanding of basic genetics. This article provides the oncology nurse with an overview of basic genetic concepts, including inheritance patterns of single gene conditions, pedigree construction, chromosome aberrations, and the multifactorial basis underlying the common diseases of adulthood. Normal gene structure and function are introduced and the biochemistry of genetic errors is described.

  14. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  15. Norrie disease gene is distinct from the monoamine oxidase genes

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Katherine B.; Ozelius, Laurie; Corey, Timothy; Rinehart, William B.; Liberfarb, Ruth; Haines, Jonathan; Chen, Wei Jane; Norio, Reijo; Sankila, Eeva; de la Chapelle, Albert; Murphy, Dennis L.; Gusella, James; Breakefield, Xandra O.

    1989-01-01

    The genes for MAO-A and MAO-B appear to be very close to the Norrie disease gene, on the basis of loss and /or disruption of the MAO genes and activities in atypical Norrie disease patients deleted for the DXS7 locus; linkage among the MAO genes, the Norrie disease gene, and the DXS7 locus; and mapping of all these loci to the chromosomal region Xp11. The present study provides evidence that the MAO genes are not disrupted in “classic” Norrie disease patients. Genomic DNA from these “nondelet...

  16. Hidden genes in birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hron, Tomáš; Pajer, Petr; Pačes, Jan; Bartůněk, Petr; Elleder, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, August 18 (2015) ISSN 1465-6906 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11215; GA MŠk LO1419 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : REPETITIVE SEQUENCES * G/C stretches * avian genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.313, year: 2015

  17. Rhabdovirus accessory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Joubert, D Albert; Blasdell, Kim R

    2011-12-01

    The Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses with members infecting a wide range of organisms including placental mammals, marsupials, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants. The availability of complete nucleotide sequences for an increasing number of rhabdoviruses has revealed that their ecological diversity is reflected in the diversity and complexity of their genomes. The five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G and L) that are shared by all rhabdoviruses are overprinted, overlapped and interspersed with a multitude of novel and diverse accessory genes. Although not essential for replication in cell culture, several of these genes have been shown to have roles associated with pathogenesis and apoptosis in animals, and cell-to-cell movement in plants. Others appear to be secreted or have the characteristics of membrane-anchored glycoproteins or viroporins. However, most encode proteins of unknown function that are unrelated to any other known proteins. Understanding the roles of these accessory genes and the strategies by which rhabdoviruses use them to engage, divert and re-direct cellular processes will not only present opportunities to develop new anti-viral therapies but may also reveal aspects of cellar function that have broader significance in biology, agriculture and medicine. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeting fumonisin biosynthetic genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Fusarium is an agricultural problem because it can cause disease on most crop plants and can contaminate crops with mycotoxins. There is considerable variation in the presence/absence and genomic location of gene clusters responsible for synthesis of mycotoxins and other secondary metabol...

  19. Radio-induced genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, O.; Kazmaier, M.

    2000-01-01

    The monitoring system of the DNA integrity of an irradiated cell does not satisfy oneself to recruit the enzymes allowing the repair of detected damages. It sends an alarm signal whom transmission leads to the activation of specific genes in charge of stopping the cell cycle, the time to make the repair works, or to lead to the elimination of a too much damaged cell. Among the numerous genes participating to the monitoring of cell response to irradiation, the target genes of the mammalian P53 protein are particularly studied. Caretaker of the genome, this protein play a central part in the cell response to ionizing radiations. this response is less studied among plants. A way to tackle it is to be interested in the radioinduced genes identification in the vegetal cell, while taking advantage of knowledge got in the animal field. The knowledge of the complete genome of the arabette (arabidopsis thaliana), the model plant and the arising of new techniques allow to lead this research at a previously unknown rhythm in vegetal biology. (N.C.)

  20. The Gene Guessing Game

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham, Ian

    2000-01-01

    A recent flurry of publications and media attention has revived interest in the question of how many genes exist in the human genome. Here, I review the estimates and use genomic sequence data from human chromosomes 21 and 22 to establish my own prediction.

  1. Targeting trichothecene biosynthetic genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Songhong; Lee, van der Theo; Verstappen, Els; Gent, van Marga; Waalwijk, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Biosynthesis of trichothecenes requires the involvement of at least 15 genes, most of which have been targeted for PCR. Qualitative PCRs are used to assign chemotypes to individual isolates, e.g., the capacity to produce type A and/or type B trichothecenes. Many regions in the core cluster

  2. Silence of the Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    a gene in the opposite orientation in a cultured plant cell line and observed that the ..... started emerging in early 1990s from the work carried out by the. It is believed that ... cause human diseases such as cervical cancer, hepatitis, measles.

  3. Silence of the Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 4. Silence of the Genes - 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Utpal Nath Saumitra Das. General Article Volume 12 Issue 4 April 2007 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Suicide genes or p53 gene and p53 target genes as targets for cancer gene therapy by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bing; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zhang Hong

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy has some disadvantages due to the severe side-effect on the normal tissues at a curative dose of ionizing radiation (IR). Similarly, as a new developing approach, gene therapy also has some disadvantages, such as lack of specificity for tumors, limited expression of therapeutic gene, potential biological risk. To certain extent, above problems would be solved by the suicide genes or p53 gene and its target genes therapies targeted by ionizing radiation. This strategy not only makes up the disadvantage from radiotherapy or gene therapy alone, but also promotes success rate on the base of lower dose. By present, there have been several vectors measuring up to be reaching clinical trials. This review focused on the development of the cancer gene therapy through suicide genes or p53 and its target genes mediated by IR. (authors)

  5. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs), researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our finding that disease genes in

  6. Industrial scale gene synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genes contributing to prion pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Glidden, David V

    2008-01-01

    incubation times, indicating that the conversion reaction may be influenced by other gene products. To identify genes that contribute to prion pathogenesis, we analysed incubation times of prions in mice in which the gene product was inactivated, knocked out or overexpressed. We tested 20 candidate genes...... show that many genes previously implicated in prion replication have no discernible effect on the pathogenesis of prion disease. While most genes tested did not significantly affect survival times, ablation of the amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (App) or interleukin-1 receptor, type I (Il1r1...

  8. Using gene expression noise to understand gene regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsky, B.; Neuert, G.; van Oudenaarden, A.

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic variation is ubiquitous in biology and is often traceable to underlying genetic and environmental variation. However, even genetically identical cells in identical environments display variable phenotypes. Stochastic gene expression, or gene expression "noise," has been suggested as a

  9. Patenting human genes: Chinese academic articles' portrayal of gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li

    2018-04-24

    The patenting of human genes has been the subject of debate for decades. While China has gradually come to play an important role in the global genomics-based testing and treatment market, little is known about Chinese scholars' perspectives on patent protection for human genes. A content analysis of academic literature was conducted to identify Chinese scholars' concerns regarding gene patents, including benefits and risks of patenting human genes, attitudes that researchers hold towards gene patenting, and any legal and policy recommendations offered for the gene patent regime in China. 57.2% of articles were written by law professors, but scholars from health sciences, liberal arts, and ethics also participated in discussions on gene patent issues. While discussions of benefits and risks were relatively balanced in the articles, 63.5% of the articles favored gene patenting in general and, of the articles (n = 41) that explored gene patents in the Chinese context, 90.2% supported patent protections for human genes in China. The patentability of human genes was discussed in 33 articles, and 75.8% of these articles reached the conclusion that human genes are patentable. Chinese scholars view the patent regime as an important legal tool to protect the interests of inventors and inventions as well as the genetic resources of China. As such, many scholars support a gene patent system in China. These attitudes towards gene patents remain unchanged following the court ruling in the Myriad case in 2013, but arguments have been raised about the scope of gene patents, in particular that the increasing numbers of gene patents may negatively impact public health in China.

  10. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  11. Harmful loading of water courses caused by precipitation. Phase 2. Part project 8: Loading of harmful substances by precipitation. Pt. A, B, and C. Pt. A: Harmful substances introduced by atmospheric deposition dust.Pt. B: Sources and mobility of harmful substances. Pt. C: Load of harmful substances from roof and road surfaces; NIEDERschlagsbedingte SCHadstoffbeLAstung der Gewaesser - Phase 2. Teilprojekt 8: Schadstoffbelastung durch Niederschlag. T. A, B und C. T. A: Schadstoffeintrag durch atmosphaerische Staubdeposition. T. B: Quellen und Mobilitaet von Schadstoffen. T. C: Schadstofffrachten von Dach- und Strassenflaechen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetzner, K.; Grothkopp, H.; Gebhard, V.; Rennert, S.; Huth, B.

    1997-02-28

    Stadtgebieten ist die Belastung der Oberflaechenabfluesse nicht allein von der Verkehrsdichte abhaengig. Dies gilt hoechstens ueber die Partikelbeladung hinsichtlich einiger Elemente. Das Fahrverhalten, z.B. haeufiges Anfahren und Bremsen, ist hier ebenso von Bedeutung. Weiterhin beeinflussen die Hintergrundbelastung, Abspuelungen von unbefestigten Flaechen sowie weitere Aktivitaeten (z.B. intensive Bautaetigkeit) die Belastung von Nebenstrassen. Im Verlauf der untersuchten Niederschlagsereignisse war nach ca. 6 mm Niederschlag die Auswaschung der bodennahen Luftschicht beendet. Nach einem gefallenen Niederschlag von jeweils 15 mm konnte bei zwei Ereignissen die nahezu vollstaendige Abspuelung der partikulaeren Fracht festgestellt werden. Rund 80% der Schwermetallbelastung (bei Cu nur ca. 50%) des Einzugsgebietes werden durch die Emissionen des Strassenverkehrs verursacht. Kupferdaecher emittieren rund 40% der Cu-Fracht. Die Schwermetallfracht der Dachabfluessen ist ueberwiegend in der fluessigen Phase enthalten (ausser Pb, Fe), dagegen ist die Fracht der Strassenabfluesse zu ueber 90% partikulaer gebunden. Ein Rueckhalt dieser Schwermetallfracht koennte somit ueber den AFS-Rueckhalt geschehen. Entsprechend der durchgefuehrten Berechnung auf Grundlage bekannter Mittelwerte entfernt die Stadtreinigung Dresden gegenwaertig etwa die Haelfte der Fe- und Ni-Gesamtfracht sowie rund 40% der Cu-, Pb- und Zn-Gesamtfracht des Einzugsgebietes. (orig./AJ)

  12. Genes, stress, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    A relationship between genetic makeup and susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD) has long been suspected on the basis of family and twin studies. A metaanalysis of reports on the basis of twin studies has estimated MDD's degree of heritability to be 0.33 (confidence interval, 0.26-0.39). Among families exhibiting an increased prevalence of MDD, risk of developing the illness was enhanced in members exposed to a highly stressful environment. Aberrant genes can predispose to depression in a number of ways, for example, by diminishing production of growth factors that act during brain development. An aberrant gene could also increase or decrease a neurotransmitter's release into synapses, its actions, or its duration of activity. The gene products of greatest interest at present are those involved in the synthesis and actions of serotonin; among them, the serotonin-uptake protein localized within the terminals and dendrites of serotonin-releasing neurons. It has been found that the Vmax of platelet serotonin uptake is low in some patients with MDD; also, Vmax is highly correlated in twins. Antidepressant drugs such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors act on this uptake protein. The specific genetic locus causing serotonin uptake to be lower in some patients with major depression involves a polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the gene for the uptake protein. The gene itself exists as several alleles, the short "S" allele and the long "L" allele. The S variant is associated with less, and the L variant with more, of the uptake protein. The effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms in young adults was found to be significantly stronger among SS or SL subjects than among LL subjects. Neuroimaging studies showed that people with the SS or SL alleles exhibited a greater activation of the amygdala in response to fearful stimuli than those with LL. It has been reported recently that mutations in the gene that controls

  13. Vertebrate gene predictions and the problem of large genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Li, ShengTing; Zhang, Yong

    2003-01-01

    To find unknown protein-coding genes, annotation pipelines use a combination of ab initio gene prediction and similarity to experimentally confirmed genes or proteins. Here, we show that although the ab initio predictions have an intrinsically high false-positive rate, they also have a consistent...

  14. Plant gene technology: social considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The genetic modification of plants by gene technology is of immense potential benefits, but there may be possible risks. ... As a new endeavour, however, people have a mixed ... reality by gene biotechnology (Watson, 1997). Industrial ...

  15. Brains, Genes and Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  16. Gene Porter Bridwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Gene Porter Bridwell served as the director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from January 6, 1994 until February 3, 1996, when he retired from NASA after thirty-four years service. Bridwell, a Marshall employee since 1962, had been Marshall's Space Shuttle Projects Office Director and Space Station Redesign Team deputy manager. Under Bridwell, Marshall worked to develop its role as a Center of Excellence for propulsion and for providing access to space.

  17. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  18. Gene doping in modern sport.

    OpenAIRE

    MAREK SAWCZUK; AGNIESZKA MACIEJEWSKA; PAWEL CIESZCZYK,

    2009-01-01

    Background: The subject of this paper is gene doping, which should be understood as "he non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance". The authors of this work, based on the review of literature and previous research, make an attempt at wider characterization of gene doping and the discussion of related potential threats.Methods: This is a comprehensive survey of literature on the latest app...

  19. Regulation of eucaryotic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.; Ptashne, M.S

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a method of regulating the expression of a gene in a eucaryotic cell. The method consists of: providing in the eucaryotic cell, a peptide, derived from or substantially similar to a peptide of a procaryotic cell able to bind to DNA upstream from or within the gene, the amount of the peptide being sufficient to bind to the gene and thereby control expression of the gene.

  20. Genealogy and gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.

  1. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung

    1998-04-01

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene.

  2. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung

    1998-04-01

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene

  3. Gene electrotransfer in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Electroporation is increasingly being used for delivery of chemotherapy to tumors. Likewise, gene delivery by electroporation is rapidly gaining momentum for both vaccination purposes and for delivery of genes coding for other therapeutic molecules, such as chronic diseases or cancer. This chapter...... describes how gene therapy may be performed using electric pulses to enhance uptake and expression....

  4. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  5. Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...

  6. Independent Gene Discovery and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsule, Vrushalee; Coric, Dijana; Delancy, Russell; Dunham, Heather; Melancon, Caleb; Thompson, Dennis; Toms, Jamie; White, Ashley; Shultz, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of basic gene structure is critical when teaching molecular genetics, the central dogma and the biological sciences. We sought to create a gene-based teaching project to improve students' understanding of gene structure and to integrate this into a research project that can be implemented by instructors at the secondary level…

  7. Gene function prediction based on Gene Ontology Hierarchy Preserving Hashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingwen; Fu, Guangyuan; Wang, Jun; Guo, Maozu; Yu, Guoxian

    2018-02-23

    Gene Ontology (GO) uses structured vocabularies (or terms) to describe the molecular functions, biological roles, and cellular locations of gene products in a hierarchical ontology. GO annotations associate genes with GO terms and indicate the given gene products carrying out the biological functions described by the relevant terms. However, predicting correct GO annotations for genes from a massive set of GO terms as defined by GO is a difficult challenge. To combat with this challenge, we introduce a Gene Ontology Hierarchy Preserving Hashing (HPHash) based semantic method for gene function prediction. HPHash firstly measures the taxonomic similarity between GO terms. It then uses a hierarchy preserving hashing technique to keep the hierarchical order between GO terms, and to optimize a series of hashing functions to encode massive GO terms via compact binary codes. After that, HPHash utilizes these hashing functions to project the gene-term association matrix into a low-dimensional one and performs semantic similarity based gene function prediction in the low-dimensional space. Experimental results on three model species (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) for interspecies gene function prediction show that HPHash performs better than other related approaches and it is robust to the number of hash functions. In addition, we also take HPHash as a plugin for BLAST based gene function prediction. From the experimental results, HPHash again significantly improves the prediction performance. The codes of HPHash are available at: http://mlda.swu.edu.cn/codes.php?name=HPHash. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigations performed on the compost worm Eisenia fetida and selected species of earthworms concerning the intake of HCB and pyrene with the goal of deriving a bioaccumulation test; Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme von HCB und Pyren durch den Kompostwurm Eisenia fetida und ausgewaehlte Regenwurmwildarten. Ableitung eines Bioakkumulationstests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vespermann, A.; Riepert, F.; Pflugmacher, J. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Inst. fuer Oekotoxikologie im Pflanzenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    . Die Expositionszeit der Regenwuermer betrug 4 Wochen bei woechentlicher Bestimmung der Konzentrationen der Testsubstanzen in den Wuermern und Boeden. Die fuer E. fetida sowie die Wildarten errechneten Anreicherungsfaktoren (AF) beliefen sich bei HCB in Abhaengigkeit des verwendeten Bodens auf Werte zwischen 10 und 17 und bei Pyren auf Werte zwischen 0,9 und 1,7. Durch Umrechnung der Bodenkonzentrationen auf Gehalte in der Wasserphase und Ableitung der entsprechenden Anreicherungsfaktoren kann ein Vergleich mit BCF-Werten, die aus QSAR'S anderer Regenwurmarten und Fischen berechnet wurden, hergestellt werden. Die Ergebnisse lassen den Schluss zu, dass der Regenwurmtest mit E. fetida (OECD 1984, ISO 1998) fuer die Untersuchung der Bioakkumulation geeignet ist. (orig.)

  9. Contactless detection of the structure and selected parameters of a two-phase-flow by pattern recognition based ultrasonic techniques. Final report; Beruehrungslose Detektion der Struktur und Messung ausgewaehlter Parameter von Zweiphasenstroemungen durch Mustererkennungsverfahren unter Verwendung von Ultraschall als Messsonde. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasser, H.M.; Schuetz, P.; Kossok, N.

    1997-11-01

    , wenn die thermodynamischen und geometrischen Randbedingungen nahezu konstant bleiben. Durch die Erweiterung der Trainingsmatrizen um einen, die thermodynamischen Eigenschaften determinierenden Parameter (z.B. Temperatur, Druck) kann das Klassifizierungsverfahren auch auf Faelle mit veraenderlichen Stoffwerten angewandt werden. Das Mustererkennungsverfahren und die Ultraschalltechnik wurden experimentell optimiert und erprobt. Die Ultraschallsignale wurden ausserdem mit Hilfe der Methode des unueberwachten Lernens klassifiziert. Die gefundenen Gruppen von Signalmustern weisen eine deutliche Aehnlichkeit zu bekannten Stroemungskarten auf. Es wird gezeigt, dass das Verfahren des unueberwachten Lernens sich fuer die objektive Aufstellung von Stroemungskarten eignet. In einem speziellen Kapitel werden die Ergebnisse von Tests zur Fuellstandsmessung in einem Segment der Hauptumwaelzleitung von Druckwasserreaktoren vorgestellt. (orig.)

  10. MR-Imaging optimisation of the articular hip cartilage by using a T{sub 1}-weighted 3-dimensional gradient-echo sequence and the application of a hip joint traction; Magnetresonanztomographische Optimierung der Hueftknorpeldarstellung durch die Wahl einer T{sub 1}-Volumen-Gradienten-Echo-Sequenz und die Anwendung einer Hueftgelenkstraktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, R. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik; Bernd, L. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik; Wrazidlo, W. [ATOS-Praxisklinik, Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Drs. Lederer, Schneider und Wrazidlo; Lederer, W. [ATOS-Praxisklinik, Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Drs. Lederer, Schneider und Wrazidlo; Schneider, S. [ATOS-Praxisklinik, Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Drs. Lederer, Schneider und Wrazidlo

    1995-10-01

    Images of three animal cadaver hips, 8 dissected patient femoral heads and 18 hip joints of human corpses, all either with arthrosis stage I-III or artificial cartilage defects, were compared with their corresponding anatomic sections. Additional histomorphologic examinations of the arthrotic cartilages were conducted, and MR-Imaging of 20 healthy and 21 arthrotic patient hips was performed using a specific traction method. Using a T{sub 1}-weighted 3-dimensional gradient-echo sequence and a traction of the hip joint, it was possible due to the low-signal imaging of the joint space to separate in vivo the high-signal femoral head cartilage from the high-signal acetabular cartilage. In horizontal position of the phase-encoding parameter, minimisation of the chemical-shift artifact, mainly in the ventro-lateral areas, was accomplished. MRI measurements of the articular cartilage widths showed significant correlations (p < 0.001) with the corresponding anatomic sections. At the same time the T{sub 1} 3-dimensional gradient-echo sequence of the lateral femoral head with r = 0.94 showed the lowest deviations of the measurements. It was possible with MR-Imaging to distinguish four cartilage qualities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Im experimentellen Teil der Studie wurden den MRT-Bildern von drei Kadavertierhueften, 8 resezierten Patientenhueftkoepfen und 18 Leichenhueftgelenken, an denen entweder artifizielle Knorpeldefekte gesetzt wurden oder die ein Koxarthrose-Stadium I-III aufwiesen, die korrespondierenden makroskopischen Kryomikrotomschnitte zugeordnet. Bei den Koxarthrosen erfolgten zusaetzliche histomorphologische Knorpeluntersuchungen. Im klinischen Teil der Studie wurden 20 gesunde und 21 arthrotische Probandenhueftgelenke mit einem speziellen Traktionsverfahren untersucht. Unter Anwendung einer T{sub 1}-Volumen-Gradienten-Echo-Sequenz und einer Traktion am zu untersuchenden Hueftgelenk konnte in vivo durch die signalarme Darstellung des Gelenkspaltes der

  11. CNS metabolism in high-risk drug abuse, German version. Insights gained from {sup 1}H- and {sup 31}P MRS and PET; ZNS-Stoffwechsel bei Missbrauch von Hochrisikodrogen. Erkenntnisse durch {sup 1}H- und {sup 31}P-MRS sowie PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodea, S.V. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Methamphetamin-, Kokain- und Heroinkonsumenten bis Maerz 2017 wurde ueber PubMed-Recherchen erforscht. Suchbegriffe wie ''methamphetamine'', ''cocaine'', ''heroin'', ''MR spectroscopy'', ''PET'' wurden benutzt. MRT- und PET-Verfahren sind unerlaessliche Werkzeuge bei der Erforschung der zerebralen Reaktionen auf illegale Drogen. Zukuenftige Durchbrueche werden voraussichtlich durch die Untersuchung neuer Neurotransmittersysteme in der PET sowie die Abbildung von Phosphor- und Kohlenstoffmetaboliten in der MRT erfolgen. (orig.)

  12. The ethics of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sarah; Harris, John

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments have progressed in areas of science that pertain to gene therapy and its ethical implications. This review discusses the current state of therapeutic gene technologies, including stem cell therapies and genetic modification, and identifies ethical issues of concern in relation to the science of gene therapy and its application, including the ethics of embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning, the risks associated with gene therapy, and the ethics of clinical research in developing new therapeutic technologies. Additionally, ethical issues relating to genetic modification itself are considered: the significance of the human genome, the distinction between therapy and enhancement, and concerns regarding gene therapy as a eugenic practice.

  13. Radiopharmaceuticals to monitor gene transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L. I.; Morin, K. W.; Knaus, E. E.

    1997-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering and molecular biology have opened the door to disease treatment by transferring genes to cells that are responsible for the pathological condition being addressed. These genes can serve to supplement or introduce the function of indigenous genes that are either inadequately expressed or that are congenitally absent in the patient. They can introduce new functions such as drug sensitization to provide a unique therapeutic target. Gene transfer is readily monitored in vitro using a range of histochemical and biochemical tests that are ''built in'' to the therapeutic gene cassette. In vivo, in situ monitoring of the gene transfer and gene expression processes can be achieved with these tests only if biopsy is possible. Scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the extent and location of gene expression, provided that an appropriate reporter gene is included in the therapeutic cassette. This overview includes a brief orientation to gene transfer therapy and is followed by a review of current approaches to gene therapy imaging. The concluding section deals with imaging based on radiolabelled nucleoside substrates for herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase, with emphasis on IVFRU, a stable potent and selective HSV-1 TK substrate developed in their laboratories

  14. Gene Circuit Analysis of the Terminal Gap Gene huckebein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyraliyev, Maksat; Siggens, Ken; Janssens, Hilde; Blom, Joke; Akam, Michael; Jaeger, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The early embryo of Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful model system to study the role of genes in pattern formation. The gap gene network constitutes the first zygotic regulatory tier in the hierarchy of the segmentation genes involved in specifying the position of body segments. Here, we use an integrative, systems-level approach to investigate the regulatory effect of the terminal gap gene huckebein (hkb) on gap gene expression. We present quantitative expression data for the Hkb protein, which enable us to include hkb in gap gene circuit models. Gap gene circuits are mathematical models of gene networks used as computational tools to extract regulatory information from spatial expression data. This is achieved by fitting the model to gap gene expression patterns, in order to obtain estimates for regulatory parameters which predict a specific network topology. We show how considering variability in the data combined with analysis of parameter determinability significantly improves the biological relevance and consistency of the approach. Our models are in agreement with earlier results, which they extend in two important respects: First, we show that Hkb is involved in the regulation of the posterior hunchback (hb) domain, but does not have any other essential function. Specifically, Hkb is required for the anterior shift in the posterior border of this domain, which is now reproduced correctly in our models. Second, gap gene circuits presented here are able to reproduce mutants of terminal gap genes, while previously published models were unable to reproduce any null mutants correctly. As a consequence, our models now capture the expression dynamics of all posterior gap genes and some variational properties of the system correctly. This is an important step towards a better, quantitative understanding of the developmental and evolutionary dynamics of the gap gene network. PMID:19876378

  15. The Caenorhabditis chemoreceptor gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Hugh M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of genes encoding chemoreceptors that mediate taste, olfaction, and pheromone responses. The size and diversity of these families reflect the biology of chemoperception in specific species. Results Based on manual curation and sequence comparisons among putative G-protein-coupled chemoreceptor genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified approximately 1300 genes and 400 pseudogenes in the 19 largest gene families, most of which fall into larger superfamilies. In the related species C. briggsae and C. remanei, we identified most or all genes in each of the 19 families. For most families, C. elegans has the largest number of genes and C. briggsae the smallest number, suggesting changes in the importance of chemoperception among the species. Protein trees reveal family-specific and species-specific patterns of gene duplication and gene loss. The frequency of strict orthologs varies among the families, from just over 50% in two families to less than 5% in three families. Several families include large species-specific expansions, mostly in C. elegans and C. remanei. Conclusion Chemoreceptor gene families in Caenorhabditis species are large and evolutionarily dynamic as a result of gene duplication and gene loss. These dynamics shape the chemoreceptor gene complements in Caenorhabditis species and define the receptor space available for chemosensory responses. To explain these patterns, we propose the gray pawn hypothesis: individual genes are of little significance, but the aggregate of a large number of diverse genes is required to cover a large phenotype space.

  16. The Caenorhabditis chemoreceptor gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James H; Robertson, Hugh M

    2008-10-06

    Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of genes encoding chemoreceptors that mediate taste, olfaction, and pheromone responses. The size and diversity of these families reflect the biology of chemoperception in specific species. Based on manual curation and sequence comparisons among putative G-protein-coupled chemoreceptor genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified approximately 1300 genes and 400 pseudogenes in the 19 largest gene families, most of which fall into larger superfamilies. In the related species C. briggsae and C. remanei, we identified most or all genes in each of the 19 families. For most families, C. elegans has the largest number of genes and C. briggsae the smallest number, suggesting changes in the importance of chemoperception among the species. Protein trees reveal family-specific and species-specific patterns of gene duplication and gene loss. The frequency of strict orthologs varies among the families, from just over 50% in two families to less than 5% in three families. Several families include large species-specific expansions, mostly in C. elegans and C. remanei. Chemoreceptor gene families in Caenorhabditis species are large and evolutionarily dynamic as a result of gene duplication and gene loss. These dynamics shape the chemoreceptor gene complements in Caenorhabditis species and define the receptor space available for chemosensory responses. To explain these patterns, we propose the gray pawn hypothesis: individual genes are of little significance, but the aggregate of a large number of diverse genes is required to cover a large phenotype space.

