WorldWideScience

Sample records for sees transient activity

  1. INTEGRAL sees IGR J17544-2619 active again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, Erik; Brandt, Søren

    2010-01-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (see, e.g., ATels #438 and #1266) between UT 29 Aug 2010 22:54 and 30 Aug 2010 02:35 revealed X-ray flaring from the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) IGR J17544-2619. Its last activity was reported about 180 days ago, in March 2010 (ATel #2463...

  2. Seeing mathematics: perceptual experience and brain activity in acquired synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Berit; Vanni, Simo; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    We studied the patient JP who has exceptional abilities to draw complex geometrical images by hand and a form of acquired synesthesia for mathematical formulas and objects, which he perceives as geometrical figures. JP sees all smooth curvatures as discrete lines, similarly regardless of scale. We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish the perceptual nature of synesthetic experience and to investigate the neural basis of this phenomenon. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, image-inducing formulas produced larger fMRI responses than non-image inducing formulas in the left temporal, parietal and frontal lobes. Thus our main finding is that the activation associated with his experience of complex geometrical images emerging from mathematical formulas is restricted to the left hemisphere.

  3. Seeing is believing: an educational outreach activity on disinfection practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetu Isabelle

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin and soft-tissue infections are very common among persons who inject drugs. They occur when microbes pass under the protective layer of the skin and proliferate. This happens when harm reduction recommendations such as skin aseptia before injection and sterile injection equipment usage are not properly followed. Methods A group of active drug users involved in a health promotion project as peer educators were asked about their formation needs. To address their inquiries concerning skin and soft-tissue infections, we devised with them a series of workshops touching upon common infections, the microflora, and microbial transmission. Results Participants learned to identify common infections and how to properly react in case of an abscess, cellulitis or phlebitis. They saw microscopic objects, found out about the high prevalence of microbes in their environment and on their skin, and could appreciate the efficiency of different washing and disinfection techniques. They visualized how easily microbes can spread from person to person and from contaminated objects to persons. Conclusion In the weeks following this activity, some participants demonstrated and reported healthy behavioural changes regarding their own injection practices. Furthermore, they shared their newfound knowledge and began enforcing its application among people they inject drugs with. Most participants greatly appreciated this activity and valued it as being highly efficient and tangible. Note: A French version of this paper is available on the Journal's web site [see Additional file 1]. Additional File 1 Article en Français (article in French. Une version française de l'article a été préparée par les auteurs. Elle est disponible à partir du site Web du Harm Reduction Journal. Click here for file

  4. Quantification of metabolically active transient storage (MATS) in two reaches with contrasting transient storage and ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba Argerich; Roy Haggerty; Eugènia Martí; Francesc Sabater; Jay. Zarnetske

    2011-01-01

    Water transient storage zones are hotspots for metabolic activity in streams although the contribution of different types of transient storage zones to the whole�]reach metabolic activity is difficult to quantify. In this study we present a method to measure the fraction of the transient storage that is metabolically active (MATS) in two consecutive reaches...

  5. Where Young People See Science: Everyday Activities Connected to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Bell, Philip

    2014-01-01

    This project analyses the prevalence and social construction of science in the everyday activities of multicultural, multilingual children in one urban community. Using cross-setting ethnographic fieldwork (i.e. home, museum, school, community), we developed an ecologically grounded interview protocol and analytical scheme for gauging students'…

  6. The Zwicky Transient Facility: Overview and Commissioning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Project Team

    2018-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is the first of a new generation of LSST-scope sky surveys to be realized. It will employ a 47 square degree field-of-view camera mounted on the Samuel Oschin 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory to scan more than 3750 square degrees an hour to a depth of 20.5 – 21 mag. This will lead to unprecedented discovery rates for transients – a young supernova less than 24 hours after its explosion each night as well as rarer and more exotic sources. Repeated imaging of the Northern sky (including the Galactic Plane) will produce a photometric variability catalog with nearly 300 observations each year, ideal for studies of variable stars, binaries, AGN, and asteroids. ZTF represents a significant increase in scale relative to previous surveys in terms of both data volume and data complexity. It will be the first survey to produce one million alerts a night and the first to have a trillion row data archive. We will present an overview of the survey and its challenges and describe recent commissioning activities.

  7. Numerical Studies of Magnetohydrodynamic Activity Resulting from Inductive Transients. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovinec, Carl R.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results from numerical studies of transients in magnetically confined plasmas. The work has been performed by University of Wisconsin graduate students James Reynolds and Giovanni Cone and by the Principal Investigator through support from contract DE-FG02-02ER54687, a Junior Faculty in Plasma Science award from the DOE Office of Science. Results from the computations have added significantly to our knowledge of magnetized plasma relaxation in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) and spheromak. In particular, they have distinguished relaxation activity expected in sustained configurations from transient effects that can persist over a significant fraction of the plasma discharge. We have also developed the numerical capability for studying electrostatic current injection in the spherical torus (ST). These configurations are being investigated as plasma confinement schemes in the international effort to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for environmentally benign energy production. Our numerical computations have been performed with the NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) using local computing resources and massively parallel computing hardware at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. Direct comparisons of simulation results for the spheromak with laboratory measurements verify the effectiveness of our numerical approach. The comparisons have been published in refereed journal articles by this group and by collaborators at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (see Section 4). In addition to the technical products, this grant has supported the graduate education of the two participating students for three years

  8. Transient extracellular application of gold nanostars increases hippocampal neuronal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Kirstie; Kereselidze, Zurab; DeLuna, Frank; Peralta, Xomalin G; Santamaria, Fidel

    2014-08-20

    With the increased use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications there is a growing need to understand the effects that nanoparticles may have on cell function. Identifying these effects and understanding the mechanism through which nanoparticles interfere with the normal functioning of a cell is necessary for any therapeutic or diagnostic application. The aim of this study is to evaluate if gold nanoparticles can affect the normal function of neurons, namely their activity and coding properties. We synthesized star shaped gold nanoparticles of 180 nm average size. We applied the nanoparticles to acute mouse hippocampal slices while recording the action potentials from single neurons in the CA3 region. Our results show that CA3 hippocampal neurons increase their firing rate by 17% after the application of gold nanostars. The increase in excitability lasted for as much as 50 minutes after a transient 5 min application of the nanoparticles. Further analyses of the action potential shape and computational modeling suggest that nanoparticles block potassium channels responsible for the repolarization of the action potentials, thus allowing the cell to increase its firing rate. Our results show that gold nanoparticles can affect the coding properties of neurons by modifying their excitability.

  9. See your GP, see the world - An activating course concept for fostering students' competence in performing vaccine and travel consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltermann, Esther; Krane, Sibylla; Kiesewetter, Jan; Fischer, Martin R; Schelling, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Performing vaccine and travel consultations is a crucial aspect of the daily routine in general medicine. However, medical education does not provide adequately and structured training for this future task of medical students. While existing courses mainly focus on theoretical aspects, we developed a course aiming to foster practical experience in performing vaccine and travel consultations. Project report: The course was implemented in the simulation clinic at the University of Munich in the summer 2011 semester using role-plays in a simulation-based learning environment. The course represents different disciplines involved in vaccine and travel medicine. Students' learning is supported through active engagement in planning and conducting consultations of patients. The course was implemented successfully and students' acceptance was high. However, there is a need for structured teaching of theoretical basics in vaccine and travel medicine earlier in medical curriculum. The insights gained through our course are used for the development of the structured longitudinal curriculum "vaccine medicine".

  10. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  11. Separation of transient and oscillatory cerebral activities using over-complete rational dilation wavelet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaibi, S.; Lajnef, T.; Samet, M.; Kachouri, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many natural signals EEG are comprised frequency overlapping of oscillatory and transient components. In our study the intracranial EEG signals of epilepsy are composed of the superposition of oscillatory signals (HFOs: High Frequency oscillations) and a transient signals (spikes and sharp waves, etc.). The oscillatory components (HFOs) exist in the frequency band 80-500Hz. The transient components comes from nonrhythmic brain activities (spikes, sharp waves and vertex waves of varying amplitude, shape and duration) and cover a continuous wide bandwidth from low to high frequencies and resemble an HFOs events when filtered using a band pass classical filter. The classical filtering methods based on FIR filters, Wavelet transforms and the Matching Pursuit cannot separate the oscillatory from transient activities. This paper describes an approach for decomposing an iEEG signals of epilepsy into the sum of oscillatory components and a transient components based on overcomplete rational dilation wavelet transforms (overcomplete RADWT) in conjunction with morphological component analysis (MCA).

  12. KChIP2 regulates the cardiac Ca2+ transient and myocyte contractility by targeting ryanodine receptor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew M Nassal

    Full Text Available Pathologic electrical remodeling and attenuated cardiac contractility are featured characteristics of heart failure. Coinciding with these remodeling events is a loss of the K+ channel interacting protein, KChIP2. While, KChIP2 enhances the expression and stability of the Kv4 family of potassium channels, leading to a more pronounced transient outward K+ current, Ito,f, the guinea pig myocardium is unique in that Kv4 expression is absent, while KChIP2 expression is preserved, suggesting alternative consequences to KChIP2 loss. Therefore, KChIP2 was acutely silenced in isolated guinea pig myocytes, which led to significant reductions in the Ca2+ transient amplitude and prolongation of the transient duration. This change was reinforced by a decline in sarcomeric shortening. Notably, these results were unexpected when considering previous observations showing enhanced ICa,L and prolonged action potential duration following KChIP2 loss, suggesting a disruption of fundamental Ca2+ handling proteins. Evaluation of SERCA2a, phospholamban, RyR, and sodium calcium exchanger identified no change in protein expression. However, assessment of Ca2+ spark activity showed reduced spark frequency and prolonged Ca2+ decay following KChIP2 loss, suggesting an altered state of RyR activity. These changes were associated with a delocalization of the ryanodine receptor activator, presenilin, away from sarcomeric banding to more diffuse distribution, suggesting that RyR open probability are a target of KChIP2 loss mediated by a dissociation of presenilin. Typically, prolonged action potential duration and enhanced Ca2+ entry would augment cardiac contractility, but here we see KChIP2 fundamentally disrupts Ca2+ release events and compromises myocyte contraction. This novel role targeting presenilin localization and RyR activity reveals a significance for KChIP2 loss that reflects adverse remodeling observed in cardiac disease settings.

  13. Role of Active Listening and Listening Effort on Contralateral Suppression of Transient Evoked Otoacousic Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaiah, Mohan Kumar; Theruvan, Nikhitha B; Kumar, Kaushlendra; Bhat, Jayashree S

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the effect of active listening and listening effort on the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (CSTEOAEs). Subjects and Methods Twenty eight young adults participated in the study. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded using ?linear? clicks at 60 dB peSPL, in three contralateral noise conditions. In condition 1, TEOAEs were obtained in the presence of white noise in the con...

  14. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.27... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.27 Section 122.27 Protection of Environment...

  15. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.; Montoya, E.R.; Hermans, E.; Keysers, C.; Honk, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have

  16. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Hermans, Erno J; Keysers, C.; van Honk, Jack

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have

  17. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  18. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  19. Transient stress control of aeroengine disks based on active thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Shuiting; Wang, Ziyao; Li, Guo; Liu, Chuankai; Yang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The essence of cooling in turbine system is a process of thermal management. • Active thermal management is proposed to control transient stress of disks. • The correlation between thermal load and transient stress of disks is built. • Stress level can be declined by actively adjusting the thermal load distribution. • Artificial temperature gradient can be used to counteract stress from rotating. - Abstract: The physical essence of cooling in the turbine system is a process of thermal management. In order to overcome the limits of passive thermal management based on thermal protection, the concept of active thermal management based on thermal load redistribution has been proposed. On this basis, this paper focuses on a near real aeroengine disk during a transient process and studies the stress control mechanism of active thermal management in transient conditions by a semi-analytical method. Active thermal management is conducted by imposing extra heating energy on the disk hub, which is represented by the coefficient of extra heat flow η. The results show that the transient stress level can be effectively controlled by actively adjusting the thermal load distribution. The decline ratio of the peak equivalent stress of the disk hub can be 9.0% for active thermal management load condition (η = 0.2) compared with passive condition (η = 0), even at a rotation speed of 10,000 r/min. The reason may be that the temperature distribution of the disk turns into an artificial V-shape because of the extra heating energy on the hub, and the resulting thermal stresses induced by the negative temperature gradients counteract parts of the stress from rotating.

  20. Quantitative Measurement of Physical Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure and describe the amount and pattern of physical activity in patients within the first week after acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack using accelerometers. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with acute is...

  1. Differential effects of the transient outward K(+) current activator NS5806 in the canine left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Soltysinska, Ewa; Jespersen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    To examine the electrophysiological and molecular properties of the transient outward current (I(to)) in canine left ventricle using a novel I(to) activator, NS5806, I(to) was measured in isolated epicardial (Epi), midmyocardial (Mid) and endocardial (Endo) cells using whole-cell patch-clamp tech...

  2. Global thunderstorm activity estimation based on number of transients in ELF-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondraskova, Adriena; Sevcik, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Schumann resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic oscillations in extremely low frequency band (ELF, 3 Hz - 3 kHz), which arise in the Earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning activity in planetary range. The time records in the ELF-band consist of background signals and ELF transients/Q-bursts superimposed on the background exceeding it by a factor of 5 - 10. The former are produced by the common worldwide thunderstorm activity (100 - 150 events per second), the latter origin from individual intense distant lightning discharges (100 - 120 powerful strokes per hour). A Q-burst is produced by a combination of direct and antipodal pulses and the decisive factor for its shape follows from the source-to-observer distance. Diurnal/seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity can be deduced from spectral amplitudes of SR modes. Here we focus on diurnal/seasonal variations of the number of ELF-transients assuming that it is another way of lightning activity estimation. To search for transients, our own code was applied to the SR vertical electric component measured in October 2004 - October 2008 at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory of FMPI CU, Slovakia. Criteria for the identification of the burst are chosen on the basis of the transient amplitudes and their morphological features. Monthly mean daily variations in number of transients showed that African focus dominates at 14 - 16 h UT and it is more active in comparison with Asian source, which dominates at 5 - 8 h UT in dependence on winter or summer month. American source had surprisingly slight response. Meteorological observations in South America aiming to determine lightning hotspots on the Earth indicate that flash rate in this region is greatest during nocturnal 0 h - 3 h local standard time. This fact may be interpreted that Asian and South American sources contribute together in the same UT. Cumulative spectral amplitude of the first three SR modes compared with number of ELF-transients in

  3. Will we still see SEEs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calviani, M.; Brugger, M.; Losito, R.; Spiezia, G.; King, Q.; Thurel, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The actions taken during the first years of the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) Mitigation Project has allowed a drastic reduction of the rate of Single Event Errors (SEEs) on radiation-sensitive electronic equipment installed in the LHC underground areas. Shielding and relocation activities, performed during the first Long Shutdown (LS1) in 2013/2014, will allow the resolution of the present issues concerning UJs of Points 1, 5, 7 and the cavern of Point 8. The parallel development of radiation tolerant power converters will address the remaining concerns for equipment in the RRs. Similarly research works on super-conducting links will address the relocation of equipment away from RRs and further exposed UJs. Radiation levels in areas where luminosity is the source are under control. The questions yet remaining are related to the evolution of the beam-gas source term in the arc and dispersion suppressor region, and to the evolution of losses at the betatron and momentum insertion regions. 2012 operation will enable these points to be investigated; this will be used for a complete forecast of radiation levels and projected failures after operation is resumed in 2014-15. (authors)

  4. CONNECTING FLARES AND TRANSIENT MASS-LOSS EVENTS IN MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wolk, Scott J., E-mail: osten@stsci.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    We explore the ramification of associating the energetics of extreme magnetic reconnection events with transient mass-loss in a stellar analogy with solar eruptive events. We establish energy partitions relative to the total bolometric radiated flare energy for different observed components of stellar flares and show that there is rough agreement for these values with solar flares. We apply an equipartition between the bolometric radiated flare energy and kinetic energy in an accompanying mass ejection, seen in solar eruptive events and expected from reconnection. This allows an integrated flare rate in a particular waveband to be used to estimate the amount of associated transient mass-loss. This approach is supported by a good correspondence between observational flare signatures on high flaring rate stars and the Sun, which suggests a common physical origin. If the frequent and extreme flares that young solar-like stars and low-mass stars experience are accompanied by transient mass-loss in the form of coronal mass ejections, then the cumulative effect of this mass-loss could be large. We find that for young solar-like stars and active M dwarfs, the total mass lost due to transient magnetic eruptions could have significant impacts on disk evolution, and thus planet formation, and also exoplanet habitability.

  5. Limited recovery of soil microbial activity after transient exposure to gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrzyński, Jakub J.; Christensen, Jan H.; Mayer, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    During gasoline spills complex mixtures of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released to terrestrial environments. Gasoline VOCs exert baseline toxicity (narcosis) and may thus broadly affect soil biota. We assessed the functional resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery of microbial...... functions) in soil microbial communities transiently exposed to gasoline vapors by passive dosing via headspace for 40 days followed by a recovery phase of 84 days. Chemical exposure was characterized with GC-MS, whereas microbial activity was monitored as soil respiration (CO2 release) and soil bacterial...... microbial activity indicating residual soil toxicity, which could not be attributed to BTEX, but rather to mixture toxicity of more persistent gasoline constituents or degradation products. Our results indicate a limited potential for functional recovery of soil microbial communities after transient...

  6. Heavy Ion Transient Characterization of a Photobit Hardened-by-Design Active Pixel Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul W.; Byers, Wheaton B.; Conger, Christopher; Eid, El-Sayed; Gee, George; Jones, Michael R.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Reed, Robert; Pickel, Jim; Kniffin, Scott

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents heavy ion data on the single event transient (SET) response of a Photobit active pixel sensor (APS) four quadrant test chip with different radiation tolerant designs in a standard 0.35 micron CMOS process. The physical design techniques of enclosed geometry and P-channel guard rings are used to design the four N-type active photodiode pixels as described in a previous paper. Argon transient measurements on the 256 x 256 chip array as a function of incident angle show a significant variation in the amount of charge collected as well as the charge spreading dependent on the pixel type. The results are correlated with processing and design information provided by Photobit. In addition, there is a large degree of statistical variability between individual ion strikes. No latch-up is observed up to an LET of 106 MeV/mg/sq cm.

  7. Simulation model of a transient fault controller for an active-stall wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C.; Soerensen, P.; Bak Jensen, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation model of a controller that enables an active-stall wind turbine to ride through transient faults. The simulated wind turbine is connected to a simple model of a power system. Certain fault scenarios are specified and the turbine shall be able to sustain operation in case of such faults. The design of the controller is described and its performance assessed by simulations. The control strategies are explained and the behaviour of the turbine discussed. (author)

  8. Hematopoietic stem cell development requires transient Wnt/β-catenin activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Guiu, Jordi; D'Altri, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. We show here that β-catenin is nuclear and active in few endothelial nonhematopoietic cells closely associated with the emerging hematopoietic clusters of the embryonic aorta during mouse development. Importantly, Wnt/β-catenin activity is transiently required...... of mutant cells toward the hematopoietic lineage; however, these mutant cells still contribute to the adult endothelium. Together, those findings indicate that Wnt/β-catenin activity is needed for the emergence but not the maintenance of HSCs in mouse embryos....

  9. Seeing, Believing, and Learning to Be Skeptical: Supporting Language Learning through Advertising Analysis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Renee; He, Haixia; Robbgrieco, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study documents how a high school ESL teacher working with new immigrants ages 14-20 supported the development of their critical thinking and English language skills by using advertising analysis activities. The article examines the use of key critical questions for analyzing media messages and documents instructional activities designed to…

  10. TCR-Vß8 as alternative to animal testing for quantifying active SEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is a result of ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. SEs cause gastroenteritis and also cause activation of T cells and massive cytokine release. A current method for the detection of active SEs relies on its eme...

  11. Seeing Is Eating: How and When Activation of a Negative Stereotype Increases Stereotype-Conducive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret C. Campbell; Gina S. Mohr

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the effect of activation of a negative stereotype on behaviors that are perceived to increase the chance of becoming a member of the stereotyped group. Activation of a negative stereotype (the overweight stereotype) is shown to lead to stereotype-consistent goal commitment (low health goal commitment), which partially explains increases in stereotype-conducive behavior (eating indulgent foods). Two theoretically relevant moderators are proposed and supported. Increa...

  12. GABAergic inhibition through synergistic astrocytic neuronal interaction transiently decreases vasopressin neuronal activity during hypoosmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Min-Yu; Hou, Qiuling; Hamilton, Kathryn A

    2013-04-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is crucial to mammalian osmotic regulation. Local hypoosmotic challenge transiently decreases and then increases vasopressin secretion. To investigate mechanisms underlying this transient response, we examined the effects of hypoosmotic challenge on the electrical activity of rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) vasopressin neurons using patch-clamp recordings. We found that 5 min exposure of hypothalamic slices to hypoosmotic solution transiently increased inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) frequency and reduced the firing rate of vasopressin neurons. Recovery occurred by 10 min of exposure, even though the osmolality remained low. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor blocker, gabazine, blocked the IPSCs and the hypoosmotic suppression of firing. The gliotoxin l-aminoadipic acid blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min and the recovery of firing at 10 min, indicating astrocytic involvement in hypoosmotic modulation of vasopressin neuronal activity. Moreover, β-alanine, an osmolyte of astrocytes and GABA transporter (GAT) inhibitor, blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min of hypoosmotic challenge. Confocal microscopy of immunostained SON sections revealed that astrocytes and magnocellular neurons both showed positive staining of vesicular GATs (VGAT). Hypoosmotic stimulation in vivo reduced the number of VGAT-expressing neurons, and increased co-localisation and molecular association of VGAT with glial fibrillary acidic protein that increased significantly by 10 min. By 30 min, neuronal VGAT labelling was partially restored, and astrocytic VGAT was relocated to the ventral portion while it decreased in the somatic zone of the SON. Thus, synergistic astrocytic and neuronal GABAergic inhibition could ensure that vasopressin neuron firing is only transiently suppressed under hypoosmotic conditions. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. 76 FR 63661 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: See List of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), this document announces that the U.S... program evaluation activities. The collection is not expected to have a significant economic impact on... households, business or other for- profit, not-for-profit, federal and state, local or tribal government...

  14. Direct activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1(TRPV1 by Diacylglycerol (DAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Seog

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The capsaicin receptor, known as transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1, is activated by a wide range of noxious stimulants and putative ligands such as capsaicin, heat, pH, anandamide, and phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC. However, the identity of endogenous activators for TRPV1 under physiological condition is still debated. Here, we report that diacylglycerol (DAG directly activates TRPV1 channel in a membrane-delimited manner in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG, a membrane-permeable DAG analog, elicited intracellular Ca2+ transients, cationic currents and cobalt uptake that were blocked by TRPV1-selective antagonists, but not by inhibitors of PKC and DAG lipase in rat DRG neurons or HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing TRPV1. OAG induced responses were about one fifth of capsaicin induced signals, suggesting that OAG displays partial agonism. We also found that endogenously produced DAG can activate rat TRPV1 channels. Mutagenesis of rat TRPV1 revealed that DAG-binding site is at Y511, the same site for capsaicin binding, and PtdIns(4,5P2binding site may not be critical for the activation of rat TRPV1 by DAG in heterologous system. We propose that DAG serves as an endogenous ligand for rat TRPV1, acting as an integrator of Gq/11-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases that are linked to phospholipase C.

  15. A population of highly energetic transient events in the centres of active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankare, E.; Kotak, R.; Mattila, S.; Lundqvist, P.; Ward, M. J.; Fraser, M.; Lawrence, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Meikle, W. P. S.; Bruce, A.; Harmanen, J.; Hutton, S. J.; Inserra, C.; Kangas, T.; Pastorello, A.; Reynolds, T.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Smith, K. W.; Valenti, S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent all-sky surveys have led to the discovery of new types of transients. These include stars disrupted by the central supermassive black hole, and supernovae that are 10-100 times more energetic than typical ones. However, the nature of even more energetic transients that apparently occur in the innermost regions of their host galaxies is hotly debated1-3. Here we report the discovery of the most energetic of these to date: PS1-10adi, with a total radiated energy of 2.3 × 1052 erg. The slow evolution of its light curve and persistently narrow spectral lines over ˜ 3 yr are inconsistent with known types of recurring black hole variability. The observed properties imply powering by shock interaction between expanding material and large quantities of surrounding dense matter. Plausible sources of this expanding material are a star that has been tidally disrupted by the central black hole, or a supernova. Both could satisfy the energy budget. For the former, we would be forced to invoke a new and hitherto unseen variant of a tidally disrupted star, while a supernova origin relies principally on environmental effects resulting from its nuclear location. Remarkably, we also discover that PS1-10adi is not an isolated case. We therefore surmise that this new population of transients has previously been overlooked due to incorrect association with underlying central black hole activity.

  16. 'Seeing the Dark': Grounding Phenomenal Transparency and Opacity in Precision Estimation for Active Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowski, Jakub; Friston, Karl

    2018-01-01

    One of the central claims of the Self-model Theory of Subjectivity is that the experience of being someone - even in a minimal form - arises through a transparent phenomenal self-model, which itself can in principle be reduced to brain processes. Here, we consider whether it is possible to distinguish between phenomenally transparent and opaque states in terms of active inference. We propose a relationship of phenomenal opacity to expected uncertainty or precision; i.e., the capacity for introspective attention and implicit mental action. Thus we associate introspective attention with the deployment of 'precision' that may render the perceptual evidence (for action) opaque, while treating transparency as a necessary aspect of beliefs about action, i.e., 'what I am' doing. We conclude by proposing how we may have to nuance our conception of minimal phenomenal selfhood and agency in light of this active inference conception of transparency-opacity.

  17. Seeing the Dark’: Grounding Phenomenal Transparency and Opacity in Precision Estimation for Active Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowski, Jakub; Friston, Karl

    2018-01-01

    One of the central claims of the Self-model Theory of Subjectivity is that the experience of being someone – even in a minimal form – arises through a transparent phenomenal self-model, which itself can in principle be reduced to brain processes. Here, we consider whether it is possible to distinguish between phenomenally transparent and opaque states in terms of active inference. We propose a relationship of phenomenal opacity to expected uncertainty or precision; i.e., the capacity for introspective attention and implicit mental action. Thus we associate introspective attention with the deployment of ‘precision’ that may render the perceptual evidence (for action) opaque, while treating transparency as a necessary aspect of beliefs about action, i.e., ‘what I am’ doing. We conclude by proposing how we may have to nuance our conception of minimal phenomenal selfhood and agency in light of this active inference conception of transparency-opacity. PMID:29780343

  18. Seeing is not stereotyping: the functional independence of categorization and stereotype activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tiffany A; Tomelleri, Silvia

    2017-05-01

    Social categorization has been viewed as necessarily resulting in stereotyping, yet extant research suggests the two processes are differentially sensitive to task manipulations. Here, we simultaneously test the degree to which race perception and stereotyping are conditionally automatic. Participants performed a sequential priming task while either explicitly attending to the race of face primes or directing attention away from their semantic nature. We find a dissociation between the perceptual encoding of race and subsequent activation of associated stereotypes, with race perception occurring in both task conditions, but implicit stereotyping occurring only when attention is directed to the race of the face primes. These results support a clear conceptual distinction between categorization and stereotyping and show that the encoding of racial category need not result in stereotype activation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Seeing is believing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Wingate; David Wolf

    1997-01-01

    When people view forest management activities there is usually nobody present to explain or interpret what is actually taking place. They judge what has happened by what they can see. In the short term, many long-term, beneficial activities such as clearcuts or herbicide applications appear to the average person as destruction, and they often only view an activity at...

  20. Transient activation of mTOR following forced treadmill exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Christensen, Tina; Ratner, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    , while the induction of neurogenesis requires signaling through the VEGF receptor, Flk-1 (VEGFR-2). VEGF expression is believed to be regulated by two distinct mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin)-containing multiprotein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively. This study was initiated to investigate...... of mTOR was regulated after a single bout of exercise. In conclusion, the effect of treadmill exercise on the VEGF system is acute rather than chronic and there is a transient activation of mTOR. More studies are needed to understand whether this could be beneficial in the treatment of neuropsychiatric...

  1. Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

    The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme

  2. The ZTF Bright Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Gooba, A.

    2018-06-01

    As a supplement to the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) public alerts (ATel #11685) we plan to report (following ATel #11615) bright probable supernovae identified in the raw alert stream from the ZTF Northern Sky Survey ("Celestial Cinematography"; see Bellm & Kulkarni, 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 71) to the Transient Name Server (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il) on a daily basis; the ZTF Bright Transient Survey (BTS; see Kulkarni et al., 2018; arXiv:1710.04223).

  3. See your GP, see the world – An activating course concept for fostering students' competence in performing vaccine and travel consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltermann, Esther

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Performing vaccine and travel consultations is a crucial aspect of the daily routine in general medicine. However, medical education does not provide adequately and structured training for this future task of medical students. While existing courses mainly focus on theoretical aspects, we developed a course aiming to foster practical experience in performing vaccine and travel consultations. Project report: The course was implemented in the simulation clinic at the University of Munich in the summer 2011 semester using role-plays in a simulation-based learning environment. The course represents different disciplines involved in vaccine and travel medicine. Students’ learning is supported through active engagement in planning and conducting consultations of patients.Discussion and Summary: The course was implemented successfully and students’ acceptance was high. However, there is a need for structured teaching of theoretical basics in vaccine and travel medicine earlier in medical curriculum. The insights gained through our course are used for the development of the structured longitudinal curriculum “vaccine medicine”.

  4. INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring: transient activity from KS 1741-293, MXB 1730-335, and IGR J17498-2921

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevez, J.; Brandt, S.; Kuulkers, E.; Alfonso-Garzón, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bird, T.; Courvoisier, Th.; Del Santo, M.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Jonker, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2011-09-01

    As part of its regular monitoring of the Galactic Bulge (see ATel #438) INTEGRAL observed this region of the sky on September 13, 2011, between UTC 9:14:50 and 12:56:26. Both the JEM-X and the IBIS/ISGRI instruments detect the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary KS 1741-293 at the following flux levels: JEM-X: 6 ±3 mCrab (3-10 keV) and 14 ±6 mCrab (10-25 keV) ISGRI: 11 ±2 mCrab (18-40 keV) and 13 ±2 mCrab (40-100 keV) We note that the activity of this source already started two weeks ago as has been reported by Linares et al.

  5. Transient expression and activity of human DNA polymerase iota in loach embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Irina V; Kazakov, Andrey A; Makarova, Alena V; Khaidarova, Nella V; Kozikova, Larisa V; Nenasheva, Valentina V; Gening, Leonid V; Tarantul, Vyacheslav Z; Andreeva, Ludmila E

    2012-02-01

    Human DNA polymerase iota (Pol ι) is a Y-family DNA polymerase with unusual biochemical properties and not fully understood functions. Pol ι preferentially incorporates dGTP opposite template thymine. This property can be used to monitor Pol ι activity in the presence of other DNA polymerases, e.g. in cell extracts of tissues and tumors. We have now confirmed the specificity and sensitivity of the method of Pol ι activity detection in cell extracts using an animal model of loach Misgurnus fossilis embryos transiently expressing human Pol ι. The overexpression of Pol ι was shown to be accompanied by an increase in abnormalities in development and the frequency of pycnotic nuclei in fish embryos. Further analysis of fish embryos with constitutive or regulated Pol ι expression may provide insights into Pol ι functions in vertebrate animals.

  6. Transient optogenetic inactivation of the medial entorhinal cortex biases the active population of hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckemann, Jon W; DiMauro, Audrey J; Rangel, Lara M; Han, Xue; Boyden, Edward S; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms that enable the hippocampal network to express the appropriate spatial representation for a particular circumstance are not well understood. Previous studies suggest that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) may have a role in reproducibly selecting the hippocampal representation of an environment. To examine how ongoing MEC activity is continually integrated by the hippocampus, we performed transient unilateral optogenetic inactivations of the MEC while simultaneously recording place cell activity in CA1. Inactivation of the MEC caused a partial remapping in the CA1 population without diminishing the degree of spatial tuning across the active cell assembly. These changes remained stable irrespective of intermittent disruption of MEC input, indicating that while MEC input is integrated over long time scales to bias the active population, there are mechanisms for stabilizing the population of active neurons independent of the MEC. We find that MEC inputs to the hippocampus shape its ongoing activity by biasing the participation of the neurons in the active network, thereby influencing how the hippocampus selectively represents information. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Role of Active Listening and Listening Effort on Contralateral Suppression of Transient Evoked Otoacousic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiah, Mohan Kumar; Theruvan, Nikhitha B; Kumar, Kaushlendra; Bhat, Jayashree S

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of active listening and listening effort on the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (CSTEOAEs). Twenty eight young adults participated in the study. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded using 'linear' clicks at 60 dB peSPL, in three contralateral noise conditions. In condition 1, TEOAEs were obtained in the presence of white noise in the contralateral ear. While, in condition 2, speech was embedded into white noise at +3, -3, and -9 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and delivered to the contralateral ear. The SNR was varied to investigate the effect of listening effort on the CSTEOAE. In condition 3, speech was played backwards and embedded into white noise at -3 dB SNR. The conditions 1 and 3 served as passive listening condition and the condition 2 served as active listening condition. In active listening condition, the participants categorized the words in to two groups (e.g., animal and vehicle). CSTEOAE was found to be largest in the presence of white noise, and the amount of CSTEOAE was not significantly different between active and passive listening conditions (condition 2 and 3). Listening effort had an effect on the CSTEOAE, the amount of suppression increased with listening effort, when SNR was decreased from +3 dB to -3 dB. However, when the SNR was further reduced to -9 dB, there was no further increase in the amount of CSTEOAE, instead there was a reduction in the amount of suppression. The findings of the present study show that listening effort might affect CSTEOAE.

  8. Simulation of corrosion product activity in pressurized water reactors under flow rate transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Anwar M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mir, Imran

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of coolant activation due to corrosion products and impurities in a typical pressurized water reactor has been done under flow rate transients. Employing time dependent production and losses of corrosion products in the primary coolant path an approach has been developed to calculate the coolant specific activity. Results for 24 Na, 56 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co and 99Mo show that the specific activity in primary loop approaches equilibrium value under normal operating conditions fairly rapidly. Predominant corrosion product activity is due to Mn-56. Parametric studies at full power for various ramp decreases in flow rate show initial decline in the activity and then a gradual rise to relatively higher saturation values. The minimum value and the time taken to reach the minima are strong functions of the slope of linear decrease in flow rate. In the second part flow rate coastdown was allowed to occur at different flow half-times. The reactor scram was initiated at 90% of the normal flow rate. The results show that the specific activity decreases and the rate of decrease depends on pump half time and the reactor scram conditions

  9. The absence of fan activism in the queer fandom of Ho Denise Wan See (HOCC in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk Yin Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The queer fandom of female Hong Kong pop singer Ho Denise Wan See (HOCC from 2009 to mid-2011 is dealt with through the qualitative methodology of in-depth interviews and media ethnography. HOCC, an idiosyncratic cultural producer who dabbles in the politics of ambiguity, creates texts that invite queer interpretations from fans and from queer activists in Hong Kong. Via analyses informed by both queer studies and audience studies, the various creative practices of fans in reshaping their sexual identities via popular culture are explored. These practices are highly political and empowering to a queer audience. However, the intensive rewriting of meanings as queer symbolic creativity and tactics in cultural politics fail to transform into formal institutional politics and more confrontational queer activism. This is so for several reasons. Internally, the hierarchical structure of fan organization, fan proximity to the culture industry, and the top-down encouragement of social charity as the only channel of activism have all reduced the possibility of transforming fans' queer sensibilities into institutional queer politics. Furthermore, Hong Kong, under the influence of three major discourses that seek to discipline and regulate sexualities—traditional Chinese ethics, the British colonial legacy, and the postcolonial revival of rightist Christianity—has a long social history of heterosexist discrimination and a preference for normalizing when striving for queer citizenship. This empirical study examines relations between cultural specificity and fan agency in a non-Western context.

  10. Activation of the chemosensing transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) by alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Bernhard; Zehfuss, Franziska; Mückter, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Balszuweit, Frank; Schäfer, Eva; Büch, Thomas; Gudermann, Thomas; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channel is expressed in different tissues including skin, lung and neuronal tissue. Recent reports identified TRPA1 as a sensor for noxious substances, implicating a functional role in the molecular toxicology. TRPA1 is activated by various potentially harmful electrophilic substances. The chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating agent that binds to numerous biological targets. Although SM is known for almost 200 years, detailed knowledge about the pathophysiology resulting from exposure is lacking. A specific therapy is not available. In this study, we investigated whether the alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl-ethylsulfide (CEES, a model substance for SM-promoted effects) and SM are able to activate TRPA1 channels. CEES induced a marked increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in TRPA1-expressing but not in TRPA1-negative cells. The TRP-channel blocker AP18 diminished the CEES-induced calcium influx. HEK293 cells permanently expressing TRPA1 were more sensitive toward cytotoxic effects of CEES compared with wild-type cells. At low CEES concentrations, CEES-induced cytotoxicity was prevented by AP18. Proof-of-concept experiments using SM resulted in a pronounced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in HEK293-A1-E cells. Human A549 lung epithelial cells, which express TRPA1 endogenously, reacted with a transient calcium influx in response to CEES exposure. The CEES-dependent calcium response was diminished by AP18. In summary, our results demonstrate that alkylating agents are able to activate TRPA1. Inhibition of TRPA1 counteracted cellular toxicity and could thus represent a feasible approach to mitigate SM-induced cell damage.

  11. Forward modeling transient brightenings and microflares around an active region observed with Hi-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobelski, Adam R. [Now at National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); McKenzie, David E., E-mail: kobelski@solar.physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 173840, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Small-scale flare-like brightenings around active regions are among the smallest and most fundamental of energetic transient events in the corona, providing a testbed for models of heating and active region dynamics. In a previous study, we modeled a large collection of these microflares observed with Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) using EBTEL and found that they required multiple heating events, but could not distinguish between multiple heating events on a single strand, or multiple strands each experiencing a single heating event. We present here a similar study, but with extreme-ultraviolet data of Active Region 11520 from the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket. Hi-C provides an order of magnitude improvement to the spatial resolution of XRT, and a cooler temperature sensitivity, which combine to provide significant improvements to our ability to detect and model microflare activity around active regions. We have found that at the spatial resolution of Hi-C (≈0.''3), the events occur much more frequently than expected (57 events detected, only 1 or 2 expected), and are most likely made from strands of the order of 100 km wide, each of which is impulsively heated with multiple heating events. These findings tend to support bursty reconnection as the cause of the energy release responsible for the brightenings.

  12. [Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and the related esophageal motor activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hyo; Hong, Su Jin

    2012-03-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR) is defined as LES relaxation without a swallow. TLESRs are observed in both of the normal individuals and the patients with gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD). However, TLESR is widely considered as the major mechanism of the GERD. The new equipments such as high resolution manometry and impedance pH study is helped to understand of TLESR and the related esophageal motor activities. The strong longitudinal muscle contraction was observed during development of TLESR. Most of TLESRs are terminated by TLESR related motor events such as primary peristalsis and secondary contractions. The majority of TLESRs are associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contraction is mainly associated with liquid reflux during recumbent position and UES relaxation predominantly related with air reflux during upright position. The frequency of TLESR in GERD patients seems to be not different compared to normal individuals, but the refluxate of GERD patients tend to be more acidic during TLESR.

  13. Permanent Genetic Access to Transiently Active Neurons via TRAP: Targeted Recombination in Active Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Guenthner, Casey J.; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Yang, Helen H.; Heller, H. Craig; Luo, Liqun

    2013-01-01

    Targeting genetically encoded tools for neural circuit dissection to relevant cellular populations is a major challenge in neurobiology. We developed a new approach, Targeted Recombination in Active Populations (TRAP), to obtain genetic access to neurons that were activated by defined stimuli. This method utilizes mice in which the tamoxifen-dependent recombinase CreERT2 is expressed in an activity-dependent manner from the loci of the immediate early genes Arc and Fos. Active cells that expr...

  14. The relevance of the dynamic stall effect for transient fault operations of active-stall wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, Poul; Jensen, Birgitte Bak

    2005-06-15

    This article describes a methodology to quantify the influence of dynamic stall on transient fault operations of active-stall turbines. The model of the dynamic stall effect is introduced briefly. The behaviour of the dynamic stall model during a transient fault operation is described mathematically, and from this its effect quantified. Two quantities are chosen to describe the influence of the dynamic stall effect: one is active power and the other is time delay. Subsequently a transient fault scenario is simulated with and without the dynamic stall effect and the differences discussed. From this comparison, the conclusion is drawn that the dynamic stall effect has some influence on the post-fault behaviour of the wind turbine, and it is hence suggested that the dynamic stall effect is considered if an active-stall wind turbine is to be modelled realistically. (Author)

  15. The Holy See.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Holy See is on geography, the people, history, government and institutions, foreign relations, and relations with the US and the Holy See. Vatican City occupies 0.439 square kilometers (109 acres). Some 1000 individuals live within the Vatican's walls, most of whom are Italian or Swiss by nationality. Vatican citizenship usually is accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City by reason of office or employment and, with certain restrictions, to their families. The Pope delegates the internal administration of Vatican City to the Pontifical Commission for the State of the Vatican City, headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State. The legal system is based on canon law or the laws of the city of Rome. On February 11, 1929, the Holy See and the Italian government signed 3 agreements regulating a dispute since 1871 about the Law of Guarantees, law which sought to assure the Pope's spiritual freedom, an income, and special status for the Vatican area. The agreements include: a treaty recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City; a concordat fixing the relations between the government and the church within Italy; and a financial convention providing the Holy See with compensation for its losses in 1870. The Pope, at this time John Paul II, exercises supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the Holy See and within the State of the Vatican City. The Pope rules the Holy See through the Roman Curia and Papal Civil Service, which staffs it. The Holy See, which carries on an active diplomacy of considerable scope and variety, is particularly active diplomatically in international organizations. The US maintained consular relations with the Papal States from 1797-1870 and diplomatic relations with the Pope in his capacity as head of the Papal States. These relations lapsed with the final loss of all papal territories in 1870. In 1984, the US and the Holy See announced the

  16. Vivo-morpholinos induced transient knockdown of physical activity related proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Ferguson

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with disease prevention and overall wellbeing. Additionally there has been evidence that physical activity level is a result of genetic influence. However, there has not been a reliable method to silence candidate genes in vivo to determine causal mechanisms of physical activity regulation. Vivo-morpholinos are a potential method to transiently silence specific genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to validate the use of Vivo-morpholinos in a mouse model for voluntary physical activity with several sub-objectives. We observed that Vivo-morpholinos achieved between 60-97% knockdown of Drd1-, Vmat2-, and Glut4-protein in skeletal muscle, the delivery moiety of Vivo-morpholinos (scramble did not influence physical activity and that a cocktail of multiple Vivo-morpholinos can be given in a single treatment to achieve protein knockdown of two different targeted proteins in skeletal muscle simultaneously. Knocking down Drd1, Vmat2, or Glut4 protein in skeletal muscle did not affect physical activity. Vivo-morpholinos injected intravenously alone did not significantly knockdown Vmat2-protein expression in the brain (p = 0.28. However, the use of a bradykinin analog to increase blood-brain-barrier permeability in conjunction with the Vivo-morpholinos significantly (p = 0.0001 decreased Vmat2-protein in the brain with a corresponding later over-expression of Vmat2 coincident with a significant (p = 0.0016 increase in physical activity. We conclude that Vivo-morpholinos can be a valuable tool in determining causal gene-phenotype relationships in whole animal models.

