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Sample records for seeding contactless physical

  1. Physical properties of sunflower seeds during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Adriana de Souza Smaniotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect that the moisture content has on the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The cultivar Olisun 3, with an initial moisture content of 34.1 (% wb, was used and then subjected to drying in an oven with forced air ventilation under three temperature conditions: 40, 60 and 80 °C. The reduction in the moisture content during drying was monitored by the gravimetric method until it reached a final moisture content of 8.0 ± 1.0 (% wb. The physical properties were analysed: the bulk density, true density, intergranular porosity and volumetric shrinkage of the mass and unit and terminal velocity. The reduction in the moisture content influenced the physical properties of sunflower seeds and caused a decrease in the intergranular porosity, bulk density and true density at all examined temperatures. The mass and volumetric contractions of the unit and reduction in shrinkage rates all increased with the drying of sunflower seeds at all studied temperatures. The terminal velocity increased as the moisture content of the grains increased, which was more evident at the drying temperature of 80 °C.

  2. 3D cellular structures and co-cultures formed through the contactless magnetic manipulation of cells on adherent surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Fattah, Abdel Rahman; Mishriki, Sarah; Kammann, Tobias; Sahu, Rakesh P; Geng, Fei; Puri, Ishwar K

    2018-02-27

    A magnet array is employed to manipulate diamagnetic cells that are contained in paramagnetic medium to demonstrate for the first time the contactless bioprinting of three-dimensional (3D) cellular structures and co-cultures of breast cancer MCF-7 and endothelial HUVEC at prescribed locations on tissue culture treated well plates. Sequential seeding of different cell lines and the spatial displacement of the magnet array creates co-cultured cellular structures within a well without using physically intrusive well inserts. Both monotypic and co-culture experiments produce morphologically rich 3D cell structures that are otherwise absent in regular monolayer cell cultures. The magnetic contactless bioprinting of cells provides further insight into cell behaviour, invasion strategies and transformations that are useful for potential applications in drug screening, 3D cell culture formation and tissue engineering.

  3. Milkweed Seed Dispersal: A Means for Integrating Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbee, Gregory D.; Kaiser, Cheryl A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that integrates biology and physics concepts by experimenting with the seed dispersal of common milkweed or similar wind-dispersed seeds. Student teams collect seeds and measure several parameters, review principles of trajectory motion, perform experiments, and graph data. Students examine the ideas of…

  4. Physical Methods for Seed Invigoration: Advantages and Challenges in Seed Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Paparella, Stefania; Dondi, Daniele; Bentivoglio, Antonio; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical invigoration treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, "magneto-priming" and irradiation with microwaves (MWs) or ionizing radiations (IRs) are the most promising pre-sowing seed treatments. "Magneto-priming" is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigor and crop yield. IRs, as γ-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual 'priming' treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to MWs and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed invigoration agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV) radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination, and seedling vigor. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed invigoration treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed invigoration, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and advantages. The future perspectives related to

  5. Physical Methods for Seed Invigoration: Advantages and Challenges in Seed Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Paparella, Stefania; Dondi, Daniele; Bentivoglio, Antonio; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical invigoration treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, “magneto-priming” and irradiation with microwaves (MWs) or ionizing radiations (IRs) are the most promising pre-sowing seed treatments. “Magneto-priming” is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigor and crop yield. IRs, as γ-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual ‘priming’ treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to MWs and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed invigoration agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV) radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination, and seedling vigor. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed invigoration treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed invigoration, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and advantages. The future perspectives

  6. Physical methods for seed vigourization: advantages and challenges in seed technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eAraújo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical vigourization treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, magneto-priming and irradiation with microwaves or ionizing radiations are the most promissory pre-sowing seed treatments. Magneto-priming is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigour and crop yield. Ionizing radiations, as gamma-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual ‘priming’ treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to microwaves and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed vigourization agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination and seedling vigour. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed vigourization treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed vigourization, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and

  7. Interspecific variation in persistence of buried weed seeds follows trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical seed defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S; Fu, Xianhui; Schutte, Brian J; Berhow, Mark A; Dalling, James W

    2016-10-01

    Soil seedbanks drive infestations of annual weeds, yet weed management focuses largely on seedling mortality. As weed seedbanks increasingly become reservoirs of herbicide resistance, species-specific seedbank management approaches will be essential to weed control. However, the development of seedbank management strategies can only develop from an understanding of how seed traits affect persistence.We quantified interspecific trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical traits of weed seeds and their persistence in the soil seedbank in a common garden study. Seeds of 11 annual weed species were buried in Savoy, IL, from 2007 through 2012. Seedling recruitment was measured weekly and seed viability measured annually. Seed physiological (dormancy), chemical (phenolic compound diversity and concentration; invertebrate toxicity), and physical traits (seed coat mass, thickness, and rupture resistance) were measured.Seed half-life in the soil ( t 0.5 ) showed strong interspecific variation ( F 10,30  = 15, p  central role of seed dormancy in controlling seed persistence.A quantitative comparison between our results and other published work indicated that weed seed dormancy and seedbank persistence are linked across diverse environments and agroecosystems. Moreover, among seedbank-forming early successional plant species, relative investment in chemical and physical seed defense varies with seedbank persistence. Synthesis and applications . Strong covariance among weed seed traits and persistence in the soil seedbank indicates potential for seedbank management practices tailored to specific weed species. In particular, species with high t 0.5 values tend to invest less in chemical defenses. This makes them highly vulnerable to physical harvest weed seed control strategies, with small amounts of damage resulting in their full decay.

  8. Effect of the activation of germination processes on the sensitivity of seeds towards physical sanitation treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Kromphard, C.; Forsberg, G.; Rop, N.; Werner, S.

    2008-01-01

    Physical treatments of seeds to eradicate pathogens have the risk of reducing vitality of the seeds. Seed lots may differ in sensitivity to these treatments, therefore factors influencing this sensitivity, including the physiological condition of the seeds, should be identified. In this study

  9. Unconstrained and contactless hand geometry biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Santos-Sierra, Alberto; Sánchez-Ávila, Carmen; Del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador; Guerra-Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely support vector machines (SVM) and k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  10. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez-Ávila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN. Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  11. Farmers' seed sources and seed quality: 1. Physical and physiological quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding farmers' seed quality problem will enable farmers to devise strategies to improve quality at the farm level. The study was conducted to assess the quality of seed used by farmers from different sources and regions. A total of 304 wheat (Trticium aestivum L. and T. durum L.) seed

  12. The Effects of Physical Primings of Seeds on Agronomical Characteristics and Alkaloid Content of Datura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Baser kouchebagh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of physical seed primings on yield and alkaloid content of datura an experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications and 10 different treatments was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Aazd University, Tabriz branch, Iran, during growing season of 2013. Treatments of moist seeds were: ultrasonic treatment of seeds with a maximum of 3 watts, gamma and beta irradiations of seeds at 2 microcurie (µc for 10 minutes, laser irradiation at 6328 angstrom (A° and magnetic field of seeds with 40 microtesla (mt each for 5, 10, 15 minutes respectively and control. Results indicated that seeds treated with gamma irradiation increased plant height over the control by 45%. Highest (206 g.m-2 and lowest (108.3 g.m-2 biological yields were produced when seeds treated with magnetic field for 10 minutes and laser for 5 minutes respectively. Similarly, highest (27.27 g.m-2 and lowest (14.96 g.m-2 seed yields were obtained by treating seeds with magnetic field for 15 minutes and ultrasonic respectively. Alkaloid content in the above ground plant parts was highest when seeds treated with gamma irradiation and lowest with the magnetic field irradiation for 5 minutes. It may be concluded that physical primings of seeds with magnetic field, gamma and laser irradiations would result in higher seed yields.

  13. Physical, metabolic and developmental functions of the seed coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Volodymyr; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2014-01-01

    The conventional understanding of the role of the seed coat is that it provides a protective layer for the developing zygote. Recent data show that the picture is more nuanced. The seed coat certainly represents a first line of defense against adverse external factors, but it also acts as channel for transmitting environmental cues to the interior of the seed. The latter function primes the seed to adjust its metabolism in response to changes in its external environment. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a comprehensive view of the structure and functionality of the seed coat, and to expose its hidden interaction with both the endosperm and embryo. Any breeding and/or biotechnology intervention seeking to increase seed size or modify seed features will have to consider the implications on this tripartite interaction. PMID:25346737

  14. Some physical and chemical properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. seed and fatty acid composition of seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem GÖLÜKÇÜ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible part and leaves of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. are used as food or medicine to control some diseases because of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-hepatotoxic, antiviral, antiulcerogenic and larvicidal effects. Although fruits have considerable amount of seeds, they have not received much attention. In this study, some physical and chemical properties of the seed and also fatty acid composition of seed oil were determined. Oil content of the sample was determined by soxhlet apparatus as 26.10% in dried sample. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS and seven fatty acids were identified and their ratios were determined in this seed oil. The main fatty acid was determined as α-eleostearic (45.60%. The other fatty acids were palmitic (3.69%, stearic (28.00%, oleic (12.45%, linoleic (8.90%, arachidic (0.71% and gadoleic acids (0.65%.

  15. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  16. Metal ion removal from aqueous solution using physic seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Masita; Maitra, Saikat; Ahmad, Naveed; Bustam, Azmi; Sen, T K; Dutta, Binay K

    2010-07-15

    The potential of physic seed hull (PSH), Jantropha curcas L. as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated. It has been found that the amount of adsorption for both Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) increased with the increase in initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the solution pH (in acidic range), but decreased with the increase in the particle size of the adsorbent. The adsorption process for both metal ions on PSH consists of three stages-a rapid initial adsorption followed by a period of slower uptake of metal ions and virtually no uptake at the final stage. The kinetics of metal ions adsorption on PSH followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted in the three adsorption isotherms-Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data best fit in the Langmuir isotherm indication monolayer chemisorption of the metal ions. The adsorption capacity of PSH for both Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) was found to be comparable with other available adsorbents. About 36-47% of the adsorbed metal could be leached out of the loaded PSH using 0.1M HCl as the eluting medium. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Song, Chi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jia, Yongxia; Fang, Xiaohua; Chen, Fan; Wu, Guojiang

    2012-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP). The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  18. Contactless Ultrasound Generation in a Crucible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarevics, Valdis; Djambazov, Georgi S.; Pericleous, Koulis A.

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound treatment is used in light alloys during solidification to refine microstructure, remove gas, or disperse immersed particles. A mechanical sonotrode immersed in the melt is most effective when probe tip vibrations lead to cavitation. Liquid contact with the probe can be problematic for high temperature or reactive melts leading to contamination. An alternative contactless method of generating ultrasonic waves is proposed, using electromagnetic (EM) induction. As a bonus, the EM force induces vigorous stirring distributing the effect to treat larger volumes of material. In a typical application, the induction coil surrounding the crucible—also used to melt the alloy—may be adopted for this purpose with suitable tuning. Alternatively, a top coil, immersed in the melt (but still contactless due to EM force repulsion) may be used. Numerical simulations of sound, flow, and EM fields suggest that large pressure amplitudes leading to cavitation may be achievable with this method.

  19. Development of a contactless capacitive immunosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Perruche, Brice Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, a label-free, contactless and capacitive immunosensor is developed using impedance spectroscopy, in the aim to perform low-cost immunoassays. Chapter 1 puts this work in perspective with some existing techniques, while a presentation of impedance theory used in this work is carried out in chapter 2. In Chapter 3, numerical simulations using a commercial finite element method software is carried out. The response of coplanar and fa...

  20. Some physical properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... namely, rubber (0.341 to 0.470), wood (0.318 to 0.391), stainless steel (0.271 to 0.364) and galvanised ... The dry seeds of spinach cultivar, local variety were used for all the ... The true density defined as the ratio between the mass of ... air velocity near the location of the seed suspension was measured.

  1. Physical-chemical characteristics and antioxidant potential of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ximenia americana popularly known as wild plum grow wildly in Brazilian semiarid region and its fruit were harvested in two maturity stages and evaluated for quality. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments (immature, mature pulp and seeds), and treatment effect was evaluated for pulp ...

  2. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  3. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawu Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP. The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  4. Tethered Contactless Mobile Nuclear Environment Monitoring Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Lee, E. S.; Lee, Kun J.; Kim, Su H.; Rim, C. T.

    2013-01-01

    In fact, the nuclear environment monitoring is significantly crucial for early detection of NPP accident, radiological emergency, the estimation of radiation exposure to nearby residents as well as the long term radioactivity. In the UAE, the nuclear environment monitoring is, however, quite challenging because sampling locations are far from NPPs and the outdoor temperature and humidity are very high for NPP workers to collect soil, air, and water samples. Therefore, nuclear environment monitoring robots (Nubos) are strongly needed for the NPPs in the UAE. The Nubos can be remotely controlled to collect samples in extreme environment instead of NPP workers. Moreover, the Nubos can be unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned marine vehicles (UMVs) to collect soil, air, and water samples, respectively. In this paper, the prototype development of UGV type Nubos using power cable for a long distance power delivery, called Tethered contactless mobile Nubo is introduced and validated by experiments. In this paper, the prototype development of Tethered Contactless Mobile (TeCoM) Nubo, which can be powered continuously within several km distance and avoid tangled cable, and the indoor test are finished. As further works, outdoor demonstration and a grand scale R and D proposal of practical Nubo will be proceeded

  5. Tethered Contactless Mobile Nuclear Environment Monitoring Robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. Y.; Lee, E. S.; Lee, Kun J.; Kim, Su H.; Rim, C. T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In fact, the nuclear environment monitoring is significantly crucial for early detection of NPP accident, radiological emergency, the estimation of radiation exposure to nearby residents as well as the long term radioactivity. In the UAE, the nuclear environment monitoring is, however, quite challenging because sampling locations are far from NPPs and the outdoor temperature and humidity are very high for NPP workers to collect soil, air, and water samples. Therefore, nuclear environment monitoring robots (Nubos) are strongly needed for the NPPs in the UAE. The Nubos can be remotely controlled to collect samples in extreme environment instead of NPP workers. Moreover, the Nubos can be unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned marine vehicles (UMVs) to collect soil, air, and water samples, respectively. In this paper, the prototype development of UGV type Nubos using power cable for a long distance power delivery, called Tethered contactless mobile Nubo is introduced and validated by experiments. In this paper, the prototype development of Tethered Contactless Mobile (TeCoM) Nubo, which can be powered continuously within several km distance and avoid tangled cable, and the indoor test are finished. As further works, outdoor demonstration and a grand scale R and D proposal of practical Nubo will be proceeded.

  6. Physical Properties of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) Seeds in relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical properties are very important in the design and manufacturing of processing machines. In this research work, the physical properties of Moringa were determined as design parameters for the development of an oil expeller for the crop. The properties were: length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric ...

  7. Tanned or burned: the role of fire in shaping physical seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Bruno; Pausas, Juli G

    2012-01-01

    Plant species with physical seed dormancy are common in mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Because fire breaks seed dormancy and enhances the recruitment of many species, this trait might be considered adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, to what extent the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire (i.e., for post-fire recruitment) or by summer temperatures in the bare soil (i.e., for recruitment in fire-independent gaps) remains unknown. Our hypothesis is that the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire and thus we predict higher dormancy lost in response to fire than in response to summer temperatures. We tested this hypothesis in six woody species with physical seed dormancy occurring in fire-prone areas across the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds from different populations of each species were subject to heat treatments simulating fire (i.e., a single high temperature peak of 100 °C, 120 °C or 150 °C for 5 minutes) and heat treatments simulating summer (i.e., temperature fluctuations; 30 daily cycles of 3 hours at 31 °C, 4 hours at 43 °C, 3 hours at 33 °C and 14 hours at 18 °C). Fire treatments broke dormancy and stimulated germination in all populations of all species. In contrast, summer treatments had no effect over the seed dormancy for most species and only enhanced the germination in Ulex parviflorus, although less than the fire treatments. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean species with physical dormancy, the temperature thresholds necessary to trigger seed germination are better explained as a response to fire than as a response to summer temperatures. The high level of dormancy release by the heat produced by fire might enforce most recruitment to be capitalized into a single post-fire pulse when the most favorable conditions occur. This supports the important role of fire in shaping seed traits.

  8. Tanned or burned: the role of fire in shaping physical seed dormancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moreira

    Full Text Available Plant species with physical seed dormancy are common in mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Because fire breaks seed dormancy and enhances the recruitment of many species, this trait might be considered adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, to what extent the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire (i.e., for post-fire recruitment or by summer temperatures in the bare soil (i.e., for recruitment in fire-independent gaps remains unknown. Our hypothesis is that the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire and thus we predict higher dormancy lost in response to fire than in response to summer temperatures. We tested this hypothesis in six woody species with physical seed dormancy occurring in fire-prone areas across the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds from different populations of each species were subject to heat treatments simulating fire (i.e., a single high temperature peak of 100 °C, 120 °C or 150 °C for 5 minutes and heat treatments simulating summer (i.e., temperature fluctuations; 30 daily cycles of 3 hours at 31 °C, 4 hours at 43 °C, 3 hours at 33 °C and 14 hours at 18 °C. Fire treatments broke dormancy and stimulated germination in all populations of all species. In contrast, summer treatments had no effect over the seed dormancy for most species and only enhanced the germination in Ulex parviflorus, although less than the fire treatments. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean species with physical dormancy, the temperature thresholds necessary to trigger seed germination are better explained as a response to fire than as a response to summer temperatures. The high level of dormancy release by the heat produced by fire might enforce most recruitment to be capitalized into a single post-fire pulse when the most favorable conditions occur. This supports the important role of fire in shaping seed traits.

  9. A contactless positioning system for monitoring discontinuities in three dimensions with geological and geotechnical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rinaldi-Montes, N.; Rowberry, Matthew David; Frontera, C.; Baroň, I.; Garcés, G.; Blahůt, Jan; Pérez-López, R.; Pennos, C.; Martí, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 7 (2017), č. článku 074501. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : mechanical discontinuities * contactless positioning system * magnetoresistive sensing * geotechnical engineering * structural health monitoring Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Environmental and geological engineering , geotechnics; Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016

  10. Using Contactless Scanners for Quality Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendřický Radomír

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of use of modern 3D measurement contactless methods for quality inspection in automotive industry production. The experience with measuring functional assemblies and parts of complex shapes as well as advantages of optical measurement methods are shown on practical research example, whose aim was to find effective procedures and methods of obtaining 3-dimensional high-definition models of measured components. The obtained models were then subjected to inspection of their dimensional and shape accuracy, which was performed by means of comparison with the nominal CAD model, as well as to analyses of the assembly functionality by searching or collision situations of the movable parts of this mechanism.

  11. Physical properties of seeds of African walnut ( Plukenetia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Components Analysis (PCA) results identified five physical traits ... Location × processing interaction had no remarkable effect on the proximate ... the sampled zone have adequate nutritional content to qualify as a protein-rich oilseed ...

  12. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Weiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w% was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%. Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%, whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%. The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  13. “Sticky invasion” – the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata L. seed mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kreitschitz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mucilage envelope of seeds has various functions including the provision of different ways for the dispersal of diaspores. Chemical composition and water content of the mucilage yield particular adhesive and frictional properties in the envelope that also influence the dispersal of seeds. To determine the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata seed mucilage we studied (1 composition, (2 desiccation, (3 adhesion, and (4 friction properties of the mucilage under different hydration conditions. We revealed the presence of cellulose fibrils in the mucilage, which are responsible for a continuous and even distribution of the mucilaginous layer on the seed surface. The measured values of adhesive and frictional properties differed significantly in comparison to the previously studied pectic mucilage of Linum usitatissimum. Also, the water loss from the cellulose mucilage was more rapid. The obtained different values can result from the presence of cellulose fibrils and their interaction with pectins in the mucilage. Because of this feature the mucilage of P. lanceolata may represent a more regularly ordered and stabile system than the pectic mucilage of flax, which lacks cellulose. In spite of the fact that P. lanceolata mucilage revealed different adhesive and frictional properties than the pectic mucilage, it still demonstrates an effective system promoting zoochoric seed dispersal. Cellulose may additionally prevent the mucilage against loss from the seed surface.

  14. Broiler performance fed jatropha curcas seed meal detoxified by fermentation, physic and chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds in the seed meal. The aim of this research is to evaluate feeding of jatropha seed meal detoxified using fermentation by two fungi and rumen microbes (as biological detoxification and using a combination of chemical and physical treatments on broiler performance. One hundred seventy five chicks (7 days old were used and were divided into 5 treatments in 7 replications and each replication in one cage consisted of 5 chicks. R1 was control feed (K without jatropha seed meal., 2 R2 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Neurosphora sitophila (FNS, R3 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FAS, R4 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by rumen microbes and R5 with 4% of Jatropha seed meal treated by autoclaved, refluxed by hexane and soaked in methanol (OEHM. Treated feed was given for 14 days at the end of the feeding treatment, two chickens from each replication were slaughtered and organ weights were recorded. Body weight of chicken and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The rest of the chicken was fed commercial feed for the next 7 days (recovery periode. Chicken mortality was almost 0% but 1 chicken from FAS treatment died at the recovery period. Feed consumption was lower at fermented jatropha seed meal than control (K or OEHM, resulted in lower body weight of chicken. The abdomen fat weight and organ weights especially pancreas or spleen resulted from treatment with jatropha were much lower than that of K. In the recovery period, body weight of chicken in the OEHM treatment was almost similar from that of control chicken. In conclusion, biological detoxification on BBJ was able to reduce chicken mortality but could not improve the daily gain higher than control treatment. The best method to detoxify jatropha seed meal was the combination of physical and

  15. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocloo, F.C.K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O.; Wilson, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: → We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. → Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. → Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. → Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  16. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  17. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  18. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from rubber-seed shell by physical activation with steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kang; Jiang, Jian chun

    2010-01-01

    The use of rubber-seed shell as a raw material for the production of activated carbon with physical activation was investigated. The produced activated carbons were characterized by Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, Scanning electron microscope, Thermo-gravimetric and Differential scanning calorimetric in order to understand the rubber-seed shell activated carbon. The results showed that rubber-seed shell is a good precursor for activated carbon. The optimal activation condition is: temperature 880 o C, steam flow 6 kg h -1 , residence time 60 min. Characteristics of activated carbon with a high yield (30.5%) are: specific surface area (S BET ) 948 m 2 g -1 , total volume 0.988 m 3 kg -1 , iodine number of adsorbent (q iodine ) 1.326 g g -1 , amount of methylene blue adsorption of adsorbent (q mb ) 265 mg g -1 , hardness 94.7%. It is demonstrated that rubber-seed shell is an attractive source of raw material for producing high capacity activated carbon by physical activation with steam.

  19. Contactless sub-millimeter displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    Weather effects on foldable domes, as used at the DOT and GREGOR, are investigated, in particular the correlation between the wind field and the stresses caused to both metal framework and tent clothing. Camera systems measure contactless the displacement of several dome points. The stresses follow from the measured deformation pattern. The cameras placed near the dome floor do not disturb telescope operations. In the set-ups of DOT and GREGOR, these cameras are up to 8 meters away from the measured points and must be able to detect displacements of less than 0.1 mm. The cameras have a FireWire (IEEE1394) interface to eliminate the need for frame grabbers. Each camera captures 15 images of 640 × 480 pixels per second. All data is processed on-site in real-time. In order to get the best estimate for the displacement within the constraints of available processing power, all image processing is done in Fourier-space, with all convolution operations being pre-computed once. A sub-pixel estimate of the peak of the correlation function is made. This enables to process the images of four cameras using only one commodity PC with a dual-core processor, and achieve an effective sensitivity of up to 0.01 mm. The deformation measurements are well correlated to the simultaneous wind measurements. The results are of high interest to upscaling the dome design (ELTs and solar telescopes).

  20. Physical properties of neem (Azadirachta indica seeds and kernels relevant in the design of processing machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Balami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine some physical properties of neem seeds and kernels such as axial dimensions, true density, bulk density, surface area, sphericity, moisture content, coefficient of friction, angle of repose and porosity that are relevant in the design of processing machineries. Results shows that the seeds and kernels have major, intermediate and minor diameter values of 13.641.15 mm, 6.800.41 mm and 5.540.44 mm and 9.321.13 mm, 4.320.63 mm and 3.380.35 mm respectively. The true density, bulk density, surface areas and the sphericity determined were 379.0015.16 kg/m3, 39.2930.001 kg/m3, 169.9331.15 mm2, 0.640.043 for the seed while for the kernel were 930.038.53 kg/m3, 534.8910.99 kg/m3, 70.6313.98 mm2, 0.610.044 respectively at an average moisture content of 13.80 % for the seed and 11.9 % for the kernel on wet basis. The coefficient of friction determined on three different structural surfaces namely plywood, glass and mild steel for the seeds were 0.38, 0.42 and 0.33 respectively at an angle of repose of 34.52o while that of the kernels were 0.49, 0.56 and 0.43 respectively at an angle of repose of 42.47°. The mean porosity obtained for the seed and kernel were 89.62 % and 42.47 % respectively.

  1. Etiology and pathogenicity of two different isolates of Colletotrichum spp. obtained from physic nut seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Gil Rodrigues dos; Tozze Júnior,Hugo José; Sá,Danila Alves Corrêa de; Furtado,Gleiber Quintão; Massola Júnior,Nelson Sidnei

    2013-01-01

    The species known as physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) has become important as one of main sources of feedstock for biodiesel production. The aims of this study were characterizing two different isolates of Colletotrichum spp. obtained from seeds of this species, through morphological, cultural, and molecular analyses; as well as assessing pathogenicity of both isolates on leaves and fruit of this plant species. For morphological analysis, length and width of 30 spores of each isolate, produced...

  2. Contactless measurement of muscles fatigue by tracking facial feature points in a video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    their exercises when the level of the fatigue might be dangerous for the patients. The current technology for measuring tiredness, like Electromyography (EMG), requires installing some sensors on the body. In some applications, like remote patient monitoring, this however might not be possible. To deal...... with such cases, in this paper we present a contactless method based on computer vision techniques to measure tiredness by detecting, tracking, and analyzing some facial feature points during the exercise. Experimental results on several test subjects and comparing them against ground truth data show...... that the proposed system can properly find the temporal point of tiredness of the muscles when the test subjects are doing physical exercises....

  3. Physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on physical properties and specific heat capacity of Tamarindus indica seed. Physical properties investigated were axial dimensions, one thousand seed weight, bulk and true densities, porosity, roundness and sphericity, surface area, angle of repose and static coefficient of friction. The thermal property determined was the specific heat. These properties of Tamarindus indica seed were investigated within the moisture content range of 7.55 - 10.47% (d.b. The length, width and thickness increased from 9.979 to 10.634mm, 8.909 to 10.089mm and 5.039 to 5.658mm, respectively in the above moisture range. One thousand seed weight, surface area, seed volume, true density and porosity, increased from 388.4 to 394.8g, 86.916 to 87.58cm2, 0.353 to 0.366cm3, 1217.5 to 1287.00kg/m3 and 28.22 to 33.87%, respectively, as moisture content increased in the above range, while bulk density decreased from 873.9 to 851.4kg/m3. Roundness and sphericity, and angle of repose also increased from 41 to 42.4% and 73.7 to 76.3% and 36.1 to 38.93o, respectively. Specific heat capacity values increased linearly from 589.00J/kgK to 638.61 J/kgK in the above moisture range.

  4. Composition, physical properties and drying characteristics of seed oil of Citrullus lanatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, S. A.; Rashidi, A. R.; Muhammad, A.; Abdullah, M.; Elham, O. S. J.; Mamat, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    A study to investigate the effect of different drying methods for the pre-treatment process on the quality and quantity of oil extracted from Citrulllus lanatus seeds was conducted. The red type Citrulllus lanatus seeds from local supermarket in Shah Alam is used in this experiment. The amount of seed was divided into two portions; one portion was subjected to sun drying while the other portion was subjected to oven drying (at a temperature of 70°C). After the drying process, the seeds were ground in a laboratory grinder to turn them into powder. The ground seeds then will be fed to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide unit (SC-CO2) for extraction. Once the extracted oil is obtained, it will be analysed by using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). Results indicated that the amount of the moisture content from the sun-dried was lower compared to oven-dried. The results also indicated that, there were no significant difference in the quantity of oil obtained from both samples of oven-dried and sun-dried. However, the acid value and other component content in the sample were higher in the sun-dried sample relative to the oven-dried sample. Linoleic acid is the only compound that was found in the oven-dried sample, whereas linoleic acid and oleic acid were found in the sun-dried sample. Based on the results, it shows that the drying effect were important when the quality of oil was to be considered. The other compounds like Naphtalenol, 9-17-Octadecadeinal, 2-Chloroethyl linoleate, and Carboxin also are found in the sun-dried sample. Other that that, drying method does not give any effect to the physical appearance of the extracted oil, as similar color and other physical appearance was produced by the both sample.