  17. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  18. MUTATIONS IN CALMODULIN GENES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an isolated polynucleotide encoding at least a part of calmodulin and an isolated polypeptide comprising at least a part of a calmodulin protein, wherein the polynucleotide and the polypeptide comprise at least one mutation associated with a cardiac disorder. The ...... the binding of calmodulin to ryanodine receptor 2 and use of such compound in a treatment of an individual having a cardiac disorder. The invention further provides a kit that can be used to detect specific mutations in calmodulin encoding genes....

  19. Genes and Disease: Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 1998-. Genes and Disease [Internet]. Show details National Center for ... 45K) PDF version of this title (3.8M) Gene sequence Genome view see gene locations Entrez Gene ...

  20. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth / For Parents / Gene Therapy ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ...

  1. Mapping of repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tadaaki

    1985-01-01

    Chromosome mapping of repair genes involved in U.V. sensitivity is reported. Twenty-three of 25 hybrid cells were resistant to U.V. light. Survival curves of 2 U.V.-resistant cell strains, which possessed mouse chromosomes and human chromosome No.7 - 16, were similar to those of wild strain (L5178Y). On the other hand, survival curves of U.V.-sensitive hybrid cells was analogous to those of Q31. There was a definitive difference in the frequency of inducible chromosome aberrations between U.V. resistant and sensitive mouse-human hybrid cells. U.V.-resistant cell strains possessed the ability of excision repair. Analysis of karyotype in hybrid cells showed that the difference in U.V. sensitivity is dependent upon whether or not human chromosome No.13 is present. Synteny test on esterase D-determining locus confirmed that there is an agreement between the presence of chromosome No.13 and the presence of human esterase D activity. These results led to a conclusion that human genes which compensate recessive character of U.V.-sensitive mutant strain, Q31, with mouse-human hybrid cells are located on the locus of chromosome No.13. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-05-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  3. Evolving chromosomes and gene regulatory networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aswin

    Genes under H NS control can be. (a) regulated by H NS. (b) regulated by H NS and StpA. Because backup by StpA is partial. Page 19. Gene expression level. H NS regulated xenogenes. Other genes. Page 20 ... recollect: H&NS silences highl transcribable genes. Gene expression level unilateral. Other genes epistatic ...

  4. Bayesian assignment of gene ontology terms to gene expression experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykacek, P

    2012-09-15

    Gene expression assays allow for genome scale analyses of molecular biological mechanisms. State-of-the-art data analysis provides lists of involved genes, either by calculating significance levels of mRNA abundance or by Bayesian assessments of gene activity. A common problem of such approaches is the difficulty of interpreting the biological implication of the resulting gene lists. This lead to an increased interest in methods for inferring high-level biological information. A common approach for representing high level information is by inferring gene ontology (GO) terms which may be attributed to the expression data experiment. This article proposes a probabilistic model for GO term inference. Modelling assumes that gene annotations to GO terms are available and gene involvement in an experiment is represented by a posterior probabilities over gene-specific indicator variables. Such probability measures result from many Bayesian approaches for expression data analysis. The proposed model combines these indicator probabilities in a probabilistic fashion and provides a probabilistic GO term assignment as a result. Experiments on synthetic and microarray data suggest that advantages of the proposed probabilistic GO term inference over statistical test-based approaches are in particular evident for sparsely annotated GO terms and in situations of large uncertainty about gene activity. Provided that appropriate annotations exist, the proposed approach is easily applied to inferring other high level assignments like pathways. Source code under GPL license is available from the author. peter.sykacek@boku.ac.at.

  5. Bayesian assignment of gene ontology terms to gene expression experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykacek, P.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Gene expression assays allow for genome scale analyses of molecular biological mechanisms. State-of-the-art data analysis provides lists of involved genes, either by calculating significance levels of mRNA abundance or by Bayesian assessments of gene activity. A common problem of such approaches is the difficulty of interpreting the biological implication of the resulting gene lists. This lead to an increased interest in methods for inferring high-level biological information. A common approach for representing high level information is by inferring gene ontology (GO) terms which may be attributed to the expression data experiment. Results: This article proposes a probabilistic model for GO term inference. Modelling assumes that gene annotations to GO terms are available and gene involvement in an experiment is represented by a posterior probabilities over gene-specific indicator variables. Such probability measures result from many Bayesian approaches for expression data analysis. The proposed model combines these indicator probabilities in a probabilistic fashion and provides a probabilistic GO term assignment as a result. Experiments on synthetic and microarray data suggest that advantages of the proposed probabilistic GO term inference over statistical test-based approaches are in particular evident for sparsely annotated GO terms and in situations of large uncertainty about gene activity. Provided that appropriate annotations exist, the proposed approach is easily applied to inferring other high level assignments like pathways. Availability: Source code under GPL license is available from the author. Contact: peter.sykacek@boku.ac.at PMID:22962488

  6. Cost reduction through combined solutions?; Kostensenkung durch Kombinationsloesungen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilitewski, B. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten

    1998-09-01

    The implementation of material-specific residue treatment processes requires reconstruction measures both in the case of mechanical-biological and in that of thermal treatment plants. Such measures involves great uncertainties and wide variation in cost prediction. The present paper deals with various factors that influence the costs of residual waste treatment. [Deutsch] Zur Umsetzung der stoffspezifischen Restabfallbehandlung sind Anpassungen sowohl der derzeit betriebenen mechanisch-biologischen als auch der thermischen Anlagen erforderlich, was zu Unsicherheiten und grossen Schwankungsbreiten bei den Kostenprognosen fuehrt. Der Bericht beleuchtet verschiedene Einflussgroessen auf die Kosten der Behandlung des Restabfalls. (orig./SR)

  7. Energy - achieving an optimum through information. Energie - optimal durch Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitt, W.

    1986-01-01

    What have computer programs in common with everyday human behaviour. Or the birds' passage, or photosynthesis, or the chemical reactions in a cell. They all primarily are information-controlled processes. The book under review deals with 'information' and 'energy', two main concepts in today's technological world. 'Energy' during the last few years has become a significant criterion with regard to technological progress. 'Information' is not only a main term in informatics terminology, but also a central concept for example in biology, linguistics, and communication science. The author shows that every 'information' is the result of an intellectual and purposeful process. The concept of information is taken as the red thread leading the author's journey through manifold strata of modern life, asking questions, finding answers, discussing problems. The wide spectrum of aspects discussed, including for instance a new approach to the Bible, and the remarkable examples presented by the author, make this book a treasure of knowledge, and of faith.

  8. Energy transparency by business intelligence; Energietransparenz durch Business Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flieder, Karl [Academia Nova, Schwechat (Austria). Business Process Management and Engineering

    2012-10-15

    The efficiency of energy is one of several key performance parameters, when it comes to the questions how innovative and economical a plant operates compared to its competitors. However, in order to evaluate energy saving potentials in the industry, we need transparency first: A clear picture of the energy consumption based on products and processes. This transparency can be accomplished through business intelligence (BI). This term encompasses analytical processes and tools that can help to transform enterprise data and information into applied knowledge. In this article, we focus on transparency of the energy consumption through a targeted analysis by making use of business intelligence.

  9. Rechtsmissbrauch durch „AGG-Hopping“ / Steffen Krieger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krieger, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Kohtu otsusest, mis puudutab töökohale kandideerija staatust eesmärgiga esitada kahju hüvitamise nõudeid kui teda ei valita tööle ja sellise teguviisi käsitlemist õiguse kuritarvitamisena. Vt. ka lk. 699-700

  10. Safety - thanks to the freedom to decide; Sicherheit durch Entscheidungsfreiheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, B. [Brandes GmbH, Eutin (Germany)

    1994-12-01

    The pipe manufacturers who are grouped together in the EuHP have reached agreement on offering bare copper wire as `their` compatible standard sensor. This is not a new decision: This always was the case, and was always sold as such if the customer did not express any particular wishes of their own in this respect when placing the order. The inspiration for this action is, rather, concern with some monitoring systems. These have become the subject of gossip over the past few years, and we too view this development with concern. Only the `Nordic system` and the resistance comparison measuring system process are unaffected by this. Against this background, attempts are also being made to have copper declared as the sole standard. This decision is in fact only a logical defence of interests, because compatibility between not only the pipe manufacturers but also between the laying processes is only available with the resistance wire - and that has always been the case. It is important not to treat the topic as an `article of faith`, but in such a way that the way is open to solutions which really are acceptable to all parties. (orig./KO) [Deutsch] Die im EuHP zusammengefassten Rohrhersteller haben sich nun darauf verstaendigt, kuenftig zwei Kupferadern als `ihren` Standardsensor anzubieten. Das ist keine neue Entscheidung, denn das war schon immer so und wurde immer dann verkauft, wenn der Kunde keine feste eigene Meinung in die Auftragsvergabe einbrachte. Neu ist, dass man kuenftig `keine stoerenden Komponenten` in den Rohren mehr will und dass man das `Kupfersystem` offensiv nach aussen traegt. Mit diesem Hintergrund ist es verstaendlich, dass manche bei dieser Gelegenheit gleich den Sensor, der ihnen als Rohrhersteller am angenehmsten ist, zum Standard erklaeren moechten. Dieser Beschluss ist konsequente Interessenwahrnehmung. Denn: Wirkliche Kompatibilitaet nicht nur zwischen den Verlegeverfahren, gibt es mit dem Widerstandsdraht schon seit ueber 20 Jahren. Ob der Vorstoss mehr Vor- als Nachteile bringt, muessen daher die entscheiden, die als Auftraggeber Nutzen aus der Fernheizleitung und Sicherheit fuer das investierte Geld aus dem Sicherheitssystem ziehen wollen. Eine Fehlentscheidung waere endgueltig und kritisch fuer die Fernwaerme. (orig./KO)

  11. Asymmetrische Alkensynthesen durch Kinetische Racematspaltungen von Aldehyden mit Chiralen Phosphonaten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreuder, Reinhard; Bodmann, Kerstin; von Zezschwitz, Paultheo

    1998-01-01

    The article gives an overview of how synthetically useful chiral building blocks can be obtained by kinetic resolution of chiral, racemic aldehydes through the reaction with chiral phosphonate reagents....

  12. Verletzung der A. subscapularis durch Reposition einer vorderen Schulterluxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Strohm, P C; Rosahl, S K

    2006-01-01

    report a case with rupture of the arteria subscapularis following reduction of an anterior shoulder dislocation with formation of an axillary hematoma and consecutive paresis of the plexus brachialis. Interdisciplinary operative revision was necessary to remove the hematoma, stop the hemorrhage...... and for neurolysis of the plexus brachialis. Treatment resulted in a speedy recovery of the patient. Gentle reduction of a dislocated shoulder is a prerequisite for a low complication rate. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography facilitated diagnosis of the hematoma and identification of the bleeding vessel....

  13. Erfahrbares Programmieren durch den zielgerichten Einsatz von Flugdrohnen im Informatikunterricht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Zender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, teaching on fundamental programming skills is one of the essential IT-related topics in schools. This trend is brought forward by simple development environments like Scratch. Those abstract from detailed programming concepts in terms of graphical building blocks. Exotic runtime platforms like robots further increase the attractiveness. The solution “ScratchDrone” provides quadrocopters as an innovative new platform to run Scratch programs. The modular system architecture of ScratchDrone allows children to program on multiple layers of abstraction depending on their individual learning progress. The combination of a multi-layer didactical model, the movement in 3D space, as well as the natural human fascination for flying results in a high learning motivation for young programmers.

  14. Qualitätssicherung an Hochschulen durch Zulassungsverfahren

    OpenAIRE

    Hell, Benedikt

    2007-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag zeigt auf, dass Zulassungsverfahren einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Qualitätssicherung im tertiären Bildungsbereich leisten können. In Form eines Gedankenspiels wird das Portersehe Value Chain Framework herangezogen, um die besondere Stellung von Auswahlverfahren als Qualitätssicherungselement aufzuzeigen. Einen weiteren Schwerpunkt bildet die Analyse der prognostischen Aussagekraft und der Betrachtung des Nutzens von Auswahlverfahren. Hierzu werden Kennzahlen präsentiert, die durc...

  15. Product bundling as a customer loyalty strategy; Kundenbindung durch Produktbuendel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H.G. [Arthur Andersen Business Consulting GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    In the deregulated market in electricity, all marketers and energy-related service providers are competing not only for new customers, but also for customer loyalty. The article sets out concepts and strategies developed by a business consulting firm, for maintaing or enhancing customer loyalty in the end-use market segment, focusing on customized product bundling. A four-tier approach for product bundle development and implementation is discussed. (orig./CB) [German] Fuer Energieversorger und -dienstleister ergibt sich neben der Neukundengewinnung der strategische Zwang zur Bindung bestehender Kunden. An praktischen Ansaetzen fuer Privatkunden stehen neben Value-Added-Services und Incentives (Kundenclub, -karte) nicht zuletzt Produktbuendel (Bundles) zur Verfuegung. Zur erfolgreichen Entwicklung und Implementierung von Produktbuendeln wird ein vierphasiges Vorgehensmodell erlaeutert. (orig./CB)

  16. Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik

    CERN Document Server

    Fiami

    2005-01-01

    Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.

  17. Allergien durch Stiche und Bisse von Insekten und Spinnentieren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, S; Schiener, M; Ollert, M.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic reactions due to stings of Hymenoptera species, such as honeybees or yellow jackets, are well known as severe allergies with potentially fatal outcome. Much less common is that also bites of blood-sucking insects (mosquitos, horseflies, flies, bugs, lice and fleas) and arachnids (ticks...

  18. Verminderung der Prüfungsangst durch Modellernen im Klassenzimmer

    OpenAIRE

    Ellgring, Johann Heinrich; Elbing, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Die Wirksamkeit des Modellernens im Klassenzimmer zur Veränderung der Prüfungsangst wurde bei 152 Knaben und 164 Mädchen der Klassen 5-8 einer Hauptschule untersucht. Den Schülern wurden die Angst-Skalen (TASe und GASC) von Sarason vorgelegt. Anhand der Fragebogenergebnisse wurden die Kinder den Kategorien "hochängstlich" (HA), "mittelängstlich" (MA) und "niedrigängstlich" (NA) zugeordnet. Für 3,5 Monate wurden die folgenden Paarbildungen (Banknachbarn) beibehalten: HA neben HA, MA und NA, NA...

  19. Differential Gene Expression and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seroude

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that an intricate program of gene expression controls progression through the different stages in development. The equally complex biological phenomenon known as aging is genetically determined and environmentally modulated. This review focuses on the genetic component of aging, with a special emphasis on differential gene expression. At least two genetic pathways regulating organism longevity act by modifying gene expression. Many genes are also subjected to age-dependent transcriptional regulation. Some age-related gene expression changes are prevented by caloric restriction, the most robust intervention that slows down the aging process. Manipulating the expression of some age-regulated genes can extend an organism's life span. Remarkably, the activity of many transcription regulatory elements is linked to physiological age as opposed to chronological age, indicating that orderly and tightly controlled regulatory pathways are active during aging.

  20. Generalist genes and learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2005-07-01

    The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language impairment, reading disability, and mathematics disability--are generalists in 3 ways. First, genes that affect common learning disabilities are largely the same genes responsible for normal variation in learning abilities. Second, genes that affect any aspect of a learning disability affect other aspects of the disability. Third, genes that affect one learning disability are also likely to affect other learning disabilities. These quantitative genetic findings have far-reaching implications for molecular genetics and neuroscience as well as psychology. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Gene-gene interactions and gene polymorphisms of VEGFA and EG-VEGF gene systems in recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Tsz; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Chi; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2014-06-01

    Both vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) systems play major roles in angiogenesis. A body of evidence suggests VEGFs regulate critical processes during pregnancy and have been associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). However, little information is available regarding the interaction of these two major major angiogenesis-related systems in early human pregnancy. This study was conducted to investigate the association of gene polymorphisms and gene-gene interaction among genes in VEGFA and EG-VEGF systems and idiopathic RPL. A total of 98 women with history of idiopathic RPL and 142 controls were included, and 5 functional SNPs selected from VEGFA, KDR, EG-VEGF (PROK1), PROKR1 and PROKR2 were genotyped. We used multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis to choose a best model and evaluate gene-gene interactions. Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA) was introduced to explore possible complex interactions. Two receptor gene polymorphisms [KDR (Q472H) and PROKR2 (V331M)] were significantly associated with idiopathic RPL (P<0.01). The MDR test revealed that the KDR (Q472H) polymorphism was the best loci to be associated with RPL (P=0.02). IPA revealed EG-VEGF and VEGFA systems shared several canonical signaling pathways that may contribute to gene-gene interactions, including the Akt, IL-8, EGFR, MAPK, SRC, VHL, HIF-1A and STAT3 signaling pathways. Two receptor gene polymorphisms [KDR (Q472H) and PROKR2 (V331M)] were significantly associated with idiopathic RPL. EG-VEGF and VEGFA systems shared several canonical signaling pathways that may contribute to gene-gene interactions, including the Akt, IL-8, EGFR, MAPK, SRC, VHL, HIF-1A and STAT3.

  2. A genetic ensemble approach for gene-gene interaction identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joshua WK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has now become clear that gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions are ubiquitous and fundamental mechanisms for the development of complex diseases. Though a considerable effort has been put into developing statistical models and algorithmic strategies for identifying such interactions, the accurate identification of those genetic interactions has been proven to be very challenging. Methods In this paper, we propose a new approach for identifying such gene-gene and gene-environment interactions underlying complex diseases. This is a hybrid algorithm and it combines genetic algorithm (GA and an ensemble of classifiers (called genetic ensemble. Using this approach, the original problem of SNP interaction identification is converted into a data mining problem of combinatorial feature selection. By collecting various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP subsets as well as environmental factors generated in multiple GA runs, patterns of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions can be extracted using a simple combinatorial ranking method. Also considered in this study is the idea of combining identification results obtained from multiple algorithms. A novel formula based on pairwise double fault is designed to quantify the degree of complementarity. Conclusions Our simulation study demonstrates that the proposed genetic ensemble algorithm has comparable identification power to Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR and is slightly better than Polymorphism Interaction Analysis (PIA, which are the two most popular methods for gene-gene interaction identification. More importantly, the identification results generated by using our genetic ensemble algorithm are highly complementary to those obtained by PIA and MDR. Experimental results from our simulation studies and real world data application also confirm the effectiveness of the proposed genetic ensemble algorithm, as well as the potential benefits of

  3. Introduction: Cancer Gene Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Constructing, evaluating, and interpreting gene networks generally sits within the broader field of systems biology, which continues to emerge rapidly, particular with respect to its application to understanding the complexity of signaling in the context of cancer biology. For the purposes of this volume, we take a broad definition of systems biology. Considering an organism or disease within an organism as a system, systems biology is the study of the integrated and coordinated interactions of the network(s) of genes, their variants both natural and mutated (e.g., polymorphisms, rearrangements, alternate splicing, mutations), their proteins and isoforms, and the organic and inorganic molecules with which they interact, to execute the biochemical reactions (e.g., as enzymes, substrates, products) that reflect the function of that system. Central to systems biology, and perhaps the only approach that can effectively manage the complexity of such systems, is the building of quantitative multiscale predictive models. The predictions of the models can vary substantially depending on the nature of the model and its inputoutput relationships. For example, a model may predict the outcome of a specific molecular reaction(s), a cellular phenotype (e.g., alive, dead, growth arrest, proliferation, and motility), a change in the respective prevalence of cell or subpopulations, a patient or patient subgroup outcome(s). Such models necessarily require computers. Computational modeling can be thought of as using machine learning and related tools to integrate the very high dimensional data generated from modern, high throughput omics technologies including genomics (next generation sequencing), transcriptomics (gene expression microarrays; RNAseq), metabolomics and proteomics (ultra high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry), and "subomic" technologies to study the kinome, methylome, and others. Mathematical modeling can be thought of as the use of ordinary

  4. Genes, evolution and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    I argue that the g factor meets the fundamental criteria of a scientific construct more fully than any other conception of intelligence. I briefly discuss the evidence regarding the relationship of brain size to intelligence. A review of a large body of evidence demonstrates that there is a g factor in a wide range of species and that, in the species studied, it relates to brain size and is heritable. These findings suggest that many species have evolved a general-purpose mechanism (a general biological intelligence) for dealing with the environments in which they evolved. In spite of numerous studies with considerable statistical power, we know of very few genes that influence g and the effects are very small. Nevertheless, g appears to be highly polygenic. Given the complexity of the human brain, it is not surprising that that one of its primary faculties-intelligence-is best explained by the near infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.

  5. Gene therapy for hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Geoffrey L.; Herzog, Roland W.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder consisting of two classifications, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, depending on the underlying mutation. Although the disease is currently treatable with intravenous delivery of replacement recombinant clotting factor, this approach represents a significant cost both monetarily and in terms of quality of life. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative approach to the treatment of hemophilia that would ideally provide life-long correction of clotting activity with a single injection. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of approaches that have been explored for the treatment of both hemophilia A and B, including both in vivo and ex vivo approaches with viral and nonviral delivery vectors. PMID:25553466

  6. Gene therapy and reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribley, John M; Rehman, Khurram S; Niu, Hairong; Christman, Gregory M

    2002-04-01

    To review the literature on the principles of gene therapy and its potential application in reproductive medicine. Literature review. Gene therapy involves transfer of genetic material to target cells using a delivery system, or vector. Attention has primarily focused on viral vectors. Significant problems remain to be overcome including low efficacy of gene transfer, the transient expression of some vectors, safety issues with modified adenoviruses and retroviruses, and ethical concerns. If these issues can be resolved, gene therapy will be applicable to an increasing spectrum of single and multiple gene disorders, as the Human Genome Project data are analyzed, and the genetic component of human disease becomes better understood. Gynecologic gene therapy has advanced to human clinical trials for ovarian carcinoma, and shows potential for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata. Obstetric applications of gene therapy, including fetal gene therapy, remain more distant goals. Concerns about the safety of human gene therapy research are being actively addressed, and remarkable progress in improving DNA transfer has been made. The first treatment success for a genetic disease (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) has been achieved, and ongoing research efforts will eventually yield clinical applications in many spheres of reproductive medicine.

  7. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  8. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... MADS family of TFs control floral organ identity within each whorl of the flower by activating downstream genes. Measuring gene expression in different tissue types and developmental stages is of fundamental importance in TFs functional research. In last few years, quantitative real-time. PCR (qRT-PCR) ...

  9. Are TMEM genes potential candidate genes for panic disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NO, Gregersen; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Hedemand, Anne

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms in two transmembrane genes (TMEM98 and TMEM132E) in panic disorder (PD) patients and control individuals from the Faroe Islands, Denmark and Germany. The genes encode single-pass membrane proteins and are located within chromosome 17q11.2-q12...

  10. Classifying genes to the correct Gene Ontology Slim term in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using neighbouring genes with classification learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsoulis Costas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that gene location and surrounding genes influence the functionality of genes in the eukaryotic genome. Knowing the Gene Ontology Slim terms associated with a gene gives us insight into a gene's functionality by informing us how its gene product behaves in a cellular context using three different ontologies: molecular function, biological process, and cellular component. In this study, we analyzed if we could classify a gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to its correct Gene Ontology Slim term using information about its location in the genome and information from its nearest-neighbouring genes using classification learning. Results We performed experiments to establish that the MultiBoostAB algorithm using the J48 classifier could correctly classify Gene Ontology Slim terms of a gene given information regarding the gene's location and information from its nearest-neighbouring genes for training. Different neighbourhood sizes were examined to determine how many nearest neighbours should be included around each gene to provide better classification rules. Our results show that by just incorporating neighbour information from each gene's two-nearest neighbours, the percentage of correctly classified genes to their correct Gene Ontology Slim term for each ontology reaches over 80% with high accuracy (reflected in F-measures over 0.80 of the classification rules produced. Conclusions We confirmed that in classifying genes to their correct Gene Ontology Slim term, the inclusion of neighbour information from those genes is beneficial. Knowing the location of a gene and the Gene Ontology Slim information from neighbouring genes gives us insight into that gene's functionality. This benefit is seen by just including information from a gene's two-nearest neighbouring genes.

  11. Concept Mapping zur Unterstützung der differentialdiagnostischen Hypothesenbildung im fallbasierten Online-Lernsystem CASUS: Qualitative Verbesserung der Diagnosefindung durch ICD-10 Kodierung [Concept mapping for supporting the differential diagnostic generation of hypotheses in the case-based online learning system CASUS: Qualitative improvement of dagnostic performance through ICD-10 coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kernt, Marcus

    2008-08-01

    akzeptiert werden und zu einer vermehrten Hypothesenbildung beitragen. Es gibt bisher jedoch wenige Erkenntnisse über die Qualität der dabei vom Anwender erstellten Hypothesen. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Qualität der im Netzwerk-Tool im fallbasierten Lernsystem CASUS erstellten Hypothesen und inwieweit diese durch Kodierung mittels ICD10 präzisiert werden können. Methodik: Die Lernenden bearbeiteten zu zweit einen Computerlernfall zum Thema Malaria. Wir randomisierten 192 Teilnehmer der Studie aus dem 3. Studienjahr an der Universität München in zwei Gruppen: Gruppe A wurde gebeten, die erdachten Hypothesen vor der Eingabe in das Netzwerk-Tool mittels eines ICD10-Browsers zu kodieren. Gruppe B erstellte ihre Hypothesen ohne weitere Hilfsmittel. Die Netzwerke wurden quantitativ und qualitativ evaluiert und die Ergebnisse der beiden Gruppen verglichen. Als Referenz diente das von Experten erstellte Netzwerk. Ergebnisse: 87 differentialdiagnostische Netzwerke konnten ausgewertet werden. In Gruppe A mit ICD10-Kodierung der Hypothesen, konnten die Lernenden signifikant häufiger (p<0,005 die exakte Hauptdiagnose Malaria tropica stellen. In der Gruppe ohne ICD10 Kodierung wurde signifikant häufiger (p<0,005 die unpräzise Diagnose "Malaria" gestellt. Für die Nebendiagnosen ergaben sich qualitativ und quantitativ keine Unterschiede. Schlussfolgerungen: Die ICD10-Kodierung der Hypothesen im Netzwerk-Tool führte zu einer präziseren Diagnosestellung der Studierenden im klinischen Studienabschnitt. Die Integration eines ICD-Browsers zur Unterstützung der differentialdiagnostischen Hypothesenbildung in fallbasierten Lernsystemen ist sinnvoll.