  17. Transient inhibition and long-term facilitation of locomotion by phasic optogenetic activation of serotonin neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Patrícia A; Lottem, Eran; Banerjee, Dhruba; Machado, Ana S; Carey, Megan R; Mainen, Zachary F

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is associated with mood and motivation but the function of endogenous 5-HT remains controversial. Here, we studied the impact of phasic optogenetic activation of 5-HT neurons in mice over time scales from seconds to weeks. We found that activating dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons induced a strong suppression of spontaneous locomotor behavior in the open field with rapid kinetics (onset ≤1 s). Inhibition of locomotion was independent of measures of anxiety or motor impairment and could be overcome by strong motivational drive. Repetitive place-contingent pairing of activation caused neither place preference nor aversion. However, repeated 15 min daily stimulation caused a persistent increase in spontaneous locomotion to emerge over three weeks. These results show that 5-HT transients have strong and opposing short and long-term effects on motor behavior that appear to arise from effects on the underlying factors that motivate actions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20975.001 PMID:28193320

  18. Transient receptor potential A1 channel contributes to activation of the muscle reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, Satoshi; Hayes, Shawn G; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the role played by transient receptor potential A1 channels (TRPA1) in activating the muscle reflex, a sympathoexcitatory drive originating in contracting muscle. First, we tested the hypothesis that stimulation of the TRPA1 located on muscle afferents reflexly increases sympathetic nerve activity. In decerebrate rats, allyl isothiocyanate, a TRPA1 agonist, was injected intra-arterially into the hindlimb muscle circulation. This led to a 33% increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The effect of allyl isothiocyanate was a reflex because the response was prevented by sectioning the sciatic nerve. Second, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of TRPA1 reduces RSNA response to contraction. Thirty-second continuous static contraction of the hindlimb muscles, induced by electrical stimulation of the peripheral cut ends of L(4) and L(5) ventral roots, increased RSNA and blood pressure. The integrated RSNA during contraction was reduced by HC-030031, a TRPA1 antagonist, injected intra-arterially (163 ± 24 vs. 95 ± 21 arbitrary units, before vs. after HC-030031, P reflex. Increases in RSNA in response to injection into the muscle circulation of arachidonic acid, bradykinin, and diprotonated phosphate, which are metabolic by-products of contraction and stimulants of muscle afferents during contraction, were reduced by HC-030031. These observations suggest that the TRPA1 located on muscle afferents is part of the muscle reflex and further support the notion that arachidonic acid metabolites, bradykinin, and diprotonated phosphate are candidates for endogenous agonists of TRPA1.

  19. Seeing diabetes: visual detection of glucose based on the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of MoS2 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tianran; Zhong, Liangshuang; Guo, Liangqia; Fu, Fengfu; Chen, Guonan

    2014-09-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted increasing research interest recently due to its unique physical, optical and electrical properties, correlated with its 2D ultrathin atomic-layered structure. Until now, however, great efforts have focused on its applications such as lithium ion batteries, transistors, and hydrogen evolution reactions. Herein, for the first time, MoS2 nanosheets are discovered to possess an intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and can catalytically oxidize 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2 to produce a color reaction. The catalytic activity follows the typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics and is dependent on temperature, pH, H2O2 concentration, and reaction time. Based on this finding, a highly sensitive and selective colorimetric method for H2O2 and glucose detection is developed and applied to detect glucose in serum samples. Moreover, a simple, inexpensive, instrument-free and portable test kit for the visual detection of glucose in normal and diabetic serum samples is constructed by utilizing agarose hydrogel as a visual detection platform.Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted increasing research interest recently due to its unique physical, optical and electrical properties, correlated with its 2D ultrathin atomic-layered structure. Until now, however, great efforts have focused on its applications such as lithium ion batteries, transistors, and hydrogen evolution reactions. Herein, for the first time, MoS2 nanosheets are discovered to possess an intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and can catalytically oxidize 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2 to produce a color reaction. The catalytic activity follows the typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics and is dependent on temperature, pH, H2O2 concentration, and reaction time. Based on this finding, a highly sensitive and selective colorimetric method for H2O2 and glucose detection is developed and applied to detect glucose in serum samples. Moreover, a simple, inexpensive

  20. Permanent genetic access to transiently active neurons via TRAP: targeted recombination in active populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenthner, Casey J; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Yang, Helen H; Heller, H Craig; Luo, Liqun

    2013-06-05

    Targeting genetically encoded tools for neural circuit dissection to relevant cellular populations is a major challenge in neurobiology. We developed an approach, targeted recombination in active populations (TRAP), to obtain genetic access to neurons that were activated by defined stimuli. This method utilizes mice in which the tamoxifen-dependent recombinase CreER(T2) is expressed in an activity-dependent manner from the loci of the immediate early genes Arc and Fos. Active cells that express CreER(T2) can only undergo recombination when tamoxifen is present, allowing genetic access to neurons that are active during a time window of less than 12 hr. We show that TRAP can provide selective access to neurons activated by specific somatosensory, visual, and auditory stimuli and by experience in a novel environment. When combined with tools for labeling, tracing, recording, and manipulating neurons, TRAP offers a powerful approach for understanding how the brain processes information and generates behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron/argillite interactions in radioactive waste disposal context: Oxidising transient and bacterial activities influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, Camille; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Maillet, Anais

    2014-01-01

    disposal conditions. Indeed, the nature, the quantity of nutrients and the environmental conditions (space, temperature, water, radioactivity and pressure) are key parameters for bacterial development. Even though disposal conditions may be not favourable during a part of the thermal transient characterised by high temperature, irradiation conditions and heterogeneous water saturation, bacterial activity may resume when environmental conditions become more suitable. Moreover, argillite cracks and residual voids between the waste packages and the liner create additional space for bacterial development. Concerning the nutrient content, significant amounts of hydrogen (an energetic substrate for bacteria) produced by anoxic corrosion of metallic materials are expected, which will favour the development of hydrogenotrophic bacteria. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that micro-organisms may locally affect the corrosion processes and the corrosion rates due to their influence on the water composition, pH and redox potential of the metal/environment interface. More specifically, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may produce ferrous sulphide, a corrosive product that may lead to significant pits on steel surface. Also, under anaerobic conditions, the iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) can reduce Fe(III) from iron oxides composing passive layers, which may impact corrosion by re-exposing the metal surfaces to corrosion. Therefore, the survival of bacteria cannot be excluded and their impact on corrosion phenomena must be investigated. In this context, this paper focuses on two studies regarding iron/argillite interactions. The first one addresses these interactions under oxidising and reducing conditions, while the second one tackles bacteria effects on corrosion in conditions that may prevail in a repository. These studies are both based on laboratory and in situ experiments. Iron and carbon steel have been chosen as typical of metallic components, and the Tournemire Toarcian argillite

  2. Glycine Receptor Activation Impairs ATP-Induced Calcium Transients in Cultured Cortical Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Morais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In central nervous system, glycine receptor (GlyR is mostly expressed in the spinal cord and brainstem, but glycinergic transmission related elements have also been identified in the brain. Astrocytes are active elements at the tripartite synapse, being responsible for the maintenance of brain homeostasis and for the fine-tuning of synaptic activity. These cells communicate, spontaneously or in response to a stimulus, by elevations in their cytosolic calcium (calcium transients, Ca2+T that can be propagated to other cells. How these Ca2+T are negatively modulated is yet poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated GlyR expression and its role on calcium signaling modulation in rat brain astrocytes. We first proved that GlyR, predominantly subunits α2 and β, was expressed in brain astrocytes and its localization was confirmed in the cytoplasm and astrocytic processes by immunohistochemistry assays. Calcium imaging experiments in cultured astrocytes showed that glycine (500 μM, a GlyR agonist, caused a concentration-dependent reduction in ATP-induced Ca2+T, an effect abolished by the GlyR antagonist, strychnine (0.8 μM, as well as by nocodazole (1 μM, known to impair GlyR anchorage to the plasma membrane. This effect was mimicked by activation of GABAAR, another Cl--permeable channel. In summary, we demonstrated that GlyR activation in astrocytes mediates an inhibitory effect upon ATP induced Ca2+T, which most probably involves changes in membrane permeability to Cl- and requires GlyR anchorage at the plasma membrane. GlyR in astrocytes may thus be part of a mechanism to modulate astrocyte-to-neuron communication.

  3. Platelet activating factor induces transient blood-brain barrier opening to facilitate edaravone penetration into the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weirong; Zhang, Rui; Sha, Lan; Lv, Peng; Shang, Erxin; Han, Dan; Wei, Jie; Geng, Xiaohan; Yang, Qichuan; Li, Yunman

    2014-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) greatly limits the efficacy of many neuroprotective drugs' delivery to the brain, so improving drug penetration through the BBB has been an important focus of research. Here we report that platelet activating factor (PAF) transiently opened BBB and facilitated neuroprotectant edaravone penetration into the brain. Intravenous infusion with PAF induced a transient BBB opening in rats, reflected by increased Evans blue leakage and mild edema formation, which ceased within 6 h. Furthermore, rat regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) declined acutely during PAF infusion, but recovered slowly. More importantly, this transient BBB opening significantly increased the penetration of edaravone into the brain, evidenced by increased edaravone concentrations in tissue interstitial fluid collected by microdialysis and analyzed by Ultra-performance liquid chromatograph combined with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). Similarly, incubation of rat brain microvessel endothelial cells monolayer with 1 μM PAF for 1 h significantly increased monolayer permeability to (125)I-albumin, which recovered 1 h after PAF elimination. However, PAF incubation with rat brain microvessel endothelial cells for 1 h did not cause detectable cytotoxicity, and did not regulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix-metalloproteinase-9 and P-glycoprotein expression. In conclusion, PAF could induce transient and reversible BBB opening through abrupt rCBF decline, which significantly improved edaravone penetration into the brain. Platelet activating factor (PAF) transiently induces BBB dysfunction and increases BBB permeability, which may be due to vessel contraction and a temporary decline of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) triggered by PAF. More importantly, the PAF induced transient BBB opening facilitates neuroprotectant edaravone penetration into brain. The results of this study may provide a new approach to improve drug delivery into

  4. Activity-dependent intracellular Ca2+ transients in unmyelinated nerve fibres of the isolated adult rat vagus nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtler, J; Mayer, C; Grafe, P

    1998-04-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to follow changes in the free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in nerve fibres and adjacent Schwann cells in isolated rat vagus nerves. [Ca2+]i was monitored by the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes Calcium Green-1 and Fura Red. Intracellular Ca2+ transients were observed during repetitive (1-50 Hz) supramaximal electrical stimulation or by bath application of ATP. Trains of action potentials were more effective at elongated, fibre-like structures of the vagus nerves, whereas ATP-induced Ca2+ transients were found predominantly in regions of Schwann cell bodies. Activity-induced Ca2+ signals were unaffected by pharmacological manipulation of intracellular Ca2+ stores, during long-lasting application of purinergic receptor agonists, or by substitution of extracellular Na+ with Li+. However, they were abolished in the presence of Ca2+-free bathing solution or after the blocking of Ca2+ channels with Cd2+. Ca2+ transients were also observed during Ca2+ action potentials. Such "Ca2+ spikes" were elicited by electrical stimulation in the presence of a combination of tetrodotoxin and K+ channel blockers. These data suggest that voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, activated during short trains of Na+ action potentials, produce an increase in intra-axonal [Ca2+] of rat vagus nerves. We did not find evidence for activity-dependent Ca2+ transients in the Schwann cells surrounding the unmyelinated axons.

  5. Modeling active region transient brightenings observed with X-ray telescope as multi-stranded loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 173840, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Donachie, Martin, E-mail: kobelski@solar.physics.montana.edu [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G128QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    Strong evidence exists that coronal loops as observed in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays may not be monolithic isotropic structures, but can often be more accurately modeled as bundles of independent strands. Modeling the observed active region transient brightenings (ARTBs) within this framework allows for the exploration of the energetic ramifications and characteristics of these stratified structures. Here we present a simple method of detecting and modeling ARTBs observed with the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) as groups of zero-dimensional strands, which allows us to probe parameter space to better understand the spatial and temporal dependence of strand heating in impulsively heated loops. This partially automated method can be used to analyze a large number of observations to gain a statistical insight into the parameters of coronal structures, including the number of heating events required in a given model to fit the observations. In this article, we present the methodology and demonstrate its use in detecting and modeling ARTBs in a sample data set from Hinode/XRT. These initial results show that, in general, multiple heating events are necessary to reproduce observed ARTBs, but the spatial dependence of these heating events cannot yet be established.

  6. Ambiguous hydraulic heads and 14C activities in transient regional flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Franklin W; Sudicky, Edward A; McLaren, Robert G; Park, Young-Jin; Huber, Matthew; Apted, Mick

    2010-01-01

    A regional flow and transport model is used to explore the implications of significant variability in Pleistocene and Holocene climates on hydraulic heads and (14)C activity. Simulations involve a 39 km slice of the Death Valley Flow System through Yucca Mountain toward the Amargosa Desert. The long-time scale over which infiltration has changed (tens-of-thousands of years) is matched by the large physical extent of the flow system (many tens-of-kilometers). Estimated paleo-infiltration rates were estimated using a juniper pollen percentage that extends from the last interglacial (LIG) period (approximately 120 kyrbp) to present. Flow and (14)C transport simulations show that groundwater flow changes markedly as a function of paleoclimate. At the last glacial maximum (LGM, 21 kyrbp), the recharge to the flow system was about an order-of-magnitude higher than present, and water table was more than 100 m higher. With large basin time constants, flow is complicated because hydraulic heads at a given location reflect conditions of the past, but at another location the flow may reflect present conditions. This complexity is also manifested by processes that depend on flow, for example (14)C transport. Without a model that accounts for the historical transients in recharge for at least the last 20,000 years, there is no simple way to deconvolve the (14)C dates to explain patterns of flow.

  7. Modeling active region transient brightenings observed with X-ray telescope as multi-stranded loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E.; Donachie, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Strong evidence exists that coronal loops as observed in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays may not be monolithic isotropic structures, but can often be more accurately modeled as bundles of independent strands. Modeling the observed active region transient brightenings (ARTBs) within this framework allows for the exploration of the energetic ramifications and characteristics of these stratified structures. Here we present a simple method of detecting and modeling ARTBs observed with the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) as groups of zero-dimensional strands, which allows us to probe parameter space to better understand the spatial and temporal dependence of strand heating in impulsively heated loops. This partially automated method can be used to analyze a large number of observations to gain a statistical insight into the parameters of coronal structures, including the number of heating events required in a given model to fit the observations. In this article, we present the methodology and demonstrate its use in detecting and modeling ARTBs in a sample data set from Hinode/XRT. These initial results show that, in general, multiple heating events are necessary to reproduce observed ARTBs, but the spatial dependence of these heating events cannot yet be established.

  8. Transient and sustained cortical activity elicited by connected speech of varying intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiitinen Hannu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robustness of speech perception in the face of acoustic variation is founded on the ability of the auditory system to integrate the acoustic features of speech and to segregate them from background noise. This auditory scene analysis process is facilitated by top-down mechanisms, such as recognition memory for speech content. However, the cortical processes underlying these facilitatory mechanisms remain unclear. The present magnetoencephalography (MEG study examined how the activity of auditory cortical areas is modulated by acoustic degradation and intelligibility of connected speech. The experimental design allowed for the comparison of cortical activity patterns elicited by acoustically identical stimuli which were perceived as either intelligible or unintelligible. Results In the experiment, a set of sentences was presented to the subject in distorted, undistorted, and again in distorted form. The intervening exposure to undistorted versions of sentences rendered the initially unintelligible, distorted sentences intelligible, as evidenced by an increase from 30% to 80% in the proportion of sentences reported as intelligible. These perceptual changes were reflected in the activity of the auditory cortex, with the auditory N1m response (~100 ms being more prominent for the distorted stimuli than for the intact ones. In the time range of auditory P2m response (>200 ms, auditory cortex as well as regions anterior and posterior to this area generated a stronger response to sentences which were intelligible than unintelligible. During the sustained field (>300 ms, stronger activity was elicited by degraded stimuli in auditory cortex and by intelligible sentences in areas posterior to auditory cortex. Conclusions The current findings suggest that the auditory system comprises bottom-up and top-down processes which are reflected in transient and sustained brain activity. It appears that analysis of acoustic features occurs

  9. Low-Cytotoxic Synthetic Bromorutaecarpine Exhibits Anti-Inflammation and Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutaecarpine (RUT, the major bioactive ingredient isolated from the Chinese herb Evodia rutaecarpa, possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammation and preventing cardiovascular diseases. However, its high cytotoxicity hampers pharmaceutical development. We designed and synthesized a derivative of RUT, bromo-dimethoxyrutaecarpine (Br-RUT, which showed no cytotoxicity at 20 μM. Br-RUT suppressed nitric oxide (NO production and tumor necrosis factor-α release in concentration-dependent (0~20 μM manners in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages; protein levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 induced by LPS were downregulated. Br-RUT inhibited cell migration and invasion of ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells with 0~48 h of treatment. Furthermore, Br-RUT enhanced the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and activated endothelial NOS in human aortic endothelial cells. These results suggest that the synthetic Br-RUT possesses very low cytotoxicity but retains its activities against inflammation and vasodilation that could be beneficial for cardiovascular disease therapeutics.

  10. How we see poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Morduch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How we think about poverty is colored by how we measure it. For economists, that often means seeing poverty through quantities measured in large, representative surveys.  The surveys give a comprehensive view, but favor breadth over depth. Typical economic surveys are limited in their ability to tease out informal activity, and, while they capture yearly sums, they offer little about how the year was actually lived by families. Year-long financial diaries provide a complementary way of seeing poverty, with a focus on week by week choices and challenges. The result is a re-framing of poverty and its relationship to money, calling for greater attention to financial access and a broader notion of how finance matters.

  11. Growing Mouse Oocytes Transiently Activate Folate Transport via Folate Receptors As They Approach Full Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Megan; MacNeil, Allison H; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2016-06-01

    The folate cycle is central to cellular one-carbon metabolism, where folates are carriers of one-carbon units that are critical for synthesis of purines, thymidylate, and S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor that forms the cellular methyl pool. Although folates are well-known to be important for early embryo and fetal development, their role in oogenesis has not been clearly established. Here, folate transport proteins were detected in developing neonatal ovaries and growing oocytes by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. The folate receptors FOLR1 and FOLR2 as well as reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1, SLC19A1 protein) each appeared to be present in follicular cells including granulosa cells. In growing oocytes, however, only FOLR2 immunoreactivity appeared abundant. Localization of apparent FOLR2 immunofluorescence near the plasma membrane increased with oocyte growth and peaked in oocytes as they neared full size. We assessed folate transport using the model folate leucovorin (folinic acid). Unexpectedly, there was a transient burst of folate transport activity for a brief period during oocyte growth as they neared full size, while folate transport was otherwise undetectable for the rest of oogenesis and in fully grown germinal vesicle stage oocytes. This folate transport was inhibited by dynasore, an inhibitor of endocytosis, but insensitive to the anion transport inhibitor stilbene 4-acetamido-40-isothiocyanato-stilbene-2,20-disulfonic acid, consistent with folate receptor-mediated transport but not with RFC1-mediated transport. Thus, near the end of their growth, growing oocytes may take up folates that could support the final stage of oogenesis or be stored to provide the endogenous folates needed in early embryogenesis. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  12. Repetitive Transient Ischemia-Induced Cardiac Angiogenesis is Mediated by Camkii Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuobin Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Coronary angiogenesis is an important protective mechanism in response to myocardial ischemia in coronary artery disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CaMKII activation in ischemia-induced cardiac angiogenesis. Methods: Repetitive transient ischemia model was established in C57/BL6 mice by daily multiple episodes (3 times/day of short time (5 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 7 days. Coronary angiogenesis was detected by immunofluorescent staining. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of CaMKII, p-CaMKII and VEGF. Primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs were isolated to investigate the effects of KN93 on cell proliferation and migration in hypoxic condition. Results: We found that angiogenesis was induced in the ischemic myocardium and suppressed by chronic intraperitoneal injection of CaMKII inhibitor KN93. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses showed that myocardial ischemia induced an increased expression and autophosphorylation of CaMKII. VEGF expression was increased in the ischemia model but blunted by KN93. Moreover, KN93 suppressed the proliferation and migration of cardiac endothelial cells in hypoxic condition in which the protein expression of CaMKII, p-CaMKII and VEGF was increased. Conclusion: CaMKII is an important mediator for the ischemia-induced coronary angiogenesis, in which CaMKII-triggered VEGF expression plays a key role.

  13. Observation and Modeling of Chromospheric Evaporation in a Coronal Loop Related to Active Region Transient Brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G. R.; Sarkar, Aveek; Tripathi, Durgesh

    2018-04-01

    Using the observations recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer and X-Ray Telescope both on board Hinode, we present evidence of chromospheric evaporation in a coronal loop after the occurrence of two active region transient brightenings (ARTBs) at the two footpoints. The chromospheric evaporation started nearly simultaneously in all of the three hot channels of AIA 131, 94, and 335 Å and was observed to be temperature dependent, being fastest in the highest temperature channel. The whole loop became fully brightened following the ARTBs after ≈25 s in 131 Å, ≈40 s in 94 Å, and ≈6.5 minutes in 335 Å. The differential emission measurements at the two footpoints (i.e., of two ARTBs) and at the loop top suggest that the plasma attained a maximum temperature of ∼10 MK at all these locations. The spectroscopic observations from IRIS revealed the presence of redshifted emission of ∼20 km s‑1 in cooler lines like C II and Si IV during the ARTBs that was cotemporal with the evaporation flow at the footpoint of the loop. During the ARTBs, the line width of C II and Si IV increased nearly by a factor of two during the peak emission. Moreover, enhancement in the line width preceded that in the Doppler shift, which again preceded enhancement in the intensity. The observed results were qualitatively reproduced by 1D hydrodynamic simulations, where energy was deposited at both of the footpoints of a monolithic coronal loop that mimicked the ARTBs identified in the observations.

  14. Model of Transient Process Where Three-Phase Transducer Feeds Induction Motor Equivalent as a Variable Active-Inductive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach in the analysis of a transient state in a system where the feeding source is a transducer-IGBT inverter and load is introduced through the induction motor with its R-L parameters. Induction motors with different parameters of powers and power factors are tested. MATLAB simulation of the three-phase inverter that feeds the induction machine has replaced the missing lab equipment with which mathematical model of this system was verified. According to the selected parameters of the inverter and induction machine and through the simulation in the MATLAB program, the results are obtained in the form of diagrams that verify the model of a transient state of the induction machine operation when it operates as a motor which is presented as a variable R-L load. The transient process of the system three-phase bridge inverter whose active-inductive load is the induction machine in the conditions of the change of the load parameters is analyzed. The model of the transient process in the system formed by the inverter in PWM (Pulse Width Modulation converter and induction machine is developed in the time domain and phase coordinates.

  15. A simplified model for tritium permeation transient predictions when trapping is active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a simplified one-dimensional tritium permeation and retention model. The model makes use of the same physical mechanisms as more sophisticated, time-transient codes such as implantation, recombination, diffusion, trapping and thermal gradient effects. It takes advantage of a number of simplifications and approximations to solve the steady-state problem and then provides interpolating functions to make estimates of intermediate states based on the steady-state solution. Comparison calculations with the verified and validated TMAP4 transient code show good agreement. ((orig.))

  16. A simplified model for tritium permeation transient predictions when trapping is active*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G. R.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a simplified one-dimensional tritium permeation and retention model. The model makes use of the same physical mechanisms as more sophisticated, time-transient codes such as implantation, recombination, diffusion, trapping and thermal gradient effects. It takes advantage of a number of simplifications and approximations to solve the steady-state problem and then provides interpolating functions to make estimates of intermediate states based on the steady-state solution. Comparison calculations with the verified and validated TMAP4 transient code show good agreement.

  17. A simplified model for tritium permeation transient predictions when trapping is active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. (Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States))

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a simplified one-dimensional tritium permeation and retention model. The model makes use of the same physical mechanisms as more sophisticated, time-transient codes such as implantation, recombination, diffusion, trapping and thermal gradient effects. It takes advantage of a number of simplifications and approximations to solve the steady-state problem and then provides interpolating functions to make estimates of intermediate states based on the steady-state solution. Comparison calculations with the verified and validated TMAP4 transient code show good agreement. ((orig.))

  18. Transient Control of Synchronous Machine Active and Reactive Power in Micro-grid Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Luke G.

    There are two main topics associated with this dissertation. The first is to investigate phase-to-neutral fault current magnitude occurring in generators with multiple zero-sequence current sources. The second is to design, model, and tune a linear control system for operating a micro-grid in the event of a separation from the electric power system. In the former case, detailed generator, AC8B excitation system, and four-wire electric power system models are constructed. Where available, manufacturers data is used to validate the generator and exciter models. A gain-delay with frequency droop control is used to model an internal combustion engine and governor. The four wire system is connected through a transformer impedance to an infinite bus. Phase-to-neutral faults are imposed on the system, and fault magnitudes analyzed against three-phase faults to gauge their severity. In the latter case, a balanced three-phase system is assumed. The model structure from the former case - but using data for a different generator - is incorporated with a model for an energy storage device and a net load model to form a micro-grid. The primary control model for the energy storage device has a high level of detail, as does the energy storage device plant model in describing the LC filter and transformer. A gain-delay battery and inverter model is used at the front end. The net load model is intended to be the difference between renewable energy sources and load within a micro-grid system that has separated from the grid. Given the variability of both renewable generation and load, frequency and voltage stability are not guaranteed. This work is an attempt to model components of a proposed micro-grid system at the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, and design, model, and tune a linear control system for operation in the event of a separation from the electric power system. The control module is responsible for management of frequency and active power, and voltage and reactive

  19. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Activation-Induced Increase in Glycine-Activated Current in Mouse Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengwen Qi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Glycine plays an important role in regulating hippocampal inhibitory/ excitatory neurotransmission through activating glycine receptors (GlyRs and acting as a co-agonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 is reported to inhibit hippocampal A-type γ-aminobutyric acid receptor, a ligand-gated chloride ion channel. GlyRs are also ligand-gated chloride ion channels and this paper aimed to explore whether activation of TRPV4 could modulate GlyRs. Methods: Whole-cell patch clamp recording was employed to record glycine-activated current (IGly and Western blot was conducted to assess GlyRs subunits protein expression. Results: Application of TRPV4 agonist (GSK1016790A or 5,6-EET increased IGly in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. This action was blocked by specific antagonists of TRPV4 (RN-1734 or HC-067047 and GlyR (strychnine, indicating that activation of TRPV4 increases strychnine-sensitive GlyR function in mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons. GSK1016790A-induced increase in IGly was significantly attenuated by protein kinase C (PKC (BIM II or D-sphingosine or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII (KN-62 or KN-93 antagonists but was unaffected by protein kinase A or protein tyrosine kinase antagonists. Finally, hippocampal protein levels of GlyR α1 α2, α3 and β subunits were not changed by treatment with GSK1016790A for 30 min or 1 h, but GlyR α2, α3 and β subunits protein levels increased in mice that were intracerebroventricularly (icv. injected with GSK1016790A for 5 d. Conclusion: Activation of TRPV4 increases GlyR function and expression, and PKC and CaMKII signaling pathways are involved in TRPV4 activation-induced increase in IGly. This study indicates that GlyRs may be effective targets for TRPV4-induced modulation of hippocampal inhibitory neurotransmission.

  20. Investigation of electrically-active deep levels in single-crystalline diamond by particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, W., E-mail: kada.wataru@gunma-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kambayashi, Y.; Ando, Y. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Onoda, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Umezawa, H.; Mokuno, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Shikata, S. [Kwansei Gakuin Univ., 2-1, Gakuen, Mita, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Makino, T.; Koka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hanaizumi, O. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    To investigate electrically-active deep levels in high-resistivity single-crystalline diamond, particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) techniques were performed using 5.5 MeV alpha particles and 9 MeV carbon focused microprobes. For unintentionally-doped (UID) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, deep levels with activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.43 eV were detected which correspond to the activation energy of boron acceptors in diamond. The results suggested that alpha particle and heavy ion induced QTS techniques are the promising candidate for in-situ investigation of deep levels in high-resistivity semiconductors.

  1. INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring: transient activity from KS 1741-293, MXB 1730-335, and IGR J17498-2921

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Brandt, Søren; Kuulkers, E.

    2011-01-01

    sigma upper limit of 10 mCrab (40-100 keV) A series of 15 type II bursts is detected when the source was inside the JEM-X field of view, with an average burst recurrence time of about four minutes. The new transient source IGR J17498-2921 (see, e.g., ATels #3551, #3556, #3558, #3568, #3606) is only...

  2. Transient activation of dopaminergic neurons during development modulates visual responsiveness, locomotion and brain activity in a dopamine ontogeny model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, B; Eyles, D; van Alphen, B; van Swinderen, B

    2013-01-08

    It has been observed that certain developmental environmental risk factors for schizophrenia when modeled in rodents alter the trajectory of dopaminergic development, leading to persistent behavioural changes in adults. This has recently been articulated as the "dopamine ontogeny hypothesis of schizophrenia". To test one aspect of this hypothesis, namely that transient dopaminergic effects during development modulate attention-like behavior and arousal in adults, we turned to a small-brain model, Drosophila melanogaster. By applying genetic tools allowing transient activation or silencing of dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain, we investigated whether a critical window exists during development when altered dopamine (DA) activity levels could lead to impairments in arousal states in adult animals. We found that increased activity in dopaminergic neurons in later stages of development significantly increased visual responsiveness and locomotion, especially in adult males. This misallocation of visual salience and hyperactivity mimicked the effect of acute methamphetamine feeding to adult flies, suggesting up-regulated DA signaling could result from developmental manipulations. Finally, brain recordings revealed significantly reduced gamma-band activity in adult animals exposed to the transient developmental insult. Together, these data support the idea that transient alterations in DA signaling during development can permanently alter behavior in adults, and that a reductionist model such as Drosophila can be used to investigate potential mechanisms underlying complex cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia.

  3. Transient Activation of Apomixis in Sexual Neotriploids May Retain Genomically Altered States and Enhance Polyploid Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Hojsgaard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploid genomes evolve and follow a series of dynamic transfigurations along with adaptation and speciation. The initial formation of a new polyploid individual within a diploid population usually involves a triploid bridge, a two-step mechanism of cell fusions between ubiquitous (reduced and rare (unreduced gametes. The primary fusion event creates an intermediate triploid individual with unbalanced genome sets, a situation of genomic-shock characterized by gene expression dysregulation, high dosage sensitivity, disturbed cell divisions, and physiological and reproductive attributes drastically altered. This near-sterile neotriploid must produce (even eupolyploids through secondary fusion events to restore genome steadiness, meiotic balance, and fertility required for the demographic establishment of a nascent lineage. Natural conditions locate several difficulties to polyploid establishment, including the production of highly unbalanced and rarely unreduced (euploid gametes, frequency-dependent disadvantages (minority cytotype exclusion, severe fitness loss, and ecological competition with diploid parents. Persistence and adaptation of neopolyploids depend upon genetic and phenotypic novelty coupled to joint selective forces that preserve shock-induced genomic changes (subgenome homeolog partitioning and drive meiotic (reproductive stabilization and ecological diversification. Thus, polyploid establishment through the triploid bridge is a feasible but not ubiquitous process that requires a number of low-probability events and singular circumstances. Yet, frequencies of polyploids suggest that polyploid establishment is a pervasive process. To explain this disparity, and supported in experimental evidence, I propose that situations like hybridization and ploidy-state transitions associated to genomic shock and substantial developmental alterations can transiently activate apomixis as a mechanism to halt genomic instability and cancel factors

  4. Renewed Activity from the X-Ray Transient SAXJ 1810.8-2609 with Integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, M.; Natalucci, L.; Chenevez, J.; Bazzano, A.; Tarana, A.; Ubertini, P.; Brandt, S.; Beckmann, V.; Federici, M.; Galis, R.; Hudec, R.

    2009-03-01

    We report on the results of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SAX J1810.8-2609 during its latest active phase in 2007 August. The current outburst is the first one since 1998 and the derived luminosity is 1.1-2.6 ×1036 erg s-1 in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of ~5 × 10-12 M sun yr-1 suggest that SAX J1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of kT e~ 23-30 keV and an optical depth of τ~ 1.2-1.5, independent of the luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot, optically thin electron plasma. During the decay, spectra have a different shape, the high energy tail being compatible with a single power law. This confirm similar behavior observed by BeppoSAX during the previous outburst, with the absence of visible cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum. INTEGRAL/JEM-X instrument observed four X-ray bursts in Fall 2007. The first one has the highest peak flux (≈3.5 crab in 3-25 keV) giving an upper limit to the distance of the source of about 5.7 kpc, for a L Edd ≈ 3.8 × 1038 erg s-1. The observed recurrence time of ~ 1.2 days and the ratio of the total energy emitted in the persistent flux to that emitted in the bursts (α~ 73) allow us to conclude that the burst fuel was composed by mixed hydrogen and helium with X >= 0.4. INTEGRAL is an ESA project with Instruments and Science Data Center funded by ESA member states, especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain; Czech Republic and Poland; and with the participation of Russia and USA.

  5. Activation of acid-sensing ion channels by localized proton transient reveals their role in proton signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Di-Shi; Liu, Lu; She, Liang; Wu, Long-Jun; Xu, Tian-Le

    2015-09-15

    Extracellular transients of pH alterations likely mediate signal transduction in the nervous system. Neuronal acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) act as sensors for extracellular protons, but the mechanism underlying ASIC activation remains largely unknown. Here, we show that, following activation of a light-activated proton pump, Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch), proton transients induced ASIC currents in both neurons and HEK293T cells co-expressing ASIC1a channels. Using chimera proteins that bridge Arch and ASIC1a by a glycine/serine linker, we found that successful coupling occurred within 15 nm distance. Furthermore, two-cell sniffer patch recording revealed that regulated release of protons through either Arch or voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 activated neighbouring cells expressing ASIC1a channels. Finally, computational modelling predicted the peak proton concentration at the intercellular interface to be at pH 6.7, which is acidic enough to activate ASICs in vivo. Our results highlight the pathophysiological role of proton signalling in the nervous system.

  6. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  7. Optimization of an NLEO-based algorithm for automated detection of spontaneous activity transients in early preterm EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmu, Kirsi; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Stevenson, Nathan; Wikström, Sverre; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Palva, J Matias

    2010-01-01

    We propose here a simple algorithm for automated detection of spontaneous activity transients (SATs) in early preterm electroencephalography (EEG). The parameters of the algorithm were optimized by supervised learning using a gold standard created from visual classification data obtained from three human raters. The generalization performance of the algorithm was estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The mean sensitivity of the optimized algorithm was 97% (range 91–100%) and specificity 95% (76–100%). The optimized algorithm makes it possible to systematically study brain state fluctuations of preterm infants. (note)

  8. A polycystin-type transient receptor potential (Trp channel that is activated by ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Traynor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ATP and ADP are ancient extra-cellular signalling molecules that in Dictyostelium amoebae cause rapid, transient increases in cytosolic calcium due to an influx through the plasma membrane. This response is independent of hetero-trimeric G-proteins, the putative IP3 receptor IplA and all P2X channels. We show, unexpectedly, that it is abolished in mutants of the polycystin-type transient receptor potential channel, TrpP. Responses to the chemoattractants cyclic-AMP and folic acid are unaffected in TrpP mutants. We report that the DIF morphogens, cyclic-di-GMP, GABA, glutamate and adenosine all induce strong cytoplasmic calcium responses, likewise independently of TrpP. Thus, TrpP is dedicated to purinergic signalling. ATP treatment causes cell blebbing within seconds but this does not require TrpP, implicating a separate purinergic receptor. We could detect no effect of ATP on chemotaxis and TrpP mutants grow, chemotax and develop almost normally in standard conditions. No gating ligand is known for the human homologue of TrpP, polycystin-2, which causes polycystic kidney disease. Our results now show that TrpP mediates purinergic signalling in Dictyostelium and is directly or indirectly gated by ATP.

  9. Profound regulation of Na/K pump activity by transient elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in murine cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Min; Deisl, Christine; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2016-09-14

    Small changes of Na/K pump activity regulate internal Ca release in cardiac myocytes via Na/Ca exchange. We now show conversely that transient elevations of cytoplasmic Ca strongly regulate cardiac Na/K pumps. When cytoplasmic Na is submaximal, Na/K pump currents decay rapidly during extracellular K application and multiple results suggest that an inactivation mechanism is involved. Brief activation of Ca influx by reverse Na/Ca exchange enhances pump currents and attenuates current decay, while repeated Ca elevations suppress pump currents. Pump current enhancement reverses over 3 min, and results are similar in myocytes lacking the regulatory protein, phospholemman. Classical signaling mechanisms, including Ca-activated protein kinases and reactive oxygen, are evidently not involved. Electrogenic signals mediated by intramembrane movement of hydrophobic ions, such as hexyltriphenylphosphonium (C6TPP), increase and decrease in parallel with pump currents. Thus, transient Ca elevation and Na/K pump inactivation cause opposing sarcolemma changes that may affect diverse membrane processes.

  10. Transient alterations in neurotransmitter activity in the caudate nucleus of rat brain after a high dose of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Darden, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A single 10,000-rad dose of high-energy electrons induced an increase in dopaminergic and cholinergic activity in the caudate nucleus of the rat brain as assessed by K + -stimulated dopamine release in vitro and high-affinity choline uptake. These alterations occur during early transient incapacitation (ETI) and dissipate as the animal recovers behaviorally, in about 30 min after irradiation. Although the responses observed resemble those that result from blockade of dopamine receptors, no radiation-induced changes were found in dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity and [ 3 H]haloperidol binding, two indices of dopaminergic receptor function. The data suggest that changes in dopaminergic and cholinergic activity are associated with the development of ETI and may play a role in the behavioral decrement observed under this condition

  11. Current status of models for transient phenomena in dopant diffusion and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, P.; Stiebel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Transient phenomena caused by ion-implantation processes have been studied for more than 25 years now with a continuously increasing number of research articles published in this field per year. One driving force of this research is the ongoing miniaturization of ULSI MOS and bipolar technology which uses extensively the capabilities of technology-computer-aided-design (TCAD). The other driving force which attracts also academic institutions and research institutes is the high complexity of the phenomena, involving the interaction of dopants, intrinsic point defects, extended defects and impurities like carbon as well as the interactions of mobile defects with surfaces and interfaces and their redistribution in multilayer structures. This paper outlines some recent advances towards a quantitative description of such phenomena

  12. Neuroprotective effect of safranal, an active ingredient of Crocus sativus , in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Sadeghnia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Safranal is a monoterpene aldehyde found in saffron (Crocus sativus L. petals. It has been previously reported that safranal has a wide range of activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we examined the effect of safranal on brain injuries in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Safranal in the doses of 72.5 and 145 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally at 0, 3, and 6 h after reperfusion. Neurobehavioral deficit, infarct volume, hippocampal cell loss and markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, total sulfhydryl (SH content, and antioxidant capacity (using FRAP assay were also assessed. The focal cerebral ischemia induced a significant increase in the neurological score, infarct volume and neuronal cell loss in the ipsilateral hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields (p < 0.001 and also oxidative stress markers (p < 0.01. Following safranal administration, the total SH content and antioxidant capacity significantly increased, while marked decreases were observed in the neurological score, infarct volume and hippocampal cell loss, as well as TBARS level. This study concluded that safranal had protective effects on ischemic reperfusion injury in the rat model of stroke. Such effects of safranal may have been exerted mainly by suppressing the production of free radicals and increasing antioxidant activity.