  5. Accurate magnetic field calculations for contactless energy transfer coils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonntag, C.L.W.; Spree, M.; Lomonova, E.A.; Duarte, J.L.; Vandenput, A.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a method for estimating the magnetic field intensity from hexagon spiral windings commonly found in contactless energy transfer applications is presented. The hexagonal structures are modeled in a magneto-static environment using Biot-Savart current stick vectors. The accuracy of the

  6. Contactless Opto-electronic Area and Their Attainable Measuring Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ricny

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems of the contactless areameasurement on the principle of video signal processing. This videosignal generates TV camera, which scans the measured object. Basicprinciple of these meters is explained and attainable measurementaccuracy and factors influencing this accuracy are analyzed.

  7. Centrifugal turbocompressor with contactless sealing for H-2 S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.; Balint, I.; Hirean, I.; Dumitrescu, C.; Pitigoi, Gh.; Balanuca, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a centrifugal turbocompressor with contactless sealing for H 2 S specially designed for the ROMAG Drobeta heavy water plant. The bench-scale experiments are described and the resulted main characteristics are given. For this equipment an asymmetric automatic anti-pumping protection system has been developed and patented

  8. Contactless grasp of a magnetic particle in a fluid and its application to quantifications of forces affecting its behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokura, S.; Hara, M.; Kawaguchi, N.; Amemiya, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the contactless grasp of a magnetic particle suspended in a fluid at rest or in motion by coil current control, and a method for estimating these forces quantitatively were developed. Four electromagnets were used to apply magnetic fields to magnetic ferrite particles (diameter, 300 nm–300 µm) in a fluid in a vessel. Particle-tracking velocimetry with high-speed image processing was used to visualize the behavior of the magnetic particles in the fluid. In addition, contactless grasp of a magnetic particle using the feedback control was accomplished. Furthermore, by making the magnetic force and the resultant force of the other forces affecting a magnetic particle be in balance, the vertical and horizontal forces affecting the minute magnetic particle, such as the viscous force or the magnetic force between magnetized particles, could be estimated quantitatively from the current in the coil of each electromagnet, without any physical contact with the particle itself. These results constitute useful information for studies on the issues in the handling of micro- or nano-particles. - Highlights: • Four electromagnets are used to apply magnetic field to magnetic ferrite particles. • Motion of magnetic particles suspended in a resting or flowing fluid is visualized. • Contactless grasp of a magnetic particle using feedback control was accomplished. • Vertical and horizontal forces affecting a particle can be estimated quantitatively. • Force between magnetized particles which approach to each other was measured

  9. Research on Efficiency of Contactless Charging System based on Electromagnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jianshu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the efficiency problem of contactless charging in type of electromagnetic induction, this paper establishes a mathematical model of contactless charging in type of electromagnetic induction and the theoretical derivation. This contactless charging simulation model is founded by Matlab/Simulink, which uses the frequency of PWM generator, the mutual inductance value of the coil and load resistance of RL to simulate some conditions, such as the working frequency in practical work, the distance of coil, whether the coils are directed at the central, and changing of loads. Then through the influence of the changing frequency, load and mutual inductance, contactless charging in type of electromagnetic induction is analyzed. By the whole simulation experiment on contactless charging, the theory deduced from the mathematical model is verified, and the method to improve inductive contactless charging is proved.

  10. Moisture-Dependent Physical Properties of Àbèèrè (Picralima nitida Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Aremu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Some relevant engineering properties of Àbèèrè (Picralima nitida seeds are needed for the design of its processing equipments. The geometric, gravimetric and frictional properties of Àbèèrè seed in the moisture content ranges of 7.98% - 47.77% (wb were investigated. The average length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameters, sphericity, surface area, volume, true and bulk densities and angles of repose increased from 28.76 – 30.75mm, 16.18 – 19.62mm, 5.75 – 7.15mm, 16.90 – 19.17mm, 13.81 – 16.11mm,0.48 – 0.53, 600.94 – 817.83mm2, 443.00 – 717.92mm3, 2.49×10-3 – 2.60×10-3g/mm3, 1.14×10-3 – 1.50×10-3g/mm3and 27.97o – 30.26o respectively as the moisture content increased from 7.98% to 47.77%. However, values for porosity decreased from 0.54 – 0.42. The static coefficient of friction of Àbèèrè increased linearly over the three material surfaces – plywood, stainless steel and glass – with increasing moisture content from 0.445 – 0.468, 0.286 – 0.384 and 0.357 – 0.389 respectively. The steel surface had the lowest static coefficient of friction whereas the plywood gave the highest value at all moisture content levels. The regression models developed for all the physical properties of the seeds had high coefficient of determination, R2.

  11. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-07-30

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1-10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air.

  12. The INCAS Project: An Innovative Contact-Less Angular Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, L.; Di Cintio, A.; Solimando, M.; Parzianello, G.

    2013-09-01

    Angular Positions sensors are widely used in all spacecrafts, including re-entry vehicles and launchers, where mechanisms and pointing-scanning devices are required. The main applications are on mechanisms for TeleMeasure (TM) related to the release and deployment of devices, or on rotary mechanisms such as Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) and Antenna Pointing Mechanism (APM). Longer lifetime (up to 7- 10 years) is becoming a new driver for the coming missions and contact technology sensors often incur in limitations due to the wear of the contacting parts [1].A Self-Compensating Absolute Angular Encoder was developed and tested in the frame of an ESA's ARTES 5.2 project, named INCAS (INnovative Contact-less Angular Sensor). More in particular, the INCAS sensor addresses a market need for contactless angular sensors aimed at replacing the more conventional rotary potentiometers, while featuring the same level of accuracy performances and extending the expected lifetime.

  13. Optical Fibres Contactless Sensor for Dynamic Testing of Lightweight Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bregant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With dynamic testing, engineers describe activities focused on the identification of some properties of vibrating structures. This step requires for the measurements of excitations and responses signals, applying appropriate sensors directly on the test article. These instruments modify the system's mass and stiffness distributions and eventually the eigen-properties of the structure. These errors become unacceptable especially when testing lightweight structures. This paper shows the results of some tests performed on a small compressor with the purpose of identifying the blades’ natural frequencies and modes. It compares the acquisitions performed with standard accelerometers and two different contact-less systems using as exciters either a micro-hammer or a micro inertial shaker. The paper shows how the contact-less sensors provide good quality data and consistent results in the mode identification phase.

  14. USING PHOTOPLETHYSMOGRAPHY IMAGING FOR OBJECTIVE CONTACTLESS PAIN ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Koeny

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an extension to the known Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI, which provides an objective estimation of the current depth of analgesia. An adequate “measure” would facilitate so-called balanced anesthesia. Generally, ANI is computed using heart rate variability or rather beat-to-beat intervals based on an electrocardiogram (ECG. There are clinical situations where no ECG monitoring is available or required, but only photoplethysmography (PPG, e.g., in some cases in postoperative care or pain therapy. In addition, a combination of PPG and ECG for obtaining beat-to-beat intervals may lead to increased robustness and reliability for dealing with artifacts. This work therefore investigates the computation of ANI using standard PPG. In addition, new methods and opportunities are presented using contactless PPG imaging (PPGI. PPGI®enables contactless PPG recordings for deriving beat-to-beat intervals as well as analysis of local perfusion and wounds.

  15. Study of Contactless Power Supply for Spindle Ultrasonic Vibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. R.; Lee, Y. L.; Liu, H. T.; Chen, S. M.; Chang, H. Z.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a contactless power supply for the ultrasonic motor on the spindle is proposed. The proposed power supply is composed of a series-parallel resonant circuit and a cylindrical contactless transformer. Based on the study and rotation experiments, it can be seen that the proposed power supply can both provide a stable ac power with 25 kHz / 70 V to the ultrasonic motor. When the output power is 250 W, the efficiency of the proposed supply is 89.8 % in respectively rotation tests. When the output power is more than 150 W, the efficiency of the proposed supply is higher than 80 % within the rated output power range.

  16. Characterization of physical and biochemical changes in plasma treated spinach seed during germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye Ji, Sang; Ki, Se Hoon; Kang, Min Ho; Choi, Jin Sung; Park, Yeunsoo; Oh, Jaesung; Kim, Seong Bong; Yoo, Suk Jae; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2018-04-01

    Despite the accumulating data on the effect of plasma on seed germination, mechanisms of plasma action need more extensive research. In a previous study, we observed that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma enhanced the germination of spinach seeds and subsequent seedling growth. As a follow-up study, we investigated the physico-chemical, biochemical, and molecular changes in seed after plasma treatment, focusing on the early germination stage, to elucidate mechanism(s) for the stimulating effects of plasma on seed germination. The primary radicle protruded from seeds exposed to high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot) slightly faster than the control seeds. The hydrophilicity of the seed surface significantly increased after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot). However, a very subtle increase in water uptake by plasma treated seeds was observed. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy analyses on chloroform extract of seed coats demonstrated no significant chemical etching on the surface of plasma treated seeds. This may be related to no dramatic increase in water absorption by seeds. The level of GA hormone and starch hydrolysis inside the plasma treated seeds was significantly elevated within 24 h. Taken together, our results suggest that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma may not only enhance hydrophilicity of the seed surface but also stimulate biochemical and molecular processes inside seed, leading to enhanced embryonic development.

  17. Accurate magnetic field calculations for contactless energy transfer coils

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag, C.L.W.; Spree, M.; Lomonova, E.A.; Duarte, J.L.; Vandenput, A.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a method for estimating the magnetic field intensity from hexagon spiral windings commonly found in contactless energy transfer applications is presented. The hexagonal structures are modeled in a magneto-static environment using Biot-Savart current stick vectors. The accuracy of the models are evaluated by mapping the current sticks and the hexagon spiral winding tracks to a local twodimensional plane, and comparing their two-dimensional magnetic field intensities. The accurac...

  18. Effect of cooking time on the physical, chemical and thermal properties of acha seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem O. Raji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acha is a less utilized cereal grain in Africa. Scaling up of the processing technology of acha seeds is desirable if accurate information on effect of processing on its properties is available. This study investigated the effect of cooking duration on the chemical and physical properties of acha seeds. Cooking times (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 minutes at 100oC were used. The volume, length, breadth, thickness, porosity, density, sphericity, aspect ratio, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate were determined using standard methods. Data were analysed using ANOVA at p = 0.05. The results obtained revealed that varietal difference had a significant effect on volume, length, breadth, thickness, true density, bulk density, porosity, sphericity and aspect ratio. The moisture content, ash, protein, crude fibre, fat, carbohydrate, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity varied from 8.80 - 56.17 %, 0.32 - 1.87%, 1.92 - 11.50%, 0.29 - 1.58%, 0.32 - 2.81%, 40.94 - 76.26%, 1.66 -2.97 kJkg-1K-1, 0.26 -0.43 Wm-1K-1 and 0.85 x 10-7 - 1.17 x 10-7 ms-2 respectively, as significantly influenced by cooking time. Cooking for 7.5 minutes was appropriate using the moisture uptakes and thermal properties as criteria. 

  19. Contactless Mechanical Components: Gears, Torque Limiters and Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Perez-Diaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contactless mechanical components are mechanical sets for conversion of torque/speed, whose gears and moving parts do not touch each other, but rather they provide movement with magnets and magnetic materials that exert force from a certain distance. Magneto-mechanical transmission devices have several advantages over conventional mechanisms: no friction between rotatory elements (no power losses or heat generation by friction so increase of efficiency, no lubrication is needed (oil-free mechanisms and no lubrication auxiliary systems, reduced maintenance (no lubricant so no need of oil replacements, wider operational temperature ranges (no lubricant evaporation or freezing, overload protection (if overload occurs magnet simply slides but no teeth brake, through-wall connection (decoupling of thermal and electrical paths and environmental isolation, larger operative speeds (more efficient operative conditions, ultralow noise and vibrations (no contact no noise generation. All these advantages permit us to foresee in the long term several common industrial applications in which including contactless technology would mean a significant breakthrough for their performance. In this work, we present three configurations of contactless mechanical passive components: magnetic gears, magnetic torque limiters and superconducting magnetic bearings. We summarize the main characteristic and range of applications for each type; we show experimental results of the most recent developments showing their performance.

  20. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Mark M C; Le, Khai Q; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule–silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the 'Internet of Nano-Things'.

  1. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-09-25

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule–silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the \\'Internet of Nano-Things\\'.

  2. Nanoantenna harmonic sensor: theoretical analysis of contactless detection of molecules with light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Cheng, Mark M C; Chen, Pai-Yen; Le, Khai Q

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear harmonic sensor is a popular wireless sensor and radiofrequency identification (RFID) technique, which allows high-performance sensing in a severe interference/clutter background by transmitting a radio wave and detecting its modulated higher-order harmonics. Here we introduce the concept and design of optical harmonic tags based on nonlinear nanoantennas that can contactlessly detect electronic (e.g. electron affinity) and optical (e.g. relative permittivity) characteristics of molecules. By using a dual-resonance gold-molecule–silver nanodipole antenna within the quantum mechanical realm, the spectral form of the second-harmonic scattering can sensitively reveal the physical properties of molecules, paving a new route towards optical molecular sensors and optical identification (OPID) of biological, genetic, and medical events for the ‘Internet of Nano-Things’. (paper)

  3. Contactless Spectral-dependent Charge Carrier Lifetime Measurements in Silicon Photovoltaic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, John; Hamadani, Behrang; Dagenais, Mario

    Charge carrier lifetime measurements in bulk or unfinished photovoltaic (PV) materials allow for a more accurate estimate of power conversion efficiency in completed solar cells. In this work, carrier lifetimes in PV-grade silicon wafers are obtained by way of quasi-steady state photoconductance measurements. These measurements use a contactless RF system coupled with varying narrow spectrum input LEDs, ranging in wavelength from 460 nm to 1030 nm. Spectral dependent lifetime measurements allow for determination of bulk and surface properties of the material, including the intrinsic bulk lifetime and the surface recombination velocity. The effective lifetimes are fit to an analytical physics-based model to determine the desired parameters. Passivated and non-passivated samples are both studied and are shown to have good agreement with the theoretical model.

  4. Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-02-15

    The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contactless conductivity detection for analytical techniques — Developments from 2014 to 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Hauser, P.C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2017), s. 95-114 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection * capillary electrophoresis * contactless conductivity detection * analytical techniques * review Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  6. Determinants affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit card: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Min

    2008-12-01

    The contactless credit card is one of the most promising technological innovations in the field of electronic payments. It provides consumers with greater control of payments, convenience, and transaction speed. However, contactless credit cards have yet to gain significant rates of adoption in the marketplace. Thus, effort must be made to identify factors affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Based on the technology acceptance model, innovation diffusion theory, and the relevant literature, seven variables (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, perceived risk, trust, consumer involvement, availability of infrastructure) are proposed to help predict consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Data collected from 312 respondents in Taiwan is tested against the proposed prediction model using the logistic regression approach. The results and implications of our study contribute to an expanded understanding of the factors that affect consumer adoption of contactless credit cards.

  7. physical, chemical, technological and biological properties of some mutant oil seeds induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to evaluated sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds induced by gamma rays, as plant breeding unit, plant research department, radioisotope application division, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority Inshas. the obtained results indicate the following : chemical composition of mutant seeds: the radiation mutation caused a significant increase in both oil and ash content total carbohydrates showed a significant decreased in sesame seeds. radiation mutation induced significant increase in oil and protein content of sunflower and safflower seeds. while the total carbohydrate showed a significant decrease. physiochemical properties of oils extracted mutant seeds: the radiation mutation had no real effect on the refractive index and A.V of oils extracted from control and mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds. while it caused a slight increase in red color and P.V. of sesame oil, the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of mutant sesame oil was not alter upon radiation mutation, but it induced a slight decrease in TBA of mutant sunflower and safflower oils. the unsaponifiable matter percentage of oils extracted from mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds were slightly increased by radiation mutation .radiation mutation of seeds had no real effect on the total SFA and USFA of sesame oil. however, radiation mutation induced a remarkable changes in fatty acid profiles of sunflower and safflower oil as total SFA decreased, while USFA increased. Uric acid was only detected in oil extracted from mutant sunflower seeds

  8. An evaluation of physical and mechanical scarification methods on seed germination of Vachellia macracantha (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Seigler & Ebinger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maldonado-Arciniegas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry Andean forests are ecosystems with a high diversity of flora and fauna and are at high risk of extinction due to the pressure of human activity. V. macracantha is a native species of the dry Andean forest, which has potential for reforestation and also provides benefits in agroforestry systems, due to its nitrogen fixation capacity, the supply of organic matter, the production of shade and wind protection. The multiplication of this species is limited due to the low percentage of seed germination, which present dormancy. The aim of this research was to determine the most effective scarification method for seeds germination of V. macracantha. Two types of methods were tested, the immersion in strong acids (chemical scarification, and the seed bark through filing, cutting and soaking into hot water (physical scarification. A completely randomized block design with 3 replicates was used. For the chemical methods, sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acid (50% v/v were used at different exposure times: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes, respectively. Three variables were measured as follows: percentage of germination, the number of leaves and the plant height. The chemical methods did not present any significant difference in the percentage of germination. The physical method of seed filing, had achieved the highest percentage of germination with 46%, compared to control treatment, which had achieved 6%. No treatment performed significant differences in the parameters of number of leaves and plant height.

  9. The biometric recognition on contactless multi-spectrum finger images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenxiong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wu, Qiuxia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric system based on contactless multi-spectrum finger images, which aims to deal with the limitations of unimodal biometrics. The chief merits of the system are the richness of the permissible texture and the ease of data access. We constructed a multi-spectrum instrument to simultaneously acquire three different types of biometrics from a finger: contactless fingerprint, finger vein, and knuckleprint. On the basis of the samples with these characteristics, a moderate database was built for the evaluation of our system. Considering the real-time requirements and the respective characteristics of the three biometrics, the block local binary patterns algorithm was used to extract features and match for the fingerprints and finger veins, while the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF algorithm was applied for knuckleprints. Finally, score-level fusion was performed on the matching results from the aforementioned three types of biometrics. The experiments showed that our proposed multimodal biometric recognition system achieves an equal error rate of 0.109%, which is 88.9%, 94.6%, and 89.7% lower than the individual fingerprint, knuckleprint, and finger vein recognitions, respectively. Nevertheless, our proposed system also satisfies the real-time requirements of the applications.

  10. Express method for contactless measurement of parameters of thermoelectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method for contactless express measurement of parameters of thermoelectric materials. The presence of a combination of AC and DC magnetic fields in the gap of the oscillating circuit, where the monitored sample of the thermoelectric material is located, leads — due to Ampere force — to delamination of geometric regions of the occurrence of half-cycles of Foucault current. This in turn causes the appearance of additional heat losses in the oscillating circuit caused by Peltier effect. Computer modeling of these processes with the use of the software package ComsolFenlab 3.3 allowed determining the nature and magnitude of the electric currents in oscillating circuit, the range of operating frequencies, and the ratio of amplitudes of the variable and fixed components of the magnetic field. These components eventually cause a certain temperature difference along the controlled sample, which difference is proportional to the thermoelectric figure of merit Z of the material. The basic expressions are obtained for determining the value of the Seebeck coefficient a, thermal conductivity ?, electrical conductivity ? and thermoelectric figure of merit Z. A description is given to the design of the device for contactless express measurement of parameters of thermoelectric materials based on Bi—Te—Se—Sb solid solutions. Its distinctive feature is the ability to determine the symmetric and asymmetric components of the electric conductivity of the material values. The actual error in parameter measurement in this case is 2%.

  11. Contactless, photoinitiated snap-through in azobenzene-functionalized polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, M Ravi; Smith, Matthew L; Tondiglia, Vincent P; Lee, Kyung Min; McConney, Michael E; Wang, David H; Tan, Loon-Seng; White, Timothy J

    2013-11-19

    Photomechanical effects in polymeric materials and composites transduce light into mechanical work. The ability to control the intensity, polarization, placement, and duration of light irradiation is a distinctive and potentially useful tool to tailor the location, magnitude, and directionality of photogenerated mechanical work. Unfortunately, the work generated from photoresponsive materials is often slow and yields very small power densities, which diminish their potential use in applications. Here, we investigate photoinitiated snap-through in bistable arches formed from samples composed of azobenzene-functionalized polymers (both amorphous polyimides and liquid crystal polymer networks) and report orders-of-magnitude enhancement in actuation rates (approaching 10(2) mm/s) and powers (as much as 1 kW/m(3)). The contactless, ultra-fast actuation is observed at irradiation intensities focusing on isolating the role of sample geometry, mechanical properties of the materials, and photomechanical strain. Using light to trigger contactless, ultrafast actuation in an otherwise passive structure is a potentially versatile tool to use in mechanical design at the micro-, meso-, and millimeter scales as actuators, as well as switches that can be triggered from large standoff distances, impulse generators for microvehicles, microfluidic valves and mixers in laboratory-on-chip devices, and adaptive optical elements.

  12. Contactless Diagnostics of Turbine Blade Vibration and Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Pavel; Vanek, Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    The study deals with the contactless diagnostic method used for the identification of steam turbine blade strain, vibration and damage. The tip-timing method based on the evaluation of time differences of blade passages in different rotor revolutions has been modified and improved to provide more precise and reliable results. A new approach to the analysis of the amplitude and time differences of impulse signals generated by a blade passage has been applied. Amplitudes and frequencies of vibrations and static position of blades ascertained by the diagnostic process are used to establish the state of blade damage. A contactless diagnostic system VDS-UT based on magneto-resistive sensors was developed in the Institute of Thermomechanics Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The system provides on-line monitoring of vibration amplitudes and frequencies of all blades and notification of possible blade damage. Evaluation of the axial and circumferential components of the deflections by measuring the amplitude of blade impulse signals results in an overall improvement of the method. Using magneto-resistive sensors, blade elongation and untwisting can be determined as well.

  13. Yellow passion fruit seed oil (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa: physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Roberta Malacrida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition -physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol compositions and total phenolic compounds -and evaluate the radical-scavenging activity of crude oil extracted from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa seeds, aiming to use the agro-industrial by-products. The oil seed extraction was performed by Soxhlet method and the oil yield from the seeds was 30.39%. The oil showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (87.59%, including mainly linoleic (73.14% and oleic (13.83% acids, tocopherol (499.30 mg/kg and phenolic compounds (1,314.13 mg GAE/kg. The physico-chemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oil showed significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, the potential utilization of the passion fruit seed oil as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries could be favorable.

  14. Investment in seed physical defence is associated with species' light requirement for regeneration and seed persistence: evidence from Macaranga species in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life stage from seed dispersal to seedling emergence is often critical in determining the regeneration success of plants. During this period seeds must survive an array of seed predators and pathogens and germinate under conditions favorable for seedling establishment. To maximise recruitment s...

  15. Evolution of thermo-physical properties of Akuama (picralima nitida) seed and antioxidants retention capacity during hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwu, M. C.; Bennamoun, L.; Anozie, O.

    2018-05-01

    Interest in picralima nitida is growing over the years because of its therapeutic application in human and animal medicine. In many countries the dried seed is compounded and sold as drugs but there is limited information on the process variables associated with its thermal processing. The study therefore, is focused on the evolution of physical properties, heat and mass transfer coefficient, specific heat capacity, energy utilization and quality characteristics of the seed during oven and microwave drying. The goal is to generate data using theoretical and empirical steps for process model development that can be applied in dryer design. The results obtained showed that the coefficient of heat and mass transfer varied from 0.0421-1.326 W/m2 K and 1.49 × 10-7 - 8.47 × 10-6 m/s respectively while the specific heat capacity ranged between 1189 and 2531 J/ kg K. The volume of the seed shrank gradually with a non-linear exponential shape for all drying treatments. The intrinsic particle and bulk densities decreased while the porosity of the seed increased with drying period, indicating an increase in internal voids of the seeds. The energy and specific energy utilized for drying peaked after 14 h, 12 h and 7 h of continuous drying at 50, 60 and 70 °C for oven drying treatment. Effective moisture diffusivities for all treatments ranged from 5.37 × 10-10 - 1.45 × 10-7 m/s2 with activation energy of 27.82 kJ/mol and 20 W/g for oven and microwave respectively. Flavonoide was the least stable at high temperature among the screend compound.

  16. Influence of Pollen, Chia Seeds and Cranberries Addition on the Physical and Probiotics Characteristics of Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The effect of bee pollen, chia seeds and cranberries on the viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days at refrigerated temperature (4°C was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 1,4 % chia seeds and 7,6% cranberries significantly improves the stability of the lactic acid bacteria, that contained the recommended levels of (106–107 cfu/g probiotic bacteria at the end of 21-day shelf life.

  17. THEORY OF MUM FOR METAL SPHERICAL ROTOR WITH CONTACTLESS SUSPENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xiaoxia; Gao Zhongyu; Wang Yongliang

    2004-01-01

    Based on the motion equations of an unbalanced spherical rotor with contactless suspension,three methods of MUM (mass unbalance measurement) are put forward to measure the total mass unbalance,radical mass unbalance and radical mass unbalance of the rotor.Total mass unbalance is obtained when the unbalanced rotor plays as a simple pendulum in static situation.The pendulant period and pendulant midpoint indicate magnitude and direction of total mass unbalance of the rotor respectively.Analysis of the motion equations by using the averaging method yields that the rotor will do a special side oscillation when an auxiliary system makes the rotor spin about its pole axis which is orientating toward the local vertical.The radical mass unbalance can be obtained by building a proper displacement sensor to sense the amplitude of the side oscillation.Necessary analysis of the motion equations also shows that when the rotor spins at a small angular velocity and the rotary axis is perpendicular to the vertical,the pole axis of the rotor will precess slowly about the vertical by virtue of the axial mass unbalance.The axial mass unbalance can be estimated from the time history of the spin vector of the rotor.Finally,measurement precision of the three methods is compared and how the external torque affects the measurement precision for the three methods are examined.

  18. Physical characterization of Rhipsalis (Cactaceae fruits and seeds germination in different temperatures and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lone

    Full Text Available Abstract The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

  19. Physical characterization of Rhipsalis (Cactaceae) fruits and seeds germination in different temperatures and light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, A B; Colombo, R C; Andrade, B L G; Takahashi, L S A; Faria, R T

    2016-06-01

    The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

  20. Contactless vector network analysis using diversity calibration with capacitive and inductive coupled probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zelder

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Contactless vector network analysis based on a diversity calibration is investigated for the measurement of embedded devices in planar circuits. Conventional contactless measurement systems based on two probes for each measurement port have the disadvantage that the signal-to-noise system dynamics strongly depends on the distance between the contactless probes.

    In order to avoid a decrease in system dynamics a diversity based measurement system is presented. The measurement setup uses one inductive and two capacitive probes. As an inductive probe a half magnetic loop in combination with a broadband balun is introduced. In order to eliminate systematic errors from the measurement results a diversity calibration algorithm is presented. Simulation and measurement results for a one-port configuration are shown.

  1. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONTACTLESS ELECTROMAGNETIC MEASUREMENT OF HUMIDITY IN PEDOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor BURLAN-ROTAR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To put into practice the conventional determination of resistivity by the galvanic method, requires a relatively large amount of labor and is, therefore, expensive. At the basis of any interpretation are the lateral or vertical variations of re sistivity. The high cost of resistivity maps execution generally means that fewer measurements are made than desirable, with the result that, either (i the explored area is not large enough to establish a reasonable background, against which the anomaly areas are to be delineated, or (ii the anomaly areas are obscure and lack definition. The application of electromagnetic techniques (EM for measuring soil resistivity or conductivity has been known for a long time. Conductivity is preferable in inductive techniques, as instrumentation readings are generally directly proportional to conductivity and inversely proportional to resistivity. The operating principle of this method is: a Tx coil transmitter, supplied with alternating current at an audio frequency, is placed on the ground. An Rx coil receiver is located at a short distance, s, away from the Tx coil. The magnetic field varies in time and the Tx coil induces very small currents in the ground. These currents generate a secondary magnetic field, Hs, which is sensed by the Rx receiver coil, together with primary magnetic field Hp. The ratio of the secondary field, Hs, to the primary magnetic field, Hp, (Hs/Hp is directly proportional to terrain conductivity. Measuring this ratio, it is possible to construct a device which measures the terrain conductivity by contactless, direct-reading electromagnetic technique. (linear meter. This latest technique for measuring conductivity by electromagnetic induction, using Very Low Frequency (VLF, is a non-invasive, non-destructive sampling method. The measurements can be done quickly and are not expensive. The Electromagnetic induction technology was originally developed for the mining industry, and has been used

  4. Study of the determination of inorganic arsenic species by CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nguyen, H. T. A.; Kubáň, Pavel; Pham, V. H.; Hauser, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 19 (2007), s. 3500-3506 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * arsenic speciation * contactless conductivity detection Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2007

  5. New possibilities of complex "Thermodyn" application for contactless remote diagnostics in medical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, M. Ye.; Shayko-Shaykovskiy, O. G.; Makhrova, Ye. G.; Kramar, V. M.; Oleksuik, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    We represent here the theoretical justifications, block scheme and experimental sample of a new automated complex "Thermodyn" for remote contactless diagnostics of inflammatory processes of the surfaces and in subcutaneous areas of human body. Also we described here the methods and results of diagnostic measurements, and results of practical applications of this complex.