  12. Reduzierbarkeit der Abbrecherquote im Humanmedizinstudium durch das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge - Naturwissenschaftsteil (HAM-Nat [Possible reduction of the medical school dropout number by the Hamburg Assessment test for Medicine - part Natural sciences (HAM-Nat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harendza, Sigrid

    2008-05-01

    eines zukünftigen „guten Arztes“ zu entwickeln und zu validieren. Daher beschränkt sich das Auswahlverfahren in Hamburg auf das pragmatische Ziel die Studienabbrecherzahl zu reduzieren, damit möglichst viele Studienanfänger durch gute Lehre zu „guten Ärzten“ ausgebildet werden. Methodik: Zu diesem Zweck wurde der HAM-Nat (Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge - Naturwissenschaftsteil mit 52 Multiple-choice Fragen auf Schulniveau über naturwissenschaftliche Kenntnisse und ihre Anwendung entwickelt, zunächst an 6 Schulen in 3 Bundesländern erprobt und dann mit 333 Studienanfängern im Oktober 2006 durchgeführt. Das Testergebnis und die Abiturnote wurden mit dem Studienerfolg in den ersten beiden Semestern korreliert. Als Studienerfolgsparameter wurde die Anzahl der bestandenen Leistungsnachweise verwendet. Ergebnisse: Das HAM-Nat-Ergebnis korreliert nach dem 2. Semester höher mit dem Studienerfolg als die Abiturnote, von der es relativ unabhängig ist. Insbesonders zeigt die Simulation eines Auswahlverfahrens unter Berücksichtigung von HAM-Nat-Ergebnis und Abiturnote eine deutliche Reduktion der Zahl der Studienabbrecher im Vergleich zur jetzigen Auswahl nur nach Abiturnote. Weitere abgefragte mögliche Studienauswahlparameter wie belegte naturwissenschaftliche Kurse oder eine abgeschlossene Berufsausbildung korrelieren nicht mit besserem Studienerfolg. Schlussfolgerung: Der HAM-Nat ist ein wertvolles zusätzliches Auswahlverfahren für Studienbewerber in der Medizin. Aufgrund dieser Ergebnisse hat die Medizinische Fakultät Hamburg beschlossen, den HAM-Nat für die Studienbewerberauswahl zum Wintersemester 2008/2009 einzuführen.

  13. The semidry acid-anhydrite process (the use of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum by development of a new process for the production of FGD anhydrite); Das quasitrockene Saeure-Anhydrit-Verfahren (Erweiterung der Verwendungsmoeglichkeiten von REA-Gips durch Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Herstellung von REA-Anhydrit aus REA-Gips)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, F. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany); Hueller, R. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany); Limmer, B. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    -Anhydrit untersucht. Die Reaktion erfolgt mit feuchtem, feinteiligem REA-Gips unter der katalytischen Wirkung kleiner Mengen Schwefelsaeure bei Temperaturen um 100 bis 200 C. Es wird wasserfreier REA-Anhydrit mit orthorhombischer Kristallstruktur erhalten. Die Umwandlung des Kristallgitters von Calciumsulfat-Dihydrat in Calciumsulfat-Anhydrit II vollzieht sich dabei direkt durch Mineralneubildung. Diese Umwandlung wird zu einem Verfahren entwickelt und als `Quasitrockenes Saeure-Anydrit-Verfahren` bezeichnet. Die Reaktion und ihr Mechanismus wurde zuerst in Laborversuchen untersucht. Als Ausgangsstoff ist jedes feinteilige Calciumsulfat-Dihydrat geeignet. Der bereits im Kraftwerk feinteilig-kristallin erzeugte REA-Gips mit 10% Restfeuchte ist besonders vorteilhaft, da er fuer diese Verwendung vorher nicht getrocknet und nicht gemahlen werden muss. Die Verfahrensentwicklung wurde bis in den halbtechnischen Massstab durchgefuehrt und Auslegungsgrundlagen fuer Grossanlagen an Kraftwerksstandorten erarbeitet. Als Reaktionsaggregat zeigte sich der direkt beheizte Drehrohrofen geeignet. Der REA-Anhydrit wird in diesem Verfahren als trockenes feinteiliges Produkt mit reproduzierbaren Teilchengroessen um 2 Mikron erhalten und besitzt neuartige technologische Eigenschaften. Seine Verwendungsmoeglichkeit wurde fuer die Zementindustrie sowie als Rohstoff zur Herstellung von Fuellstoffen untersucht. Fuer die Zementindustrie ist er grundsaetzlich geeignet. Der Einsatz als Fuellstoff ermoeglicht eine erweiterte Verwendung des REA-Gipses ausserhalb der traditionellen Bereiche der Gipsindustrie. Erste Versuche erlauben die Schlussfolgerung, dass der REA-Anhydrit nach einer Aufbereitung, die ebenfalls labormaessig neu entwickelt wurde, die fuer einen hochwertigen Fuellstoff notwendigen guten Eigenschaftsmerkmale hat. (orig.)

  14. MC-PELMO 3.0 - a computer model to estimate groundwater contamination caused by leaching of wood preservatives from storage sites of treated wood in Germany; Grundwassergefaehrdung durch Holzschutzmittel. MCPELMO 3.0 - ein mathematische Simulationsprogramm zur Abschaetzung der Grundwassergefaehrdung unter Holzlagerflaechen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie, Schmallenberg-Grafschaft (Germany); Herrmann, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    verarbeitet dabei 22 ausgewaehlte Versickerungsszenarien, die ihrerseits aus der Verknuepfung von Leitboeden aus 12 Bodenregionen und Wetterdaten von 9 Klimastationen abgeleitet wurden. Diese Szenarien werden gewichtet mit den Standortdaten von Holzimpraegnierbetrieben in Deutschland. Als Ergebnis der Simulationsrechnungen werden statistische Wahrscheinlichkeiten fuer die Konzentrationen im Sickerwasser unter Holzlagerplaetzen in den vom Anwender ausgewaehlten Regionen angegeben. Ergebnisse und Diskussion. Die Ergebnisprotokolle der Simulationsrechnungen beinhalten sowohl mittlere Sickerwasserkonzentrationen als auch frei waehlbare Perzentile (50-99), sowie die jeweils maximale Standortkonzentration. Die Ergebnisse koennen in Relation zur Gesamtflaeche der Bundesrepublik, den jeweiligen forstlich genutzten Flaechenanteilen, oder zur Dichte von Holzschutzmittel anwendenden Betrieben dargestellt werden. Neben der Konzentration der Ausgangssubstanz koennen auch fuer mehrere Abbauprodukte Konzentrationen in der Grundwasserneubildung berechnet werden. Schlussfolgerungen. Das beschriebene Modell ist insbesondere zum Vergleich der Grundwassergefaehrdung durch verschiedene Holzschutzmittel geeignet. Die vergleichende Bewertung stellt ein neues Element der EU-Politik zur Chemikaliensicherheit dar, das zum ersten Mal in der Biozidrichtlinie 98/8/EG festgeschrieben wurde. Die Ergebnisse der Modellrechnungen identifizieren aber auch besonders gefaehrdete Regionen in Deutschland, fuer die geeignete Risikominderungsmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen um das dortige Grundwasser zu schuetzen. (orig.)

  15. Gene doping: possibilities and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dominic J

    2009-01-01

    Our ever-increasing understanding of the genetic control of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function together with recent technical improvements in genetic manipulation generates mounting concern over the possibility of such technology being abused by athletes in their quest for improved performance. Genetic manipulation in the context of athletic performance is commonly referred to as gene doping. A review of the literature was performed to identify the genes and methodologies most likely to be used for gene doping and the technologies that might be used to identify such doping. A large number of candidate performance-enhancing genes have been identified from animal studies, many of them using transgenic mice. Only a limited number have been shown to be effective following gene transfer into adults. Those that seem most likely to be abused are genes that exert their effects locally and leave little, if any, trace in blood or urine. There is currently no evidence that gene doping has yet been undertaken in competitive athletes but the anti-doping authorities will need to remain vigilant in reviewing this rapidly emerging technology. The detection of gene doping involves some different challenges from other agents and a number of promising approaches are currently being explored. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  17. Gene set analysis for GWAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Birgit; Soerensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We discuss the use of modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics in the context of gene set analysis and review corresponding null and alternative hypotheses. Especially, we show that, when enhancing the impact of highly significant genes in the calculation of the test statistic, the co...

  18. On meme--gene coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, L; Holland, O; Blackmore, S

    2000-01-01

    In this article we examine the effects of the emergence of a new replicator, memes, on the evolution of a pre-existing replicator, genes. Using a version of the NKCS model we examine the effects of increasing the rate of meme evolution in relation to the rate of gene evolution, for various degrees of interdependence between the two replicators. That is, the effects of memes' (suggested) more rapid rate of evolution in comparison to that of genes is investigated using a tunable model of coevolution. It is found that, for almost any degree of interdependence between the two replicators, as the rate of meme evolution increases, a phase transition-like dynamic occurs under which memes have a significantly detrimental effect on the evolution of genes, quickly resulting in the cessation of effective gene evolution. Conversely, the memes experience a sharp increase in benefit from increasing their rate of evolution. We then examine the effects of enabling genes to reduce the percentage of gene-detrimental evolutionary steps taken by memes. Here a critical region emerges as the comparative rate of meme evolution increases, such that if genes cannot effectively select memes a high percentage of the time, they suffer from meme evolution as if they had almost no selective capability.

  19. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  20. Gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Loos, B.G.; Crielaard, W.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or

  1. Imaging after vascular gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, Hannu I.; Yang, Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    Targets for cardiovascular gene therapy currently include limiting restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stent placement, inhibiting vein bypass graft intimal hyperplasia/stenosis, therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiac and lower-limb ischemia, and prevention of thrombus formation. While catheter angiography is still standard method to follow-up vascular gene transfer, other modern imaging techniques, especially intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provide complementary information about the therapeutic effect of vascular gene transfer in humans. Although molecular imaging of therapeutic gene expression in the vasculatures is still in its technical development phase, it has already offered basic medical science an extremely useful in vivo evaluation tool for non- or minimally invasive imaging of vascular gene therapy

  2. Function analysis of unknown genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    2002-01-01

      This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used...... to describe different aspects of molecular biology of the cell, to study changes that occur in the cell due to overexpression or deletion of a gene and to identify various protein modifications. The biological questions and the results of the described studies show the diversity of the information that can...... genes and proteins. It reports the first global proteome database collecting 36 yeast single gene deletion mutants and selecting over 650 differences between analysed mutants and the wild type strain. The obtained results show that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based proteome...

  3. Reference Gene Screening for Analyzing Gene Expression Across Goat Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2 in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken.

  4. Therapeutic genes for anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolenta, Chiara; Porcellini, Simona; Alberici, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The multiple therapeutic approaches developed so far to cope HIV-1 infection, such as anti-retroviral drugs, germicides and several attempts of therapeutic vaccination have provided significant amelioration in terms of life-quality and survival rate of AIDS patients. Nevertheless, no approach has demonstrated efficacy in eradicating this lethal, if untreated, infection. The curative power of gene therapy has been proven for the treatment of monogenic immunodeficiensies, where permanent gene modification of host cells is sufficient to correct the defect for life-time. No doubt, a similar concept is not applicable for gene therapy of infectious immunodeficiensies as AIDS, where there is not a single gene to be corrected; rather engineered cells must gain immunotherapeutic or antiviral features to grant either short- or long-term efficacy mostly by acquisition of antiviral genes or payloads. Anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy is one of the most promising strategy, although challenging, to eradicate HIV-1 infection. In fact, genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells with one or multiple therapeutic genes is expected to originate blood cell progenies resistant to viral infection and thereby able to prevail on infected unprotected cells. Ultimately, protected cells will re-establish a functional immune system able to control HIV-1 replication. More than hundred gene therapy clinical trials against AIDS employing different viral vectors and transgenes have been approved or are currently ongoing worldwide. This review will overview anti-HIV-1 infection gene therapy field evaluating strength and weakness of the transgenes and payloads used in the past and of those potentially exploitable in the future.

  5. GENES IN SPORT AND DOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pokrywka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes control biological processes such as muscle production of energy, mitochondria biogenesis, bone formation erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation, neurogenesis, etc. DNA profiling for athletes reveals genetic variations that may be associated with endurance ability, muscle performance and power exercise, tendon susceptibility to injuries and psychological aptitude. Already, over 200 genes relating to physical performance have been identified by several research groups. Athletes’ genotyping is developing as a tool for the formulation of personalized training and nutritional programmes to optimize sport training as well as for the prediction of exercise-related injuries. On the other hand, development of molecular technology and gene therapy creates a risk of non-therapeutic use of cells, genes and genetic elements to improve athletic performance. Therefore, the World Anti-Doping Agency decided to include prohibition of gene doping within their World Anti-Doping Code in 2003. In this review article, we will provide a current overview of genes for use in athletes’ genotyping and gene doping possibilities, including their development and detection techniques.

  6. [Gene doping: gene transfer and possible molecular detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Carlos Francisco; Hernández-Zamora, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    The use of illegal substances in sports to enhance athletic performance during competition has caused international sports organizations such as the COI and WADA to take anti doping measures. A new doping method know as gene doping is defined as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". However, gene doping in sports is not easily identified and can cause serious consequences. Molecular biology techniques are needed in order to distinguish the difference between a "normal" and an "altered" genome. Further, we need to develop new analytic methods and biological molecular techniques in anti-doping laboratories, and design programs that avoid the non therapeutic use of genes.

  7. Delimiting Coalescence Genes (C-Genes) in Phylogenomic Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2018-02-26

    coalescence methods have emerged as a popular alternative for inferring species trees with large genomic datasets, because these methods explicitly account for incomplete lineage sorting. However, statistical consistency of summary coalescence methods is not guaranteed unless several model assumptions are true, including the critical assumption that recombination occurs freely among but not within coalescence genes (c-genes), which are the fundamental units of analysis for these methods. Each c-gene has a single branching history, and large sets of these independent gene histories should be the input for genome-scale coalescence estimates of phylogeny. By contrast, numerous studies have reported the results of coalescence analyses in which complete protein-coding sequences are treated as c-genes even though exons for these loci can span more than a megabase of DNA. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints suggest that c-genes may be much shorter, especially when large clades with many species are the focus of analysis. Although this idea has been challenged recently in the literature, the inverse relationship between c-gene size and increased taxon sampling in a dataset-the 'recombination ratchet'-is a fundamental property of c-genes. For taxonomic groups characterized by genes with long intron sequences, complete protein-coding sequences are likely not valid c-genes and are inappropriate units of analysis for summary coalescence methods unless they occur in recombination deserts that are devoid of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). Finally, it has been argued that coalescence methods are robust when the no-recombination within loci assumption is violated, but recombination must matter at some scale because ILS, a by-product of recombination, is the raison d'etre for coalescence methods. That is, extensive recombination is required to yield the large number of independently segregating c-genes used to infer a species tree. If coalescent methods are powerful

  8. Gene therapy of cancer by vaccines carrying inserted immunostimulatory genes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2007), s. 71-73 ISSN 0015-5500 Grant - others:EU-FP6 NoE Clinigene(XE) 018933; Liga proti rakovině, Praha(CZ) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : gene therapy * immunostimulatory genes * vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.596, year: 2007

  9. Cloning and selection of reference genes for gene expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full length mRNA sequences of Ac-β-actin and Ac-gapdh, and partial mRNA sequences of Ac-18SrRNA and Ac-ubiquitin were cloned from pineapple in this study. The four genes were tested as housekeeping genes in three experimental sets. GeNorm and NormFinder analysis revealed that β-actin was the most ...

  10. The hunt for gene dopers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mai M H; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2009-07-01

    Gene doping, the abuse of gene therapy for illicit athletic enhancement, is perceived as a coming threat and is a prime concern to the anti-doping community. This doping technique represents a significant ethical challenge and there are concerns regarding its safety for athletes. This article presents the basics of gene doping, potential strategies for its detection and the role of promising new technologies in aiding detection efforts. These include the use of lab-on-a-chip techniques as well as nanoparticles to enhance the performance of current analytical methods and to develop new doping detection strategies.

  11. Gene Therapy Approaches to Hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giuliana; Cavazzana, Marina; Mavilio, Fulvio

    2017-10-01

    Gene therapy for hemoglobinopathies is currently based on transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem cells genetically modified with a lentiviral vector expressing a globin gene under the control of globin transcriptional regulatory elements. Preclinical and early clinical studies showed the safety and potential efficacy of this therapeutic approach as well as the hurdles still limiting its general application. In addition, for both beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease, an altered bone marrow microenvironment reduces the efficiency of stem cell harvesting as well as engraftment. These hurdles need be addressed for gene therapy for hemoglobinopathies to become a clinical reality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  13. Correction of gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.; Noeparvar, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    This report investigates for the first time the potential inter-treatment bias source of cell number for gene expression studies. Cell-number bias can affect gene expression analysis when comparing samples with unequal total cellular RNA content or with different RNA extraction efficiencies....... For maximal reliability of analysis, therefore, comparisons should be performed at the cellular level. This could be accomplished using an appropriate correction method that can detect and remove the inter-treatment bias for cell-number. Based on inter-treatment variations of reference genes, we introduce...

  14. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene & Cell Therapy Defined Gene therapy and cell therapy are overlapping fields of biomedical research that aim to repair the direct cause of genetic diseases. Read More Gene & Cell Therapy FAQ's Read the most common questions raised by ...

  15. Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español The Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders KidsHealth / For Teens / The Basics ... such as treating health problems. What Is a Gene? To understand how genes work, let's review some ...

  16. Norrie disease gene is distinct from the monoamine oxidase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, K B; Ozelius, L; Corey, T; Rinehart, W B; Liberfarb, R; Haines, J; Chen, W J; Norio, R; Sankila, E; de la Chapelle, A

    1989-09-01

    The genes for MAO-A and MAO-B appear to be very close to the Norrie disease gene, on the basis of loss and/or disruption of the MAO genes and activities in atypical Norrie disease patients deleted for the DXS7 locus; linkage among the MAO genes, the Norrie disease gene, and the DXS7 locus; and mapping of all these loci to the chromosomal region Xp11. The present study provides evidence that the MAO genes are not disrupted in "classic" Norrie disease patients. Genomic DNA from these "nondeletion" Norrie disease patients did not show rearrangements at the MAOA or DXS7 loci. Normal levels of MAO-A activities, as well as normal amounts and size of the MAO-A mRNA, were observed in cultured skin fibroblasts from these patients, and MAO-B activity in their platelets was normal. Catecholamine metabolites evaluated in plasma and urine were in the control range. Thus, although some atypical Norrie disease patients lack both MAO-A and MAO-B activities, MAO does not appear to be an etiologic factor in classic Norrie disease.

  17. Information-processing genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir Shah, K.

    1995-01-01

    There are an estimated 100,000 genes in the human genome of which 97% is non-coding. On the other hand, bacteria have little or no non-coding DNA. Non-coding region includes introns, ALU sequences, satellite DNA, and other segments not expressed as proteins. Why it exists? Why nature has kept non-coding during the long evolutionary period if it has no role in the development of complex life forms? Does complexity of a species somehow correlated to the existence of apparently useless sequences? What kind of capability is encoded within such nucleotide sequences that is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for the evolution of complex life forms, keeping in mind the C-value paradox and the omnipresence of non-coding segments in higher eurkaryotes and also in many archea and prokaryotes. The physico-chemical description of biological processes is hardware oriented and does not highlight algorithmic or information processing aspect. However, an algorithm without its hardware implementation is useless as much as hardware without its capability to run an algorithm. The nature and type of computation an information-processing hardware can perform depends only on its algorithm and the architecture that reflects the algorithm. Given that enormously difficult tasks such as high fidelity replication, transcription, editing and regulation are all achieved within a long linear sequence, it is natural to think that some parts of a genome are involved is these tasks. If some complex algorithms are encoded with these parts, then it is natural to think that non-coding regions contain processing-information algorithms. A comparison between well-known automatic sequences and sequences constructed out of motifs is found in all species proves the point: noncoding regions are a sort of ''hardwired'' programs, i.e., they are linear representations of information-processing machines. Thus in our model, a noncoding region, e.g., an intron contains a program (or equivalently, it is

  18. Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Denyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic improvements to those suffering from this incurable degenerative neurological disorder, but none of these has convincingly shown effects on disease progression. Novel approaches based on gene therapy have several potential advantages over conventional treatment modalities. These could be used to provide more consistent dopamine supplementation, potentially providing superior symptomatic relief with fewer side effects. More radically, gene therapy could be used to correct the imbalances in basal ganglia circuitry associated with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or to preserve or restore dopaminergic neurons lost during the disease process itself. The latter neuroprotective approach is the most exciting, as it could theoretically be disease modifying rather than simply symptom alleviating. Gene therapy agents using these approaches are currently making the transition from the laboratory to the bedside. This paper summarises the theoretical approaches to gene therapy for Parkinson's disease and the findings of clinical trials in this rapidly changing field.

  19. [Obesity studies in candidate genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, María del Carmen; Martí, Amelia; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2004-04-17

    There are more than 430 chromosomic regions with gene variants involved in body weight regulation and obesity development. Polymorphisms in genes related to energy expenditure--uncoupling proteins (UCPs), related to adipogenesis and insulin resistance--hormone-sensitive lipase (HLS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), beta adrenergic receptors (ADRB2,3), and alfa tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), and related to food intake--ghrelin (GHRL)--appear to be associated with obesity phenotypes. Obesity risk depends on two factors: a) genetic variants in candidate genes, and b) biographical exposure to environmental risk factors. It is necessary to perform new studies, with appropriate control groups and designs, in order to reach relevant conclusions with regard to gene/environmental (diet, lifestyle) interactions.

  20. Novel genes in LDL metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), whole-exome sequencing of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 'exome chip' studies pointing to novel genes in LDL metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: The genetic loci for ATP-binding cassette......-exome sequencing and 'exome chip' studies have additionally suggested several novel genes in LDL metabolism including insulin-induced gene 2, signal transducing adaptor family member 1, lysosomal acid lipase A, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 5 and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2. Most...... of these findings still require independent replications and/or functional studies to confirm the exact role in LDL metabolism and the clinical implications for human health. SUMMARY: GWAS, exome sequencing studies, and recently 'exome chip' studies have suggested several novel genes with effects on LDL cholesterol...

  1. Gene discovery in Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Burgos Nelia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triatoma infestans is the most relevant vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone of South America. Since its genome has not yet been studied, sequencing of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs is one of the most powerful tools for efficiently identifying large numbers of expressed genes in this insect vector. Results In this work, we generated 826 ESTs, resulting in an increase of 47% in the number of ESTs available for T. infestans. These ESTs were assembled in 471 unique sequences, 151 of which represent 136 new genes for the Reduviidae family. Conclusions Among the putative new genes for the Reduviidae family, we identified and described an interesting subset of genes involved in development and reproduction, which constitute potential targets for insecticide development.

  2. Gene therapy of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Tan Jian

    2007-01-01

    Normally, differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC) is a disease of good prognosis, but about 30% of the tumors are dedifferentiate, which are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as 'operation, 131 I therapy and thyroid hormone'. Both internal and abroad experts are researching a new therapy of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma--gene therapy. Many of them utilize methods of it, but follow different strategies: (1) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodide transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by 131 I therapy; (2) strengthening of the anti-tumor immune response; (3) suicide gene therapy; (4) depression the generation of tumor cells; (5) gene therapy of anti- vascularization. (authors)

  3. MADS-box gene evolution - structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Skipper, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs......Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs...

  4. Endocrine aspects of cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzon, Luisa; Boscaro, Marco; Palù, Giorgio

    2004-02-01

    The field of cancer gene therapy is in continuous expansion, and technology is quickly moving ahead as far as gene targeting and regulation of gene expression are concerned. This review focuses on the endocrine aspects of gene therapy, including the possibility to exploit hormone and hormone receptor functions for regulating therapeutic gene expression, the use of endocrine-specific genes as new therapeutic tools, the effects of viral vector delivery and transgene expression on the endocrine system, and the endocrine response to viral vector delivery. Present ethical concerns of gene therapy and the risk of germ cell transduction are also discussed, along with potential lines of innovation to improve cell and gene targeting.

  5. Gene Therapy in Cardiac Arrhythmias

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen, S.V; Francis, Johnson; Venugopal, K

    2006-01-01

    Gene therapy has progressed from a dream to a bedside reality in quite a few human diseases. From its first application in adenosine deaminase deficiency, through the years, its application has evolved to vascular angiogenesis and cardiac arrhythmias. Gene based biological pacemakers using viral vectors or mesenchymal cells tested in animal models hold much promise. Induction of pacemaker activity within the left bundle branch can provide stable heart rates. Genetic modification of the AV...

  6. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  7. Decoding Gene Patents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2015-01-01

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents—the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government—have dealt with the issue of whether genetic m...

  8. Gene-gene, gene-environment, gene-nutrient interactions and single nucleotide polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Amina; Mumtaz, Sadaf; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq; Aslam, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Arif; Lodhi, Ghulam Mustafa; Ahmad, Tausif

    2015-05-15

    Inflammation plays a significant role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The rise in the pro-inflammatory cytokines is the essential step in glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity induced mitochondrial injury, oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis in T2DM. Among the recognized markers are interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-10, IL-18, tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein, resistin, adiponectin, tissue plasminogen activator, fibrinogen and heptoglobins. Diabetes mellitus has firm genetic and very strong environmental influence; exhibiting a polygenic mode of inheritance. Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in various genes including those of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been reported as a risk for T2DM. Not all the SNPs have been confirmed by unifying results in different studies and wide variations have been reported in various ethnic groups. The inter-ethnic variations can be explained by the fact that gene expression may be regulated by gene-gene, gene-environment and gene-nutrient interactions. This review highlights the impact of these interactions on determining the role of single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-6, TNF-α, resistin and adiponectin in pathogenesis of T2DM.

  9. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  10. BEEF CATTLE MUSCULARITY CANDIDATE GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irida Novianti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscularity is a potential indicator for the selection of more productive cattle. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL for traits related to muscularity is useful to identify the genomic regions where the genes affecting muscularity reside. QTL analysis from a Limousin-Jersey double backcross herd was conducted using QTL Express software with cohort and breed as the fixed effects. Nine QTL suggested to have an association with muscularity were identified on cattle chromosomes BTA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 14 and 17. The myostatin gene is located at the centromeric end of chromosome 2 and not surprisingly, the Limousin myostatin F94L variant accounted for the QTL on BTA2. However, when the myostatin F94L genotype was included as an additional fixed effect, the QTL on BTA17 was also no longer significant. This result suggests that there may be gene(s that have epistatic effects with myostatin located on cattle chromosome 17. Based on the position of the QTL in base pairs, all the genes that reside in the region were determined using the Ensembl data base (www.ensembl.org. There were two potential candidate genes residing within these QTL regions were selected. They were Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1 and similar to follistatin-like 5 (FSTL5. (JIIPB 2010 Vol 20 No 1: 1-10

  11. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Carr, A.M.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  12. Homology-dependent Gene Silencing in Paramecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Françoise; Vayssié, Laurence; Klotz, Catherine; Sperling, Linda; Madeddu, Luisa

    1998-01-01

    Microinjection at high copy number of plasmids containing only the coding region of a gene into the Paramecium somatic macronucleus led to a marked reduction in the expression of the corresponding endogenous gene(s). The silencing effect, which is stably maintained throughout vegetative growth, has been observed for all Paramecium genes examined so far: a single-copy gene (ND7), as well as members of multigene families (centrin genes and trichocyst matrix protein genes) in which all closely related paralogous genes appeared to be affected. This phenomenon may be related to posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic plants and quelling in Neurospora and allows the efficient creation of specific mutant phenotypes thus providing a potentially powerful tool to study gene function in Paramecium. For the two multigene families that encode proteins that coassemble to build up complex subcellular structures the analysis presented herein provides the first experimental evidence that the members of these gene families are not functionally redundant. PMID:9529389

  13. New Gene Evolution: Little Did We Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Manyuan; VanKuren, Nicholas W.; Chen, Sidi; Vibranovski, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    Genes are perpetually added to and deleted from genomes during evolution. Thus, it is important to understand how new genes are formed and evolve as critical components of the genetic systems determining the biological diversity of life. Two decades of effort have shed light on the process of new gene origination, and have contributed to an emerging comprehensive picture of how new genes are added to genomes, ranging from the mechanisms that generate new gene structures to the presence of new genes in different organisms to the rates and patterns of new gene origination and the roles of new genes in phenotypic evolution. We review each of these aspects of new gene evolution, summarizing the main evidence for the origination and importance of new genes in evolution. We highlight findings showing that new genes rapidly change existing genetic systems that govern various molecular, cellular and phenotypic functions. PMID:24050177

  14. Advances in study of reporter gene imaging for monitoring gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Chuanjie; Zhou Jiwen

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of gene therapy, it is requisite to monitor localization and expression of the therapeutic gene in vivo. Monitoring expression of reporter gene using radionuclide reporter gene technique is the best method. Adenoviral vectors expressing reporter gene are constructed using gene fusion, bicistronic, double promoter or bidirectional transcriptional recombination techniques, and transferred into target cells and tissues, then injected radiolabeled reporter probes which couple to the reporter genes. The reporter genes can be imaged invasively, repeatedly, quantitatively with γ-camera, PET and SPECT. Recently, several reporter gene and reporter probe systems have been used in studies of gene therapy. The part of them has been used for clinic trials

  15. Newer Gene Editing Technologies toward HIV Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Shankar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called “Berlin patient” who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy.