  13. HIF-1α Activation Attenuates IL-6 and TNF-α Pathways in Hippocampus of Rats Following Transient Global Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study was to examine the role played by hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α in regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs pathway in the rat hippocampus after cardiac arrest (CA induced-transient global ischemia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Those PICs include interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Methods: A rat model of CA induced by asphyxia was used in the current study. Following CPR, the hippocampus CA1 region was obtained for ELISA to determine the levels of HIF-1α and PICs; and Western Blot analysis to determine the protein levels of PIC receptors. Results: Our data show that IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significant elevated in the hippocampus after CPR as compared with control group. This was companied with increasing of HIF-1α and the time courses for HIF-1α and PICs were similar. In addition, PIC receptors, namely IL-1R, IL-6R and TNFR1 were upregulated in CA rats. Also, stimulation of HIF-1α by systemic administration of ML228, HIF-1α activator, significantly attenuated the amplified IL-6/IL-6R and TNF-α /TNFR1 pathway in the hippocampus of CA rats, but did not modify IL-1β and its receptor. Moreover, ML228 attenuated upregulated expression of Caspase-3 indicating cell apoptosis evoked by CA. Conclusion: Transient global ischemia induced by CA increases the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and thereby leads to enhancement in their respective receptor in the rat hippocampus. Stabilization of HIF-1α plays a role in attenuating amplified expression IL-6R, TNFR1 and Caspase-3 in the processing of transient global ischemia. Results of our study suggest that PICs contribute to cerebral injuries evoked by transient global ischemia and in this pathophysiological process activation of HIF-1α improves tissues against ischemic injuries. Our data revealed specific signaling pathways in alleviating CA-evoked global cerebral ischemia by elucidating that

  14. INTEGRAL sees continuing activity from SAX J1747.0-2853, but not from SAX J1750.8-2900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    The JEM-X instrument detects strong flaring activity between 80 and 700 mCrab (3-25 keV). The average JEM-X spectrum is well described (reduced chi-squared is 1.1 for 11 degrees of freedom) by an absorbed black body plus power law (fixing the interstellar absorption, N_H, to 9e22 cm^-2, Natalucci...

  15. Ultrafast triggered transient energy storage by atomic layer deposition into porous silicon for integrated transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Share, Keith; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics.Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (i) Experimental details for ALD and material fabrication, ellipsometry film thickness, preparation of gel electrolyte and separator, details for electrochemical measurements, HRTEM image of VOx coated porous silicon, Raman spectroscopy for VOx as-deposited as well as annealed in air for 1 hour at 450 °C, SEM and transient behavior dissolution tests of uniformly coated VOx on

  16. Seeing by touch: evaluation of a soft biologically-inspired artificial fingertip in real-time active touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Tareq; Roke, Calum; Rossiter, Jonathan; Pipe, Tony; Melhuish, Chris

    2014-02-07

    Effective tactile sensing for artificial platforms remains an open issue in robotics. This study investigates the performance of a soft biologically-inspired artificial fingertip in active exploration tasks. The fingertip sensor replicates the mechanisms within human skin and offers a robust solution that can be used both for tactile sensing and gripping/manipulating objects. The softness of the optical sensor's contact surface also allows safer interactions with objects. High-level tactile features such as edges are extrapolated from the sensor's output and the information is used to generate a tactile image. The work presented in this paper aims to investigate and evaluate this artificial fingertip for 2D shape reconstruction. The sensor was mounted on a robot arm to allow autonomous exploration of different objects. The sensor and a number of human participants were then tested for their abilities to track the raised perimeters of different planar objects and compared. By observing the technique and accuracy of the human subjects, simple but effective parameters were determined in order to evaluate the artificial system's performance. The results prove the capability of the sensor in such active exploration tasks, with a comparable performance to the human subjects despite it using tactile data alone whereas the human participants were also able to use proprioceptive cues.

  17. Maitotoxin Is a Potential Selective Activator of the Endogenous Transient Receptor Potential Canonical Type 1 Channel in Xenopus laevis Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Flores

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maitotoxin (MTX is the most potent marine toxin known to date. It is responsible for a particular human intoxication syndrome called ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. Several reports indicate that MTX is an activator of non-selective cation channels (NSCC in different cell types. The molecular identity of these channels is still an unresolved topic, and it has been proposed that the transient receptor potential (TRP channels are involved in this effect. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, MTX at picomolar (pM concentrations induces the activation of NSCC with functional and pharmacological properties that resemble the activity of TRP channels. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular identity of the TRP channel involved in the MTX response, using the small interference RNA (siRNA approach and the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique (TEVC. The injection of a specifically designed siRNA to silence the transient receptor potential canonical type 1 (TRPC1 protein expression abolished the MTX response. MTX had no effect on oocytes, even at doses 20-fold higher compared to cells without injection. Total mRNA and protein levels of TRPC1 were notably diminished. The TRPC4 siRNA did not change the MTX effect, even though it was important to note that the protein level was reduced by the silencing of TRPC4. Our results suggest that MTX could be a selective activator of TRPC1 channels in X. laevis oocytes and a useful pharmacological tool for further studies on these TRP channels.

  18. Plant-derived cannabinoids modulate the activity of transient receptor potential channels of ankyrin type-1 and melastatin type-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Vellani, Vittorio; Schiano-Moriello, Aniello; Marini, Pietro; Magherini, Pier Cosimo; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2008-06-01

    The plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), cannabidiol (CBD), and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were previously shown to activate transient receptor potential channels of both vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1), respectively. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid anandamide is known to activate TRPV1 and was recently found to antagonize the menthol- and icilin-sensitive transient receptor potential channels of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8). In this study, we investigated the effects of six phytocannabinoids [i.e., CBD, THC, CBD acid, THC acid, cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG)] on TRPA1- and TRPM8-mediated increase in intracellular Ca2+ in either HEK-293 cells overexpressing the two channels or rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. All of the compounds tested induced TRPA1-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells with efficacy comparable with that of mustard oil isothiocyanates (MO), the most potent being CBC (EC(50) = 60 nM) and the least potent being CBG and CBD acid (EC(50) = 3.4-12.0 microM). CBC also activated MO-sensitive DRG neurons, although with lower potency (EC(50) = 34.3 microM). Furthermore, although none of the compounds tested activated TRPM8-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells, they all, with the exception of CBC, antagonized this response when it was induced by either menthol or icilin. CBD, CBG, THC, and THC acid were equipotent (IC(50) = 70-160 nM), whereas CBD acid was the least potent compound (IC(50) = 0.9-1.6 microM). CBG inhibited Ca2+ elevation also in icilin-sensitive DRG neurons with potency (IC(50) = 4.5 microM) similar to that of anandamide (IC(50) = 10 microM). Our findings suggest that phytocannabinoids and cannabis extracts exert some of their pharmacological actions also by interacting with TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels, with potential implications for the treatment of pain and cancer.

  19. RENEWED ACTIVITY FROM THE X-RAY TRANSIENT SAXJ 1810.8-2609 WITH INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Natalucci, L.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    (36) erg s(-1) in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of similar to 5 x 10(-12) M-circle dot yr(-1) suggest that SAX J1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal...... Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of kT(e) similar to 23-30 keV and an optical depth of tau similar to 1.2-1.5, independent of the luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot......, optically thin electron plasma. During the decay, spectra have a different shape, the high energy tail being compatible with a single power law. This confirm similar behavior observed by BeppoSAX during the previous outburst, with the absence of visible cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum. INTEGRAL...

  20. Transient Performance Improvement of Wind Turbines with Doubly Fed Induction Generators Using Active Damping Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soleymani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper Analytically investigates the effects of system and controller parameters and operating conditions on the dynamic and transient behavior of wind turbines (WTs with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs under voltage dips and wind speed fluctuations. Also, it deals with the design considerations regarding rotor and speed controllers. The poorly damped electrical and mechanical modes of the system are identified, and the effects of system parameters, and speed/rotor controllers on these modes are investigated by modal and sensitivity analyses. The results of theoretical studies are verified by time domain simulations. It is found that the dynamic behavior of the DFIG-based WT under voltage dips is strongly affected by the stator dynamics. Further, it is shown that the closed loop bandwidth of the rotor current control, rotor current damping, DFIG power factor and the rotor back-emf voltages have high impact on the stator modes and consequently on the DFIG dynamic behavior. Moreover, it is shown that the dynamic behavior of DFIG-based WT under wind speed fluctuation is significantly dependent on the bandwidth and damping of speed control loop.

  1. SUMOylation of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 promotes its stabilization/activation through transient recruitment to PML bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Georges

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FOXL2 is a transcription factor essential for ovarian development and maintenance. It is mutated in the genetic condition called Blepharophimosis Ptosis Epicantus inversus Syndrome (BPES and in cases of isolated premature ovarian failure. We and others have previously shown that FOXL2 undergoes several post-translational modifications. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, using cells in culture, we show that interference with FOXL2 SUMOylation leads to a robust inhibition of its transactivation ability, which correlates with a decreased stability. Interestingly, FOXL2 SUMOylation promotes its transient recruitment to subnuclear structures that we demonstrate to be PML (Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Bodies. Since PML bodies are known to be sites where post-translational modifications of nuclear factors take place, we used tandem mass spectrometry to identify new post-translational modifications of FOXL2. Specifically, we detected four phosphorylated, one sulfated and three acetylated sites. CONCLUSIONS: By analogy with other transcription factors, we propose that PML Nuclear Bodies might transiently recruit FOXL2 to the vicinity of locally concentrated enzymes that could be involved in the post-translational maturation of FOXL2. FOXL2 acetylation, sulfation, phosphorylation as well as other modifications yet to be discovered might alter the transactivation capacity of FOXL2 and/or its stability, thus modulating its global intracellular activity.

  2. SEEING IS BELIEVING, AND BELIEVING IS SEEING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrow, B. L.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience disciplines are filled with visual displays of data. From the first cave drawings to remote imaging of our Planet, visual displays of information have been used to understand and interpret our discipline. As practitioners of the art, visuals comprise the core around which we write scholarly articles, teach our students and make every day decisions. The effectiveness of visual communication, however, varies greatly. For many visual displays, a significant amount of prior knowledge is needed to understand and interpret various representations. If this is missing, key components of communication fail. One common example is the use of animations to explain high density and typically complex data. Do animations effectively convey information, simply "wow an audience" or do they confuse the subject by using unfamiliar forms and representations? Prior knowledge impacts the information derived from visuals and when communicating with non-experts this factor is exacerbated. For example, in an advanced geology course fractures in a rock are viewed by petroleum engineers as conduits for fluid migration while geoscience students 'see' the minerals lining the fracture. In contrast, a lay audience might view these images as abstract art. Without specific and direct accompanying verbal or written communication such an image is viewed radically differently by disparate audiences. Experts and non-experts do not 'see' equivalent images. Each visual must be carefully constructed with it's communication task in mind. To enhance learning and communication at all levels by visual displays of data requires that we teach visual literacy as a portion of our curricula. As we move from one form of visual representation to another, our mental images are expanded as is our ability to see and interpret new visual forms thus promoting life-long learning. Visual literacy is key to communication in our visually rich discipline. What do you see?

  3. Estimation of transient increases in bleeding risk associated with physical activity in children with haemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latimer Jane

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is widely appreciated that vigorous physical activity can increase the risk of bleeding episodes in children with haemophilia, the magnitude of the increase in risk is not known. Accurate risk estimates could inform decisions made by children with haemophilia and their parents about participation in physical activity and aid the development of optimal prophylactic schedules. The aim of this study is to provide an accurate estimate of the risks of bleeding associated with vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia. Methods/Design The study will be a case-crossover study nested within a prospective cohort study. Children with moderate or severe haemophilia A or B, recruited from two paediatric haematology departments in Australia, will participate in the study. The child, or the child's parent or guardian, will report bleeding episodes experienced over a 12-month period. Following a bleeding episode, the participant will be interviewed by telephone about exposures to physical activity in the case period (8 hours before the bleed and 2 control periods (an 8 hour period at the same time on the day preceding the bleed and an 8 hour period two days preceding the bleed. Conditional logistic regression will be used to estimate the risk of participating in vigorous physical activity from measures of exposure to physical activity in the case and control periods. Discussion This case-control study will provide estimates of the risk of participation in vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia.

  4. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  5. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Subtype 8 Attenuates Cold-Induced Hypertension Through Ameliorating Vascular Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shiqiang; Wang, Bin; Lin, Shaoyang; Zhang, Hexuan; Li, Yingsha; Wei, Xing; Cui, Yuanting; Wei, Xiao; Lu, Zongshi; Gao, Peng; Li, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2017-08-02

    Environmental cold-induced hypertension is common, but how to treat cold-induced hypertension remains an obstacle. Transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is a mild cold-sensing nonselective cation channel that is activated by menthol. Little is known about the effect of TRPM8 activation by menthol on mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis and the vascular function in cold-induced hypertension. Primary vascular smooth muscle cells from wild-type or Trpm8 -/- mice were cultured. In vitro, we confirmed that sarcoplasmic reticulum-resident TRPM8 participated in the regulation of cellular and mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis in the vascular smooth muscle cells. TRPM8 activation by menthol antagonized angiotensin II induced mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and excess reactive oxygen species generation by preserving pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, which hindered reactive oxygen species-triggered Ca 2+ influx and the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. In vivo, long-term noxious cold stimulation dramatically increased vasoconstriction and blood pressure. The activation of TRPM8 by dietary menthol inhibited vascular reactive oxygen species generation, vasoconstriction, and lowered blood pressure through attenuating excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediated the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase in a TRPM8-dependent manner. These effects of menthol were further validated in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice. Long-term dietary menthol treatment targeting and preserving mitochondrial function may represent a nonpharmaceutical measure for environmental noxious cold-induced hypertension. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Opioid withdrawal increases transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activity in a protein kinase A-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Viola; Fischer, Oliver; Endres-Becker, Jeannette; Schäfer, Michael; Stein, Christoph; Zöllner, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hyperalgesia is a cardinal symptom of opioid withdrawal. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed on sensory neurons responding to noxious heat, protons, and chemical stimuli such as capsaicin. TRPV1 can be inhibited via μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated reduced activity of adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. In contrast, opioid withdrawal following chronic activation of MOR uncovers AC superactivation and subsequent increases in cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Here we investigated (1) whether an increase in cAMP during opioid withdrawal increases the activity of TRPV1 and (2) how opioid withdrawal modulates capsaicin-induced nocifensive behavior in rats. We applied whole-cell patch clamp, microfluorimetry, cAMP assays, radioligand binding, site-directed mutagenesis, and behavioral experiments. Opioid withdrawal significantly increased cAMP levels and capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity in both transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells and dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Inhibition of AC and PKA, as well as mutations of the PKA phosphorylation sites threonine 144 and serine 774, prevented the enhanced TRPV1 activity. Finally, capsaicin-induced nocifensive behavior was increased during opioid withdrawal in vivo. In summary, our results demonstrate an increased activity of TRPV1 in DRG neurons as a new mechanism contributing to opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...... culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1a transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two......-legged knee extensor exercise. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the untrained and trained legs before exercise and after 0, 2, 6 and 24 h of recovery. Time to exhaustion (2 min maximum resistance), as well as hexokinase II (HKII), citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl...

  8. Transient increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate during activation of human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynor-Kaplan, A.E.; Thompson, B.L.; Harris, A.L.; Taylor, P.; Omann, G.M.; Sklar, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    We recently showed that phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3) was present in a unique lipid fraction generated in neutrophils during activation. Here, we demonstrate that the band containing this fraction isolated from thin layer chromatography consists primarily of PIP3 and that only small amounts of radiolabeled PIP3 exist prior to activation. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography of deacylated phospholipids from stimulated cells reveals an increase in a fraction eluting ahead of glycerophosphoinositol 4,5-P2. After removal of the glycerol we found that it coeluted with inositol 1,3,4-P3 when resubjected to high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, we have detected a second, novel form of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in activated neutrophils, PI-(3,4)P2. The elevation of PIP3 through the formyl peptide receptor is blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating mediation of the increase in PIP3 by a guanosine triphosphate-binding (G) protein. The rise in PIP3 is not secondary to calcium elevation. Buffering the rise in intracellular calcium did not diminish the increase in PIP3. The elevation of PIP3 appears to occur during activation with physiological agonists, its level varying with the degree of activation. Leukotriene B4, which elicits many of the same responses as stimulation of the formyl peptide receptor but with minimal oxidant production, stimulates a much attenuated rise in PIP3. Isoproterenol, which inhibits oxidant production also reduces the rise in PIP3. Hence formation of PI(3,4)P2 and PIP3 (presumed to be PI(3,4,5)P3) correlates closely with the early events of neutrophil activation

  9. Multi-dimensional Analysis for SLB Transient in ATLAS Facility as Activity of DSP (Domestic Standard Problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, B. U.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, J. R.; Kang, K. H.; Choi, K. Y.; Sung, H. J.; Hwang, M. J.; Kang, D. H.; Lim, S. G.; Jun, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Participants of DSP-03 were divided in three groups and each group has focused on the specific subject related to the enhancement of the code analysis. The group A tried to investigate scaling capability of ATLAS test data by comparing to the code analysis for a prototype, and the group C studied to investigate effect of various models in the one-dimensional codes. This paper briefly summarizes the code analysis result from the group B participants in the DSP-03 of the ATLAS test facility. The code analysis by Group B focuses highly on investigating the multi-dimensional thermal hydraulic phenomena in the ATLAS facility during the SLB transient. Even though the one-dimensional system analysis code cannot simulate the whole system of the ATLAS facility with a nodalization of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) scale, a reactor pressure vessel can be considered with multi-dimensional components to reflect the thermal mixing phenomena inside a downcomer and a core. Also, the CFD could give useful information for understanding complex phenomena in specific components such as the reactor pressure vessel. From the analysis activity of Group B in ATLAS DSP-03, participants adopted a multi-dimensional approach to the code analysis for the SLB transient in the ATLAS test facility. The main purpose of the analysis was to investigate prediction capability of multi-dimensional analysis tools for the SLB experiment result. In particular, the asymmetric cooling and thermal mixing phenomena in the reactor pressure vessel could be significantly focused for modeling the multi-dimensional components

  10. Transient ureteral obstruction prevents against kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2α activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Zhang

    Full Text Available Although the protective effect of transient ureteral obstruction (UO prior to ischemia on subsequent renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury has been documented, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be understood. We showed in the current study that 24 h of UO led to renal tubular hypoxia in the ipsilateral kidney in mice, with the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2α, which lasted for a week after the release of UO. To address the functions of HIF-2α in UO-mediated protection of renal IRI, we utilized the Mx-Cre/loxP recombination system to knock out target genes. Inactivation of HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α blunted the renal protective effects of UO, as demonstrated by much higher serum creatinine level and severer histological damage. UO failed to prevent postischemic neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis induction in HIF-2α knockout mice, which also diminished the postobstructive up-regulation of the protective molecule, heat shock protein (HSP-27. The renal protective effects of UO were associated with the improvement of the postischemic recovery of intra-renal microvascular blood flow, which was also dependent on the activation of HIF-2α. Our results demonstrated that UO protected the kidney via activation of HIF-2α, which reduced tubular damages via preservation of adequate renal microvascular perfusion after ischemia. Thus, preconditional HIF-2α activation might serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemic acute renal failure.

  11. Hippocampal activity during transient respiratory events in the freely behaving cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poe, G R; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M

    1996-01-01

    We measured dorsal hippocampal activity accompanying sighs and apnea using reflectance imaging and electrophysiologic measures in freely behaving cats. Reflected 660-nm light from a 1-mm2 area of CA1 was captured during sighs and apnea at 25 Hz through a coherent image conduit coupled to a charge...

  12. Inhibition of proteases activity in intestine needs a sustainable acidic environment rather than a transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chang; Xing, Jin-Feng; Ge, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-10-01

    α-Chymotrypsin (α-CT) and trypsin are important components of the enzymatic barrier. They could degrade the therapeutic proteins and peptides, inhibit their activity consequently, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. Acidic agents, as one type of indirect protease inhibitors, have shown proof of concept in clinical trials. We report here the inactivated proteases due to acid influence can be reactivated immediately by environmental pH recovery regardless of how long the inactivation last. To keep the inactivation time of proteases for 4-5 h, we designed and prepared a sustained-release tablet containing citric acid (CA) which can effectively reduce the pH below 5.0 and maintain it for 5 h in the dissolution-reaction medium. The activity of α-CT and trypsin was quantified by analyzing the residual amount of their respective substrates BTEE and TAME. More than 80% of the substrates were survived in 5.0 h of incubation, whereas the common tablet inhibited the proteases activity for only two hours in the same experimental medium. It indicates that the sustained-release tablet loaded with CA can efficiently inhibit the α-CT and trypsin activity longer than the common tablet. The results will be beneficial for designing and formulating the peroral administration of peptide and protein drugs.

  13. Characterization of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Variant Activation by Coal Fly Ash Particles and Associations with Altered Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) Expression and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Stockmann, Chris; Romero, Erin G; Lu, Zhenyu; Shapiro, Darien; Stone, Bryan L; Fassl, Bernhard; Nkoy, Flory; Uchida, Derek A; Ward, Robert M; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2016-11-25

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated by environmental particulate materials. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) would be uniquely responsive to insoluble coal fly ash compared with the prototypical soluble agonist capsaicin. Furthermore, these changes would manifest as differences in lung cell responses to these agonists and perhaps correlate with changes in asthma symptom control. The TRPV1-I315M and -T469I variants were more responsive to capsaicin and coal fly ash. The I585V variant was less responsive to coal fly ash particles due to reduced translation of protein and an apparent role for Ile-585 in activation by particles. In HEK-293 cells, I585V had an inhibitory effect on wild-type TRPV1 expression, activation, and internalization/agonist-induced desensitization. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, IL-8 secretion in response to coal fly ash treatment was reduced for cells heterozygous for TRPV1-I585V. Finally, both the I315M and I585V variants were associated with worse asthma symptom control with the effects of I315M manifesting in mild asthma and those of the I585V variant manifesting in severe, steroid-insensitive individuals. This effect may be due in part to increased transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) expression by lung epithelial cells expressing the TRPV1-I585V variant. These findings suggest that specific molecular interactions control TRPV1 activation by particles, differential activation, and desensitization of TRPV1 by particles and/or other agonists, and cellular changes in the expression of TRPA1 as a result of I585V expression could contribute to variations in asthma symptom control. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Transient Thermal State of an Active Braille Matrix with Incorporated Thermal Actuators by Means of Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alutei, Alexandra-Maria; Szelitzky, Emoke; Mandru, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the transient thermal analysis for a developed thermal linear actuator based on wax paraffin used to drive the cells of a Braille device. A numerical investigation of transient heat transfer phenomenon during paraffin melting and solidification in an encapsulated recipient has been carried out using the ANSYS…

  15. Transient Angle Stability Analysis of Grid-Connected Converters with the First-order Active Power Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Heng; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    . To tackle this challenge, this paper employs the phase portrait to analyze the transient stability of power converters, and it is found that the better transient stability performance can be achieved if the grid-connected converters are controlled as the first-order nonlinear system. Simulations...

  16. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infants with urinary tract malformations (UTM presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI are prone to develop transient type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (THPA1. Objective. Report on patient series with characteristics of THPA1, UTM and/or UTI and suggestions for the diagnosis and therapy. Methods. Patients underwent blood and urine electrolyte and acid-base analysis, serum aldosterosterone levels and plasma rennin activity measuring; urinalysis, urinoculture and renal ultrasound were done and medical and/or surgical therapy was instituted. Results. Hyponatraemia (120.9±5.8 mmol/L, hyperkalaemia (6.9±0.9 mmol/L, metabolic acidosis (plasma bicarbonate, 11±1.4 mmol/L, and a rise in serum creatinine levels (145±101 μmol/L were associated with inappropriately high urinary sodium (51.3±17.5 mmol/L and low potassium (14.1±5.9 mmol/L excretion. Elevated plasma aldosterone concentrations (170.4±100.5 ng/dL and the very high levels of the plasma aldosterone to potassium ratio (25.2±15.6 together with diminished urinary K/Na values (0.31±0.19 indicated tubular resistance to aldosterone. After institution of appropriate medical and/or surgical therapy, serum electrolytes, creatinine, and acid-base balance were normalized. Imaging studies showed ureteropyelic or ureterovesical junction obstruction in 3 and 2 patients, respectively, posterior urethral valves in 3, and normal UT in 1 patient. According to our knowledge, this is the first report on THPA1 in the Serbian literature. Conclusion. Male infants with hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis have to have their urine examined and the renal ultrasound has to be done in order to avoid both, the underdiagnosis of THPA1 and the inappropriate medication.

  17. Neuroprotective Activity of Lavender Oil on Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng Zheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The air-dried aerial parts of Lavandula angustifolia Mill, a traditional Uygur herbal drug, is used as resuscitation-inducing therapy to treat neurodisfunctions, such as stroke. This study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effects of lavender oil against ischemia/reperfusion (IR injury in mice. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the intraluminal occlusion method with a nylon string. The neurodysfuntion was evaluated by neurological deficit and the infarct area was showed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining. The histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA and carbonyl, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px in brain tissue were measured to estimate the oxidative stress state. Neurological deficit, infarct size, histopathology changes and oxidative stress markers were evaluated after 22 h of reperfusion. In comparison with the model group, treatment with lavender oil significantly decreased neurological deficit scores, infarct size, the levels of MDA, carbonyl and ROS, and attenuated neuronal damage, upregulated SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and GSH/GSSG ratio. These results suggested that the neuroprotective effects of lavender oil against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury may be attributed to its antioxidant effects.

  18. Molecular Docking Analysis of Ginger Active Compound on Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 1 (TRPV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifteen Aprila Fajrin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginger had been reported to ameliorate painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN in an animal model. Gingerol and shogaol were active compounds of ginger that potentially act on transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1, a key receptor in PDN. This study aims to predict the binding of gingerol and shogaol to TRPV1 using an in silico model. The ligands of the docking study were 3 chemical compounds of each gingerol and shogaol, i.e. 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerol, 8 gingerol and 10-gingerol. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, was used as a native ligand. The TRPV1 structure was taken from Protein Data Bank (ID 3J9J. The docking analysis was performed using Autodock Vina. The result showed that among the ginger active compounds, 6-shogaol had the strongest binding energy (-7.10 kcal/mol to TRPV1. The 6-shogaol lacked the potential hydrogen bond to Ile265 of TRPV1 protein, which capsacin had. However, it's binding energy towards TRPV1 was not significantly different compared to capsaicin. Therefore, 6-shogaol had potential to be developed as a treatment for PDN.

  19. Glycolytic metabolite methylglyoxal inhibits cold and menthol activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin type 8 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, A C; Selescu, T; Gasler, I; Soltuzu, L; Babes, A

    2016-03-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl compound involved in protein modifications linked to diabetes mellitus. The plasma level of MG is elevated in diabetic patients, particularly those with painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy is often associated with spontaneous pain and altered thermal perception. This study assesses effects of MG on TRPM8, an ion channel involved in innocuous cold sensing and cold allodynia and also in cold-mediated analgesia. Acute treatment with MG inhibited the activation of recombinant rat and human transient receptor potential melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) by cold and chemical agonists. A similar effect was observed when native TRPM8 was investigated in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. DRG neurons treated with MG for 16-24 hr displayed a significant reduction in the fraction of cold- and menthol-sensitive neurons, most likely expressing TRPM8. The fraction of allyl isothiocyanate-sensitive neurons was also reduced, and the coexpression among different neuronal populations was affected. The same prolonged exposure to MG significantly reduced the expression of TRPM8 at the mRNA level. Overall, our data provide evidence for decreased activity and expression level of TRPM8 in the presence of MG, which may be linked to some of the alterations in pain and temperature sensing reported by diabetic patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Physiological consequences of transient outward K(+) current activation during heart failure in the canine left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Callø, Kirstine; Moise, N Sydney

    2012-01-01

    .7±1.4pA/pF after 5weeks, +50mV). Current decay as well as recovery of I(to) from inactivation progressively slowed with the development of heart failure. Reduction of I(to) density was paralleled by a reduction in phase 1 magnitude, epicardial action potential notch and J wave amplitude recorded from......Background: Remodeling of ion channel expression is well established in heart failure (HF). We determined the extent to which I(to) is reduced in tachypacing-induced HF and assessed the ability of an I(to) activator (NS5806) to recover this current. Method and results: Whole-cell patch clamp...

  1. IPS observations of transient interplanetary phenomena associated with solar filament activity in late august

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Marubashi, Katsuhide.

    1985-01-01

    Large-scale structures of the solar wind plasma during the severe geomagnetic storm of August 27-29, 1978 are studied on the basis of IPS and spacecraft observations. Three-dimensional configuration of an interplanetary disturbance which caused the SSC of August 27, 1978 was an oblate sphere having an axial ratio of 1.7. Approximate excess mass and kinetic energy contained within the high-speed portion of the disturbance (--500 km s -1 ) were 10 16 g and 3 x 10 31 erg, respectively. An interplanetary disturbance was also observed on August 28, 1978 during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. It is suggested that the solar-filament activity which took place near the solar disk center in August 23-25, 1978 caused these interplanetary disturbances. (author)

  2. Active region dimensionality and quantum efficiencies of InGaN LEDs from temperature dependent photoluminescence transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Nuri; Okur, Serdal; Monavarian, Morteza; Zhang, Fan; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Teke, Ali; Özgür, Ümit

    2015-03-01

    Temperature dependent recombination dynamics in c-plane InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different well thicknesses, 1.5, 2, and 3 nm, were investigated to determine the active region dimensionality and its effect on the internal quantum efficiencies. It was confirmed for all LEDs that the photoluminescence (PL) transients are governed by radiative recombination at low temperatures while nonradiative recombination dominates at room temperature. At photoexcited carrier densities of 3 - 4.5 x 1016 cm-3 , the room-temperature Shockley-Read-Hall (A) and the bimolecular (B) recombination coefficients (A, B) were deduced to be (9.2x107 s-1, 8.8x10-10 cm3s-1), (8.5x107 s-1, 6.6x10-10 cm3s-1), and (6.5x107 s-1, 1.4x10-10 cm3s-1) for the six period 1.5, 2, and 3 nm well-width LEDs, respectively. From the temperature dependence of the radiative lifetimes, τrad α Tn/2, the dimensionality n of the active region was found to decrease consistently with decreasing well width. The 3 nm wide wells exhibited ~T1.5 dependence, suggesting a three-dimensional nature, whereas the 1.5 nm wells were confirmed to be two-dimensional (~T1) and the 2 nm wells close to being two-dimensional. We demonstrate that a combination of temperature dependent PL and time-resolved PL techniques can be used to evaluate the dimensionality as well as the quantum efficiencies of the LED active regions for a better understanding of the relationship between active-region design and the efficiency limiting processes in InGaN LEDs.

  3. INTEGRAL finds renewed X-ray activity of the Neutron star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, Celia; Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, Erik

    2015-01-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (ATel #438) on UT 13 September 2015 18:50-22:32 reveal renewed X-ray activity from the low-mass X-ray binary transient and Type I X-ray burster SAX J1750.8-2900 (IAU Circ. #6597). The last outburst from this source was reported in 2011 (ATels #3170,...

  4. One nuclear calcium transient induced by a single burst of action potentials represents the minimum signal strength in activity-dependent transcription in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Oberlaender, Kristin; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar

    2017-07-01

    Neurons undergo dramatic changes in their gene expression profiles in response to synaptic stimulation. The coupling of neuronal excitation to gene transcription is well studied and is mediated by signaling pathways activated by cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium transients. Despite this, the minimum synaptic activity required to induce gene expression remains unknown. To address this, we used cultured hippocampal neurons and cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) that allows detection of nascent transcripts in the cell nucleus. We found that a single burst of action potentials, consisting of 24.4±5.1 action potentials during a 6.7±1.9s depolarization of 19.5±2.0mV causing a 9.3±0.9s somatic calcium transient, is sufficient to activate transcription of the immediate early gene arc (also known as Arg3.1). The total arc mRNA yield produced after a single burst-induced nuclear calcium transient was very small and, compared to unstimulated control neurons, did not lead to a significant increase in arc mRNA levels measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) of cell lysates. Significantly increased arc mRNA levels became detectable in hippocampal neurons that had undergone 5-8 consecutive burst-induced nuclear calcium transients at 0.05-0.15Hz. These results indicate that a single burst-induced nuclear calcium transient can activate gene expression and that transcription is rapidly shut off after synaptic stimulation has ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correction to: Ephedra Herb extract activates/desensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and reduces capsaicin-induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Jun; Hyuga, Sumiko; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto; Hyuga, Masashi; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Goda, Yukihiro; Hanawa, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2018-03-01

    The article Ephedra Herb extract activates/desensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and reduces capsaicin-induced pain, written by Shunsuke Nakamori, Jun Takahashi, Sumiko Hyuga, Toshiko Tanaka-Kagawa, Hideto Jinno, Masashi Hyuga, Takashi Hakamatsuka, Hiroshi Odaguchi, Yukihiro Goda, Toshihiko Hanawa and Yoshinori Kobayashi, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 71, issue 1, page 105-113 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to © The Author(s) 2018 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

  6. Fast calcium transients translate the distribution and conduction of neural activity in different regions of a single sensory neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purali, Nuhan

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, cytosolic calcium concentration changes were recorded in response to various forms of excitations, using the fluorescent calcium indicator dye OG-BAPTA1 together with the current or voltage clamp methods in stretch receptor neurons of crayfish. A single action potential evoked a rise in the resting calcium level in the axon and axonal hillock, whereas an impulse train or a large saturating current injection would be required to evoke an equivalent response in the dendrite region. Under voltage clamp conditions, amplitude differences between axon and dendrite responses vanished completely. The fast activation time and the modulation of the response by extracellular calcium concentration changes indicated that the evoked calcium transients might be mediated by calcium entry into the cytosol through a voltage-gated calcium channel. The decay of the responses was slow and sensitive to extracellular sodium and calcium concentrations as well as exposure to 1-10 mM NiCl 2 and 10-500 µM lanthanum. Thus, a sodium calcium exchanger and a calcium ATPase might be responsible for calcium extrusion from the cytosol. Present results indicate that the calcium indicator OG-BAPTA1 might be an efficient but indirect way of monitoring regional membrane potential differences in a single neuron.

  7. Genistein attenuates brain damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia through up-regulation of ERK activity in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiquan; Wei, Haidong; Cai, Min; Lu, Yan; Hou, Wugang; Yang, Qianzi; Dong, Hailong; Xiong, Lize

    2014-01-01

    Stroke has severe consequences in postmenopausal women. As replacement therapy of estrogen have various adverse effects and the undermined outcomes. Genistein, a natural phytoestrogen, has been suggested to be a potential neuroprotective agent for such stroke patients. However, the role of genistein and its underlying mechanism in ovariectomized mice has not yet been evaluated. In the present study, ovariectomized mice were treated with genistein (10 mg/kg) or vehicle daily for two weeks before developing transient cerebral ischemia (middle cerebral artery occlusion). The neurological manifestation was evaluated, and infarct volumes were demonstrated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at 24 h after reperfusion. In addition, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, and cellular apoptosis was evaluated in the ischemic penumbra. We found that treatment with genistein reduced infarct volumes, improved neurological outcomes and attenuated cellular apoptosis at 24 h after reperfusion. ERK1/2 showed increased phosphorylation by genistein treatment after reperfusion, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 abolished this protective effect of genistein in terms of infarct volumes, neurological scores and cellular apoptosis. Our findings indicate that treatment with genistein can reduce the severity of subsequent stroke episodes, and that this beneficial function is associated with ERK activation.

  8. Can you see Air?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 6. Can you see Air? Andal Narayanan Joseph Samuel Supurna Sinha. Classroom Volume 12 Issue 6 June 2007 pp 71-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/06/0071-0075 ...

  9. Can Computers See?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Can Computers See? - Can Computers Understand Visual Data? Neelima Shrikhande. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 45-56. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  11. Seeing Both Sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Toni

    2012-01-01

    For many development officers, giving to their alma maters, employers, or local nonprofit agencies makes them better at their jobs by deepening their understanding of donor motivations and reinforcing what to do--and what not to do. Some can testify to the importance of stewardship because they weren't treated well. Others find that seeing their…

  12. The Holy See accedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    On 25 February the Holy See became the sixty-third non-nuclear weapon State to accede to or ratify the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, when its representatives deposited instruments of accession in Moscow, London and Washington, the capitals of the three Depositary Governments for the Treaty. (author)

  13. Seeing With the Ears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In recent talks, I mentioned how my artist friends often complain that their clients see with their ears. It recently dawned on me that nobody understood what I said, or—worse—got the wrong idea. The audience thinks of bionic devices (Proulx, Stoerig, Ludowig, & Knoll, 2008) or bat echo location

  14. Measurement of jet activity produced in top-quark events with an electron, a muon and two b-tagged jets in the final state in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zwalinski, L

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of jet activity in top-quark pair events produced in proton-proton collisions are presented, using 3.2 fb[Formula: see text] of pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are chosen by requiring an opposite-charge [Formula: see text] pair and two b -tagged jets in the final state. The normalised differential cross-sections of top-quark pair production are presented as functions of additional-jet multiplicity and transverse momentum, [Formula: see text]. The fraction of signal events that do not contain additional jet activity in a given rapidity region, the gap fraction, is measured as a function of the [Formula: see text] threshold for additional jets, and is also presented for different invariant mass regions of the [Formula: see text] system. All measurements are corrected for detector effects and presented as particle-level distributions compared to predictions with different theoretical approaches for QCD radiation. While the kinematics of the jets from top-quark decays are described well, the generators show differing levels of agreement with the measurements of observables that depend on the production of additional jets.

  15. Ways of seeing evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, W; Wilson, L; Lawson, J

    2011-01-01

    Copyright @ 2011 Brunel University This report summarises the evaluation of Ways of Seeing, a community arts project funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund and hosted by the Lightbox, Woking, Surrey from 2008-11. The people involved have had remarkable experiences, choosing how to take part in each stage of preparations for a major public art exhibition. All those involved had disabilities, primarily arising from mental health issues but also including physical disabilities. The project was s...

  16. Observations of white-light flares in NOAA active region 11515: high occurrence rate and relationship with magnetic transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. L.; Tian, H.; Zhang, M.; Ding, M. D.

    2018-06-01

    Aims: There are two goals in this study. One is to investigate how frequently white-light flares (WLFs) occur in a flare-productive active region (NOAA active region 11515). The other is to investigate the relationship between WLFs and magnetic transients (MTs). Methods: We used the high-cadence (45 s) full-disk continuum filtergrams and line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to identify WLFs and MTs, respectively. Images taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board SDO were also used to show the flare morphology in the upper atmosphere. Results: We found at least 20 WLFs out of a total of 70 flares above C class (28.6%) in NOAA active region 11515 during its passage across the solar disk (E45°-W45°). Each of these WLFs occurred in a small region, with a short duration of about 5 min. The enhancement of the white-light continuum intensity is usually small, with an average enhancement of 8.1%. The 20 WLFs we observed were found along an unusual configuration of the magnetic field that was characterized by a narrow ribbon of negative field. Furthermore, the WLFs were found to be accompanied by MTs, with radical changes in magnetic field strength (or even a sign reversal) observed during the flare. In contrast, there is no obvious signature of MTs in the 50 flares without white-light enhancements. Conclusions: Our results suggest that WLFs occur much more frequently than previously thought, with most WLFs being fairly weak enhancements. This may explain why WLFs are reported rarely. Our observations also suggest that MTs and WLFs are closely related and appear cospatial and cotemporal, when considering HMI data. A greater enhancement of WL emission is often accompanied by a greater change in the line-of-sight component of the unsigned magnetic field. Considering the close relationship between MTs and WLFs, many previously reported flares with MTs may be WLFs. The movie

  17. Observation of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; 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Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-01

    The decays [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8[Formula: see text]. The branching fractions relative to that of [Formula: see text] are measured to be [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.

  18. see Gupta VK 433 Andreev V see Porcellato AM 963 Antony J see ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cryogenic, superconducting and rf results of the SRFQ2 of PIAVE. 963. Prakash P N. Superconducting linear accelerator system for. NSC. 849 see Ghosh S. 881. Prakash S see Sharma Hitesh. 497. Prasad J see Chopra S. 753. Prasad Moonooku see Pande S A. 859. Prasad R L. CO2 laser photoacoustic spectra and vibra-.

  19. Regulation of Mg2+ Reabsorption and Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Type 6 Activity by cAMP Signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, M.G.; Kittikulsuth, W.; Nair, A.V.; Baaij, J.H.F. de; Latta, F.; Genzen, J.R.; Kohan, D.E.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential melastatin type 6 (TRPM6) epithelial Mg(2+) channels participate in transcellular Mg(2+) transport in the kidney and intestine. Previous reports suggested a hormonal cAMP-dependent regulation of Mg(2+) reabsorption in the kidney. The molecular details of this process

  20. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way. The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light. The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light. Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve. The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The Leo Ring visible image (left

  1. Cerebrovascular endothelin-1 hyper-reactivity is associated with transient receptor potential canonical channels 1 and 6 activation and delayed cerebral hypoperfusion after forebrain ischaemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, S E; Andersen, X E D R; Hansen, R H

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: Experimental forebrain ischaemia was induced in Wistar male rats by a two-vessel occlusion model, and the cerebral blood flow was measured by magnetic resonance imaging two days after reperfusion. In vitro vasoreactivity studies, immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR were performed on cerebral...... in the vascular smooth muscle cells was enhanced and correlated with decreased cerebral blood flow two days after forebrain ischaemia. Furthermore, under conditions when voltage-dependent calcium channels were inhibited, endothelin-1-induced cerebrovascular contraction was enhanced and this enhancement...... was presumably mediated by Ca(2+) influx via upregulated transient receptor potential canonical channels 1 and 6. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrates that endothelin-1-mediated influx of extracellular Ca(2+) activates transient receptor potential canonical channels 1 and 6 in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells...