  6. Fast Lamb wave energy shift approach using fully contactless ultrasonic system to characterize concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Suyun; Popovics, John S.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasonic techniques provide an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method to monitor concrete structures, but the need to perform rapid and accurate structural assessment requires evaluation of hundreds, or even thousands, of measurement datasets. Use of a fully contactless ultrasonic system can save time and labor through rapid implementation, and can enable automated and controlled data acquisition, for example through robotic scanning. Here we present results using a fully contactless ultrasonic system. This paper describes our efforts to develop a contactless ultrasonic guided wave NDE approach to detect and characterize delamination defects in concrete structures. The developed contactless sensors, controlled scanning system, and employed Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) signal processing scheme are reviewed. Then a guided wave interpretation approach for MASW data is described. The presence of delamination is interpreted by guided plate wave (Lamb wave) behavior, where a shift in excited Lamb mode phase velocity, is monitored. Numerically simulated and experimental ultrasonic data collected from a concrete sample with simulated delamination defects are presented, where the occurrence of delamination is shown to be associated with a mode shift in Lamb wave energy.

  7. Design and implementation of a contactless multiple hand feature acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiushi; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhang, David

    2012-06-01

    In this work, an integrated contactless multiple hand feature acquisition system is designed. The system can capture palmprint, palm vein, and palm dorsal vein images simultaneously. Moreover, the images are captured in a contactless manner, that is, users need not to touch any part of the device when capturing. Palmprint is imaged under visible illumination while palm vein and palm dorsal vein are imaged under near infrared (NIR) illumination. The capturing is controlled by computer and the whole process is less than 1 second, which is sufficient for online biometric systems. Based on this device, this paper also implements a contactless hand-based multimodal biometric system. Palmprint, palm vein, palm dorsal vein, finger vein, and hand geometry features are extracted from the captured images. After similarity measure, the matching scores are fused using weighted sum fusion rule. Experimental results show that although the verification accuracy of each uni-modality is not as high as that of state-of-the-art, the fusion result is superior to most of the existing hand-based biometric systems. This result indicates that the proposed device is competent in the application of contactless multimodal hand-based biometrics.

  8. 20th anniversary of axial capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection in capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Hauser, P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 102, MAY (2018), s. 311-321 ISSN 0165-9936 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : contactless conductivity detection * analytical techniques * review Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 8.442, year: 2016

  9. 20th anniversary of axial capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection in capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Hauser, P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 102, MAY (2018), s. 311-321 ISSN 0165-9936 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : contactless conductivity detection * analytical techniques * review Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 8.442, year: 2016

  10. Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: a first step toward "spO2 camera" technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.P.; Mastik, F.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2005-01-01

    We describe a route toward contactless imaging of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) distribution within tissue, based upon detection of a two-dimensional matrix of spatially resolved optical plethysmographic signals at different wavelengths. As a first step toward SpO 2-imaging we built a monochrome

  11. Machine-assisted verification of latent fingerprints: first results for nondestructive contact-less optical acquisition techniques with a CWL sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Krapyvskyy, Dmytro; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-11-01

    A machine-assisted analysis of traces from crime scenes might be possible with the advent of new high-resolution non-destructive contact-less acquisition techniques for latent fingerprints. This requires reliable techniques for the automatic extraction of fingerprint features from latent and exemplar fingerprints for matching purposes using pattern recognition approaches. Therefore, we evaluate the NIST Biometric Image Software for the feature extraction and verification of contact-lessly acquired latent fingerprints to determine potential error rates. Our exemplary test setup includes 30 latent fingerprints from 5 people in two test sets that are acquired from different surfaces using a chromatic white light sensor. The first test set includes 20 fingerprints on two different surfaces. It is used to determine the feature extraction performance. The second test set includes one latent fingerprint on 10 different surfaces and an exemplar fingerprint to determine the verification performance. This utilized sensing technique does not require a physical or chemical visibility enhancement of the fingerprint residue, thus the original trace remains unaltered for further investigations. No particular feature extraction and verification techniques have been applied to such data, yet. Hence, we see the need for appropriate algorithms that are suitable to support forensic investigations.

  12. Improving the physical and moisture barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum biodegradable film with stearic and palmitic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Stearic and palmitic fatty acids (10%, 20% and 30%, W/W gum) were used to improve the barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) film. The impact of the incorporation of fatty acids into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the films. Addition of stearic and palmitic fatty acids to LPSG films reduced their water vapor permeability (WVP), moisture content, water solubility and water adsorption. Increasing fatty acid concentration from 10% to 30%, reduced the elongation at break (EB). Lower values of tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained in the presence of higher fatty acids concentrations. Incorporation of fatty acids led to production of opaque films and the opacity increased as function of fatty acids concentration. Results showed that moisture content, water solubility and WVP decreased as the chain length of fatty acid increased. Therefore, LPSG-fatty acids composite film could be used for packaging in which a low affinity toward water is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL STABILITY PROPERTIES OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL NANOEMULSION DOSAGE FORMS WITH LONG-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE AND MEDIUM-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE AS THE OIL PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartanti Yuliani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate seed oil has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemo preventive activities. Pomegranate seed oil is lipophilic substance suitable to be prepared in emulsion dosage forms. Long-chain triglyceride (LCT and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT are commonly used as oil phase in emulsion dosage forms. This research aimed to compare the use of LCT and MCT in the Nano emulsion formula of pomegranate seed oil dosage forms. Formulation of pomegranate seed oil Nano emulsion was conducted using high energy emulsification. Parameters observed were pH, Nano emulsion type, percent transmittance, viscosity, turbidity, and droplet size before and after 3 cycles of freeze-thaw. The result showed that there was no significant difference between physical properties of pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with LCT as oil phase and pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with MCT as oil phase. Moreover, physical stability of pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with LCT as oil phase was better than pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with MCT as oil phase.

  14. Design of Contactlessly Powered and Piezoelectrically Actuated Tools for Non-Resonant Vibration Assisted Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Silge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a novel design approach for vibration assisted machining (VAM. A lot of research has already been done regarding the influence of superimposed vibrations during a milling process, but there is almost no information about how to design a VAM tool where the tool is actually rotating. The proposed system consists of a piezoelectric actuator for vibration excitation, an inductive contactless energy transfer system and an electronic circuit for powering the actuated tool. The main benefit of transferring the required power without mechanical contact is that the maximum spindle speed is no longer restricted by friction of slip rings. A detailed model is shown that enables for preliminary estimation of the system’s response to different excitation signals. Experimental data are provided to validate the model. Finally, some parts are shown that have been manufactured using the contactlessly actuated milling tool.

  15. Proposal of an innovative benchmark for comparison of the performance of contactless digitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuliano, Luca; Minetola, Paolo; Salmi, Alessandro

    2010-10-01

    Thanks to the improving performances of 3D optical scanners, in terms of accuracy and repeatability, reverse engineering applications have extended from CAD model design or reconstruction to quality control. Today, contactless digitizing devices constitute a good alternative to coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) for the inspection of certain parts. The German guideline VDI/VDE 2634 is the only reference to evaluate whether 3D optical measuring systems comply with the declared or required performance specifications. Nevertheless it is difficult to compare the performance of different scanners referring to such a guideline. An adequate novel benchmark is proposed in this paper: focusing on the inspection of production tools (moulds), the innovative test piece was designed using common geometries and free-form surfaces. The reference part is intended to be employed for the evaluation of the performance of several contactless digitizing devices in computer-aided inspection, considering dimensional and geometrical tolerances as well as other quantitative and qualitative criteria.

  16. Proposal of an innovative benchmark for comparison of the performance of contactless digitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuliano, Luca; Minetola, Paolo; Salmi, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to the improving performances of 3D optical scanners, in terms of accuracy and repeatability, reverse engineering applications have extended from CAD model design or reconstruction to quality control. Today, contactless digitizing devices constitute a good alternative to coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) for the inspection of certain parts. The German guideline VDI/VDE 2634 is the only reference to evaluate whether 3D optical measuring systems comply with the declared or required performance specifications. Nevertheless it is difficult to compare the performance of different scanners referring to such a guideline. An adequate novel benchmark is proposed in this paper: focusing on the inspection of production tools (moulds), the innovative test piece was designed using common geometries and free-form surfaces. The reference part is intended to be employed for the evaluation of the performance of several contactless digitizing devices in computer-aided inspection, considering dimensional and geometrical tolerances as well as other quantitative and qualitative criteria

  17. Contactless Investigations of Yeast Cell Cultivation in the 7 GHz and 240 GHz Ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessel, J; Schmalz, K; Meliani, C; Gastrock, G; Cahill, B P

    2013-01-01

    Using a microfluidic system based on PTFE tubes, experimental results of contactless and label-free characterization techniques of yeast cell cultivation are presented. The PTFE tube has an inner diameter of 0.5 mm resulting in a sample volume of 2 μ1 for 1 cm sample length. Two approaches (at frequencies around 7 GHz and 240 GHz) are presented and compared in terms of sensitivity and applicability. These frequency bands are particularly interesting to gain information on the permittivity of yeast cells in Glucose solution. Measurements from 240 GHz to 300 GHz were conducted with a continuous wave spectrometer from Toptica. At 7 GHz band, measurements have been performed using a rat-race based characterizing system realized on a printed circuit board. The conducted experiments demonstrate that by selecting the phase as characterization parameter, the presented contactless and label-free techniques are suitable for cell cultivation monitoring in a PTFE pipe based microfluidic system.

  18. Morphing Surfaces Enable Acoustophoretic Contactless Transport of Ultrahigh-Density Matter in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Sambatakakis, Giorgio; Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-01

    The controlled contactless transport of heavy drops and particles in air is of fundamental interest and has significant application potential. Acoustic forces do not rely on special material properties, but their utility in transporting heavy matter in air has been restricted by low power and poor controllability. Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple) on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis. PMID:24212104

  19. Analysis of arecoline in Semen Arecae decoction pieces by microchip capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-You Cai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the determination of arecoline in Semen Arecae decoction pieces by microchip capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection (MCE-CCD was proposed. The effects of various electrophoretic operating parameters on the analysis of arecoline were studied. Under the optimal conditions, arecoline was rapidly separated and detected in 1 min with good linearity over the concentration range of 20–1500 μM (r2=0.9991 and the detection limit of 5 μM (S/N=3. The method was used for the analysis of arecoline satisfactorily with a recovery of 96.8–104%. Keywords: Microchip capillary electrophoresis, Contactless conductivity detection, Arecoline, Semen Arecae

  20. Hydrodynamics during melting of an electroconductive sample in microgravity conditions under contactless positioning by electromagnetic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, V. M.

    MHD-flow during melting of a spherical metal sample under contactless positioning by alternating magnetic field produced by two circular turns with currents, is investigated. It is shown that when the currents supplying the turns are opposite in direction, electromagnetic forces, originating from the interaction of the Foucault currents with alternating magnetic field, induce two torus-like eddies in the interior of the molten metal drop.

  1. Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in clinical samples using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gong, X.Y.; Kubáň, Pavel; Scholer, A.; Hauser, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1213, 1-2 (2008), s. 100-104 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310609; GA AV ČR IAA400310703; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : clinical samples * capillary electrophoresis * contactless conductivity detection Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.756, year: 2008

  2. Online Behavior and Loyalty Program Participation-parameters Influencing the Acceptance of Contactless Payment Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Fiedler; Ali Öztüren

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the central perceptions of consumers influencing the decision to use contactless payment instruments. Aim is to define a customer core group narrowed down by several variables and to find a basis for a purposeful communication of advantages of the new payment process, as investment into this technology bears the risk of total loss if the customer group is declining acceptance and the image of a company might be excessively damaged. External variables in context with the us...

  3. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens on seed germination and survival of seedling in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Dry and healthy seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Co-2 were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR. The percentage of seed germination was directly proportional to the dose given. The survival percentage decreased with higher doses. Concentration of EMS and NMU applied, ranged from 10 mM to 50 mM and 1 mM to 5 mM, respectively. The duration of soaking of seed was 4 hours in distilled water and 4 hours in mutagenic agents. In treated seeds, the percentage of germination and survival of seedlings decreased with an increase in concentration of these chemical mutagens. These observations are discussed in detail. (author). 11 refs

  4. Palmprint and Palmvein Recognition Based on DCNN and A New Large-Scale Contactless Palmvein Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the members of biometric identifiers, the palmprint and the palmvein have received significant attention due to their stability, uniqueness, and non-intrusiveness. In this paper, we investigate the problem of palmprint/palmvein recognition and propose a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN based scheme, namely P a l m R CNN (short for palmprint/palmvein recognition using CNNs. The effectiveness and efficiency of P a l m R CNN have been verified through extensive experiments conducted on benchmark datasets. In addition, though substantial effort has been devoted to palmvein recognition, it is still quite difficult for the researchers to know the potential discriminating capability of the contactless palmvein. One of the root reasons is that a large-scale and publicly available dataset comprising high-quality, contactless palmvein images is still lacking. To this end, a user-friendly acquisition device for collecting high quality contactless palmvein images is at first designed and developed in this work. Then, a large-scale palmvein image dataset is established, comprising 12,000 images acquired from 600 different palms in two separate collection sessions. The collected dataset now is publicly available.

  5. Investigation of contactless detection using a giant magnetoresistance sensor for detecting prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuecheng; Zhi, Shaotao; Lei, Chong; Zhou, Yong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a contactless detection method for detecting prostate specific antigen with a giant magnetoresistance sensor. In contactless detection case, the prostate specific antigen sample preparation was separated from the sensor that prevented the sensor from being immersed in chemical solvents, and made the sensor implementing in immediately reuse without wash. Experimental results showed that applied an external magnetic field in a range of 50 Oe to 90 Oe, Dynabeads with a concentration as low as 0.1 μg/mL can be detected by this system and could give an approximate quantitation to the logarithmic of Dynabeads concentration. Sandwich immunoassay was employed for preparing PSA samples. The PSA capture was implemented on a gold film modified with a self-assembled monolayer and using biotinylated secondary antibody against PSA and streptavidinylated Dynabeads. With DC magnetic field in the range of 50 to 90 Oe, PSA can be detected with a detection limit as low as 0.1 ng/mL. Samples spiked with different concentrations of PSA can be distinguished clearly. Due to the contactless detection method, the detection system exhibited advantages such as convenient manipulation, reusable, inexpensive, small weight. So, this detection method was a promising candidate in biomarker detection, especially in point of care detection.

  6. Rapeseed and Raspberry Seed Cakes as Inexpensive Raw Materials in the Production of Activated Carbon by Physical Activation: Effect of Activation Conditions on Textural and Phenol Adsorption Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Smets

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of activated carbons (ACs from rapeseed cake and raspberry seed cake using slow pyrolysis followed by physical activation of the obtained solid residues is the topic of this study. The effect of activation temperature (850, 900 and 950 °C, activation time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min and agent (steam and CO2 on the textural characteristics of the ACs is investigated by N2 adsorption. In general, higher activation temperatures and longer activation times increase the BET specific surface area and the porosity of the ACs, regardless of the activation agent or raw material. Steam is more reactive than CO2 in terms of pore development, especially in the case of raspberry seed cake. The performance of the ACs in liquid adsorption is evaluated by batch phenol adsorption tests. Experimental data are best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. Based on total yield, textural characteristics and phenol adsorption, steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min and CO2 activation at 900 °C for 120 min are found as the best activation conditions. Raspberry seed cake turns out to be a better raw material than rapeseed cake. Moreover, AC from raspberry seed cake produced by steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min performs as well as commercial AC (Norit GAC 1240 in phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetics of the selected ACs are best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model.

  7. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  8. Influence of Extrusion Cooking on In Vitro Digestibility, Physical and Sensory Properties of Brazilian Pine Seeds Flour (Araucaria Angustifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff Zortéa-Guidolin, Manoela Estefânea; Piler de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei; Bueno de Godoy, Rossana Catie; Mottin Demiate, Ivo; Paula Scheer, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Brazilian pine seeds (pinhão) are gluten-free products derived from Araucaria angustifolia. The commercialization of these seeds is essentially associated with a low level of industrialization. In this context, extrusion cooking is a potential alternative for preparing extrudates of pinhão as a food product, which can be easily digested and is ready for human consumption. Brazilian pine seeds flour was processed in a single-screw extruder following a central composite rotatable design. Three factors (independent parameters) were considered: moisture content (14 to 22 g/100 g), screw speed (100 to 250 rpm), and temperature in the 3rd heating zone (120 to 200 °C). The structural characteristics, in vitro digestibility and sensory acceptance were also evaluated. The resistant starch contents is almost reduced to zero after extrusion cooking while the slowly digestible starch content is increased. An increase in moisture positively affected the hardness and the luminosity (L * ), although it negatively affected the volumetric expansion index, crispness, and color parameters (a * , b * , and ΔE). The experimental conditions of this study allowed the production of expanded extrudates from Brazilian pine seeds with good expansion, texture properties, and acceptance qualities. Thus, extrusion cooking was found to be a potential method for the industrialization of Brazilian pine seeds as a food product. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contactless determination of critical current density of superconducting films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janů, Zdeněk; Švindrych, Zdeněk; Baničová, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2012), "9500804-1"-"9500804-4" ISSN 1051-8223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ac susceptibility * critical state * thin films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.199, year: 2012

  11. Size, physiological quality, and green seed occurrence influenced by seeding rate in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Sampaio Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seeding rate influences the intraspecific competition, which might affect the development and quality of seeds in soybean. However, the impact of seeding rate on the physical and physiological qualities of soybean seeds needs to be better elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean plant density on the seed size as well as the effects of the interaction between the plant density and seed size on the seed mass, green seed occurence, and physiological seed quality. The experiments were carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013/14 and 2014/15 in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, under a randomized complete block design, using the NK 7059 RR cultivar with six replications. Four plant densities (150, 300, 440, and 560 thousand viable seeds ha–1 were evaluated. After the classification of seeds into four sizes, using a set of sieves, a 4 ×4 factorial scheme was used for the statistical analysis of the four plant densities and four seed sizes. The seed samples were evaluated for the seed mass, green seed percentage, germination, and vigor. Under thermal and water stress during seed development, an increase in the seeding rate led to a reduction in the green seed occurrence and an increase in the seed size and mass. However, in the absence of thermal and water stress, the seed size and mass were not altered by the seeding rate and, there was no occurrence of green seeds.

  12. Combined Simulation of a Micro Permanent Magnetic Linear Contactless Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permanent magnetic linear contactless displacement (PLCD sensor is a new type of displacement sensor operating on the magnetic inductive principle. It has many excellent properties and has already been used for many applications. In this article a Micro-PLCD sensor which can be used for microelectromechanical system (MEMS measurements is designed and simulated with the CST EM STUDIO® software, including building a virtual model, magnetostatic calculations, low frequency calculations, steady current calculations and thermal calculations. The influence of some important parameters such as air gap dimension, working frequency, coil current and eddy currents etc. is studied in depth.

  13. Contactless graphene conductance measurements: the effect of device fabrication on terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David; Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Bøggild, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We perform contactless full-wafer maps of the electrical conductance of a 4-inch wafer of single-layer CVD graphene using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both before and after deposition of metal contacts and fabrication of devices via laser ablation. We find that there is no significant change...... in the measured conductance of graphene before and after device fabrication. We also show that precise terahertz time-domain spectroscopy can be performed when the beam spot is at sufficient distance (>1.2 mm) from metal contacts....

  14. Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography: Brief History and Recent Developments in Its Application to Continuous Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Ratajczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT aims at reconstructing the velocity field of electrically conducting fluids, with special focus on applications in metallurgy and crystal growth technologies. The method relies on the induction of secondary magnetic fields if the moving fluid is exposed to a primary magnetic field. The theoretical foundation of the method is delineated, and some early experiments on the reconstruction of the three-dimensional flow in a cylinder are sketched. Then, the recent efforts to apply CIFT to various model problems in connection with the continuous casting of steel are summarized.

  15. A simple contactless impedance probe for determination of ethanol in gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opekar, F.; Cabala, R.; Kadlecova, T.

    2011-01-01

    A contactless impedance probe with either a planar or a tubular detection cell has been developed and tested for rapid determination of the ethanol content in gasoline. The probe cell is connected as a capacitor determining the frequency of an electronic astable multivibrator. The multivibrator frequency depends on the permittivity of the test gasoline in the detection cell which is strongly influenced by the ethanol content as one of the major polar additives. The ethanol concentrations obtained with the impedance probe agree, within the reliability interval, with those obtained by GC-MS measurements and fall into the limits recommended by the appropriate European Standard. The gasoline samples are analyzed without any pretreatment.

  16. Analysis of ecstasy tablets using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Suely K S S; Nogueira, Thiago; Blanes, Lucas; Doble, Philip; Sabino, Bruno D; do Lago, Claudimir L; Angnes, Lúcio

    2014-11-01

    A method for the identification of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) was developed employing capillary electrophoresis (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D). Sample extraction, separation, and detection of "Ecstasy" tablets were performed in fenproporex, caffeine, lidocaine, and cocaine. Separation was performed in <90 sec. The advantages of using C(4) D instead of traditional CE-UV methods for in-field analysis are also discussed. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. 10 kW Contactless Power Transfer System for Rapid Charger of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Tomohiro; Kaneko, Yasuyoshi; Abe, Shigeru; Yasuda, Tomio

    2012-01-01

    A contactless power transfer system for charging electric vehicles requires a high efficiency, a large air gap, and a good tolerance to lateral misalignment and needs to be compact and lightweight. A double-sided winding 10 kW transformer based on a 1.5 kW H-shaped core transformer was developed for a rapid charger. Even though the transformer capacity was increased, the dimensions of the 10 kW transformer were almost the same as those of the 1.5 kW transformer. In this paper, the design conc...

  18. Contactless ignition device for an internal combustion engine. Kontaktfreie Zuendanlage fuer eine Brennkraftmaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohki, Y; Komiya, H

    1980-01-16

    The invention deals with the design of a contactless ignition device with semiconductor elements of the induction discharge type, provided with a self actuator. A short circuit current of the primary transformer coil flows through the transistor system. The emitter is capacitively connected with the primary transformer coil. When the primary short circuit current reaches its maximum, the circuit is interrupted and the ignition begins. Changes of the short circuit current are monitored. The ignition time can be pre-selected. The ignition process is independent from the engine speed.

  19. Feasible approach of contactless power transfer technology combined with HTS coils based on electromagnetic resonance coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yoon Do; Yim, Seong Woo; Hwang, Si Dole

    2013-01-01

    The contactless power transfer (CPT) systems have been recently gaining popularity widely since it is an available option to realize the power delivery and storage with connector-free devices across a large air gap. Especially, the CPT with electromagnetic resonance coupling method is possible to exchange energy within 2 m efficiently. However, the power transfer efficiency of CPT in commercialized products has been limited because the impedance matching of coupled coils is sensitive. As a reasonable approach, we combined the CPT system with HTS wire technology and called as, superconducting contactless power transfer (SUCPT) system. Since the superconducting coils have an enough current density, the superconducting antenna and receiver coils at CPT system have a merit to deliver and receive a mass amount of electric energy. In this paper, we present the feasibility of the SUCPT system and examine the transmission properties of SUCPT phenomenon between room temperature and very low temperature at 77 K as long as the receiver is within 1.0 m distance.

  20. Contactless Stimulation and Control of Biomimetic Nanotubes by Calcium Ion Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirejev, Vladimir; Ali Doosti, Baharan; Shaali, Mehrnaz; Jeffries, Gavin D M; Lobovkina, Tatsiana

    2018-04-17

    Membrane tubular structures are important communication pathways between cells and cellular compartments. Studying these structures in their native environment is challenging, due to the complexity of membranes and varying chemical conditions within and outside of the cells. This work demonstrates that a calcium ion gradient, applied to a synthetic lipid nanotube, triggers lipid flow directed toward the application site, resulting in the formation of a bulge aggregate. This bulge can be translated in a contactless manner by moving a calcium ion source along the lipid nanotube. Furthermore, entrapment of polystyrene nanobeads within the bulge does not tamper the bulge movement and allows transporting of the nanoparticle cargo along the lipid nanotube. In addition to the synthetic lipid nanotubes, the response of cell plasma membrane tethers to local calcium ion stimulation is investigated. The directed membrane transport in these tethers is observed, but with slower kinetics in comparison to the synthetic lipid nanotubes. The findings of this work demonstrate a novel and contactless mode of transport in lipid nanotubes, guided by local exposure to calcium ions. The observed lipid nanotube behavior can advance the current understanding of the cell membrane tubular structures, which are constantly reshaped during dynamic cellular processes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Contactless respiratory monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging applications using a laser range sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Johannes W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI exam, a respiratory signal can be required for different purposes, e.g. for patient monitoring, motion compensation or for research studies such as in functional MRI. In addition, respiratory information can be used as a biofeedback for the patient in order to control breath holds or shallow breathing. To reduce patient preparation time or distortions of the MR imaging system, we propose the use of a contactless approach for gathering information about the respiratory activity. An experimental setup based on a commercially available laser range sensor was used to detect respiratory induced motion of the chest or abdomen. This setup was tested using a motion phantom and different human subjects in an MRI scanner. A nasal airflow sensor served as a reference. For both, the phantom as well as the different human subjects, the motion frequency was precisely measured. These results show that a low cost, contactless, laser-based approach can be used to obtain information about the respiratory motion during an MRI exam.

  2. Design of a variable-phase contactless energy transfer platform using air-cored planar inductor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonntag, C.L.W.

    2010-01-01

    Contactless Energy Transfer (CET) describes the process in which electrical energy is transferred among two or more galvanically isolated electrical circuits or devices by means of magnetic induction (magnetic energy). The potential applications can range from the transfer of energy between low

  3. Approaches to contactless optical thermometer in the NIR spectral range based on Nd{sup 3+} doped crystalline nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldvee, K.; Nefedova, A.V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Fedorenko, S.G. [Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Vanetsev, A.S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Orlovskaya, E.O. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Puust, L.; Pärs, M.; Sildos, I. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Ryabova, A.V. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe Highway, 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Orlovskii, Yu.V., E-mail: orlovski@Lst.gpi.ru [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi st. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilov st. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The fluorescence kinetics and spectral intensity ratio (FIR) methods for contactless optical temperature measurement in the NIR spectral range with Nd{sup 3+} doped YAG micro- and YPO{sub 4} nanocrystals are considered and the problems are revealed. The requirements for good temperature RE doped crystalline nanoparticles sensor are formulated.

  4. Physical-chemical characterization of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L., and chia (Salvia hispanica L. flours and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía Torres Vargas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa, amaranth, and chia flours have considerable amounts of protein, starch, dietary fiber, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and bioactive components, which provide in them exceptional properties for human nutrition. The aim of this research was the physical-chemical characterization of quinoa, amaranth, and chia flours and seeds through proximal, optical, functional, thermal, and structural analyses. From the results obtained during the proximal analysis, considerable proportions were determined of protein and fiber for the three flours, with the highest values in chia flour at 28.56% and 39.8%, respectively. These results were corroborated by optical microscopy analysis performed on longitudinal cuts in the three types of seeds. Thermal parameters indicated that the three flours presented irreversible thermal degradation processes and glass transition change for amaranth and chia flours at temperatures above 100ºC. Structural characterization of the flours via FTIR have allowed detecting differences in protein and lipid characteristic absorption bands. Diffraction patterns of type A starch were identified for quinoa and amaranth flours, while the chia flour had two crystalline peaks corresponding to calcium and magnesium. Scanning electron microscopy images showed starch aggregates in the quinoa flour, a complex structure composed of spherical proteins that surround the starches in amaranth flour and fibrous structures and spherical proteins in chia flour.

  5. Growth and physical properties of top-seeded infiltration growth processed large grain (Gd, Dy)BCO bulk superconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Naik, S.P.K.; Muralidhar, M.; Jirsa, Miloš; Murakami, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 19 (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku 193902. ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silver sheathed superconducting tapes * thick REBaCuO films * electromagnetic properties * solid phase -liquid phase reaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  6. Physical properties and characterization of RuSr2GdCu2O8 (Ru-1212) grown by top seeded melt textured technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uthayakumar, S.; Santhosh, P.; Gombos, M.; Babu, M. Ramesh; Jayavel, R.; Vecchione, A.; Pace, S.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts have been made in optimizing growth conditions for bulk textured growth of RuSr 2 GdCu 2 O 8 (Ru-1212) employing top seeded growth technique (TSG). Thermal stability and peritectic temperature (T p ) have been determined by TG-DTA analysis. The study facilitates appropriate thermal treatments to yield good quality sample. The structural study of the as grown sample has been carried out by X-ray diffraction technique. Morphological study by polarized optical microscope (PLOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveals the growth mechanism. Subsequently, the stoichiometry has been confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The observed characterization results show the influence of superconducting property on growth technique and allow one to correlate between the physical properties and experimental technique.