  16. Reduced rates of gene loss, gene silencing, and gene mutation in Dnmt1-deficient embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, M.F.; van Amerongen, R.; Nijjar, T.; Cuppen, E.; Jones, P.A.; Laird, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene inactivation is a crucial event in oncogenesis. Gene inactivation mechanisms include events resulting in loss of heterozygosity (LOH), gene mutation, and transcriptional silencing. The contribution of each of these different pathways varies among tumor suppressor genes and by

  17. Gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle after gene electrotransfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Zibert, John R; Gissel, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene transfer by electroporation (DNA electrotransfer) to muscle results in high level long term transgenic expression, showing great promise for treatment of e.g. protein deficiency syndromes. However little is known about the effects of DNA electrotransfer on muscle fibres. We have...... caused down-regulation of structural proteins e.g. sarcospan and catalytic enzymes. Injection of DNA induced down-regulation of intracellular transport proteins e.g. sentrin. The effects on muscle fibres were transient as the expression profiles 3 weeks after treatment were closely related......) followed by a long low voltage pulse (LV, 100 V/cm, 400 ms); a pulse combination optimised for efficient and safe gene transfer. Muscles were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and excised at 4 hours, 48 hours or 3 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: Differentially expressed genes were...

  18. Combining gene prediction methods to improve metagenomic gene annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Gail L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional gene annotation methods rely on characteristics that may not be available in short reads generated from next generation technology, resulting in suboptimal performance for metagenomic (environmental samples. Therefore, in recent years, new programs have been developed that optimize performance on short reads. In this work, we benchmark three metagenomic gene prediction programs and combine their predictions to improve metagenomic read gene annotation. Results We not only analyze the programs' performance at different read-lengths like similar studies, but also separate different types of reads, including intra- and intergenic regions, for analysis. The main deficiencies are in the algorithms' ability to predict non-coding regions and gene edges, resulting in more false-positives and false-negatives than desired. In fact, the specificities of the algorithms are notably worse than the sensitivities. By combining the programs' predictions, we show significant improvement in specificity at minimal cost to sensitivity, resulting in 4% improvement in accuracy for 100 bp reads with ~1% improvement in accuracy for 200 bp reads and above. To correctly annotate the start and stop of the genes, we find that a consensus of all the predictors performs best for shorter read lengths while a unanimous agreement is better for longer read lengths, boosting annotation accuracy by 1-8%. We also demonstrate use of the classifier combinations on a real dataset. Conclusions To optimize the performance for both prediction and annotation accuracies, we conclude that the consensus of all methods (or a majority vote is the best for reads 400 bp and shorter, while using the intersection of GeneMark and Orphelia predictions is the best for reads 500 bp and longer. We demonstrate that most methods predict over 80% coding (including partially coding reads on a real human gut sample sequenced by Illumina technology.

  19. COGNATE: comparative gene annotation characterizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver

    2017-07-17

    The comparison of gene and genome structures across species has the potential to reveal major trends of genome evolution. However, such a comparative approach is currently hampered by a lack of standardization (e.g., Elliott TA, Gregory TR, Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 370:20140331, 2015). For example, testing the hypothesis that the total amount of coding sequences is a reliable measure of potential proteome diversity (Wang M, Kurland CG, Caetano-Anollés G, PNAS 108:11954, 2011) requires the application of standardized definitions of coding sequence and genes to create both comparable and comprehensive data sets and corresponding summary statistics. However, such standard definitions either do not exist or are not consistently applied. These circumstances call for a standard at the descriptive level using a minimum of parameters as well as an undeviating use of standardized terms, and for software that infers the required data under these strict definitions. The acquisition of a comprehensive, descriptive, and standardized set of parameters and summary statistics for genome publications and further analyses can thus greatly benefit from the availability of an easy to use standard tool. We developed a new open-source command-line tool, COGNATE (Comparative Gene Annotation Characterizer), which uses a given genome assembly and its annotation of protein-coding genes for a detailed description of the respective gene and genome structure parameters. Additionally, we revised the standard definitions of gene and genome structures and provide the definitions used by COGNATE as a working draft suggestion for further reference. Complete parameter lists and summary statistics are inferred using this set of definitions to allow down-stream analyses and to provide an overview of the genome and gene repertoire characteristics. COGNATE is written in Perl and freely available at the ZFMK homepage ( https://www.zfmk.de/en/COGNATE ) and on github ( https

  20. Genome-Wide Comparative Gene Family Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frech, Christian; Chen, Nansheng

    2010-01-01

    Correct classification of genes into gene families is important for understanding gene function and evolution. Although gene families of many species have been resolved both computationally and experimentally with high accuracy, gene family classification in most newly sequenced genomes has not been done with the same high standard. This project has been designed to develop a strategy to effectively and accurately classify gene families across genomes. We first examine and compare the performance of computer programs developed for automated gene family classification. We demonstrate that some programs, including the hierarchical average-linkage clustering algorithm MC-UPGMA and the popular Markov clustering algorithm TRIBE-MCL, can reconstruct manual curation of gene families accurately. However, their performance is highly sensitive to parameter setting, i.e. different gene families require different program parameters for correct resolution. To circumvent the problem of parameterization, we have developed a comparative strategy for gene family classification. This strategy takes advantage of existing curated gene families of reference species to find suitable parameters for classifying genes in related genomes. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel strategy, we use TRIBE-MCL to classify chemosensory and ABC transporter gene families in C. elegans and its four sister species. We conclude that fully automated programs can establish biologically accurate gene families if parameterized accordingly. Comparative gene family classification finds optimal parameters automatically, thus allowing rapid insights into gene families of newly sequenced species. PMID:20976221

  1. Deregulated genes in sporadic vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Holga Andrea; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2010-01-01

    In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology.......In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology....

  2. The KCNE genes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a candidate gene study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Haundrup, Ole; Andersen, Paal S

    2011-01-01

    The gene family KCNE1-5, which encode modulating β-subunits of several repolarising K+-ion channels, has been associated with genetic cardiac diseases such as long QT syndrome, atrial fibrillation and Brugada syndrome. The minK peptide, encoded by KCNE1, is attached to the Z-disc of the sarcomere...... as well as the T-tubules of the sarcolemma. It has been suggested that minK forms part of an "electro-mechanical feed-back" which links cardiomyocyte stretching to changes in ion channel function. We examined whether mutations in KCNE genes were associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a genetic...

  3. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  4. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  5. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Exploring autophagy with Gene Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that is well conserved among eukaryotes. It is one of the strategies that cells use to catabolize substances in a controlled way. Autophagy is used for recycling cellular components, responding to cellular stresses and ridding cells of foreign material. Perturbations in autophagy have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions such as neurodegeneration, cardiac disease and cancer. The growing knowledge about autophagic mechanisms needs to be collected in a computable and shareable format to allow its use in data representation and interpretation. The Gene Ontology (GO) is a freely available resource that describes how and where gene products function in biological systems. It consists of 3 interrelated structured vocabularies that outline what gene products do at the biochemical level, where they act in a cell and the overall biological objectives to which their actions contribute. It also consists of ‘annotations’ that associate gene products with the terms. Here we describe how we represent autophagy in GO, how we create and define terms relevant to autophagy researchers and how we interrelate those terms to generate a coherent view of the process, therefore allowing an interoperable description of its biological aspects. We also describe how annotation of gene products with GO terms improves data analysis and interpretation, hence bringing a significant benefit to this field of study. PMID:29455577

  7. A hybrid approach of gene sets and single genes for the prediction of survival risks with gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Junhee; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated biological knowledge is often encoded as gene sets, collections of genes associated with similar biological functions or pathways. The use of gene sets in the analyses of high-throughput gene expression data has been intensively studied and applied in clinical research. However, the main interest remains in finding modules of biological knowledge, or corresponding gene sets, significantly associated with disease conditions. Risk prediction from censored survival times using gene sets hasn't been well studied. In this work, we propose a hybrid method that uses both single gene and gene set information together to predict patient survival risks from gene expression profiles. In the proposed method, gene sets provide context-level information that is poorly reflected by single genes. Complementarily, single genes help to supplement incomplete information of gene sets due to our imperfect biomedical knowledge. Through the tests over multiple data sets of cancer and trauma injury, the proposed method showed robust and improved performance compared with the conventional approaches with only single genes or gene sets solely. Additionally, we examined the prediction result in the trauma injury data, and showed that the modules of biological knowledge used in the prediction by the proposed method were highly interpretable in biology. A wide range of survival prediction problems in clinical genomics is expected to benefit from the use of biological knowledge.

  8. Msx homeobox gene family and craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alappat, Sylvia; Zhang, Zun Yi; Chen, Yi Ping

    2003-12-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are unlinked, homeobox-containing genes that bear homology to the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox gene. These genes are expressed at multiple sites of tissue-tissue interactions during vertebrate embryonic development. Inductive interactions mediated by the Msx genes are essential for normal craniofacial, limb and ectodermal organ morphogenesis, and are also essential to survival in mice, as manifested by the phenotypic abnormalities shown in knockout mice and in humans. This review summarizes studies on the expression, regulation, and functional analysis of Msx genes that bear relevance to craniofacial development in humans and mice. Key words: Msx genes, craniofacial, tooth, cleft palate, suture, development, transcription factor, signaling molecule.

  9. Gene therapy and radiotherapy in malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaowen; Cao Yongzhen; Li Jin; Wang Qin

    2008-01-01

    Tumor treatment is one of the most important fields in medical research. Nowadays, a novel method which is combined gene therapy with radiotherapy plays an important role in the field of cancer research, and mainly includes immune gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, suicide gene therapy or tumor suppressor gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and protective gene therapy combined with radiotherapy based on the technical features. This review summarized the current status of combined therapies of gene therapy and radiotherapy and possible mechanism. (authors)

  10. Comparative genome analysis of PHB gene family reveals deep evolutionary origins and diverse gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chao; Xu, Wenying; Su, Zhen; Yuan, Joshua S

    2010-10-07

    PHB (Prohibitin) gene family is involved in a variety of functions important for different biological processes. PHB genes are ubiquitously present in divergent species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Human PHB genes have been found to be associated with various diseases. Recent studies by our group and others have shown diverse function of PHB genes in plants for development, senescence, defence, and others. Despite the importance of the PHB gene family, no comprehensive gene family analysis has been carried to evaluate the relatedness of PHB genes across different species. In order to better guide the gene function analysis and understand the evolution of the PHB gene family, we therefore carried out the comparative genome analysis of the PHB genes across different kingdoms. The relatedness, motif distribution, and intron/exon distribution all indicated that PHB genes is a relatively conserved gene family. The PHB genes can be classified into 5 classes and each class have a very deep evolutionary origin. The PHB genes within the class maintained the same motif patterns during the evolution. With Arabidopsis as the model species, we found that PHB gene intron/exon structure and domains are also conserved during the evolution. Despite being a conserved gene family, various gene duplication events led to the expansion of the PHB genes. Both segmental and tandem gene duplication were involved in Arabidopsis PHB gene family expansion. However, segmental duplication is predominant in Arabidopsis. Moreover, most of the duplicated genes experienced neofunctionalization. The results highlighted that PHB genes might be involved in important functions so that the duplicated genes are under the evolutionary pressure to derive new function. PHB gene family is a conserved gene family and accounts for diverse but important biological functions based on the similar molecular mechanisms. The highly diverse biological function indicated that more research needs to be carried out

  11. Gene therapy for lipid disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lipid disorders are associated with atherosclerotic vascular disease, and therapy is associated with a substantial reduction in cardiovascular events. Current approaches to the treatment of lipid disorders are ineffective in a substantial number of patients. New therapies for refractory hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are needed: somatic gene therapy is one viable approach. The molecular etiology and pathophysiology of most of the candidate diseases are well understood. Animal models exist for the diseases and in many cases preclinical proof-of-principle studies have already been performed. There has been progress in the development of vectors that provide long-term gene expression. New clinical gene therapy trials for lipid disorders are likely to be initiated within the next few years.

  12. Candidate genes in panic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, A. S.; Buttenschön, Henriette N; Bani-Fatemi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of molecular genetics approaches in examination of panic disorder (PD) has implicated several variants as potential susceptibility factors for panicogenesis. However, the identification of robust PD susceptibility genes has been complicated by phenotypic diversity, underpowered...... association studies and ancestry-specific effects. In the present study, we performed a succinct review of case-control association studies published prior to April 2015. Meta-analyses were performed for candidate gene variants examined in at least three studies using the Cochrane Mantel-Haenszel fixed......-effect model. Secondary analyses were also performed to assess the influences of sex, agoraphobia co-morbidity and ancestry-specific effects on panicogenesis. Meta-analyses were performed on 23 variants in 20 PD candidate genes. Significant associations after correction for multiple testing were observed...

  13. Gene Therapy in Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen S.V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy has progressed from a dream to a bedside reality in quite a few human diseases. From its first application in adenosine deaminase deficiency, through the years, its application has evolved to vascular angiogenesis and cardiac arrhythmias. Gene based biological pacemakers using viral vectors or mesenchymal cells tested in animal models hold much promise. Induction of pacemaker activity within the left bundle branch can provide stable heart rates. Genetic modification of the AV node mimicking beta blockade can be therapeutic in the management of atrial fibrillation. G protein overexpression to modify the AV node also is experimental. Modification and expression of potassium channel genes altering the delayed rectifier potassium currents may permit better management of congenital long QT syndromes. Arrhythmias in a failing heart are due to abnormal calcium cycling. Potential targets for genetic modulation include the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump, calsequestrin and sodium calcium exchanger.Lastly the ethical concerns need to be addressed.

  14. [Advances and strategies in gene doping detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangang; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jing; Dou, Peng; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2008-07-01

    This review surveys the recent status of gene doping detection and the strategies for anti-gene doping. The main gene doping candidates for athletes are summarized, and the advances in the detection of the proteins expressed by these genes such as erythropoietin (EPO) and human growth hormone (hGH) are reviewed. The potential detection strategies for further gene doping analysis are also discussed.

  15. Assignment of genes to chromosome 4 of the River buffalo with a panel of buffalo-hamster hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, S M; Hondt, H A; Othman, O S; Bosma, A A; Haan, N A

    1993-01-12

    To identify the river buffalo chromosome carrying the genes coding for GAPD, TPI1, and LDHB, karyotypic examination was carried out on 14 buffalo-hamster hybrid clones previously tested for presence of this syntenic group. In cattle, this group (U3) has been assigned to chromosome 5, which is assumed to be homologous to the long arm of buffalo chromosome 4. Chromosome 4 was present in all five clones expressing the three enzymes, and absent in all seven negative clones, indicating that in the buffalo GAPD, TPI1, and LDHB are located on chromosome 4. One clone, expressing GAPD and TPI1, but not LDHB, was found to carry a translocation between hamster marker chromosome M(2) and buffalo 4q1 → 4qter. In another clone, expressing LDHB, but not GAPD and TPI1, chromosome 4 was absent, while a very small, unidentifiable acrocentric was present. These observations suggest that LDHB is located in the proximal part of 4q1, and that GAPD and TPI1 are located more distally, in 4q1 → 4q2. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Lokalisierung von Genen auf Chromosom 4 des Flußbüffels durch Büffel-Hamster-Hybridzellen Zur Identifikation von Flußbüffelchromosomen mit Genen für GAPD, TPI1 und LDHB wurden Karyotypenbestimmungen an 14 Büffel-Hamster-Hybridklonen durchgeführt, die vorher auf Anwesenheit der betreffenden synthenischen Gruppen geprüft worden waren. Bei Rindern wird diese Gruppe (U3) dem Chromosom 5 zugeordnet, welches als homolog mit dem langen Arm des Büffelchromosoms 4 betrachtet wird. Chromosom 4 war in allen fünf Klonen, die die drei Enzyme exprimiert haben, vorhanden und fehlte in allen sieben negativen klonen, so daß angenommen werden kann, daß sich bei Büffeln GAPD, TPI1 und LDHB auf Chromosom 4 befinden. Bei einem Klon, der GAPD und TPI1, aber nicht LDHB zeigte, wurde eine Translokation zwischen dem Hamstermarkerchromosom M2 und Büffel 4q1 → 4qter gefunden. Im einem anderen Klon, der LDHB, nicht aber GAPD und TPI1 zeigte, war Chromosom 4 nicht vorhanden, wohl aber

  16. Genotyping microarray (gene chip) for the ABCR (ABCA4) gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaakson, K.; Zernant, J.; Kulm, M.; Hutchinson, A.; Tonisson, N.; Glavac, D.; Ravnik-Glavac, M.; Hawlina, M.; Meltzer, M.R.; Caruso, R.C.; Testa, F.; Maugeri, A.; Hoyng, C.B.; Gouras, P.; Simonelli, F.; Lewis, R.A.; Lupski, J.R.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Allikmets, R.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic variation in the ABCR (ABCA4) gene has been associated with five distinct retinal phenotypes, including Stargardt disease/fundus flavimaculatus (STGD/FFM), cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Comparative genetic analyses of ABCR variation and diagnostics

  17. Good genes, complementary genes and human mate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C

    2008-09-01

    The past decade has witnessed a rapidly growing interest in the biological basis of human mate choice. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate preferences for traits which might reveal genetic quality to prospective mates, with potential but still largely unknown influence on offspring fitness. These include studies assessing visual, olfactory and auditory preferences for potential good-gene indicator traits, such as dominance or bilateral symmetry. Individual differences in these robust preferences mainly arise through within and between individual variation in condition and reproductive status. Another set of studies have revealed preferences for traits indicating complementary genes, focussing on discrimination of dissimilarity at genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). As in animal studies, we are only just beginning to understand how preferences for specific traits vary and inter-relate, how consideration of good and compatible genes can lead to substantial variability in individual mate choice decisions and how preferences expressed in one sensory modality may reflect those in another. Humans may be an ideal model species in which to explore these interesting complexities.

  18. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.; Krajewska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer-associated somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are known. Currently, one of the challenges is to identify the molecular downstream effects of these variants. Although several SCNAs are known to change gene expression levels, it is not clear whether each individual SCNA affects gen...

  19. Candidate Gene Identification of Flowering Time Genes in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrinne E. Grover

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time control is critically important to all sexually reproducing angiosperms in both natural ecological and agronomic settings. Accordingly, there is much interest in defining the genes involved in the complex flowering-time network and how these respond to natural and artificial selection, the latter often entailing transitions in day-length responses. Here we describe a candidate gene analysis in the cotton genus , which uses homologs from the well-described flowering network to bioinformatically and phylogenetically identify orthologs in the published genome sequence from Ulbr., one of the two model diploid progenitors of the commercially important allopolyploid cottons, L. and L. Presence and patterns of expression were evaluated from 13 aboveground tissues related to flowering for each of the candidate genes using allopolyploid as a model. Furthermore, we use a comparative context to determine copy number variability of each key gene family across 10 published angiosperm genomes. Data suggest a pattern of repeated loss of duplicates following ancient whole-genome doubling events in diverse lineages. The data presented here provide a foundation for understanding both the parallel evolution of day-length neutrality in domesticated cottons and the flowering-time network, in general, in this important crop plant.

  20. Candidate gene studies and the quest for the entrepreneurial gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); C.A. Rietveld (Niels); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCandidate gene studies of human behavior are gaining interest in economics and entrepreneurship research. Performing and interpreting these studies is not straightforward because the selection of candidates influences the interpretation of the results. As an example, Nicolaou et al.

  1. Gene regulation by growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, R.; Gorham, J.; Siegfried, Z.; Leonard, D.; Gizang-Ginsberg, E.; Thompson, M.A.; Lawe, D.; Kouzarides, T.; Vosatka, R.; MacGregor, D.; Jamal, S.; Greenberg, M.E.; Ziff, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    To coordinate the proliferation and differentiation of diverse cell types, cells of higher eukaryotes communicate through the release of growth factors. These peptides interact with specific transmembrane receptors of other cells and thereby generate intracellular messengers. The many changes in cellular physiology and activity that can be induced by growth factors imply that growth factor-induced signals can reach the nucleus and control gene activity. Moreover, current evidence also suggests that unregulated signaling along such pathways can induce aberrant proliferation and the formation of tumors. This paper reviews investigations of growth factor regulation of gene expression conducted by the authors' laboratory

  2. Mutated genes as research tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Green plants are the ultimate source of all resources required for man's life, his food, his clothes, and almost all his energy requirements. Primitive prehistoric man could live from the abundance of nature surrounding him. Man today, dominating nature in terms of numbers and exploiting its limited resources, cannot exist without employing his intelligence to direct natural evolution. Plant sciences, therefore, are not a matter of curiosity but an essential requirement. From such considerations, the IAEA and FAO jointly organized a symposium to assess the value of mutation research for various kinds of plant science, which directly or indirectly might contribute to sustaining and improving crop production. The benefit through developing better cultivars that plant breeders can derive from using the additional genetic resources resulting from mutation induction has been assessed before at other FAO/IAEA meetings (Rome 1964, Pullman 1969, Ban 1974, Ibadan 1978) and is also monitored in the Mutation Breeding Newsletter, published by IAEA twice a year. Several hundred plant cultivars which carry economically important characters because their genes have been altered by ionizing radiation or other mutagens, are grown by farmers and horticulturists in many parts of the world. But the benefit derived from such mutant varieties is without any doubt surpassed by the contribution which mutation research has made towards the advancement of genetics. For this reason, a major part of the papers and discussions at the symposium dealt with the role induced-mutation research played in providing insight into gene action and gene interaction, the organization of genes in plant chromosomes in view of homology and homoeology, the evolutionary role of gene duplication and polyploidy, the relevance of gene blocks, the possibilities for chromosome engineering, the functioning of cytroplasmic inheritance and the genetic dynamics of populations. In discussing the evolutionary role of

  3. Decoding gene patents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2014-10-03

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents-the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government-have dealt with the issue of whether genetic material is proper subject matter for a patent. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Gene therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, T R; Laube, B L

    2001-09-01

    Theoretically, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene replacement during the neonatal period can decrease morbidity and mortality from cystic fibrosis (CF). In vivo gene transfers have been accomplished in CF patients. Choice of vector, mode of delivery to airways, translocation of genetic information, and sufficient expression level of the normalized CFTR gene are issues that currently are being addressed in the field. The advantages and limitations of viral vectors are a function of the parent virus. Viral vectors used in this setting include adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV). Initial studies with Ad vectors resulted in a vector that was efficient for gene transfer with dose-limiting inflammatory effects due to the large amount of viral protein delivered. The next generation of Ad vectors, with more viral coding sequence deletions, has a longer duration of activity and elicits a lesser degree of cell-mediated immunity in mice. A more recent generation of Ad vectors has no viral genes remaining. Despite these changes, the problem of humoral immunity remains with Ad vectors. A variety of strategies such as vector systems requiring single, or widely spaced, administrations, pharmacologic immunosuppression at administration, creation of a stealth vector, modification of immunogenic epitopes, or tolerance induction are being considered to circumvent humoral immunity. AAV vectors have been studied in animal and human models. They do not appear to induce inflammatory changes over a wide range of doses. The level of CFTR messenger RNA expression is difficult to ascertain with AAV vectors since the small size of the vector relative to the CFTR gene leaves no space for vector-specific sequences on which to base assays to distinguish endogenous from vector-expressed messenger RNA. In general, AAV vectors appear to be safe and have superior duration profiles. Cationic liposomes are lipid-DNA complexes. These vectors generally have been

  5. Interactive visualization of gene regulatory networks with associated gene expression time series data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, M.A.; Hijum, van S.A.F.T.; Lulko, A.T.; Kuipers, O.P.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Linsen, L.; Hagen, H.; Hamann, B.

    2008-01-01

    We present GENeVis, an application to visualize gene expression time series data in a gene regulatory network context. This is a network of regulator proteins that regulate the expression of their respective target genes. The networks are represented as graphs, in which the nodes represent genes,

  6. Targeting the human lysozyme gene on bovine αs1- casein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Targeting an exogenous gene into a favorable gene locus and for expression under endogenous regulators is an ideal method in mammary gland bioreactor research. For this purpose, a gene targeting vector was constructed to targeting the human lysozyme gene on bovine αs1-casein gene locus. In this case, the ...

  7. Integrones: los coleccionistas de genes Integrons: gene collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Di Conza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Los integrones son estructuras genéticas que han despertado gran interés, debido a que algunos de ellos vehiculizan genes de resistencia a los antimicrobianos. Están formados por un fragmento que codifica una integrasa (intI y, a continuación, una secuencia attI a la que se unen los genes en casetes que codifican diferentes mecanismos de resistencia. Dentro de intI, en su extremo 3´, hay una secuencia promotora Pc a partir de la cual se transcriben los casetes de resistencia integrados, ya que estos genes carecen de promotor. Sin embargo, estos casetes presentan una secuencia específica denominada attC, la cual es reconocida por la integrasa que se une, por recombinación, a la secuencia attI del integrón en la orientación adecuada para su expresión. Los integrones se han clasificado según la secuencia de su integrasa, pero en la actualidad se prefiere clasificarlos según su localización. Se habla, en general, de "integrones móviles" para referirse a aquellos asociados a secuencias de inserción, transposones y/o plásmidos conjugativos, los que en su mayoría median mecanismos de resistencia, y de "superintegrones", de localización cromosómica y con grandes arreglos de genes en casetes. Los integrones móviles de clase 1 son los más abundantes en aislamientos clínicos y suelen estar asociados a transposones del subgrupo Tn21, seguidos por los de clase 2, derivados principalmente de Tn7. Estos elementos no son móviles por sí mismos, pero su asociación con elementos que sí lo son facilita su transferencia horizontal, lo que explica su amplia difusión entre las bacterias. Esta revisión intenta recopilar la información disponible acerca de los integrones móviles descritos en Argentina hasta la fecha.Integrons gained great interest due to their participation in resistance gene recruitment and expression. Their basic structure includes a fragment that encodes an integrase (intI followed by a recognition sequence (attI into

  8. Persistence drives gene clustering in bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Eduardo PC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene clustering plays an important role in the organization of the bacterial chromosome and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain its extent. However, the controversies raised about the validity of each of these mechanisms remind us that the cause of this gene organization remains an open question. Models proposed to explain clustering did not take into account the function of the gene products nor the likely presence or absence of a given gene in a genome. However, genomes harbor two very different categories of genes: those genes present in a majority of organisms – persistent genes – and those present in very few organisms – rare genes. Results We show that two classes of genes are significantly clustered in bacterial genomes: the highly persistent and the rare genes. The clustering of rare genes is readily explained by the selfish operon theory. Yet, genes persistently present in bacterial genomes are also clustered and we try to understand why. We propose a model accounting specifically for such clustering, and show that indispensability in a genome with frequent gene deletion and insertion leads to the transient clustering of these genes. The model describes how clusters are created via the gene flux that continuously introduces new genes while deleting others. We then test if known selective processes, such as co-transcription, physical interaction or functional neighborhood, account for the stabilization of these clusters. Conclusion We show that the strong selective pressure acting on the function of persistent genes, in a permanent state of flux of genes in bacterial genomes, maintaining their size fairly constant, that drives persistent genes clustering. A further selective stabilization process might contribute to maintaining the clustering.