  2. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  3. Pyruvate induces transient tumor hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and potentiates the anti-tumor effect of a hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Takakusagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP of bromo isophosphoramide mustard that is selectively activated within hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Our recent study showed that intravenously administered bolus pyruvate can transiently induce hypoxia in tumors. We investigated the mechanism underlying the induction of transient hypoxia and the combination use of pyruvate to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of TH-302. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: The hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TH-302 was evaluated by a viability assay in murine SCCVII and human HT29 cells. Modulation in cellular oxygen consumption and in vivo tumor oxygenation by the pyruvate treatment was monitored by extracellular flux analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR oxygen imaging, respectively. The enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of TH-302 by pyruvate treatment was evaluated by monitoring the growth suppression of the tumor xenografts inoculated subcutaneously in mice. TH-302 preferentially inhibited the growth of both SCCVII and HT29 cells under hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2, with minimal effect under aerobic conditions (21% O2. Basal oxygen consumption rates increased after the pyruvate treatment in SCCVII cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that pyruvate enhances the mitochondrial respiration to consume excess cellular oxygen. In vivo EPR oxygen imaging showed that the intravenous administration of pyruvate globally induced the transient hypoxia 30 min after the injection in SCCVII and HT29 tumors at the size of 500-1500 mm(3. Pretreatment of SCCVII tumor bearing mice with pyruvate 30 min prior to TH-302 administration, initiated with small tumors (∼ 550 mm(3, significantly delayed tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that pyruvate induces transient hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in tumor cells. TH-302 therapy can be potentiated by pyruvate pretreatment if started at the

  4. Pyruvate induces transient tumor hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and potentiates the anti-tumor effect of a hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakusagi, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Matsuo, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; DeGraff, William; Kesarwala, Aparna H; Choudhuri, Rajani; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Munasinghe, Jeeva P; Gillies, Robert J; Mitchell, James B; Hart, Charles P; Krishna, Murali C

    2014-01-01

    TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP) of bromo isophosphoramide mustard that is selectively activated within hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Our recent study showed that intravenously administered bolus pyruvate can transiently induce hypoxia in tumors. We investigated the mechanism underlying the induction of transient hypoxia and the combination use of pyruvate to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of TH-302. The hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TH-302 was evaluated by a viability assay in murine SCCVII and human HT29 cells. Modulation in cellular oxygen consumption and in vivo tumor oxygenation by the pyruvate treatment was monitored by extracellular flux analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging, respectively. The enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of TH-302 by pyruvate treatment was evaluated by monitoring the growth suppression of the tumor xenografts inoculated subcutaneously in mice. TH-302 preferentially inhibited the growth of both SCCVII and HT29 cells under hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2), with minimal effect under aerobic conditions (21% O2). Basal oxygen consumption rates increased after the pyruvate treatment in SCCVII cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that pyruvate enhances the mitochondrial respiration to consume excess cellular oxygen. In vivo EPR oxygen imaging showed that the intravenous administration of pyruvate globally induced the transient hypoxia 30 min after the injection in SCCVII and HT29 tumors at the size of 500-1500 mm(3). Pretreatment of SCCVII tumor bearing mice with pyruvate 30 min prior to TH-302 administration, initiated with small tumors (∼ 550 mm(3)), significantly delayed tumor growth. Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that pyruvate induces transient hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in tumor cells. TH-302 therapy can be potentiated by pyruvate pretreatment if started at the appropriate tumor size and oxygen concentration.

  5. P2Y receptor-mediated transient relaxation of rat longitudinal ileum preparations involves phospholipase C activation, intracellular Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Felix; Krause, Ludwig; Tokay, Tursonjan; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    Purinergic signaling plays a major role in the enteric nervous system, where it governs gut motility through a number of P2X and P2Y receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the P2Y receptor-mediated motility in rat longitudinal ileum preparations. Ileum smooth muscle strips were prepared from rats, and fixed in an organ bath. Isometric contraction and relaxation responses of the muscle strips were measured with force transducers. Drugs were applied by adding of stock solutions to the organ bath to yield the individual final concentrations. Application of the non-hydrolyzable P2 receptor agonists α,β-Me-ATP or 2-Me-S-ADP (10, 100 μmol/L) dose-dependently elicited a transient relaxation response followed by a sustained contraction. The relaxation response was largely blocked by SK channel blockers apamin (500 nmol/L) and UCL1684 (10 μmol/L), PLC inhibitor U73122 (100 μmol/L), IP3 receptor blocker 2-APB (100 μmol/L) or sarcoendoplasmic Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol/L), but not affected by atropine, NO synthase blocker L-NAME or tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation was suppressed by P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2179 (50 μmol/L) or P2Y13 receptor antagonist MRS2211 (100 μmol/L), and was abolished by co-application of the two antagonists, whereas 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation was abolished by P2Y6 receptor antagonist MRS2578 (50 μmol/L). In addition, P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 (1 μmol/L) not only abolished α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation, but also suppressed 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation. P2Y receptor agonist-induced transient relaxation of rat ileum smooth muscle strips is mediated predominantly by P2Y1 receptor, but also by P2Y6 and P2Y13 receptors, and involves PLC, IP3, Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation, but is independent of acetylcholine and NO release.

  6. Modulation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid channel TRPV4 by 4alpha-phorbol esters: a structure-activity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Pagani, Alberto; Minassi, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel by 4alpha-phorbol esters was investigated by combining information from chemical modification of 4alpha-phorbol-didecanoate (4alpha-PDD, 2a), site-directed mutagenesis, Ca(2+) imaging, and electrophysiology....... Binding of 4alpha-phorbol esters occurs in a loop in the TM3-TM4 domain of TRPV4 that is analogous to the capsaicin binding site of TRPV1, and the ester decoration of ring C and the A,B ring junction are critical for activity. The lipophilic ester groups on ring C serve mainly as a steering element...

  7. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Impairs the Dendritic Arborization of Newborn Neurons in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus through the AMPK and Akt Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yujing Tian; Mengwen Qi; Zhouqing Wang; Chunfeng Wu; Zhen Sun; Yingchun Li; Sha Sha; Yimei Du; Lei Chen; Lei Chen; Ling Chen

    2017-01-01

    Neurite growth is an important process for the adult hippocampal neurogenesis which is regulated by a specific range of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a calcium-permeable channel and activation of it causes an increase in [Ca2+]i. We recently reported that TRPV4 activation promotes the proliferation of stem cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The present study aimed to examine the effect of TRPV4 activati...

  8. Hearing Voices and Seeing Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Hearing Voices and Seeing Things No. 102; Updated October ... delusions (a fixed, false, and often bizarre belief). Hearing voices or seeing things that are not there ...

  9. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) activation plays a central role in cardiac fibrosis induced by pressure overload in rats via TGF-β1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Qi, Hanping; E, Mingyao; Shi, Pilong; Zhang, Qianhui; Li, Shuzhi; Wang, Ye; Cao, Yonggang; Chen, Yunping; Ba, Lina; Gao, Jingquan; Huang, Wei; Sun, Hongli

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is a common pathologic change along with pressure overload. Recent studies indicated that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels played multiple roles in heart. However, the functional role of transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) in cardiac fibrosis remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between TRPV3 activation and pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis. Pressure overload rats were successfully established by abdominal aortic constriction (AAC), and cardiac fibrosis was simulated by 100 nM angiotensin II (Ang II) in neonatal cardiac fibroblasts. Echocardiographic parameters, cardiac fibroblast proliferation, cell cycle, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ), and the protein expressions of collagen I, collagen III, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ), cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) were measured. Echocardiographic and histological measurements suggested that the activation of TRPV3 exacerbated the cardiac dysfunction and increased interstitial fibrosis in pressure overload rats. Further results showed that TRPV3 activation upregulated the expressions of collagen I, collagen III, TGF-β 1 , cyclin E, and CDK2 in vivo and in vitro. At the same time, blocking TGF-β 1 pathway could partially reverse the effect of TRPV3 activation. These results suggested that TRPV3 activation exacerbated cardiac fibrosis by promoting cardiac fibroblast proliferation through TGF-β 1 /CDK2/cyclin E pathway in the pressure-overloaded rat hearts.

  10. Transient Perturbations and their Effects in the Heliosphere, the Geo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tures of transient perturbations related to space weather effects. Relation- ships between ... or health (e.g., see Kudela et al. 2000). Spacecraft systems ... storms. Precursors to Forbush decreases are of practical interest as possible predictors ...

  11. The proposals on cooperation to foreign centers of science on thermophysical properties of reactor materials in a broad band of pressure and temperatures realized at normal transient and emergency operation activity of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortov, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    The proposals on cooperation in the area of thermophysical properties of reactor materials in a broad band of pressure and temperature realized at normal transient and emergency operation activity of nuclear power plants are discussed. 1 fig

  12. Transiently Active Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Is Not Required but Must Be Silenced for Stem Cell Function during Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malea M. Murphy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult muscle’s exceptional capacity for regeneration is mediated by muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. As with many stem cells, Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been proposed to be critical in satellite cells during regeneration. Using new genetic reagents, we explicitly test in vivo whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary and sufficient within satellite cells and their derivatives for regeneration. We find that signaling is transiently active in transit-amplifying myoblasts, but is not required for regeneration or satellite cell self-renewal. Instead, downregulation of transiently activated β-catenin is important to limit the regenerative response, as continuous regeneration is deleterious. Wnt/β-catenin activation in adult satellite cells may simply be a vestige of their developmental lineage, in which β-catenin signaling is critical for fetal myogenesis. In the adult, surprisingly, we show that it is not activation but rather silencing of Wnt/β-catenin signaling that is important for muscle regeneration.

  13. Why does the Size of the Laacher See Magma Chamber and its Caldera Size not go together? - New Findings with regard to Active Tectonics in the East Eifel Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Berberich, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    The East Eifel's early Cenozoic tectonic development is characterized by a main stress field trending in NW-SE direction, causing a re-organisation of postvariscan dextral strike-slip faults in approximately 105° direction, the formation of the tectonic depression of the Neuwieder Basin and small-scale transtension zones. The 105° trending strike-slip faults are staggered in equidistant intervals of several kilometers. This system continues from the Eifel to the North into the Ruhr Carboniferous, where it has been recognized due to the extensive underground coal mining first (Loos et al. 1999). Our recent research on analyses of tectonics in quarries, quartz/ore-dykes, mapping of minerals springs and gas analyses, has revealed a prominent 105° trending strike-slip fault cutting the South of Laacher See ("Laacher See Strike-slip Fault"). Within the Laacher See caldera, the "Laacher See Strike-slip Fault" can be tracked by a wide mofette zone that was mapped with a self-propelled submarine. At present, the "Laacher See Strike-slip Fault" can be tracked from Holzmühlheim in the West, Spessart, Wehrer Kessel, Laacher See, Plaidt to Bad Ems and furthermore to the South-East. Along this direction five intersections points of the "Laacher See Strike-slip Fault" with the Lahn River are documented, creating small-scale mofette fields in the Lahn River. In the Neuwied Basin, near Plaidt, the "Laacher See Strike-slip Fault" is intersected by the NW-SE-trending Ochtendung Fault. Regional strike-slip faults in combination with block rotation and uplift could have provided the voids for the magma chambers of the Wehrer Kessel and the Laacher See Caldera. Holohan et al. (2005) showed in analogue models that regional strike-slip regimes (including Riedel shears, chamber-localised graben fault, and a partial Y-shear) play a decisive role for caldera formation. In the East Eifel tectonic movement rates of active faults are approx. 1 mm/year (Meyer & Stets 2002, Cambell et al

  14. Electronically active defects in the Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 alloys as revealed by transient photocapacitance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. Westley; Warren, Charles W.; Gunawan, Oki; Gokmen, Tayfun; Mitzi, David B.; Cohen, J. David

    2012-10-01

    Transient photocapacitance (TPC) spectra were obtained on a series of Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 absorber devices with varying Se:S ratios, providing bandgaps (Eg) between 1 eV and 1.5 eV. Efficiencies varied between 8.3% and 9.3% for devices with Eg ≤ 1.2 eV and were near 6.5% for devices with Eg ≥ 1.4 eV. The TPC spectra revealed a band-tail region with Urbach energies at or below 18 meV for the first group, but in the 25-30 meV range for the higher band-gap samples. A deeper defect band centered near 0.8 eV was also observed in most samples. We identified a correlation between the Urbach energies and the voltage deficit in these devices.

  15. Crack growth in first wall made of reduced activation ferritic steel by transient creep due to long pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Kudo, Y.; Hatano, T.; Kikuchi, K.; Nishimura, T.; Saito, M.

    2003-01-01

    The long pulse operation is assumed in ITER and future reactor. If the first wall has a defect, the crack may be propagated by cyclic thermal loads. In addition, flattop of more than 300 s during plasma burning is expected in ITER, so the crack propagation behavior will depend on the operation duration period. This study deals with the crack propagation behavior on F82H under high thermal load cycles. The high heat flux tests were performed under three types of duration periods to investigate creep fatigue behavior. To clarify the crack growth mechanism and the effects of transient creep, three-dimensional analyses were performed. It was concluded that the creep effect during the operation duration period enlarges stress intensity factor K in the cooling period and that consequently, the crack propagation length was increased

  16. Experimental study on transient boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visentini, R.

    2012-01-01

    well. A flexible power supply that can generate a free-shape signal, allows to get to a wall-temperature increase rate up to 2500 K/s but also to obtain lower rates, which permits to study weaker transients and steady state conditions. The thermal measurements are realised by means of an infra-red camera and a high-speed camera is employed in order to see the boiling phenomena at the same time. From the voltage and current measurements the heat flux that is passed to the fluid is known. It is possible to underline some of the main results of this work. We found that, even when the boiling onset occurs soon because of the high power, transient conduction is always coupled with transient convection. The boiling onset occurs when the wall superheat is between 10 K et 30 K. This value corresponds to the activation of the smallest nucleation sites at the wall. The literature correlations well fit the nucleate boiling data in steady-state conditions. When the wall-temperature increase rate leads to transient boiling, the heat flux is higher than in steady state. This is consistent with what was found in previous studies. The nucleate boiling phase may last only a few milliseconds when the power is really high and the wall temperature increases really rapidly (500-2000 K/s). The experiments in transient boiling also point out that the heat flux is larger than in steady state conditions for the other regimes: Critical heat flux and also film boiling. The experimental set-up allows to investigate a large range of parameters (wall-temperature increase rate, flow rate, fluid temperature) by means of accurate temperature measurements and visualisations. Some modeling of the heat transfer are also proposed. (author)

  17. FGOALS-s2 simulation of upper-level jet streams over East Asia: Mean state bias and synoptic-scale transient eddy activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fengfei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2013-05-01

    Upper-level jet streams over East Asia simulated by the LASG/IAP coupled climate system model FGOALS-s2 were assessed, and the mean state bias explained in terms of synoptic-scale transient eddy activity (STEA). The results showed that the spatial distribution of the seasonal mean jet stream was reproduced well by the model, except that following a weaker meridional temperature gradient (MTG), the intensity of the jet stream was weaker than in National Centers for Environment Prediction (NCEP)/Department of Energy Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project II reanalysis data (NCEP2). Based on daily mean data, the jet core number was counted to identify the geographical border between the East Asian Subtropical Jet (EASJ) and the East Asian Polar-front Jet (EAPJ). The border is located over the Tibetan Plateau according to NCEP2 data, but was not evident in FGOALS-s2 simulations. The seasonal cycles of the jet streams were found to be reasonably reproduced, except that they shifted northward relative to reanalysis data in boreal summer owing to the northward shift of negative MTGs. To identify the reasons for mean state bias, the dynamical and thermal forcings of STEA on mean flow were examined with a focus on boreal winter. The dynamical and thermal forcings were estimated by extended Eliassen-Palm flux ( E) and transient heat flux, respectively. The results showed that the failure to reproduce the tripolar-pattern of the divergence of E over the jet regions led to an unsuccessful separation of the EASJ and EAPJ, while dynamical forcing contributed less to the weaker EASJ. In contrast, the weaker transient heat flux partly explained the weaker EASJ over the ocean.

  18. Repeated Transient Jets from a Warped Disk in the Symbiotic Prototype Z And: A Link to the Long-lasting Active Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopal, Augustin; Tarasova, Taya. N.; Wolf, Marek; Dubovský, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor

    2018-05-01

    Active phases of some symbiotic binaries survive for a long time, from years to decades. The accretion process onto a white dwarf (WD) sustaining long-lasting activity, and sometimes leading to collimated ejection, is not well understood. We present the repeated emergence of highly collimated outflows (jets) from the symbiotic prototype Z And during its 2008 and 2009–10 outbursts and suggest their link to the current long-lasting (from 2000) active phase. We monitored Z And with high-resolution spectroscopy, multicolor UBVR C—and high time resolution—photometry. The well-pronounced bipolar jets were ejected again during the 2009–10 outburst together with the simultaneous emergence of the rapid photometric variability (Δm ≈ 0.06 mag) on the timescale of hours, showing similar properties as those during the 2006 outburst. These phenomena and the measured disk–jets connection could be caused by the radiation-induced warping of the inner disk due to a significant increase of the burning WD luminosity. Ejection of transient jets by Z And around outburst maxima signals a transient accretion at rates above the upper limit of the stable hydrogen burning on the WD surface, and thus proves the nature of Z And-type outbursts. The enhanced accretion through the disk warping, supplemented by the accretion from the giant’s wind, can keep a high luminosity of the WD for a long time, until depletion of the disk. In this way, the jets provide a link to long-lasting active phases of Z And.

  19. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  20. The Norm-Activating Power of Celebrity : The Dynamics of Success and Influence (Retracted article. See vol. 75, pg. 289, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Joly, Janneke F.; Stapel, Diederik A.

    On the basis of previous evidence, we reasoned that even if people do not identify with celebrities, these celebrities can influence their behavior by activating bundles of social norms. Activating a norm means making both content and ''oughtness'' of the norm more directly relevant for behavior. We

  1. See evil, hear evil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to design a "telescope" whose mirrors and support structures were all made of aluminum in order for it to remain in focus for all environmental temperatures. The telescope was mounted on a gimbal structure that was an elevation over azimuth assembly. The purpose of the telescope was to track in all directions in order to detect "enemy" activities such as visual or sound detection at the site of the telescope. The final assembly was eventually purchased by the Secession Activists of Quebec to scan all around for non-French speaking dissidents seeking to spy on them. It was also shipped to South Korea to detect activities by North Korea and shipped to Northern Ireland to spy on the British and finally it also was sent to a high altitude location in Israel. The peculiar thing about the one in Israel was that similar to reading and writing Hebrew from right to left, the telescope was only allowed to scan from right to left. Two unique mechanical designs involved in this telescope are discussed here. The first one is the design of a stop at each end of the azimuth travel that was greater than 360 degrees, and the second was the design of a gearing system that drove both elevation and azimuth assemblies with no backlash

  2. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation transiently improves contrast sensitivity and normalizes visual cortex activation in individuals with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Daniel P; Byblow, Winston D; Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that is associated with abnormal patterns of neural inhibition within the visual cortex. This disorder is often considered to be untreatable in adulthood because of insufficient visual cortex plasticity. There is increasing evidence that interventions that target inhibitory interactions within the visual cortex, including certain types of noninvasive brain stimulation, can improve visual function in adults with amblyopia. We tested the hypothesis that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) would improve visual function in adults with amblyopia by enhancing the neural response to inputs from the amblyopic eye. Thirteen adults with amblyopia participated and contrast sensitivity in the amblyopic and fellow fixing eye was assessed before, during and after a-tDCS or cathodal tDCS (c-tDCS). Five participants also completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study designed to investigate the effect of a-tDCS on the blood oxygen level-dependent response within the visual cortex to inputs from the amblyopic versus the fellow fixing eye. A subgroup of 8/13 participants showed a transient improvement in amblyopic eye contrast sensitivity for at least 30 minutes after a-tDCS. fMRI measurements indicated that the characteristic cortical response asymmetry in amblyopes, which favors the fellow eye, was reduced by a-tDCS. These preliminary results suggest that a-tDCS deserves further investigation as a potential tool to enhance amblyopia treatment outcomes in adults.

  3. The NO/cGMP pathway inhibits transient cAMP signals through the activation of PDE2 in striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina ePolito

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The NO-cGMP signaling plays an important role in the regulation of striatal function although the mechanisms of action of cGMP specifically in medium spiny neurons (MSNs remain unclear. Using genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors, including a novel Epac-based sensor (EPAC-SH150 with increased sensitivity for cAMP, we analyze the cGMP response to NO and whether it affected cAMP/PKA signaling in MSNs. The Cygnet2 sensor for cGMP reported large responses to NO donors in both striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, and this cGMP signal was controlled partially by PDE2. At the level of cAMP brief forskolin stimulations produced transient cAMP signals which differed between D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons. NO inhibited these cAMP transients through cGMP-dependent PDE2 activation, an effect that was translated and magnified downstream of cAMP, at the level of PKA. PDE2 thus appears as a critical effector of NO which modulates the post-synaptic response of MSNs to dopaminergic transmission.

  4. Geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations of actively damped anti-symmetric angle ply laminated composite shallow shell using active fibre composite (AFC) actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, M. H.; Shivakumar, J.; Nandurkar, Santosh; Khadakbhavi, Vishwanath; Pujari, Sanjay

    2018-02-01

    In present work, the thin laminated composite shallow shell as smart structure with AFC material’s ACLD treatment is analyzed for geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations. The AFC material is used to make the constraining layer of the ACLD treatment. Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) is used to model the constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment in time domain. Along with a simple first-order shear deformation theory the Von Kármán type non-linear strain displacement relations are used for deriving this electromechanical coupled problem. A 3-dimensional finite element model of smart composite panels integrated with the ACLD treated patches has been modelled to reveal the performance of ACLD treated patches on improving the damping properties of slender anti-symmetric angle-ply laminated shallow shell, in controlling the transient vibrations which are geometrically nonlinear. The mathematical results explain that the ACLD treated patches considerably enhance the damping properties of anti-symmetric angle-ply panels undergoing geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations.

  5. Signal-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate without activation of phospholipase C: implications on gating of Drosophila TRPL (transient receptor potential-like) channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Shaya; Katz, Ben; Tzarfaty, Vered; Minke, Baruch

    2012-01-06

    In Drosophila, a phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling cascade, couples photo-excitation of rhodopsin to the opening of the transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL) channels. A lipid product of PLC, diacylglycerol (DAG), and its metabolites, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may function as second messengers of channel activation. However, how can one separate between the increase in putative second messengers, change in pH, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) depletion when exploring the TRPL gating mechanism? To answer this question we co-expressed the TRPL channels together with the muscarinic (M1) receptor, enabling the openings of TRPL channels via G-protein activation of PLC. To dissect PLC activation of TRPL into its molecular components, we used a powerful method that reduced plasma membrane-associated PI(4,5)P(2) in HEK cells within seconds without activating PLC. Upon the addition of a dimerizing drug, PI(4,5)P(2) was selectively hydrolyzed in the cell membrane without producing DAG, inositol trisphosphate, or calcium signals. We show that PI(4,5)P(2) is not an inhibitor of TRPL channel activation. PI(4,5)P(2) hydrolysis combined with either acidification or application of DAG analogs failed to activate the channels, whereas PUFA did activate the channels. Moreover, a reduction in PI(4,5)P(2) levels or inhibition of DAG lipase during PLC activity suppressed the PLC-activated TRPL current. This suggests that PI(4,5)P(2) is a crucial substrate for PLC-mediated activation of the channels, whereas PUFA may function as the channel activator. Together, this study defines a narrow range of possible mechanisms for TRPL gating.

  6. How we think they see us? Valence and difficulty of retrieval as moderators of the effect of meta-stereotype activation on intergroup orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Alexandra; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Dovidio, John F; Gómez, Ángel

    2017-12-01

    Previous research indicates that meta-stereotypes are predominantly negative. However, the valence of the meta-stereotypes may not be the only factor accounting for the detrimental effects associated with their activation. In addition to valence, we propose that the subjective difficulty of retrieving the meta-stereotype might critically determine whether its activation deteriorates intergroup orientations. An experimental study showed that the effect of the meta-stereotype activation on the desire to interact with outgroup members was moderated by the interaction between the valence of the meta-stereotype and its difficulty of retrieval. In particular, the activation of a positive meta-stereotype deteriorated intergroup orientations when the difficulty of retrieval was high as compared with a condition in which the difficulty of retrieval was low. In sharp contrast, the activation of a negative meta-stereotype worsened intergroup orientations when the difficulty of retrieval was low as compared with a condition in which the difficulty of retrieval was high. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Transient drainage summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage

  8. Toll-like receptor agonist augments virus-like particle-mediated protection from Ebola virus with transient immune activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A O Martins

    Full Text Available Identifying safe and effective adjuvants is critical for the advanced development of protein-based vaccines. Pattern recognition receptor (PRR agonists are increasingly being explored as potential adjuvants, but there is concern that the efficacy of these molecules may be dependent on potentially dangerous levels of non-specific immune activation. The filovirus virus-like particle (VLP vaccine protects mice, guinea pigs, and nonhuman primates from viral challenge. In this study, we explored the impact of a stabilized dsRNA mimic, polyICLC, on VLP vaccination of C57BL/6 mice and Hartley guinea pigs. We show that at dose levels as low as 100 ng, the adjuvant increased the efficacy of the vaccine in mice. Antigen-specific, polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cell responses and antibody responses increased significantly upon inclusion of adjuvant. To determine whether the efficacy of polyICLC correlated with systemic immune activation, we examined serum cytokine levels and cellular activation in the draining lymph node. PolyICLC administration was associated with increases in TNFα, IL6, MCP1, MIP1α, KC, and MIP1β levels in the periphery and with the activation of dendritic cells (DCs, NK cells, and B cells. However, this activation resolved within 24 to 72 hours at efficacious adjuvant dose levels. These studies are the first to examine the polyICLC-induced enhancement of antigen-specific immune responses in the context of non-specific immune activation, and they provide a framework from which to consider adjuvant dose levels.

  9. PSH Transient Simulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-21

    PSH Transient Simulation Modeling presentation from the WPTO FY14 - FY16 Peer Review. Transient effects are an important consideration when designing a PSH system, yet numerical techniques for hydraulic transient analysis still need improvements for adjustable-speed (AS) reversible pump-turbine applications.

  10. Modeling Transport in Fractured Porous Media with the Random-Walk Particle Method: The Transient Activity Range and the Particle-Transfer Probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehua Pan; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2001-01-01

    Multiscale features of transport processes in fractured porous media make numerical modeling a difficult task, both in conceptualization and computation. Modeling the mass transfer through the fracture-matrix interface is one of the critical issues in the simulation of transport in a fractured porous medium. Because conventional dual-continuum-based numerical methods are unable to capture the transient features of the diffusion depth into the matrix (unless they assume a passive matrix medium), such methods will overestimate the transport of tracers through the fractures, especially for the cases with large fracture spacing, resulting in artificial early breakthroughs. We have developed a new method for calculating the particle-transfer probability that can capture the transient features of diffusion depth into the matrix within the framework of the dual-continuum random-walk particle method (RWPM) by introducing a new concept of activity range of a particle within the matrix. Unlike the multiple-continuum approach, the new dual-continuum RWPM does not require using additional grid blocks to represent the matrix. It does not assume a passive matrix medium and can be applied to the cases where global water flow exists in both continua. The new method has been verified against analytical solutions for transport in the fracture-matrix systems with various fracture spacing. The calculations of the breakthrough curves of radionuclides from a potential repository to the water table in Yucca Mountain demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method for simulating 3-D, mountain-scale transport in a heterogeneous, fractured porous medium under variably saturated conditions

  11. Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2 expression and activity in brain capillary endothelial cells after transient ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Gess

    Full Text Available Expression and transport activity of Sodium-dependent Vitamin C Transporter 2 (SVCT2 was shown in various tissues and organs. Vitamin C was shown to be cerebroprotective in several animal models of stroke. Data on expression, localization and transport activity of SVCT2 after cerebral ischemia, however, has been scarce so far. Thus, we studied the expression of SVCT2 after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in mice by immunohistochemistry. We found an upregulation of SVCT2 after stroke. Co-stainings with Occludin, Von-Willebrand Factor and CD34 demonstrated localization of SVCT2 in brain capillary endothelial cells in the ischemic area after stroke. Time-course analyses of SVCT2 expression by immunohistochemistry and western blots showed upregulation in the subacute phase of 2-5 days. Radioactive uptake assays using (14C-labelled ascorbic acid showed a significant increase of ascorbic acid uptake into the brain after stroke. Taken together, these results provide evidence for the expression and transport activity of SVCT2 in brain capillary endothelial cells after transient ischemia in mice. These results may lead to the development of novel neuroprotective strategies in stroke therapy.

  12. The flavonoid fisetin attenuates postischemic immune cell infiltration, activation and infarct size after transient cerebral middle artery occlusion in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Leypoldt, Frank; Lewerenz, Jan; Birkenmayer, Gabriel; Orozco, Denise; Ludewig, Peter; Thundyil, John; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Gerloff, Christian; Tolosa, Eva; Maher, Pamela; Magnus, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The development of the brain tissue damage in ischemic stroke is composed of an immediate component followed by an inflammatory response with secondary tissue damage after reperfusion. Fisetin, a flavonoid, has multiple biological effects, including neuroprotective and antiinflammatory properties. We analyzed the effects of fisetin on infarct size and the inflammatory response in a mouse model of stroke, temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, and on the activation of immune cells, murine primary and N9 microglial and Raw264.7 macrophage cells and human macrophages, in an in vitro model of inflammatory immune cell activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fisetin not only protected brain tissue against ischemic reperfusion injury when given before ischemia but also when applied 3 hours after ischemia. Fisetin also prominently inhibited the infiltration of macrophages and dendritic cells into the ischemic hemisphere and suppressed the intracerebral immune cell activation as measured by intracellular tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) production. Fisetin also inhibited LPS-induced TNFα production and neurotoxicity of macrophages and microglia in vitro by suppressing nuclear factor κB activation and JNK/Jun phosphorylation. Our findings strongly suggest that the fisetin-mediated inhibition of the inflammatory response after stroke is part of the mechanism through which fisetin is neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia. PMID:22234339

  13. Simultaneous seeing measurements at Atacama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Doi, Mamoru; Takato, Naruhisa; Miyashita, Akihiko; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Soyano, Takao

    2004-10-01

    Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo is now planning to build a 6.5-m optical-infrared telescope in Atacama, Chile. This project is called "Univ. Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO)", and the site evaluation is now under way. As a part of this evaluation process, we started an investigation to compare the astronomical seeing at Atacama with that at Mauna Kea. Here, we report preliminary results of seeing measurements at several sites in Atacama, carried out on October 2003. In order to separate the temporal and site-to-site variation of the seeing, we used two sets of Differential Image Motion Monitors (DIMMs), each of which has two pairs of 7.4 cm sub-apertures with 20.5 cm separation. Three sites were investigated; the point near the TAO weather station (4,950m), the summit of Cello Chico (5,150m) and the point at 5,430m altitude on Cello Toco. Simultaneous measurements were carried out for three half nights out of four half nights measurements. Although the amount of our data is very limited, the results suggest following: 1) Seeing becomes better and more stable as time passing to midnight (eg. From 0."7 to 0."4 at V-band). 2) Higher altitude sites show better seeing than lower altitude sites.

  14. Dendritic diameter influences the rate and magnitude of hippocampal cAMP and PKA transients during β-adrenergic receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Vincent; Blackwell, Kim T; Abel, Ted; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Gervasi, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    In the hippocampus, cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) form a critical signaling cascade required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Plasticity and memory are known to occur following pathway-specific changes in synaptic strength that are thought to result from spatially and temporally coordinated intracellular signaling events. To better understand how cAMP and PKA dynamically operate within the structural complexity of hippocampal neurons, we used live two-photon imaging and genetically-encoded fluorescent biosensors to monitor cAMP levels or PKA activity in CA1 neurons of acute hippocampal slices. Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (isoproterenol) or combined activation of adenylyl cyclase (forskolin) and inhibition of phosphodiesterase (IBMX) produced cAMP transients with greater amplitude and rapid on-rates in intermediate and distal dendrites compared to somata and proximal dendrites. In contrast, isoproterenol produced greater PKA activity in somata and proximal dendrites compared to intermediate and distal dendrites, and the on-rate of PKA activity did not differ between compartments. Computational models show that our observed compartmental difference in cAMP can be reproduced by a uniform distribution of PDE4 and a variable density of adenylyl cyclase that scales with compartment size to compensate for changes in surface to volume ratios. However, reproducing our observed compartmental difference in PKA activity required enrichment of protein phosphatase in small compartments; neither reduced PKA subunits nor increased PKA substrates were sufficient. Together, our imaging and computational results show that compartment diameter interacts with rate-limiting components like adenylyl cyclase, phosphodiesterase and protein phosphatase to shape the spatial and temporal components of cAMP and PKA signaling in CA1 neurons and suggests that small neuronal compartments are most sensitive to c

  15. X-Ray Observations of the Black Hole Transient 4U 1630-47 during 2 Years of X-Ray Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, John A.; Corbel, Stéphane; Goldwurm, Andrea; Kaaret, Philip

    2005-09-01

    The black hole candidate (BHC) X-ray transient 4U 1630-47 continuously produced strong X-ray emission for more than 2 years during its 2002-2004 outburst, which is one of the brightest and longest outbursts ever seen from this source. We use more than 300 observations made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to study the source throughout the outburst, along with hard X-ray images from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), which are critical for interpreting the RXTE data in this crowded field. The source exhibits extreme behaviors, which can be interpreted as an indication that the system luminosity approaches the Eddington limit. For 15 observations, fitting the spectral continuum with a disk-blackbody plus power-law model results in measured inner disk temperatures between 2.7 and 3.8 keV, and such temperatures are only rivaled by the brightest BHC systems, such as GRS 1915+105 and XTE J1550-564. If the high temperatures are caused by the dominance of electron scattering opacity in the inner regions of the accretion disk, it is theoretically required that the source luminosity be considerably higher than 20% of the Eddington limit. We detect a variety of high-amplitude variability, including hard 10-100 s flares, which peak at levels as much as 2-3 times higher than nonflare levels. This flaring occurs at the highest disk luminosities in a regime in which the source deviates from the Ldisk~T4in relationship that is seen at lower luminosities, possibly suggesting that we are seeing transitions between a Shakura & Sunyaev disk and a ``slim'' disk, which is predicted to occur at very high mass accretion rates. The X-ray properties in 2002-2004 are significantly different from those seen during the 1998 outburst, which is the only outburst with detected radio jet emission. Our results support the ``jet line'' concept recently advanced by Fender and coworkers. Our study allows for a test of the quantitative McClintock & Remillard

  16. Simulation Model of a Transient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens; Sørensen, Poul; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation model of a controller that enables an active-stall wind turbine to ride through transient faults. The simulated wind turbine is connected to a simple model of a power system. Certain fault scenarios are specified and the turbine shall be able to sustain operati...

  17. Hippocampal network activity is transiently altered by induction of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bikbaev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A role for oscillatory activity in hippocampal neuronal networks has been proposed in sensory encoding, cognitive functions and synaptic plasticity. In the hippocampus, theta (5–10 Hz and gamma (30–100 Hz oscillations may provide a mechanism for temporal encoding of information, and the basis for formation and retrieval of memory traces. Long-term potentiation (LTP of synaptic transmission, a candidate cellular model of synaptic information storage, is typically induced by high-frequency tetanisation (HFT of afferent pathways. Taking into account the role of oscillatory activity in the processing of information, dynamic changes may occur in hippocampal network activity in the period during HFT and/or soon after it. These changes in rhythmic activity may determine or, at least, contribute to successful potentiation and, in general, to formation of memory. We have found that short-term potentiation (STP and LTP as well LTPfailure are characterised with different profiles of changes in theta and gamma frequencies. Potentiation of synaptic transmission was associated with a significant increase in the relative theta power and mean amplitude of theta cycles in the period encompassing 300 seconds after HFT. Where LTP or STP, but not failure of potentiation, occurred, this facilitation of theta was accompanied by transient increases in gamma power and in the mean amplitude of gamma oscillations within a single theta cycle. Our data support that specific, correlated changes in these parameters are associated with successful synaptic potentiation. These findings suggest that changes in theta-gamma activity associated with induction of LTP may enable synaptic information storage in the hippocampus.

  18. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  19. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Watanabe, Tatsuo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Imai, Yasuyuki, E-mail: imai@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  20. Minocycline Transiently Reduces Microglia/Macrophage Activation but Exacerbates Cognitive Deficits Following Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury in the Neonatal Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Lauren A.; Huh, Jimmy W.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated microglial/macrophage-associated biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid of infant victims of abusive head trauma (AHT) suggest that these cells play a role in the pathophysiology of the injury. In a model of AHT in 11-day-old rats, 3 impacts (24 hours apart) resulted in spatial learning and memory deficits and increased brain microglial/macrophage reactivity, traumatic axonal injury, neuronal degeneration, and cortical and white-matter atrophy. The antibiotic minocycline has been effective in decreasing injury-induced microglial/macrophage activation while simultaneously attenuating cellular and functional deficits in models of neonatal hypoxic ischemia, but the potential for this compound to rescue deficits after impact-based trauma to the immature brain remains unexplored. Acute minocycline administration in this model of AHT decreased microglial/macrophage reactivity in the corpus callosum of brain-injured animals at 3 days postinjury, but this effect was lost by 7 days postinjury. Additionally, minocycline treatment had no effect on traumatic axonal injury, neurodegeneration, tissue atrophy, or spatial learning deficits. Interestingly, minocycline-treated animals demonstrated exacerbated injury-induced spatial memory deficits. These results contrast with previous findings in other models of brain injury and suggest that minocycline is ineffective in reducing microglial/macrophage activation and ameliorating injury-induced deficits following repetitive neonatal traumatic brain injury. PMID:26825312

  1. Seeing What Children See: Enhancing Understanding of Outdoor Learning Experiences through Body-Worn Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Amanda; Gray, Tonia; Truong, Son

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates innovative ways that outdoor educators can actively promote young participants' authentic voice in educational research and, in turn, increase our understanding of their worldview through accurately recording what children are seeing, hearing, doing, and touching when they are beyond our researcher's gaze. The study was…

  2. Substance P induces rapid and transient membrane blebbing in U373MG cells in a p21-activated kinase-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Meshki

    Full Text Available U373MG astrocytoma cells endogenously express the full-length neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R. Substance P (SP, the natural ligand for NK1R, triggers rapid and transient membrane blebbing and we report that these morphological changes have different dynamics and intracellular signaling as compared to the changes that we have previously described in HEK293-NK1R cells. In both cell lines, the SP-induced morphological changes are Gq-independent, and they require the Rho, Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK signaling pathway. Using confocal microscopy we have demonstrated that tubulin is phosphorylated subsequent to cell stimulation with SP and that tubulin accumulates inside the blebs. Colchicine, a tubulin polymerization inhibitor, blocked SP-induced blebbing in U373MG but not in HEK293-NK1R cells. Although p21-activated kinase (PAK is expressed in both cell lines, SP induced rapid phosphorylation of PAK in U373MG, but failed to phosphorylate PAK in HEK293-NK1R cells. The cell-permeable Rho inhibitor C3 transferase inhibited SP-induced PAK phosphorylation, but the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 had no effect on PAK phosphorylation, suggesting that Rho activates PAK in a ROCK-independent manner. Our study demonstrates that SP triggers rapid changes in cell morphology mediated by distinct intracellular signaling mechanisms in U373MG versus HEK293-NK1R cells.

  3. Two different avian cold-sensitive sensory neurons: Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8)-dependent and -independent activation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Takahashi, K; Saito, S; Tominaga, M; Ohta, T

    2016-12-01

    Sensing the ambient temperature is an important function for survival in animals. Some TRP channels play important roles as detectors of temperature and irritating chemicals. There are functional differences of TRP channels among species. TRPM8 in mammals is activated by cooling compounds and cold temperature, but less information is available on the functional role of TRPM8 in avian species. Here we investigated the pharmacological properties and thermal sensitivities of chicken TRPM8 (cTRPM8) and cold-sensitive mechanisms in avian sensory neurons. In heterologously expressed cTRPM8, menthol and its derivative, WS-12 elicited [Ca 2+ ] i increases, but icilin did not. In chicken sensory neurons, icilin increased [Ca 2+ ] i, in a TRPA1-dependent manner. Icilin selectively stimulated heterologously expressed chicken TRPA1 (cTRPA1). Similar to mammalian orthologue, cTRPM8 was activated by cold. Both heterologous and endogenous expressed cTRPM8 were sensitive to mammalian TRPM8 antagonists. There are two types of cold-sensitive cells regarding menthol sensitivity in chicken sensory neurons. The temperature threshold of menthol-insensitive neurons was significantly lower than that of menthol-sensitive ones. The population of menthol-insensitive neurons was large in chicken but almost little in mammals. The cold-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increases were not abolished by the external Ca 2+ removal or by blockades of PLC-IP 3 pathways and ryanodine channels. The cold stimulation failed to evoke [Ca 2+ ] i increases after intracellular Ca 2+ store-depletion. These results indicate that cTRPM8 acts as a cold-sensor similar to mammals. It is noteworthy that TRPM8-independent cold-sensitive neurons are abundant in chicken sensory neurons. Our results suggest that most of the cold-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increases are mediated via Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores and that these mechanisms may be specific to avian species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transient behaviour of an adsorption refrigerator. Experimental study of the alcohol/activated carbon system; Comportement transitoire d`une machine frigorifique a absorption. Etude experimentale du systeme alcool / charbon actif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. des sciences du genie chimique; Feidt, M. [Nancy-1 Univ., 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this article is to present an experimental study of an adsorption refrigerator, accounting for the transient phenomena in each component of the machine, in particular in the adsorber. The couples adsorbate/adsorbent investigated (activated carbon/methanol or ethanol) have been chosen on the basis of an earlier comparative study. We have performed a full series of experiments to investigate the transient evolution of temperatures, pressures and the cycled mass, in a discontinuous cycle, and along the components of the refrigerating machine. The influence of various parameters is studies by varying one at a time: adsorbate/ adsorbent couple, alcohol load in adsorber, alcohol flowrate, heating power, initial desorption temperature. All these experimental observation are discussed and compared to transient models developed in a separate article. (authors) 12 refs.