  7. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  8. Simulation and Optimization of Contactless Power Transfer System for Rotary Ultrasonic Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xinwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM, the power transfer system is based on a contactless power system (rotary transformer rather than the slip ring that cannot cope with high-speed rotary of the tool. The efficiency of the rotary transformer is vital to the whole rotary ultrasonic machine. This paper focused on simulation of the rotary transformer and enhancing the efficiency of the rotary transformer by optimizing three main factors that influence its efficiency, including the gap between the two ferrite cores, the ratio of length and width of the ferrite core and the thickness of ferrite. The finite element model of rotary transformer was built on Maxwell platform. Simulation and optimization work was based on the finite element model. The optimization results compared with the initial simulation result showed an approximate 18% enhancement in terms of efficiency, from 77.69% to 95.2%.

  9. Contactless flowrate sensors for Na, PbBi and Pb flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchenau, D.; Gerbeth, G.; Priede, J.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and reliable flow rate measurements are required for various liquid metal systems such as the Na or Lead-flows in fast reactors, the PbBi-flows in transmutation systems, or the flows in liquid metal targets. For liquid metal flows, a contactless measurement is preferable. In this paper we report on the recent development of two types of such flow meters. The former operates by detecting the flow-induced disturbance in the phase distribution of an externally applied AC magnetic field. Such a phase-shift flow meter was developed with an emitting coil at one side of the duct and two sensing coils at the opposite side. The second approach uses a rotatable single cylindrical permanent magnet, which is placed close to the liquid metal duct. The rotation rate of this magnet is proportional to the flow rate. (author)

  10. Investigation of a matrix converter for contactless power transmission systems; Untersuchung eines Matrixumrichters fuer kontaktlose Energieuebertragungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecklebe, Andreas

    2009-05-22

    The publication discusses a three- to two-phase matrix converter for contactless power transmission systems. Based on relevant publications, possible resonance setups for contactless power transmission systems are investigated to begin with. An analysis of relevant parameters shows the differences between the various setups, but it also shows that for an investigation focusing on the feeding converter, simple modelling of the three investigated resonance setups is possible with the aid of a serial oscillating circuit. In consequence, it should be possible to apply the results also to the matrix converter with other serially resonant loads. The second part of the investigation focuses on the matrix converter. After a theoretical description, a combination von high-frequency control - e.g. bulk pulsing - and low-frequency pulsing patterns for setting the harmonics level of the grid currents is presented. The similarity to a conventional H bridge circuit enables an assessment of commutation and the identification of the necessary inverter states. These are characterized in that a bidirectional connection between the input system and each output phase is available at any time. The functioning of the commutation and of the inverter as a whole is proved by simulation in a first step, in which also the dynamic switching characteristics of the power semiconductors is taken into account. Finally, the results of laboratory measurements are presented and compared with the theoretical results. The laboratory setup consists of the power section of the matrix converter with input filters and modular gate drivers, a DSP/FPGA control system, and a contactless power transmission system with a current inverter and load on the secondary side. The investigation thus provides information on the use of the three-to-two phase matrix converter as an interesting alternative for feeding of contactless power transmission systems and other serially resonant loads. (orig.) [German] Diese

  11. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  12. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  13. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  14. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  15. Chrome Tanning Leather of Giant Sea Perch Combined with Seed Extract Areca Nut on the Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustami - Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanning is the process of converting raw hide protein to leather, which are stable, not easily decompose, and is suitable for a variety of uses. The use of vegetable based tanning materials in the leather tanning process has not been carried out. Vegetable based materials that were used are betel nuts. This plant contains tannin which is the main agent in the process of leather tanning. The aim of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of snapper leather treated with betel nut extract. Soxhlet extracting method with methanol as a solvent were used to obtain tannin from betel nuts. Tanned Snapper Leather were analyzed for physical quality, elongation strength, tensile strength, tear strength, and sewing strength. The result showed that methanol extracted betel nut with 10% concentration gives the optimum physical characteristics.Keywords: areca nut, chrome, snapper, snapper

  16. Evidence for a trade-off strategy in stone oak (Lithocarpus seeds between physical and chemical defense highlights fiber as an important antifeedant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available Trees in the beech or oak family (Fagaceae have a mutualistic relationship with scatter-hoarding rodents. Rodents obtain nutrients and energy by consuming seeds, while providing seed dispersal for the tree by allowing some cached seeds to germinate. Seed predation and caching behavior of rodents is primarily affected by seed size, mechanical protection, macronutrient content, and chemical antifeedants. To enhance seed dispersal, trees must optimize trade-offs in investment between macronutrients and antifeedants. Here, we examine this important chemical balance in the seeds of tropical stone oak species with two substantially different fruit morphologies. These two distinct fruit morphologies in Lithocarpus differ in the degree of mechanical protection of the seed. For 'acorn' fruit, a thin exocarp forms a shell around the seed while for 'enclosed receptacle' (ER fruit, the seed is embedded in a woody receptacle. We compared the chemical composition of numerous macronutrient and antifeedant in seeds from several Lithocarpus species, focusing on two pairs of sympatric species with different fruit morphologies. We found that macronutrients, particularly total non-structural carbohydrate, was more concentrated in seeds of ER fruits while antifeedants, primarily fibers, were more concentrated in seeds of acorn fruits. The trade-off in these two major chemical components was more evident between the two sympatric lowland species than between two highland species. Surprisingly, no significant difference in overall tannin concentrations in the seeds was observed between the two fruit morphologies. Instead, the major trade-off between macronutrients and antifeedants involved indigestible fibers. Future studies of this complex mutualism should carefully consider the role of indigestible fibers in the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  18. Design and Fabrication of 3D-Structured Contactless Capacitive-Type Detector for Capillary Electrophoresis Microchip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C-Y; Lin, C-H; Fu, L-M

    2006-01-01

    Using simple and reliable microfabrication techniques, this study develops a capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchip with 3-dimensional-structured (3D-structured) contactless capacitive detector electrodes mounted parallel to the separation channel. The offchannel electrodes are deposited by Au sputtering and patterned using a standard 'lift-off' process. A vacuum fusion bonding process is employed to seal the lower substrate containing the microchannels and electrodes to an upper glass cover plate. The variation in the capacitance between the electrodes in the side channels is measured as different samples and ions pass through the detection region of the CE separation channel. Samples of Rhodamine B and a commercial sports drink are mixed in different buffer solutions and successfully separated and detected using the developed device. The 3D-structured contactless capacitive-type detection device has microscale dimensions and provides a valuable contribution to the realization of the lab-on-a-chip concept

  19. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  20. An investigation into a contactless photoplethysmographic mobile application to record heart rate post-exercise: Implications for field testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peart Daniel J.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: the aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of a contactless photoplethysmographic mobile application (CPA to record post-exercise heart rate and estimate maximal aerobic capacity after the Queen’s College Step Test. It was hypothesised that the CPA may present a cost effective heart rate measurement tool for educators and practitioners with limited access to specialised laboratory equipment.

  1. Qualidade física e fisiológica de sementes de brócolos biológicos e convencionais Physical and physiological quality of biologycal and conventional broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a qualidade física e fisiológica de sementes de brócolos biológicos e convencionais. Foram utilizados quatro lotes de sementes de brócolos (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenk, cultivar Ramoso Piracicaba; dois de origem biológica (Lote 1 e Lote 2 e dois de convencional (Lote 3 e Lote 4. Foram avaliados pureza física, peso de mil sementes, teor de água, germinação e vigor (primeira contagem de germinação, emergência, velocidade de emergência em casa de vegetação, envelhecimento acelerado (41, 43 e 45 °C por períodos de 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. As sementes apresentaram comportamento germinativo similar, entretanto, maior vigor foi verificado nas sementes do Lote 3 e do Lote 4 (convencionais; o teste de envelhecimento acelerado pode ser realizado na temperatura de 41 ºC por 48 horas e 72 horas para sementes de brócolos biológicos e convencionais, respectivamente; e 43 ºC por 48 horas para os quatro lotes de sementes.The objective this work was evaluate the physical and physiological quality in organic and conventional seed of broccoli. Four lots of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenk, cv. Ramoso Piracicaba were used. Two of organic origin (Lot 1 and Lot 2 and two conventional origin (Lot 3 and Lot 4. The lots were evaluated by the following tests: physical purity, weight of a thousand seeds, water content, standard germination and vigor (first germination count, emergence, emergence speed index in greenhouse and accelerated aging (41, 43 and 45 °C, during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. According to the results organic and conventional seed presented similar quality in relation to seed germination. However higher vigor was observed in conventional seed lot. The accelerated aging with temperature of 41 ºC for 48 hours and 72 hours for organic and conventional seeds respectively can be used to evaluate the seed quality. The temperature of 43 ºC for 48 hours is efficient to

  2. Chrome Tanning Leather of Giant Sea Perch Combined with Seed Extract Areca Nut on the Physical Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bustami - Ibrahim; Ella - Salamah; Nurul - Hak; Ade Komalasari Suhendar

    2014-01-01

    Tanning is the process of converting raw hide protein to leather, which are stable, not easily decompose, and is suitable for a variety of uses. The use of vegetable based tanning materials in the leather tanning process has not been carried out. Vegetable based materials that were used are betel nuts. This plant contains tannin which is the main agent in the process of leather tanning. The aim of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of snapper leather treated with betel n...

  3. Water absorption curve among two size physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seeds. = Curva de absorção de água em sementes de Jatropha curcas L. com dois tamanhos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Smiderle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of water absorption patterns among seeds is important as it allows us to know the appropriate conditions for the rapid seedling emergence. The present study characterized water absorption curve among physic nut (Jatropha curcas L seeds. Seeds were classified as small and large according to the mass of a thousand seeds placed in gerbox, between sheets of germitest paper moistened with destilled water 2.5 times their weight and kept in a germination chamber maintained at 25°C. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x 17 factorial scheme, namely 2 seed sizes (large and small and 17 imbibitions periods (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16, 24, 32, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours with four replicates of 10 seeds per plot. Small seeds of physic nut weighed 715.4 g as a thousand seed mass while large seeds weighed 800 grams. Seeds of physic nutexhibit a triphasic pattern of water absorption. Small and large physic nut seeds exhibit the three physiological phases similarly,where phase II begins next to 32 hours of imbibition and extends up to 116 hours, when phase III starts. = O conhecimento do padrão de absorção de água em sementes é importante na medida em que sepermite avaliar as condições adequadas para a rápida emergência das plântulas. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho caracterizar a curva de absorção de água em sementes de pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas L.. Sementes classificadas por meio da massa de mil sementes em pequenas e grandes foram dispostas entre folhas de papel germitest umedecido 2,5 vezes seu peso, com água destilada, no interior de gerbox, mantidos em câmara de germinação a 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 17, sendo 2 tamanhos de sementes (grandes e pequenas, com 17 períodos de embebição (0; 0,5; 1; 2; 3; 4; 6; 8; 10; 16; 24; 32; 48; 72; 96; 120 e 144 horas e quatro repetições de 10 sementes por parcela. As sementes pequenas

  4. A Method Using Optical Contactless Displacement Sensors to Measure Vibration Stress of Small-Bore Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Noda, Michiyasu

    2014-02-01

    In nuclear power plants, vibration stress of piping is frequently evaluated to prevent fatigue failure. A simple and fast measurement method is attractive to evaluate many piping systems efficiently. In this study, a method to measure the vibration stress using optical contactless displacement sensors was proposed, the prototype instrument was developed, and the instrument practicality for the method was verified. In the proposed method, light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as measurement sensors and the vibration stress was estimated by measuring the deformation geometry of the piping caused by oscillation, which was measured as the piping curvature radius. The method provided fast and simple vibration estimates for small-bore piping. Its verification and practicality were confirmed by vibration tests using a test pipe and mock-up piping. The stress measured by both the proposed method and an accurate conventional method using strain gauges were in agreement, and it was concluded that the proposed method could be used for actual plant piping systems.

  5. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  6. Electric field tomography for contactless imaging of resistivity in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjenevsky, A V

    2004-02-01

    The technique of contactless imaging of resistivity distribution inside conductive objects, which can be applied in medical diagnostics, has been suggested and analyzed. The method exploits the interaction of a high-frequency electric field with a conductive medium. Unlike electrical impedance tomography, no electric current is injected into the medium from outside. The interaction is accompanied with excitation of high-frequency currents and redistribution of free charges inside the medium leading to strong and irregular perturbation of the field's magnitude outside and inside the object. Along with this the considered interaction also leads to small and regular phase shifts of the field in the area surrounding the object. Measuring these phase shifts using a set of electrodes placed around the object enables us to reconstruct the internal structure of the medium. The basics of this technique, which we name electric field tomography (EFT), are described, simple analytical estimations are made and requirements for measuring equipment are formulated. The realizability of the technique is verified by numerical simulations based on the finite elements method. Results of simulation have confirmed initial estimations and show that in the case of EFT even a comparatively simple filtered backprojection algorithm can be used for reconstructing the static resistivity distribution in biological tissues.

  7. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, R; García, M A; Ramos, J; Bragós, R; Fernández, M

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  8. Advances in Contactless Silicon Defect and Impurity Diagnostics Based on Lifetime Spectroscopy and Infrared Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of some recent developments in the field of contactless silicon wafer characterization techniques based on lifetime spectroscopy and infrared imaging. In the first part of the contribution, we outline the status of different lifetime spectroscopy approaches suitable for the identification of impurities in silicon and discuss—in more detail—the technique of temperature- and injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy. The second part of the paper focuses on the application of infrared cameras to analyze spatial inhomogeneities in silicon wafers. By measuring the infrared signal absorbed or emitted from light-generated free excess carriers, high-resolution recombination lifetime mappings can be generated within seconds to minutes. In addition, mappings of non-recombination-active trapping centers can be deduced from injection-dependent infrared lifetime images. The trap density has been demonstrated to be an important additional parameter in the characterization and assessment of solar-grade multicrystalline silicon wafers, as areas of increased trap density tend to deteriorate during solar cell processing.

  9. Monitoring of Weekly Sleep Pattern Variations at Home with a Contactless Biomotion Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizaki, Masanori; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-03

    Many people find that their sleep is restricted or disturbed by social obligations, including work. Sleep phase delays can affect an individual's circadian rhythms on the following day and cause daytime sleepiness and/or poor performance. In this study, to examine weekly variations in sleep patterns, we analyzed sleep data for seven-day periods (from Sunday to Saturday) that had been collected from 2914 subjects (aged 20-79 years) over a total of 24,899 subject-weeks using contactless biomotion sensors. On the weekend, the subjects' mean sleep midpoint, bedtime, and wake-up time were delayed by 40, 26 and 53 min, respectively, compared with those seen on weekdays. In addition, on weekdays, the mean difference between the maximum and median sleep midpoint ranged from 35 to 47 min among the subjects in their 20 s-70 s. The weekend delay and weekday variation in the subjects' sleep patterns tended to decrease with age. This study detected sleep pattern disturbances on both weekdays and weekends. The serial changes in weekday bedtimes detected in this study suggest that sleep habits are influenced by changes in the temporal patterns of social activities/duties. We need further study the advantages of getting extra sleep and the disadvantages of sleep pattern disturbances in daily lifestyle.

  10. Monitoring of Weekly Sleep Pattern Variations at Home with a Contactless Biomotion Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Hashizaki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people find that their sleep is restricted or disturbed by social obligations, including work. Sleep phase delays can affect an individual’s circadian rhythms on the following day and cause daytime sleepiness and/or poor performance. In this study, to examine weekly variations in sleep patterns, we analyzed sleep data for seven-day periods (from Sunday to Saturday that had been collected from 2914 subjects (aged 20–79 years over a total of 24,899 subject-weeks using contactless biomotion sensors. On the weekend, the subjects’ mean sleep midpoint, bedtime, and wake-up time were delayed by 40, 26 and 53 min, respectively, compared with those seen on weekdays. In addition, on weekdays, the mean difference between the maximum and median sleep midpoint ranged from 35 to 47 min among the subjects in their 20 s–70 s. The weekend delay and weekday variation in the subjects’ sleep patterns tended to decrease with age. This study detected sleep pattern disturbances on both weekdays and weekends. The serial changes in weekday bedtimes detected in this study suggest that sleep habits are influenced by changes in the temporal patterns of social activities/duties. We need further study the advantages of getting extra sleep and the disadvantages of sleep pattern disturbances in daily lifestyle.

  11. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  12. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  13. Contactless ultrasonic energy transfer for wireless systems: acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling and performance enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab, S; Erturk, A

    2014-01-01

    There are several applications of wireless electronic components with little or no ambient energy available to harvest, yet wireless battery charging for such systems is still of great interest. Example applications range from biomedical implants to sensors located in hazardous environments. Energy transfer based on the propagation of acoustic waves at ultrasonic frequencies is a recently explored alternative that offers increased transmitter-receiver distance, reduced loss and the elimination of electromagnetic fields. As this research area receives growing attention, there is an increased need for fully coupled model development to quantify the energy transfer characteristics, with a focus on the transmitter, receiver, medium, geometric and material parameters. We present multiphysics modeling and case studies of the contactless ultrasonic energy transfer for wireless electronic components submerged in fluid. The source is a pulsating sphere, and the receiver is a piezoelectric bar operating in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity with a fundamental resonance frequency above the audible frequency range. The goal is to quantify the electrical power delivered to the load (connected to the receiver) in terms of the source strength. Both the analytical and finite element models have been developed for the resulting acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction problem. Resistive and resistive–inductive electrical loading cases are presented, and optimality conditions are discussed. Broadband power transfer is achieved by optimal resistive-reactive load tuning for performance enhancement and frequency-wise robustness. Significant enhancement of the power output is reported due to the use of a hard piezoelectric receiver (PZT-8) instead of a soft counterpart (PZT-5H) as a result of reduced material damping. The analytical multiphysics modeling approach given in this work can be used to predict and optimize the coupled system dynamics with very good accuracy and

  14. Contactless Abdominal Fat Reduction With Selective RF™ Evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Jeanine; Kaspar, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Noninvasive body shaping methods seem to be an ascending part of the aesthetics market. As a result, the pressure to develop reliable methods for the collection and presentation of their results has also increased. The most used techniques currently include ultrasound measurements of fat thickness in the treated area, caliper measurements, bioimpedance-based scale measurements or circumferential tape measurements. Although these are the most used techniques, almost all of them have some limitations in reproducibility and/or accuracy. This study shows Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as the new method for the presentation of results in the body shaping industry. Six subjects were treated by a contactless selective radiofrequency device (BTL Vanquish ME, BTL Industries Inc., Boston, MA). The MRI fat thickness was measured at the baseline and at 4-weeks following the treatment. In addition to MRI images and measurements, digital photographs and anthropometric evaluations such as weight, abdominal circumference, and caliper fat thickness measurements were recorded. Abdominal fat thickness measurements from the MRI were performed from the same slices determined by the same tissue artefacts. The MRI fat thickness difference between the baseline measurement and follow up visit showed an average reduction of 5.36 mm as calculated from the data of 5 subjects. One subject dropped out of study due to non-study related issues. The results were statistically significant based on the Student's T-test evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging abdominal fat thickness measurements seems to be the best method for the evaluation of fat thickness reduction after non-invasive body shaping treatments. In this study, this method shows average fat thickness reduction of 5.36 mm while the weight of the subjects didn't change significantly. A large spot size measuring 1317 cm(2) (204 square inches) covers the abdomen flank to flank. The average thickness of 5.36 mm of the fat layer reduced

  15. Combined contactless conductometric, photometric, and fluorimetric single point detector for capillary separation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvolová, Markéta; Preisler, Jan; Foret, Frantisek; Hauser, Peter C; Krásenský, Pavel; Paull, Brett; Macka, Mirek

    2010-01-01

    This work for the first time combines three on-capillary detection methods, namely, capacitively coupled contactless conductometric (C(4)D), photometric (PD), and fluorimetric (FD), in a single (identical) point of detection cell, allowing concurrent measurements at a single point of detection for use in capillary electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, and capillary/nanoliquid chromatography. The novel design is based on a standard 6.3 mm i.d. fiber-optic SMA adapter with a drilled opening for the separation capillary to go through, to which two concentrically positioned C(4)D detection electrodes with a detection gap of 7 mm were added on each side acting simultaneously as capillary guides. The optical fibers in the SMA adapter were used for the photometric signal (absorbance), and another optical fiber at a 45 degrees angle to the capillary was applied to collect the emitted light for FD. Light emitting diodes (255 and 470 nm) were used as light sources for the PD and FD detection modes. LOD values were determined under flow-injection conditions to exclude any stacking effects: For the 470 nm LED limits of detection (LODs) for FD and PD were for fluorescein (1 x 10(-8) mol/L) and tartrazine (6 x 10(-6) mol/L), respectively, and the LOD for the C(4)D was for magnesium chloride (5 x 10(-7) mol/L). The advantage of the three different detection signals in a single point is demonstrated in capillary electrophoresis using model mixtures and samples including a mixture of fluorescent and nonfluorescent dyes and common ions, underivatized amino acids, and a fluorescently labeled digest of bovine serum albumin.

  16. Effects of Physical Seed Priming and Hydropriming on Physiological and Morphological Characteristics, Yield and Harvest Index in Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baser Kouchebagh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of different seed treatments on germination of calendula, an experiment conducted in field with complete randomized block design and three replications, at Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2013. Treatments were: treating the most seeds by ultrasonic with maximum (3 w.m-2 and gamma and beta by 2 µc for 10 minutes, laser by 6328A° and magnetic field by 40 MT for 5, 10 and 15 minutes hydro-priming for 24 hours and control. Results indicate that maximum flower yield (13.85g was produced by seeds treated with laser irradiation for 15 minutes as compared to that of control (4.34g. Highest biologic yield belonged to seeds treated with magnetic field for 10 minutes (33.20 g.m-2 and lowest to control (7.89 g.m-2. Highest harvest index was obtained from seeds treated by gamma irradiation for 10 minutes (69.07 and lowest for 15 minutes (18.81. It may be suggested that marigold growers may improve crop yield by priming the seeds with magnetic field and laser irradiation before sowing.

  17. A contact-less method to evaluate the state of charge of nickel batteries using Foucault's eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, V.; Metrot, A.; Willmann, P.

    A nickel hydroxide electrode and a commercial battery have been studied by a new and contact-less impedance method, based on Foucault's eddy currents, with the aim of determining their state of charge. Four different current line distributions have been employed and the impedance versus time graphs obtained show a linear variation of this impedance during charge and discharge for all configurations. This new method allows the determination of the state of charge and, furthermore some "artifacts" obvious on these graphs may be useful to detect a deterioration of the studied material.

  18. Development and Test of a Contactless Position and Angular Sensor Device for the Application in Synchronous Micro Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas WALDSCHIK

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a contactless micro position and angular sensor system which consists of fixed commercial magnetic sensor elements, such as hall sensors and a movable part with integrated micro structured polymer magnets. This system serves particularly for linear and rotatory synchronous micro motors which we have developed and successfully tested. In order to achieve high precision and control of these motors an integration of the special micro position and angular sensors is pursued to increase the resolution and accuracy of the devices.

  19. Monitoring the enzymatic conversion of urea to ammonium by conventional or microchip capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchert-Shi, Aiping; Hauser, Peter C

    2008-05-15

    Capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection was used to directly quantify the ammonium produced in the enzymatic conversion of urea with urease. This allowed the characterization of the reaction without having to use more elaborate indirect optical methods for quantification. The maximum rate of reaction, V(max), was determined as 5.1 mmol x mL(-1) x min(-1), and the Michaelis-Menten constant, K(m), was determined as 16 mM. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the determination of urea in clinical samples of human blood by using a conventional capillary and a microchip device.

  20. Defense enzyme responses in dormant wild oat and wheat caryopses challenged with a seed decay pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed dormancy and resistance to seed decay organisms are fundamental ecological strategies for weed seed persistence in the weed seed-bank. Seeds have well-established physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores....

  1. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Thawatchai

    2013-01-01

    Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed qual...

  2. Towards Contactless Silent Speech Recognition Based on Detection of Active and Visible Articulators Using IR-UWB Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Hoon; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-10-29

    People with hearing or speaking disabilities are deprived of the benefits of conventional speech recognition technology because it is based on acoustic signals. Recent research has focused on silent speech recognition systems that are based on the motions of a speaker's vocal tract and articulators. Because most silent speech recognition systems use contact sensors that are very inconvenient to users or optical systems that are susceptible to environmental interference, a contactless and robust solution is hence required. Toward this objective, this paper presents a series of signal processing algorithms for a contactless silent speech recognition system using an impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB) radar. The IR-UWB radar is used to remotely and wirelessly detect motions of the lips and jaw. In order to extract the necessary features of lip and jaw motions from the received radar signals, we propose a feature extraction algorithm. The proposed algorithm noticeably improved speech recognition performance compared to the existing algorithm during our word recognition test with five speakers. We also propose a speech activity detection algorithm to automatically select speech segments from continuous input signals. Thus, speech recognition processing is performed only when speech segments are detected. Our testbed consists of commercial off-the-shelf radar products, and the proposed algorithms are readily applicable without designing specialized radar hardware for silent speech processing.

  3. A contactless approach for respiratory gating in PET using continuous-wave radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersepke, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Ersepke@rub.de; Büther, Florian; Heß, Mirco [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany); Schäfers, Klaus P. [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany and DFG EXC 1003, Cluster of Excellence ‘Cells in Motion,’ Münster 48149 (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce motion artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Clinically established methods for respiratory gating in PET require contact to the patient or a direct optical line between the sensor and the patient’s torso and time consuming preparation. In this work, a contactless method for capturing a respiratory signal during PET is presented based on continuous-wave radar. Methods: The proposed method relies on the principle of emitting an electromagnetic wave and detecting the phase shift of the reflected wave, modulated due to the respiratory movement of the patient’s torso. A 24 GHz carrier frequency was chosen allowing wave propagation through plastic and clothing with high reflections at the skin surface. A detector module and signal processing algorithms were developed to extract a quantitative respiratory signal. The sensor was validated using a high precision linear table. During volunteer measurements and [{sup 18}F] FDG PET scans, the radar sensor was positioned inside the scanner bore of a PET/computed tomography scanner. As reference, pressure belt (one volunteer), depth camera-based (two volunteers, two patients), and PET data-driven (six patients) signals were acquired simultaneously and the signal correlation was quantified. Results: The developed system demonstrated a high measurement accuracy for movement detection within the submillimeter range. With the proposed method, small displacements of 25 μm could be detected, not considerably influenced by clothing or blankets. From the patient studies, the extracted respiratory radar signals revealed high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient) to those derived from the external pressure belt and depth camera signals (r = 0.69–0.99) and moderate correlation to those of the internal data-driven signals (r = 0.53–0.70). In some cases, a cardiac signal could be visualized, due to the representation of the mechanical heart motion on the skin

  4. A contactless approach for respiratory gating in PET using continuous-wave radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersepke, Thomas; Büther, Florian; Heß, Mirco; Schäfers, Klaus P

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce motion artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Clinically established methods for respiratory gating in PET require contact to the patient or a direct optical line between the sensor and the patient's torso and time consuming preparation. In this work, a contactless method for capturing a respiratory signal during PET is presented based on continuous-wave radar. The proposed method relies on the principle of emitting an electromagnetic wave and detecting the phase shift of the reflected wave, modulated due to the respiratory movement of the patient's torso. A 24 GHz carrier frequency was chosen allowing wave propagation through plastic and clothing with high reflections at the skin surface. A detector module and signal processing algorithms were developed to extract a quantitative respiratory signal. The sensor was validated using a high precision linear table. During volunteer measurements and [(18)F] FDG PET scans, the radar sensor was positioned inside the scanner bore of a PET/computed tomography scanner. As reference, pressure belt (one volunteer), depth camera-based (two volunteers, two patients), and PET data-driven (six patients) signals were acquired simultaneously and the signal correlation was quantified. The developed system demonstrated a high measurement accuracy for movement detection within the submillimeter range. With the proposed method, small displacements of 25 μm could be detected, not considerably influenced by clothing or blankets. From the patient studies, the extracted respiratory radar signals revealed high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient) to those derived from the external pressure belt and depth camera signals (r = 0.69-0.99) and moderate correlation to those of the internal data-driven signals (r = 0.53-0.70). In some cases, a cardiac signal could be visualized, due to the representation of the mechanical heart motion on the skin. Accurate respiratory signals were

  5. Evaluation of thermal, chemical, and mechanical seed scarification methods for 4 Great Basin lupine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covy D. Jones; Mikel R. Stevens; Von D. Jolley; Bryan G. Hopkins; Scott L. Jensen; Dave Turner; Jason M. Stettler

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most Great Basin lupine (Lupinus spp. [Fabaceae]) species are physically dormant and thus, difficult to establish in uniform stands in seed production fields. We designed this study to examine 5 seed scarification techniques, each with 11 levels of application (including a non-scarified control), to reduce the physical seed dormancy of longspur lupine...