  9. Genes and Syndromic Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Bronya J. B.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a description of the human genome and patterns of inheritance and discusses genes that are associated with some of the syndromes for which hearing loss is a common finding, including: Waardenburg, Stickler, Jervell and Lange-Neilsen, Usher, Alport, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, and sensorineural hearing loss. (Contains…

  10. Gene Therapy for Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, Mark M; Barnard, Alun R; MacLaren, Robert E

    2017-12-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare congenital cause of vision loss due to isolated cone photoreceptor dysfunction. The most common underlying genetic mutations are autosomal recessive changes in CNGA3 , CNGB3 , GNAT2 , PDE6H , PDE6C , or ATF6 . Animal models of Cnga3 , Cngb3 , and Gnat2 have been rescued using AAV gene therapy; showing partial restoration of cone electrophysiology and integration of this new photopic vision in reflexive and behavioral visual tests. Three gene therapy phase I/II trials are currently being conducted in human patients in the USA, the UK, and Germany. This review details the AAV gene therapy treatments of achromatopsia to date. We also present novel data showing rescue of a Cnga3 -/- mouse model using an rAAV.CBA.CNGA3 vector. We conclude by synthesizing the implications of this animal work for ongoing human trials, particularly, the challenge of restoring integrated cone retinofugal pathways in an adult visual system. The evidence to date suggests that gene therapy for achromatopsia will need to be applied early in childhood to be effective.

  11. Gene therapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Eric M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2006-09-01

    Lung cancer patients suffer a 15% overall survival despite advances in chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. This unacceptably low survival rate is due to the usual finding of advanced disease at diagnosis. However, multimodality strategies using conventional therapies only minimally improve survival rates even in early stages of lung cancer. Attempts to improve survival in advanced disease using various combinations of platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated that no regimen is superior, suggesting a therapeutic plateau and the need for novel, more specific, and less toxic therapeutic strategies. Over the past three decades, the genetic etiology of cancer has been gradually delineated, albeit not yet completely. Understanding the molecular events that occur during the multistep process of bronchogenic carcinogenesis may make these tasks more surmountable. During these same three decades, techniques have been developed which allow transfer of functional genes into mammalian cells. For example, blockade of activated tumor-promoting oncogenes or replacement of inactivated tumor-suppressing or apoptosis-promoting genes can be achieved by gene therapy. This article will discuss the therapeutic implications of these molecular changes associated with bronchogenic carcinomas and will then review the status of gene therapies for treatment of lung cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Ethics of Gene Therapy Debated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Stu

    1991-01-01

    Presented are the highlights of a press conference featuring biomedical ethicist LeRoy Walters of Georgetown University and attorney Andrew Kimbrell of the Foundation on Economic Trends. The opposing points of view of these two speakers serve to outline the pros and cons of the gene therapy issue. (CW)

  13. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  14. The Language of the Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. The Language of the Genes Linking the Past and the Future. Amitabh Joshi. Book Review Volume 2 ... Amitabh Joshi1. Animal Behaviour Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560 064, India.

  15. Gene expression profile of pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, J C; Henson, B R; Parker, J S; Khan, A A

    2016-06-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the significance analysis of microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (⩾30 mm on VAS) compared with those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology.

  16. Homeobox genes and melatonin synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin Fredensborg

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based indu......Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a c......AMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX......) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating c...

  17. Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Gina; Wolfe, Kim; Dupree, Alan; Young, Sheila; Caver, Jessica; Quintanilla, Ruby; Thornton, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) takes student engagement to a higher level through reflective collaboration, inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and personal relevance. This article explains how six high school teachers developed an interconnected, interdisciplinary STEM-focused PBL called "Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool." The…

  18. Genome position and gene amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsová, Pavla; Snijders, A.M.; Kwek, S.; Roydasgupta, R.; Fridlyand, J.; Tokuyasu, T.; Pinkel, D.; Albertson, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2007), r120 ISSN 1474-760X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : gene amplification * array comparative genomic hybridization * oncogene Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.589, year: 2007

  19. Embryos, genes, and birth defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferretti, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    ... Structural anomalies The genesis of chromosome abnormalities Embryo survival The cause of high levels of chromosome abnormality in human embryos Relative parental risks - age, translocations, inversions, gonadal and germinal mosaics 33 33 34 35 36 44 44 45 4 Identification and Analysis of Genes Involved in Congenital Malformation Syndromes Peter J. Scambler Ge...

  20. Empirical study of supervised gene screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shuangge

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray studies provide a way of linking variations of phenotypes with their genetic causations. Constructing predictive models using high dimensional microarray measurements usually consists of three steps: (1 unsupervised gene screening; (2 supervised gene screening; and (3 statistical model building. Supervised gene screening based on marginal gene ranking is commonly used to reduce the number of genes in the model building. Various simple statistics, such as t-statistic or signal to noise ratio, have been used to rank genes in the supervised screening. Despite of its extensive usage, statistical study of supervised gene screening remains scarce. Our study is partly motivated by the differences in gene discovery results caused by using different supervised gene screening methods. Results We investigate concordance and reproducibility of supervised gene screening based on eight commonly used marginal statistics. Concordance is assessed by the relative fractions of overlaps between top ranked genes screened using different marginal statistics. We propose a Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, which measures reproducibility of individual genes under the supervised screening. Empirical studies are based on four public microarray data. We consider the cases where the top 20%, 40% and 60% genes are screened. Conclusion From a gene discovery point of view, the effect of supervised gene screening based on different marginal statistics cannot be ignored. Empirical studies show that (1 genes passed different supervised screenings may be considerably different; (2 concordance may vary, depending on the underlying data structure and percentage of selected genes; (3 evaluated with the Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, genes passed supervised screenings are only moderately reproducible; and (4 concordance cannot be improved by supervised screening based on reproducibility.

  1. Gene transfer therapy in vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, M J; Gaballa, M A

    2001-01-01

    Somatic gene therapy of vascular diseases is a promising new field in modern medicine. Recent advancements in gene transfer technology have greatly evolved our understanding of the pathophysiologic role of candidate disease genes. With this knowledge, the expression of selective gene products provides the means to test the therapeutic use of gene therapy in a multitude of medical conditions. In addition, with the completion of genome sequencing programs, gene transfer can be used also to study the biologic function of novel genes in vivo. Novel genes are delivered to targeted tissue via several different vehicles. These vectors include adenoviruses, retroviruses, plasmids, plasmid/liposomes, and oligonucleotides. However, each one of these vectors has inherent limitations. Further investigations into developing delivery systems that not only allow for efficient, targeted gene transfer, but also are stable and nonimmunogenic, will optimize the clinical application of gene therapy in vascular diseases. This review further discusses the available mode of gene delivery and examines six major areas in vascular gene therapy, namely prevention of restenosis, thrombosis, hypertension, atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease in congestive heart failure, and ischemia. Although we highlight some of the recent advances in the use of gene therapy in treating vascular disease discovered primarily during the past two years, many excellent studies published during that period are not included in this review due to space limitations. The following is a selective review of practical uses of gene transfer therapy in vascular diseases. This review primarily covers work performed in the last 2 years. For earlier work, the reader may refer to several excellent review articles. For instance, Belalcazer et al. (6) reviewed general aspects of somatic gene therapy and the different vehicles used for the delivery of therapeutic genes. Gene therapy in restenosis and stimulation of

  2. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized

  3. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, D. R.

    1987-07-01

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized.

  4. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  5. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ezer, Daphne; Moignard, Victoria; G?ttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete ...

  6. Gene therapy and its implications in Periodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, Swapna; Dani, Nitin; Ansari, Shumaila S.; Kale, Triveni

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy is a field of Biomedicine. With the advent of gene therapy in dentistry, significant progress has been made in the control of periodontal diseases and reconstruction of dento-alveolar apparatus. Implementation in periodontics include: -As a mode of tissue engineering with three approaches: cell, protein-based and gene delivery approach. -Genetic approach to Biofilm Antibiotic Resistance. Future strategies of gene therapy in preventing periodontal diseases: -Enhances host defense mechanism against infection by transfecting host cells with an antimicrobial peptide protein-encoding gene. -Periodontal vaccination. Gene therapy is one of the recent entrants and its applications in the field of periodontics are reviewed in general here. PMID:20376232

  7. Gene doping: the hype and the harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKanna, Trudy A; Toriello, Helga V

    2010-06-01

    "Gene doping" is the term used to describe the potential abuse of gene therapy as a performance-enhancing agent. Gene doping would apply the techniques used in gene therapy to provide altered expression of genes that would promote physical superiority. For example, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a primary target for growth hormone; overexpression of IGF-1 can lead to increased muscle mass and power. Although gene doping is still largely theoretical, its implications for sports, health, ethics, and medical genetics are significant.

  8. Modulation of gene expression made easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for modulating gene expression, based on randomization of promoter (spacer) sequences, was developed. The method was applied to chromosomal genes in Lactococcus lactis and shown to generate libraries of clones with broad ranges of expression levels of target genes. In one example...... that the method can be applied to modulating the expression of native genes on the chromosome. We constructed a series of strains in which the expression of the las operon, containing the genes pfk, pyk, and ldh, was modulated by integrating a truncated copy of the pfk gene. Importantly, the modulation affected...

  9. Investigation progress of PET reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei; Huang Gang

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging for gene therapy and gene expression has been more and more attractive, while the use of gene therapy has been widely investigated and intense research have allowed it to the clinical setting in the last two-decade years. In vivo imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) by combination of appropriate PET reporter gene and PET reporter probe could provide qualitative and quantitative information for gene therapy. PET imaging could also obtain some valuable parameters not available by other techniques. This technology is useful to understand the process and development of gene therapy and how to apply it into clinical practice in the future. (authors)

  10. The relationship among gene expression, the evolution of gene dosage, and the rate of protein evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Gout

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of selective constraints affecting genes is a major issue in biology. It is well established that gene expression level is a major determinant of the rate of protein evolution, but the reasons for this relationship remain highly debated. Here we demonstrate that gene expression is also a major determinant of the evolution of gene dosage: the rate of gene losses after whole genome duplications in the Paramecium lineage is negatively correlated to the level of gene expression, and this relationship is not a byproduct of other factors known to affect the fate of gene duplicates. This indicates that changes in gene dosage are generally more deleterious for highly expressed genes. This rule also holds for other taxa: in yeast, we find a clear relationship between gene expression level and the fitness impact of reduction in gene dosage. To explain these observations, we propose a model based on the fact that the optimal expression level of a gene corresponds to a trade-off between the benefit and cost of its expression. This COSTEX model predicts that selective pressure against mutations changing gene expression level or affecting the encoded protein should on average be stronger in highly expressed genes and hence that both the frequency of gene loss and the rate of protein evolution should correlate negatively with gene expression. Thus, the COSTEX model provides a simple and common explanation for the general relationship observed between the level of gene expression and the different facets of gene evolution.

  11. Using the gene ontology to scan multilevel gene sets for associations in genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaid, Daniel J; Sinnwell, Jason P; Jenkins, Gregory D; McDonnell, Shannon K; Ingle, James N; Kubo, Michiaki; Goss, Paul E; Costantino, Joseph P; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Gene-set analyses have been widely used in gene expression studies, and some of the developed methods have been extended to genome wide association studies (GWAS). Yet, complications due to linkage disequilibrium (LD) among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and variable numbers of SNPs per gene and genes per gene-set, have plagued current approaches, often leading to ad hoc "fixes." To overcome some of the current limitations, we developed a general approach to scan GWAS SNP data for both gene-level and gene-set analyses, building on score statistics for generalized linear models, and taking advantage of the directed acyclic graph structure of the gene ontology when creating gene-sets. However, other types of gene-set structures can be used, such as the popular Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Our approach combines SNPs into genes, and genes into gene-sets, but assures that positive and negative effects of genes on a trait do not cancel. To control for multiple testing of many gene-sets, we use an efficient computational strategy that accounts for LD and provides accurate step-down adjusted P-values for each gene-set. Application of our methods to two different GWAS provide guidance on the potential strengths and weaknesses of our proposed gene-set analyses. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Gene therapy for Stargardt disease associated with ABCA4 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zongchao; Conley, Shannon M; Naash, Muna I

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the photoreceptor-specific flippase ABCA4 lead to accumulation of the toxic bisretinoid A2E, resulting in atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and death of the photoreceptor cells. Many blinding diseases are associated with these mutations including Stargardt's disease (STGD1), cone-rod dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and increased susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration. There are no curative treatments for any of these dsystrophies. While the monogenic nature of many of these conditions makes them amenable to treatment with gene therapy, the ABCA4 cDNA is 6.8 kb and is thus too large for the AAV vectors which have been most successful for other ocular genes. Here we review approaches to ABCA4 gene therapy including treatment with novel AAV vectors, lentiviral vectors, and non-viral compacted DNA nanoparticles. Lentiviral and compacted DNA nanoparticles in particular have a large capacity and have been successful in improving disease phenotypes in the Abca4 (-/-) murine model. Excitingly, two Phase I/IIa clinical trials are underway to treat patients with ABCA4-associated Startgardt's disease (STGD1). As a result of the development of these novel technologies, effective therapies for ABCA4-associated diseases may finally be within reach.

  13. cis sequence effects on gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Kevin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence and transcriptional variability within and between individuals are typically studied independently. The joint analysis of sequence and gene expression variation (genetical genomics provides insight into the role of linked sequence variation in the regulation of gene expression. We investigated the role of sequence variation in cis on gene expression (cis sequence effects in a group of genes commonly studied in cancer research in lymphoblastoid cell lines. We estimated the proportion of genes exhibiting cis sequence effects and the proportion of gene expression variation explained by cis sequence effects using three different analytical approaches, and compared our results to the literature. Results We generated gene expression profiling data at N = 697 candidate genes from N = 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines for this study and used available candidate gene resequencing data at N = 552 candidate genes to identify N = 30 candidate genes with sufficient variance in both datasets for the investigation of cis sequence effects. We used two additive models and the haplotype phylogeny scanning approach of Templeton (Tree Scanning to evaluate association between individual SNPs, all SNPs at a gene, and diplotypes, with log-transformed gene expression. SNPs and diplotypes at eight candidate genes exhibited statistically significant (p cis sequence effects in our study, respectively. Conclusion Based on analysis of our results and the extant literature, one in four genes exhibits significant cis sequence effects, and for these genes, about 30% of gene expression variation is accounted for by cis sequence variation. Despite diverse experimental approaches, the presence or absence of significant cis sequence effects is largely supported by previously published studies.

  14. Gene set analysis using variance component tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Lin, Xihong

    2013-06-28

    Gene set analyses have become increasingly important in genomic research, as many complex diseases are contributed jointly by alterations of numerous genes. Genes often coordinate together as a functional repertoire, e.g., a biological pathway/network and are highly correlated. However, most of the existing gene set analysis methods do not fully account for the correlation among the genes. Here we propose to tackle this important feature of a gene set to improve statistical power in gene set analyses. We propose to model the effects of an independent variable, e.g., exposure/biological status (yes/no), on multiple gene expression values in a gene set using a multivariate linear regression model, where the correlation among the genes is explicitly modeled using a working covariance matrix. We develop TEGS (Test for the Effect of a Gene Set), a variance component test for the gene set effects by assuming a common distribution for regression coefficients in multivariate linear regression models, and calculate the p-values using permutation and a scaled chi-square approximation. We show using simulations that type I error is protected under different choices of working covariance matrices and power is improved as the working covariance approaches the true covariance. The global test is a special case of TEGS when correlation among genes in a gene set is ignored. Using both simulation data and a published diabetes dataset, we show that our test outperforms the commonly used approaches, the global test and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We develop a gene set analyses method (TEGS) under the multivariate regression framework, which directly models the interdependence of the expression values in a gene set using a working covariance. TEGS outperforms two widely used methods, GSEA and global test in both simulation and a diabetes microarray data.

  15. Developing strategies for detection of gene doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoutina, Anna; Alexander, Ian E; Rasko, John E J; Emslie, Kerry R

    2008-01-01

    It is feared that the use of gene transfer technology to enhance athletic performance, the practice that has received the term 'gene doping', may soon become a real threat to the world of sport. As recognised by the anti-doping community, gene doping, like doping in any form, undermines principles of fair play in sport and most importantly, involves major health risks to athletes who partake in gene doping. One attraction of gene doping for such athletes and their entourage lies in the apparent difficulty of detecting its use. Since the realisation of the threat of gene doping to sport in 2001, the anti-doping community and scientists from different disciplines concerned with potential misuse of gene therapy technologies for performance enhancement have focused extensive efforts on developing robust methods for gene doping detection which could be used by the World Anti-Doping Agency to monitor athletes and would meet the requirements of a legally defensible test. Here we review the approaches and technologies which are being evaluated for the detection of gene doping, as well as for monitoring the efficacy of legitimate gene therapy, in relation to the detection target, the type of sample required for analysis and detection methods. We examine the accumulated knowledge on responses of the body, at both cellular and systemic levels, to gene transfer and evaluate strategies for gene doping detection based on current knowledge of gene technology, immunology, transcriptomics, proteomics, biochemistry and physiology. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Research progress in machine learning methods for gene-gene interaction detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhe-Ye; Tang, Zi-Jun; Xie, Min-Zhu

    2018-03-20

    Complex diseases are results of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. However, the detection of high-dimensional gene-gene interactions is computationally challenging. In the last two decades, machine-learning approaches have been developed to detect gene-gene interactions with some successes. In this review, we summarize the progress in research on machine learning methods, as applied to gene-gene interaction detection. It systematically examines the principles and limitations of the current machine learning methods used in genome wide association studies (GWAS) to detect gene-gene interactions, such as neural networks (NN), random forest (RF), support vector machines (SVM) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and provides some insights on the future research directions in the field.

  17. Biodegradable nanoparticles for gene therapy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein; He, Wen-Jie; Chiang, Chiao-Hsi; Hong, Po-Da; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Domb, Abraham J.; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Rapid propagations in materials technology together with biology have initiated great hopes in the possibility of treating many diseases by gene therapy technology. Viral and non-viral gene carriers are currently applied for gene delivery. Non-viral technology is safe and effective for the delivery of genetic materials to cells and tissues. Non-viral systems are based on plasmid expression containing a gene encoding a therapeutic protein and synthetic biodegradable nanoparticles as a safe carrier of gene. Biodegradable nanoparticles have shown great interest in drug and gene delivery systems as they are easy to be synthesized and have no side effect in cells and tissues. This review provides a critical view of applications of biodegradable nanoparticles on gene therapy technology to enhance the localization of in vitro and in vivo and improve the function of administered genes

  18. In The Genes? Searching for Methuselah

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section In The Genes? Searching for Methuselah Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table ... 18 million effort to learn more about the genes, lifestyle or other factors that contribute to long, ...

  19. Mutation analysis of the preproghrelin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lesli H; Gjesing, Anette P; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the preproghrelin gene for variants and their association with obesity and type 2 diabetes.......To investigate the preproghrelin gene for variants and their association with obesity and type 2 diabetes....

  20. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  1. IGF-Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Charles T., Jr

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that genes that are differentially expressed as a result of the decreased IGF-I receptor gene expression seen in metastatic prostate cancer contribute to prostate cancer progression...

  2. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

  3. Religious coalition opposes gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1995-05-19

    The biotechnology industry is concerned about a coalition of mainstream religious leaders, working with Jeremy Rifkin of the Foundation of Economic Trends, who oppose the patenting of human and animal life forms, body parts, and genes. The coalition called a press conference on May 18 to ask the government to prohibit the current patenting practices for genetic engineering. The biotechnology industry argues that patents indicate that a company's research tool has significant value, and encourages capitalists to invest their dollars in the development of new treatments for diseases. They also argue that the 29 biotech drugs that are on the market have been developed as a result of patents on genes. Although most business leaders are united in opposing restrictions, many scientists are divided, citing both religious and scientific reasons.

  4. Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2013-06-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space.

  5. Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2013-06-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space.

  6. Gene mutations in hepatocellular adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raft, Marie B; Jørgensen, Ernö N; Vainer, Ben

    2015-01-01

    is associated with bi-allelic mutations in the TCF1 gene and morphologically has marked steatosis. β-catenin activating HCA has increased activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and is associated with possible malignant transformation. Inflammatory HCA is characterized by an oncogene-induced inflammation due...... to alterations in the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. In the diagnostic setting, sub classification of HCA is based primarily on immunohistochemical analyzes, and has had an increasing impact on choice of treatment and individual prognostic assessment....... This review offers an overview of the reported gene mutations associated with hepatocellular adenomas together with a discussion of the diagnostic and prognostic value....

  7. Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the human body. Together, they make up the blueprint for the human body and how it works. ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  8. The Caenorhabditis chemoreceptor gene families

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson Hugh M; Thomas James H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of genes encoding chemoreceptors that mediate taste, olfaction, and pheromone responses. The size and diversity of these families reflect the biology of chemoperception in specific species. Results Based on manual curation and sequence comparisons among putative G-protein-...

  9. Gene coexpression network analysis as a source of functional annotation for rice genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L Childs

    Full Text Available With the existence of large publicly available plant gene expression data sets, many groups have undertaken data analyses to construct gene coexpression networks and functionally annotate genes. Often, a large compendium of unrelated or condition-independent expression data is used to construct gene networks. Condition-dependent expression experiments consisting of well-defined conditions/treatments have also been used to create coexpression networks to help examine particular biological processes. Gene networks derived from either condition-dependent or condition-independent data can be difficult to interpret if a large number of genes and connections are present. However, algorithms exist to identify modules of highly connected and biologically relevant genes within coexpression networks. In this study, we have used publicly available rice (Oryza sativa gene expression data to create gene coexpression networks using both condition-dependent and condition-independent data and have identified gene modules within these networks using the Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis method. We compared the number of genes assigned to modules and the biological interpretability of gene coexpression modules to assess the utility of condition-dependent and condition-independent gene coexpression networks. For the purpose of providing functional annotation to rice genes, we found that gene modules identified by coexpression analysis of condition-dependent gene expression experiments to be more useful than gene modules identified by analysis of a condition-independent data set. We have incorporated our results into the MSU Rice Genome Annotation Project database as additional expression-based annotation for 13,537 genes, 2,980 of which lack a functional annotation description. These results provide two new types of functional annotation for our database. Genes in modules are now associated with groups of genes that constitute a collective functional

  10. Gene therapy: theoretical and bioethical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin R

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise. Somatic gene therapy has the potential to treat a wide range of disorders, including inherited conditions, cancers, and infectious diseases. Early progress has already been made in the treatment of a range of disorders. Ethical issues surrounding somatic gene therapy are primarily those concerned with safety. Germline gene therapy is theoretically possible but raises serious ethical concerns concerning future generations.

  11. Gene transfer to the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Strayer, David S

    2010-12-01

    There are several diseases for which gene transfer therapy to the cerebellum might be practicable. In these studies, we used recombinant Tag-deleted SV40-derived vectors (rSV40s) to study gene delivery targeting the cerebellum. These vectors transduce neurons and microglia very effectively in vitro and in vivo, and so we tested them to evaluate gene transfer to the cerebellum in vivo. Using a rSV40 vector carrying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Nef with a C-terminal FLAG epitope, we characterized the distribution, duration, and cell types transduced. Rats received test and control vectors by stereotaxic injection into the cerebellum. Transgene expression was assessed 1, 2, and 4 weeks later by immunostaining of serial brain sections. FLAG epitope-expressing cells were seen, at all times after vector administration, principally detected in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, identified as immunopositive for calbindin. Occasional microglial cells were tranduced; transgene expression was not detected in astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. No inflammatory or other reaction was detected at any time. Thus, SV40-derived vectors can deliver effective, safe, and durable transgene expression to the cerebellum.

  12. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) refers to the acquisition of foreign genes by organisms. The occurrence of HGT among bacteria in the environment is assumed to have implications in the risk assessment of genetically modified bacteria which are released into the environment. First, introduced genetic sequences from a genetically modified bacterium could be transferred to indigenous micro-organisms and alter their genome and subsequently their ecological niche. Second, the genetically modified bacterium released into the environment might capture mobile genetic elements (MGE) from indigenous micro-organisms which could extend its ecological potential. Thus, for a risk assessment it is important to understand the extent of HGT and genome plasticity of bacteria in the environment. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge on HGT between bacteria as a crucial mechanism contributing to bacterial adaptability and diversity. In view of the use of GM crops and microbes in agricultural settings, in this mini-review we focus particularly on the presence and role of MGE in soil and plant-associated bacteria and the factors affecting gene transfer.

  13. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.

  14. Gene adaptation to extreme environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlaire, P.; Rodriguez, V.; Kerner, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This work is oriented to the study of gene adaptation to extreme conditions, such as the hydrothermal system located in Copahue, Neuquen, Argentina. The organisms living there develop under two pressure selection conditions: the high temperature of thermal water and the strong impact of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Several microorganisms found in this region were isolated and different colonies resistant to UV radiation were selected, a Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain identified through 16S RNA sequence, being the most remarkable. A gene library was prepared out of this strain with UV sensitive bacteria BH200 (uvrA::Tn10). A number of clones were isolated by means of UV selection, the most outstanding being a gene carrier able to codify for the guanosine monophosphate synthetase enzyme (GMPs). The suitability of said enzyme was proved by means of additional assays performed on ght 1 bacteria (guaA26::Tn 10) which lacked the enzyme. A transcript of 1100 pb was detected through Northern Blot. The result was consistent with that obtained for the mapping of the starting transcription site. The cloned GMPs produces an increase in growth speed and a greater biomass in BH200 bacteria. (author)

  15. A constructive approach to gene expression dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J.C.; Akutsu, T.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, experiments on mRNA abundance (gene expression) have revealed that gene expression shows a stationary organization described by a scale-free distribution. Here we propose a constructive approach to gene expression dynamics which restores the scale-free exponent and describes the intermediate state dynamics. This approach requires only one assumption: Markov property

  16. Uses of antimicrobial genes from microbial genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Rotem; Rubin, Edward M.

    2013-08-20

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their expression products from various microbial genomes that were found using this method. The products of such genes can be used as antimicrobial agents or as tools for molecular biology.

  17. Problem-Solving Test: Targeted Gene Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2008-01-01

    Mutational inactivation of a specific gene is the most powerful technique to analyze the biological function of the gene. This approach has been used for a long time in viruses, bacteria, yeast, and fruit fly, but looked quite hopeless in more complex organisms. Targeted inactivation of specific genes (also known as knock-out mutation) in mice is…

  18. Mining disease genes using integrated protein-protein interaction and gene-gene co-regulation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Wang, Limei; Guo, Maozu; Zhang, Ruijie; Dai, Qiguo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Teng, Zhixia; Xuan, Ping; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    In humans, despite the rapid increase in disease-associated gene discovery, a large proportion of disease-associated genes are still unknown. Many network-based approaches have been used to prioritize disease genes. Many networks, such as the protein-protein interaction (PPI), KEGG, and gene co-expression networks, have been used. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) have been successfully applied for the determination of genes associated with several diseases. In this study, we constructed an eQTL-based gene-gene co-regulation network (GGCRN) and used it to mine for disease genes. We adopted the random walk with restart (RWR) algorithm to mine for genes associated with Alzheimer disease. Compared to the Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) PPI network alone, the integrated HPRD PPI and GGCRN networks provided faster convergence and revealed new disease-related genes. Therefore, using the RWR algorithm for integrated PPI and GGCRN is an effective method for disease-associated gene mining.