  5. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptor activation in vitro and in vivo by pro-tussive agents: GRC 17536 as a promising anti-tussive therapeutic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available Cough is a protective reflex action that helps clear the respiratory tract which is continuously exposed to airborne environmental irritants. However, chronic cough presents itself as a disease in its own right and despite its global occurrence; the molecular mechanisms responsible for cough are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential ankyrin1 (TRPA1 is robustly expressed in the neuronal as well as non-neuronal cells of the respiratory tract and is a sensor of a wide range of environmental irritants. It is fast getting acceptance as a key biological sensor of a variety of pro-tussive agents often implicated in miscellaneous chronic cough conditions. In the present study, we demonstrate in vitro direct functional activation of TRPA1 receptor by citric acid which is routinely used to evoke cough in preclinical and clinical studies. We also show for the first time that a potent and selective TRPA1 antagonist GRC 17536 inhibits citric acid induced cellular Ca(+2 influx in TRPA1 expressing cells and the citric acid induced cough response in guinea pigs. Hence our data provides a mechanistic link between TRPA1 receptor activation in vitro and cough response induced in vivo by citric acid. Furthermore, we also show evidence for TRPA1 activation in vitro by the TLR4, TLR7 and TLR8 ligands which are implicated in bacterial/respiratory virus pathogenesis often resulting in chronic cough. In conclusion, this study highlights the potential utility of TRPA1 antagonist such as GRC 17536 in the treatment of miscellaneous chronic cough conditions arising due to diverse causes but commonly driven via TRPA1.

  6. Activation of Mechanosensitive Transient Receptor Potential/Piezo Channels in Odontoblasts Generates Action Potentials in Cocultured Isolectin B4-negative Medium-sized Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaki; Ogura, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Maki; Nishi, Koichi; Ando, Masayuki; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2018-04-27

    Various stimuli to the dentin surface elicit dentinal pain by inducing dentinal fluid movement causing cellular deformation in odontoblasts. Although odontoblasts detect deformation by the activation of mechanosensitive ionic channels, it is still unclear whether odontoblasts are capable of establishing neurotransmission with myelinated A delta (Aδ) neurons. Additionally, it is still unclear whether these neurons evoke action potentials by neurotransmitters from odontoblasts to mediate sensory transduction in dentin. Thus, we investigated evoked inward currents and evoked action potentials form trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons after odontoblast mechanical stimulation. We used patch clamp recordings to identify electrophysiological properties and record evoked responses in TG neurons. We classified TG cells into small-sized and medium-sized neurons. In both types of neurons, we observed voltage-dependent inward currents. The currents from medium-sized neurons showed fast inactivation kinetics. When mechanical stimuli were applied to odontoblasts, evoked inward currents were recorded from medium-sized neurons. Antagonists for the ionotropic adenosine triphosphate receptor (P2X 3 ), transient receptor potential channel subfamilies, and Piezo1 channel significantly inhibited these inward currents. Mechanical stimulation to odontoblasts also generated action potentials in the isolectin B 4 -negative medium-sized neurons. Action potentials in these isolectin B 4 -negative medium-sized neurons showed a short duration. Overall, electrophysiological properties of neurons indicate that the TG neurons with recorded evoked responses after odontoblast mechanical stimulation were myelinated Aδ neurons. Odontoblasts established neurotransmission with myelinated Aδ neurons via P2X 3 receptor activation. The results also indicated that mechanosensitive TRP/Piezo1 channels were functionally expressed in odontoblasts. The activation of P2X 3 receptors induced an action potential

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested order of modules Basement ... Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Why see a board- ...

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? ... Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad- ...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... facts about your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home ...

  10. Modeling the Effects of Vorinostat In Vivo Reveals both Transient and Delayed HIV Transcriptional Activation and Minimal Killing of Latently Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Ruian; Lewin, Sharon R; Elliott, Julian H; Perelson, Alan S

    2015-10-01

    Recent efforts to cure human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection have focused on developing latency reversing agents as a first step to eradicate the latent reservoir. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, has been shown to activate HIV RNA transcription in CD4+ T-cells and alter host cell gene transcription in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. In order to understand how latently infected cells respond dynamically to vorinostat treatment and determine the impact of vorinostat on reservoir size in vivo, we have constructed viral dynamic models of latency that incorporate vorinostat treatment. We fitted these models to data collected from a recent clinical trial in which vorinostat was administered daily for 14 days to HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART. The results show that HIV transcription is increased transiently during the first few hours or days of treatment and that there is a delay before a sustained increase of HIV transcription, whose duration varies among study participants and may depend on the long term impact of vorinostat on host gene expression. Parameter estimation suggests that in latently infected cells, HIV transcription induced by vorinostat occurs at lower levels than in productively infected cells. Furthermore, the estimated loss rate of transcriptionally induced cells remains close to baseline in most study participants, suggesting vorinostat treatment does not induce latently infected cell killing and thus reduce the latent reservoir in vivo.

  11. TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0169 TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION Dr. Burhan Bayraktaroglu Devices for Sensing Branch Aerospace Components & Subsystems...SUBTITLE TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Burhan...88ABW-2017-3747, Clearance Date 31 July 2017. Paper contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Transient electronics is an emerging technology area that lacks proper

  12. Measurement of [Formula: see text] polarisation in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] = 7 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Esen, S; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jezabek, M; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The polarisation of prompt [Formula: see text] mesons is measured by performing an angular analysis of [Formula: see text] decays using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The polarisation is measured in bins of transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text] in the kinematic region [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and is compared to theoretical models. No significant polarisation is observed.

  13. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Impairs the Dendritic Arborization of Newborn Neurons in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus through the AMPK and Akt Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Tian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurite growth is an important process for the adult hippocampal neurogenesis which is regulated by a specific range of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 is a calcium-permeable channel and activation of it causes an increase in [Ca2+]i. We recently reported that TRPV4 activation promotes the proliferation of stem cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG. The present study aimed to examine the effect of TRPV4 activation on the dendrite morphology of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampal DG. Here, we report that intracerebroventricular injection of the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A for 5 days (GSK1016790A-injected mice reduced the number of doublecortin immunopositive (DCX+ cells and DCX+ fibers in the hippocampal DG, showing the impaired dendritic arborization of newborn neurons. The phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK protein level increased from 30 min to 2 h, and then decreased from 1 to 5 days after GSK1016790A injection. The phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt protein level decreased from 30 min to 5 days after GSK1016790A injection; this decrease was markedly attenuated by the AMPK antagonist compound C (CC, but not by the AMPK agonist AICAR. Moreover, the phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k protein levels were decreased by GSK1016790A; these changes were sensitive to 740 Y-P and CC. The phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β at Y216 was increased by GSK1016790A, and this change was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 and collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2. These changes were markedly blocked by 740 Y-P and CC. Finally, GSK1016790A-induced decrease of DCX+ cells and DCX+ fibers was markedly attenuated by 740 Y-P and CC, but was unaffected by AICAR. We conclude that TRPV4 activation impairs the dendritic arborization of newborn

  14. Reconstructing see-saw models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    In this talk we discuss the prospects to reconstruct the high-energy see-saw Lagrangian from low energy experiments in supersymmetric scenarios. We show that the model with three right-handed neutrinos could be reconstructed in theory, but not in practice. Then, we discuss the prospects to reconstruct the model with two right-handed neutrinos, which is the minimal see-saw model able to accommodate neutrino observations. We identify the relevant processes to achieve this goal, and comment on the sensitivity of future experiments to them. We find the prospects much more promising and we emphasize in particular the importance of the observation of rare leptonic decays for the reconstruction of the right-handed neutrino masses

  15. Antiretroviral Drug Activity in Macaques Infected during Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Has a Transient Effect on Cell-Associated SHIV DNA Reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Er Cong

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF is a novel HIV prevention strategy. Suboptimal PrEP adherence and HIV infection creates an opportunity for continued antiretroviral drug activity during undiagnosed infection. We previously showed that macaques infected with SHIV during PrEP with FTC/TDF display reduced acute plasma viremias and limited virus diversity. We investigated the effect of PrEP on acute SHIV DNA dynamics and on the size of the persistent virus reservoir in lymphoid tissues.Cell-associated SHIV DNA levels in PBMCs were measured in 8 macaques infected during PrEP with FTC/TDF or single-agent TAF and was compared to those seen in untreated infections (n = 10. PrEP breakthrough infections continued treatment with 1-2 weekly drug doses to model suboptimal drug exposure during undiagnosed HIV infection in humans. SHIV DNA was also measured in lymphoid tissues collected from FTC/TDF PrEP breakthroughs after 1 year of infection.Compared to untreated controls, PrEP infections had reduced plasma RNA viremias both at peak and throughout weeks 1-12 (p<0.005. SHIV DNA levels were also reduced at peak and during the first 12 weeks of infection (p<0.043 but not throughout weeks 12-20. At 1 year, SHIV DNA reservoirs in lymphoid tissues were similar in size among macaques that received PrEP or placebo.Antiviral drug activity due to PrEP limits acute SHIV replication but has only a transient effect on cell-associated SHIV DNA levels. Our model suggests that suboptimal drug exposure in persons that are taking PrEP and become infected with HIV may not be sufficient to reduce the pool of HIV-infected cells, and that treatment intensification may be needed to sustain potential virological benefits from the PrEP regimen.

  16. Danshen-Chuanxiong-Honghua Ameliorates Cerebral Impairment and Improves Spatial Cognitive Deficits after Transient Focal Ischemia and Identification of Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhua Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we only apply a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Danshen-Chuanxiong-Honghua (DCH for cardioprotection via anti-inflammation in rats of acute myocardial infarction by occluding coronary artery. Presently, we select not only DCH but also its main absorbed compound ferulic acid (FA for cerebra protection via similar action of mechanism above in animals of the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO. We investigated whether oral administration of DCH and FA could ameliorate MCAO-induced brain lesions in animals. By using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, we analyzed four compounds, including tanshinol, salvianolic acid B, hydroxysafflor yellow A and especially FA as the putative active components of DCH extract in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and injured hippocampus of rats with MCAO. In our study, it was assumed that FA played a similar neuroprotective role to DCH. We found that oral pretreatment with DCH (10 or 20 g/kg and FA (100 mg/kg improved neurological function and alleviated the infarct volume as well as brain edema in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were accompanied by improved ischemia-induced apoptosis and decreased the inflammatory response. Additionally, chronic treatment with DCH reversed MCAO-induced spatial cognitive deficits in a manner associated with enhanced neurogenesis and increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in lesions of the hippocampus. These findings suggest that DCH has the ability to recover cognitive impairment and offer neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury via inhibiting microenvironmental inflammation and triggering of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. FA could be one of the potential active compounds.

  17. Distinct Mechanism of Cysteine Oxidation-Dependent Activation and Cold Sensitization of Human Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Channel by High and Low Oxaliplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahito Miyake

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin, a third-generation platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, displays unique acute peripheral neuropathy triggered or enhanced by cold, and accumulating evidence suggests that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1 is responsible. TRPA1 is activated by oxaliplatin via a glutathione-sensitive mechanism. However, oxaliplatin interrupts hydroxylation of a proline residue located in the N-terminal region of TRPA1 via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD, which causes sensitization of TRPA1 to reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, PHD inhibition endows cold-insensitive human TRPA1 (hTRPA1 with ROS-dependent cold sensitivity. Since cysteine oxidation and proline hydroxylation regulate its activity, their association with oxaliplatin-induced TRPA1 activation and acquirement of cold sensitivity were investigated in the present study. A high concentration of oxaliplatin (1 mM induced outward-rectifier whole-cell currents and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in hTRPA1-expressing HEK293 cells, but did not increase the probability of hTRPA1 channel opening in the inside-out configuration. Oxaliplatin also induced the rapid generation of hydrogen peroxide, and the resultant Ca2+ influx was prevented in the presence of glutathione and in cysteine-mutated hTRPA1 (Cys641Ser-expressing cells, whereas proline-mutated hTRPA1 (Pro394Ala-expressing cells showed similar whole-cell currents and Ca2+ influx. By contrast, a lower concentration of oxaliplatin (100 μM did not increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration but did confer cold sensitivity on hTRPA1-expressing cells, and this was inhibited by PHD2 co-overexpression. Cold sensitivity was abolished by the mitochondria-targeting ROS scavenger mitoTEMPO and was minimal in cysteine-mutated hTRPA1 (Cys641Ser or Cys665Ser-expressing cells. Thus, high oxaliplatin evokes ROS-mediated cysteine oxidation-dependent hTRPA1 activation independent of PHD activity, while a lower

  18. Transient analysis for Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Pablos, J.C. et.al.

    1991-01-01

    Relationship between transients analysis and safety of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant is described a general panorama of safety thermal limits of a nuclear station, as well as transients classification and events simulation codes are exposed. Activities of a group of transients analysis of electrical research institute are also mentioned (Author)

  19. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  20. Advanced Instrumentation for Transient Reactor Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael L.; Anderson, Mark; Imel, George; Blue, Tom; Roberts, Jeremy; Davis, Kurt

    2018-01-31

    Transient testing involves placing fuel or material into the core of specialized materials test reactors that are capable of simulating a range of design basis accidents, including reactivity insertion accidents, that require the reactor produce short bursts of intense highpower neutron flux and gamma radiation. Testing fuel behavior in a prototypic neutron environment under high-power, accident-simulation conditions is a key step in licensing nuclear fuels for use in existing and future nuclear power plants. Transient testing of nuclear fuels is needed to develop and prove the safety basis for advanced reactors and fuels. In addition, modern fuel development and design increasingly relies on modeling and simulation efforts that must be informed and validated using specially designed material performance separate effects studies. These studies will require experimental facilities that are able to support variable scale, highly instrumented tests providing data that have appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. Finally, there are efforts now underway to develop advanced light water reactor (LWR) fuels with enhanced performance and accident tolerance. These advanced reactor designs will also require new fuel types. These new fuels need to be tested in a controlled environment in order to learn how they respond to accident conditions. For these applications, transient reactor testing is needed to help design fuels with improved performance. In order to maximize the value of transient testing, there is a need for in-situ transient realtime imaging technology (e.g., the neutron detection and imaging system like the hodoscope) to see fuel motion during rapid transient excursions with a higher degree of spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy. There also exists a need for new small, compact local sensors and instrumentation that are capable of collecting data during transients (e.g., local displacements, temperatures, thermal conductivity, neutron flux, etc.).

  1. Transient elevation of element contents as a result of neuronal death in mutant-mice cerebellum studied by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranda, K.; Kucera, J.; Baeurle, J.

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of some metals, in particular iron or manganese, has long been considered to trigger or accentuate neurodegenerative processes in humans. The two most frequently cited examples are Parkinson's and Alzheimer diseases, where excitotoxic processes lead to neuronal death. However, these neuropathies are somewhat unsuitable for investigating the time course of the metal accumulation because the applied analytical methods such as neutron activation analysis (NAA) are invasive. Hence, only one measurement can be made after the patient's death. Animal models of Parkinson's type neurodegeneration, such as mice mutants, are more suitable as a larger number of animals can be investigated at various postnatal ages. In this study we used one type of mice mutants weaver, where primary neurodegeneration is principally confined to the cerebellum and centred in time around the postnatal age of six days. Elemental composition of brain segments with dry mass as low as 0.5 mg, which were isolated from weaver and wild type (normal) mice were investigated using a combination of INAA and RNAA. Elevated concentration of the following elements Fe, Zn, Cu, K, Na, Rb, and Br that were observed in the weaver's cerebella closely followed the time course of neurodegeneration documented for this type of mutant. The transient elevation of these elements never preceded the onset of neurodegeneration but closely mirrored its time course reaching its peak on the sixth day. The concentration of these elements in the weaver's cerebella declined afterwards to converge on the elemental time course observed in the wild type mice. In conclusion, metal and other elemental elevation observed in the cerebella of these mutants are an expression of neurodegenerative processes rather than its precondition. (author)

  2. Recent activity of the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Brandt, Søren Kristian; Markwardt, C.

    2008-01-01

    Observations taken as part of the INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program (see ATel #1385) on 2008, February 23 13:32-17:13 (UT) showed bursting activity from the X-ray transient, the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335). During one of the 1800-sec pointings when the source was in the field- of-view o...

  3. Effects of transient global ischaemia on freezing behaviour and activity in a context-dependent fear conditioning task--implications for memory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich-Noack, Petra; Krautwald, Karla; Reymann, Klaus G; Wetzel, Wolfram

    2011-07-15

    Transient global ischaemia induces cell death in the CA1 layer of the hippocampus. To evaluate the functional consequences, we performed context-dependent fear conditioning. Ischaemia was induced by 2-vessel-occlusion (2VO) in gerbils. On day 6 post ischaemia or sham procedures (in control group) gerbils were placed in a test chamber and after 3 min adaption time exposed to foot-shocks (training session). On the next day the animals were placed in the same test chamber without foot-shocks (test session). As a parameter for memory performance we used the standard method of measuring the total freezing time via a cumulative time-sampling procedure during the test session. We found a significant longer total freezing time in control animals than in ischaemic animals. In addition, however, we applied a more detailed analysis of (i) quantifying the number of freezing bouts, (ii) the average duration of single freezing bouts, (iii) the activity pattern during the training and test situation and (iv) we differentially evaluated all the single time segments of the experiment. These analyses revealed that although maintenance of freezing (duration of freezing bout) was significantly lower in ischaemic animals compared to controls, the initiation of freezing (number of freezing bouts) was not significantly different between the two groups during the test session. The activity scores of ischaemic and non-ischaemic gerbils were similar during the adaption time of the training session. The foot-shock, however, induced a significantly different pattern of behaviour in the ischaemic animals, which was selectively reproduced during the test session. In conclusion, ischaemic gerbils reacted to a fearsome thread with a behavioural pattern different from unlesioned animals and they revealed this specific foot-shock induced behaviour again during the test session. This indicated that CA1 hippocampal death did not interrupt memory performance but changed expression of fear. Therefore

  4. Summary of transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews the papers on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) transient analyses given at the American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors. Most of the papers were based on the systems calculations performed using the TRAC-PWR, RELAP5 and RETRAN codes. The status of the nuclear industry in the code applications area is discussed. It is concluded that even though comprehensive computer codes are available for plant transient analysis, there is still a need to exercise engineering judgment, simpler tools and even hand calculations to supplement these codes

  5. Seeing Things: Image and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital media how might we speak about images of torture, and how might we regard the pain of others?  Using the examples of a short film by Alejandra Canales which recounts the experience of torture, and the Abu Ghraib photographs, this article seeks to repose the question of the function of the image and its relationship to epistemology. How do we know what we see? And how might we rethink the orthodox function of the image in the age of digital technology? In attempting to answer these questions, I argue that the production of virtual experience is a capacity of the human body, and that image making, like all genres of communication, is a practice in virtual community.

  6. PWR systems transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.F.; Peeler, G.B.; Abramson, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of transients in pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems involves the assessment of the response of the total plant, including primary and secondary coolant systems, steam piping and turbine (possibly including the complete feedwater train), and various control and safety systems. Transient analysis is performed as part of the plant safety analysis to insure the adequacy of the reactor design and operating procedures and to verify the applicable plant emergency guidelines. Event sequences which must be examined are developed by considering possible failures or maloperations of plant components. These vary in severity (and calculational difficulty) from a series of normal operational transients, such as minor load changes, reactor trips, valve and pump malfunctions, up to the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary reactor coolant system pipe known as a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA). The focus of this paper is the analysis of all those transients and accidents except loss of coolant accidents

  7. Transients: The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Speis, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to clarify the basis for the regulator's concerns for transient events. Transients are defined as both anticipated operational occurrences and postulated accidents. Recent operational experience, supplemented by improved probabilistic risk analysis methods, has demonstrated that non-LOCA transient events can be significant contributors to overall risk. Topics considered include lessons learned from events and issues, the regulations governing plant transients, multiple failures, different failure frequencies, operator errors, and public pressure. It is concluded that the formation of Owners Groups and Regulatory Response Groups within the owners groups are positive signs of the industry's concern for safety and responsible dealing with the issues affecting both the US NRC and the industry

  8. See me through my eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorthuis, Astrid M. G.; Hutteman, Roos; Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a clear view of one’s personality is a challenging but crucial developmental task during adolescence, which has enduring influences. This task might be harder if significant others see individuals differently from how the adolescents see themselves. Supporting this, the looking-glass-self theory suggests that significant others constitute a social mirror into which the individual gazes to form his/her self-view. The present study was the first to longitudinally examine whether self–other agreement in personality during adolescence (i.e., self–parent and self–friend agreement at age 12 and self–mother and self–father agreement at age 17) promote self-esteem development from age 17 to 29 years (N =186, 53% boys). Results for girls consistently confirmed the hypothesized beneficial effect of self–parent agreement, while the picture was more complicated for boys. That is, for girls, self–parent agreement at age 12 and age 17 both predicted steeper increases in self-esteem. For boys, steeper self-esteem development was predicted by higher self–parent agreement at age 12, but unexpectedly, also by lower self–parent agreement at age 17. All these results remained after controlling for (self-rated) personality. Moreover, self–friend agreement did not show any effects on self-esteem development, suggesting that the influence of peers’ convergence with self-views during early adolescence may not be as prominent as parents’. Results are discussed from the perspective of self-view formation and maintenance during adolescence and young adulthood. The present study sheds light on the longitudinal effect of one’s own view of personality being shared by important others on self-esteem development. PMID:29276319

  9. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  10. Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Kuzmin; Irina V. Soboleva; Elena V. Dolotova

    2011-01-01

    Transient exciplex formation mechanism of excited-state electron transfer reactions is analyzed in terms of experimental data on thermodynamics and kinetics of exciplex formation and decay. Experimental profiles of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for transient exciplex formation and decay are considered for several electron transfer reactions in various solvents. Strong electronic coupling in contact pairs of reactants causes substantial decrease of activation energy relative to that for c...

  11. Seeing you seeing me: Stereotypes and the stigma magnification effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolon, Sven; Kreiner, Glen E; Wieseke, Jan

    2016-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 101(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2016-21000-001). In the article, Table 2 contained a production-related formatting error. Values from column 11 onward were shifted upwards in the table. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Despite an increased interest in the phenomenon of stigma in organizations, we know very little about the interactions between those who are stigmatized and those who stigmatize them. Integrating both the perceptions of the stigmatized worker and the stigmatizing customer into one model, the present study addresses this gap. It examines the role of stereotypes held by customers of stigmatized organizations and metastereotypes held by the stigmatized workers themselves (i.e., their shared beliefs of the stereotypes customers associate with them) in frontline exchanges. To do so, data regarding frontline workers (vendors) of homeless-advocate newspapers from 3 different sources (vendors, customers, trained observers) were gathered. Multilevel path-analytic hypotheses tests reveal (a) how frontline workers' prototypicality for a stigmatized organization renders salient a stigma within frontline interactions and (b) how stereotypes by customers and metastereotypes by frontline workers interact with each other in such contacts. The results support a hypothesized interaction between frontline workers' metastereotypes and customers' stereotypes-what we call the "stigma magnification effect". The study also derives important practical implications by linking stigma to frontline workers' discretionary financial gains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. GRB 070610: a curious galactic transient

    OpenAIRE

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Cameron, P. B.; Nakar, E.; Ofek, E. O.; Rau, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Campana, S.; Bloom, J. S.; Perley, D. A.; Pollack, L. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.

    2008-01-01

    GRB 070610 is a typical high-energy event with a duration of 5 s. Yet within the burst localization we detect a highly unusual X-ray and optical transient, Swift J195509.6+261406. We see high-amplitude X-ray and optical variability on very short timescales even at late times. Using near-infrared imaging assisted by a laser guide star and adaptive optics, we identified the counterpart of Swift J195509.6+261406. Late-time optical and near-infrared imaging constrain the spectral type of the coun...

  13. News Quantum physics: German Physical Society spring meeting Journal access: American Physical Society's online journals will be available for free in all US high schools Award: High-school physics teacher receives American award for excellence Teacher training: Fobinet offers coordination of teacher-training activities Astronomy: Astronomy fans see stars at Astrofest Conference: Delegates enjoy the workshops and activities at CPD conference Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Quantum physics: German Physical Society spring meeting Journal access: American Physical Society's online journals will be available for free in all US high schools Award: High-school physics teacher receives American award for excellence Teacher training: Fobinet offers coordination of teacher-training activities Astronomy: Astronomy fans see stars at Astrofest Conference: Delegates enjoy the workshops and activities at CPD conference Forthcoming events

  14. Cortical computations via transient attractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver L C Rourke

    Full Text Available The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories. Earlier work that has explored this method has done so by emphasizing one attractor from a limited, pre-defined set. Here, we describe an alternative, a Transient Attractor network, which can learn any pattern presented to it, store several simultaneously, and robustly recall them on demand using targeted probes in a manner reminiscent of Hopfield networks. We hypothesize that such functionality could be usefully embedded within sensory cortex, and allow for a flexibly-gated short-term memory, as well as conferring the ability of the network to perform automatic de-noising, and separation of input signals into distinct perceptual objects. We demonstrate that the stored information can be refreshed to extend storage time, is not sensitive to noise in the system, and can be turned on or off by simple neuromodulation. The diverse capabilities of transient attractors, as well as their resemblance to many features observed in sensory cortex, suggest the possibility that their actions might underlie neural processing in many sensory areas.

  15. Cortical computations via transient attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, Oliver L C; Butts, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories. Earlier work that has explored this method has done so by emphasizing one attractor from a limited, pre-defined set. Here, we describe an alternative, a Transient Attractor network, which can learn any pattern presented to it, store several simultaneously, and robustly recall them on demand using targeted probes in a manner reminiscent of Hopfield networks. We hypothesize that such functionality could be usefully embedded within sensory cortex, and allow for a flexibly-gated short-term memory, as well as conferring the ability of the network to perform automatic de-noising, and separation of input signals into distinct perceptual objects. We demonstrate that the stored information can be refreshed to extend storage time, is not sensitive to noise in the system, and can be turned on or off by simple neuromodulation. The diverse capabilities of transient attractors, as well as their resemblance to many features observed in sensory cortex, suggest the possibility that their actions might underlie neural processing in many sensory areas.

  16. Process tomography: Seeing is believing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrey, G.; Parkinson, G.

    1995-01-01

    As the chemical process industries try new ways to optimize their processes, they are taking a closer look at tomography. Already well established in medical diagnostics, the technique has found some CPI applications but has long been considered too expensive and impractical for routine use. Promising to change this perception are recent developments in tomographic sensors, image processing algorithms, as well as data processing. Of particular interest to the CPI is tomography's ability t provide real-time cross sectional images of conditions inside process equipment, allowing operators to see what's going on in such opaque regions as packed catalyst beds, multiphase solutions, powder mixers, and fluidized beds. The images contain a wealth of data that can be used to: design equipment, verify simulation models and calculations derived via computational fluid dynamics, monitor fluid flow and environmental conditions, and image velocity profiles. One interesting application is as a way of inspecting radioactive waste drums to decide where they should be sent for permanent storage. Another use being studied is the monitoring of air sparging of contaminated areas

  17. Seeing things by Anna Margolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francuz Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If we recall the most important words for the poetry, we should begin the story with the stones, lily, hands and blood, which, if you look at them with the philological accuracy, are interrelated: situate themselves clearly on opposite banks of the creative process. They talk about the construction of the building consisting of perceptions about their own strength and weakness, ecstasy and congealing in what for centuries the classics poets have tried to fathom: the harmony and clarity, driven by the hope that in life they should above all stick to be beauty. And in addition, they ought to go further than discipline, practice eye and expand the field of view, should not shun from the gusts of the heart, because the heart grows more powerful due to great ideas, passions. Spacious becomes the vision of writing, it is the weave of contradictions - this is how one of the most important twentieth-century poets, who wrote in Yiddish, Anna Margolin sees it. Margolin’s poetry is a clear return towards neoclassicism, building up topics, theses, allusions, ideas taken from ideologically close to her artists of great individuality, Anna Akhmatova (from whom she took her name, Osip Mandelstam, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ezra Pound.

  18. Transient flow combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Non-steady combustion problems can result from engine sources such as accelerations, decelerations, nozzle adjustments, augmentor ignition, and air perturbations into and out of the compressor. Also non-steady combustion can be generated internally from combustion instability or self-induced oscillations. A premixed-prevaporized combustor would be particularly sensitive to flow transients because of its susceptability to flashback-autoignition and blowout. An experimental program, the Transient Flow Combustion Study is in progress to study the effects of air and fuel flow transients on a premixed-prevaporized combustor. Preliminary tests performed at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, a reference velocity of 30 m/s, and a pressure of 700 kPa. The airflow was reduced to 1/3 of its original value in a 40 ms ramp before flashback occurred. Ramping the airflow up has shown that blowout is more sensitive than flashback to flow transients. Blowout occurred with a 25 percent increase in airflow (at a constant fuel-air ratio) in a 20 ms ramp. Combustion resonance was found at some conditions and may be important in determining the effects of flow transients.

  19. Transient hardened power FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Fischer, T.A.; Huang, C.C.C.; Meyer, W.J.; Smith, C.S.; Blanchard, R.A.; Fortier, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    N-channel power FETs offer significant advantages in power conditioning circuits. Similiarily to all MOS technologies, power FET devices are vulnerable to ionizing radiation, and are particularily susceptible to burn-out in high dose rate irradiations (>1E10 rads(Si)/sec.), which precludes their use in many military environments. This paper will summarize the physical mechanisms responsible for burn-out, and discuss various fabrication techniques designed to improve the transient hardness of power FETs. Power FET devices were fabricated with several of these techniques, and data will be presented which demonstrates that transient hardness levels in excess of 1E12 rads(Si)/sec. are easily achievable

  20. Transients in the Vivitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, C.M.; Frick, G.; Roumie, M.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical measurements are presented for the construction of a model for the study of transients in the Vivitron. Observation of the transmission of electrical pulses in the porticos clearly shows transmission-line behaviour. Measurements of the vector impedance of the outer porticos show the same transmission-line properties, but also gives a description of the modification from a pure transmission line due to the circular electrodes. The results of this investigation should allow the construction of a computer model which predicts the evolution of the transients in the case of a spark in the Vivitron. (orig.)

  1. Production of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Albuquerque, D S D; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; An, M; Andrei, C; Andrews, H A; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Anwar, R; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Ball, M; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barioglio, L; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; 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    2017-01-01

    The transverse momentum distributions of the strange and double-strange hyperon resonances ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) produced in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV were measured in the rapidity range [Formula: see text] for event classes corresponding to different charged-particle multiplicity densities, [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text]. The mean transverse momentum values are presented as a function of [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text], as well as a function of the particle masses and compared with previous results on hyperon production. The integrated yield ratios of excited to ground-state hyperons are constant as a function of [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text]. The equivalent ratios to pions exhibit an increase with [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text], depending on their strangeness content.

  2. Measurement of the [Formula: see text] meson lifetime using [Formula: see text] decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The lifetime of the [Formula: see text] meson is measured using semileptonic decays having a [Formula: see text] meson and a muon in the final state. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of [Formula: see text], are collected by the LHCb detector in [Formula: see text] collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The measured lifetime is [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  3. Seeing or moving in parallel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Ehrsson, H Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2013-01-01

    a different network, involving bilateral dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), primary motor cortex, and SMA, was more active when subjects viewed parallel movements while performing either symmetrical or parallel movements. Correlations between behavioral instability and brain activity were present in right lateral...... adduction-abduction movements symmetrically or in parallel with real-time congruent or incongruent visual feedback of the movements. One network, consisting of bilateral superior and middle frontal gyrus and supplementary motor area (SMA), was more active when subjects performed parallel movements, whereas...

  4. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  5. Transient cavitation in pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to set up a one-dimensional mathematical model, which describes the transient flow in pipelines, taking into account the influence of cavitation and free gas. The flow will be conceived of as a three-phase flow of the liquid, its vapour and non-condensible gas. The

  6. Transient cognitive dynamics, metastability, and decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively discussed at length for the last 15 years. One of the popular points of view is that metastable states play a key role in the execution of cognitive functions. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that most of these functions are the result of transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such transients may consist of a sequential switching between different metastable cognitive states. The main problem faced when using dynamical theory to describe transient cognitive processes is the fundamental contradiction between reproducibility and flexibility of transient behavior. In this paper, we propose a theoretical description of transient cognitive dynamics based on the interaction of functionally dependent metastable cognitive states. The mathematical image of such transient activity is a stable heteroclinic channel, i.e., a set of trajectories in the vicinity of a heteroclinic skeleton that consists of saddles and unstable separatrices that connect their surroundings. We suggest a basic mathematical model, a strongly dissipative dynamical system, and formulate the conditions for the robustness and reproducibility of cognitive transients that satisfy the competing requirements for stability and flexibility. Based on this approach, we describe here an effective solution for the problem of sequential decision making, represented as a fixed time game: a player takes sequential actions in a changing noisy environment so as to maximize a cumulative reward. As we predict and verify in computer simulations, noise plays an important role in optimizing the gain.

  7. Investigation of electrically active defects in InGaAs quantum wire intermediate-band solar cells using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique

    OpenAIRE

    Al Saqri, Noor alhuda; Felix, Jorlandio F.; Aziz, Mohsin; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Jameel, Dler Adil; Taylor, David; Henini, M.; Abd El-sadek, Mahmmoud S.; Furrow, Colin; Ware, Morgan E.; Benamara, Mourad; Mortazavi, Mansour; Salamo, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    InGaAs quantum wire (QWr) intermediate-band solar cell based nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electrical and interface properties of these solar cell devices, as determined by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C-V) techniques, were found to change with temperature over a wide range of 20–340 K. The electron and hole traps present in these devices have been investigated using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The DLTS results showed that the ...

  8. Compressive Transient Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Qilin

    2017-04-01

    High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.

  9. See, Say, Write: A Writing Routine for the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Stefanie B.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    See, Say, Write is an adaptable classroom writing routine that teachers can use across a range of activities in the preschool classroom. This preschool writing routine offers an opportunity for teachers to build on a shared experience through engagement in rich conversation and writing. After a shared experience, teachers will provide a visual…

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated image library Board Prep Plus Dialogues in Dermatology Dialogues in ... Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Why see a board-certified ...

  11. Holy See participation in the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The Holy See has participated in every General Conference of the IAEA and has made a special contribution in Vienna to international co-operation and the development of the peaceful atom. On August 20, 1957 the Holy See became a full member of the Agency. (author)

  12. HP-SEE User Forum 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Karaivanova, Aneta; Oulas, Anastasis; Liabotis, Ioannis; Stojiljkovic, Danica; Prnjat, Ognjen

    2014-01-01

    This book is a collection of carefully reviewed papers presented during the HP-SEE User Forum, the meeting of the High-Performance Computing Infrastructure for South East Europe’s (HP-SEE) Research Communities, held in October 17-19, 2012, in Belgrade, Serbia. HP-SEE aims at supporting and integrating regional HPC infrastructures; implementing solutions for HPC in the region; and making HPC resources available to research communities in SEE, region, which are working in a number of scientific fields with specific needs for massively parallel execution on powerful computing resources. HP-SEE brings together research communities and HPC operators from 14 different countries and enables them to share HPC facilities, software, tools, data and research results, thus fostering collaboration and strengthening the regional and national human network; the project specifically supports research groups in the areas of computational physics, computational chemistry and the life sciences. The contributions presented i...

  13. Transient osteoporosis of hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH in a 50-year-old man including the clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, management, and clinical progress. TOH is a rare self-limiting condition that typically affects middle-aged men or, less frequently, women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Affected individuals present clinically with acute hip pain, limping gait, and limited ranges of hip motion. TOH may begin spontaneously or after a minor trauma. Radiographs are typically unremarkable but magnetic resonance (MR imaging studies yield findings consistent with bone marrow edema. TOH is referred to as regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO if it travels to other joints or the contralateral hip. TOH often resembles osteonecrosis but the two conditions must be differentiated due to different prognoses and management approaches. The term TOH is often used interchangeably and synonymously with transient bone marrow edema (TBME.

  14. Stability of Ignition Transients

    OpenAIRE

    V.E. Zarko

    1991-01-01

    The problem of ignition stability arises in the case of the action of intense external heat stimuli when, resulting from the cut-off of solid substance heating, momentary ignition is followed by extinction. Physical pattern of solid propellant ignition is considered and ignition criteria available in the literature are discussed. It is shown that the above mentioned problem amounts to transient burning at a given arbitrary temperature distribution in the condensed phase. A brief survey...

  15. Transient FDTD simulation validation

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui Tellería, Ricardo; Riu Costa, Pere Joan; Silva Martínez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In computational electromagnetic simulations, most validation methods have been developed until now to be used in the frequency domain. However, the EMC analysis of the systems in the frequency domain many times is not enough to evaluate the immunity of current communication devices. Based on several studies, in this paper we propose an alternative method of validation of the transients in time domain allowing a rapid and objective quantification of the simulations results.

  16. MHD aspects of coronal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzer, U.

    1979-10-01

    If one defines coronal transients as events which occur in the solar corona on rapid time scales (< approx. several hours) then one would have to include a large variety of solar phenomena: flares, sprays, erupting prominences, X-ray transients, white light transients, etc. Here we shall focus our attention on the latter two phenomena. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 RDG

  17. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All

  18. Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makiko; Cashman, John R; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Trimethylaminuria, or fish odor syndrome, includes a transient or mild malodor caused by an excessive amount of malodorous trimethylamine as a result of body secretions. Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in self-reported subjects suffering from malodor and even in healthy women harboring functionally active flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Methods FMO3 metabolic capacity (conversion of trimethylamine to trimethylamine N-oxide) was defined as the urinary ratio of trimethylamine N-oxide to total trimethylamine. Results Self-reported Case (A) that was homozygous for inactive Arg500stop FMO3, showed decreased metabolic capacity of FMO3 (i.e., ~10% the unaffected metabolic capacity) during 120 days of observation. For Case (B) that was homozygous for common [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 polymorphisms, metabolic capacity of FMO3 was almost ~90%, except for a few days surrounding menstruation showing 90%) metabolic capacity, however, on days around menstruation the FMO3 metabolic capacity was decreased to ~60–70%. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function. PMID:17257434

  19. Perceptual Experience and Seeing-as

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Kalpokas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Rorty, Davidson and Brandom, to have an experience is to be caused by our senses to hold a perceptual belief. This article argues that the phenomenon of seeing-as cannot be explained by such a conception of perceptual experience. First, the notion of experience defended by the aforementioned authors is reconstructed. Second, the main features of what Wittgenstein called “seeing aspects” are briefly presented. Finally, several arguments are developed in order to support the main thesis of the article: seeing-as cannot be explained by the conception of experience defended by Rorty, Davidson and Brandom.

  20. The Relevance of the Dynamic Stall Effect for Transient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens; Sørensen, Poul; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a methodology to quantify the influence of dynamic stall on transient fault operations of active-stall turbines. The model of the dynamic stall effect is introduced briefly. The behaviour of the dynamic stall model during a transient fault operation is described mathematica...

  1. Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Kuzmin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient exciplex formation mechanism of excited-state electron transfer reactions is analyzed in terms of experimental data on thermodynamics and kinetics of exciplex formation and decay. Experimental profiles of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for transient exciplex formation and decay are considered for several electron transfer reactions in various solvents. Strong electronic coupling in contact pairs of reactants causes substantial decrease of activation energy relative to that for conventional long-range ET mechanism, especially for endergonic reactions, and provides the possibility for medium reorganization concatenated to gradual charge shift in contrast to conventional preliminary medium and reactants reorganization. Experimental criteria for transient exciplex formation (concatenated mechanism of excited-state electron transfer are considered. Available experimental data show that this mechanism dominates for endergonic ET reactions and provides a natural explanation for a lot of known paradoxes of ET reactions.

  2. ProcSee - The Picasso successor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randem, Hans Olav; Jokstad, Haakon; Linden, Terje; Kvilesjoe, Hans Oeyvind; Rekvin, Sverre; Hornaes, Arne

    2005-09-01

    This report describes the history of computer graphics and Picasso at the Halden Project and how Picasso has been used at HRP, in HRP member organisations and in other organisations. It motivates the change of name from Picasso to ProcSee based on plans to extend the use of the product and to avoid a potential conflict regarding the name. It describes features introduced during the last years to motivate users to utilise new functionality, describes how tests shows that ProcSee has unique capabilities when it comes to performance for handling frequent display updates for large complex displays, and describes new planned features to be implemented in ProcSee. The report concludes that Picasso/ProcSee has been and will continue to be of vital importance for the HRP research programme within the fields of human-machine interface design and human-machine interaction. (Author)

  3. Fundamental and applied aspects of astronomical seeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulman, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that despite recent advances in the use of spacecraft as observatory platforms, much astronomy is still conducted from the surface of the earth. The literature on astronomical seeing and observatory site selection is widely scattered throughout journals and conference reports concerned with various disciplines. This survey has the objective to represent the state of the subject up to 1982. A description of the history and prospects of the considered subject is presented, and the optics of seeing are examined. The meteorology of seeing is discussed, taking into account aspects of micrometeorology and small-scale turbulence near the surface, the diurnal cycle in the planetary boundary layer, the temperature structure above the planetary boundary layer, and the effects of terrain. Attention is given to the calculation of system performance from microthermal data, optical methods for the measurement of seeing, and techniques for minimizing image-degrading effects of the atmosphere. 279 references

  4. Magnetic transients in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.; Tanaka, K.

    1981-01-01

    We present data on magnetic transients (mgtr's) observed in flares on 1980 July 1 and 5 with Big Bear videomagnetograph (VMG). The 1980 July 1 event was a white light flare in which a strong bipolar mgtr was observed, and a definite change in the sunspots occurred at the time of the flare. In the 1980 July 5 flare, a mgtr was observed in only one polarity, and, although no sunspot changes occurred simultaneous with the flare, major spot changes occurred in a period of hours

  5. Familial Transient Global Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Rhys Davies

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA, a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology.