  6. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  7. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  8. SECAGEM DE SEMENTES DE SOJA EM SILO COM DISTRIBUIÇÃO RADIAL DO FLUXO DE AR: I. MONITORAMENTO FÍSICO DRYING OF SOYBEAN SEEDS IN A RADIAL AIR FLOW DRYER: I. PHYSICAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ CARLOS MIRANDA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a evolução física do processo de remoção de água das sementes em secador estacionário, com cilindro central perfurado e distribuição radical de ar. A pesquisa foi conduzida com sementes de soja, variando o fluxo (26,9, 28,4 e 33,2 m³/minuto/t e a temperatura do ar insuflado (42, 46 e 50ºC, considerando a posição das sementes (17, 34 e 51 cm em relação ao cilindro de insuflação e o tempo de secagem (zero a doze horas, com intervalos de duas horas. Foram caracterizados o ar ambiente, o ar insuflado, as temperaturas e os teores de água da massa, as velocidades e curvas de secagem. As avaliações realizadas destacaram vantagens físicas operacionais da combinação de 28,4 m³/minuto/t com 46ºC e o contrário, com a combinação de 26,9 m³/minuto/t com 42ºC.The purpose of this research was to study several physical parameters of soybean seed drying submitted to stationary process with radial air distribution by combining different air flows (26.9, 28.4 and 33.2 m³/minute/ton and temperatures (42, 46 and 50ºC, considering seed positions in the seed mass (17, 34 and 51 cm in relation to the insuflation cylinder and drying periods (zero to twelve hours with two-hour intervals. Environmental air, insuflation air, seed temperatures, moisture content of seeds, drying speed and drying curves were characterized. Considering the evaluated parameters during the drying process, the physical advantages of the combination of 28.4 m³/minute/ton with 46ºC, and the desadvantage of the combination of 26.9 m³/minute/ton with 42ºC were observed.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of the seed germination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyszewska, B.; Koper, R.

    2000-01-01

    Paper presented a mathematical model of seed germination process based on the Monte Carlo method and theoretical premises resulted from the physiology of seed germination suggesting three consecutive stages: physical, biochemical and physiological. The model was experimentally verified by determination of germination characteristics for seeds of ground tomatoes, Promyk cultivar, within broad range of temperatures (from 15 to 30 deg C)

  10. Comparison of Germination and Viability Tests for Southern Hardwood Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner; J. L. Gammage

    1967-01-01

    This paper summarizes a 3-year evaluation of 10 methods for testing germinability and viability of the seed of six species of southern hardwood. In five of the methods, the seeds were germinated. In the others, visual, biochemical, or physical properties were the criteria. Cutting tests were best for sweetgum and Nuttall oak seed, while cutting or water germination...

  11. NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF NIGER SEED (GUIZOTIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    fiber. Niger oil has a fatty acid composition typical for seed oils of the .... system using external calibration curve after optimizing the parameters in to .... physical and chemical properties of the soil, application of natural (manure) and artificial.

  12. The concept of floating electrode for contact-less electrochemical measurements: Application to reinforcing steel-bar corrosion in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keddam, M.; Novoa, X.R.; Vivier, V.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of floating electrode is introduced for defining the common electrochemical behaviour of any non-connected, electronically conducting, body immersed in an electrolytic medium. The emphasis is put on both its own polarisation features and its influence on the d.c. and a.c. current and potential across the cell, hence the feasibility, among others, of contact-less electrochemical measurements on floating electrodes. Application to reinforcing steel bars in concrete is investigated by numerical computation of the a.c. current and potential fields in a broad range of concrete resistivity, interfacial resistance and capacitance. Impedance defined in a 4-electrode configuration, when rationalised against the concrete resistivity, is shown to provide, within a realistic range of parameters, a practical mean to access the properties of the bar-concrete interface.

  13. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Phoma valerianellae on lamb`s lettuce seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Stephan, D.; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Tinivella, F.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify seed treatment methods for eradicating Phoma valerianellae from lamb`s lettuce seeds in organic vegetable production. Using seeds naturally infested with the pathogen, the effect of three physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and

  14. A simple, low-cost and robust capillary zone electrophoresis Method with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection for the routine determination of four selected penicillins in Money-constrained laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Prasanta; Sänger-van de Griend, Cari; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2018-01-01

    A simple and robust capillary zone electrophoresis Method was developed and validated for the determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate, ampicillin, phenoxymethyl penicillin (Pen V) as well as flucloxacillin. Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was employed as detection Mode

  15. Seed Nutrition and Quality, Seed Coat Boron and Lignin Are Influenced by Delayed Harvest in Exotically-Derived Soybean Breeding Lines under High Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Smith, James R; Mengistu, Alemu

    2017-01-01

    The timing of harvest is a major factor affecting seed quality in soybean, particularly in Midsouthern USA, when rain during harvest period is not uncommon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of time of harvest on soybean seed quality (seed composition, germination, seed coat boron, and lignin) in high germinability (HG) breeding lines (50% exotic) developed under high heat. The hypothesis was that seeds of HG lines possess physiological and genetic traits for a better seed quality at harvest maturity and delayed harvest. A 2-year field experiment was conducted under irrigated conditions. Results showed that, at harvest maturity, the exotic HG lines had higher seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin, but lower seed oil compared with the non-exotic checks (Control), confirming our hypothesis. At 28 days after harvest maturity (delayed harvest), the content of seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin were higher in some of the HG lines compared with the checks, indicating a possible involvement of these seed constituents, especially seed coat boron and seed coat lignin, in maintaining seed coat integrity and protecting seed coat against physical damage. Highly significant positive correlations were found between germination and seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, and seed coat boron and seed coat lignin. Highly significant negative correlation was found between germination and oil, linoleic acid, seed coat wrinkling, shattering, and hard seed. Yields of some HG lines were competitive with checks. This research demonstrated that time of harvesting is an important factor influencing seed protein and oil production. Also, since high oleic acid is desirable for oxidative stability, shelf-life and biodiesel properties, using HG lines could positively influence these important traits. This result should suggest to breeders of some of the advantages of selecting for high seed coat boron and

  16. Physic nut seed productivity (Jatropha curcas L.), in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages; Produtividade de sementes de pinhao-manso (Jatropha curcas L.), da estacao chuvosa, submetido a diferentes laminas de irrigacao e adubacao potassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, Fabio Ponciano de; Faria, Manoel Alves de; Portela, Jaqueline Damyane [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], E-mail: fpdagricola@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, Ednaldo Liberato de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Januaria, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this research was to value the Physic nut seed productivity, in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages, for 2008, 2009 and for the accumulated of theses years, in Lavras - MG, Brazil. The experimental design was the one of randomized blocks, in split plot design, with four replicates. The treatment levels were four water levels (plots) and four potassium dosages (subplots). The irrigation was applied based on the amount estimated by the water balance considering the class A pan evaporation (ECA) and rain depths - L{sub 0} (non irrigated), L{sub 40}, L{sub 80} and L{sub 120} (40, 80 and 120% of the balance respectively). The potassium dosages were K{sub 30}, K{sub 60}, K{sub 90} and K{sub 120} (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg.ha{sup -1} respectively). It was used the drip irrigation system. It was used the Sisvar 4.0 software, for analysis of variance and the Tukey test at 5% level of probability to compare the means. However, it was possible to observe in rainy season, that the irrigation has not changed the Physic nut seed productivity. The potassium level 120 kg.ha{sup -1} in all significant situations was the treatment with higher productivity. (author)

  17. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, P.; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T 2 ). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T 2 ) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds

  18. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  20. Non- chemical methods of seed treatment for control of seed- borne pathogens on vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Wickstrom, M.; Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Jahn, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of EU-project "Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production" (STOVE) was to evaluate non-chemical methods for control of seed-borne pathogens in organic vegetable production. Physical (hot air, hot water and electron) and biologi-cal (microorganisms and different agents of natural

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  5. An enhanced feature set for pattern recognition based contrast enhancement of contact-less captured latent fingerprints in digitized crime scene forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2014-02-01

    In crime scene forensics latent fingerprints are found on various substrates. Nowadays primarily physical or chemical preprocessing techniques are applied for enhancing the visibility of the fingerprint trace. In order to avoid altering the trace it has been shown that contact-less sensors offer a non-destructive acquisition approach. Here, the exploitation of fingerprint or substrate properties and the utilization of signal processing techniques are an essential requirement to enhance the fingerprint visibility. However, especially the optimal sensory is often substrate-dependent. An enhanced generic pattern recognition based contrast enhancement approach for scans of a chromatic white light sensor is introduced in Hildebrandt et al.1 using statistical, structural and Benford's law2 features for blocks of 50 micron. This approach achieves very good results for latent fingerprints on cooperative, non-textured, smooth substrates. However, on textured and structured substrates the error rates are very high and the approach thus unsuitable for forensic use cases. We propose the extension of the feature set with semantic features derived from known Gabor filter based exemplar fingerprint enhancement techniques by suggesting an Epsilon-neighborhood of each block in order to achieve an improved accuracy (called fingerprint ridge orientation semantics). Furthermore, we use rotation invariant Hu moments as an extension of the structural features and two additional preprocessing methods (separate X- and Y Sobel operators). This results in a 408-dimensional feature space. In our experiments we investigate and report the recognition accuracy for eight substrates, each with ten latent fingerprints: white furniture surface, veneered plywood, brushed stainless steel, aluminum foil, "Golden-Oak" veneer, non-metallic matte car body finish, metallic car body finish and blued metal. In comparison to Hildebrandt et al.,1 our evaluation shows a significant reduction of the error rates

  6. The potential use of white star apple seeds ( Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-two (42) young male and female albino rats (Rattus norwegicus) were used in a preliminary study to assess the potential of non-conventional local materials, white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) 'udara' seeds and physic nut (Jatropha curcas) as feed ingredients for livestock. 'Udara' seed or physic nut meal were ...

  7. Exploration of Shorea robusta (Sal seeds, kernels and its oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kumar C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of Shorea robusta seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel were investigated in the present work. The physico-chemical composition of sal oil was also analyzed. The physico-mechanical properties and proximate composition of seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel at three moisture contents of 9.50% (w.b, 9.54% (w.b, and 12.14% (w.b, respectively, were studied. The results show that the moisture content of the kernel was highest as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The sphericity of the kernel was closer to that of a sphere as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The hardness of the seed with wing (32.32, N/mm and seed without wing (42.49, N/mm was lower than the kernels (72.14, N/mm. The proximate composition such as moisture, protein, carbohydrates, oil, crude fiber, and ash content were also determined. The kernel (30.20%, w/w contains higher oil percentage as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The scientific data from this work are important for designing of equipment and processes for post-harvest value addition of sal seeds.

  8. A chemometric evaluation of the underlying physical and chemical patterns that support near infrared spectroscopy of barley seeds as a tool for explorative classification of endosperm genes and gene combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib; Møller, Birthe

    2005-01-01

    Analysis (PCA). Riso mutants R-13, R-29 high (I -> 3, 1 -> 4)-beta-glucan, low starch and R-1508 (high lysine, reduced starch), near isogeneic controls and normal lines and recombinants were studied. Based on proteome analysis results, six antimicrobial proteins were followed during endosperm development...... revealing pleiotropic gene effects in expression timing that supporting the gene classification. To verify that NIR spectroscopy data represents a physio-chemical fingerprint of the barley seed, physical and chemical spectral components were partially separated by Multiple Scatter Correction...... and their genetic classification ability verified. Wavelength bands with known water binding and (I -> 3, 1 -> 4)-beta-glucan assignments were successfully predicted by partial least squares regression giving insight into how NIR-data works in classification. Highly reproducible gene-specific, covariate...

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  11. Caracterização química de sementes e tortas de pinhão-manso, nabo-forrageiro e crambe Chemical characterization of seeds and presscakes of physic nut, radish and crambe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Dias Vieira de Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar caracterização química de sementes e de tortas de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas, nabo-forrageiro (Raphanus sativus e crambe (Crambe abyssinica após a extração do óleo por prensagem mecânica. Sementes inteiras dessas espécies foram submetidas à dupla prensagem a frio para extração do óleo, produto principal, e da torta, coproduto. Os grãos e tortas foram avaliados quanto à composição bromatológica e ao perfil de minerais. Os rendimentos de extração lipídica foram calculados com base no balanço de massas. O teor de lipídeos nas tortas foi baixo quando comparado aos valores da literatura, o que caracteriza boa eficiência de extração e versatilidade da prensa empregada. A torta de pinhão-manso apresenta fibras como principal componente, com cerca de 1/3 de sua composição total. As proteínas constituem a fração majoritária na torta de nabo-forrageiro, e o crambe apresenta composição balanceada entre fibras e proteínas. As tortas são ricas em potássio, magnésio, cálcio, sódio, manganês, ferro, zinco e boro.The objective of this work was to chemically characterize the seeds and presscakes of physic nut (Jatropha curcas, radish (Raphanus sativus and crambe (Crambe abyssinica after extracting the oil with a mechanical press. Whole seeds of these species were subjected to double cold pressing to extract the oil, or main product, and the presscake, or coproduct. The seeds and presscakes were evaluated regarding proximate composition and mineral profile. The lipid contents in the presscakes were lower when compared to the values presented in previous works, which characterizes good extraction efficiency and versatility of the employed press. Fibers are the most abundant component of physic nut presscakes, and comprise about 1/3 of their total composition. Protein is the largest fraction in radish presscakes, and crambe presents balanced fiber and protein contents. The

  12. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  13. Seeds and Synergies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'Seeds and Synergies presents inspiring evidence of change in practice and policy ... Seeds of inspiration: breathing new life into the formal agricultural research .... and Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Commodity ...

  14. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  15. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  18. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  19. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  20. Development of a contactless DC current sensor with high linearity and sensitivity based on the magnetoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, N.; Reis, S.; Silva, M. P.; Correia, V.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Martins, P.

    2018-06-01

    The magnetoelectric (ME) effect is increasingly being considered an attractive alternative for magnetic field and smart current sensing, being able to sense static and dynamic magnetic fields. This work reports on a contactless DC current sensor device based on a ME PVDF/Metglas composite, a solenoid and the corresponding electronic instrumentation. The ME sample shows a maximum resonant ME coefficient (α 33) of 34.48 V cm‑1 Oe‑1, a linear response (R 2 = 0.998) and a sensitivity of 6.7 mV A‑1. With the incorporation of a charge amplifier, an AC-RMS converter and a microcontroller the linearity is maintained (R 2 = 0.997), the ME output voltage increases to a maximum of 2320 mV and the sensitivity rises to 476.5 mV A‑1. Such features allied to the highest sensitivity reported in the literature on polymer-based ME composites provide to the reported ME sensing device suitable characteristics to be used in non-contact electric current measurement, motor operational status checking, and condition monitoring of rechargeable batteries, among others.

  1. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-02-01

    The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  2. Fast simultaneous determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole by capillary zone electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Iranaldo Santos; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio; Angnes, Lúcio

    2013-04-01

    The association of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is a very effective with antibiotic properties, and commonly used in the treatment of a variety of infections. Due to the importance in diseases treatment of humans and also of animals, the development of methods for their quantification in commercial formulations is highly desirable. In the present study, a rapid method for simultaneous determination of these compounds using CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was developed. A favorable working region for both analytes was from 12.5 to 200 μmol/L (linear responses with R > 0.999 for N = 5). Other parameters calculated were sensitivity (1.28 ± 0.10/1.45 ± 0.11) min/(μmol L), RSD (4.5%/2.0%), and LOD (1.1/3.3) μmol/L for trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Under this condition, the total run time was only 2.6 min. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in commercial samples and the results were compared to those obtained by using a HPLC pharmacopoeia method. This new method is advantageous for quality-control analyses of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in pharmaceuticals samples, because it is rapid and precise. Moreover, it is less laborious and demands minimum amounts of reagents in comparison to the recommended method. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Photoreflectance and contactless electroreflectance spectroscopy of GaAs-based structures: The below band gap oscillation features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrawiec, R.; Motyka, M.; Gladysiewicz, M.; Sitarek, P.; Misiewicz, J.

    2006-01-01

    GaAs-based structures characterized below band gap oscillation features (OFs) in photoreflectance (PR) are studied in both PR and contactless electro-reflectance (CER) spectroscopies. It has been shown that the OFs are usually very strong for structures grown on n-type GaAs substrate. The origin of the OFs is the modulation of the refractive index in the sample due to a generation of additional carriers by the modulated pump beam. The presence of OFs in PR spectra complicates the analysis of PR signal related to quantum well transitions. Therefore, PR spectroscopy is often limited to samples grown on semi-insolating (SI) type substrates. However, sometimes the OFs could be observed for structures grown on SI-type GaAs substrates. In this paper we show that the OFs could be successfully eliminated by applying the CER technique instead of PR one because during CER measurements any additional carriers are not generated and hence CER spectra are free of OFs. This advantage of CER spectroscopy is very important in investigations of all structures for which OFs are present in PR spectra

  4. Contactless Measurement of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Lateral Flow Strips Using Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR) Sensors in Differential Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huaming; Wang, Kan; Ji, Xiaojun; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-12-14

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are commonly used in biomedical detection due to their capability to bind with some specific antibodies. Quantification of biological entities could be realized by measuring the magnetic response of MNPs after the binding process. This paper presents a contactless scanning prototype based on tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors for quantification of MNPs present in lateral flow strips (LFSs). The sensing unit of the prototype composes of two active TMR elements, which are parallel and closely arranged to form a differential sensing configuration in a perpendicular magnetic field. Geometrical parameters of the configuration are optimized according to theoretical analysis of the stray magnetic field produced by the test line (T-line) while strips being scanned. A brief description of our prototype and the sample preparation is presented. Experimental results show that the prototype exhibits the performance of high sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability. Meanwhile, the detection speed has been improved compared with existing similar techniques. The proposed prototype demonstrates a good sensitivity for detecting samples containing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at a concentration of 25 mIU/mL. The T-line produced by the sample with low concentration is almost beyond the visual limit and produces a maximum stray magnetic field some 0.247 mOe at the sensor in the x direction.

  5. Contactless Measurement of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Lateral Flow Strips Using Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR Sensors in Differential Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are commonly used in biomedical detection due to their capability to bind with some specific antibodies. Quantification of biological entities could be realized by measuring the magnetic response of MNPs after the binding process. This paper presents a contactless scanning prototype based on tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR sensors for quantification of MNPs present in lateral flow strips (LFSs. The sensing unit of the prototype composes of two active TMR elements, which are parallel and closely arranged to form a differential sensing configuration in a perpendicular magnetic field. Geometrical parameters of the configuration are optimized according to theoretical analysis of the stray magnetic field produced by the test line (T-line while strips being scanned. A brief description of our prototype and the sample preparation is presented. Experimental results show that the prototype exhibits the performance of high sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability. Meanwhile, the detection speed has been improved compared with existing similar techniques. The proposed prototype demonstrates a good sensitivity for detecting samples containing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG at a concentration of 25 mIU/mL. The T-line produced by the sample with low concentration is almost beyond the visual limit and produces a maximum stray magnetic field some 0.247 mOe at the sensor in the x direction.

  6. Precipitation formation from orographic cloud seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey R; Friedrich, Katja; Tessendorf, Sarah A; Rauber, Robert M; Geerts, Bart; Rasmussen, Roy M; Xue, Lulin; Kunkel, Melvin L; Blestrud, Derek R

    2018-02-06

    Throughout the western United States and other semiarid mountainous regions across the globe, water supplies are fed primarily through the melting of snowpack. Growing populations place higher demands on water, while warmer winters and earlier springs reduce its supply. Water managers are tantalized by the prospect of cloud seeding as a way to increase winter snowfall, thereby shifting the balance between water supply and demand. Little direct scientific evidence exists that confirms even the basic physical hypothesis upon which cloud seeding relies. The intent of glaciogenic seeding of orographic clouds is to introduce aerosol into a cloud to alter the natural development of cloud particles and enhance wintertime precipitation in a targeted region. The hypothesized chain of events begins with the introduction of silver iodide aerosol into cloud regions containing supercooled liquid water, leading to the nucleation of ice crystals, followed by ice particle growth to sizes sufficiently large such that snow falls to the ground. Despite numerous experiments spanning several decades, no direct observations of this process exist. Here, measurements from radars and aircraft-mounted cloud physics probes are presented that together show the initiation, growth, and fallout to the mountain surface of ice crystals resulting from glaciogenic seeding. These data, by themselves, do not address the question of cloud seeding efficacy, but rather form a critical set of observations necessary for such investigations. These observations are unambiguous and provide details of the physical chain of events following the introduction of glaciogenic cloud seeding aerosol into supercooled liquid orographic clouds.

  7. Physical properties of Gelidium corneum-gelatin blend films containing grapefruit seed extract or green tea extract and its application in the packaging of pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y-H; Lim, G-O; Song, K B

    2009-01-01

    Edible Gelidium corneum-gelatin (GCG) blend films containing grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) or green tea extract (GTE) were manufactured, and the quality of pork loins packed with the film during storage was determined. Tensile strength (TS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films containing GFSE or GTE were better than those of the control. The film's antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes increased with increasing antimicrobial concentration, resulting in a decrease in the populations of bacteria by 0.77 to 2.08 and 0.91 to 3.30 log CFU/g, respectively. Pork loin samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The samples packed with the GCG film containing GFSE (0.08%) or GTE (2.80%) had a decrease in the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes of 0.69 to 1.11 and 1.05 to 1.14 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 4 d of storage. The results showed that the quality of pork loins during storage could be improved by packaging them with the GCG film containing GFSE or GTE.

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  11. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GERMINATION OF Dyckia goehringii Gross & Rauh (BROMELIACEAE SEEDS UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICAS E GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Dyckia goehringii Gross & Rauh (BROMELIACEAE SOB DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Fontoura da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Dyckia goehringii is a bromeliad native from Cerrado (Brazilian savannah. Despite its high ornamental value, because of the silvery appearance of its leaves, it is not yet commercialized due to lack of information on its conservation and agronomic employment. The present investigation aimed to appraise the physical and physiological performance of seeds, during the imbibition and germination period, under several temperatures, as well as to establish temperature parameters for germination tests. The moisture content and the fresh and dry mass content of one hundred seeds were determined. The imbibition capacity, germination and vigour of seeds and seedlings of large and small seeds were observed under temperatures of 20°C, 25°C, 30°C, and 35°C. The results showed that there are no obstructions to water absorption and that this feature is influenced by seeds size. The best vigour and germination rate were observed to large seeds, which produce more vigorous seedlings than small seeds, mainly at 30°C, and germination tests should be carried out on the 7th and 14th days after sowing.

    KEY-WORDS: Dyckia goehringii; seed vigour and size; imbibition.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  18. Contactless estimation of critical current density and its temperature dependence using magnetic measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Youssef, A.; Baničová, L.; Švindrych, Zdeněk; Janů, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 5 (2010), s. 1036-1037 ISSN 0587-4246. [Czech and Slovak Conference on Magnetism /14./. Košice, 06.07.2010-09.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : superconductivity * critical state * Bean model * critical current density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.467, year: 2010

  19. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T c suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

  20. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  5. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  6. An electric-powered vehicle with contactless battery loading from the grid; Un vehicule electrique alimente sans contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In this short article the prototype of a 3.5 t pick-up vehicle with an electric drive by Numexia is described. Its unique feature is the contactless battery loading from the grid, by means of an electromagnetic coil located in the ground under the vehicle at the loading station. This technology has been developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland in the framework of an abandoned project named Swissmetro. (The aim of this project was to connect the main Swiss cities of Geneva, Lausanne, Berne, Lucerne, Zurich and St-Gallen by an underground fast train that would have needed about 12 minutes from one city to the next, i.e. for a distance of 60 to 100 km. Several innovative technologies were developed in the preliminary phase of the project.) The pick-up vehicle, a modified Renault Maxity, reaches 100 km/h. The electric motor power is 100 kW. LiFePO{sub 4} batteries are used to store energy. Reloading takes 30 minutes under optimum conditions. An energy management unit and a 33 kW auxiliary diesel-engine-powered generator are integrated. The pick-up is able to carry a useful load up to 1557 kg and to cover a distance of 100 km with one battery load, without using the auxiliary generator. This new propulsion system is thought to become a frequently used device in vehicles for urban transportation. Numexia intends to cooperate with big car manufacturers to build in its new drive into their vehicles.

  7. FPGA-Based HD Camera System for the Micropositioning of Biomedical Micro-Objects Using a Contactless Micro-Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Yusifli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With recent advancements, micro-object contactless conveyers are becoming an essential part of the biomedical sector. They help avoid any infection and damage that can occur due to external contact. In this context, a smart micro-conveyor is devised. It is a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA-based system that employs a smart surface for conveyance along with an OmniVision complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS HD camera for micro-object position detection and tracking. A specific FPGA-based hardware design and VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL implementation are realized. It is done without employing any Nios processor or System on a Programmable Chip (SOPC builder based Central Processing Unit (CPU core. It keeps the system efficient in terms of resource utilization and power consumption. The micro-object positioning status is captured with an embedded FPGA-based camera driver and it is communicated to the Image Processing, Decision Making and Command (IPDC module. The IPDC is programmed in C++ and can run on a Personal Computer (PC or on any appropriate embedded system. The IPDC decisions are sent back to the FPGA, which pilots the smart surface accordingly. In this way, an automated closed-loop system is employed to convey the micro-object towards a desired location. The devised system architecture and implementation principle is described. Its functionality is also verified. Results have confirmed the proper functionality of the developed system, along with its outperformance compared to other solutions.

  8. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  9. Portable capillary electrophoresis-system for on-site food analysis with lab-on-a-chip based contactless conductivity detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Claudia; Sewart, René; Klemm, Richard; Becker, Holger

    2014-06-01

    A portable analytical system for the characterization of liquid environmental samples and beverages in food control was realized. The key element is the implementation of contactless conductivity detection on lab-on-a-chip basis ensuring the system to be operated in a label free mode. Typical target molecules such as small ionic species like Li+, Na+, K+, SO4 2- or NO3-, organic acids in wine whose concentration and ratio to each other documents the wine quality, or caffeine or phosphate in coke were detected. Results from sample matrices like various beverages as water, cola, tea, wine and milk, water from heaters, environmental samples and blood will be presented.

  10. Contactless remote induction of shear waves in soft tissues using a transcranial magnetic stimulation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Miller-Jolicoeur, Erika; Cloutier, Guy; Tang, An; Catheline, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first observation of shear waves induced remotely within soft tissues. It was performed through the combination of a transcranial magnetic stimulation device and a permanent magnet. A physical model based on Maxwell and Navier equations was developed. Experiments were performed on a cryogel phantom and a chicken breast sample. Using an ultrafast ultrasound scanner, shear waves of respective amplitudes of 5 and 0.5 μm were observed. Experimental and numerical results were in good agreement. This study constitutes the framework of an alternative shear wave elastography method. (paper)

  11. Contactless remote induction of shear waves in soft tissues using a transcranial magnetic stimulation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Miller-Jolicoeur, Erika; Tang, An; Catheline, Stefan; Cloutier, Guy

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the first observation of shear waves induced remotely within soft tissues. It was performed through the combination of a transcranial magnetic stimulation device and a permanent magnet. A physical model based on Maxwell and Navier equations was developed. Experiments were performed on a cryogel phantom and a chicken breast sample. Using an ultrafast ultrasound scanner, shear waves of respective amplitudes of 5 and 0.5 μm were observed. Experimental and numerical results were in good agreement. This study constitutes the framework of an alternative shear wave elastography method.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  13. CONTACTLESS MEASUREMENT OF KEY PARAMETERS OF LIMB VESSELS ON AN OCCLUSAL PLETHYSMOGRAPHY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this publication – to familiarize the readers with the newest achievements in the field of vision   machine   technologies   with   regard to the   occlusal   plethysmography.   The   principle   of plethysmograph work is similar to a principle of mechanical occlusal plethysmograph work, with that only a difference that working measuring environment (gas or liquid is replaced with laser labels, and fixation of change of volume is made by machine vision with the subsequent computer processing. Application of laser technologies of machine vision in future considerably simplified process of diagnostics, will allow to carry out diagnostics repeatedly and under various conditions of, for example, case of external action on the examined finiteness of the of heat, cold, physical exercise, and so, is representative of more and accurate picture of the state of blood vessels in the dynamics.