  19. Using RNA-Seq data to select refence genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for t...

  20. The duplicated genes database: identification and functional annotation of co-localised duplicated genes across genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Ouedraogo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been a surge in studies linking genome structure and gene expression, with special focus on duplicated genes. Although initially duplicated from the same sequence, duplicated genes can diverge strongly over evolution and take on different functions or regulated expression. However, information on the function and expression of duplicated genes remains sparse. Identifying groups of duplicated genes in different genomes and characterizing their expression and function would therefore be of great interest to the research community. The 'Duplicated Genes Database' (DGD was developed for this purpose. METHODOLOGY: Nine species were included in the DGD. For each species, BLAST analyses were conducted on peptide sequences corresponding to the genes mapped on a same chromosome. Groups of duplicated genes were defined based on these pairwise BLAST comparisons and the genomic location of the genes. For each group, Pearson correlations between gene expression data and semantic similarities between functional GO annotations were also computed when the relevant information was available. CONCLUSIONS: The Duplicated Gene Database provides a list of co-localised and duplicated genes for several species with the available gene co-expression level and semantic similarity value of functional annotation. Adding these data to the groups of duplicated genes provides biological information that can prove useful to gene expression analyses. The Duplicated Gene Database can be freely accessed through the DGD website at http://dgd.genouest.org.

  1. Reranking candidate gene models with cross-species comparison for improved gene prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Fernando CN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most gene finders score candidate gene models with state-based methods, typically HMMs, by combining local properties (coding potential, splice donor and acceptor patterns, etc. Competing models with similar state-based scores may be distinguishable with additional information. In particular, functional and comparative genomics datasets may help to select among competing models of comparable probability by exploiting features likely to be associated with the correct gene models, such as conserved exon/intron structure or protein sequence features. Results We have investigated the utility of a simple post-processing step for selecting among a set of alternative gene models, using global scoring rules to rerank competing models for more accurate prediction. For each gene locus, we first generate the K best candidate gene models using the gene finder Evigan, and then rerank these models using comparisons with putative orthologous genes from closely-related species. Candidate gene models with lower scores in the original gene finder may be selected if they exhibit strong similarity to probable orthologs in coding sequence, splice site location, or signal peptide occurrence. Experiments on Drosophila melanogaster demonstrate that reranking based on cross-species comparison outperforms the best gene models identified by Evigan alone, and also outperforms the comparative gene finders GeneWise and Augustus+. Conclusion Reranking gene models with cross-species comparison improves gene prediction accuracy. This straightforward method can be readily adapted to incorporate additional lines of evidence, as it requires only a ranked source of candidate gene models.

  2. [Key effect genes responding to nerve injury identified by gene ontology and computer pattern recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qian; Peng, Jin; Zhou, Xue; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2012-07-01

    In order to screen out important genes from large gene data of gene microarray after nerve injury, we combine gene ontology (GO) method and computer pattern recognition technology to find key genes responding to nerve injury, and then verify one of these screened-out genes. Data mining and gene ontology analysis of gene chip data GSE26350 was carried out through MATLAB software. Cd44 was selected from screened-out key gene molecular spectrum by comparing genes' different GO terms and positions on score map of principal component. Function interferences were employed to influence the normal binding of Cd44 and one of its ligands, chondroitin sulfate C (CSC), to observe neurite extension. Gene ontology analysis showed that the first genes on score map (marked by red *) mainly distributed in molecular transducer activity, receptor activity, protein binding et al molecular function GO terms. Cd44 is one of six effector protein genes, and attracted us with its function diversity. After adding different reagents into the medium to interfere the normal binding of CSC and Cd44, varying-degree remissions of CSC's inhibition on neurite extension were observed. CSC can inhibit neurite extension through binding Cd44 on the neuron membrane. This verifies that important genes in given physiological processes can be identified by gene ontology analysis of gene chip data.

  3. Genotyping microarray (gene chip) for the ABCR (ABCA4) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakson, K; Zernant, J; Külm, M; Hutchinson, A; Tonisson, N; Glavac, D; Ravnik-Glavac, M; Hawlina, M; Meltzer, M R; Caruso, R C; Testa, F; Maugeri, A; Hoyng, C B; Gouras, P; Simonelli, F; Lewis, R A; Lupski, J R; Cremers, F P M; Allikmets, R

    2003-11-01

    Genetic variation in the ABCR (ABCA4) gene has been associated with five distinct retinal phenotypes, including Stargardt disease/fundus flavimaculatus (STGD/FFM), cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Comparative genetic analyses of ABCR variation and diagnostics have been complicated by substantial allelic heterogeneity and by differences in screening methods. To overcome these limitations, we designed a genotyping microarray (gene chip) for ABCR that includes all approximately 400 disease-associated and other variants currently described, enabling simultaneous detection of all known ABCR variants. The ABCR genotyping microarray (the ABCR400 chip) was constructed by the arrayed primer extension (APEX) technology. Each sequence change in ABCR was included on the chip by synthesis and application of sequence-specific oligonucleotides. We validated the chip by screening 136 confirmed STGD patients and 96 healthy controls, each of whom we had analyzed previously by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technology and/or heteroduplex analysis. The microarray was >98% effective in determining the existing genetic variation and was comparable to direct sequencing in that it yielded many sequence changes undetected by SSCP. In STGD patient cohorts, the efficiency of the array to detect disease-associated alleles was between 54% and 78%, depending on the ethnic composition and degree of clinical and molecular characterization of a cohort. In addition, chip analysis suggested a high carrier frequency (up to 1:10) of ABCR variants in the general population. The ABCR genotyping microarray is a robust, cost-effective, and comprehensive screening tool for variation in one gene in which mutations are responsible for a substantial fraction of retinal disease. The ABCR chip is a prototype for the next generation of screening and diagnostic tools in ophthalmic genetics, bridging clinical and scientific research. Copyright 2003 Wiley

  4. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  5. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  6. Thermostable cellulase from a thermomonospora gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D.B.; Walker, L.P.; Zhang, S.

    1997-10-14

    The invention relates to a gene isolated from Thermomonospora fusca, wherein the gene encodes a thermostable cellulase. Disclosed is the nucleotide sequence of the T. fusca gene; and nucleic acid molecules comprising the gene, or a fragment of the gene, that can be used to recombinantly express the cellulase or a catalytically active polypeptide thereof, respectively. The isolated and purified recombinant cellulase or catalytically active polypeptide may be used to hydrolyze substrate either by itself; or in combination with other cellulases, with the resultant combination having unexpected hydrolytic activity. 3 figs.

  7. Gene doping: of mice and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H; Christenson, Robert H

    2009-04-01

    Gene doping is the newest threat to the spirit of fair play in sports. Its concept stemmed out from legitimate gene therapy trials, but anti-doping authorities fear that they now may be facing a form of doping that is virtually undetectable and extremely appealing to athletes. This paper presents studies that generated mouse models with outstanding physical performance, by manipulating genes such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), which are likely to be targeted for gene doping. The potential transition from super mice to super athletes will also be discussed, in addition to possible strategies for detection of gene doping.

  8. Synthetic promoter libraries- tuning of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karin; Mijakovic, Ivan; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2006-01-01

    knockout and strong overexpression. However, applications such as metabolic optimization and control analysis necessitate a continuous set of expression levels with only slight increments in strength to cover a specific window around the wildtype expression level of the studied gene; this requirement can......The study of gene function often requires changing the expression of a gene and evaluating the consequences. In principle, the expression of any given gene can be modulated in a quasi-continuum of discrete expression levels but the traditional approaches are usually limited to two extremes: gene...

  9. Positron emission tomography imaging of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2001-01-01

    The merging of molecular biology and nuclear medicine is developed into molecular nuclear medicine. Positron emission tomography (PET) of gene expression in molecular nuclear medicine has become an attractive area. Positron emission tomography imaging gene expression includes the antisense PET imaging and the reporter gene PET imaging. It is likely that the antisense PET imaging will lag behind the reporter gene PET imaging because of the numerous issues that have not yet to be resolved with this approach. The reporter gene PET imaging has wide application into animal experimental research and human applications of this approach will likely be reported soon

  10. GSEH: A Novel Approach to Select Prostate Cancer-Associated Genes Using Gene Expression Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjin; Choi, Sang-Min; Park, Sanghyun

    2018-01-01

    When a gene shows varying levels of expression among normal people but similar levels in disease patients or shows similar levels of expression among normal people but different levels in disease patients, we can assume that the gene is associated with the disease. By utilizing this gene expression heterogeneity, we can obtain additional information that abets discovery of disease-associated genes. In this study, we used collaborative filtering to calculate the degree of gene expression heterogeneity between classes and then scored the genes on the basis of the degree of gene expression heterogeneity to find "differentially predicted" genes. Through the proposed method, we discovered more prostate cancer-associated genes than 10 comparable methods. The genes prioritized by the proposed method are potentially significant to biological processes of a disease and can provide insight into them.

  11. Gene Conversion in Angiosperm Genomes with an Emphasis on Genes Duplicated by Polyploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Yin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperm genomes differ from those of mammals by extensive and recursive polyploidizations. The resulting gene duplication provides opportunities both for genetic innovation, and for concerted evolution. Though most genes may escape conversion by their homologs, concerted evolution of duplicated genes can last for millions of years or longer after their origin. Indeed, paralogous genes on two rice chromosomes duplicated an estimated 60–70 million years ago have experienced gene conversion in the past 400,000 years. Gene conversion preserves similarity of paralogous genes, but appears to accelerate their divergence from orthologous genes in other species. The mutagenic nature of recombination coupled with the buffering effect provided by gene redundancy, may facilitate the evolution of novel alleles that confer functional innovations while insulating biological fitness of affected plants. A mixed evolutionary model, characterized by a primary birth-and-death process and occasional homoeologous recombination and gene conversion, may best explain the evolution of multigene families.

  12. Validation of reference genes for quantifying changes in gene expression in virus-infected tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eseul; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Palukaitis, Peter

    2017-10-01

    To facilitate quantification of gene expression changes in virus-infected tobacco plants, eight housekeeping genes were evaluated for their stability of expression during infection by one of three systemically-infecting viruses (cucumber mosaic virus, potato virus X, potato virus Y) or a hypersensitive-response-inducing virus (tobacco mosaic virus; TMV) limited to the inoculated leaf. Five reference-gene validation programs were used to establish the order of the most stable genes for the systemically-infecting viruses as ribosomal protein L25 > β-Tubulin > Actin, and the least stable genes Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE) genes were EF1α > Cysteine protease > Actin, and the least stable genes were GAPDH genes, three defense responsive genes were examined to compare their relative changes in gene expression caused by each virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A review for detecting gene-gene interactions using machine learning methods in genetic epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ching Lee; Liew, Mei Jing; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Salleh, Abdul Hakim Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the greatest statistical computational challenge in genetic epidemiology is to identify and characterize the genes that interact with other genes and environment factors that bring the effect on complex multifactorial disease. These gene-gene interactions are also denoted as epitasis in which this phenomenon cannot be solved by traditional statistical method due to the high dimensionality of the data and the occurrence of multiple polymorphism. Hence, there are several machine learning methods to solve such problems by identifying such susceptibility gene which are neural networks (NNs), support vector machine (SVM), and random forests (RFs) in such common and multifactorial disease. This paper gives an overview on machine learning methods, describing the methodology of each machine learning methods and its application in detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Lastly, this paper discussed each machine learning method and presents the strengths and weaknesses of each machine learning method in detecting gene-gene interactions in complex human disease.

  14. Bioinformatics study of the mangrove actin genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wasilah, M.; Sumardi

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the bioinformatics methods to analyze eight actin genes from mangrove plants on DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank as well as predicted the structure, composition, subcellular localization, similarity, and phylogenetic. The physical and chemical properties of eight mangroves showed variation among the genes. The percentage of the secondary structure of eight mangrove actin genes followed the order of a helix > random coil > extended chain structure for BgActl, KcActl, RsActl, and A. corniculatum Act. In contrast to this observation, the remaining actin genes were random coil > extended chain structure > a helix. This study, therefore, shown the prediction of secondary structure was performed for necessary structural information. The values of chloroplast or signal peptide or mitochondrial target were too small, indicated that no chloroplast or mitochondrial transit peptide or signal peptide of secretion pathway in mangrove actin genes. These results suggested the importance of understanding the diversity and functional of properties of the different amino acids in mangrove actin genes. To clarify the relationship among the mangrove actin gene, a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Three groups of mangrove actin genes were formed, the first group contains B. gymnorrhiza BgAct and R. stylosa RsActl. The second cluster which consists of 5 actin genes the largest group, and the last branch consist of one gene, B. sexagula Act. The present study, therefore, supported the previous results that plant actin genes form distinct clusters in the tree.

  15. Two fundamentally different classes of microbial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Yuri I; Makarova, Kira S; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Koonin, Eugene V

    2016-11-07

    The evolution of bacterial and archaeal genomes is highly dynamic and involves extensive horizontal gene transfer and gene loss 1-4 . Furthermore, many microbial species appear to have open pangenomes, where each newly sequenced genome contains more than 10% ORFans, that is, genes without detectable homologues in other species 5,6 . Here, we report a quantitative analysis of microbial genome evolution by fitting the parameters of a simple, steady-state evolutionary model to the comparative genomic data on the gene content and gene order similarity between archaeal genomes. The results reveal two sharply distinct classes of microbial genes, one of which is characterized by effectively instantaneous gene replacement, and the other consists of genes with finite, distributed replacement rates. These findings imply a conservative estimate of the size of the prokaryotic genomic universe, which appears to consist of at least a billion distinct genes. Furthermore, the same distribution of constraints is shown to govern the evolution of gene complement and gene order, without the need to invoke long-range conservation or the selfish operon concept 7 .

  16. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wilson, Torrence M. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wiseman, Gregory A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Federspiel, Mark J. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Morris, John C., E-mail: davis.brian@mayo.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-11-19

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  17. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Wiseman, Gregory A.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Morris, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  18. Gene Duplicability of Core Genes Is Highly Consistent across All Angiosperms[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Van de Peer, Yves; De Smet, Riet

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for adding to genomic novelty. Hence, which genes undergo duplication and are preserved following duplication is an important question. It has been observed that gene duplicability, or the ability of genes to be retained following duplication, is a nonrandom process, with certain genes being more amenable to survive duplication events than others. Primarily, gene essentiality and the type of duplication (small-scale versus large-scale) have been shown in different species to influence the (long-term) survival of novel genes. However, an overarching view of “gene duplicability” is lacking, mainly due to the fact that previous studies usually focused on individual species and did not account for the influence of genomic context and the time of duplication. Here, we present a large-scale study in which we investigated duplicate retention for 9178 gene families shared between 37 flowering plant species, referred to as angiosperm core gene families. For most gene families, we observe a strikingly consistent pattern of gene duplicability across species, with gene families being either primarily single-copy or multicopy in all species. An intermediate class contains gene families that are often retained in duplicate for periods extending to tens of millions of years after whole-genome duplication, but ultimately appear to be largely restored to singleton status, suggesting that these genes may be dosage balance sensitive. The distinction between single-copy and multicopy gene families is reflected in their functional annotation, with single-copy genes being mainly involved in the maintenance of genome stability and organelle function and multicopy genes in signaling, transport, and metabolism. The intermediate class was overrepresented in regulatory genes, further suggesting that these represent putative dosage-balance-sensitive genes. PMID:26744215

  19. Gene Duplicability of Core Genes Is Highly Consistent across All Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Defoort, Jonas; Tasdighian, Setareh; Maere, Steven; Van de Peer, Yves; De Smet, Riet

    2016-02-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for adding to genomic novelty. Hence, which genes undergo duplication and are preserved following duplication is an important question. It has been observed that gene duplicability, or the ability of genes to be retained following duplication, is a nonrandom process, with certain genes being more amenable to survive duplication events than others. Primarily, gene essentiality and the type of duplication (small-scale versus large-scale) have been shown in different species to influence the (long-term) survival of novel genes. However, an overarching view of "gene duplicability" is lacking, mainly due to the fact that previous studies usually focused on individual species and did not account for the influence of genomic context and the time of duplication. Here, we present a large-scale study in which we investigated duplicate retention for 9178 gene families shared between 37 flowering plant species, referred to as angiosperm core gene families. For most gene families, we observe a strikingly consistent pattern of gene duplicability across species, with gene families being either primarily single-copy or multicopy in all species. An intermediate class contains gene families that are often retained in duplicate for periods extending to tens of millions of years after whole-genome duplication, but ultimately appear to be largely restored to singleton status, suggesting that these genes may be dosage balance sensitive. The distinction between single-copy and multicopy gene families is reflected in their functional annotation, with single-copy genes being mainly involved in the maintenance of genome stability and organelle function and multicopy genes in signaling, transport, and metabolism. The intermediate class was overrepresented in regulatory genes, further suggesting that these represent putative dosage-balance-sensitive genes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Apolipoprotein gene involved in lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Edward; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2007-07-03

    Methods and materials for studying the effects of a newly identified human gene, APOAV, and the corresponding mouse gene apoAV. The sequences of the genes are given, and transgenic animals which either contain the gene or have the endogenous gene knocked out are described. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene are described and characterized. It is demonstrated that certain SNPs are associated with diseases involving lipids and triglycerides and other metabolic diseases. These SNPs may be used alone or with SNPs from other genes to study individual risk factors. Methods for intervention in lipid diseases, including the screening of drugs to treat lipid-related or diabetic diseases are also disclosed.

  1. MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase, the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor, and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene. However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies.

  2. [Current status of gene test market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Shinichi

    2002-12-01

    The technological innovation of the gene analysis makes the adaptation range of the gene test in clinical diagnosis expand. Then, gene test has popularized increasingly around the infection disease for clinical inspection. Also in the field of clinical inspection, the increase of the importance of clinical application and the inspection item new year by year have appeared with the functional analysis of a gene. Moreover, the new test method and automation analysis equipment tend to be developed by progress of gene-analysis technology, and it is going to be introduced. The spread of gene test and development of a gene test market have an important possibility of activating the present clinical inspection field.

  3. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José

    2012-01-01

    weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong...... interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index...... on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently...

  4. Deriving Trading Rules Using Gene Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian VISOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how buy and sell trading rules are generated using gene expression programming with special setup. Market concepts are presented and market analysis is discussed with emphasis on technical analysis and quantitative methods. The use of genetic algorithms in deriving trading rules is presented. Gene expression programming is applied in a form where multiple types of operators and operands are used. This gives birth to multiple gene contexts and references between genes in order to keep the linear structure of the gene expression programming chromosome. The setup of multiple gene contexts is presented. The case study shows how to use the proposed gene setup to derive trading rules encoded by Boolean expressions, using a dataset with the reference exchange rates between the Euro and the Romanian leu. The conclusions highlight the positive results obtained in deriving useful trading rules.

  5. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Nourmohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis.

  6. Gene flow from transgenic common beans expressing the bar gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Josias C; Carneiro, Geraldo E S; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2010-01-01

    Gene flow is a common phenomenon even in self-pollinated plant species. With the advent of genetically modified plants this subject has become of the utmost importance due to the need for controlling the spread of transgenes. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and intensity of outcrossing in transgenic common beans. In order to evaluate the outcross rates, four experiments were conducted in Santo Antonio de Goiás (GO, Brazil) and one in Londrina (PR, Brazil), using transgenic cultivars resistant to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium and their conventional counterparts as recipients of the transgene. Experiments with cv. Olathe Pinto and the transgenic line Olathe M1/4 were conducted in a completely randomized design with ten replications for three years in one location, whereas the experiments with cv. Pérola and the transgenic line Pérola M1/4 were conducted at two locations for one year, with the transgenic cultivar surrounded on all sides by the conventional counterpart. The outcross occurred at a negligible rate of 0.00741% in cv. Pérola, while none was observed (0.0%) in cv. Olathe Pinto. The frequency of gene flow was cultivar dependent and most of the observed outcross was within 2.5 m from the edge of the pollen source. Index terms: Phaseolus vulgaris, outcross, glufosinate ammonium.

  7. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  8. Evolutionary signatures amongst disease genes permit novel methods for gene prioritization and construction of informative gene-based networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Priedigkeit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genes involved in the same function tend to have similar evolutionary histories, in that their rates of evolution covary over time. This coevolutionary signature, termed Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC, is calculated using only gene sequences from a set of closely related species and has demonstrated potential as a computational tool for inferring functional relationships between genes. To further define applications of ERC, we first established that roughly 55% of genetic diseases posses an ERC signature between their contributing genes. At a false discovery rate of 5% we report 40 such diseases including cancers, developmental disorders and mitochondrial diseases. Given these coevolutionary signatures between disease genes, we then assessed ERC's ability to prioritize known disease genes out of a list of unrelated candidates. We found that in the presence of an ERC signature, the true disease gene is effectively prioritized to the top 6% of candidates on average. We then apply this strategy to a melanoma-associated region on chromosome 1 and identify MCL1 as a potential causative gene. Furthermore, to gain global insight into disease mechanisms, we used ERC to predict molecular connections between 310 nominally distinct diseases. The resulting "disease map" network associates several diseases with related pathogenic mechanisms and unveils many novel relationships between clinically distinct diseases, such as between Hirschsprung's disease and melanoma. Taken together, these results demonstrate the utility of molecular evolution as a gene discovery platform and show that evolutionary signatures can be used to build informative gene-based networks.

  9. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  10. Plant domestication and gene banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrino, P.

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the dawn of agriculture, plant domestication was very slow. As agriculture progressed, however, domestication began to evolve faster and reached its highest point with the advent of plant breeders who played a very important role in solving the world food problem. One of the fastest moving strategies was a better exploitation of genetic diversity, both natural and induced. However, intensive plant breeding activity caused a heavy fall in genetic variability. Gene banks then provided a further tool for modern agriculture, specifically to preserve genetic resources and to help breeders to further domesticate important crops and to introduce and domesticate new species. (author). 3 refs

  11. QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-23

    Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

  12. Establishing gene models from the Pinus pinaster genome using gene capture and BAC sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Zonjic, Pedro; Cañas, Rafael A; Bautista, Rocío; Gómez-Maldonado, Josefa; Arrillaga, Isabel; Fernández-Pozo, Noé; Claros, M Gonzalo; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2016-02-27

    In the era of DNA throughput sequencing, assembling and understanding gymnosperm mega-genomes remains a challenge. Although drafts of three conifer genomes have recently been published, this number is too low to understand the full complexity of conifer genomes. Using techniques focused on specific genes, gene models can be established that can aid in the assembly of gene-rich regions, and this information can be used to compare genomes and understand functional evolution. In this study, gene capture technology combined with BAC isolation and sequencing was used as an experimental approach to establish de novo gene structures without a reference genome. Probes were designed for 866 maritime pine transcripts to sequence genes captured from genomic DNA. The gene models were constructed using GeneAssembler, a new bioinformatic pipeline, which reconstructed over 82% of the gene structures, and a high proportion (85%) of the captured gene models contained sequences from the promoter regulatory region. In a parallel experiment, the P. pinaster BAC library was screened to isolate clones containing genes whose cDNA sequence were already available. BAC clones containing the asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase gene sequences were isolated and used in this study. The gene models derived from the gene capture approach were compared with the genomic sequences derived from the BAC clones. This combined approach is a particularly efficient way to capture the genomic structures of gene families with a small number of members. The experimental approach used in this study is a valuable combined technique to study genomic gene structures in species for which a reference genome is unavailable. It can be used to establish exon/intron boundaries in unknown gene structures, to reconstruct incomplete genes and to obtain promoter sequences that can be used for transcriptional studies. A bioinformatics algorithm (GeneAssembler) is also provided as a

  13. Identification of Human HK Genes and Gene Expression Regulation Study in Cancer from Transcriptomics Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer. PMID:23382867

  14. The iojap gene in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martienssen, Robert

    2001-12-01

    The classical maize mutant iojap (Iodent japonica) has variegated green and white leaves. Green sectors have cells with normal chloroplasts whereas white sectors have cells where plastids fail to differentiate. These mutant plastids, when transmitted through the female gametophyte, do not recover in the presence of wild type Iojap. We cloned the Ij locus, and we have investigated the mechanism of epigenetic inheritance and phenotypic expression. More recently, a modifier of this type of variegation, ''Inhibitor of striate'', has also been cloned. Both the iojap and inhibitor of striate proteins have homologs in bacteria and are members of ancient conserved families found in multiple species. These tools can be used to address fundamental questions of inheritance and variegation associated with this classical conundrum of maize genetics. Since the work of Rhoades there has been considerable speculation concerning the nature of the Iojap gene product, the origin of leaf variegation and the mechanism behind the material inheritance of defective plastids. This has made Iojap a textbook paradigm for cytoplasmic inheritance and nuclear-organellar interaction for almost 50 years. Cloning of the Iojap gene in maize, and homologs in other plants and bacteria, provides a new means to address the origin of heteroplastidity, variegation and cytoplasmic inheritance in higher plants.

  15. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  16. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Grognet

    Full Text Available Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs, complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  17. Obesity genes and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V

    2010-10-01

    The exploding prevalence of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) linked to obesity has become an alarming public health concern. Worldwide, approximately 171 million people suffer from obesity-induced diabetes and public health authorities expect this situation to deteriorate rapidly. An interesting clinical population of 'metabolically healthy but obese' (MHO) cases is relatively protected from T2D and its associated cardiovascular risk. The molecular basis for this protection is not well understood but is likely to involve reduced inflammatory responses. The inflammatory cells and pathways that respond to overnutrition are the primary subject matter for this review. The chance discovery of a genetic mutation in the Brd2 gene, which is located in the class II major histocompatibility complex and makes mice enormously fat but protects them from diabetes, offers revolutionary new insights into the cellular mechanisms that link obesity to insulin resistance and T2D. These Brd2-hypomorphic mice have reduced inflammation in fat that is normally associated with insulin resistance, and resemble MHO patients, suggesting novel therapeutic pathways for obese patients at risk for T2D. Deeper understanding of the functional links between genes that control inflammatory responses to diet-induced obesity is crucial to the development of therapies for obese, insulin-resistant patients.