  6. Transient activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling reporter in fibrotic scar formation after compression spinal cord injury in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Takashi; Pleasure, David E; Lam, Kit S; Zhou, Chengji J

    2018-02-19

    After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), a scar may form with a fibrotic core (fibrotic scar) and surrounding reactive astrocytes (glial scar) at the lesion site. The scar tissue is considered a major obstacle preventing regeneration both as a physical barrier and as a source for secretion of inhibitors of axonal regeneration. Understanding the mechanism of scar formation and how to control it may lead to effective SCI therapies. Using a compression-SCI model on adult transgenic mice, we demonstrate that the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling reporter TOPgal (TCF/Lef1-lacZ) positive cells appeared at the lesion site by 5 days, peaked on 7 days, and diminished by 14 days post injury. Using various representative cell lineage markers, we demonstrate that, these transiently TOPgal positive cells are a group of Fibronectin(+);GFAP(-) fibroblast-like cells in the core scar region. Some of them are proliferative. These results indicate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling may play a key role in fibrotic scar formation after traumatic spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurand transient signal suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transient signal suppressor for use in a controls system which is adapted to respond to a change in a physical parameter whenever it crosses a predetermined threshold value in a selected direction of increasing or decreasing values with respect to the threshold value and is sustained for a selected discrete time interval is presented. The suppressor includes a sensor transducer for sensing the physical parameter and generating an electrical input signal whenever the sensed physical parameter crosses the threshold level in the selected direction. A manually operated switch is provided for adapting the suppressor to produce an output drive signal whenever the physical parameter crosses the threshold value in the selected direction of increasing or decreasing values. A time delay circuit is selectively adjustable for suppressing the transducer input signal for a preselected one of a plurality of available discrete suppression time and producing an output signal only if the input signal is sustained for a time greater than the selected suppression time. An electronic gate is coupled to receive the transducer input signal and the timer output signal and produce an output drive signal for energizing a control relay whenever the transducer input is a non-transient signal which is sustained beyond the selected time interval.

  8. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  9. Production of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] 7 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Rinella, G Aglieri; Agnello, M; Agostinelli, A; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Aiola, S; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; 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Hilden, T E; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Eschweiler, D; Espagnon, B; Esposito, M; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floratos, E; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez Ramirez, A; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Graczykowski, L K; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gumbo, M; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Khan, K H; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harris, J W; Hartmann, H; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hippolyte, B; Hladky, J; Hristov, P; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Innocenti, G M; Ionita, C; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jahnke, C; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kadyshevskiy, V; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Svn, M Keil; Khan, M M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, B; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kučera, V; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Ma, R; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martin Blanco, J; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mlynarz, J; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Nayak, K; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Okatan, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozdemir, M; Sahoo, P; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palmeri, A; Pant, D; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Paul, B; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Pohjoisaho, E H O; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puccio, M; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rajput, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Rauf, A W; Razazi, V; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Reidt, F; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rocco, E; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohni, S; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Ronflette, L; Rosnet, P; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Ryabov, Y; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakai, S; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Sánchez Rodríguez, F J; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Santagati, G; Sarkar, D; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schulc, M; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Segato, G; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senosi, K; Seo, J; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Song, J; Song, M; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Spacek, M; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Symons, T J M; Szabo, A; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Takahashi, J; Tangaro, M A; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tarantola Peloni, A; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tariq, M; Tarzila, M G; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terasaki, K; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Vande Vyvre, P; Van Der Maarel, J; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vargas, A; Vargyas, M; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Velure, A; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Vislavicius, V; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wagner, V; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Watanabe, D; Weber, M; Weber, S G; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Winn, M; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, P; Yang, S; Yano, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, F; Zhou, Y; Zhuo, Zhou; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zyzak, M

    The production of the strange and double-strange baryon resonances ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) has been measured at mid-rapidity ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]) in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] 7 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. Transverse momentum spectra for inelastic collisions are compared to QCD-inspired models, which in general underpredict the data. A search for the [Formula: see text] pentaquark, decaying in the [Formula: see text] channel, has been carried out but no evidence is seen.

  10. Sequence spaces [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with application in clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Shoaib; Alamri, Badriah As; Mursaleen, M; Lohani, Qm Danish

    2017-01-01

    Distance measures play a central role in evolving the clustering technique. Due to the rich mathematical background and natural implementation of [Formula: see text] distance measures, researchers were motivated to use them in almost every clustering process. Beside [Formula: see text] distance measures, there exist several distance measures. Sargent introduced a special type of distance measures [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] which is closely related to [Formula: see text]. In this paper, we generalized the Sargent sequence spaces through introduction of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] sequence spaces. Moreover, it is shown that both spaces are BK -spaces, and one is a dual of another. Further, we have clustered the two-moon dataset by using an induced [Formula: see text]-distance measure (induced by the Sargent sequence space [Formula: see text]) in the k-means clustering algorithm. The clustering result established the efficacy of replacing the Euclidean distance measure by the [Formula: see text]-distance measure in the k-means algorithm.

  11. The joy of transient chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tél, Tamás [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, and MTA-ELTE Theoretical Physics Research Group, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest H-1117 (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  12. Transient osteoporosis of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWalter, Patricia; Hassan Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip is an uncommon cause of hip pain, mostly affecting healthy middle-aged men and also women in the third trimester of pregnancy. We present a case of transient osteoporosis of the hip in a 33-year-old non-pregnant female patient. This case highlights the importance of considering a diagnosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip in patients who present with hip pain. (author)

  13. The joy of transient chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tél, Tamás

    2015-09-01

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  14. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.

    1989-12-01

    Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new technique that reduces the occurrence of self-absorption in optically thick solid samples so that analytically useful emission spectra may be observed. Conventional emission spectroscopy, in which the sample is held at an elevated, uniform temperature, is practical only for optically thin samples. In thick samples the emission from deep layers of the material is partially absorbed by overlying layers.1 This self-absorption results in emission spectra from most optically thick samples that closely resemble black-body spectra. The characteristic discrete emission bands are severely truncated and altered in shape. TIRES bypasses this difficulty by using a laser to heat only an optically thin surface layer. The increased temperature of the layer is transient since the layer will rapidly cool and thicken by thermal diffusion; hence the emission collection must be correlated with the laser heating. TIRES may be done with both pulsed and cw lasers.2,3 When a pulsed laser is used, the spectrometer sampling must be synchronized with the laser pulsing so that only emission during and immediately after each laser pulse is observed.3 If a cw laser is used, the sample must move rapidly through the beam. The hot, transient layer is then in the beam track on the sample at and immediately behind the beam position, so the spectrometer field of view must be limited to this region near the beam position.2 How much self-absorption the observed emission suffers depends on how thick the heated layer has grown by thermal diffusion when the spectrometer samples the emission. Use of a pulsed laser synchronized with the spectrometer sampling readily permits reduction of the time available for heat diffusion to about 100 acs .3 When a cw laser is used, the heat-diffusion time is controlled by how small the spectrometer field of view is and by how rapidly the sample moves past within this field. Both a very small field of view and a

  15. Measurement of quarkonium production at forward rapidity in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text]TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Agnello, M; Agostinelli, A; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Aiola, S; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Böttger, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Carena, F; Carena, W; Castillo Castellanos, J; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chelnokov, V; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dang, R; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, K; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; D'Erasmo, G; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Di Bari, D; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Eschweiler, D; Espagnon, B; Esposito, M; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floratos, E; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez Ramirez, A; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Graczykowski, L K; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Khan, K H; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harris, J W; Hartmann, H; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hippolyte, B; Hladky, J; Hristov, P; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Innocenti, G M; Ionita, C; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jahnke, C; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kadyshevskiy, V; Kalcher, S; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, B; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kravčáková, A; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kučera, V; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luzzi, C; Ma, R; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martin Blanco, J; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C M; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Okatan, A; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Sahoo, P; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palmeri, A; Pant, D; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Paul, B; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Pohjoisaho, E H O; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Rauf, A W; Razazi, V; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Reidt, F; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rocco, E; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohni, S; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Sánchez Rodríguez, F J; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Santagati, G; Sarkar, D; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schulc, M; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Segato, G; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seo, J; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Song, J; Song, M; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Spacek, M; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Susa, T; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Takahashi, J; Tangaro, M A; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tarantola Peloni, A; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Torii, H; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Vande Vyvre, P; Vannucci, L; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Velure, A; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wagner, V; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Watanabe, D; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Winn, M; Xiang, C; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, P; Yang, S; Yano, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, F; Zhou, Y; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    The inclusive production cross sections at forward rapidity of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text](1S) and [Formula: see text](2S) are measured in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.35 pb[Formula: see text]. Quarkonia are reconstructed in the dimuon-decay channel and the signal yields are evaluated by fitting the [Formula: see text] invariant mass distributions. The differential production cross sections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text], over the ranges [Formula: see text] GeV/c for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] GeV/c for all other resonances and for [Formula: see text]. The measured cross sections integrated over [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and assuming unpolarized quarkonia, are: [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]b, [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]b, [Formula: see text] nb and [Formula: see text] nb, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second one is systematic. The results are compared to measurements performed by other LHC experiments and to theoretical models.

  16. [Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]∞ bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

    2013-12-01

    In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]∞ error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]∞-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]∞-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ∞ error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]∞-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]∞ error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]∞ metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]∞ error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates.

  17. Anticipated transients without scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lellouche, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses in various degrees of depth the publications WASH-1270, WASH-1400, and NUREG-0460, and has as its purpose a description of the technical work done by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) personnel and its contractors on the subject of anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). It demonstrates the close relation between the probability of scram failure derived from historical scram data and that derived from the use of component data in a model of a system (the so-called synthesis method), such as was done in WASH-1400. The inherent conservatism of these models is demonstrated by showing that they predict significantly more events than have in fact occurred and that such models still predict scram failure probabilities low enough to make ATWS an insignificant contributor to accident risk

  18. Transient fuel melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, L.; Schmitz, F.

    1982-10-01

    The observation of micrographic documents from fuel after a CABRI test leads to postulate a specific mode of transient fuel melting during a rapid nuclear power excursion. When reaching the melt threshold, the bands which are characteristic for the solid state are broken statistically over a macroscopic region. The time of maintaining the fuel at the critical enthalpy level between solid and liquid is too short to lead to a phase separation. A significant life-time (approximately 1 second) of this intermediate ''unsolide'' state would have consequences on the variation of physical properties linked to the phase transition solid/liquid: viscosity, specific volume and (for the irradiated fuel) fission gas release [fr

  19. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliha, George; Morgan, Jordan; Vrahas, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy (TOP) is a rare yet perhaps under-reported condition that has affected otherwise healthy pregnancies throughout the world. The condition presents suddenly in the third trimester of a usually uneventful pregnancy and progressively immobilizes the mother. Radiographic studies detect drastic loss of bone mass, elevated rates of turnover in the bone, and oedema in the affected portion. Weakness of the bone can lead to fractures during delivery and other complications for the mother. Then, within weeks of labour, symptoms and radiological findings resolve. Aetiology is currently unknown, although neural, vascular, haematological, endocrine, nutrient-deficiency, and other etiologies have been proposed. Several treatments have also been explored, including simple bed rest, steroids, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, induced termination of pregnancy, and surgical intervention. The orthopedist plays an essential role in monitoring the condition (and potential complications) as well as ensuring satisfactory outcomes for both the mother and newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human mesenchymal stromal cells transiently increase cytokine production by activated T cells before suppressing T-cell proliferation: effect of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerquis, Jessica; Romieu-Mourez, Raphaëlle; François, Moïra; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Young, Yoon Kow; Zhao, Jing; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) suppress T-cell proliferation, especially after activation with inflammatory cytokines. We compared the dynamic action of unprimed and interferon (IFN)-γ plus tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-pretreated human bone marrow-derived MSCs on resting or activated T cells. MSCs were co-cultured with allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at high MSC-to-PBMC ratios in the absence or presence of concomitant CD3/CD28-induced T-cell activation. The kinetic effects of MSCs on cytokine production and T-cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed. Unprimed MSCs increased the early production of IFN-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 by CD3/CD28-activated PBMCs before suppressing T-cell proliferation. In non-activated PBMC co-cultures, low levels of IL-2 and IL-10 synthesis were observed with MSCs in addition to low levels of CD69 expression by T cells and no T-cell proliferation. MSCs also decreased apoptosis in resting and activated T cells and inhibited the transition of these cells into the sub-G0/G1 and the S phases. With inhibition of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, MSCs increased CD3/CD28-induced T-cell proliferation. After priming with IFN-γ plus TNF-α, MSCs were less potent at increasing cytokine production by CD3/CD28-activated PBMCs and more effective at inhibiting T-cell proliferation but had preserved anti-apoptotic functions. Unprimed MSCs induce a transient increase in IFN-γ and IL-2 synthesis by activated T cells. Pre-treatment of MSCs with IFN-γ plus TNF-α may increase their effectiveness and safety in vivo. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transient Go: A Mobile App for Transient Astronomy Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D.; Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Drake, A.; Early, J.; Ivezic, Z.; Jacoby, S.; Kanbur, S.

    2016-12-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is set to revolutionize human interaction with the real world as demonstrated by the phenomenal success of `Pokemon Go'. That very technology can be used to rekindle the interest in science at the school level. We are in the process of developing a prototype app based on sky maps that will use AR to introduce different classes of astronomical transients to students as they are discovered i.e. in real-time. This will involve transient streams from surveys such as the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) today and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in the near future. The transient streams will be combined with archival and latest image cut-outs and other auxiliary data as well as historical and statistical perspectives on each of the transient types being served. Such an app could easily be adapted to work with various NASA missions and NSF projects to enrich the student experience.

  2. See laser testing at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Anatolievich Novikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main problem for laser SEE testing at different temperatures is to determine correlation between laser pulse energy and LET. In the first approximation, LET values with the same laser pulse energy and different temperatures are directly proportional to the absorption coefficient of laser light in a semiconductor. Use of tabulated values could lead to errors and absorption coefficient should be determined for each sensitive volume of device under test (DUT. Temperature dependence of absorption coefficient could be determined using ionization response of DUT in power supply circuit under local laser irradiation. Using this approach a satisfactory correlation of ion and laser SEE test result was observed.

  3. TRANSIENT GLOBAL AMNESIA IN A PATIENT WITH HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Yakovleva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia was established by Fisher et Adams is 1964 for phenomena characterized by the sudden onset of all types memory loss, retrograde amnesia and the inability to form new  memories and to recall the recent past. The incidence of TGA is 5  to10 people per 100,000 worldwide but the real incidence is unknown because the episodes of memory loss are temporary and many patients don’t go to see a doctor at the time of attack. The triggers of TAG are physical activity, sexual  intercourse, pain, Valsalva maneuver etc. In routine clinical practice  TAG is more important for neurologists. But this problem is also  interesting for therapeutists because TAG could be developed in  patients with arterial hypertension, foramen ovale, mitral valve  prolapse and heart blocks. We present a 57-year-old female with  TAG. She was admitted to the hospital due to hypertensive crisis and an impaired ability to retain new information that started after  physical activity. The diagnosis of TAG was based on information  from attacks witnesses, the sudden onset of anterograde amnesia,  normal cognition of the patient and short duration of attack. Also,  the patient had no features of stroke, acute hypertensive encephalopathy, epilepsy and alcohol blackout. TAG is more typical for females over 50 years, all symptoms start after physical activity and resolve within 24 hours. It is characterized by reversibility of all symptoms and good prognosis of 2 years of follow-up.

  4. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abuse...

  5. Transient changes of enzyme activity of five acid hydrolases in the supernatants of homogenates of hearts of mice due to ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droba, B.; Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow

    1977-01-01

    Enzymatic activity of five lysosomal hydrolases: acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2), acid β-glycerophosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2), arylsulphatase (EC 3.1.6.1), β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) and β-N-acetylhexoaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) was studied in the supernatants of homogenates of hearts of unirradiated mice, serving as controls, and a group of UV-irradiated mice. In the control group, determinations made at 6-hr intervals showed rhythmic diurnal changes in activities of three acid hydrolases. These changes were statistically significant in the case of acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase, acid β-glycerophosphatase, and β-N-acetylhexosaminidase. The effect of UV-irradiation was manifested mainly by depression of enzyme activities of the acid hydrolases during the first few hours after exposure. Depression of activities of arylsulphatase and β-N-acetylhexosaminidase by UV light was statistically significant. Presumably, the fall in enzyme activities of the acid hydrolases was due to chemical mediators formed in the skin under the influence of UV-radiation and adrenal corticoids secreted into the blood

  6. Pressure transients in pipeline systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This text is to give an overview of the necessary background to do investigation of pressure transients via simulations. It will describe briefly the Method of Characteristics which is the defacto standard for simulating pressure transients. Much of the text has been adopted from the book Pressur...

  7. Detecting aseismic strain transients from seismicity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llenos, A.L.; McGuire, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aseismic deformation transients such as fluid flow, magma migration, and slow slip can trigger changes in seismicity rate. We present a method that can detect these seismicity rate variations and utilize these anomalies to constrain the underlying variations in stressing rate. Because ordinary aftershock sequences often obscure changes in the background seismicity caused by aseismic processes, we combine the stochastic Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model that describes aftershock sequences well and the physically based rate- and state-dependent friction seismicity model into a single seismicity rate model that models both aftershock activity and changes in background seismicity rate. We implement this model into a data assimilation algorithm that inverts seismicity catalogs to estimate space-time variations in stressing rate. We evaluate the method using a synthetic catalog, and then apply it to a catalog of M???1.5 events that occurred in the Salton Trough from 1990 to 2009. We validate our stressing rate estimates by comparing them to estimates from a geodetically derived slip model for a large creep event on the Obsidian Buttes fault. The results demonstrate that our approach can identify large aseismic deformation transients in a multidecade long earthquake catalog and roughly constrain the absolute magnitude of the stressing rate transients. Our method can therefore provide a way to detect aseismic transients in regions where geodetic resolution in space or time is poor. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Towards Development of a Dermal Pain Model: In Vitro Activation of Rat and Human Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin Repeat 1 and Safe Dermal Injection of o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile to Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, Anita; Berg, Anna-Lena; Nyman, Eva; Meijer, Thomas; Lundgren, Viveka; Franzén, Bo; Ståhle, Lars

    2015-12-01

    During clinical development of analgesics, it is important to have access to pharmacologically specific human pain models. o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) is a selective and potent agonist of the transient receptor potential ankyrin repeat 1 (TRPA1), which is a transducer molecule in nociceptors sensing reactive chemical species. While CS has been subject to extensive toxicological investigations in animals and human beings, its effects on intradermal or subcutaneous injection have not previously been reported. We have investigated the potential of CS to be used as an agonist on TRPA1 in human experimental pain studies. A calcium influx assay was used to confirm the capacity of CS to activate TRPA1 with >100,000 times the selectivity over the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1. CS dose-dependently (EC50 0.9 μM) released calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat dorsal root ganglion cultures, supporting involvement in pain signalling. In a local tolerance study, injection of a single intradermal dose of 20 mM CS to rats resulted in superficial, circular crusts at the injection sites after approximately 4 days. The histopathology evaluation revealed a mild, acute inflammatory reaction in the epidermis and dermis at the intradermal CS injection site 1 day after administration. After 14 days, the epidermal epithelium was fully restored. The symptoms were not considered to be adverse, and it is suggested that doses up to 20 μL of 20 mM CS can be safely administered to human beings. In conclusion, our data support development of a CS human dermal pain model. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  9. Development of a Voltage Compensation Type Active SFCL and Its Application for Transient Performance Enhancement of a PMSG-Based Wind Turbine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the rapid development of high temperature superconducting (HTS materials, superconducting power applications have attracted more and more attention in the power industry, particularly for electrical systems including renewable energy. This paper conducts experimental tests on a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL prototype and explores the SFCL’s application in a permanent-magnet synchronous generator- (PMSG- based wind turbine system. The SFCL prototype is composed of a three-phase air-core superconducting transformer and a voltage source converter (VSC integrated with supercapacitor energy storage. According to the commissioning test and the current-limiting test, the SFCL prototype can automatically suppress the fault current and offer a highly controlled compensation voltage in series with the 132 V electrical test system. To expand the application of the active SFCL in a 10 kW class PMSG-based wind turbine system, digital simulations under different fault cases are performed in MATLAB/Simulink. From the demonstrated simulation results, using the active SFCL can help to maintain the power balance, mitigate the voltage-current fluctuation, and improve the wind energy efficiency. The active SFCL can be regarded as a feasible solution to assist the PMSG-based wind turbine system to achieve low-voltage ride-through (LVRT operation.

  10. The activity of spontaneous action potentials in developing hair cells is regulated by Ca(2+-dependence of a transient K+ current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Levic

    Full Text Available Spontaneous action potentials have been described in developing sensory systems. These rhythmic activities may have instructional roles for the functional development of synaptic connections. The importance of spontaneous action potentials in the developing auditory system is underpinned by the stark correlation between the time of auditory system functional maturity, and the cessation of spontaneous action potentials. A prominent K(+ current that regulates patterning of action potentials is I(A. This current undergoes marked changes in expression during chicken hair cell development. Although the properties of I(A are not normally classified as Ca(2+-dependent, we demonstrate that throughout the development of chicken hair cells, I(A is greatly reduced by acute alterations of intracellular Ca(2+. As determinants of spike timing and firing frequency, intracellular Ca(2+ buffers shift the activation and inactivation properties of the current to more positive potentials. Our findings provide evidence to demonstrate that the kinetics and functional expression of I(A are tightly regulated by intracellular Ca(2+. Such feedback mechanism between the functional expression of I(A and intracellular Ca(2+ may shape the activity of spontaneous action potentials, thus potentially sculpting synaptic connections in an activity-dependent manner in the developing cochlea.

  11. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site's high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified

  12. Discovery Mondays - 'Particle tracks: Seeing the invisible'

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Simulation of particle tracks in the CMS detector. How can you 'see' something as infinitesimal and fleeting as an elementary particle that defeats even the most powerful microscope? Well, physicists have detectors to snoop on them. Unlike biologists looking at bacteria, physicists don't see the particles themselves. They study their impact on sensitive materials as they pass through them at ultra high speed, a bit like seeing plane vapour trails in a clear sky. At the next Discovery Monday you will be able to find out about the different methods used at CERN to detect particles. There will be demonstrations of the cloud chamber, where particles leave tell-tale evidence of their passage in tracks of droplets. You will also learn about past and current particle track detection techniques and how the tracks are reconstructed into magnificent composite images. Don't miss this opportunity to learn about the various ways of 'seeing' particles. The event will be conducted in French. Come along to the Microcosm ...

  13. The Holy See and the NPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was signed in Vienna on 26 June 1972. The preamble to the agreement states that the Holy See 'enjoys exclusive sovereignty and jurisdiction over the Vatican City State, of which the Roman Pontiff is the sovereign'. The Vatican City State, which covers a very small area, is itself 'ever and in all cases a neutral and inviolable territory', and since 18 June 1960 the whole of the Vatican City has been included in the Register of Cultural Property under Special Protection in the Event of Armed Conflict, which is deposited with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and it has the rights and obligations which follow from its relations with third States. The Vatican City State is thus strictly adhering to the spirit of neutrality which characterizes the policy and action of the Holy See in the international community. Nevertheless, as pointed out by Monseigneur Oriano Quilici, Resident Representative of the Holy See to the Agency, 'this by no means implies that the Vatican City State cannot accept the controls and safeguards provided for under Article III of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in respect of all contracting parties'. (author)

  14. Scholars See Comics as No Laughing Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Once fuel for mass book burnings, comic books are gaining a foothold in the nation's schools, with teachers seeing them as a learning tool and scholars viewing them as a promising subject for educational research. Evidence of the rising credibility of Spiderman, Batman, and Archie came last month when Fordham University's graduate school of…

  15. Transient regional osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Marquina, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel-Ángel; Cano, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Transient regional osteoporosis (TRO) is a disease that predisposes to fragility fracture in weight bearing joints of mid-life women and men. Pregnant women may also suffer the process, usually at the hip. The prevalence of TRO is lower than the systemic form, associated with postmenopause and advanced age, but may be falsely diminished by under-diagnosis. The disease may be uni- or bilateral, and may migrate to distinct joints. One main feature of TRO is spontaneous recovery. Pain and progressive limitation in the functionality of the affected joint(s) are key symptoms. In the case of the form associated with pregnancy, difficulties in diagnosis derive from the relatively young age at presentation and from the clinical overlapping with the frequent aches during gestation. Densitometric osteoporosis in the affected region is not always present, but bone marrow edema, with or without joint effusion, is detected by magnetic resonance. There are not treatment guidelines, but the association of antiresorptives to symptomatic treatment seems to be beneficial. Surgery or other orthopedic interventions can be required for specific indications, like hip fracture, intra-medullary decompression, or other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  17. RACLETTE: a model for evaluating the thermal response of plasma facing components to slow high power plasma transients. Pt. II. Analysis of ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Raffray, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., p.85-100, 1997. The transient thermal model RACLETTE (acronym of Rate Analysis Code for pLasma Energy Transfer Transient Evaluation) described in part I of this paper is applied here to analyse the heat transfer and erosion effects of various slow (100 ms-10 s) high power energy transients on the actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These have a strong bearing on the PFC design and need careful analysis. The relevant parameters affecting the heat transfer during the plasma excursions are established. The temperature variation with time and space is evaluated together with the extent of vaporisation and melting (the latter only for metals) for the different candidate armour materials considered for the design (i.e., Be for the primary first wall, Be and CFCs for the limiter, Be, W, and CFCs for the divertor plates) and including for certain cases low-density vapour shielding effects. The critical heat flux, the change of the coolant parameters and the possible severe degradation of the coolant heat removal capability that could result under certain conditions during these transients, for example for the limiter, are also evaluated. Based on the results, the design implications on the heat removal performance and erosion damage of the various ITER PFCs are critically discussed and some recommendations are made for the selection of the most adequate protection materials and optimum armour thickness. (orig.)

  18. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelet, B. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Noisy le Grand (France)

    2001-07-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  19. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  20. Acute and transient activation of pituitary-thyroid axis during unforced restriction in rats: component of nonshivering thermogenesis in conscious animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, P; Földes, O; Macho, L; Kvetnanský, R

    1983-01-01

    Groups of 6-8 male Wistar Olac SPF rats weighing about 300 g were subjected to unforced restriction (UR) in small cages with a metallic bottom and a Plexiglas cover for various intervals from 2 min to 72 h. An acute activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis was found which was manifested by an increase of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) levels at 2-5 min of UR. This was presumably due to the emotional effect of a rapid transfer and to the placing of the animals into restriction cages. Later, between 3 and 6 h of UR, another, and more pronounced period of activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis and of the peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism was repeatedly observed which lasted until about 36-48 h and was manifested by a highly significant increase of TSH, T4, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. It was concluded that this phenomenon presumably may be a component of nonshivering thermogenesis resulting from a decreased muscular activity and resembling the conditions occurring under cold stress. Such a view was supported by findings of highly increased nonesterified fatty acid levels in plasma in restricted animals, by unchanged levels of TSH and thyroid hormones found in unrestricted animals kept individually in regular group cages and, finally, by a preventive effect of ambient temperature of 32 degrees C on the pituitary-thyroid activation at 6 h of UR. In some experiments, no substantial differences in hormone levels were found between the animals kept in Plexiglas or stainless wire-mesh restriction cages. Finally, a multifold increase of prolactin level in plasma was found as early as 2 min of UR, the peak being observed between 5 and 20 min and a decrease to about the initial level at about 360 min.

  1. Explosive and radio-selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40

    sitive measurements will lead to very accurate mass loss estimation in these supernovae. .... transients are powerful probes of intervening media owing to dispersion ...... A., & Chandra, P. 2011, Nature Communications,. 2, 175. Chakraborti, S.

  2. Managing the SOS Response for Enhanced CRISPR-Cas-Based Recombineering in E. coli through Transient Inhibition of Host RecA Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreb, Eirik Adim; Hoover, Benjamin; Yaseen, Adam; Valyasevi, Nisakorn; Roecker, Zoe; Menacho-Melgar, Romel; Lynch, Michael D

    2017-12-15

    Phage-derived "recombineering" methods are utilized for bacterial genome editing. Recombineering results in a heterogeneous population of modified and unmodified chromosomes, and therefore selection methods, such as CRISPR-Cas9, are required to select for edited clones. Cells can evade CRISPR-Cas-induced cell death through recA-mediated induction of the SOS response. The SOS response increases RecA dependent repair as well as mutation rates through induction of the umuDC error prone polymerase. As a result, CRISPR-Cas selection is more efficient in recA mutants. We report an approach to inhibiting the SOS response and RecA activity through the expression of a mutant dominant negative form of RecA, which incorporates into wild type RecA filaments and inhibits activity. Using a plasmid-based system in which Cas9 and recA mutants are coexpressed, we can achieve increased efficiency and consistency of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated selection and recombineering in E. coli, while reducing the induction of the SOS response. To date, this approach has been shown to be independent of recA genotype and host strain lineage. Using this system, we demonstrate increased CRISPR-Cas selection efficacy with over 10 000 guides covering the E. coli chromosome. The use of dominant negative RecA or homologues may be of broad use in bacterial CRISPR-Cas-based genome editing where the SOS pathways are present.

  3. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  4. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  5. Seeing things the philosophy of reliable observation

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In Seeing Things, Robert Hudson assesses a common way of arguing about observation reports called "robustness reasoning." Robustness reasoning claims that an observation report is more likely to be true if the report is produced by multiple, independent sources. Seeing Things argues that robustness reasoning lacks the special value it is often claimed to have. Hudson exposes key flaws in various popular philosophical defenses of robustness reasoning. This philosophical critique of robustness is extended by recounting five episodes in the history of science (from experimental microbiology, atomic theory, astrophysics and astronomy) where robustness reasoning is -- or could be claimed to have been -- used. Hudson goes on to show that none of these episodes do in fact exhibit robustness reasoning. In this way, the significance of robustness reasoning is rebutted on both philosophical and historical grounds. But the book does more than critique robustness reasoning. It also develops a better defense of the infor...

  6. Transient shocks beyond the heliopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermo, R L; Pogorelov, N V; Burlaga, L F

    2015-01-01

    The heliopause is a rich, dynamic surface affected by the time-dependent solar wind. Stream interactions due to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), corotating interaction regions (CIRs), and other transient phenomena are known to merge producing global merged interaction regions (GMIRs). Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) show that GMIRs, as well other time-dependent structures in the solar wind, may produce compression/rarefaction waves and shocks in the LISM behind the heliopause. These shocks may initiate wave activity observed by the Voyager spacecraft. The magnetometer onboard Voyager 1 indeed observed a few structures that may be interpreted as shocks. We present numerical simulations of such shocks in the year of 2000, when both Voyager spacecraft were in the supersonic solar wind region, and in 2012, when Voyager 1 observed traveling shocks. In the former case, Voyager observations themselves provide time- dependent boundary conditions in the solar wind. In the latter case, we use OMNI data at 1 AU to analyze the plasma and magnetic field behavior after Voyager 1 crossed the heliospheric boundary. Numerical results are compared with spacecraft observations. (paper)

  7. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  8. Excited state electron and energy relays in supramolecular dinuclear complexes revealed by ultrafast optical and X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis schemes, experimental methods, NMR spectra, X-ray crystallographic information, emission spectra, cyclic voltammetry, electronic structure calculations, data analysis and numerical methods, and other additional figures. CCDC 1561879. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04055e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Lars; Hadt, Ryan G.; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Cunming

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of photoinduced electron and energy transfer in a family of tetrapyridophenazine-bridged heteroleptic homo- and heterodinuclear copper(i) bis(phenanthroline)/ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes were studied using ultrafast optical and multi-edge X-ray transient absorption spectroscopies. This work combines the synthesis of heterodinuclear Cu(i)–Ru(ii) analogs of the homodinuclear Cu(i)–Cu(i) targets with spectroscopic analysis and electronic structure calculations to first disentangle the dynamics at individual metal sites by taking advantage of the element and site specificity of X-ray absorption and theoretical methods. The excited state dynamical models developed for the heterodinuclear complexes are then applied to model the more challenging homodinuclear complexes. These results suggest that both intermetallic charge and energy transfer can be observed in an asymmetric dinuclear copper complex in which the ground state redox potentials of the copper sites are offset by only 310 meV. We also demonstrate the ability of several of these complexes to effectively and unidirectionally shuttle energy between different metal centers, a property that could be of great use in the design of broadly absorbing and multifunctional multimetallic photocatalysts. This work provides an important step toward developing both a fundamental conceptual picture and a practical experimental handle with which synthetic chemists, spectroscopists, and theoreticians may collaborate to engineer cheap and efficient photocatalytic materials capable of performing coulombically demanding chemical transformations. PMID:29629153

  9. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  10. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  11. To See and To Be Seen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    autoritært gudsbillede, der kan medføre vold i Guds navn, går fejl af Gen 22's centrale budskab: afvisningen af menneskeofringer er udtryk for Guds omsorg. The aim of this article is to demonstrate: 1) that the root ראה plays a crucial role in Gen 16 and 22, where Hagar and Abraham see and acknowledge Yahweh......, and Yahweh sees and shows solicitude; 2) that there is a close connection between Yahweh as ‘he who sees and he who is seen’, i.e. between his solicitude and his appearance, as expressed in the names for God and places in Gen 16:13-14 and Gen 22:14; 3) that there is a link between Yahweh’s appearance, his...... holy places, and his double promise; 4) that Gen 16 and 22 are variants of the same narrative with the same theological point, namely: Yahweh’s solicitude; and 5) that the theological criticism of God in Gen 22 as an authoritarian being whose will may lead to violence being committed in his name...

  12. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Transient use of information visualization may support specific tasks without permanently changing the user interface. Transient visualizations provide immediate and transient use of information visualization close to and in the context of the user’s focus of attention. Little is known, however......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...... programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent...

  13. Transient thyrotoxicosis during nivolumab treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, M. J.; van den Berg, G.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Hiltermann, T. J. N.; Groen, H. J. M.; Rutgers, A.; Links, T. P.

    Two patients presented with transient thyrotoxicosis within 2-4 weeks after starting treatment with nivolumab. This thyrotoxicosis turned into hypothyroidism within 6-8 weeks. Temporary treatment with a beta blocker may be sufficient.

  14. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  15. Transient two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.

    1974-01-01

    The following papers related to two-phase flow are summarized: current assumptions made in two-phase flow modeling; two-phase unsteady blowdown from pipes, flow pattern in Laval nozzle and two-phase flow dynamics; dependence of radial heat and momentum diffusion; transient behavior of the liquid film around the expanding gas slug in a vertical tube; flooding phenomena in BWR fuel bundles; and transient effects in bubble two-phase flow. (U.S.)

  16. Imaging Stress Transients and Fault Zone Processes with Crosswell Continuous Active-Source Seismic Monitoring at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, F.; Taira, T.; Daley, T. M.; Marchesini, P.; Robertson, M.; Wood, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recent field and laboratory experiments identify seismic velocity changes preceding microearthquakes and rock failure (Niu et al., 2008, Nature; Scuderi et al., 2016, NatureGeo), which indicates that a continuous monitoring of seismic velocity might provide a mean of understanding of the earthquake nucleation process. Crosswell Continuous Active-Source Seismic Monitoring (CASSM) using borehole sources and sensors has proven to be an effective tool for measurements of seismic velocity and its temporal variation at seismogenic depth (Silver, et al, 2007, BSSA; Daley, et al, 2007, Geophysics). To expand current efforts on the CASSM development, in June 2017 we have begun to conduct a year-long CASSM field experiment at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) in which the preceding field experiment detected the two sudden velocity reductions approximately 10 and 2 hours before microearthquakes (Niu et al., 2008, Nature). We installed a piezoelectric source and a three-component accelerometer at the SAFOD pilot and main holes ( 1 km depth) respectively. A seismic pulse was fired from the piezoelectric source four times per second. Each waveform was recorded 150-ms-long data with a sampling rate of 48 kHz. During this one-year experiment, we expect to have 10-15 microearthquakes (magnitude 1-3) occurring near the SAFOD site, and the data collected from the new experiment would allow us to further explore a relation between velocity changes and the Parkfield seismicity. Additionally, the year-long data provide a unique opportunity to study long-term velocity changes that might be related to seasonal stress variations at Parkfield (Johnson et al., 2017, Science). We will report on initial results of the SAFOD CASSM experiment and operational experiences of the CASSM development.

  17. Understanding Epileptiform After-Discharges as Rhythmic Oscillatory Transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Gerold; Taylor, Peter N; Wang, Yujiang

    2017-01-01

    Electro-cortical activity in patients with epilepsy may show abnormal rhythmic transients in response to stimulation. Even when using the same stimulation parameters in the same patient, wide variability in the duration of transient response has been reported. These transients have long been considered important for the mapping of the excitability levels in the epileptic brain but their dynamic mechanism is still not well understood. To investigate the occurrence of abnormal transients dynamically, we use a thalamo-cortical neural population model of epileptic spike-wave activity and study the interaction between slow and fast subsystems. In a reduced version of the thalamo-cortical model, slow wave oscillations arise from a fold of cycles (FoC) bifurcation. This marks the onset of a region of bistability between a high amplitude oscillatory rhythm and the background state. In vicinity of the bistability in parameter space, the model has excitable dynamics, showing prolonged rhythmic transients in response to suprathreshold pulse stimulation. We analyse the state space geometry of the bistable and excitable states, and find that the rhythmic transient arises when the impending FoC bifurcation deforms the state space and creates an area of locally reduced attraction to the fixed point. This area essentially allows trajectories to dwell there before escaping to the stable steady state, thus creating rhythmic transients. In the full thalamo-cortical model, we find a similar FoC bifurcation structure. Based on the analysis, we propose an explanation of why stimulation induced epileptiform activity may vary between trials, and predict how the variability could be related to ongoing oscillatory background activity. We compare our dynamic mechanism with other mechanisms (such as a slow parameter change) to generate excitable transients, and we discuss the proposed excitability mechanism in the context of stimulation responses in the epileptic cortex.

  18. See Me Smoke-Free: Protocol for a Research Study to Develop and Test the Feasibility of an mHealth App for Women to Address Smoking, Diet, and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter; Hingle, Melanie; Johnson, Thienne; Cunningham, James K; Armin, Julie; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-21

    This paper presents the protocol for an ongoing research study to develop and test the feasibility of a multi-behavioral mHealth app. Approximately 27 million women smoke in the US, and more than 180,000 women die of illnesses linked to smoking annually. Women report greater difficulties quitting smoking. Concerns about weight gain, negative body image, and low self-efficacy may be key factors affecting smoking cessation among women. Recent studies suggest that a multi-behavioral approach, including diet and physical activity, may be more effective at helping women quit. Guided imagery has been successfully used to address body image concerns and self-efficacy in our 3 target behaviors-exercise, diet and smoking cessation. However, it has not been used simultaneously for smoking, diet, and exercise behavior in a single intervention. While imagery is an effective therapeutic tool for behavior change, the mode of delivery has generally been in person, which limits reach. mHealth apps delivered via smart phones offer a unique channel through which to distribute imagery-based interventions. The objective of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of an mHealth app for women designed to simultaneously address smoking, diet, and physical activity behaviors. The objectives are supported by three specific aims: (1) develop guided imagery content, user interface, and resources to reduce weight concern, and increase body image and self-efficacy for behavior change among women smokers, (2) program a prototype of the app that contains all the necessary elements of text, graphics, multimedia and interactive features, and (3) evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the app with women smokers. We created the program content and designed the prototype application for use on the Android platform in collaboration with 9 participants in multiple focus groups and in-depth interviews. We programmed and tested the application's usability with 6 participants

  19. See Me Smoke-Free: Protocol for a Research Study to Develop and Test the Feasibility of an mHealth App for Women to Address Smoking, Diet, and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thienne; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper presents the protocol for an ongoing research study to develop and test the feasibility of a multi-behavioral mHealth app. Approximately 27 million women smoke in the US, and more than 180,000 women die of illnesses linked to smoking annually. Women report greater difficulties quitting smoking. Concerns about weight gain, negative body image, and low self-efficacy may be key factors affecting smoking cessation among women. Recent studies suggest that a multi-behavioral approach, including diet and physical activity, may be more effective at helping women quit. Guided imagery has been successfully used to address body image concerns and self-efficacy in our 3 target behaviors—exercise, diet and smoking cessation. However, it has not been used simultaneously for smoking, diet, and exercise behavior in a single intervention. While imagery is an effective therapeutic tool for behavior change, the mode of delivery has generally been in person, which limits reach. mHealth apps delivered via smart phones offer a unique channel through which to distribute imagery-based interventions. Objective The objective of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of an mHealth app for women designed to simultaneously address smoking, diet, and physical activity behaviors. The objectives are supported by three specific aims: (1) develop guided imagery content, user interface, and resources to reduce weight concern, and increase body image and self-efficacy for behavior change among women smokers, (2) program a prototype of the app that contains all the necessary elements of text, graphics, multimedia and interactive features, and (3) evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the app with women smokers. Methods We created the program content and designed the prototype application for use on the Android platform in collaboration with 9 participants in multiple focus groups and in-depth interviews. We programmed and tested the application

  20. Scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy: I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J S; Jagadish, C; Jamieson, D N; Legge, G J F

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of a new technique for the MeV ion microbeam are described in detail for the first time. The basis of the technique, termed scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy (SIDLTS), is the imaging of defect distributions within semiconductor devices. The principles of SIDLTS are similar to those behind other deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques with the main difference stemming from the injection of carriers into traps using the localized energy-loss of a focused MeV ion beam. Energy-loss of an MeV ion generates an electron-hole pair plasma, providing the equivalent of a DLTS trap filling pulse with a duration which depends on space-charge screening of the applied electric field and ambipolar erosion of the plasma for short ranging ions. Some nanoseconds later, the detrapping current transient is monitored as a charge transient. Scanning the beam in conjunction with transient analysis allows the imaging of defect levels. As with DLTS, the temperature dependence of the transient can be used to extract trap activation levels. In this, the first of a two-part paper, we introduce the various stages of corner capture and derive a simple expression for the observed charge transient. The second paper will illustrate the technique on a MeV ion implanted Au-Si Schottky junction

  1. Single-atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction with significant activity and selectivity improvements† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc03911a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Lim, Juhyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A single-atom catalyst (SAC) has an electronic structure that is very different from its bulk counterparts, and has shown an unexpectedly high specific activity with a significant reduction in noble metal usage for CO oxidation, fuel cell and hydrogen evolution applications, although physical origins of such performance enhancements are still poorly understood. Herein, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we for the first time investigate the great potential of single atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction applications. In particular, we study a single transition metal atom anchored on defective graphene with single or double vacancies, denoted M@sv-Gr or M@dv-Gr, where M = Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh or Ru, as a CO2 reduction catalyst. Many SACs are indeed shown to be highly selective for the CO2 reduction reaction over a competitive H2 evolution reaction due to favorable adsorption of carboxyl (*COOH) or formate (*OCHO) over hydrogen (*H) on the catalysts. On the basis of free energy profiles, we identified several promising candidate materials for different products; Ni@dv-Gr (limiting potential U L = –0.41 V) and Pt@dv-Gr (–0.27 V) for CH3OH production, and Os@dv-Gr (–0.52 V) and Ru@dv-Gr (–0.52 V) for CH4 production. In particular, the Pt@dv-Gr catalyst shows remarkable reduction in the limiting potential for CH3OH production compared to any existing catalysts, synthesized or predicted. To understand the origin of the activity enhancement of SACs, we find that the lack of an atomic ensemble for adsorbate binding and the unique electronic structure of the single atom catalysts as well as orbital interaction play an important role, contributing to binding energies of SACs that deviate considerably from the conventional scaling relation of bulk transition metals. PMID:28451248

  2. Late Noachian Icy Highlands climate model: Exploring the possibility of transient melting and fluvial/lacustrine activity through peak annual and seasonal temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Ashley M.; Head, James W.; Wordsworth, Robin D.