  14. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  15. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  16. Seed anatomy, moisture content and scarification influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low and erratic germination in wild banana seed is caused by dormancy due to physical, anatomical or physiological reasons. Imbibition activates germination process and the rate of water uptake during imbibition is influenced by seed molecular composition and internal and external morphological structures. The present ...

  17. Assessment of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris l.) Seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major causes of low yield of common bean in Ethiopia is the shortage and/or inaccessibility of high quality seed. In the Hararghe highlands of eastern Ethiopia, farmers often use common bean seeds produced both under sole crop and intercrop systems. This study was carried out to investigate the physical, ...

  18. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  19. Paper (essay on seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Mladen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed studies of the past of the agrarian thought of the world (evolution of agro-innovation, and within it, the relationship of man and seed, the author has selected key data for Table 1. In addition, more or less known folk sayings, proverbs, curses and allegories in which the seed is the key word have been collected. Then, religious books, folk art and literature works (sayings of prominent individuals and experts and observations of the author himself have been studied. According to the collected opus, it can be concluded that the vast importance of seed meaningfully entwined into all spheres of folk life and cultural heritage. Seed is directly tied to the following eight key (revolutionary milestones in the food and economic life of mankind: 1. the first and for the longest time, the seed used to be the main food of the people and the first food reserve; 2. Neolithic Revolution was simply caused by the sowing of seeds; 3. for the sake of sowing man began to develop more complex processing techniques; 4. everywhere and forever, especially since the late 15th century, the seed has been a carrier of (rescuing plants between Europe and the New World, that is, between continents; 5. seed was the first product that has been chemically treated since the mid-18th century; 6. standard operation procedures and quality are promoted on seed by which it became the first product to have prescribed (compulsory methods, but it also became a good whose quality has to be tested before sale; 7. hybrid seed is a 'perpetrator' of the green revolution in the mid-20th century and at last there is disputable seed of genetically modified organisms that are spreading with certain reactions. The author proposes that the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification includes a special section (division which would classify the seed for sowing, while beyond this Classification terms such as seed, plant seed should be replaced with non-seed

  20. Low-Energy Electron Potentiometry: Contactless Imaging of Charge Transport on the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, J; Jobst, J; Sorger, C; Tromp, R M; Weber, H B; van der Molen, S J

    2015-09-04

    Charge transport measurements form an essential tool in condensed matter physics. The usual approach is to contact a sample by two or four probes, measure the resistance and derive the resistivity, assuming homogeneity within the sample. A more thorough understanding, however, requires knowledge of local resistivity variations. Spatially resolved information is particularly important when studying novel materials like topological insulators, where the current is localized at the edges, or quasi-two-dimensional (2D) systems, where small-scale variations can determine global properties. Here, we demonstrate a new method to determine spatially-resolved voltage maps of current-carrying samples. This technique is based on low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and is therefore quick and non-invasive. It makes use of resonance-induced contrast, which strongly depends on the local potential. We demonstrate our method using single to triple layer graphene. However, it is straightforwardly extendable to other quasi-2D systems, most prominently to the upcoming class of layered van der Waals materials.

  1. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    currently working on ... heterozygosity of seed, minute seed size, presence of reduced ... Advantages of Artificial or Synthetic Seeds over Somatic Embryos for Propagation .... hour gives optimum bead hardness and rigidity for the produc-.

  2. Simultaneous and rapid determination of caffeine and taurine in energy drinks by MEKC in a short capillary with dual contactless conductivity/photometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vochyánová, Blanka; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of taurine and caffeine using a laboratory-made instrument enabling separation analysis in a short 10.5 cm capillary. The substances are detected using a contactless conductometry/ultraviolet (UV) photometry detector that enables recording both signals at one place in the capillary. The separation of caffeine and taurine was performed using the MEKC technique in a BGE with the composition 40 mM CHES, 15 mM NaOH, and 50 mM SDS, pH 9.36. Under these conditions, the migration time of caffeine is 43 s and of taurine 60 s; LOD for caffeine is 4 mg/L using photometric detection and LOD for taurine is 24 mg/L using contactless conductometric detection. The standard addition method was used for determination in Red Bull energy drink of caffeine 317 mg/L and taurine 3860 mg/L; the contents in Kamikaze drink were 468 mg/L caffeine and 4110 mg/L taurine. The determined values are in good agreement with the declared contents of these substances. RSD does not exceed 3%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  4. Saving Seed Microbiomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Gabriele; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Plant seeds are home to diverse microbial communities whose composition is determined by plant genotype, environment, and management practices. Plant domestication is now recognized as an important driver of plant-associated microbial diversity. To what extent and how domestication affects seed

  5. Seed quality and optimal spatial arrangement of fodder radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides the use of fodder radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus Metzg. as green manure plant cover crops and animal feed, the seeds have high oil content and low viscosity, ideal characteristics for the production of biodiesel. Studies related to the technology of seed production for this species are insufficient to define the best spatial arrangement of plants in the field that provides higher yields associated with high-quality seeds. Thus, we investigated the space and density between plants that would be ideal for the production of high quality fodder radish seeds. We evaluated the agronomic characteristics and physical, physiological and seed health quality in recently harvested fodder radish in row spacings of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 m and densities of 10, 30, 50 and 70 seeds m-2. The quality and productivity of the fodder radish's seeds were affected by the spatial arrangement of plants in the field. Seeds harvested under the spacing of 0.2 m and density of 30 seeds m-2 had better performance and physical, physiological and health quality. Alternaria sp. incidence increased with greater spacing, while Fusarium sp. incidence decreased.

  6. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  7. Seed cryopreservation of the native cacti Discocactus zehntneri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2013-05-20

    May 20, 2013 ... relatively low cost (Santos, 2001; Almeida et al., 2002;. Carvalho and ... bags at ambient temperature until mounting of the experiment. (October, 2011). .... seeds of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) Euphorbiaceae. Biotemas.

  8. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Diekmann, K.; Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Prayer, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  9. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  10. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  11. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  12. Rumen degradability of some feed legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    González , Javier; Andrés , Santiago

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this work was to determine the effective degradability (ED) of CP for different feed legume seeds and the possible relationship with their physical and chemical characteristics. The ED was measured using nylon bags and rumen outflow rate techniques on three rumen cannulated wethers fed at 40 g DM$\\cdot$kg$^{-0.75}$, with a 2:1 (on DM basis) hay to concentrate diet. Nine seed samples of the following legume species were tested: lupin (Lupinus albus L., cultiv...

  13. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas):

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    else

    seed production. Although, physic nut is thought to have least disease and insect incidence, it ... A serious of experiments has been carried out at Melkassa Agriculture Research ... productive and high value to cover the cost of irrigation.

  14. Prosopis Africana SEEDS (OKPEYE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Prosopis africana, okpeye seeds, thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity, .... 2.3 Determination of Thermal Properties of Prosopis. Africana .... and the guard ring was filled with fiber glass at both the.

  15. Oil seed marketing prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  16. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  17. Seeds of impurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pavoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ai Weiwei’s art installation Kui Hua Zi [Sunflower Seeds] took place between 2010 and 2011 in the gigantic Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern Gallery, in London. It consisted of 100 millions hand-crafted porcelain seeds made in Jingdezhen, China.1 An uneven surface to dive into, a haptic space of undulating vision, rustling steps, unusual horizontality, a meaningless quicksand where the separation between artwork and spectator is engulfed, the immunity of distant contemplation denied.

  18. Hidrocondicionamento de Parkia pendula [Benth ex Walp]: sementes com dormência física de árvore da Amazônia Hydropriming of Parkia pendula [Penth. ex Walp.]: seeds with physical dormancy from Amazon tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Janet Vargas Pinedo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O visgueiro é uma árvore neotropical de importâncias econômica e ecológica. Este estudo objetivou determinar o tempo de embebição e o teor de água de sementes de Parkia pendula necessários para ativar o metabolismo e aumentar o desempenho pelo condicionamento. Sementes armazenadas (2 anos e não armazenadas (7 dias foram comparadas. Após o desponte as sementes foram submersas em água a 15 ºC, por períodos de 4 a 28 h, para atingir o grau de embebição desejado (20, 40, 60, 80 e 90%. Em seguida, foram diretamente semeadas em areia lavada no viveiro (4 x 25 sementes/tratamento ou dessecadas durante sete dias (24±2 °C e 68±3% UR antes da semeadura. Sementes não armazenadas e sem condicionamento (controle apresentaram 59±8,9% de emergência, valor inferior ao daquelas armazenadas e sem condicionamento (76±11,3%. Períodos de submersão superiores a 13 h reduziram o desempenho da germinação em relação às sementes não condicionadas. Porém, após 4 h (26-31% de teor de água das sementes ambas as sementes não armazenadas e armazenadas aumentaram o desempenho, sendo, ainda, maior quando houve dessecamento após a submersão. Portanto, os efeitos positivos do condicionamento ocorreram na fase I da curva de embebição. O hidrocondicionamento de 4 h a 15 ºC mostrou ser uma opção econômica e de fácil aplicação em sementes de P. pendula: aumentou a velocidade do desenvolvimento das plântulas, a porcentagem de germinação das sementes não armazenadas em níveis similares aos das armazenadas e a sincronização da germinação em sementes armazenadas.Visgueiro is a neo-tropical tree species with economic and ecologic importance. This work aimed to determine the imbibition time and moisture content of P. pendula seeds necessary to activate metabolism and improve their performance by priming. Stored seeds (2 years and unstored seeds (7 days were compared. After clipping, the seeds were kept in water at 15 ºC for periods of

  19. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  20. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  1. Dosimetric comparison of seed strength for I-125 prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.; Droege, J.; Beaufort, C.

    2004-01-01

    large number of pre-plans were investigated in this study and show some advantages of using a higher strength seed for our manually planned prostate implants. Apart from a minimal increase in target coverage, the main benefits were of a practical rather than clinical nature. The mean number of seeds used per implant was substantially decreased with higher seed strength, hence the total cost of seeds and physics seed loading time would subsequently be reduced. For a seed strength of 0.6 U there was a significant reduction in the total number of needles used for the implantation. Therefore for this seed strength, theatre time would be reduced, as well as the extent of injury to tissue. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  2. Mapping and Measuring the Microrelief of Slope Deformations Using Modern Contactless Technologies and Practical Application in Territorial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudý, František; Slámová, Martina; Tomaštík, Julián; Kardoš, Miroslav; Tunák, Daniel; Saloň, Šimon

    2017-04-01

    Slope deformations are risks limiting economic land use potential. A national database system keeps records of slope disturbances and deformations, however, it is important to update the information mainly from the point of view of practical territorial planning, especially in the high-risk areas presented in the study. The paper explains the possibilities of applying modern methods of mapping the microrelief of slope deformations of a lower extent (up to several hundreds of m2) and using not very well known contactless technologies, which could be applied in practice due to their low-cost and low-time consuming nature. In order to create a digital model of the microrelief used to carry out the measurements we applied the method of terrestrial photogrammetry, terrestrial scanning using Lenovo Phab 2Pro. It is the first device available for users that uses the Google Tango technology. So far there have been only prototypes of devices available for the developers only. The Tango technology consists of 3 partial technologies - "depth perception" (measuring the distance to objects, nowadays it uses mainly infrared radiation), "motion tracking" (tracking the position and motion of the device using embedded sensors) and "area learning" (simply learning the area, where the device looks for same objects within already existing 3D models and real space). Even though the technology utilisation is nowadays presented mainly in the field of augmented reality and navigation in the interior, there are already some applications for collecting the point clouds in real time, which can be used in a wide spectrum of applications in exterior, which was also applied in our research. Data acquired this way can be processed in readily available software products, what enabled a high degree of automation also in our case. After comparing with the reference point field that was measured using GNSS and electronic tachymeter, we reached accuracy of point position determination from a digital

  3. Radio frequency self-resonant coil for contactless AC-conductivity in 100 T class ultra-strong pulse magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, D.; Altarawneh, M. M.; Takeyama, S.

    2018-03-01

    A contactless measurement system of electrical conductivity was developed for application under pulsed high magnetic fields over 100 T by using a self-resonant-type, high-frequency circuit. Electromagnetic fields in the circuit were numerically analysed by the finite element method, to show how the resonant power spectra of the circuit depends on the electrical conductivity of a sample set on the probe-coil. The performance was examined using a high-temperature cuprate superconductor, La2-x Sr x CuO4, in magnetic fields up to 102 T with a high frequency of close to 800 MHz. As a result, the upper critical field could be determined with a good signal-to-noise ratio.

  4. Development of the method to measure vibrational stress of small-bore piping with contactless displacement sensor. Accuracy confirmation by vibrational experiment using branch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Takashi; Maekawa, Akira; Takahashi, Tsuneo

    2013-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, vibrational stress of piping is measured to prevent its fatigue failures. Easier handling and more efficient performance is desirable for the measurement of vibrational stress. The authors have proposed a method to measure vibrational stress using optical contactless displacement sensors, and have developed a device based on the method. In addition, they downsized the device and improved the method to allow its use for measurements even in narrow spaces in the plants. In this study, vibrational experiment using branch pipes and the device was conducted to confirm the measurement accuracy of the improved method. It was found that the improved method have sufficient accuracy for screening to evaluate the vibrational stress. It was also found that this measurement method was thought to be susceptible to the vibration of main pipe. So a technique was proposed to improve the accuracy of the measurement in this paper. (author)

  5. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  6. The importance of using certified seed

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Sandra; Mladenov Velimir; Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Certified seed is produced from the seed of known genetic origin and genetic purity with controlled and tested production, processed and declared in accordance with the Law on Seeds. Production of certified seed is carried out under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, by seed producers formally listed in the Seed Register. Seed is processed in registered seed processing centres and quality is tested in laboratories accredited for seed testing. The orga...

  7. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  8. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  9. Comparacion de la viabilidad de las semillas obtenidas por medio de las tecnicas de extraccion fisica por lavado y de germinacion Comparing the viability of seeds obtained by the physical extraction techniques VBP and VBP plus germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Zuluaga

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar la viabilidad obtenida por la técnica de viabilidad por presión (VPP respecto de la viabilidad obtenida por una combinación de la metodología VPP más germinación. Asimismo se trató de establecer si ambos procedimientos determinan la viabilidad de las mismas especies o si existen diferencias en las especies establecidas como viables. El número de semillas viables estimado por la técnica VPP fue de 3475 (9,85% del total del banco de semillas, en tanto el número de semillas no viables fue de 31795 (90,15% del total del banco de semillas. Luego de aplicar la técnica de germinación (5 ciclos sobre ambas categorías, en las viables se obtuvo una germinación de 3286 semillas (9,32% del total del banco de semillas, no germinando 189 semillas (0,53% del total de dicho banco. Hubo un 7.23% adicional del banco de semillas que resultó viable por germinación, cuando previamente había sido considerado no viable por la técnica VPP. Los resultados alcanzados muestran que la técnica VPP realiza una subestimación significativa del banco de semillas, en tanto la sobreestimación no alcanzó niveles de significancia. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto que con la técnica VPP no sólo se obtiene un menor número total de semillas viables, sino que no permitiría reflejar la verdadera proporción de semillas viables y no viables del banco total. Cuando se incorpora al análisis la técnica de germinación, se encuentra que la proporción del banco no es la misma de acuerdo a la metodología empleada, pues mientras la VPP establece, dentro del banco, semillas viables y no viables, se observó que aplicando la técnica de germinación algunas semillas consideradas viables no germinaron mientras que otras consideradas como no viables sí lo hiciero.The objective of this study was to compare the viability of seeds obtained through the techniques "viability by pressure" (VBP and "viability by pressure plus

  10. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under... seeds. (b) Seed consigned to a seed cleaning or processing establishment, for cleaning or processing for... pertaining to such seed show that it is “Seed for processing,” or, if the seed is in containers and in...

  11. Physical working principles of medical radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-04-01

    There has been research interest in using radar for contactless measurements of the human heartbeat for several years. While many systems have been demonstrated, not much attention have been given to the actual physical causes of why this work. The consensus seems to be that the radar senses small body movements correlated with heartbeats, but whether only the movements of the body surface or reflections from internal organs are also monitored have not been answered definitely. There has recently been proposed another theory that blood perfusion in the skin could be the main reason radars are able to detect heartbeats. In this paper, an experimental approach is given to determine the physical causes. The measurement results show that it is the body surface reflections that dominate radar measurements of human heartbeats.

  12. Improving Soil Seed Bank Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L

    2018-05-08

    Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed. I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differe...

  14. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  15. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  16. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  17. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  18. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  19. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  20. Characterization of a ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx'Cdy'Mg1-x'-y'Se multiple quantum well structure for mid-infrared device applications by contactless electroreflectance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J D; Lin, J W; Huang, Y S; Charles, W O; Shen, A; Zhang, Q; Tamargo, M C

    2009-01-01

    Contactless electroreflectance (CER) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to study the intersubband transitions of a Zn x Cd 1-x Se/Zn x' Cd y' Mg 1-x'-y' Se multiple quantum well (MQW) structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy for mid-infrared device applications. The CER spectrum revealed a wide range of possible optical transitions in the MQW structure. The ground state transition was assigned by comparison with the photoluminescence emission signal taken from the same structure. A comprehensive analysis of the CER spectrum led to the identification of various interband transitions. The intersubband transitions were estimated and confirmed by FTIR measurements. The results demonstrate the potential of using CER as a complementary technique for the contactless and nondestructive characterization of the wide band gap II-VI MQW structures for mid-IR intersubband device applications.

  1. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... The role of 20E in plant physiology including seed germination is not studied. ..... GA3, ABA and CKs on lettuce Lactuca sativa seed germination are ..... Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals and humans: an update. J.

  2. Seed research for improved technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bino,R.J.; Jalink,H.; Oluoch,M.O.; Groot,S.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The production of high-quality seed is the basis for a durable a profitable agriculture. After production, seed is processed, conditioned, stored, shipped and germinated. For quality assurance, seed quality has to be controlled at all steps of the production chain. Seed functioning is accompanied by programmed transitions from cell proliferation to quiescence upon maturation and from quiescence to reinitiation of cellular metabolism upon imbibition. Despite the obvious importance of these con...

  3. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food ... lupin seeds can be utilized for milk and meat imitation products. ... estimated by multiplying the percentage of crude protein, crude fat and ...

  4. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  5. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  6. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  7. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  8. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  9. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  10. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process

  11. [Study on seed testing for Salvia miltiorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Hong-mei; Qi, Jian-jun; Zhou, Li-li; Li, Xian-en

    2008-09-01

    To establish a seed testing methods for Salvia miltiorrhiza. Referring to the International Seed Testing Rules made by ISTA and the Seed Testing for Crops (GB/T3543. 1-1995) issued by China. The seeds are selected by winnowing; the seed purity is about 50%-60%; 100 grain weight is used to determine the quality of the seed; the seed moisture content is determined by air drying, the drying hour is 3 h. Seed viability is tested by TFC method.

  12. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  13. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  14. Seed systems support in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyi, Peter; Jonge, De Bram

    2015-01-01

    The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector

  15. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  16. Lack of divergence in seed ecology of two Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae) species disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keliang; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-06-01

    Many congeneric species are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America. No previous study has compared the seed biology of closely related disjunct taxa of legumes or of a diaspore-heteromorphic species. Our objective was to compare seed dormancy in two such sister species in the genus Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae). We investigated the ecology and ecophysiology of aerial and subterranean seeds of the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii from China and compared the results to those published for its sister species A. bracteata from eastern North America. The seed coat of aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii is well developed, whereas the seed coat of subterranean seeds is not. Aerial seeds have combinational dormancy (physical dormancy [PY] + physiological dormancy [PD]) broken by scarification followed by cold stratification or by after-ripening and scarification; whereas subterranean seeds have PD broken by cold stratification. Aerial seeds formed a persistent soil seed bank, and subterranean seeds a transient soil seed bank. Aerial seeds of A. bracteata also have PY+PD and subterranean seeds PD. Subterranean seeds of both species are desiccation intolerant. Dormancy in neither aerial nor subterranean seeds of both species has diverged over geological time. Compared to subterranean seeds, aerial seeds of both species dispersed over longer distances. Seed dispersal ability and degree of dormancy of neither species fits the high-risk/low-risk (H-H/L-L) strategy found in many diaspore-dimorphic species. Rather, both species have an H-L/L-H strategy for these two life history traits. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gillian; Duncan, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The volatile fraction of diesel fuel played a major role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. - The use of plant-based systems to remediate contaminated soils has become an area of intense scientific study in recent years and it is apparent that plants which grow well in contaminated soils need to be identified and screened for use in phytoremediation technologies. This study investigated the effect of diesel fuel on germination of selected plant species. Germination response varied greatly with plant species and was species specific, as members of the same plant family showed differential sensitivity to diesel fuel contamination. Differences were also seen within plant subspecies. At relatively low levels of diesel fuel contamination, delayed seed emergence and reduced percentage germination was observed for the majority of plant species investigated. Results suggest the volatile fraction of diesel fuel played an influential role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. In addition, the remaining diesel fuel in the soil added to this inhibitory effect on germination by physically impeding water and oxygen transfer between the seed and the surrounding soil environment, thus hindering the germination response

  18. Establishment of post-harvest early-developmental categories for viability maintenance of Araucaria angustifolia seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia Araldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia seeds are recalcitrant, and their metabolism remains high during storage. This research aimed to describe the initiation of germination in A. angustifolia seeds during storage in order to standardize the assessment of physiological quality and to promote seed conservation. Seeds were collected from two populations and stored for 270 days in the natural laboratory environment and cold chamber. Seeds were classified according to four early developmental stages: I - mature seeds; II - seeds with elongation along the embryonic axis; III - beginning of root protrusion; IV - advanced germination stage, with seedling shoots. After categorization, physical and physiological quality was assessed. In freshly collected seeds, only category I was observed. At 270 days, approximately 40% of seeds were in category III in laboratory conditions, while the maintenance in a cold chamber delayed germinative metabolism. Viability tests showed that seeds in categories III and IV were more susceptible to damage caused by storage. In conclusion, the percentage of viable A. angustifolia seeds depends on the development stage after collection. Seeds that have reached early developmental category III should be prioritized for propagation, while those remaining in categories I and II should be longer stored with periodic assessment for reduction in physiological quality.

  19. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  20. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  1. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jixiang; Hu Danhong; Liu Houli

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  2. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  3. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas):

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    else

    Hence a serious of silvicultural and genotype testing have been carried out in the Central Rift Valley of. Ethiopia. The result indicated that physic nut has a very narrow genetic ... physic nut as a source of raw material for biodiesel industry. .... such level of seed yield per hectare was achieved through good management and.

  4. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  5. Seed storage-mediated dormancy alleviation in Fabaceae from campo rupestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Nativel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe studied the effects of seed storage on germination and dormancy alleviation in three species of Fabaceae endemic to campo rupestrein southeastern Brazil. Fresh seeds of Collaea cipoensis, Mimosa maguirei and Mimosa foliolosawere set to germinate and germination of seeds after four, five and 13 years of storage was tested. Seed viability was maintained for all species after the full storage period. Seed storage significantly increased germination percentage and decreased germination time for C. cipoensisand M. foliolosa, suggesting the alleviation of physical dormancy with storage. However, we did not find evidence of dormancy alleviation in M. maguirei since stored seeds showed a decrease in germination in comparison to that of fresh seeds. Our data indicate species-specific storage-mediated dormancy alleviation, which will have important implications for restoration of campo rupestre.

  6. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  7. Dormancy-breaking requirements of Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Luzia Delgado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical dormancy of seeds has been poorly studied in species from tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to examine the effect of moderate alternating temperatures on breaking the physical dormancy of seeds, the morphoanatomy and histochemistry of seed coats, and to locate the structure/region responsible for water entrance into the seed, after breaking the physical dormancy of seeds of two woody Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa. To assess temperature effect, seeds were incubated in several temperature values that occur in the Atlantic Forest. For morphological and histochemical studies, sections of fixed seeds were subjected to different reagents, and were observed using light or epifluorescence microscopy, to analyze the anatomy and histochemistry of the seed coat. Treated and non-treated seeds were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM to observe the morphology of the seed coat. To localize the specific site of water entrance, the seeds were blocked with glue in different regions and also immersed in ink. In the present work a maximum temperature fluctuation of 15ºC was applied during a period of 20 days and these conditions did not increase the germination of S. tomentosa or E. speciosa. These results may indicate that these seeds require larger fluctuation of temperature than the applied or/and longer period of exposition to the temperature fluctuation. Blocking experiments water inlet combined with SEM analysis of the structures of seed coat for both species showed that besides the lens, the hilum and micropyle are involved in water absorption in seeds scarified with hot water. In seeds of E. speciosa the immersion of scarified seeds into an aniline aqueous solution showed that the solution first entered the seed through the hilum. Both species showed seed morphological and anatomical features for seed

  8. Physical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  9. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  10. Importance of amylases for physiological quality in maize seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aparecida Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality is the result of the sum of genetic, physical, physiological and sanitary attributes that affect seed ability to perform vital functions related to germination, vigor, and longevity. The expression of genes associated with physiological quality can be assessed by means of germination and vigor analyses, as well as by transcript and protein analyses. The objective in this work was to review the relevance of amylase group enzymes to the physiological quality of maize seeds. Within this group, α-amylase (1,4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase E.C 3.2.1.1 plays an important role in starch hydrolysis, and is responsible for 90% of the amylolytic activity in maize seeds. It is responsible for starch conversion into sugars (e.g., destrin, which is used for embryo growth. β-amylase (1,4-α-D-glucan maltohydrolase E.C 3.2.1.2 catalyzes the release of maltose and dextrins from the non-reducing ends of starch. Research has shown that amylase enzymes are directly linked to physiological quality of maize seeds. Alpha- and beta-amylases are mainly involved in the germination process and seed heterosis, and can also be used as molecular markers associated with seed tolerance for drying.

  11. Biodegraded polymers as materials for sowing of grain crops seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Shibryaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of efficiency of grain production, solution of problems of food security demand search and development of innovative technologies at all stages. One of ways of environmentally friendly production is sowing of seeds on an excipient located in the soil, for example, nonwoven fabric made of eco- decomposable decomposed biodegraded polymer. Biodegraded polymeric materials influence on sowing properties of grain crops seeds and provide realization of their potential productivity. The authors used an electroforming method with chloroform and a dichloroethane application to receive nonwoven fabric from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and its compositions together with synthetic nitrile rubber (PHB-SNR. Polymeric material influences on energy of germination and viability of wheat seeds. Germination index is calculated, heat physical parameters are determined for the polymeric excipient. The major factor influencing seeds germination is a structure of nonwoven fabric. Water diffusion, its supply to seeds and their viability depend on morphological features of polymeric material. Polymer excipient structure influence on speed of development of root system on which, in turn, intensity of destruction of polymer depends. The best indicators of energy of germination and viability of seeds correspond to the greatest value of decrease of melting heat of PHB in mix PHB-SNR. In addition, among the studied samples of PHB-SNR the material received from blend of solvents is most effective. The cause is in feature of its structure favorable for a seed germination.

  12. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  13. Determination of pyruvate and lactate as potential biomarkers of embryo viability in assisted reproduction by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mádr, Aleš; Celá, Andrea; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelcová, Marta; Crha, Igor; Žáková, Jana; Glatz, Zdeněk

    2015-06-01

    Human-assisted reproduction is increasing in importance due to the constantly rising number of couples suffering from infertility issue. A key step in in vitro fertilization is the proper assessment of embryo viability in order to select the embryo with the highest likelihood of resulting in a pregnancy. This study proposes a method based on CE with contactless conductivity detection for the determination of pyruvate and lactate in spent culture media used in human-assisted reproduction. A fused-silica capillary of 64.0 cm total length and 50 μm inner diameter was used. The inner capillary wall was modified by the coating of successive layers of the ionic polymers polybrene and dextran sulfate to reverse EOF. The BGE was composed of 10 mM MES/lithium hydroxide, pH 6.50. The sample was injected by pressure 50 mbar for 18 s, separation voltage was set to -24 kV, and capillary temperature to 15°C. The presented method requires only 2 μL of the culture medium, with LODs for pyruvate and lactate of 0.03 and 0.02 μM, respectively. The results demonstrated the method's suitability for the analysis of spent culture media to support embryo viability assessment by light microscopy, providing information about key metabolites of the energy metabolism of a developing embryo. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Simultaneous determination of diclofenac and its common counter-ions in less than 1 minute using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rafael R; Gimenes, Denise T; Munoz, Rodrigo A A; do Lago, Claudimir L; Richter, Eduardo M

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a method for fast and simultaneous determination of diclofenac (DCF) and its common counter-ions (potassium, sodium, and diethylammonium) using CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D). On the basis of a single electropherogram (about 50 s), the proposed method allows the determination of the stoichiometry, absolute quantification and evaluation of the degradation degree of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (DCF). A linear working range from 100 to 500 μmol/L was obtained for all analytes in an equimolar TRIS/TAPS (10 mmol/L) solution as the background electrolyte as well as adequate LOD (7, 6, 7, and 10 μmol/L for K(+) , Na(+) , diethylammonium, and DCF, respectively). The proposed method was applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations (tablets and spray form) with similar results to those achieved by HPLC (DCF) or flame photometry (K and Na) at a 95% confidence level. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Contactless electroreflectance and photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots with GaInNAs barriers grown on GaAs substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Misiewicz, J.; Pucicki, D.; Tlaczala, M.; Fischer, M.; Marquardt, B.; Forchel, A.