  18. Republished review: Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-07-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  19. Detection of EPO gene doping in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Elmo W I; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Moser, Dirk A; Simon, Perikles

    2012-11-01

    Gene doping--or the abuse of gene therapy--will continue to threaten the sports world. History has shown that progress in medical research is likely to be abused in order to enhance human performance. In this review, we critically discuss the progress and the risks associated with the field of erythropoietin (EPO) gene therapy and its applicability to EPO gene doping. We present typical vector systems that are employed in ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy trials. Due to associated risks, gene doping is not a feasible alternative to conventional EPO or blood doping at this time. Nevertheless, it is well described that about half of the elite athlete population is in principle willing to risk its health to gain a competitive advantage. This includes the use of technologies that lack safety approval. Sophisticated detection approaches are a prerequisite for prevention of unapproved and uncontrolled use of gene therapy technology. In this review, we present current detection approaches for EPO gene doping, with a focus on blood-based direct and indirect approaches. Gene doping is detectable in principle, and recent DNA-based detection strategies enable long-term detection of transgenic DNA (tDNA) following in vivo gene transfer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Targeting Herpetic Keratitis by Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mostafa Elbadawy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular gene therapy is rapidly becoming a reality. By November 2012, approximately 28 clinical trials were approved to assess novel gene therapy agents. Viral infections such as herpetic keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 can cause serious complications that may lead to blindness. Recurrence of the disease is likely and cornea transplantation, therefore, might not be the ideal therapeutic solution. This paper will focus on the current situation of ocular gene therapy research against herpetic keratitis, including the use of viral and nonviral vectors, routes of delivery of therapeutic genes, new techniques, and key research strategies. Whereas the correction of inherited diseases was the initial goal of the field of gene therapy, here we discuss transgene expression, gene replacement, silencing, or clipping. Gene therapy of herpetic keratitis previously reported in the literature is screened emphasizing candidate gene therapy targets. Commonly adopted strategies are discussed to assess the relative advantages of the protective therapy using antiviral drugs and the common gene therapy against long-term HSV-1 ocular infections signs, inflammation and neovascularization. Successful gene therapy can provide innovative physiological and pharmaceutical solutions against herpetic keratitis.

  2. New Genes and Functional Innovation in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Villanueva-Cañas, José; Ruiz-Orera, Jorge; Agea, M Isabel; Gallo, Maria; Andreu, David; Albà, M Mar

    2017-07-01

    The birth of genes that encode new protein sequences is a major source of evolutionary innovation. However, we still understand relatively little about how these genes come into being and which functions they are selected for. To address these questions, we have obtained a large collection of mammalian-specific gene families that lack homologues in other eukaryotic groups. We have combined gene annotations and de novo transcript assemblies from 30 different mammalian species, obtaining ∼6,000 gene families. In general, the proteins in mammalian-specific gene families tend to be short and depleted in aromatic and negatively charged residues. Proteins which arose early in mammalian evolution include milk and skin polypeptides, immune response components, and proteins involved in reproduction. In contrast, the functions of proteins which have a more recent origin remain largely unknown, despite the fact that these proteins also have extensive proteomics support. We identify several previously described cases of genes originated de novo from noncoding genomic regions, supporting the idea that this mechanism frequently underlies the evolution of new protein-coding genes in mammals. Finally, we show that most young mammalian genes are preferentially expressed in testis, suggesting that sexual selection plays an important role in the emergence of new functional genes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. Selection of Phototransduction Genes in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mark; Scheetz, Todd E; Mullins, Robert F; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2013-08-13

    We investigated the evidence of recent positive selection in the human phototransduction system at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene level. SNP genotyping data from the International HapMap Project for European, Eastern Asian, and African populations was used to discover differences in haplotype length and allele frequency between these populations. Numeric selection metrics were computed for each SNP and aggregated into gene-level metrics to measure evidence of recent positive selection. The level of recent positive selection in phototransduction genes was evaluated and compared to a set of genes shown previously to be under recent selection, and a set of highly conserved genes as positive and negative controls, respectively. Six of 20 phototransduction genes evaluated had gene-level selection metrics above the 90th percentile: RGS9, GNB1, RHO, PDE6G, GNAT1, and SLC24A1. The selection signal across these genes was found to be of similar magnitude to the positive control genes and much greater than the negative control genes. There is evidence for selective pressure in the genes involved in retinal phototransduction, and traces of this selective pressure can be demonstrated using SNP-level and gene-level metrics of allelic variation. We hypothesize that the selective pressure on these genes was related to their role in low light vision and retinal adaptation to ambient light changes. Uncovering the underlying genetics of evolutionary adaptations in phototransduction not only allows greater understanding of vision and visual diseases, but also the development of patient-specific diagnostic and intervention strategies.

  5. Mining gene expression data of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Guo

    Full Text Available Microarray produces a large amount of gene expression data, containing various biological implications. The challenge is to detect a panel of discriminative genes associated with disease. This study proposed a robust classification model for gene selection using gene expression data, and performed an analysis to identify disease-related genes using multiple sclerosis as an example.Gene expression profiles based on the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of 44 samples from 26 multiple sclerosis patients and 18 individuals with other neurological diseases (control were analyzed. Feature selection algorithms including Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination, Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve, and Boruta algorithms were jointly performed to select candidate genes associating with multiple sclerosis. Multiple classification models categorized samples into two different groups based on the identified genes. Models' performance was evaluated using cross-validation methods, and an optimal classifier for gene selection was determined.An overlapping feature set was identified consisting of 8 genes that were differentially expressed between the two phenotype groups. The genes were significantly associated with the pathways of apoptosis and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. TNFSF10 was significantly associated with multiple sclerosis. A Support Vector Machine model was established based on the featured genes and gave a practical accuracy of ∼86%. This binary classification model also outperformed the other models in terms of Sensitivity, Specificity and F1 score.The combined analytical framework integrating feature ranking algorithms and Support Vector Machine model could be used for selecting genes for other diseases.

  6. Intermediate filaments and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, P

    1995-01-01

    The biological role of intermediate filaments (IFs) of eukaryotic cells is still a matter of conjecture. On the basis of immunofluorescence and electron microscopic observations, they appear to play a cytoskeletal role in that they stabilize cellular structure and organize the distribution and interactions of intracellular organelles and components. The expression of a large number of cell type-specific and developmentally regulated subunit proteins is believed to provide multicellular organisms with different IF systems capable of differential interactions with the various substructures and components of their multiple, differentiated cells. However, the destruction of distinct IF systems by manipulation of cultured cells or by knock-out mutation of IF subunit proteins in transgenic mice exerts relatively little influence on cellular morphology and physiology and on development of mutant animals. In order to rationalize this dilemma, the cytoskeletal concept of IF function has been extended to purport that cytoplasmic (c) IFs and their subunit proteins also play fundamental roles in gene regulation. It is based on the in vitro capacity of cIF(protein)s to interact with guanine-rich, single-stranded DNA, supercoiled DNA and histones, as well as on their close structural relatedness to gene-regulatory DNA-binding and nuclear matrix proteins. Since cIF proteins do not possess classical nuclear localization signals, it is proposed that cIFs directly penetrate the double nuclear membrane, exploiting the amphiphilic, membrane-active character of their subunit proteins. Since they can establish metastable multisite contacts with nuclear matrix structures and/or chromatin areas containing highly repetitive DNA sequence elements at the nuclear periphery, they are supposed to participate in chromosome distribution and chromatin organization in interphase nuclei of differentiated cells. Owing to their different DNA-binding specificities, the various cIF systems may in this

  7. Prediction of regulatory gene pairs using dynamic time warping and gene ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Andy C; Hsu, Hui-Huang; Lu, Ming-Da; Tseng, Vincent S; Shih, Timothy K

    2014-01-01

    Selecting informative genes is the most important task for data analysis on microarray gene expression data. In this work, we aim at identifying regulatory gene pairs from microarray gene expression data. However, microarray data often contain multiple missing expression values. Missing value imputation is thus needed before further processing for regulatory gene pairs becomes possible. We develop a novel approach to first impute missing values in microarray time series data by combining k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and Gene Ontology (GO). After missing values are imputed, we then perform gene regulation prediction based on our proposed DTW-GO distance measurement of gene pairs. Experimental results show that our approach is more accurate when compared with existing missing value imputation methods on real microarray data sets. Furthermore, our approach can also discover more regulatory gene pairs that are known in the literature than other methods.

  8. [High gene conversion frequency between genes encoding 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase in 3 Saccharomyces species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Sara-Pier; Drouin, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Gene conversions are nonreciprocal sequence exchanges between genes. They are relatively common in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but few studies have investigated the evolutionary fate of gene conversions or their functional impacts. Here, we analyze the evolution and impact of gene conversions between the two genes encoding 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase in S. cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces mikatae. Our results demonstrate that the last half of these genes are subject to gene conversions among these three species. The greater similarity and the greater percentage of GC nucleotides in the converted regions, as well as the absence of long regions of adjacent common converted sites, suggest that these gene conversions are frequent and occur independently in all three species. The high frequency of these conversions probably result from the fact that they have little impact on the protein sequences encoded by these genes.

  9. Identification of nitrogen-fixing genes and gene clusters from metagenomic library of acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhimin; Guo, Xue; Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community.

  10. Identification of nitrogen-fixing genes and gene clusters from metagenomic library of acid mine drainage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Dai

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community.

  11. Identification of Nitrogen-Fixing Genes and Gene Clusters from Metagenomic Library of Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community. PMID:24498417

  12. Gene expression studies of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR: an overview in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Rodriguez, Alicia; Tahir, Urfa Bin; Jin, Fengliang

    2018-02-01

    Whenever gene expression is being examined, it is essential that a normalization process is carried out to eliminate non-biological variations. The use of reference genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, actin, and ribosomal protein genes, is the usual method of choice for normalizing gene expression. Although reference genes are used to normalize target gene expression, a major problem is that the stability of these genes differs among tissues, developmental stages, species, and responses to abiotic factors. Therefore, the use and validation of multiple reference genes are required. This review discusses the reasons that why RT-qPCR has become the preferred method for validating results of gene expression profiles, the use of specific and non-specific dyes and the importance of use of primers and probes for qPCR as well as to discuss several statistical algorithms developed to help the validation of potential reference genes. The conflicts arising in the use of classical reference genes in gene normalization and their replacement with novel references are also discussed by citing the high stability and low stability of classical and novel reference genes under various biotic and abiotic experimental conditions by employing various methods applied for the reference genes amplification.

  13. Evaluating the consistency of gene sets used in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintle Nathan L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical analyses of whole genome expression data require functional information about genes in order to yield meaningful biological conclusions. The Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG are common sources of functionally grouped gene sets. For bacteria, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide alternative, complementary sources of gene sets. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the data obtained from these resources has been performed. Results We define a series of gene set consistency metrics directly related to the most common classes of statistical analyses for gene expression data, and then perform a comprehensive analysis of 3581 Affymetrix® gene expression arrays across 17 diverse bacteria. We find that gene sets obtained from GO and KEGG demonstrate lower consistency than those obtained from the SEED and MicrobesOnline, regardless of gene set size. Conclusions Despite the widespread use of GO and KEGG gene sets in bacterial gene expression data analysis, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide more consistent sets for a wide variety of statistical analyses. Increased use of the SEED and MicrobesOnline gene sets in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data may improve statistical power and utility of expression data.

  14. AffyMiner: mining differentially expressed genes and biological knowledge in GeneChip microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yuannan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays are a powerful tool for monitoring the expression of tens of thousands of genes simultaneously. With the advance of microarray technology, the challenge issue becomes how to analyze a large amount of microarray data and make biological sense of them. Affymetrix GeneChips are widely used microarrays, where a variety of statistical algorithms have been explored and used for detecting significant genes in the experiment. These methods rely solely on the quantitative data, i.e., signal intensity; however, qualitative data are also important parameters in detecting differentially expressed genes. Results AffyMiner is a tool developed for detecting differentially expressed genes in Affymetrix GeneChip microarray data and for associating gene annotation and gene ontology information with the genes detected. AffyMiner consists of the functional modules, GeneFinder for detecting significant genes in a treatment versus control experiment and GOTree for mapping genes of interest onto the Gene Ontology (GO space; and interfaces to run Cluster, a program for clustering analysis, and GenMAPP, a program for pathway analysis. AffyMiner has been used for analyzing the GeneChip data and the results were presented in several publications. Conclusion AffyMiner fills an important gap in finding differentially expressed genes in Affymetrix GeneChip microarray data. AffyMiner effectively deals with multiple replicates in the experiment and takes into account both quantitative and qualitative data in identifying significant genes. AffyMiner reduces the time and effort needed to compare data from multiple arrays and to interpret the possible biological implications associated with significant changes in a gene's expression.

  15. Horizontal acquisition of multiple mitochondrial genes from a parasitic plant followed by gene conversion with host mitochondrial genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is relatively common in plant mitochondrial genomes but the mechanisms, extent and consequences of transfer remain largely unknown. Previous results indicate that parasitic plants are often involved as either transfer donors or recipients, suggesting that direct contact between parasite and host facilitates genetic transfer among plants. Results In order to uncover the mechanistic details of plant-to-plant HGT, the extent and evolutionary fate of transfer was investigated between two groups: the parasitic genus Cuscuta and a small clade of Plantago species. A broad polymerase chain reaction (PCR) survey of mitochondrial genes revealed that at least three genes (atp1, atp6 and matR) were recently transferred from Cuscuta to Plantago. Quantitative PCR assays show that these three genes have a mitochondrial location in the one species line of Plantago examined. Patterns of sequence evolution suggest that these foreign genes degraded into pseudogenes shortly after transfer and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses demonstrate that none are detectably transcribed. Three cases of gene conversion were detected between native and foreign copies of the atp1 gene. The identical phylogenetic distribution of the three foreign genes within Plantago and the retention of cytidines at ancestral positions of RNA editing indicate that these genes were probably acquired via a single, DNA-mediated transfer event. However, samplings of multiple individuals from two of the three species in the recipient Plantago clade revealed complex and perplexing phylogenetic discrepancies and patterns of sequence divergence for all three of the foreign genes. Conclusions This study reports the best evidence to date that multiple mitochondrial genes can be transferred via a single HGT event and that transfer occurred via a strictly DNA-level intermediate. The discovery of gene conversion between co-resident foreign and native mitochondrial copies suggests

  16. Horizontal acquisition of multiple mitochondrial genes from a parasitic plant followed by gene conversion with host mitochondrial genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Weilong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is relatively common in plant mitochondrial genomes but the mechanisms, extent and consequences of transfer remain largely unknown. Previous results indicate that parasitic plants are often involved as either transfer donors or recipients, suggesting that direct contact between parasite and host facilitates genetic transfer among plants. Results In order to uncover the mechanistic details of plant-to-plant HGT, the extent and evolutionary fate of transfer was investigated between two groups: the parasitic genus Cuscuta and a small clade of Plantago species. A broad polymerase chain reaction (PCR survey of mitochondrial genes revealed that at least three genes (atp1, atp6 and matR were recently transferred from Cuscuta to Plantago. Quantitative PCR assays show that these three genes have a mitochondrial location in the one species line of Plantago examined. Patterns of sequence evolution suggest that these foreign genes degraded into pseudogenes shortly after transfer and reverse transcription (RT-PCR analyses demonstrate that none are detectably transcribed. Three cases of gene conversion were detected between native and foreign copies of the atp1 gene. The identical phylogenetic distribution of the three foreign genes within Plantago and the retention of cytidines at ancestral positions of RNA editing indicate that these genes were probably acquired via a single, DNA-mediated transfer event. However, samplings of multiple individuals from two of the three species in the recipient Plantago clade revealed complex and perplexing phylogenetic discrepancies and patterns of sequence divergence for all three of the foreign genes. Conclusions This study reports the best evidence to date that multiple mitochondrial genes can be transferred via a single HGT event and that transfer occurred via a strictly DNA-level intermediate. The discovery of gene conversion between co-resident foreign and native

  17. The evolution of heart gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasala, Nalinda B.; Shin, Jin-Hong; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy holds promise for treating numerous heart diseases. A key premise for the success of cardiac gene therapy is the development of powerful gene transfer vehicles that can achieve highly efficient and persistent gene transfer specifically in the heart. Other features of an ideal vector include negligible toxicity, minimal immunogenicity and easy manufacturing. Rapid progress in the fields of molecular biology and virology has offered great opportunities to engineer various genetic materials for heart gene delivery. Several nonviral vectors (e.g. naked plasmids, plasmid lipid/polymer complexes and oligonucleotides) have been tested. Commonly used viral vectors include lentivirus, adenovirus and adeno-associated virus. Among these, adeno-associated virus has shown many attractive features for pre-clinical experimentation in animal models of heart diseases. We review the history and evolution of these vectors for heart gene transfer. PMID:21837689

  18. Expression Study of Banana Pathogenic Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny M. Dwivany

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the world's most important trade commodities. However, infection of banana pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum race 4 is one of the major causes of decreasing production in Indonesia. Genetic engineering has become an alternative way to control this problem by isolating genes that involved in plant defense mechanism against pathogens. Two of the important genes are API5 and ChiI1, each gene encodes apoptosis inhibitory protein and chitinase enzymes. The purpose of this study was to study the expression of API5 and ChiI1 genes as candidate pathogenic resistance genes. The amplified fragments were then cloned, sequenced, and confirmed with in silico studies. Based on sequence analysis, it is showed that partial API5 gene has putative transactivation domain and ChiI1 has 9 chitinase family GH19 protein motifs. Data obtained from this study will contribute in banana genetic improvement.

  19. Molecular targeting of gene therapy and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Kufe, D.W.; Advani, S.J.; Roizman, B.

    2001-01-01

    The full promise of gene therapy has been limited by the lack of specificity of vectors for tumor tissue as well as the lack of antitumor efficacy of transgenes encoded by gene delivery systems. In this paper we review our studies investigating two modifications of gene therapy combined with radiotherapy. The first investigations described include studies of radiation inducible gene therapy. In this paradigm, radio-inducible DNA sequences from the CarG elements of the Egr-1 promoter are cloned upstream of a cDNA encoding TNFa. The therapeutic gene (TNFa) is induced by radiation within the tumor microenvironment. In the second paradigm, genetically engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is induced by ionizing radiation to proliferate within the tumor volume. These modifications of radiotherapy and gene therapy may enhance the efficacy of both treatments

  20. Multiclass gene selection using Pareto-fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Jagath C; Mundra, Piyushkumar A

    2013-01-01

    Filter methods are often used for selection of genes in multiclass sample classification by using microarray data. Such techniques usually tend to bias toward a few classes that are easily distinguishable from other classes due to imbalances of strong features and sample sizes of different classes. It could therefore lead to selection of redundant genes while missing the relevant genes, leading to poor classification of tissue samples. In this manuscript, we propose to decompose multiclass ranking statistics into class-specific statistics and then use Pareto-front analysis for selection of genes. This alleviates the bias induced by class intrinsic characteristics of dominating classes. The use of Pareto-front analysis is demonstrated on two filter criteria commonly used for gene selection: F-score and KW-score. A significant improvement in classification performance and reduction in redundancy among top-ranked genes were achieved in experiments with both synthetic and real-benchmark data sets.

  1. Association of genetic variants in apoptosis genes FAS and FASL with radiation-induced late toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, E.M.; Krenn-Pilko, S.; Kapp, K.S.; Langsenlehner, T. [Medical University of Graz, Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Graz (Austria); Langsenlehner, U. [Division of Internal Medicine, GKK Outpatient Department, Graz (Austria); Renner, W. [Medical University of Graz, Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Graz (Austria); Gerger, A. [Medical University of Graz, Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Graz (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    Fas ligand (FASL) triggers apoptotic cell death by cross-linking with its receptor FAS, and after irradiation, expression of FAS and FASL is increased. In the present study, we investigated the association between common polymorphisms in the genes for FAS and FASL and the risk of late side effects after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The role of FAS (- 1377G > A, rs2234767 and - 670A > G, rs1800682) and FASL (- 844C > T, rs763110) gene polymorphisms in the development of high-grade late rectal and/or urinary toxicity (defined as late toxicity EORTC/RTOG grade ≥ 2) was analyzed in 607 prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. DNA was isolated and the selected polymorphisms were determined by 5'-nuclease (TaqMan) assays. After a median follow-up time of 82 months, high-grade late rectal and/or urinary toxicity was observed in 175 patients (29.7 %). Univariate analysis revealed a significantly decreased risk of high-grade late toxicity in carriers of the FASL - 844T allele. After adjusting for covariates, patients harboring at least one - 844T allele (CT or TT genotype) remained at decreased risk of high-grade late toxicity compared with patients harboring the CC genotype [hazard ratio (HR) 0.585, 95 %CI 0.39-0.878; p = 0.010]. For patients with the - 844TT genotype, the HR was 0.404 (95 %CI 0.171-0.956; p = 0.039) in multivariate analysis. No significant associations were found for the remaining polymorphisms analyzed. These results provide the first evidence that the presence of the FASL - 844T variant allele may have a protective effect against the development of high-grade late rectal and/or urinary side effects after prostate cancer radiotherapy. (orig.) [German] Fas-Ligand (FASL) triggert durch Bindung an seinen Rezeptor FAS den apoptotischen Zelltod, desweiteren konnte nach Bestrahlung eine Ueberexpression von FAS und FASL beobachtet werden. Ziel der vorliegenden prospektiven Studie war die Untersuchung der Zusammenhaenge von

  2. Deconstructing the pluripotency gene regulatory network

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mo

    2018-04-04

    Pluripotent stem cells can be isolated from embryos or derived by reprogramming. Pluripotency is stabilized by an interconnected network of pluripotency genes that cooperatively regulate gene expression. Here we describe the molecular principles of pluripotency gene function and highlight post-transcriptional controls, particularly those induced by RNA-binding proteins and alternative splicing, as an important regulatory layer of pluripotency. We also discuss heterogeneity in pluripotency regulation, alternative pluripotency states and future directions of pluripotent stem cell research.

  3. Prioritizing genes associated with prostate cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlov, Ivan P; Logothetis, Christopher J; Sircar, Kanishka; Zhao, Hongya; Maity, Sankar N; Navone, Nora M; Gorlova, Olga Y; Troncoso, Patricia; Pettaway, Curtis A; Byun, Jin Young

    2010-01-01

    The genetic control of prostate cancer development is poorly understood. Large numbers of gene-expression datasets on different aspects of prostate tumorigenesis are available. We used these data to identify and prioritize candidate genes associated with the development of prostate cancer and bone metastases. Our working hypothesis was that combining meta-analyses on different but overlapping steps of prostate tumorigenesis will improve identification of genes associated with prostate cancer development. A Z score-based meta-analysis of gene-expression data was used to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development. To put together different datasets, we conducted a meta-analysis on 3 levels that follow the natural history of prostate cancer development. For experimental verification of candidates, we used in silico validation as well as in-house gene-expression data. Genes with experimental evidence of an association with prostate cancer development were overrepresented among our top candidates. The meta-analysis also identified a considerable number of novel candidate genes with no published evidence of a role in prostate cancer development. Functional annotation identified cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, and cell motility as the top functions associated with prostate cancer development. We identified 10 genes--CDC2, CCNA2, IGF1, EGR1, SRF, CTGF, CCL2, CAV1, SMAD4, and AURKA--that form hubs of the interaction network and therefore are likely to be primary drivers of prostate cancer development. By using this large 3-level meta-analysis of the gene-expression data to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development, we have generated a list of candidate genes that may be a useful resource for researchers studying the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer development

  4. Norrie disease and MAO genes: nearest neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z Y; Denney, R M; Breakefield, X O

    1995-01-01

    The Norrie disease and MAO genes are tandemly arranged in the p11.4-p11.3 region of the human X chromosome in the order tel-MAOA-MAOB-NDP-cent. This relationship is conserved in the mouse in the order tel-MAOB-MAOA-NDP-cent. The MAO genes appear to have arisen by tandem duplication of an ancestral MAO gene, but their positional relationship to NDP appears to be random. Distinctive X-linked syndromes have been described for mutations in the MAOA and NDP genes, and in addition, individuals have been identified with contiguous gene syndromes due to chromosomal deletions which encompass two or three of these genes. Loss of function of the NDP gene causes a syndrome of congenital blindness and progressive hearing loss, sometimes accompanied by signs of CNS dysfunction, including variable mental retardation and psychiatric symptoms. Other mutations in the NDP gene have been found to underlie another X-linked eye disease, exudative vitreo-retinopathy. An MAOA deficiency state has been described in one family to date, with features of altered amine and amine metabolite levels, low normal intelligence, apparent difficulty in impulse control and cardiovascular difficulty in affected males. A contiguous gene syndrome in which all three genes are lacking, as well as other as yet unidentified flanking genes, results in severe mental retardation, small stature, seizures and congenital blindness, as well as altered amine and amine metabolites. Issues that remain to be resolved are the function of the NDP gene product, the frequency and phenotype of the MAOA deficiency state, and the possible occurrence and phenotype of an MAOB deficiency state.

  5. Deconstructing the pluripotency gene regulatory network

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mo; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua

    2018-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells can be isolated from embryos or derived by reprogramming. Pluripotency is stabilized by an interconnected network of pluripotency genes that cooperatively regulate gene expression. Here we describe the molecular principles of pluripotency gene function and highlight post-transcriptional controls, particularly those induced by RNA-binding proteins and alternative splicing, as an important regulatory layer of pluripotency. We also discuss heterogeneity in pluripotency regulation, alternative pluripotency states and future directions of pluripotent stem cell research.

  6. Gene expression inference with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX CONTACT: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Duplicability of self-interacting human genes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pérez-Bercoff, Asa

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the evolution of protein-protein interactions because this should ultimately be informative of the patterns of evolution of new protein functions within the cell. One model proposes that the evolution of new protein-protein interactions and protein complexes proceeds through the duplication of self-interacting genes. This model is supported by data from yeast. We examined the relationship between gene duplication and self-interaction in the human genome. RESULTS: We investigated the patterns of self-interaction and duplication among 34808 interactions encoded by 8881 human genes, and show that self-interacting proteins are encoded by genes with higher duplicability than genes whose proteins lack this type of interaction. We show that this result is robust against the system used to define duplicate genes. Finally we compared the presence of self-interactions amongst proteins whose genes have duplicated either through whole-genome duplication (WGD) or small-scale duplication (SSD), and show that the former tend to have more interactions in general. After controlling for age differences between the two sets of duplicates this result can be explained by the time since the gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Genes encoding self-interacting proteins tend to have higher duplicability than proteins lacking self-interactions. Moreover these duplicate genes have more often arisen through whole-genome rather than small-scale duplication. Finally, self-interacting WGD genes tend to have more interaction partners in general in the PIN, which can be explained by their overall greater age. This work adds to our growing knowledge of the importance of contextual factors in gene duplicability.

  8. Role of PET in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the well-established use of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical oncology, novel roles for PET are rapidly emerging in the field of gene therapy. Methods for controlled gene delivery to living bodies, made available through advances in molecular biology, are currently being employed in animals for reasearch purposes and in humans to treat diseases such as cancer. Although gene therapy is still in its early developmental stage, it is perceived that many serious illnesses could be treated successfully by the use of therapeutic gene delivery. A major challenge for the widespread use of human gene therapy is to achieve a controlled and effective delivery of foreign genes to target cells and subsequently, adequate levels of expression. As such, the availability of noninvasive imaging methods to accurately assess the location, duration, and level of transgene expression is critical for optimizing gene therapy strategies. Current endeavors to achieve this goal include methods that utilize magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and nuclear imaging techniques. As for PET, reporter systems that utilize gene encoding enzymes that accumulate postion labeled substrates and those transcribing surface receptors that bind specific positron labeled ligands have been successfully developed. More recent advances in this area include improved reporter gene constructs and radiotracers, introduction of potential strategies to monitor endogenous gene expression, and human pilot studies evaluating the distribution and safety of reporter PET tracers. The remarkably rapid progress occuring in gene imaging technology indicates its importance and wide range of application. As such, gene imaging is likely to become a major and exciting new area for future application of PET technology

  9. Studies of Neurofibromatosis-1 Modifier Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    characterize patients of the FANCD1 complementation group (Howlett et al., 2002), and FANCA , which is the most frequently mutated FA gene , maps to a 650 kb...associations, we genotyped a total of 16 SNPs in FANCA and three immediately adjacent genes and collaborated with statistical geneticist Dr. Mark Daly at MIT to...across 15 SNPs in FANCA and the adjacent FLJ12547, CDKIO, and SPG7 genes . Red/pink coloration indicates statistical significance (LOD=3). The number in

  10. The evolution of gene expression in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Tashakkori Ghanbarian, Avazeh

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of a gene’s expression profile is commonly assumed to be independent of its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between expression of neighboring genes in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes, genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their e...