    2018-01-01

    greenhouse warming, the process would be required to continue for ∼(21-550) × 103 years. Therefore, peak seasonal melting of snow and ice could induce the generation of meltwater and fluvial and lacustrine activity in a ;cold and icy; Late Noachian climate in a manner similar to that observed in the MDV. A potential shortcoming of this mechanism is that independent estimates of the required runoff rates for valley network formation are much higher than those predicted by this mechanism when considering a circular orbit, even when accounting for additional atmospheric warming. However, we consider that a relatively higher eccentricity condition (0.17) may produce the necessary runoff rates: for the perihelion scenario in which perihelion occurs during southern hemispheric summer, intense melting will occur in the near-equatorial regions and in the southern hemisphere, producing runoff rates comparable to those required for valley network formation (∼mm/day). In the opposite perihelion scenario, the southern hemisphere will experience very little summertime melting. Thus, this seasonal melting mechanism is a strong candidate for formation of the valley networks when considering a relatively high eccentricity (0.17) because this mechanism is capable of (1) producing meltwater in the equatorial region where valley networks are abundant, (2) continuously producing seasonal meltwater for the estimated time duration of valley network formation, (3) yielding the amount of meltwater necessary to incise the valley networks within this time period, and (4) by considering a perihelion scenario in which half of the duration of valley network formation is spent with peak summertime conditions during perihelion in each hemisphere, higher runoff rates are produced than in a circular orbit and the rates may be comparable to those required for valley network formation.

  3. ``To See Cosmology in a Quetzal..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L.

    2002-05-01

    High in the Talamanca Mountains of Costa Rica, our university maintains a field station called the Quetzal Education Research Center (QERC), in cloud forest habit of the magnificent Resplendent Quetzal. At these latitudes, where every surface is alive, the astronomical realities that constrain life's options acquire an in-your-face immediacy. Three years ago we began team-teaching a general astrobiology course featuring a 10-day trip to the QERC and other Costa Rican sites, including the Arenal Volcano and Manuel Antonio National Park. This experience places the student smack in the middle of an environment that dramatically shows how stellar evolution provides the energy, materials, and timescale for biological evolution. For example, discussion of tidal forces occurs when we are up to our necks in the tide at Manuel Antonio's beaches; discussions of nuclear reactions that power the Sun are followed with extended forest hikes to see the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; as an astronomical system, quetzal DNA is a ``metal," a product of nucleosynthesis. Our time in Costa Rica also features an astronomy education program for the residents of San Gerardo de Dota (in the rural valley where the QERC is located), with presentations at the local school and astronomy ``open house" evenings at the QERC. As one travels the country one also sees the rapid destruction of tropical forest biodiversity. We therefore encourage through astrobiology the formation of another kind of ``ecosystem:" the global network of young people who are valiantly confronting the challenges of environmental sustainability. Solutions to these problems must take into account economic, cultural, and political realities as well as scientific realities. The importance of seeing these immediate problems in terms of astronomical and biological evolution timescales forms another splendid motivation for the study of astrobiology.

  4. Transient magnetoviscosity of dilute ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Aquino, Denisse; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic field induced change in the viscosity of a ferrofluid, commonly known as the magnetoviscous effect and parameterized through the magnetoviscosity, is one of the most interesting and practically relevant aspects of ferrofluid phenomena. Although the steady state behavior of ferrofluids under conditions of applied constant magnetic fields has received considerable attention, comparatively little attention has been given to the transient response of the magnetoviscosity to changes in the applied magnetic field or rate of shear deformation. Such transient response can provide further insight into the dynamics of ferrofluids and find practical application in the design of devices that take advantage of the magnetoviscous effect and inevitably must deal with changes in the applied magnetic field and deformation. In this contribution Brownian dynamics simulations and a simple model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations are applied to explore the dependence of the transient magnetoviscosity for two cases: (I) a ferrofluid in a constant shear flow wherein the magnetic field is suddenly turned on, and (II) a ferrofluid in a constant magnetic field wherein the shear flow is suddenly started. Both simulations and analysis show that the transient approach to a steady state magnetoviscosity can be either monotonic or oscillatory depending on the relative magnitudes of the applied magnetic field and shear rate. - Research Highlights: →Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations were used to study the transient behavior of the magnetoviscosity of ferrofluids. →Damped and oscillatory approach to steady state magnetoviscosity was observed for step changes in shear rate and magnetic field. →A model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations qualitatively captured the damped and oscillatory features of the transient response →The transient behavior is due to the interplay of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and Brownian torques on the suspended particles.

  5. Production of K[Formula: see text](892)[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text](1020) in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text] = 5.02 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaraz, J R M; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Balasubramanian, S; Baldisseri, A; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Belmont, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belyaev, V; Benacek, P; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Bjelogrlic, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Bossú, F; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calero Diaz, L; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cerello, P; Cerkala, J; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Chelnokov, V; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erdemir, I; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabbietti, L; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Fleck, M G; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Grachov, O A; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Izucheev, V; Jacazio, N; Jacobs, P M; Jadhav, M B; Jadlovska, S; Jadlovsky, J; Jahnke, C; Jakubowska, M J; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jusko, A; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karayan, L; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Keil, M; Mohisin Khan, M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, D; Kim, H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, C; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Klewin, S; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Kondratyuk, E; Konevskikh, A; Kopcik, M; Kostarakis, P; Kour, M; Kouzinopoulos, C; Kovalenko, O; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kubera, A M; Kučera, V; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kumar, L; Kumar, S; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; Laudi, E; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, G R; Lee, S; Lehas, F; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Leoncino, M; Lévai, P; Li, S; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loginov, V; Loizides, C; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lowe, A; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Lutz, T H; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, S; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Margutti, J; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martin, N A; Martin Blanco, J; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martinez Pedreira, M; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Mcdonald, D; Meddi, F; Melikyan, Y; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mieskolainen, M M; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Minervini, L M; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Montes, E; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moreno, L A P; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Mulligan, J D; Munhoz, M G; Munzer, R H; Murakami, H; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Naik, B; Nair, R; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Naru, M U; Natal da Luz, H; Nattrass, C; Navarro, S R; Nayak, K; Nayak, R; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nellen, L; Ng, F; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Noris, J C C; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Ohlson, A; Okatan, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oliver, M H; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Orava, R; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozdemir, M; Pachmayer, Y; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Pal, S K; Pan, J; Pandey, A K; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Paticchio, V; Patra, R N; Paul, B; Pei, H; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perez Lezama, E; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petrov, V; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pimentel, L O D L; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Poonsawat, W; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, J; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puccio, M; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rajput, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Rami, F; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Read, K F; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reidt, F; Ren, X; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Ristea, C; Rocco, E; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Ronflette, L; Rosnet, P; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Ryabov, Y; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, P; Sahoo, R; Sahoo, S; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakai, S; Saleh, M A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sarkar, D; Sarma, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schulc, M; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Šefčík, M; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Sekihata, D; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senosi, K; Senyukov, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabanov, A; Shabetai, A; Shadura, O; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, M; Sharma, M; Sharma, N; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Sielewicz, K M; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Snellman, T W; Søgaard, C; Song, J; Song, M; Song, Z; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Souza, R D de; Sozzi, F; Spacek, M; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Suljic, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Szabo, A; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Tabassam, U; Takahashi, J; Tambave, G J; Tanaka, N; Tangaro, M A; Tarhini, M; Tariq, M; Tarzila, M G; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terasaki, K; Terrevoli, C; Teyssier, B; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Trogolo, S; Trombetta, G; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Utrobicic, A; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Van Der Maarel, J; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vanat, T; Vande Vyvre, P; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vargyas, M; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vauthier, A; Vechernin, V; Veen, A M; Veldhoen, M; Velure, A; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Villatoro Tello, A; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Vislavicius, V; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wang, H; Wang, M; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, Y; Weber, M; Weber, S G; Weiser, D F; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Whitehead, A M; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Winn, M; Yang, H; Yang, P; Yano, S; Yasar, C; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J H; Yurchenko, V; Yushmanov, I; Zaborowska, A; Zaccolo, V; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zanoli, H J C; Zaporozhets, S; Zardoshti, N; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, Z; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zinovjev, G; Zyzak, M

    The production of K[Formula: see text](892)[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text](1020) mesons has been measured in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 5.02 TeV. K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are reconstructed via their decay into charged hadrons with the ALICE detector in the rapidity range [Formula: see text]. The transverse momentum spectra, measured as a function of the multiplicity, have a p[Formula: see text] range from 0 to 15 GeV/ c for K[Formula: see text] and from 0.3 to 21 GeV/ c for [Formula: see text]. Integrated yields, mean transverse momenta and particle ratios are reported and compared with results in pp collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 7 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 2.76 TeV. In Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions, K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] probe the hadronic phase of the system and contribute to the study of particle formation mechanisms by comparison with other identified hadrons. For this purpose, the mean transverse momenta and the differential proton-to-[Formula: see text] ratio are discussed as a function of the multiplicity of the event. The short-lived K[Formula: see text] is measured to investigate re-scattering effects, believed to be related to the size of the system and to the lifetime of the hadronic phase.

  6. Liver Fibrosis Regression Measured by Transient Elastography in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-Coinfected Individuals on Long-Term HBV-Active Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Jennifer; Robson, Christopher; Aitchison, Stacey; Matthews, Gail V; Iser, David; Sasadeusz, Joe; Lewin, Sharon R

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Advanced fibrosis occurs more commonly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfected individuals; therefore, fibrosis monitoring is important in this population. However, transient elastography (TE) data in HIV-HBV coinfection are lacking. We aimed to assess liver fibrosis using TE in a cross-sectional study of HIV-HBV coinfected individuals receiving combination HBV-active (lamivudine and/or tenofovir/tenofovir-emtricitabine) antiretroviral therapy, identify factors associated with advanced fibrosis, and examine change in fibrosis in those with >1 TE assessment. Methods.  We assessed liver fibrosis in 70 HIV-HBV coinfected individuals on HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Change in fibrosis over time was examined in a subset with more than 1 TE result (n = 49). Clinical and laboratory variables at the time of the first TE were collected, and associations with advanced fibrosis (≥F3, Metavir scoring system) and fibrosis regression (of least 1 stage) were examined. Results.  The majority of the cohort (64%) had mild to moderate fibrosis at the time of the first TE, and we identified alanine transaminase, platelets, and detectable HIV ribonucleic acid as associated with advanced liver fibrosis. Alanine transaminase and platelets remained independently advanced in multivariate modeling. More than 28% of those with >1 TE subsequently showed liver fibrosis regression, and higher baseline HBV deoxyribonucleic acid was associated with regression. Prevalence of advanced fibrosis (≥F3) decreased 12.3% (32.7%-20.4%) over a median of 31 months. Conclusions.  The observed fibrosis regression in this group supports the beneficial effects of cART on liver stiffness. It would be important to study a larger group of individuals with more advanced fibrosis to more definitively assess factors associated with liver fibrosis regression.

  7. A see-saw mechanism with light sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, B.H.J.; Garbutt, M.; Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.

    2001-01-01

    The usual see-saw mechanism for the generation of light neutrino masses is based on the assumption that all of the flavours of right-handed (more properly, sterile) neutrinos are heavy. If the sterile Majorana mass matrix is singular, one or more of the sterile neutrinos will have zero mass before mixing with the active (left-handed) neutrinos and be light after that mixing is introduced In particular, a rank 1 sterile mass matrix leads naturally to two pseudo-Dirac pairs, one very light active Majorana neutrino and one heavy sterile Majorana neutrino. For any pattern of Dirac masses, there exists a region of parameter space in which the two pseudo-Dirac pairs are nearly degenerate in mass. This, in turn, leads to large amplitude mixing of active states as well as mixing into sterile states

  8. EP1000 anticipated transient without scram analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiu, G.; Frogheri, M.; Schulz, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the main results of the Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) analysis activity, performed for the European Passive Plant Program (EPP). The behavior of the EP1000 plant following an ATWS has been analyzed by means of the RELAP5/Mod3.2 code. An ATWS is defined as an Anticipated Transient accompanied by a common mode failure in the reactor protection system, such that the control rods do not scram as required to mitigate the consequences of the transient. According to the experience gained in PWR design, the limiting ATWS events, in a PWR, have been found to be the heatup transients caused by a reduction of heat removal capability by the secondary side of the plant. For this reason, the Loss of Normal Feedwater initiating event, to which the failure of the reactor scram is associated, has been analyzed. The purpose of the study is to verify the performance requirements set for the core feedback characteristics (that is to evaluate the effect of the low boron core neutron kinetic parameters), the overpressure protection system, and boration systems to cope with the EUR Acceptance Criteria for ATWS. Another purpose of this analysis was to support development of revised PSA success criteria that would reduce the contribution of ATWS to the large release frequency (LRF). The low boron core improved the basic EP1000 response to an ATWS event. In particular, the peak pressure was significantly lower than that which would result from a standard core configuration. The improved ATWS analysis results also permitted improved ATWS PSA success criteria. For example, the reduced peak pressure allows the use of other plant features to mitigate the event, including manual initiation of feed-bleed cooling in the event of PRHR HX failure. As a result, the core melt frequency and especially the LRF are significantly reduced. (author)

  9. Pressure transients across HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.; Reynolds, G.; Ricketts, C.; Smith, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle facilities require ventilation for health and safety reasons. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are located within ventilation systems to trap radioactive dust released in reprocessing and fabrication operations. Pressure transients within the air cleaning systems may be such that the effectiveness of the filtration system is questioned under certain accident conditions. These pressure transients can result from both natural and man-caused phenomena: atmospheric pressure drop caused by a tornado or explosions and nuclear excursions initiate pressure pulses that could create undesirable conditions across HEPA filters. Tornado depressurization is a relatively slow transient as compared to pressure pulses that result from combustible hydrogen-air mixtures. Experimental investigation of these pressure transients across air cleaning equipment has been undertaken by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and New Mexico State University. An experimental apparatus has been constructed to impose pressure pulses across HEPA filters. The experimental equipment is described as well as preliminary results using variable pressurization rates. Two modes of filtration of an aerosol injected upstream of the filter is examined. A laser instrumentation for measuring the aerosol release, during the transient, is described

  10. Recent development of transient electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient electronics are an emerging class of electronics with the unique characteristic to completely dissolve within a programmed period of time. Since no harmful byproducts are released, these electronics can be used in the human body as a diagnostic tool, for instance, or they can be used as environmentally friendly alternatives to existing electronics which disintegrate when exposed to water. Thus, the most crucial aspect of transient electronics is their ability to disintegrate in a practical manner and a review of the literature on this topic is essential for understanding the current capabilities of transient electronics and areas of future research. In the past, only partial dissolution of transient electronics was possible, however, total dissolution has been achieved with a recent discovery that silicon nanomembrane undergoes hydrolysis. The use of single- and multi-layered structures has also been explored as a way to extend the lifetime of the electronics. Analytical models have been developed to study the dissolution of various functional materials as well as the devices constructed from this set of functional materials and these models prove to be useful in the design of the transient electronics.

  11. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  12. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, F.A.; El Messiry, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  13. Transient flows in active porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosmidis, Lefteris I.; Jensen, Kaare Hartvig

    2017-01-01

    Stimuli-responsivematerials that modify their shape in response to changes in environmental conditions-such as solute concentration, temperature, pH, and stress-are widespread in nature and technology. Applications include micro- and nanoporous materials used in filtration and flow control. The p...

  14. HEDL experimental transient overpower program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikido, T.; Culley, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    HEDL is conducting a series of experiments to evaluate the performance of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) prototypic fuel pins up to the point of cladding breach. A primary objective of the program is to demonstrate the adequacy of fuel pin and Plant Protective System (PPS) designs for terminated transients. Transient tests of prototypic FFTF fuel pins previously irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) have demonstrated the adequacy of the PPS and fuel pin designs and indicate that a very substantial margin exists between PPS-terminated transients and that required to produce fuel pin cladding failure. Additional experiments are planned to extend the data base to high burnup, high fluence fuel pin specimens

  15. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  16. Transient analysis of DTT rakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.S.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model for the determination of the cross-sectionally averaged transient mass flux of a two-phase fluid flowing in a conduit instrumented by a Drag-Disk Turbine Transducer (DTT) Rake and a multibeam gamma densitometer. Parametric studies indicate that for a typical blowdown transient, dynamic effects such as rotor inertia can be important for the turbine-meter. In contrast, for the drag-disk, a frequency response analysis showed that the quasisteady solution is valid below a forcing frequency of about 10 Hz, which is faster than the time scale normally encountered during blowdowns. The model showed reasonably good agreement with full scale transient rake data, where the flow regimes were mostly homogeneous or stratified, thus indicating that the model is suitable for the analysis of a DTT rake. (orig.)

  17. Transient data acquisition techniques under EDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, S.

    1985-06-01

    This paper is the first of a series which describes the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the MARS project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although EDS was developed for use on AVLIS, the functional requirements, overall design, and specific techniques are applicable to any experimental data acquisition system involving large quantities of transient data. In particular this paper will discuss the techniques and equipment used to do the data acquisition. Included are what types of hardware are used and how that hardware (CAMAC, digital oscilloscopes) is interfaced to the HP computers. In this discussion the author will address the problems encountered and the solutions used, as well as the performance of the instrument/computer interfaces. The second topic the author will discuss is how the acquired data is associated to graphics and analysis portions of EDS through efficient real time data bases. This discussion will include how the acquired data is folded into the overall structure of EDS providing the user immediate access to raw and analyzed data. By example you will see how easily a new diagnostic can be added to the EDS structure without modifying the other parts of the system. 8 figs

  18. Incidental Transient Cortical Blindness after Lung Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Murat; Sunam, Guven Sadi; Varoglu, Asuman Orhan; Karabagli, Hakan; Yildiran, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Transient vision loss after major surgical procedures is a rare clinical complication. The most common etiologies are cardiac, spinal, head, and neck surgeries. There has been no report on vision loss after lung resection. A 65-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with lung cancer. Resection was performed using right upper lobectomy with no complications. Cortical blindness developed 12 hours later in the postoperative period. Results from magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted investigations were normal. The neurologic examination was normal. The blood glucose level was 92 mg/dL and blood gas analysis showed a PO 2 of 82 mm Hg. After 24 hours, the patient began to see and could count fingers, and his vision was fully restored within 72 hours after this point. Autonomic dysfunction due to impaired microvascular structures in diabetes mellitus may induce posterior circulation dysfunction, even when the hemodynamic state is normal in the perioperative period. The physician must keep in mind that vision loss may occur after lung resection due to autonomic dysfunction, especially in older patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28824977

  19. GRB 070610: A Curious Galactic Transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Cameron, P. B.; Nakar, E.; Ofek, E. O.; Rau, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Campana, S.; Bloom, J. S.; Perley, D. A.; Pollack, L. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Sato, G.; Chandra, P.; Frail, D.; Fox, D. B.; Price, P. A.; Berger, E.; Grebenev, S. A.; Krivonos, R. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2008-05-01

    GRB 070610 is a typical high-energy event with a duration of 5 s. Yet within the burst localization we detect a highly unusual X-ray and optical transient, Swift J195509.6+261406. We see high-amplitude X-ray and optical variability on very short timescales even at late times. Using near-infrared imaging assisted by a laser guide star and adaptive optics, we identified the counterpart of Swift J195509.6+261406. Late-time optical and near-infrared imaging constrain the spectral type of the counterpart to be fainter than a K-dwarf, assuming it is of Galactic origin. It is possible that GRB 070610 and Swift J195509.6+261406 are unrelated sources. However, the absence of a typical X-ray afterglow from GRB 070610 in conjunction with the spatial and temporal coincidence of the two motivate us to suggest that the sources are related. The closest (imperfect) analog to Swift J195509.6+261406 is V4641 Sgr, an unusual black hole binary. We suggest that Swift J195509.6+261406 along with V4641 Sgr define a subclass of stellar black hole binaries—the fast X-ray novae. We further suggest that fast X-ray novae are associated with bursts of gamma rays. If so, GRB 070610 defines a new class of celestial gamma-ray bursts and these bursts dominate the long-duration GRB demographics.

  20. Transient analysis of multicavity klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Ruth, R.D.

    1988-09-01

    We describe a model for analytic analysis of transients in multicavity klystron output power and phase. Cavities are modeled as resonant circuits, while bunching of the beam is modeled using linear space-charge wave theory. Our analysis has been implemented in a computer program which we use in designing multicavity klystrons with stable output power and phase. We present as examples transient analysis of a relativistic klystron using a magnetic pulse compression modulator, and of a conventional klystron designed to use phase shifting techniques for RF pulse compression. 4 refs., 4 figs

  1. Transient formation of forbidden lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmej, F.B.; Rosmej, O.N.

    1996-01-01

    An explanation of anomalously long time scales in the transient formation of forbidden lines is proposed. The concept is based on a collisionally induced density dependence of the relaxation times of metastable level populations in transient plasma. Generalization leads to an incorporation of diffusion phenomena. We demonstrate this new concept for the simplest atomic system: the He-like isoelectronic sequence. A new interpretation of the observed long duration and anomalously high intensity of spin-forbidden emission in hot plasmas is given. (author)

  2. Transient formation of forbidden lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F.B. [Bochum Univ., Ruhr (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik V; Rosmej, O.N. [VNIIFTRI, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). MISDC

    1996-05-14

    An explanation of anomalously long time scales in the transient formation of forbidden lines is proposed. The concept is based on a collisionally induced density dependence of the relaxation times of metastable level populations in transient plasma. Generalization leads to an incorporation of diffusion phenomena. We demonstrate this new concept for the simplest atomic system: the He-like isoelectronic sequence. A new interpretation of the observed long duration and anomalously high intensity of spin-forbidden emission in hot plasmas is given. (author).

  3. Response Variability in Commercial MOSFET SEE Qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J. S.; Clymer, D. A.; Turflinger, T. L.; Mason, L. W.; Stone, S.

    2016-01-01

    Single-event effects (SEE) evaluation of five different part types of next generation, commercial trench MOSFETs indicates large part-to-part variation in determining a safe operating area (SOA) for drain-source voltage (V_D_S) following a test campaign that exposed >50 samples per part type to heavy ions. These results suggest a determination of a SOA using small sample sizes may fail to capture the full extent of the part-to-part variability. An example method is discussed for establishing a Safe Operating Area using a one-sided statistical tolerance limit based on the number of test samples. Finally, burn-in is shown to be a critical factor in reducing part-to-part variation in part response. Implications for radiation qualification requirements are also explored.

  4. Sample exchange/evaluation (SEE) report - Phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase III of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) program. The SEE program is used to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site's high level waste tanks

  5. OpenSeesPy: Python library for the OpenSees finite element framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minjie; McKenna, Frank; Scott, Michael H.

    2018-01-01

    OpenSees, an open source finite element software framework, has been used broadly in the earthquake engineering community for simulating the seismic response of structural and geotechnical systems. The framework allows users to perform finite element analysis with a scripting language and for developers to create both serial and parallel finite element computer applications as interpreters. For the last 15 years, Tcl has been the primary scripting language to which the model building and analysis modules of OpenSees are linked. To provide users with different scripting language options, particularly Python, the OpenSees interpreter interface was refactored to provide multi-interpreter capabilities. This refactoring, resulting in the creation of OpenSeesPy as a Python module, is accomplished through an abstract interface for interpreter calls with concrete implementations for different scripting languages. Through this approach, users are able to develop applications that utilize the unique features of several scripting languages while taking advantage of advanced finite element analysis models and algorithms.

  6. Raadioteatril elu sees. Elu sees? / Mart Aas, Tõnis Leemets ; interv. Kutt Kommel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aas, Mart

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Raadio raadioteatri 78. sünnipäeval esietendus Vikerraadios dokumentaalkuuldemäng "Elu sees" Aleksander Alleni (hilisema nimega Aleksander Aas) mälestuste põhjal. Theatrumi lavastuse on raadiole seadnud Mart Aas, Marius Peterson, Toomas Lõhmuste ja Tõnis Leemets

  7. On some binomial [Formula: see text]-difference sequence spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jian; Song, Meimei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the binomial sequence spaces [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] by combining the binomial transformation and difference operator. We prove the BK -property and some inclusion relations. Furthermore, we obtain Schauder bases and compute the α -, β - and γ -duals of these sequence spaces. Finally, we characterize matrix transformations on the sequence space [Formula: see text].

  8. Transient attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied

  9. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    401–406. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 401. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal. P K KHARE*, P L JAIN† and R K PANDEY‡. Department of Postgraduate Studies & Research in Physics & Electronics, Rani Durgavati University,. Jabalpur 482 001, India. †Department of Physics, Government PG College, Damoh 470 ...

  10. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  11. Fuel rod behaviour during transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, H.; Haste, T.J.; Cameron, R.F.; Sinclair, J.E.

    1982-04-01

    The fuel pin performance code SLEUTH, the transient codes FRAP-T5 and TRAFIC and the clad deformation code CANSWEL-2 are described. It is shown how the codes treat gas release, pin cooling, cladding deformation and interaction, gap conductance etc. The materials properties used are indicated. (author)

  12. Stationary and Transient Response Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen

    1982-01-01

    The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...

  13. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  14. Search for an additional, heavy Higgs boson in the [Formula: see text] decay channel at [Formula: see text] in [Formula: see text] collision data with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bieniek, S P; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Breaden Madden, W D; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, K; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminal Armadans, R; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Cano Bret, M; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Cardarelli, R; Cardillo, F; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelli, A; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Catastini, P; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerio, B C; Cerny, K; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chalupkova, I; Chang, P; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chau, C C; Chavez Barajas, C A; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, L; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiarelli, G; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choi, K; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christodoulou, V; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chudoba, J; Chuinard, A J; Chwastowski, J J; Chytka, L; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Cioara, I A; Ciocio, A; Cirotto, F; Citron, Z H; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, B L; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Cleland, W; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coffey, L; Cogan, J G; Colasurdo, L; Cole, B; Cole, S; Colijn, A P; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Compostella, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Connell, S H; Connelly, I A; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Côté, D; Cottin, G; Cowan, G; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Cree, G; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Crescioli, F; Cribbs, W A; Crispin Ortuzar, M; Cristinziani, M; Croft, V; Crosetti, G; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Cuthbert, C; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M J; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dafinca, A; Dai, T; Dale, O; Dallaire, F; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Dandoy, J R; Dang, N P; Daniells, A C; Danninger, M; Dano Hoffmann, M; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darmora, S; Dassoulas, J; Dattagupta, A; Davey, W; David, C; Davidek, T; Davies, E; Davies, M; Davison, P; Davygora, Y; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Benedetti, A; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dedovich, D V; Deigaard, I; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delgove, D; Deliot, F; Delitzsch, C M; Deliyergiyev, M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Dell'Orso, M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; Deluca, C; DeMarco, D A; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demilly, A; Denisov, S P; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deterre, C; 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Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    A search is presented for a high-mass Higgs boson in the [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] decay modes using the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The search uses proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text]. The results of the search are interpreted in the scenario of a heavy Higgs boson with a width that is small compared with the experimental mass resolution. The Higgs boson mass range considered extends up to [Formula: see text] for all four decay modes and down to as low as 140 [Formula: see text], depending on the decay mode. No significant excess of events over the Standard Model prediction is found. A simultaneous fit to the four decay modes yields upper limits on the production cross-section of a heavy Higgs boson times the branching ratio to [Formula: see text] boson pairs. 95 % confidence level upper limits range from 0.53 pb at [Formula: see text] GeV to 0.008 pb at [Formula: see text] GeV for the gluon-fusion production mode and from 0.31 pb at [Formula: see text] GeV to 0.009 pb at [Formula: see text] GeV for the vector-boson-fusion production mode. The results are also interpreted in the context of Type-I and Type-II two-Higgs-doublet models.

  15. M. I. T. studies of transient X-ray phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canizares, C R [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-06-01

    A variety of transient X-ray phenomena have been studied by the M.I.T. X-ray Astronomy Group. Data from the OSO-7 satellite reveal both long and short time-scale transients. Extensive observations have been made of the Lupus X-ray Nova (3U1543-47) and of GX339-4 (MX1658-48) which may represent a very different type of transient source. A unique, intense X-ray flare lasting ten minutes was also recorded, and the X-ray emission from the active galaxy Cen A was found to vary significantly over a period of several days. In a recent balloon flight the Crab pulsar, NP0532, was observed to exhibit a transient pulsed component distinct from the usual main pulse and interpulse. A sounding-rocket experiment detected an ultrasoft transient X-ray source tentatively associated with SS Cygni, and preliminary results from SAS-3 show a very hard spectrum for the new source A0535+26. On the other hand, extensive OSO-7 null observations of both Type I and II supernovae and of the flaring radio star Algol make it unlikely that these types of objects are potent transient X-ray emitters.

  16. [Transient amnesia in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellal, François

    2006-03-01

    The two main aetiologies of transient amnesia in the elderly are idiopathic transient global amnesia (TGA) and iatrogenic or toxic amnesia. Vascular and epileptic amnesia are less common. According to the literature, transient psychogenic amnesia, which is a frequent cause of amnesia at age 30 to 50, is very rare in the elderly. TGA is the prototypical picture of transient amnesia. It occurs more often after age 50, with no identified cause, even if some authors accept emotional stress or minor head trauma as occasional precipitants. The mechanism of TGA remains a matter of discussion. It may be the consequence of a spreading depression similar to that described in migraine with aura, but other arguments support an ischemic mechanism. Iatrogenic amnesias are mainly caused by benzodiazepines (BZs) or anticholinergics. The former may occur in a non-anxious subject, who is not a usual consumer of BZ and takes a single dose. The latter are more often due to a hypersensitivity to anticholinergic drugs, in particular in patients presenting with a covert, incipient Alzheimer's disease. A vascular origin must be considered when amnesia is accompanied by other neurological symptoms, and when the regression of the amnesic disorder is slow, lasting several days. It results from lesions involving various mechanisms and locations, mainly subcortical. Partial seizures, most often mesio-temporal, more rarely frontal, may be the cause of transient amnesia in the elderly, in the absence of a past history of epilepsy. The red flag supportive of an epileptic origin is the repetition of stereotyped amnesic episodes. EEG demonstration of seizures may be difficult and the response to antiepileptic drugs effective on partial seizures is usually good.

  17. Research of the transient management in TQNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Longzhang; Lin Chuanqing

    2008-01-01

    Transient management is the basic technical subject in nuclear power plant. Since the Third Qinshan nuclear power company (TQNPC) successful completes the commissioning in 2003, the transient management work start at the transient management item selection and the flow definition. Now TQNPC have a complete transient management system and the management flow. In the last two years, TNQPC have finished the historic transient data collection for two units, and confirmed that the plant's key systems and equipments are at safe state. The development of the transient management subject would build a reliable foundation for the plant safe operation, plant lifetime management and periodic safety review. (author)

  18. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gestational diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, usually developing in the third trimester and remitting spontaneously 4–6 weeks post-partum. It is mainly caused by excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts which metabolises arginine vasopressin (AVP). Its diagnosis is challenging, and the treatment requires desmopressin. A 38-year-old Chinese woman was referred in the 37th week of her first single-gestation due to polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia. She was known to have gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the second trimester, well-controlled with diet. Her medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated decreased skin turgor; her blood pressure was 102/63 mmHg, heart rate 78 beats/min and weight 53 kg (BMI 22.6 kg/m2). Laboratory data revealed low urine osmolality 89 mOsmol/kg (350–1000), serum osmolality 293 mOsmol/kg (278–295), serum sodium 144 mmol/l (135–145), potassium 4.1 mmol/l (3.5–5.0), urea 2.2 mmol/l (2.5–6.7), glucose 3.5 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3%. Bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and full blood count were normal. The patient was started on desmopressin with improvement in her symptoms, and normalisation of serum and urine osmolality (280 and 310 mOsmol/kg respectively). A fetus was delivered at the 39th week without major problems. After delivery, desmopressin was stopped and she had no further evidence of polyuria, polydipsia or nocturia. Her sodium, serum/urine osmolality at 12-weeks post-partum were normal. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the neurohypophyseal T1-bright spot situated ectopically, with a normal adenohypophysis and infundibulum. She remains clinically well, currently breastfeeding, and off all medication. This case illustrates some challenges in the diagnosis and management of transient gestational DI. Learning points Gestational DI is a rare complication of

  19. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Pedro; Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, usually developing in the third trimester and remitting spontaneously 4-6 weeks post-partum. It is mainly caused by excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts which metabolises arginine vasopressin (AVP). Its diagnosis is challenging, and the treatment requires desmopressin. A 38-year-old Chinese woman was referred in the 37th week of her first single-gestation due to polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia. She was known to have gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the second trimester, well-controlled with diet. Her medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated decreased skin turgor; her blood pressure was 102/63 mmHg, heart rate 78 beats/min and weight 53 kg (BMI 22.6 kg/m(2)). Laboratory data revealed low urine osmolality 89 mOsmol/kg (350-1000), serum osmolality 293 mOsmol/kg (278-295), serum sodium 144 mmol/l (135-145), potassium 4.1 mmol/l (3.5-5.0), urea 2.2 mmol/l (2.5-6.7), glucose 3.5 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3%. Bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and full blood count were normal. The patient was started on desmopressin with improvement in her symptoms, and normalisation of serum and urine osmolality (280 and 310 mOsmol/kg respectively). A fetus was delivered at the 39th week without major problems. After delivery, desmopressin was stopped and she had no further evidence of polyuria, polydipsia or nocturia. Her sodium, serum/urine osmolality at 12-weeks post-partum were normal. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the neurohypophyseal T1-bright spot situated ectopically, with a normal adenohypophysis and infundibulum. She remains clinically well, currently breastfeeding, and off all medication. This case illustrates some challenges in the diagnosis and management of transient gestational DI. Gestational DI is a rare complication of pregnancy occurring in two to four out of

  20. Positron deep-level transient spectroscopy in semi-insulating-GaAs using the positron velocity transient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsia, M.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.

    2001-01-01

    Recently a new semiconductor defect spectroscopy, namely positron deep level transient spectroscopy (PDLTS) has been proposed that combines the energy selectivity of deep level transient spectroscopy with the structural sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. This paper focuses on one variant of PDLTS, namely positron velocity PDLTS, which has no sensitivity towards vacancy defects but nevertheless is useful in studying deep levels in semi-insulators. In the present study the electric field within the depletion region of semi-insulating GaAs is monitored through the measurement of the small Doppler shift in the annihilation radiation that comes from this region as a result of positron drift. The drift is the result of an increasing electric field produced by space charge building up from ionizing deep level defects. Doppler shift transients are measured between 50-300 K. The EL2 level emission transients are clearly seen at temperatures around 300 K that yield E C -0.78±0.08eV for the energy of EL2. The EL2 electron capture rate is found to have an activation energy of 0.61±0.08eV which most probably arises from freeze out of conduction electrons. We find the surprising result that emission and capture transients can be seen at temperatures below 200 K. Possible reasons for these transients are discussed. (orig.)

  1. How community rehabilitation workers see their work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrick

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on research conducted by theWits/Tintswalo Community Rehabilitation, Research and Education(CORRE Programme amongst qualified community rehabilitationworkers (CRWs. The aim was to understand how CRWs see  theirrole, successes, supervision support received, problems encounteredand possible solutions.Eighteen qualified CRWs completed a questionnaire, which contained a range of open-ended and semi-structured questions.The findings included their perceived role and successes in theirwork. They were satisfied with the supervision received from theirtherapy supervisors and support from their communities. TheDepartment of Health did not support them as much as did theircommunities. The lack of government assistance for transport wastheir biggest problem: They were not always able to reach  far awayclients and spent a lot of time travelling to and from clients everyday. They were also concerned that they were not registerable withthe South African Medical and Dental Council (SAMDC.   These findings provided the Northern Province and the CommunityBased Rehabilitation (CBR manager with information to improveCBR service delivery. A two year diploma course in therapy assistance (community for CRWs, occupational and physiotherapy assistants has been started.

  2. Novel role of cold/menthol-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatine family member 8 (TRPM8) in the activation of store-operated channels in LNCaP human prostate cancer epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thebault, S.C.; Lemonnier, L.; Bidaux, G.; Flourakis, M.; Bavencoffe, A.; Gordienko, D.; Roudbaraki, M.; Delcourt, P.; Panchin, Y.; Shuba, Y.; Skryma, R.; Prevarskaya, N.

    2005-01-01

    Recent cloning of a cold/menthol-sensitive TRPM8 channel (transient receptor potential melastatine family member 8) from rodent sensory neurons has provided the molecular basis for the cold sensation. Surprisingly, the human orthologue of rodent TRPM8 also appears to be strongly expressed in the

  3. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural reward and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. PMID:24656971

  4. Use of Proton SEE Data as a Proxy for Bounding Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Hayes, Kathryn P.

    2015-01-01

    Although heavy-ion single-event effects (SEE) pose serious threats to semiconductor devices in space, many missions face difficulties testing such devices at heavy-ion accelerators. Low-cost missions often find such testing too costly. Even well funded missions face issues testing commercial off the shelf (COTS) due to packaging and integration. Some missions wish to fly COTS systems with little insight into their components. Heavy-ion testing such parts and systems requires access to expensive and hard-to-access ultra-high energy ion accelerators, or significant system modification. To avoid these problems, some have proposed using recoil ions from high-energy protons as a proxy to bound heavy-ion SEE rates.

  5. Nuclear power plant transients: where are we

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, D.

    1984-05-01

    This document is in part a postconference review and summary of the American Nuclear Society sponsored Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors Conference held in Jackson, Wyoming, September 26-29, 1983, and in part a reflection upon the issues of plant transients and their impact on the viability of nuclear power. This document discusses state-of-the-art knowledge, deficiencies, and future directions in the plant transients area as seen through this conference. It describes briefly what was reported in this conference, emphasizes areas where it is felt there is confidence in the nuclear industry, and also discusses where the experts did not have a consensus. Areas covered in the document include major issues in operational transients, transient management, transient events experience base, the status of the analytical tools and their capabilities, probabilistic risk assessment applications in operational transients, and human factors impact on plant transients management

  6. Manifestations and possible sources of lunar transient phenomena (LTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.S.

    1975-01-01

    Several different manifestations of lunar transient phenomena (LTP) have been reported. These include: (1) brightenings--both sudden and slow, (2) reddish--both bright and dull, (3) bluish--both bright and dull, (4) fairly abrupt dimmings or darkenings, and (5) obscurations, which may be accompanied by any of the other four manifestations. Approximately 200 lunar features exhibiting such anomalies have been reported at least once, but 80% of all observations are found in less than a dozen sites and 60% are found in about one-half dozen sites. An observing program is being conducted for the Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers which is designed to monitor the LTP sites, the seismic epicenter sites and non-LTP comparison sites. It addresses the ''brightenings'' category of observations and is designed to establish normal brightness of each observed feature for all phases of a lunation. It also seeks to establish a quantified ''seeing'' scale. About one-half dozen observers have reported albedo measures (estimated from an albedo scale set up by each observer). The most extensive new data on albedo versus age (phase of Moon) are for the crater Dawes. Several LTP effects have been discerned in Dawes. In addition, seeing estimates, based on the behavior of a star's diffraction disk, provided some unexpected results when disk behavior is compared with other subjective estimates of seeing

  7. Spontaneous calcium transients in human neural progenitor cells mediated by transient receptor potential channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Peter J; Hübner, Rayk; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2013-09-15

    Calcium signals affect many developmental processes, including proliferation, migration, survival, and apoptosis, processes that are of particular importance in stem cells intended for cell replacement therapies. The mechanisms underlying Ca(2+) signals, therefore, have a role in determining how stem cells respond to their environment, and how these responses might be controlled in vitro. In this study, we examined the spontaneous Ca(2+) activity in human neural progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation. Pharmacological characterization indicates that in proliferating cells, most activity is the result of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are sensitive to Gd(3+) and La(3+), with the more subtype selective antagonist Ruthenium red also reducing activity, suggesting the involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels. In differentiating cells, Gd(3+) and La(3+)-sensitive TRP channels also appear to underlie the spontaneous activity; however, no sub-type-specific antagonists had any effect. Protein levels of TRPV2 and TRPV3 decreased in differentiated cells, which is demonstrated by western blot. Thus, it appears that TRP channels represent the main route of Ca(2+) entry in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), but the responsible channel types are subject to substitution under differentiating conditions. The level of spontaneous activity could be increased and decreased by lowering and raising the extracellular K(+) concentration. Proliferating cells in low K(+) slowed the cell cycle, with a disproportionate increased percentage of cells in G1 phase and a reduction in S phase. Taken together, these results suggest a link between external K(+) concentration, spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, and cell cycle distribution, which is able to influence the fate of stem and progenitor cells.