    2007-01-01

    InAs quantum dots (QDs) with GaInNAs barriers grown on (001) GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied by contactless electroreflectance (CER) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. It has been observed that the overgrowth of self-organized InAs QDs with GaInNAs layers effectively tunes the QD emission to the 1.3 μm spectral region. In case of PL spectra only one peak related to QD emission has been observed. In the case of CER spectra, in addition to a CER feature corresponding to the QD ground state, a rich spectrum of CER resonances related to optical transitions in InAs/GaInNAs/GaAs QW has been observed. It has been concluded that the application of GaInNAs instead InGaAs leads to better control of emission wavelength from InAs QDs since strains in GaInNAs can be tuned from compressive to tensile. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection: Towards rapid diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of acute paraquat poisoning in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh Phuong; Nguyen, Thi Ngan; Do, Thi Trang; Doan, Thu Ha; Ha, Tran Hung; Ta, Thi Thao; Nguyen, Hung Long; Hauser, Peter C; Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2017-08-15

    The employment of a purpose-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C 4 D) as a simple and cost-effective solution for clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples for early-stage diagnosis of acute herbicide poisoning is reported. Paraquat was determined using an electrolyte composed of 10mM histidine adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid. A detection limit of 0.5mg/L was achieved. Good agreement between results from CE-C 4 D and the confirmation method (HPLC-UV) was obtained, with relative errors for the two pairs of data better than 20% for 31 samples taken from paraquat-intoxicated patients. The results were used by medical doctors for identification and prognosis of acute paraquat poisoning cases. The objective of the work is the deployment of the developed approach in rural areas in Vietnam as a low-cost solution to reduce the mortality rate due to accidental or suicidal ingestion of paraquat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Pressure-assisted introduction of urine samples into a short capillary for electrophoretic separation with contactless conductivity and UV spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrlíková, Anna; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2015-08-01

    A computer-controlled hydrodynamic sample introduction method has been proposed for short-capillary electrophoresis. In the method, the BGE flushes sample from the loop of a six-way sampling valve and is carried to the injection end of the capillary. A short pressure impulse is generated in the electrolyte stream at the time when the sample zone is at the capillary, leading to injection of the sample into the capillary. Then the electrolyte flow is stopped and the separation voltage is turned on. This way of sample introduction does not involve movement of the capillary and both of its ends remain constantly in the solution during both sample injection and separation. The amount of sample introduced to the capillary is controlled by the duration of the pressure pulse. The new sample introduction method was tested in the determination of ammonia, creatinine, uric acid, and hippuric acid in human urine. The determination was performed in a capillary with an overall length of 10.5 cm, in two BGEs with compositions 50 mM MES + 5 mM NaOH (pH 5.1) and 1 M acetic acid + 1.5 mM crown ether 18-crown-6 (pH 2.4). A dual contactless conductivity/UV spectrometric detector was used for the detection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Simultaneous determination of low-molecular-weight organic acids and chlorinated acid herbicides in environmental water by a portable CE system with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Weilong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2007-05-01

    This report describes a method to simultaneously determine 11 low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids and 16 chlorinated acid herbicides within a single run by a portable CE system with contactless conductivity detection (CCD) in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-coated capillary. Under the optimized condition, the LODs of CE-CCD ranged from 0.056 to 0.270 ppm, which were better than for indirect UV (IUV) detection of the 11 LMW organic acids or UV detection of the 16 chlorinated acid herbicides. Combined with an on-line field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) procedure, sensitivity enhancement of 632- to 1078-fold was achieved, with satisfactory reproducibility (RSDs of migration times less than 2.2%, and RSDs of peak areas less than 5.1%). The FASS-CE-CCD method was successfully applied to determine the two groups of acidic pollutants in two kinds of environmental water samples. The portable CE-CCD system shows advantages such as simplicity, cost effectiveness, and miniaturization. Therefore, the method presented in this report has great potential for onsite analysis of various pollutants at the trace level.

  19. Laser doppler and radar interferometer for contactless measurements on unaccessible tie-rods on monumental buildings: Santa Maria della Consolazione Temple in Todi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gioffré, M; Cavalagli, N; Pepi, C; Trequattrini, M

    2017-01-01

    Non-contact measurements can be effectively used in civil engineering to assess the variation of structural performance with time. In the last decades this approach has received considerable interests from researchers working in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). Indeed, non-contact measurements are very attractive because it is possible to perform non intrusive and non destructive investigations even being at a significant distance from the targets. Within this context, contactless measurements of the tie-rod vibrations in the Santa Maria della Consolazione Temple in Todi (Italy) are presented in this paper. In particular, laser vibrometer and radar interferometer measurements are used to estimate natural frequencies and mode shapes. This information is crucial to obtain the tensile axial force in the tie-rods, which can be used as an indicator of structural integrity or possible failure. Furthermore, a novel approach is proposed where drones (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) can be successfully used to improve the effectiveness and the accuracy of the experimental activities. (paper)

  20. Study on the effects of electrolytes and solvents in the determination of quaternary ammonium ions by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Lucia; See, Hong Heng; Hauser, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    A study on the separation of lipophilic quaternary ammonium cations in NACE coupled with contactless conductivity detection (NACE-C(4)D) is presented. The suitability of different salts dissolved in various organic solvents as running electrolytes in NACE-C(4)D was investigated. A solvent mixture of methanol/acetonitrile at a ratio of 90%:10% v/v showed the best results. Deoxycholic acid sodium salt as BGE was found to provide exceptional high stability with low baseline noise that leads to highest S/N ratios for the target analytes among all BGEs tested. Under the optimum conditions, capillaries with different internal diameters were examined and an id of 50 μm was found to give best detection sensitivity. The proposed method was validated and showed good linearity in the range from 2.5 to 200 μM, low limits of detection (0.1-0.7 μM) and acceptable reproducibility of peak area (intraday RSD 0.1-0.7%, n = 3; interday RSD 5.9-9.4%, n = 3). © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Seeding black holes in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.; Kobayashi, C.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass-velocity dispersion relation, and the size-velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is ˜103 M⊙, which is orders of magnitude smaller than that which has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.

  2. Propriedades físicas e sensoriais da carne de cordeiros Santa Inês terminados em dietas com diferentes níveis de caroço de algodão integral (Gossypium hirsutum Physical and sensorial properties of Santa Ines lamb meat terminated in diets with increasing levels of whole cotton seed (Gossypium hirsutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Raquel de Lucena Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de dietas de terminação contendo diferentes níveis (0, 20, 30 e 40% de caroço de algodão integral (Gossypium hirsutum sobre os parâmetros físicos e sensoriais da carne de vinte e quatro cordeiros da raça Santa Inês. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de pH, capacidade de retenção de água (CRA, perda de peso por cocção (PPC, textura e cor, além dos parâmetros sensoriais de sabor, aroma, cor e textura. Apenas o parâmetro cor da carne ovina sofreu influência significativa da adição do caroço de algodão integral, observando-se variações para as coordenadas b* e L* (antes da cocção. Verificou-se também que os tratamentos apresentaram influência (p The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of termination diets containing increasing levels (0, 20, 30, and 40% of whole cotton seed (Gossypium hirsutum on the physical (pH, water holding capacity, cooking losses, texture, colour and sensory parameters (flavour, odour, colour, texture of the lamb meat of twenty four Santa Ines sheep. Only the b* and L* colour parameters of the lamb meat were significantly affected by the addition of different levels of whole cotton seed to the diet. The inclusion of the whole cotton seed in the diet of the Santa Ines sheep also influenced sensory attributes such as natural colour, odour, and characteristic flavour. Based on these observations, considering the physical and sensory attributes of the lamb meat, the use of whole cotton seed at a 40% level for sheep in termination for short periods, i.e., up to 90 days, is recommended.

  3. Accumulation of proanthocyanidins and/or lignin deposition in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats may lead to frequent defective cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Mineo; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Hiraoka, Miho; Kawada, So; Iiyoshi, Ryota; Yamashita, Kazuki; Sonoki, Tomonori; Maeda, Hayato; Kawasaki, Michio

    2017-03-01

    Defective cracking frequently occurs in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats, where proanthocyanidins accumulate and lignin is deposited, suggesting that proanthocyanidins and/or lignin may change physical properties and lead to defective cracking. In the seed production of many yellow soybean (Glycine max) cultivars, very low percentages of self-pigmented seeds are commonly found. This phenomenon is derived from a recessive mutation of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation. In Japan, most of these self-pigmented seeds are buff-colored, and frequently show multiple defective cracks in the seed coat. However, it is not known why cracking occurs specifically in buff seed coats. In this study, quantitative analysis was performed between yellow and buff soybean seed coats. Compared with yellow soybeans, in which defective cracking rarely occurs, contents of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and lignin were significantly higher in buff seed coats. Histochemical data of PAs and lignin in the seed coats strongly supported this result. Measurements of the physical properties of seed coats using a texture analyzer showed that a hardness value was significantly decreased in the buff seed coats. These results suggest that PA accumulation and/or lignin deposition may affect the physical properties of buff seed coats and lead to the defective cracking. This work contributes to understanding of the mechanism of defective cracking, which decreases the seed quality of soybean and related legumes.

  4. Effects of processing phases on the quality of massai grass seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Faria de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Massai grass is an important tropical forage grass. The harvested seeds upon being received by the company, are found to be contaminated with impurities which are removable by processing machines. This procedure is necessary to produce seeds of a quality level within standards established for commercialization and sowing purposes. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of processing phases on the physical and physiological quality of massai grass (Panicum maximum x P. infestum, cv. Massai seeds for commercialization purposes. Seeds were sampled before processing and after leaving the air and screen machine (upper and intermediary screens and bottom; first gravity table (drift, upper and intermediate spouts; treating machine; and second gravity table (upper, intermediate, and lower spouts. Seeds were evaluated as to water content, physical (purity and 1,000 seeds weight and physiological quality (germination, first count of germination, seedling vigor classification, accelerated aging, seedling emergence in the field, speed of emergence index, and primary root length, shoot length. Massai grass seeds had their physical and physiological qualities improved when they were processed by an air and screen machine and a gravity table. Seeds from the intermediate discharge spout of the first gravity table, after going through the air and screen machine, are those of with highest physiological potential. The seeds of this species do not need to be processed to fit the germination and purity standards when the national market is the goal.

  5. Relationship between seed moisture content and acquisition of impermeability in Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh K. Jaganathan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds of Nelumbo nucifera do not imbibe water, and thus have physical dormancy (PY. However, a proportion of seeds are permeable to water, and so we hypothesized that variation in moisture content is a reason for the development of both permeable and impermeable seeds. The permeable proportion of seeds present in a lot collected from Suzhou, China, was separated using an imbibition test. The permeable proportion had an average moisture content of 15.6 %, compared with 8.5 % for impermeable seeds. Drying permeable seeds above silica gel to 10 % and 8 % f. wb., resulted in 77 and 100 % impermeable seeds, respectively, compared with no impermeable seeds at 15 % moisture content. Dried to 10 % moisture content, and incubated above water in an airtight container, 46 % of the seeds reverse impermeability. Permeable seeds with 15 % moisture content maintained above LiCl2 (RH=70 % did not develop impermeability after three months of storage. The seeds dried to 6 % moisture content and stored above water in an airtight container showed no increase in moisture. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a strong relationship between moisture content and the onset of impermeability in this species.

  6. Interaction between seed dormancy-release mechanism, environment and seed bank strategy for a widely distributed perennial legume, Parkinsonia aculeata (Caesalpinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Klinken, Rieks D; Lukitsch, Bert; Cook, Carly

    2008-08-01

    Parkinsonia aculeata (Caesalpinaceae) is a perennial legume with seeds that have hard-seeded (physical) dormancy and are potentially very long-lived. Seed dormancy is a characteristic that can both help maximize the probability of seedling establishment and spread the risk of recruitment failure across years (bet-hedging). In this study, dormancy-release patterns are described across the diverse environments in which this species occurs in order to test whether wet heat (incubation under wet, warm-to-hot, conditions) alone can explain those patterns, and in order to determine the likely ecological role of physical dormancy across this species distribution. A seed burial trial was conducted across the full environmental distribution of P. aculeata in Australia (arid to wet-dry tropics, uplands to wetlands, soil surface to 10 cm deep). Wet heat explained the pattern of dormancy release across all environments. Most seeds stored in the laboratory remained dormant throughout the trial (at least 84 %). Dormancy release was quickest for seeds buried during the wet season at relatively high rainfall, upland sites (only 3 % of seeds remained dormant after 35 d). The longest-lived seeds were in wetlands (9 % remained dormant after almost 4 years) and on the soil surface (57 % after 2 years). There was no consistent correlation between increased aridity and rate of dormancy release. The results suggest that physical dormancy in P. aculeata is a mechanism for maximizing seedling establishment rather than a bet-hedging strategy. However, seed persistence can occur in environmental refuges where dormancy-release cues are weak and conditions for germination and establishment are poor (e.g. under dense vegetation or in more arid micro-environments) or unsuitable (e.g. when seeds are inundated or on the soil surface). Risks of recruitment failure in suboptimal environments could therefore be reduced by inter-year fluctuations in microclimate or seed movement.

  7. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  8. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  9. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  10. Influence of the testa on seed dormancy, germination and longevity in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debeaujon, I.; Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Koornneef, M.

    2000-01-01

    The testa of higher plant seeds protects the embryo against adverse environmental conditions. Its role is assumed mainly by controlling germination through dormancy imposition and by limiting the detrimental activity of physical and biological agents during seed storage. To analyze the function of

  11. Perennial soybean seeds coated with high doses of boron and zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study combinations of high doses of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) in the recoating of perennial soybean seeds, in order to provide these nutrients to the future plants. The physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics of the coated seeds and initial development of plants in a greenhouse ...

  12. Mechanisms of seed dormancy in an annual population of Zostera marina (eelgrass) from the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms of dormancy of seeds from an annual population of the seagrass Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) in the SW Netherlands were investigated in the laboratory. Both physiological dormancy (a requirement for reduced salinity for germination) and physical dormancy (imposed by the seed coat) existed

  13. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328228818; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241338735

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana

  14. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  15. Seed dormancy and seed longevity: from genetic variation to gene identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and seed longevity are the most important survival traits in the soil seed bank. Both traits are induced during seed maturation and evolved to assure seed survival during environmental conditions that cannot support the regular course of life. Seed dormancy is related to the timing of

  16. Why high seed densities within buried mesh bags may overestimate depletion rates of soil seed banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van T.A.; Stomph, T.J.; Murdoch, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    1. Estimates of seed bank depletion rates are essential for modelling and management of plant populations. The seed bag burial method is often used to measure seed mortality in the soil. However, the density of seeds within seed bags is higher than densities in natural seed banks, which may elevate

  17. Heirloom biodynamic seeds network rescue, conservation and multiplication of local seeds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jovchelevich, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Structuring a network organic and biodynamic seed involving farmers in the central- southern Brazil. Training, participatory breeding, edition of publications, fairs of exchange seeds, a processing unit and assessment of seed quality, commercial seed multiplication with emphasis on vegetables. This network has garanteed the autonomy of farmers in seed production and enriched agrobiodiversity through exchanges of seed.

  18. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    acting on the drill coulters, which generates unwanted vibrations and, consequently, a non-uniform seed placement. Therefore, a proof-of-concept dynamic coulter depth control system for a low-cost seed drill was developed and studied in a field experiment. The performance of the active control system...... depth control system this variability was reduced to±2 mm. The system with the active control system operated more accurately at an operational speed of 12 km h−1 than at 4 km h−1 without the activated control system.......An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistance...

  19. Demonstration of a forward iterative method to reconstruct brachytherapy seed configurations from x-ray projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Martin J; Todor, Dorin A [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA 23298 (United States)

    2005-06-07

    By monitoring brachytherapy seed placement and determining the actual configuration of the seeds in vivo, one can optimize the treatment plan during the process of implantation. Two or more radiographic images from different viewpoints can in principle allow one to reconstruct the configuration of implanted seeds uniquely. However, the reconstruction problem is complicated by several factors: (1) the seeds can overlap and cluster in the images; (2) the images can have distortion that varies with viewpoint when a C-arm fluoroscope is used; (3) there can be uncertainty in the imaging viewpoints; (4) the angular separation of the imaging viewpoints can be small owing to physical space constraints; (5) there can be inconsistency in the number of seeds detected in the images; and (6) the patient can move while being imaged. We propose and conceptually demonstrate a novel reconstruction method that handles all of these complications and uncertainties in a unified process. The method represents the three-dimensional seed and camera configurations as parametrized models that are adjusted iteratively to conform to the observed radiographic images. The morphed model seed configuration that best reproduces the appearance of the seeds in the radiographs is the best estimate of the actual seed configuration. All of the information needed to establish both the seed configuration and the camera model is derived from the seed images without resort to external calibration fixtures. Furthermore, by comparing overall image content rather than individual seed coordinates, the process avoids the need to establish correspondence between seed identities in the several images. The method has been shown to work robustly in simulation tests that simultaneously allow for unknown individual seed positions, uncertainties in the imaging viewpoints and variable image distortion.

  20. Automatic seed picking for brachytherapy postimplant validation with 3D CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guobin; Sun, Qiyuan; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhiyong; Ma, Xiaodong; Jiang, Haisong

    2017-11-01

    Postimplant validation is an indispensable part in the brachytherapy technique. It provides the necessary feedback to ensure the quality of operation. The ability to pick implanted seed relates directly to the accuracy of validation. To address it, an automatic approach is proposed for picking implanted brachytherapy seeds in 3D CT images. In order to pick seed configuration (location and orientation) efficiently, the approach starts with the segmentation of seed from CT images using a thresholding filter which based on gray-level histogram. Through the process of filtering and denoising, the touching seed and single seed are classified. The true novelty of this approach is found in the application of the canny edge detection and improved concave points matching algorithm to separate touching seeds. Through the computation of image moments, the seed configuration can be determined efficiently. Finally, two different experiments are designed to verify the performance of the proposed approach: (1) physical phantom with 60 model seeds, and (2) patient data with 16 cases. Through assessment of validated results by a medical physicist, the proposed method exhibited promising results. Experiment on phantom demonstrates that the error of seed location and orientation is within ([Formula: see text]) mm and ([Formula: see text])[Formula: see text], respectively. In addition, the most seed location and orientation error is controlled within 0.8 mm and 3.5[Formula: see text] in all cases, respectively. The average process time of seed picking is 8.7 s per 100 seeds. In this paper, an automatic, efficient and robust approach, performed on CT images, is proposed to determine the implanted seed location as well as orientation in a 3D workspace. Through the experiments with phantom and patient data, this approach also successfully exhibits good performance.

  1. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  2. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or... sieve are considered weed seeds. For wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets classed as inert...

  3. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Oaks can be planted or seeded in uplands to: (1) afforest old fields, strip-mined areas, or other areas devoid of trees, and (2) supplement natural reproduction within existing forests. Planting is usually more successful than direct seeding. But even under good conditions survival and growth of planted oak has been considerably poorer than with conifers and other...

  4. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  5. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  6. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  7. Orthodox seeds and resurrection plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Maria Cecília Dias; Cooper, Keren; Hilhorst, Henk W.M.; Farrant, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    Although staple crops do not survive extended periods of drought, their seeds possess desiccation tolerance (DT), as they survive almost complete dehydration (desiccation) during the late maturation phase of development. Resurrection plants are plant species whose seeds and vegetative tissues are

  8. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  9. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  10. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  11. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  12. Seed treatments to control seedborne fungal pathogens of vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Valeria; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2014-06-01

    Vegetable crops are frequently infected by fungal pathogens, which can include seedborne fungi. In such cases, the pathogen is already present within or on the seed surface, and can thus cause seed rot and seedling damping-off. Treatment of vegetable seeds has been shown to prevent plant disease epidemics caused by seedborne fungal pathogens. Furthermore, seed treatments can be useful in reducing the amounts of pesticides required to manage a disease, because effective seed treatments can eliminate the need for foliar application of fungicides later in the season. Although the application of fungicides is almost always effective, their non-target environmental impact and the development of pathogen resistance have led to the search for alternative methods, especially in the past few years. Physical treatments that have already been used in the past and treatments with biopesticides, such as plant extracts, natural compounds and biocontrol agents, have proved to be effective in controlling seedborne pathogens. These have been applied alone or in combination, and they are widely used owing to their broad spectrum in terms of disease control and production yield. In this review, the effectiveness of different seed treatments against the main seedborne pathogens of some important vegetable crops is critically discussed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Experimental Study on Welded Headed Studs Used In Steel Plate-Concrete Composite Structures Compared with Contactless Method of Measuring Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisała, Dawid; Tekieli, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Steel plate-concrete composite structures are a new innovative design concept in which a thin steel plate is attached to the reinforced concrete beam by means of welded headed studs. The comparison between experimental studies and theoretical analysis of this type of structures shows that their behaviour is dependent on the load-slip relationship of the shear connectors used to ensure sufficient bond between the concrete and steel parts of the structure. The aim of this paper is to describe an experimental study on headed studs used in steel plate-concrete composite structures. Push-out tests were carried out to investigate the behaviour of shear connectors. The test specimens were prepared according to standard push-out tests, however, instead of I-beam, a steel plate 16 mm thick was used to better reflect the conditions in the real structure. The test specimens were produced in two batches using concrete with significantly different compressive strength. The experimental study was carried out on twelve specimens. Besides the traditional measurements based on LVDT sensors, optical measurements based on the digital image correlation method (DIC) and pattern tracking methods were used. DIC is a full-field contactless optical method for measuring displacements in experimental testing, based on the correlation of the digital images taken during test execution. With respect to conventional methods, optical measurements offer a wider scope of results and can give more information about the material or construction behaviour during the test. The ultimate load capacity and load-slip curves obtained from the experiments were compared with the values calculated based on Eurocodes, American and Chinese design specifications. It was observed that the use of the relationships developed for the traditional steel-concrete composite structures is justified in the case of ultimate load capacity of shear connectors in steel plate-concrete composite structures.

  14. Hand drawing of pencil electrodes on paper platforms for contactless conductivity detection of inorganic cations in human tear samples using electrophoresis chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Cyro L S; Costa Duarte, Lucas; Lobo-Júnior, Eulício O; Piccin, Evandro; Dossi, Nicolò; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes for the first time the fabrication of pencil drawn electrodes (PDE) on paper platforms for capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) on electrophoresis microchips. PDE-C(4) D devices were attached on PMMA electrophoresis chips and used for detection of K(+) and Na(+) in human tear samples. PDE-C(4) D devices were produced on office paper and chromatographic paper platforms and their performance were thoroughly investigated using a model mixture containing K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) . In comparison with chromatographic paper, PDE-C(4) D fabricated on office paper has exhibited better performance due to its higher electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the detector response was similar to that recorded with electrodes prepared with copper adhesive tape. The fabrication of PDE-C(4) D on office paper has offered great advantages including extremely low cost (paper). The proposed electrodes demonstrated excellent analytical performance with good reproducibility. For an inter-PDE comparison (n = 7), the RSD values for migration time, peak area, and separation efficiency were lower than 2.5, 10.5, and 14%, respectively. The LOD's achieved for K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) were 4.9, 6.8, and 9.0 μM, respectively. The clinical feasibility of the proposed approach was successfully demonstrated with the quantitative analysis of K(+) and Na(+) in tear samples. The concentration levels found for K(+) and Na(+) were, respectively, 20.8 ± 0.1 mM and 101.2 ± 0.1 mM for sample #1, and 20.4 ± 0.1 mM and 111.4 ± 0.1 mM for sample #2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Germination of tropical forage seeds stored for six years in ambient and controlled temperature and humidity conditions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination performances of fresh seed lots were determined for 5 tropical forage species: Mulato II hybrid brachiaria [Urochloa ruziziensis (syn. Brachiaria ruziziensis x U. decumbens (syn. B. decumbens x U. brizantha (syn. B. brizantha], Mombasa guinea [Megathyrsus maximus (syn. Panicum maximum], Tanzania guinea [M. maximus (syn. P. maximum], Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum and Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, stored under ambient conditions in Thailand (mean monthly temperatures 23‒34 ºC; mean monthly relative humidity 40‒92% or in a cool room (18‒20 ºC and 50% relative humidity for up to 6 years. The first paper of this study showed all seeds, except unscarified Ubon stylo seed, were dead after a single year of storage in ambient conditions. This second paper shows that cool-room storage extended seed viability, but performance varied considerably between species. Germination percentage under laboratory conditions declined to below 50%, after 3 years storage for Mombasa guinea seed and Tanzania guinea seed, 4 years for Ubon paspalum seed and 4‒5 years for Mulato II seed. Ubon stylo seed maintained high germination for 5 years, in both cool-room storage (96% and ambient-room storage (84%. Apparent embryo dormancy in acid-scarified Mulato II seed steadily increased with time in cool-storage and this seed had to be acid-scarified again each year at the time of germination testing to overcome dormancy. Physical dormancy of Mulato II seeds, imposed by the tightly bound lemma and palea in unscarified seed, was not overcome by length of time in cool-storage and these seeds had to be acid-scarified to induce germination. Hardseeded percentage in Ubon stylo seed remained high throughout the study and could be overcome only by acid-scarification. The difficulties of maintaining acceptable seed germination percentages when storing forage seeds in the humid tropics are discussed.

  16. Overcoming dormancy and enhancing germination of Sphaeralcea munroana seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga A. Kildisheva; R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis

    2011-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments involving a variety of dormancy-breaking treatments indicate that Munro's globemallow [Sphaeralcea munroana (Douglas) Spach] seeds are physically dormant, possess a cap-like structure in the occlusion of the water gap, which inhibits imbibition, and can be artificially dislodged through boiling water scarification. The...

  17. Physicochemical characterisation of hexanic seed oil extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nyakudya, Trevor

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... Erlwanger4, Mazuru B. Gundidza5, Michael L. Magwa6 and Perkin Muredzi7 ... possess several physiological side effects, hence the .... Physical and chemical properties of S. molle seed oil ..... composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on ... cultivars (Linum usitatissimum L.). Gen.

  18. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the

  19. Farmer’s seed sources and seed quality: 2. seed health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the health quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed samples collected from formal and informal sector in Ethiopia and Syria. In Ethiopia, several seed-borne fungi were found on wheat samples: Cochliobolus sativum, Fusarium avenaceum, F.

  20. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  1. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  2. Seed selection by earthworms : chemical seed properties matter more than morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Eisenhauer, N.; Seal, C.E.; Soudey, A.; Colville, L.; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Aims : The passage of seeds through the earthworm gut potentially damages seeds, altering seed and seedling performances depending on seed traits. This work was conducted to study to what extent chemical and morphological seed traits determine the seed attractiveness for earthworms. Methods : We tested seed selection via the ingestion and digestion of 23 grassland plant species spanning a range of 14 morphological and chemical traits by two common earthworm species: the anecic Lumbricus te...

  3. The role of the persistent fruit wall in seed water regulation in Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, Roger D; Young, Kenneth R; Tadayyon, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Dry fruits remain around the seeds at dispersal in a number of species, especially the Brassicaceae. Explanations for this vary, but usually involve mechanisms of innate dormancy. We speculate that, instead, a persistent fruit may give additional protection through control of dehydration, to species growing in arid or Mediterranean environments where water is sporadic. X-rays and weight measurements were used to determine the extent to which Raphanus raphanistrum seeds within mature fruits imbibe water, and germination tests determined the roles of the fruit and seed coat in seed dormancy. Rates of water uptake and desiccation, and seedling emergence were compared with and without the fruit. Finally, germinability of seeds extracted from fruits was determined after various periods of moist conditions followed by a range of dry conditions. Most seeds rapidly take up water within the fruit, but they do not fully imbibe when compared with naked seeds. The seed coat is more important than the dry fruit wall in maintaining seed dormancy. The presence of a dry fruit slows emergence from the soil by up to 6-8 weeks. The fruit slows the rate of desiccation of the seed to a limited extent. The presence of the fruit for a few days during imbibition somehow primes more seeds to germinate than if the fruit is absent; longer moist periods within the pod appear to induce dormancy. The fruit certainly modifies the seed environment as external conditions change between wet and dry, but not to a great extent. The major role seems to be: (a) the physical restriction of imbibition and germination; and (b) the release and then re-imposition of dormancy within the seed. The ecological significance of the results requires more research under field conditions.