  11. Evolution of trappin genes in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furutani Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trappin is a multifunctional host-defense peptide that has antiproteolytic, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The numbers and compositions of trappin paralogs vary among mammalian species: human and sheep have a single trappin-2 gene; mouse and rat have no trappin gene; pig and cow have multiple trappin genes; and guinea pig has a trappin gene and two other derivativegenes. Independent duplications of trappin genes in pig and cow were observed recently after the species were separated. To determine whether these trappin gene duplications are restricted only to certain mammalian lineages, we analyzed recently-developed genome databases for the presence of duplicate trappin genes. Results The database analyses revealed that: 1 duplicated trappin multigenes were found recently in the nine-banded armadillo; 2 duplicated two trappin genes had been found in the Afrotherian species (elephant, tenrec, and hyrax since ancient days; 3 a single trappin-2 gene was found in various eutherians species; and 4 no typical trappin gene has been found in chicken, zebra finch, and opossum. Bayesian analysis estimated the date of the duplication of trappin genes in the Afrotheria, guinea pig, armadillo, cow, and pig to be 244, 35, 11, 13, and 3 million-years ago, respectively. The coding regions of trappin multigenes of almadillo, bovine, and pig evolved much faster than the noncoding exons, introns, and the flanking regions, showing that these genes have undergone accelerated evolution, and positive Darwinian selection was observed in pig-specific trappin paralogs. Conclusion These results suggest that trappin is an eutherian-specific molecule and eutherian genomes have the potential to form trappin multigenes.

  12. Posttranscriptional Regulation of the Neurofibromatosis 2 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    signaling and division were downregulated, including an apoptosis - related, putative tumor suppressor gene, LUCA-15, which was downregulated in seven of... embryologically from the outgrowth of the developing brain (Martinez-Morales et al., 2004). It is comprised of two major layers, the inner layer (prospective...eight genes involved with cell signaling and division were down- regulated. These include an apoptosis -related, putative tumor suppressor gene LUCA-15

  13. Role of PET in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Han [School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    In addition to the well-established use of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical oncology, novel roles for PET are rapidly emerging in the field of gene therapy. Methods for controlled gene delivery to living bodies, made available through advances in molecular biology, are currently being employed in animals for reasearch purposes and in humans to treat diseases such as cancer. Although gene therapy is still in its early developmental stage, it is perceived that many serious illnesses could be treated successfully by the use of therapeutic gene delivery. A major challenge for the widespread use of human gene therapy is to achieve a controlled and effective delivery of foreign genes to target cells and subsequently, adequate levels of expression. As such, the availability of noninvasive imaging methods to accurately assess the location, duration, and level of transgene expression is critical for optimizing gene therapy strategies. Current endeavors to achieve this goal include methods that utilize magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and nuclear imaging techniques. As for PET, reporter systems that utilize gene encoding enzymes that accumulate postion labeled substrates and those transcribing surface receptors that bind specific positron labeled ligands have been successfully developed. More recent advances in this area include improved reporter gene constructs and radiotracers, introduction of potential strategies to monitor endogenous gene expression, and human pilot studies evaluating the distribution and safety of reporter PET tracers. The remarkably rapid progress occuring in gene imaging technology indicates its importance and wide range of application. As such, gene imaging is likely to become a major and exciting new area for future application of PET technology.

  14. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy [Davis, CA; Bachkirova, Elena [Davis, CA; Rey, Michael [Davis, CA

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  15. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  16. The Pathway From Genes to Gene Therapy in Glaucoma: A Review of Possibilities for Using Genes as Glaucoma Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of diseases with gene therapy is advancing rapidly. The use of gene therapy has expanded from the original concept of re-placing the mutated gene causing the disease to the use of genes to con-trol nonphysiological levels of expression or to modify pathways known to affect the disease. Genes offer numerous advantages over conventional drugs. They have longer duration of action and are more specific. Genes can be delivered to the target site by naked DNA, cells, nonviral, and viral vectors. The enormous progress of the past decade in molecular bi-ology and delivery systems has provided ways for targeting genes to the intended cell/tissue and safe, long-term vectors. The eye is an ideal organ for gene therapy. It is easily accessible and it is an immune-privileged site. Currently, there are clinical trials for diseases affecting practically every tissue of the eye, including those to restore vision in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis. However, the number of eye trials compared with those for systemic diseases is quite low (1.8%). Nevertheless, judg-ing by the vast amount of ongoing preclinical studies, it is expected that such number will increase considerably in the near future. One area of great need for eye gene therapy is glaucoma, where a long-term gene drug would eliminate daily applications and compliance issues. Here, we review the current state of gene therapy for glaucoma and the possibilities for treating the trabecular meshwork to lower intraocular pressure and the retinal ganglion cells to protect them from neurodegeneration. Copyright© 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  17. DAVID Knowledgebase: a gene-centered database integrating heterogeneous gene annotation resources to facilitate high-throughput gene functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseler Michael W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the complex and distributed nature of biological research, our current biological knowledge is spread over many redundant annotation databases maintained by many independent groups. Analysts usually need to visit many of these bioinformatics databases in order to integrate comprehensive annotation information for their genes, which becomes one of the bottlenecks, particularly for the analytic task associated with a large gene list. Thus, a highly centralized and ready-to-use gene-annotation knowledgebase is in demand for high throughput gene functional analysis. Description The DAVID Knowledgebase is built around the DAVID Gene Concept, a single-linkage method to agglomerate tens of millions of gene/protein identifiers from a variety of public genomic resources into DAVID gene clusters. The grouping of such identifiers improves the cross-reference capability, particularly across NCBI and UniProt systems, enabling more than 40 publicly available functional annotation sources to be comprehensively integrated and centralized by the DAVID gene clusters. The simple, pair-wise, text format files which make up the DAVID Knowledgebase are freely downloadable for various data analysis uses. In addition, a well organized web interface allows users to query different types of heterogeneous annotations in a high-throughput manner. Conclusion The DAVID Knowledgebase is designed to facilitate high throughput gene functional analysis. For a given gene list, it not only provides the quick accessibility to a wide range of heterogeneous annotation data in a centralized location, but also enriches the level of biological information for an individual gene. Moreover, the entire DAVID Knowledgebase is freely downloadable or searchable at http://david.abcc.ncifcrf.gov/knowledgebase/.

  18. Genome-wide identification of key modulators of gene-gene interaction networks in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chiao; Wang, Li-Ju; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Chuang, Eric Y; Chen, Yidong

    2017-10-03

    With the advances in high-throughput gene profiling technologies, a large volume of gene interaction maps has been constructed. A higher-level layer of gene-gene interaction, namely modulate gene interaction, is composed of gene pairs of which interaction strengths are modulated by (i.e., dependent on) the expression level of a key modulator gene. Systematic investigations into the modulation by estrogen receptor (ER), the best-known modulator gene, have revealed the functional and prognostic significance in breast cancer. However, a genome-wide identification of key modulator genes that may further unveil the landscape of modulated gene interaction is still lacking. We proposed a systematic workflow to screen for key modulators based on genome-wide gene expression profiles. We designed four modularity parameters to measure the ability of a putative modulator to perturb gene interaction networks. Applying the method to a dataset of 286 breast tumors, we comprehensively characterized the modularity parameters and identified a total of 973 key modulator genes. The modularity of these modulators was verified in three independent breast cancer datasets. ESR1, the encoding gene of ER, appeared in the list, and abundant novel modulators were illuminated. For instance, a prognostic predictor of breast cancer, SFRP1, was found the second modulator. Functional annotation analysis of the 973 modulators revealed involvements in ER-related cellular processes as well as immune- and tumor-associated functions. Here we present, as far as we know, the first comprehensive analysis of key modulator genes on a genome-wide scale. The validity of filtering parameters as well as the conservativity of modulators among cohorts were corroborated. Our data bring new insights into the modulated layer of gene-gene interaction and provide candidates for further biological investigations.

  19. Novel gene sets improve set-level classification of prokaryotic gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec, Matěj; Kuželka, Ondřej; Železný, Filip

    2015-10-28

    Set-level classification of gene expression data has received significant attention recently. In this setting, high-dimensional vectors of features corresponding to genes are converted into lower-dimensional vectors of features corresponding to biologically interpretable gene sets. The dimensionality reduction brings the promise of a decreased risk of overfitting, potentially resulting in improved accuracy of the learned classifiers. However, recent empirical research has not confirmed this expectation. Here we hypothesize that the reported unfavorable classification results in the set-level framework were due to the adoption of unsuitable gene sets defined typically on the basis of the Gene ontology and the KEGG database of metabolic networks. We explore an alternative approach to defining gene sets, based on regulatory interactions, which we expect to collect genes with more correlated expression. We hypothesize that such more correlated gene sets will enable to learn more accurate classifiers. We define two families of gene sets using information on regulatory interactions, and evaluate them on phenotype-classification tasks using public prokaryotic gene expression data sets. From each of the two gene-set families, we first select the best-performing subtype. The two selected subtypes are then evaluated on independent (testing) data sets against state-of-the-art gene sets and against the conventional gene-level approach. The novel gene sets are indeed more correlated than the conventional ones, and lead to significantly more accurate classifiers. The novel gene sets are indeed more correlated than the conventional ones, and lead to significantly more accurate classifiers. Novel gene sets defined on the basis of regulatory interactions improve set-level classification of gene expression data. The experimental scripts and other material needed to reproduce the experiments are available at http://ida.felk.cvut.cz/novelgenesets.tar.gz.

  20. A new type of gene-disruption cassette with a rescue gene for Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibui, Tatsuro; Hara, Hiroyoshi

    2017-09-01

    Pichia pastoris has been used for the production of many recombinant proteins, and many useful mutant strains have been created. However, the efficiency of mutant isolation by gene-targeting is usually low and the procedure is difficult for those inexperienced in yeast genetics. In order to overcome these issues, we developed a new gene-disruption system with a rescue gene using an inducible Cre/mutant-loxP system. With only short homology regions, the gene-disruption cassette of the system replaces its target-gene locus containing a mutation with a compensatory rescue gene. As the cassette contains the AOX1 promoter-driven Cre gene, when targeted strains are grown on media containing methanol, the DNA fragment, i.e., the marker, rescue and Cre genes, between the mutant-loxP sequences in the cassette is excised, leaving only the remaining mutant-loxP sequence in the genome, and consequently a target gene-disrupted mutant can be isolated. The system was initially validated on ADE2 gene disruption, where the disruption can easily be detected by color-change of the colonies. Then, the system was applied for knocking-out URA3 and OCH1 genes, reported to be difficult to accomplish by conventional gene-targeting methods. All three gene-disruption cassettes with their rescue genes replaced their target genes, and the Cre/mutant-loxP system worked well to successfully isolate their knock-out mutants. This study identified a new gene-disruption system that could be used to effectively and strategically knock out genes of interest, especially whose deletion is detrimental to growth, without using special strains, e.g., deficient in nonhomologous end-joining, in P. pastoris. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1201-1208, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Identifying key genes in rheumatoid arthritis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhui; Lv, Qi; Teng, Songsong; Yu, Yinxian; Niu, Kerun; Yi, Chengqin

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify rheumatoid arthritis (RA) related genes based on microarray data using the WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) method. Two gene expression profile datasets GSE55235 (10 RA samples and 10 healthy controls) and GSE77298 (16 RA samples and seven healthy controls) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Characteristic genes were identified using metaDE package. WGCNA was used to find disease-related networks based on gene expression correlation coefficients, and module significance was defined as the average gene significance of all genes used to assess the correlation between the module and RA status. Genes in the disease-related gene co-expression network were subject to functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Characteristic genes were also mapped to the Connectivity Map to screen small molecules. A total of 599 characteristic genes were identified. For each dataset, characteristic genes in the green, red and turquoise modules were most closely associated with RA, with gene numbers of 54, 43 and 79, respectively. These genes were enriched in totally enriched in 17 Gene Ontology terms, mainly related to immune response (CD97, FYB, CXCL1, IKBKE, CCR1, etc.), inflammatory response (CD97, CXCL1, C3AR1, CCR1, LYZ, etc.) and homeostasis (C3AR1, CCR1, PLN, CCL19, PPT1, etc.). Two small-molecule drugs sanguinarine and papaverine were predicted to have a therapeutic effect against RA. Genes related to immune response, inflammatory response and homeostasis presumably have critical roles in RA pathogenesis. Sanguinarine and papaverine have a potential therapeutic effect against RA. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenhua; Xu, Yongdeng; Guo, Yiying; Yu, Ziqi; Feng, Guanglong; Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie

    2016-01-26

    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets.

  3. Identifying potential maternal genes of Bombyx mori using digital gene expression profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pingzhen

    2018-01-01

    Maternal genes present in mature oocytes play a crucial role in the early development of silkworm. Although maternal genes have been widely studied in many other species, there has been limited research in Bombyx mori. High-throughput next generation sequencing provides a practical method for gene discovery on a genome-wide level. Herein, a transcriptome study was used to identify maternal-related genes from silkworm eggs. Unfertilized eggs from five different stages of early development were used to detect the changing situation of gene expression. The expressed genes showed different patterns over time. Seventy-six maternal genes were annotated according to homology analysis with Drosophila melanogaster. More than half of the differentially expressed maternal genes fell into four expression patterns, while the expression patterns showed a downward trend over time. The functional annotation of these material genes was mainly related to transcription factor activity, growth factor activity, nucleic acid binding, RNA binding, ATP binding, and ion binding. Additionally, twenty-two gene clusters including maternal genes were identified from 18 scaffolds. Altogether, we plotted a profile for the maternal genes of Bombyx mori using a digital gene expression profiling method. This will provide the basis for maternal-specific signature research and improve the understanding of the early development of silkworm. PMID:29462160

  4. Effect of the absolute statistic on gene-sampling gene-set analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Dougu

    2017-06-01

    Gene-set enrichment analysis and its modified versions have commonly been used for identifying altered functions or pathways in disease from microarray data. In particular, the simple gene-sampling gene-set analysis methods have been heavily used for datasets with only a few sample replicates. The biggest problem with this approach is the highly inflated false-positive rate. In this paper, the effect of absolute gene statistic on gene-sampling gene-set analysis methods is systematically investigated. Thus far, the absolute gene statistic has merely been regarded as a supplementary method for capturing the bidirectional changes in each gene set. Here, it is shown that incorporating the absolute gene statistic in gene-sampling gene-set analysis substantially reduces the false-positive rate and improves the overall discriminatory ability. Its effect was investigated by power, false-positive rate, and receiver operating curve for a number of simulated and real datasets. The performances of gene-set analysis methods in one-tailed (genome-wide association study) and two-tailed (gene expression data) tests were also compared and discussed.

  5. A powerful score-based test statistic for detecting gene-gene co-association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Yuan, Zhongshang; Ji, Jiadong; Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Li, Hongkai; Wu, Xuesen; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun

    2016-01-29

    The genetic variants identified by Genome-wide association study (GWAS) can only account for a small proportion of the total heritability for complex disease. The existence of gene-gene joint effects which contains the main effects and their co-association is one of the possible explanations for the "missing heritability" problems. Gene-gene co-association refers to the extent to which the joint effects of two genes differ from the main effects, not only due to the traditional interaction under nearly independent condition but the correlation between genes. Generally, genes tend to work collaboratively within specific pathway or network contributing to the disease and the specific disease-associated locus will often be highly correlated (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium). Therefore, we proposed a novel score-based statistic (SBS) as a gene-based method for detecting gene-gene co-association. Various simulations illustrate that, under different sample sizes, marginal effects of causal SNPs and co-association levels, the proposed SBS has the better performance than other existed methods including single SNP-based and principle component analysis (PCA)-based logistic regression model, the statistics based on canonical correlations (CCU), kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCU), partial least squares path modeling (PLSPM) and delta-square (δ (2)) statistic. The real data analysis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) further confirmed its advantages in practice. SBS is a powerful and efficient gene-based method for detecting gene-gene co-association.

  6. Ranking candidate disease genes from gene expression and protein interaction: a Katz-centrality based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available Many diseases have complex genetic causes, where a set of alleles can affect the propensity of getting the disease. The identification of such disease genes is important to understand the mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of pathogenesis, improve diagnosis and treatment of the disease, and aid in drug discovery. Current genetic studies typically identify chromosomal regions associated specific diseases. But picking out an unknown disease gene from hundreds of candidates located on the same genomic interval is still challenging. In this study, we propose an approach to prioritize candidate genes by integrating data of gene expression level, protein-protein interaction strength and known disease genes. Our method is based only on two, simple, biologically motivated assumptions--that a gene is a good disease-gene candidate if it is differentially expressed in cases and controls, or that it is close to other disease-gene candidates in its protein interaction network. We tested our method on 40 diseases in 58 gene expression datasets of the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database. On these datasets our method is able to predict unknown disease genes as well as identifying pleiotropic genes involved in the physiological cellular processes of many diseases. Our study not only provides an effective algorithm for prioritizing candidate disease genes but is also a way to discover phenotypic interdependency, cooccurrence and shared pathophysiology between different disorders.

  7. Sexy gene conversions: locating gene conversions on the X-chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Mark J; Zhang, Liqing

    2009-08-01

    Gene conversion can have a profound impact on both the short- and long-term evolution of genes and genomes. Here, we examined the gene families that are located on the X-chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), mouse (Mus musculus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) for evidence of gene conversion. We identified seven gene families (WD repeat protein family, Ferritin Heavy Chain family, RAS-related Protein RAB-40 family, Diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase family, Transcription Elongation Factor A family, LDOC1-related family, Zinc Finger Protein ZIC, and GLI family) that show evidence of gene conversion. Through phylogenetic analyses and synteny evidence, we show that gene conversion has played an important role in the evolution of these gene families and that gene conversion has occurred independently in both primates and rodents. Comparing the results with those of two gene conversion prediction programs (GENECONV and Partimatrix), we found that both GENECONV and Partimatrix have very high false negative rates (i.e. failed to predict gene conversions), which leads to many undetected gene conversions. The combination of phylogenetic analyses with physical synteny evidence exhibits high resolution in the detection of gene conversions.

  8. Suicide and the selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    The application of an evolutionary perspective to human behaviour generates philosophical, political and scientific controversy. Modern human symbolic consciousness is not the cumulation of the long trend that natural selection would predict. The new archaeological data suggested the anatomical and behavioural innovation has been episodic and rare separated by long periods of stagnate. New behavioural mode and the new skeletal structure of modem human arose as an incidental exaptation. Additionally the genetic basis dysfunction connected with suicide behaviour and growing statistic suicide among teenager is contradictory to the theory that our behaviour are programmed in any detail by selfish genes. In this cases genetically determined suicidal behaviour should be rapidly eliminated by natural selection.

  9. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Didigu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  10. Homeobox gene expression in Brachiopoda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Martinez, Pedro; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    (ectoderm) specification with co-opted functions in notochord formation in chordates and left/right determination in ambulacrarians and vertebrates. The caudal ortholog, TtrCdx, is first expressed in the ectoderm of the gastrulating embryo in the posterior region of the blastopore. Its expression stays......The molecular control that underlies brachiopod ontogeny is largely unknown. In order to contribute to this issue we analyzed the expression pattern of two homeobox containing genes, Not and Cdx, during development of the rhynchonelliform (i.e., articulate) brachiopod Terebratalia transversa...... completion of larval development, which is marked by a three-lobed body with larval setae. Expression starts at gastrulation in two areas lateral to the blastopore and subsequently extends over the animal pole of the gastrula. With elongation of the gastrula, expression at the animal pole narrows to a small...

  11. Translating Gene Transfer: A Stalled Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Alexandra J.; McCormick, Jennifer; Tapia, Carmen J.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The journey of gene transfer from laboratory to clinic has been slow and fraught with many challenges and barriers. Despite the development of the initial technology in the early 1970s, a standard clinical treatment involving “gene therapy” remains to be seen. Furthermore, much was written about the technology in the early 1990s, but since then, not much has been written about the journey of gene transfer. The translational path of gene transfer thus far, both pitfalls and successes, can serv...

  12. Apoptosis Gene Information System--AGIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharkar, Kishore R; Clement, Marie V; Chow, Vincent T K; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2006-05-01

    Genes implicated in apoptosis have great relevance to biology, medicine and oncology. Here, we describe a unique resource, Apoptosis Gene Information System (AGIS) that provides data for over 2400 genes involved directly or indirectly, in apoptotic pathways of more than 350 different organisms. The organization of this information system is based on the principle of one-gene, one record. AGIS will be updated on a six monthly basis as new information becomes available. AGIS can be accessed at: http://www.cellfate.org/AGIS/.

  13. Polycistronic gene expression in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Tabea; Meyer, Vera

    2017-09-25

    Genome mining approaches predict dozens of biosynthetic gene clusters in each of the filamentous fungal genomes sequenced so far. However, the majority of these gene clusters still remain cryptic because they are not expressed in their natural host. Simultaneous expression of all genes belonging to a biosynthetic pathway in a heterologous host is one approach to activate biosynthetic gene clusters and to screen the metabolites produced for bioactivities. Polycistronic expression of all pathway genes under control of a single and tunable promoter would be the method of choice, as this does not only simplify cloning procedures, but also offers control on timing and strength of expression. However, polycistronic gene expression is a feature not commonly found in eukaryotic host systems, such as Aspergillus niger. In this study, we tested the suitability of the viral P2A peptide for co-expression of three genes in A. niger. Two genes descend from Fusarium oxysporum and are essential to produce the secondary metabolite enniatin (esyn1, ekivR). The third gene (luc) encodes the reporter luciferase which was included to study position effects. Expression of the polycistronic gene cassette was put under control of the Tet-On system to ensure tunable gene expression in A. niger. In total, three polycistronic expression cassettes which differed in the position of luc were constructed and targeted to the pyrG locus in A. niger. This allowed direct comparison of the luciferase activity based on the position of the luciferase gene. Doxycycline-mediated induction of the Tet-On expression cassettes resulted in the production of one long polycistronic mRNA as proven by Northern analyses, and ensured comparable production of enniatin in all three strains. Notably, gene position within the polycistronic expression cassette matters, as, luciferase activity was lowest at position one and had a comparable activity at positions two and three. The P2A peptide can be used to express at

  14. Maximizing biomarker discovery by minimizing gene signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene signatures can potentially be of considerable value in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, gene signatures defined with different methods can be quite various even when applied the same disease and the same endpoint. Previous studies have shown that the correct selection of subsets of genes from microarray data is key for the accurate classification of disease phenotypes, and a number of methods have been proposed for the purpose. However, these methods refine the subsets by only considering each single feature, and they do not confirm the association between the genes identified in each gene signature and the phenotype of the disease. We proposed an innovative new method termed Minimize Feature's Size (MFS based on multiple level similarity analyses and association between the genes and disease for breast cancer endpoints by comparing classifier models generated from the second phase of MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC-II, trying to develop effective meta-analysis strategies to transform the MAQC-II signatures into a robust and reliable set of biomarker for clinical applications. Results We analyzed the similarity of the multiple gene signatures in an endpoint and between the two endpoints of breast cancer at probe and gene levels, the results indicate that disease-related genes can be preferably selected as the components of gene signature, and that the gene signatures for the two endpoints could be interchangeable. The minimized signatures were built at probe level by using MFS for each endpoint. By applying the approach, we generated a much smaller set of gene signature with the similar predictive power compared with those gene signatures from MAQC-II. Conclusions Our results indicate that gene signatures of both large and small sizes could perform equally well in clinical applications. Besides, consistency and biological significances can be detected among different gene signatures, reflecting the

  15. A formal theory of the selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A; Welch, J J

    2011-08-01

    Adaptation is conventionally regarded as occurring at the level of the individual organism. In contrast, the theory of the selfish gene proposes that it is more correct to view adaptation as occurring at the level of the gene. This view has received much popular attention, yet has enjoyed only limited uptake in the primary research literature. Indeed, the idea of ascribing goals and strategies to genes has been highly controversial. Here, we develop a formal theory of the selfish gene, using optimization theory to capture the analogy of 'gene as fitness-maximizing agent' in mathematical terms. We provide formal justification for this view of adaptation by deriving mathematical correspondences that translate the optimization formalism into dynamical population genetics. We show that in the context of social interactions between genes, it is the gene's inclusive fitness that provides the appropriate maximand. Hence, genic selection can drive the evolution of altruistic genes. Finally, we use the formalism to assess the various criticisms that have been levelled at the theory of the selfish gene, dispelling some and strengthening others. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Cloning arbuscule-related genes from mycorrhizas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burleigh, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Until recently little was known about the identity of the genes expressed in the arbuscules of mycorrhizas, due in part to problems associated with cloning genes from the tissues of an obligate symbiont. However, the combination of advanced molecular techniques, innovative use of the materials...... available and fortuitous cloning has resulted in the recent identification of a number of arbuscule-related genes. This article provides a brief summary of the genes involved in arbuscule development, function and regulation, and the techniques used to study them. Molecular techniques include differential...

  17. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun

    2008-01-01

    -chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P ... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...... involved in conversion events. CONCLUSION: The evolution of gene families in the rice genome may have been accelerated by conversion with pseudogenes. Our analysis suggests a possible role for gene conversion in the evolution of pathogen-response genes....

  18. Differential gene expression during Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Krieger

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of epimastigotes into metacyclic trypomastigotes involves changes in the pattern of expressed genes, resulting in important morphological and functional differences between these developmental forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. In order to identify and characterize genes involved in triggering the metacyclogenesis process and in conferring to metacyclic trypomastigotes their stage specific biological properties, we have developed a method allowing the isolation of genes specifically expressed when comparing two close related cell populations (representation of differential expression or RDE. The method is based on the PCR amplification of gene sequences selected by hybridizing and subtracting the populations in such a way that after some cycles of hybridization-amplification genes specific to a given population are highly enriched. The use of this method in the analysis of differential gene expression during T. cruzi metacyclogenesis (6 hr and 24 hr of differentiation and metacyclic trypomastigotes resulted in the isolation of several clones from each time point. Northern blot analysis showed that some genes are transiently expressed (6 hr and 24 hr differentiating cells, while others are present in differentiating cells and in metacyclic trypomastigotes. Nucleotide sequencing of six clones characterized so far showed that they do not display any homology to gene sequences available in the GeneBank.

  19. GeneLab: Open Science For Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazka, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The NASA GeneLab project capitalizes on multi-omic technologies to maximize the return on spaceflight experiments. The GeneLab project houses spaceflight and spaceflight-relevant multi-omics data in a publicly accessible data commons, and collaborates with NASA-funded principal investigators to maximize the omics data from spaceflight and spaceflight-relevant experiments. I will discuss the current status of GeneLab and give specific examples of how the GeneLab data system has been used to gain insight into how biology responds to spaceflight conditions.

  20. An intronic microRNA silences genes that are functionally antagonistic to its host gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2008-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by silencing specific target mRNAs. While many miRNAs are transcribed from their own genes, nearly half map within introns of 'host' genes, the significance of which remains unclear. We report that transcriptional activation of apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase (AATK), essential for neuronal differentiation, also generates miR-338 from an AATK gene intron that silences a family of mRNAs whose protein products are negative regulators of neuronal differentiation. We conclude that an intronic miRNA, transcribed together with the host gene mRNA, may serve the interest of its host gene by silencing a cohort of genes that are functionally antagonistic to the host gene itself.