  8. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Akira; Rondoni, Lamberto; Botrugno, Antonio; Pizzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call ''transient osmosis . We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Fast thermal transients on valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferjancic, M.; Stok, B.; Halilovic, M.; Koc, P.; Mole, N.; Otrin, Z.; Kotar, A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the regulatory body methods to supervise nuclear safety of a nuclear power plant is a review of plant modifications and evaluation of their impact on plant operating experience. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) licensed in April 2003 the use of leak-before-break (LBB) methodology in the Krsko NPP for the primary loop including surge line and connecting pipelines with minimal diameter of 6 inch. The SNSA decision based also on fracture mechanics analyses that include direct pipe failure mechanisms such as water hammer, creep damage, erosion and corrosion, fatigue and environmental conditions over the entire life of the plant. The evaluation of the operating transients pointed out, that presumed loadings, used for the LBB analysis, did not incorporate all the fast thermal transients data. For that purpose the SNSA requested Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FS) in Ljubljana to perform additional analyses. The results of the analysis shall confirm the validity of the LBB analysis. (author)

  10. Pressure transient in liquid lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.G.; Wang, X.Q.

    1995-01-01

    The pressure surge that results from a step change of flow in liquid pipelines, commonly known as water hammer, was analyzed by an eigenfunction method. A differential-integral Pressure wave equation and a linearized velocity equation were derived from the equations of mass and momentum conservation. Waveform distortion due to viscous dissipation and pipe-wall elastic expansion is characterized by a dimensionless transmission number K. The pressure surge condition, which is mathematically singular, was used in the solution procedure. The exact solutions from numerical calculation of the differential-integral equation provide a complete Pressure transient in the pipe. The problems are also calculated With the general-purpose computer code COMMIX, which solves the exact mass conservation equation and Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions were compared with published experimental results, and agreement was good. The effect of turbulence on the pressure transient is discussed in the light of COMMIX calculational results

  11. Superresolution microscopy with transient binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Julia; Raab, Mario; Holzmeister, Susanne; Schmitt-Monreal, Daniel; Grohmann, Dina; He, Zhike; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2016-06-01

    For single-molecule localization based superresolution, the concentration of fluorescent labels has to be thinned out. This is commonly achieved by photophysically or photochemically deactivating subsets of molecules. Alternatively, apparent switching of molecules can be achieved by transient binding of fluorescent labels. Here, a diffusing dye yields bright fluorescent spots when binding to the structure of interest. As the binding interaction is weak, the labeling is reversible and the dye ligand construct diffuses back into solution. This approach of achieving superresolution by transient binding (STB) is reviewed in this manuscript. Different realizations of STB are discussed and compared to other localization-based superresolution modalities. We propose the development of labeling strategies that will make STB a highly versatile tool for superresolution microscopy at highest resolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    . The chapter ends by proposing a systematic method that can be used when doing the insulation co-ordination study for a line, as well as the modelling requirements, both modelling depth and modelling detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic...... typically used for the screens of cables (both-ends bonding and cross-boding) and also presents methods that can be used to estimate the maximum current of a cable for different types of soils, i.e. thermal calculations. The end of the chapter introduces the shunt reactor, which is an important element...... detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic example....

  13. Market segmentation of mobile communications in SEE region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domazet Anto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the focus of all activities are customers of mobile services on mobile communications market. As the basis of telecommunication network and services development, as also for creating an optimal marketing-mix from mobile operators' side, we have investigated the needs, motivations and customer behavior and have made analysis mobile communication customers on the SEE Region market. The aim of this analysis is identification of the regional segments and following their growth, size and profitability. At the end, we have contributed the suggestions for creating the marketing-mix using a strategy of marketing differentiation, which implicit optimal combination of all marketing-mix elements for each regional segment separately. For identified segments we have set up an estimation model of significant key factors on the particular segments, because of more efficient creation of marketing instruments.

  14. LLL transient-electromagnetics-measurement facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Miller, E.K.; Hudson, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    The operation and hardware of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's transient-electromagnetics (EM)-measurement facility are described. The transient-EM range is useful for determining the time-domain transient responses of structures to incident EM pulses. To illustrate the accuracy and utility of the EM-measurement facility, actual experimental measurements are compared to numerically computed values

  15. Learning from anticipated and abnormal plant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, B.

    1983-01-01

    A report is given of the American Nuclear Society topical meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Transients in Light Water Reactors held in Jackson, Wyoming in September 1983. Industry involvement in the evaluation of operating experience, human error contributions, transient management, thermal hydraulic modelling, the role of probabilistic risk assessment and the cost of transient incidents are discussed. (U.K.)

  16. A transient absorption study of allophycocyanin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transient dynamics of allophycocyanin trimers and monomers are observed by using the pump-probe, transient absorption technique. The origin of spectral components of the transient absorption spectra is discussed in terms of both kinetics and spectroscopy. We find that the energy gap between the ground and excited ...

  17. Energy dependence of forward-rapidity [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] production in pp collisions at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Albuquerque, D S D; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; An, M; Andrei, C; Andrews, H A; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Anwar, R; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Ball, M; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barioglio, L; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Beltran, L G E; Belyaev, V; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boca, G; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bonomi, G; Bonora, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buhler, P; Buitron, S A I; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Cabala, J; Caffarri, D; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Capon, A A; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Concas, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Costanza, S; Crkovská, J; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Souza, R D; Degenhardt, H F; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Di Ruzza, B; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Duggal, A K; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eulisse, G; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Fabbietti, L; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Téllez, A Fernández; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Francisco, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gajdosova, K; Gallio, M; Galvan, C D; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garg, K; Garg, P; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Gay Ducati, M B; Germain, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A S; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Greiner, L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosa, F; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grosso, R; Gruber, L; Grull, F R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Guzman, I B; Haake, R; Hadjidakis, C; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, F; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Hladky, J; Hohlweger, B; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Hughes, C; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Isakov, V; Islam, M S; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Izucheev, V; Jacak, B; Jacazio, N; Jacobs, P M; Jadhav, M B; Jadlovska, S; Jadlovsky, J; Jaelani, S; Jahnke, C; Jakubowska, M J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jercic, M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jusko, A; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karayan, L; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Keil, M; Ketzer, B; Mohisin Khan, M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Khatun, A; Khuntia, A; Kielbowicz, M M; Kileng, B; Kim, D; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, H; Kim, J S; Kim, J; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, C; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Klewin, S; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Kondratyuk, E; Konevskikh, A; Kopcik, M; Kour, M; Kouzinopoulos, C; Kovalenko, O; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kubera, A M; Kučera, V; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kumar, L; Kumar, S; Kundu, S; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lapidus, K; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; Laudi, E; Lavicka, R; Lazaridis, L; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, S; Lehas, F; Lehner, S; Lehrbach, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Litichevskyi, V; Ljunggren, H M; Llope, W J; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loginov, V; Loizides, C; Loncar, P; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lowe, A; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Lupi, M; Lutz, T H; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, S; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Margutti, J; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martinez, J A L; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martinez Pedreira, M; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mastroserio, A; Mathis, A M; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzilli, M; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Melikyan, Y; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Mhlanga, S; Miake, Y; Mieskolainen, M M; Mihaylov, D L; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Montes, E; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moreno, L A P; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Mulligan, J D; Munhoz, M G; Münning, K; Munzer, R H; Murakami, H; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Myers, C J; Naik, B; Nair, R; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Naru, M U; Natal da Luz, H; Nattrass, C; Navarro, S R; Nayak, K; Nayak, R; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Negrao De Oliveira, R A; Nellen, L; Nesbo, S V; Ng, F; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Noris, J C C; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Ohlson, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oliver, M H; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Orava, R; Oravec, M; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pacik, V; Pagano, D; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Palni, P; Pan, J; Pandey, A K; Panebianco, S; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, J; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Pathak, S P; Paticchio, V; Patra, R N; Paul, B; Pei, H; Peitzmann, T; Peng, X; Pereira, L G; Pereira Da Costa, H; Peresunko, D; Perez Lezama, E; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petrov, V; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Pezzi, R P; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pimentel, L O D L; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Poonsawat, W; Pop, A; Poppenborg, H; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; 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    2017-01-01

    We present results on transverse momentum ([Formula: see text]) and rapidity ([Formula: see text]) differential production cross sections, mean transverse momentum and mean transverse momentum square of inclusive [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] at forward rapidity ([Formula: see text]) as well as [Formula: see text]-to-[Formula: see text] cross section ratios. These quantities are measured in pp collisions at center of mass energies [Formula: see text] and 13 TeV with the ALICE detector. Both charmonium states are reconstructed in the dimuon decay channel, using the muon spectrometer. A comprehensive comparison to inclusive charmonium cross sections measured at [Formula: see text], 7 and 8 TeV is performed. A comparison to non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics and fixed-order next-to-leading logarithm calculations, which describe prompt and non-prompt charmonium production respectively, is also presented. A good description of the data is obtained over the full [Formula: see text] range, provided that both contributions are summed. In particular, it is found that for [Formula: see text] GeV/ c the non-prompt contribution reaches up to 50% of the total charmonium yield.

  18. Adaptive sampling of AEM transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Massa, Domenico; Florio, Giovanni; Viezzoli, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the sampling of the electromagnetic transient as acquired by airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems. Typically, the sampling of the electromagnetic transient is done using a fixed number of gates whose width grows logarithmically (log-gating). The log-gating has two main benefits: improving the signal to noise (S/N) ratio at late times, when the electromagnetic signal has amplitudes equal or lower than the natural background noise, and ensuring a good resolution at the early times. However, as a result of fixed time gates, the conventional log-gating does not consider any geological variations in the surveyed area, nor the possibly varying characteristics of the measured signal. We show, using synthetic models, how a different, flexible sampling scheme can increase the resolution of resistivity models. We propose a new sampling method, which adapts the gating on the base of the slope variations in the electromagnetic (EM) transient. The use of such an alternative sampling scheme aims to get more accurate inverse models by extracting the geoelectrical information from the measured data in an optimal way.

  19. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2010-05-06

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution.

  20. See-saw geometry and leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bari, P.

    2005-01-01

    The representation of the see-saw orthogonal matrix in the complex plane establishes a graphical correspondence between neutrino mass models and geometrical configurations, particularly useful to study relevant aspects of leptogenesis. We first derive the CP asymmetry bound for hierarchical heavy neutrinos and then an expression for the effective leptogenesis phase, determining the conditions for maximal phase and placing a lower bound on the phase suppression for generic models. Reconsidering the lower bounds on the lightest right-handed (RH) neutrino mass M 1 and on the reheating temperature T reh , we find that models where one of the two heavier neutrino masses is dominated by the lightest right-handed (RH) neutrinos, typically arising from connections with quark masses, undergo both phase suppression and strong wash-out such that M 1 (T reh )-bar 10 11 (10 10 ) GeV. The window 10 9 GeV-bar M 1 ,T reh -bar 10 10 GeV is accessible only for a class of models where m 1 is dominated by the lightest RH neutrino, with no straightforward connections with quark masses. Within this class we describe a new scenario of thermal leptogenesis where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is generated by the decays of the second lightest RH neutrino, such that the lower bound on M 1 disappears and is replaced by a lower bound on M 2 . Interestingly, the final asymmetry is independent on the initial conditions. We also discuss the validity of the approximation of hierarchical heavy neutrinos in a simple analytical way

  1. Radius expansion bursts from the neutron star transient XTE J1701-462; a new distance estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, D.; Homan, J.; Remillard, R.; Wijnands, R.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed spectral analysis of the second and third type-I X- ray bursts from the neutron star transient XTE J1701-462 (detected on July 20 and July 25, see also ATel #1165) reveals clear photospheric radius expansion in both of them. The bursts show radius expansion for about 2-3 seconds, with the

  2. The theory and measurement of partial discharge transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical approach to partial discharge transients is presented. This approach is based on the relationship between the charge induced on the measurement electrode by those created in the interelectrode volume during partial discharge activity. The primary sources for these induced charges ar...... electrode systems of practical interest is illustrated. A discussion of the salient features and practical aspects of the theory is included...

  3. RETRAN experience with BWR transients at Yankee Atomic Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.A.F.; Cronin, J.T.; Slifer, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company is actively involved in the development of licensing methods for BWR's. The computer code chosen for analyzing system response under transient conditions is RETRAN. This paper describes the RETRAN model developed for Vermont Yankee, and the results of the RETRAN checkout and qualification that has been achieved at YAEC through comparison of RETRAN predictions to the startup test results performed at the plant as part of the 100% power startup test program. In addition, abnormal operational transients typically analyzed for licensing are also presented

  4. Monitoring the Galactic - Search for Hard X-Ray Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Francis

    Hard X-ray transients with fluxs from ~1 to ~30 mCrab are a common feature of the galactic plane with apparent concentrations in specific regions of the plane. Concentrations in the Scutum and Carina fields probably indicate an enhancement of Be X-ray binaries along the tangent direction of two spiral arms. The frequency of outbursts suggest that at any one time 1 or 2 transients are active in the Scutum field alone. We propose weekly scans of the galactic plane to understand this population of sources. The scans will also monitor about 50 already known sources with better spectral information than available with the ASM.

  5. Contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) to core melt at United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giachetti, R.T.

    1989-09-01

    This report looks at WASH-1400 and several other Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and Probabilistic Safety Studies (PSSs) to determine the contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events to the total core melt probability at eight nuclear power plants in the United States. After considering each plant individually, the results are compared from plant to plant to see if any generic conclusions regarding ATWS, or core melt in general, can be made. 8 refs., 34 tabs

  6. Measurement of the [Formula: see text] production cross-section in proton-proton collisions via the decay [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

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Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Sánchez, A Martín; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Alvarez, A Pazos; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Trigo, E Perez; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; De Paula, B Souza; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilschut, H W; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The production of the [Formula: see text] state in proton-proton collisions is probed via its decay to the [Formula: see text] final state with the LHCb detector, in the rapidity range [Formula: see text] and in the meson transverse-momentum range [Formula: see text]. The cross-section for prompt production of [Formula: see text] mesons relative to the prompt [Formula: see text] cross-section is measured, for the first time, to be [Formula: see text] at a centre-of-mass energy [Formula: see text] using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb[Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text] using 2.0 fb[Formula: see text]. The uncertainties quoted are, in order, statistical, systematic, and that on the ratio of branching fractions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays to the [Formula: see text] final state. In addition, the inclusive branching fraction of [Formula: see text]-hadron decays into [Formula: see text] mesons is measured, for the first time, to be [Formula: see text], where the third uncertainty includes also the uncertainty on the [Formula: see text] inclusive branching fraction from [Formula: see text]-hadron decays. The difference between the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] meson masses is determined to be [Formula: see text].

  7. Origin of transient cosmic ray intensity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, S.P.; Pomerantz, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new approach to determining the solar progenitor of transient cosmic ray intensity variations has revealed that in a statistical sense, solar flares, heretofore regarded as the predominant source of the modulation, actually do not precede the reduction in flux observed at earth. Superposed epoch analysis of the cosmic ray data with respect to the time of occurrence of all 379 solar flares of importance (Imp) < or =2 observed during solar cycle 20 (1964-1974 inclusive) shows that the onset of a decrease in the composite nucleonic intensity at polar stations occurs prior to the zero day (i.e., time of the flare) well before the arrival in the vicinity of earth of the associated solar plasma. The statistical significance of this result is confirmed by comparing the pooled variance determined from Chree analysis of an equal number of random epochs with that of the curve representing the flare epochs. Subdivision of the latter into three groups according to the heliographic longitude of the flares shows that whereas eastern flares might be associated with cosmic ray decreases, central (30degree to -30degree) and western flares cannot be thus related. A similar analysis of all flares of Imp< or =2 that occurred in a selected set of 24 extraordinary flare-rich active centers during 1964--1974 confirms these results and shows that the observed cosmic ray intensity decrease is, in fact, associated with the central meridian passage ( +- 1 day) of the active regions. Thus earlier conclusions concerning relationships between the heliolongitude of flares and their apparent effectiveness in producing Forbush decreases require reevaluation. The specific feature associated with solar active centers that is actually the principal source of transient modulations remanins to be identified

  8. To see bruxism: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, S

    2015-01-01

    Since the pathophysiology of bruxism is not clearly understood, there exists no possible treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the cerebral activation differences between healthy subjects and patients with bruxism on behalf of possible aetiological factors. 12 healthy subjects and 12 patients with bruxism, a total of 24 right-handed female subjects (aged 20-27 years) were examined using functional MRI during tooth-clenching and resting tasks. Imaging was performed with 3.0-T MRI scanner with a 32-channel head coil. Differences in regional brain activity between patients with bruxism and healthy subjects (control group) were observed with BrainVoyager QX 2.8 (Brain Innovation, Maastricht, Netherlands) statistical data analysis program. Activation maps were created using the general linear model: single study and multistudy multisubject for statistical group analysis. This protocol was approved by the ethics committee of medical faculty of Kirikkale University, Turkey (02/04), based on the guidelines set forth in the Declaration of Helsinki. The group analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent signal of three clusters in the control group (pbruxism. Our findings indicate that there was a decrease of cortical activation pattern in patients with bruxism in clenching tasks. This indicates decreased blood flow and activation in regional neuronal activity. Bruxism, as an oral motor disorder concerns dentistry, neurology and psychiatry. These results might improve the understanding and physiological handling of sleep bruxism.

  9. Study of the initiation of subcooled boiling during power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanVleet, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of boiling initiation during power transients has been conducted for horizontal-cylinder heating elements in degassed distilled water. Platinum elements, 0.127 and 0.250 mm in diameter, were internally heated electrically at a controlled superficial heat flux (power applied divided by surface area) increasing linearly with time at rates of 0.035 and 0.35 MW/m 2 s and corresponding test durations of 20 and 2 seconds. Tests were carried out at saturation temperatures from 100 to 195 0 C with bulk fluid subcooling from 0 to 30 K. During the course of a power transient, element temperature and superficial heat flux were measured electrically and the boiling initiation time was determined optically. It was found that the conditions for boiling initiation depended strongly on the pressure-temperature history of the heating element and surround fluid prior to the transient. Boiling initiation times were found to agree qualitatively with predictions of a model based on the contact-angle hysteresis concept. Brief prepressurization prior to a transient was found to increase dramatically the temperature and heat flux required for boiling initiation because of deactivation of boiling initiation sites. However, sites were re-activated during the transient and, in subsequent tests without prepressurization, no elevation in boiling initiation conditions was observed and results were in quantitative agreement with predictions of the model

  10. Bright PanSTARRS Nuclear Transients – what are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smartt S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an initial analysis of 49 bright transients occurring in the nuclei of galaxies with no previous known Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN. They have been discovered as part of the PanSTARRs 3π survey, and followed up with the Liverpool Telescope. Based on colours, light curve shape, and a small number with optical spectra, these transients seem to fall into three groups. Red/fast transients are nuclear supernovae of various types. Some bright nuclear transients are blue and decay on a timescale of a few months; these may be candidates for tidal disruption events. However most of the events we have found are blue and are either still rising or decaying slowly, on a timescale of years; the few spectra we have show AGN at z ∼ 1. We argue that these transients are background AGN microlensed by stars in foreground galaxies by a factor 10–100. Monitoring such events gives us very promising prospects for measuring the structure of AGN and so testing current theories.

  11. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTomkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  12. New quickest transient detection methodology. Nuclear engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Jevremovic, Tatjana; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2003-01-01

    A new intelligent systems methodology for quickest online transient detection is presented. Based on information that includes, but is not limited to, statistical features, energy of frequency components and wavelet coefficients, the new methodology decides whether a transient has emerged. A fuzzy system makes the final decision, the membership functions of which are obtained by artificial neural networks and adjusted in an online manner. Comparisons are performed with conventional methods for transient detection using simulated and plant data. The proposed methodology could be useful in power plant operations, diagnostic and maintenance activities. It is also considered as a design tool for quick design modifications in a virtual design environment aimed at next generation University Research and Training Reactors (URTRs). (The virtual design environment is pursued as part of the Big-10 Consortium sponsored by the new Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program sponsored by the US Department of Energy.) (author)

  13. ELF Magnetic Fields, Transients and TWA Metrics (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavet, R

    1999-07-01

    Residential measurements of ambient power frequency magnetic fields may serve as surrogates for personal exposures. There are few data available, however, to determine how far back in time this surrogacy holds. A limited amount of research on residential transients suggests that, all other factors being equivalent, larger transients may propagate within VHCC neighbourhoods than within LCC neighbourhoods. However, the presence of a conductive residential ground pathway also appears to be a potentially important factor associated with residential transient activity. The use of the TWA metric was prompted by the need for an exposure score simple enough to summarise an individual's exposure over a prior interval, yet specific to the agent of concern, namely the power frequency magnetic field. To the extent that the TWA exposure is associated with health outcomes in the absence of bias, including confounding, the TWA metric is important. (author)

  14. ELF Magnetic Fields, Transients and TWA Metrics (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavet, R.

    1999-01-01

    Residential measurements of ambient power frequency magnetic fields may serve as surrogates for personal exposures. There are few data available, however, to determine how far back in time this surrogacy holds. A limited amount of research on residential transients suggests that, all other factors being equivalent, larger transients may propagate within VHCC neighbourhoods than within LCC neighbourhoods. However, the presence of a conductive residential ground pathway also appears to be a potentially important factor associated with residential transient activity. The use of the TWA metric was prompted by the need for an exposure score simple enough to summarise an individual's exposure over a prior interval, yet specific to the agent of concern, namely the power frequency magnetic field. To the extent that the TWA exposure is associated with health outcomes in the absence of bias, including confounding, the TWA metric is important. (author)

  15. Transient and stationary eddies in differing GCM climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, N.M.J.; Valdes, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The response of transients to changing forcing/boundary conditions can be just as striking as the response of mean fields such as surface temperature. Indeed the two are intimately linked and the extent to which the transients are either controlled by, or shape the mean flow is difficult to quantify. Diagnostics are presented from several GCM equilibrium climate simulations using the UGAMP GCM. These include representations of the present climate: The Last Glacial Maximum and the Jurassic climate (150 M years ago). Changes in the distribution of transient eddy activity are compared with changes in low level baroclinicity to assess the direct response of the storm tracks to local conditions. Budget calculations are also presented to identify the changing roles of different components of the atmospheric circulation in transporting heat and moisture from equator to pole

  16. Measurements of the branching fractions of [Formula: see text] decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; 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    The branching fractions of the decay [Formula: see text] for different intermediate states are measured using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb -1 , collected by the LHCb experiment. The total branching fraction, its charmless component [Formula: see text] and the branching fractions via the resonant [Formula: see text] states η c (1 S ) and ψ (2 S ) relative to the decay via a J / ψ intermediate state are [Formula: see text] Upper limits on the B + branching fractions into the η c (2 S ) meson and into the charmonium-like states X (3872) and X (3915) are also obtained.

  17. Transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jackie Y L; Loh, Keh Chuan; Yeo, George S H; Chee, Yam Cheng

    2002-06-01

    To characterise the clinical, biochemical and thyroid antibody profile in women with transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum. Prospective observational study. Hospital inpatient gynaecological ward. Women admitted with hyperemesis gravidarum and found to have hyperthyroidism. Fifty-three women were admitted with hyperemesis gravidarum and were found to have hyperthyroidism. Each woman was examined for clinical signs of thyroid disease and underwent investigations including urea, creatinine, electrolytes, liver function test, thyroid antibody profile and serial thyroid function test until normalisation. Gestation at which thyroid function normalised, clinical and thyroid antibody profile and pregnancy outcome (birthweight, gestation at delivery and Apgar score at 5 minutes). Full data were available for 44 women. Free T4 levels normalised by 15 weeks of gestation in the 39 women with transient hyperthyroidism while TSH remained suppressed until 19 weeks of gestation. None of these women were clinically hyperthyroid. Thyroid antibodies were not found in most of them. Median birthweight in the infants of mothers who experienced weight loss of > 5% of their pre-pregnancy weight was lower compared with those of women who did not (P = 0.093). Five women were diagnosed with Graves' disease based on clinical features and thyroid antibody profile. In transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum, thyroid function normalises by the middle of the second trimester without anti-thyroid treatment. Clinically overt hyperthyroidism and thyroid antibodies are usually absent. Apart from a non-significant trend towards lower birthweights in the infants of mothers who experienced significant weight loss, pregnancy outcome was generally good. Routine assessment of thyroid function is unnecessary for women with hyperemesis gravidarum in the absence of any clinical features of hyperthyroidism.

  18. Nuclear programs see a qualified increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This March 1995 Nuclear News article is a review of the proposed DOE budget for nuclear energy activities. This proposed budget increases spending by 32.7% and includes increases in nearly every individual program except civilian reactor development. Isotope production and distribution receive the largest increase, followed by termination costs for certain federal reactor projects. There is a 61.9% proposed increase (to $199M) for waste management activities, but with funding from other Departments, the actual budget would be $612M. The majority of this money would go toward Yucca Mountain activities. Except for the cancellation of the Advanced Neutron Source, the Science and Technology portion of the budget shows an overall small increase

  19. Recent advances in transient imaging: A computer graphics and vision perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Jarabo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient imaging has recently made a huge impact in the computer graphics and computer vision fields. By capturing, reconstructing, or simulating light transport at extreme temporal resolutions, researchers have proposed novel techniques to show movies of light in motion, see around corners, detect objects in highly-scattering media, or infer material properties from a distance, to name a few. The key idea is to leverage the wealth of information in the temporal domain at the pico or nanosecond resolution, information usually lost during the capture-time temporal integration. This paper presents recent advances in this field of transient imaging from a graphics and vision perspective, including capture techniques, analysis, applications and simulation. Keywords: Transient imaging, Ultrafast imaging, Time-of-flight

  20. Light-quark and gluon jet discrimination in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

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    A likelihood-based discriminant for the identification of quark- and gluon-initiated jets is built and validated using 4.7 fb[Formula: see text] of proton-proton collision data at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Data samples with enriched quark or gluon content are used in the construction and validation of templates of jet properties that are the input to the likelihood-based discriminant. The discriminating power of the jet tagger is established in both data and Monte Carlo samples within a systematic uncertainty of [Formula: see text] 10-20 %. In data, light-quark jets can be tagged with an efficiency of [Formula: see text] while achieving a gluon-jet mis-tag rate of [Formula: see text] in a [Formula: see text] range between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for jets in the acceptance of the tracker. The rejection of gluon-jets found in the data is significantly below what is attainable using a Pythia 6 Monte Carlo simulation, where gluon-jet mis-tag rates of 10 % can be reached for a 50 % selection efficiency of light-quark jets using the same jet properties.

  1. The course of transient hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, A J; Cleary, P D; Sarnie, M K; Klerman, G L

    1993-03-01

    This study examined the longitudinal course of patients known to have had a previous episode of transient hypochondriasis. Twenty-two transiently hypochondriacal patients and 24 nonhypochondriacal patients from the same general medical clinic were reexamined after an average of 22 months with the use of self-report questionnaires, structured diagnostic interviews, and medical record review. The hypochondriacal patients continued to manifest significantly more hypochondriacal symptoms, more somatization, and more psychopathological symptoms at follow-up. They also reported significantly more amplification of bodily sensations and more functional disability and utilized more medical care. These differences persisted after control for differences in medical morbidity and marital status. Only one hypochondriacal patient, however, had a DSM-III-R diagnosis of hypochondriasis at follow-up. Multivariate analyses revealed that the only significant predictors of hypochondriacal symptoms at follow-up were hypochondriacal symptoms and the tendency to amplify bodily sensations at the baseline evaluation. Hypochondriacal symptoms appear to have some temporal stability: patients who experienced hypochondriacal episodes at the beginning of the study were significantly more hypochondriacal 2 years later than comparison patients. They were not, however, any more likely to develop DSM-III-R-defined hypochondriasis. Thus, hypochondriacal symptoms may be distinct from the axis I disorder. The data are also compatible with the hypothesis that preexisting amplification of bodily sensations is an important predictor of subsequent hypochondriacal symptoms.

  2. Transient global amnesia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel DR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David R Spiegel, Justin Smith, Ryan R Wade, Nithya Cherukuru, Aneel Ursani, Yuliya Dobruskina, Taylor Crist, Robert F Busch, Rahim M Dhanani, Nicholas Dreyer Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Abstract: Transient global amnesia (TGA is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of an extraordinarily large reduction of anterograde and a somewhat milder reduction of retrograde episodic long-term memory. Additionally, executive functions are described as diminished. Although it is suggested that various factors, such as migraine, focal ischemia, venous flow abnormalities, and epileptic phenomena, are involved in the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of TGA, the factors triggering the emergence of these lesions are still elusive. Recent data suggest that the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress plays a pivotal part in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an impairment of hippocampal function during TGA. In this review, we discuss clinical aspects, new imaging findings, and recent clinical–epidemiological data with regard to the phenotype, functional anatomy, and putative cellular mechanisms of TGA. Keywords: transient global amnesia, vascular, migraines, psychiatric

  3. Prismatic Core Coupled Transient Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortensi, J.; Pope, M.A.; Strydom, G.; Sen, R.S.; DeHart, M.D.; Gougar, H.D.; Ellis, C.; Baxter, A.; Seker, V.; Downar, T.J.; Vierow, K.; Ivanov, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design concepts that have existed for some time. Several prismatic units have operated in the world (DRAGON, Fort St. Vrain, Peach Bottom) and one unit is still in operation (HTTR). The deterministic neutronics and thermal-fluids transient analysis tools and methods currently available for the design and analysis of PMRs have lagged behind the state of the art compared to LWR reactor technologies. This has motivated the development of more accurate and efficient tools for the design and safety evaluations of the PMR. In addition to the work invested in new methods, it is essential to develop appropriate benchmarks to verify and validate the new methods in computer codes. The purpose of this benchmark is to establish a well-defined problem, based on a common given set of data, to compare methods and tools in core simulation and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. The benchmark-working group is currently seeking OECD/NEA sponsorship. This benchmark is being pursued and is heavily based on the success of the PBMR-400 exercise.

  4. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 1: Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In Part 1 of their article, Erin Host, Emily Baynham and Heather McMaster use a combination of digital technology and concrete materials to explore the concept of "corners". They provide a practical, easy to follow sequence of activities that builds on students' understandings. [For "Using Digital Technology to See Angles from…

  5. You can see galaxies from your computer | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitor's Computer Guidelines Network Connection Request Instruments Instruments by Telescope IR Instruments Logs Tololo Kaxis Webcam NOAO Newsletters NOAO Data Archive Astronomical Links Visitor's Computer ‹› You are here CTIO Home » You can see galaxies from your computer You can see galaxies from

  6. Seeing and Experiencing Relativity--A New Tool for Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Fish, Jordan; Hacker, Jesse; Kienle, Justin; Kobylarek, Alexander; Sigler, Michael; Wierenga, Bert; Cheu, Ryan; Kim, Ebae; Sherin, Zach; Sidhu, Sonny; Tan, Philip

    2013-01-01

    "What would you see if you were riding a beam of light?" This thought experiment, which Einstein reports to have "conducted" at the age of 16, of course has no sensible answer: as Einstein published a decade later, you could never reach the speed of light. But it does make sense to ask what you would see if you were traveling…

  7. Neural codes of seeing architectural styles

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Heeyoung; Nasar, Jack L.; Nikrahei, Bardia; Walther, Dirk B.

    2017-01-01

    Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people′s visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding sugges...

  8. Transient receptor potential channel superfamily: Role in lower urinary tract function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Teruyuki; Imamura, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Masaki; Hiragata, Shiro; Nagai, Takashi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masakuni; Domen, Takahisa; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurogenic bladder and overactive bladder syndrome are mediated in part by members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily. The best studied member of this superfamily is the vanilloid receptor. Other transient receptor potential channels, such as the melastatin receptor and the ankyrin receptor, are also active in the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, the detailed mechanisms by which the transient receptor potential channels contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms are still not clear, and the therapeutic benefits of modulating transient receptor potential channel activity have not been proved in the clinical setting. In the present review, to better understand the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential for lower urinary tract symptoms, we summarize the presence and role of different members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily in the lower urinary tract. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Professor Eric Can't See: A Project-Based Learning Case for Neurobiology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Judith Mosinger; Ribbens, Eric

    2016-01-01

    "Professor Eric Can't See" is a semi-biographical case study written for an upper level undergraduate Neurobiology of Disease course. The case is integrated into a unit using a project-based learning approach to investigate the retinal degenerative disorder Retinitis pigmentosa and the visual system. Some case study scenes provide specific questions for student discussion and problem-based learning, while others provide background for student inquiry and related active learning exercises. The case was adapted from "'Chemical Eric' Can't See," and could be adapted for courses in general neuroscience or sensory neuroscience.

  10. Dynamic radio bursts associated with important flare activity in Hale region 16923 and the problem of the relative locations of type II 'slow drift' bursts and coronal transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckenna-Lawlor, S.M.P.

    1983-03-01

    Seven type-II radio bursts associated with solar flares in the Hale region 16923 on June 27-29, 1980, are characterized on the basis of data from dynamic radio spectra, white-light observations, radioheliograms, SMM-C/P observations, and Helios I magnetic-field and solar-wind measurements. The data are summarized in tables and graphs and discussed in terms of transient events occurring in the same region. The magnetic shock waves recorded during the period by Helios are described, and channeling effects which may have prevented the detection of type-II burst shocks are examined.

  11. A COMETHE version with transient capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van; Lebon, G.; Mathieu, P.

    1980-01-01

    A version of the COMETHE code is under development to simulate transient situations. This paper focuses on some aspects of the transient heat transfer models. Initially the coupling between transient heat transfer and other thermomechanical models is discussed. An estimation of the thermal characteristic times shows that the cladding temperatures are often in quasi-steady state. In order to reduce the computing time, calculations are therefore switched from a transient to a quasi-static numerical procedure as soon as such a quasi-equilibrium is detected. The temperature calculation is performed by use of the Lebon-Lambermont restricted variational principle, with piecewise polynoms as trial functions. The method has been checked by comparison with some exact results and yields good agreement for transient as well as for quasi-static situations. This method therefore provides a valuable tool for the simulation of the transient behaviour of nuclear reactor fuel rods. (orig.)

  12. Experience with transients in German NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindauer, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines reactor accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany based on the formal reporting system for licensee event reports (LERs) and a special investigation on all unplanned power variations in 3 PWRs. The significant transients experienced by BWR type reactors are analyzed. The main goal is to find weak points which caused the transient or influenced its course in an unfavorable way in order to improve the affected plant and others. The complete survey of all transients, with normally little or no safety relevance, allows statistical evaluations and the analysis of trends. It is concluded that significant transients were mainly experienced at older plants, whereas plants of an advanced design produced very few significant transients. The most frequent human errors which lead to transients are failure search in electronic systems and errors during design and commissioning

  13. FIRST RESULTS FROM THE CATALINA REAL-TIME TRANSIENT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A.; Graham, M. J.; Williams, R.; Beshore, E.; Larson, S.; Boattini, A.; Gibbs, A.; Hill, R.; Kowalski, R.; Christensen, E.; Catelan, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the results from the first six months of the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS). In order to search for optical transients (OTs) with timescales of minutes to years, the CRTS analyses data from the Catalina Sky Survey which repeatedly covers 26,000 of square degrees on the sky. The CRTS provides a public stream of transients that are bright enough to be followed up using small telescopes. Since the beginning of the survey, all CRTS transients have been made available to astronomers around the world in real time using HTML tables,RSS feeds, and VOEvents. As part of our public outreach program, the detections are now also available in Keyhole Markup Language through Google Sky. The initial discoveries include over 350 unique OTs rising more than 2 mag from past measurements. Sixty two of these are classified as supernovae (SNe), based on light curves, prior deep imaging and spectroscopic data. Seventy seven are due to cataclysmic variables (CVs; only 13 previously known), while an additional 100 transients were too infrequently sampled to distinguish between faint CVs and SNe. The remaining OTs include active galactic nucleus, blazars, high-proper-motions stars, highly variable stars (such as UV Ceti stars), and transients of an unknown nature. Our results suggest that there is a large population of SNe missed by many current SN surveys because of selection biases. These objects appear to be associated with faint host galaxies. We also discuss the unexpected discovery of white dwarf binary systems through dramatic eclipses.

  14. Transient analysis for resolving safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Layman, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) has a Generic Safety Analysis Program to help resolve high priority generic safety issues. This paper describes several high priority safety issues considered at NSAC and how they were resolved by transient analysis using thermal hydraulics and neutronics codes. These issues are pressurized thermal shock (PTS), anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and reactivity transients in light of the Chernobyl accident

  15. Analysis of transient signals by Wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, Rosani Libardi da; Silva, Aucyone A. da; Ting, Daniel K.S.; Oliveira Neto, Jose Messias de

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to apply the Wavelet Transform in transient signals. The Wavelet technique can outline the short time events that are not easily detected using traditional techniques. In this work, the Wavelet Transform is compared with Fourier Transform, by using simulated data and rotor rig data. This data contain known transients. The wavelet could follow all the transients, what do not happen to the Fourier techniques. (author)

  16. Instrument response during overpower transients at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, C.C.; Bauer, T.H.; Hill, D.J.; Froehle, P.H.; Klickman, A.E.; Tylka, J.P.; Doerner, R.C.; Wright, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A program to empirically analyze data residuals or noise to determine instrument response that occurs during in-pile transient tests is out-lined. As an example, thermocouple response in the Mark III loop during a severe overpower transient in TREAT is studied both in frequency space and in real-time. Time intervals studied included both constant power and burst portions of the power transient. Thermocouple time constants were computed. Benefits and limitations of the method are discussed

  17. OPTICAL TRANSIENT DETECTOR (OTD) LIGHTNING V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Transient Detector (OTD) records optical measurements of global lightning events in the daytime and nighttime. The data includes individual point...

  18. The differential production cross section of the [Formula: see text](1020) meson in [Formula: see text] = 7 TeV [Formula: see text] collisions measured with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdelalim, A A; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aoun, S; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Aubert, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Balek, P; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barbaro Galtieri, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, A K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertin, A; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bittner, B; Black, C W; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V B; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borri, M; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Branchini, P; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brendlinger, K; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brown, H; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bundock, A C; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Byszewski, M; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Caminal Armadans, R; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Capasso, L; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capriotti, D; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, B; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cascella, M; Caso, C; Castaneda Hernandez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Cataldi, G; Catastini, P; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G; Caughron, S; Cavaliere, V; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chalupkova, I; Chan, K; Chang, P; Chapleau, B; Chapman, J D; Chapman, J W; Chareyre, E; Charlton, D G; Chavda, V; Chavez Barajas, C A; Cheatham, S; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Cheung, S L; Chevalier, L; Chiefari, G; Chikovani, L; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choudalakis, G; Chouridou, S; Christidi, I A; Christov, A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirilli, M; Cirkovic, P; Citron, Z H; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Cleland, W; Clemens, J C; Clement, B; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coffey, L; Cogan, J G; Coggeshall, J; Cogneras, E; Colas, J; Cole, S; Colijn, A P; Collins, N J; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Colon, G; Compostella, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Conidi, M C; Consonni, S M; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Côté, D; Courneyea, L; Cowan, G; Cowden, C; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuciuc, C-M; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Curtis, C J; Cuthbert, C; Cwetanski, P; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; Czyczula, Z; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; D'Orazio, A; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M J; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dafinca, A; Dai, T; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Dameri, M; Damiani, D S; Danielsson, H O; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darlea, G L; Dassoulas, J A; Davey, W; Davidek, T; Davidson, N; Davidson, R; Davies, E; Davies, M; Davignon, O; Davison, A R; Davygora, Y; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Taille, C; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; de Mora, L; De Nooij, L; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dechenaux, B; Dedovich, D V; Degenhardt, J; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delemontex, T; Deliyergiyev, M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; Deluca, C; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demirkoz, B; Denisov, S P; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Devetak, E; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; DeWilde, B; Dhaliwal, S; Dhullipudi, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Donato, C; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M A; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Dietzsch, T A; Diglio, S; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, J; Dinut, F; Dionisi, C; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Doan, T K O; Dobbs, M; Dobos, D; Dobson, E; Dodd, J; Doglioni, C; Doherty, T; Doi, Y; Dolejsi, J; Dolenc, I; Dolezal, Z; Dolgoshein, B A; Dohmae, T; Donadelli, M; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Doxiadis, A D; Doyle, A T; Dressnandt, N; Dris, M; Dubbert, J; Dube, S; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duda, D; Dudarev, A; Dudziak, F; Dührssen, M; Duerdoth, I P; Duflot, L; Dufour, M-A; Duguid, L; Dunford, M; Duran Yildiz, H; Duxfield, R; Dwuznik, M; Düren, M; Ebenstein, W L; Ebke, J; Eckweiler, S; Edmonds, K; Edson, W; Edwards, C A; Edwards, N C; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Eisenhandler, E; Ekelof, T; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Ellis, K; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Emeliyanov, D; Engelmann, R; Engl, A; Epp, B; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Eriksson, D; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Ernwein, J; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Esch, H; Escobar, C; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B; Etienne, F; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evangelakou, D; Evans, H; Fabbri, L; Fabre, C; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farley, J; Farooque, T; Farrell, S; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassi, F; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fatholahzadeh, B; Favareto, A; Fayard, L; Fazio, S; Febbraro, R; Federic, P; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, W; 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    A measurement is presented of the [Formula: see text] production cross section at [Formula: see text] = 7 TeV using [Formula: see text] collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 383 [Formula: see text], collected with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Selection of [Formula: see text](1020) mesons is based on the identification of