  4. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested ... fruits into plastic bag that was exposed in ambient air in the field; SFD, seeds ..... Concepts and technologies of selected.

  5. Improving the traditional sesame seed planting with seed pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 1Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey. 2Fethiye ... the pelleted sesame seeds improved the yield significantly ... Sesame holds a special importance in the world's oil.

  6. Laser treatment of radish seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalov, P.; Nidal, T.

    1987-01-01

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  7. Studies on the Vigour of Soybean Seeds : II. Varietal Differences in Seed Coat Quality and Swelling Components of Seed during Moisture Imbibition

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnisjah, Wahju Qamara; Shimano, Itaru; Matsumoto, Shigeo; 島野, 至; 松本, 重男

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory experiment was conducted to elucidate the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed coat quality with varietal differences in seed vigour, and to pursue an alternative on the mechanism of varietal differences in seed resistance to field weathering. Results of this study revealed that seed polymer change (seed volume change minus seed weight change during moisture imbibition) was the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed ...

  8. Seed cryopreservation of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Università

    2013-04-17

    control) and liquid nitrogen-treated seeds were .... 76.0 ± 4.0 (NT in GA3), with an intermediary value of 70.0. ± 5.0% (Cryo seeds in water .... in November, suggesting a loss of dormancy during seed maturation. Furthermore, seed ...

  9. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  10. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  11. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they have not absorbed water, due to an impermeable seed coat... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15...

  12. Brassica rapa L. seed development in hypergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musgrave, M.E.; Kuang, A.; Allen, J.; Blasiak, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments had shown that microgravity adversely affected seed development in Brassica rapa L. We tested the hypothesis that gravity controls seed development via modulation of gases around the developing seeds, by studying how hypergravity affects the silique microenvironment and seed

  13. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  14. Analysis of seed quality in NS sunflower hybrid seed processed between 2010 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The cultivars were Rimi PR, Duško, NS Dukat, Sumo 1 PR and Sremac. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed between 2010 and 2014 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of weed seeds per 1000 grams of seed. The results of the study produced the following average values: seed purity - 99.72%, 1000-seed weight - 67.59g, germination energy - 88.2%, germination - 91.8%, seed moisture - 8.3%. There were not found weeds seeds as well as pathogens on the seed samples, these values are all within the legally prescribed limits.

  15. In vivo monitoring of seeds and plant-tissue water absorption using optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Veronika V.; Kutis, Irina S.; Kutis, Sergey D.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.

    2004-07-01

    First experimental results on OCT imaging of internal structure of plant tissues and in situ OCT monitoring of plant tissue regeneration at different water supply are reported. Experiments for evaluating OCT capabilities were performed on Tradescantia. The investigation of seeds swelling was performed on wheat seeds (Triticum L.), barley seeds (Hordeum L.), long-fibred flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus L.). These OCT images correlate with standard microscopy data from the same tissue regions. Seeds were exposed to a low-intensity physical factor-the pulsed gradient magnetic field (GMF) with pulse duration 0.1 s and maximum amplitude 5 mT (4 successive pulses during 0.4 s). OCT and OCM enable effective monitoring of fast reactions in plants and seeds at different water supply.

  16. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  18. Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

  19. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2004-01-01

    Many tree species that depend on scatter-hoarding animals for seed dispersal produce massive crops of large seeds at irregular intervals. Mast seeding and large seed size in these species have been explained as adaptations to increase animal dispersal and reduce predation. We studied how seed size

  20. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  1. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  2. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  3. Seed treatments with essential oils protect radish seedlings against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Klein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of seedlings of economic crops is often reduced if there is not a steady supply of water. Essential oils (EO from plants are increasingly used instead of synthetic chemicals to protect plant and animal products against biotic and abiotic stresses. We investigated priming radish seeds by soaking or by matriconditioning with synthetic or natural compounds as a means of inducing resistance to drought stress, thus maintaining crop yield. Priming radish seeds for two hours in solutions of essential oils (EO thymol and carvacrol derived from Origanum syriacum, with “oregano natural product” (ONP; a solution of the residue remaining after EO extraction, or with the gibberellin synthesis inhibitor trinexapac ethyl (TE, was much more effective in inducing drought resistance than was matriconditioning with the same compounds in sawdust for two days. The latter treatment induced considerable fungal and bacterial infection in treated seeds if the substrate-matrix was not heat-treated beforehand. The increase in specific leaf area in plants from treated seeds was mostly consistent with an increase in leaf water content. Seed treatments with EO, ONP, and especially TE led to a three-fold increase in radish seedling survival compared with water-treated controls, when 21 day-old seedlings were irrigated after 6 days of drought. Under drought conditions, seedlings from treated seeds had a 2–3-fold increase in relative water content increased 2–3-fold, while membrane permeability decreased 20–50-fold as a result of the treatments. However, the physical benefits of the treatments often did not correlate with treatment-induced increases in physiological parameters such as pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin, pigment ratios (chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid/chlorophyll, or antioxidant activity. Seed treatments with biostimulants can be as effective as treatments with synthetic compounds in inducing drought resistance in seedlings.

  4. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  5. Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, P.I.; Gevers, H.; Hospes, O.

    2014-01-01

    Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food

  6. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  7. Evaluation of the soil-seed environment through computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Alcir Jose; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G.R.; Santos, Nerilson Terra; Silveira, Joao Cleber Modernel da

    2008-01-01

    The physical conditioning of the soil around seeds is of great importance for an adequate initial development of a crop, ensuring a healthy plant population. A suitable soil-seed contact is a prerequisite for a fast crop germination and good establishment. In this study, computerized tomography of millimeter resolution was used to determine the soil-seed environment in a no tillage system, immediately after soybean planting. A split plot design was used, in which the plots consisted of three contents of soil water, corresponding to 0.27; 0,31 and 0.36 kg kg -1 , respectively, and the split plots of four load levels applied by the compaction wheel, corresponding to 0, 50, 90 and 140 N, respectively. It was used a random block design, with four replications. The medium soil density in the seed area and the medium density profile in the sowing furrow were evaluated. According to the results, it may be concluded that: the loads applied by the compaction wheel increased soil density at the vertical planting level beneath planting depth as compared with values obtained before planting, and; the combination of wheel loads and soil water contents did not influence the mean soil density in the seed area. (author)

  8. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  9. Equilibrium relative humidity as a tool to monitor seed moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2010-01-01

    The importance of seed moisture in maintaining high seed viability is well known. The seed storage chapters in the Tropical Tree Seed Manual (Hong and Ellis 2003) and the Woody Plant Seed Manual (Bonner 2008a) give a detailed discussion and many references on this point. Working with seeds in an operational setting requires a test of seed moisture status. It is...

  10. The Seed Proteome Web Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eGalland

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Seed Proteome Web Portal (SPWP; http://www.seedproteome.com/ gives access to information both on quantitative seed proteomic data and on seed-related protocols. Firstly, the SPWP provides access to the 475 different Arabidopsis seed proteins annotated from 2 dimensional electrophoresis (2DE maps. Quantitative data are available for each protein according to their accumulation profile during the germination process. These proteins can be retrieved either in list format or directly on scanned 2DE maps. These proteomic data reveal that 40% of seed proteins maintain a stable abundance over germination, up to radicle protrusion. During sensu stricto germination (24 h upon imbibition about 50% of the proteins display quantitative variations, exhibiting an increased abundance (35% or a decreasing abundance (15%. Moreover, during radicle protrusion (24 h to 48 h upon imbibition, 41% proteins display quantitative variations with an increased (23% or a decreasing abundance (18%. In addition, an analysis of the seed proteome revealed the importance of protein post-translational modifications as demonstrated by the poor correlation (r2 = 0.29 between the theoretical (predicted from Arabidopsis genome and the observed protein isoelectric points. Secondly, the SPWP is a relevant technical resource for protocols specifically dedicated to Arabidopsis seed proteome studies. Concerning 2D electrophoresis, the user can find efficient procedures for sample preparation, electrophoresis coupled with gel analysis and protein identification by mass spectrometry, which we have routinely used during the last 12 years. Particular applications such as the detection of oxidized proteins or de novo synthetized proteins radiolabeled by [35S]-methionine are also given in great details. Future developments of this portal will include proteomic data from studies such as dormancy release and protein turnover through de novo protein synthesis analyses during germination.

  11. Report on seed born diseases in organic seed and propagation material

    OpenAIRE

    Micheloni, C.; Plakolm, G.; Schärer, H.

    2007-01-01

    The key questions which will be addressed in this report are: • Are seed born diseases an important factor that prevents seed companies from producing organic seeds and organic farmers from using them? • Which seed treatments are available in organic farming? Which treatments are or will be acceptable? To which degree are they effective? • Are the thresholds for seed born diseases different among Member States? Can this cause unfair competition among farmers and seed producers? • ...

  12. EVALUATION OFAMATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR OIL EXTRACTION FROM OLEAGINOUS SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Toscano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical extraction from seeds represents an important process in the production of vegetable oils. The efficiency of this step can have an effect on the economic convenience of the entire production chain of vegetable oils. However, the mechanical presses used for extraction are designed following criteria based more on the experience and intuition of the operators than on rigorous analyses of the physical principles involved in the process. In this study we have tested the possibility of applying a mathematical model that reproduces oil extraction from seeds, on a laboratory type of continuous press. In other words, we have compared the results of our mathematical model with those obtained from real extractions with mechanical presses on sunflower seeds. Our model is based on determining the main operating parameters of mechanical extraction, such as temperature, pressure and compression time, and on the knowledge of some physical characteristics of the solid matrix of the seeds. The results obtained are interesting because they include the role of operating parameters involved in extraction while the application of the mathematical model studied here allows, although with potential for improvement, a mathematical instrument to be developed for optimising the sizing and the operating conditions of mechanical presses.

  13. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Branimir; Svitlica, Brankica; Ćosić, Jasenka; Andrić, Luka; Rozman, Vlatka; Postić, Jelena; Liović, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control) had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g), intergrowth energy (18-37 %) and seed germination (39-52 %). In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g), intergrowth energ...

  14. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-10-01

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs.

  15. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Electron beam irradiation: a novel technology to enhance the quality of soybean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, Shashi; Srinivasan, K.; Singh, Subadas; Thakur, Manju; Sharma, S.K.; Pramod, R.; Dwivedi, J.; Bapna, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Soybean seeds, rich in protein and oil, maintain their germinability only for short durations under ambient conditions. Loss of viability of stored seeds often hampers soybean production in harsh environments worldwide. Physiological factors favored by high temperature and high moisture content accelerate the seed deterioration in the tropics. Several chemical and physical treatments are being used to enhance quality. Irradiation is a novel technology for food preservation and is gaining importance all over the world. Low doses of irradiation bring about improvement in quality of food/seeds, which can be beneficial in several ways. Electron Beam (EB) irradiation is a new approach in this area. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of EB irradiation in enhancing the quality of low vigour soybean seeds

  17. Polymorphism of amyloid-like fibrils can be defined by the concentration of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Sneideris

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prions are infectious proteins where the same protein may express distinct strains. The strains are enciphered by different misfolded conformations. Strain-like phenomena have also been reported in a number of other amyloid-forming proteins. One of the features of amyloid strains is the ability to self-propagate, maintaining a constant set of physical properties despite being propagated under conditions different from those that allowed initial formation of the strain. Here we report a cross-seeding experiment using strains formed under different conditions. Using high concentrations of seeds results in rapid elongation and new fibrils preserve the properties of the seeding fibrils. At low seed concentrations, secondary nucleation plays the major role and new fibrils gain properties predicted by the environment rather than the structure of the seeds. Our findings could explain conformational switching between amyloid strains observed in a wide variety of in vivo and in vitro experiments.

  18. Boiled, tumbled, burned, and heated: Seed scarification techniques for Munro's globemallow appropriate for large-scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga A. Kildisheva; R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Physically dormant seeds of Munro's globemallow (Sphaeralcea munroana (Douglas) Spach [Malvaceae]) were scarified by boiling, tumbling, burning, dry-heating, and burning + heating treatments in an attempt to find an effective, operational, largescale treatment for nurseries and restoration activities. Results indicate that out of the tested treatments, seed...

  19. [Dynamics of seed rain of Tripterygium hypoglaucum and soil seed bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wei, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Xiang; Su, Shu; Qu, Xian-You; Wang, Chang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Tripterygium hypoglaucum is an endangered species in arid areas of Xiannvshan Chongqing, China. The dynamic characteristics of seed rain and soil seed bank of T. hypoglaucum were studied in this paper.Results showed that T. hypoglaucum years of mature seeds distribution number up to October; the seed rain occurred from the last ten-day of September to in the first ten-day of November and the peak of scattered seed rain concentrated in the October.The numbers of soil seed bank at 2-5 cm soil layer,mainly concentrated in the 1.5-3.5 m range. T. hypoglaucum seeds to the wind as a force for transmission, the transmission ability is strong, but in the process of natural reproduction, full mature seed rate is low, the soil seed bank seeds seed short-lived factors these were unfavorable for the natural reproduction of T. hypoglaucum population. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Factors influencing upon the incidence of seed migration in I-125 seed transperineal prostate implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Jun; Onishi, Kayoko; Kanemura, Mikio

    2005-01-01

    Transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer is rapidly expanding in Japan. Seed migrations to lung and abdomen are well known complication in the seed brachytherapy. The rate of incidence and the predisposing factors were studied. From April 2004 through January 2005, 36 patients underwent transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. In all patients loose I-125 seeds were inserted with Mick applicator according to modified peripheral loading pattern. One day, 1 week, and 1 month after the procedure, posteroanterior and lateral chest X-rays and abdominal X-ray were performed. Abdominal and chest seed migrations were seen in 11 (30.6%) and 14 (38.9%) patients, respectively. In total, 20 patients (55.6%) showed seed migrations. Forty-two I-125 seeds migrated out of 2,508 implanted seeds. Most of the migrations were seen until 1 month after the procedure. The preplanned number of the extraprostatic seeds had a statistically significant influence upon the incidence of seed migration. Seed migration is not a rare phenomenon in transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. To confirm seed migration, X-ray examinations 1 month after the procedure are suited. At the preplanning, the number of extraprostatic seeds should be limited to minimal to decrease the incidence of seed migration. In future, the introduction of linked I-125 seeds is preferred. (author)

  1. Shade and Drought Stress-Induced Changes in Phenolic Content of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Robert S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants develop under a wide range of maternal environments, depending on the time of emergence, prevailing competition from other plants, and presence or absence of other biotic or abiotic stress factors. Stress factors, such as light limitation and drought, during plant development typically reduces the reproductive allocation to seeds, resulting in fewer and often smaller seeds. Such stress factors may also influence seed quality traits associated with persistence in the soil, such as seed dormancy and chemical defense. For this research, we hypothesized that light limitation and drought during wild oat (Avena fatua L. seed development would result in reduced allocation to seed phenolics and other aliphatic organic acids previously identified in the seeds of this species. Wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430 were grown in the greenhouse under cyclic drought conditions (2005 only or two levels of shade (50 and 70%; 2005 and 2006 achieved with standard black shade cloth. The soluble and cellular bound chemical constituents were identified and quantified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The shade and drought stress treatments often significantly affected the mass of the caryopsis and hull seed fractions, as well as the phenolic content of these seed fractions, depending upon isoline, seed fraction, phenolic fraction, and specific phenolics analyzed. Phenolic content of the hull was reduced by the stress environments by up to 48%, whereas there was some evidence of an increase in the soluble phenolic content of the caryopsis in response to the stress environments. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in both soluble and bound fractions, and bound phenolics comprised generally 95% or more of total phenolics. There was no discernable evidence that the aliphatic organic content was affected by the stress environments. Our results indicate that plant stress during seed development can reduce both the physical and

  2. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on

  3. Evaluation of the relationship of sowing qualities and yielding properties of millet seed (Panicum meliaceum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. П. Полторецький

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination and analysis of relationship of sowing qualities and yield properties of millet seed (Panicum meliaceum L. to be formed by the action of predecessors and conditions of mineral nutrition in the context of unstable moistening in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Methods. Mathematico-statistical ones (correlation, regression. Results. The use of correlation pleiades method allowed to analyze multifactor relations of sowing qualities and yield properties of millet seed and establish that there was a direct correlation relationship of medium strength (r = 0.52 ± 0.01 between yielding of maternal and millet plants of the first seed progeny. It was found that maternal plants yielding is strongly correlated with laboratory and technological indicators of seed quality that interrelated through integrated quality parameter of seed material (r = 0.56 ± 0.01 and millet output (r = 0.98 ± 0.00. Integrated quality parameter as well as each of the studied laboratory parameters of seed material quality taken separately have a high-level (r = 0.87…0.96 ± 0.00 effect on the formation of grain yield of the first seed progeny plants. Such physical and technological parameters of the quality of maternal plants yield as a content of protein and fat in seed, seed weight, its uniformity can directly, and millet output, thousand-grain weight and hull content – indirectly indicate peculiarities of forming future grain yield of plants of the first seed progeny. Conclusions. The use of the correlation pleiades method allows to analyze objectively the sowing qualities of millet seed and predict the yield properties in the next generation.

  4. Study of the processes resulting from the use of alkaline seed in natural gas-fired MHD facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrikovich, M.A.; Mostinskii, I.L.

    1977-01-01

    Various ways of ionizing seed injection and recovery, applicable to open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation facilities, operating on sulfur-free gaseous fossil fuel, are discussed and experimentally verified. The physical and chemical changes of the seed and the heat and mass transfer processes resulting from seed application are investigated using the U-02 experimental MHD facility and laboratory test facilities. Engineering methods for calculating the processes of seed droplet vaporization, condensation and the precipitation of submicron particles of K 2 CO 3 on the heat exchange surface are also included

  5. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... bottles were seal-locked and kept in the accelerated ageing cham- ber at three ... Hundred (100) seeds of each treatment were performed in plastic ..... by heat stress: the activation state of Rubisco as a limiting factor in.

  6. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... high, suggesting that wet soil is necessary for an on farm reliable evaluation of seed fermentation method in the .... with tap water, and sundried in ambient air until attaining 6 to 7% moisture. ..... arabica in Brazil. Int. J. Food ...

  7. Nutrient composition of Dacryodes edulis seed and seed coat mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. OGUNKA-NNOKA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nutrient composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, proximate, and vitamin compositions were evaluated using standard methods. Saponins were very high, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins were high, while terpenoids were low, and glycosides, aldehydes, and steroids were absent. The quantitative phytochemical determination followed the order; saponin > kaempferol > rutin > catechin > tannin > sapogenin > lunamarine > phenol > ribalinidine > anthocyanin > oxalate > phytate. For the proximate composition, carbohydrates had the highest concentration, followed by lipids and fibre, while, protein concentration was the lowest. Vitamin E (5.42 mg/100g, vitamin C (3.24 mg/100g, and vitamin A (2.84 mg/100g were the highest occurring constituent vitamins while vitamin B12 (0.035 mg/100g and vitamin B2 (0.075 mg/100g were the least occurring vitamins. This study has shown the rich phytochemical composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture while showing deficiencies in proteins, distinct vitamins, and ash contents.

  8. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the

  9. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... As a result, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root were improved. Seed priming alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on germination and seedling growth of maize under salt stress. ... Salinization is more spreading in irrigated lands because of inappropriate management of irrigation and drainage.

  10. Effect of mutagens on seed germination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamayanthi, K.P.M.; Reddy, V.R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of chilli variety CO-2 (Coimbatore-2) were irradiated with gamma rays ranging from 10 kR to 35 kR at an interval of 5 kR and the effect on seed germination, seedling survival, percent lethality and seedling injury were studied. Lower doses were stimulative, while higher doses had inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling survival. The highest percentage of seed germination (37.5) and seedling survival (31.3) was recorded at 10 kR as compared to 28 percent of germination and 3.3 percent seedling survival in control. Percent lethality (9.6%) and seedling injury (6.5%) were comparatively low than the lethality percentage and seedling injury of the higher dose treatments. In chemical mutagen treatments, the maximum seed germination (54.5%) and seedling survival (51.2%), seedling lethality (0.97%) and seedling injury (1.37%) were obtained in the treated seeds of EMS at 0.5% concentration followed by 39.5% seed germination and 30.0% seedling survival, seedling lethality (3.8%) and seedling injury (3.06%) of MMS. The stimulative effect of seed germination is more in chemical mutagens than the physical mutagen. There was a proportionate decrease in germination percentage and seedling survival with an increase in dose/concentration of both the chemicals. (author)

  11. Seed producer cooperatives in the Ethiopian seed sector and their role in seed supply improvement: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, D.T.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in the Ethiopian seed sector and their contribution to seed supply improvement have received attention from researchers, policymakers, and development partners. However, limited work has been done in reviewing and documenting their involvement in the

  12. Effect of seeds of heavy charged particles of galactic cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, Y.N.

    1985-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on Lactuca sativa seeds exposed for 20, 66, 123 and 308 days in a biostack also containing physical detectors of heavy charged particles. The yield of aberrant cells and its dependence on the exposure time and the site where particles hit the object were measured. The cytogenetic examination demonstrated a significant difference between the seeds that were or were not hit by heavy charged particles. A significant contribution of galactic cosmic radiation to the radiobiological effect is indicated. The yield of aberrant cells as a function of the localization of heavy charged particles in the seed is established. The most sensitive target is the root meristem

  13. Forest Seed Collection, Processing,and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    This chapter pertains to the techniques of capturing the best genetic quality seeds a seed source can produce at the optimal time of high physiological maturity and maintaining these qualities throughout the handling processes, all at a minimum cost. Different collection and processing techniques...... apply to different species, seed types, situations, and purposes. Yet the collection and processing toolbox contains a number of “standard” methods for most of these groups. Records and documentation help in evaluating “best practice” for future method improvement, and it helps in linking offspring...... to seed source. Conditions are set for short- and long-term seed storage by their inert storability physiology. The potential storage life of seed may for some robust “orthodox” species be several decades, while no available storage conditions can maintain viability for sensitive “recalcitrant” seed. Seed...

  14. Chemical Composition of Kapok (Ceibapentandra) Seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -5 years. ... with a sharp steel knife from which healthy seeds were selected. ... Total carbohydrate was determined by difference. .... resistance to microbial attack of plant tissue (Taiz and. Zeiger, 1991 ... Maintenance of soybean seed quality in ...

  15. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. Copyright 2004 The American Genetic Association

  16. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  17. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  18. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  19. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and contactless electroreflectance characterization of a ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx'Cdy'Mg1-x'-y'Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.D.; Huang, Y.S.; Lin, D.Y.; Charles, W.O.; Shen, A.; Tamargo, M.C.; Tiong, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We report a detailed study of a ZnxCd 1-x Se/Znx'Cdy'Mg 1-x '-y'Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structure by using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and contactless electroreflectance (CER) techniques. → The PL peak position yielded information of the fundamental excitonic recombinations. → Analysis of the CER spectra led to the identification of various interband transitions. →Study of the temperature dependence of the excitonic transition energies indicated that main influence of temperature on the quantized transitions is through temperature dependence of the constituent material band gap in the well. - Abstract: Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and contactless electroreflectance (CER) were used to characterize a Zn x Cd 1-x Se/Zn x' Cd y' Mg 1-x'-y' Se asymmetric coupled quantum well (ACQW) structure in the range of 10-300 K. The PL peak position yielded information of the fundamental excitonic recombinations. A detailed analysis of the CER spectra led to the identification of various interband transitions. The intersubband transitions were then estimated and found to be in a good agreement with the previous report of Fourier-transform infrared absorption measurements. At low temperature, the PL spectra of the sample showed an asymmetric behavior with an exponential tail at the lower-energy side and were attributed to the localized excitonic recombinations due to potential fluctuations. Detailed study of the temperature dependence of the excitonic transition energies indicated that the main influence of temperature on the quantized transitions is through the temperature dependence of the band gap of the constituent material in the well.

  20. Effects of seed and seedling predation by small mammals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed predation reduced seedling recruitment from seeds planted in March 1986 in mature fynbos, but ... Seed predation did not significantly reduce seedling recruitment from seed planted in July, August and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype relationship study in 31 ... Data were collected on 100-seed weight, seed length and seed width. ... to the Mesoamerican gene pool, comprising the cultigroups Sieva-Big Lima, ...

  2. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... systems, inadequate seed production and ... informal sources of seed potato, despite ..... Directorate General for International. Co-operation (DGIC), Brussels,. Belgium. 1540pp.

  3. Titania seed layers for PZT thin film growth on copper-coated Kapton films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Volkonskiy, O.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Dejneka, Alexandr; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Adolphi, B.; Bertram, M.; Gerlach, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2009), s. 57-66 ISSN 1058-4587 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KJB100100703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : copper coated Kapton * seed layer * seed layer * plasma deposition * XPS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.329, year: 2009

  4. Efficient chaining of seeds in ordered trees

    OpenAIRE

    Allali, Julien; Chauve, Cédric; Ferraro, Pascal; Gaillard, Anne-Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We consider here the problem of chaining seeds in ordered trees. Seeds are mappings between two trees Q and T and a chain is a subset of non overlapping seeds that is consistent with respect to postfix order and ancestrality. This problem is a natural extension of a similar problem for sequences, and has applications in computational biology, such as mining a database of RNA secondary structures. For the chaining problem with a set of m constant size seeds, we describe...

  5. Composition of jojoba seeds and foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiscar, A.J.; Banigan, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    The desert shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) may be browsed by cattle. The seeds have about 50% oil but the extracted meal is at present unsuitable for feeding. Simmondsin, the most prevalent toxin, is present in seed, 2.3%, and in husks, leaves and twigs. Seeds contained another toxin, Simmondsin 2'-ferulate. The contents of oil, protein, carbohydrate and amino acids in seed are tabulated. 13 references.

  6. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  7. Training and research in seed technology. No quality seeds without skilled staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    The seed industry in the Netherlands is the largest exporter of horticultural seeds, reaching farmers in every country of the world. High seed quality is one of the key factors of this success. Maintaining and increasing the level of seed qualtiy requires skilled staff, innovation and collaboration

  8. How seed orchard culture affects seed quality: experience with the southern pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Tree improvement programs have influenced significantly the quality of southern pine seeds produced when compared to collections from native stands. Seed orchard management practices such as fertilization can increase seed size and reduce seed dormancy. These result in the need for less complex pregermination treatments. Repeated cone collections from the same clones...

  9. Consistent individual differences in seed disperser quality in a seed-eating fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, Bart J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Animal-mediated seed dispersal (zoochory) is considered to be an important mechanism regulating biological processes at larger spatial scales. To date, intra-specific variation in seed disperser quality within seed-dispersing animals has not been studied. Here, I employed seed feeding trials to

  10. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social

  11. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... however, abscisic acid (ABA) can counter this effect by keeping seeds ... Tris-HCl buffer at pH 8.8, with constant current set at 20 mA/gel. The gels were ..... on plants is rarely studied and the importance of 20E in the life cycle ...

  12. The Seed Is the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Since humanities arise from a specific place and from the people of that place, this article will focus on Peacemaker's revolutionary teachings about the seed of law. Long before the people from across the ocean arrived here on Turtle Island (North America) there was much warfare happening. According to John Mohawk (2001, para. 1), an Iroquoian…

  13. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  14. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  15. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Marshall R. Haferkamp

    1996-01-01

    Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined...

  16. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Vidigal, De D.; Willems, L.A.J.; Arkel, van J.; Dekkers, S.J.W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Bentsink, L.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increasedcosts in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive forseed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive

  17. Seed dormancy and germination : light and nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable

  18. Dormancy cycling in seeds: mechanisms and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most plants starts, and ends, at the seed stage. In most species mature seeds are shed and dispersed on the ground. At this stage of its life cycle the seed may be dormant and will, by definition, not germinate under favourable conditions (Bewley, 1997).

    Seasonal

  19. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  20. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  1. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  2. Running title: Water distribution in chickpea seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agriphy20

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... molecular mobility of cellular water in magnetically exposed seeds as compared to unexposed seeds. Analysis of ... protrusion takes place through the seed coat and absorption .... directly related to water activity (aw) of the cell water. (Gambhir ..... plants, including photosynthesis, respiration and enzymatic ...

  3. Strategies for Seed Propagation of Native Forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2006-01-01

    Native forbs are an increasingly important component of container production for many public and private nurseries. Propagators are often called upon to grow species with unknown requirements. A systematic approach is required to obtain plants from seeds of these species, beginning with determining what is a propagule and evaluating seed quality. Next, seed dormancy...

  4. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in groundnut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Seed dormancy has been defined as the failure of an intact, viable seed to ... expected ratio of 3 dormant : 1 non-dormant seeds in F2 generations of crosses of ICGV 87378 and ICGV ... ICGV 87378 x ICGV 86158. 163. 0. 163.

  5. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest.......5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide...

  6. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  7. The biomechanics of seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence. Endosperm weakening as a prerequisite for radicle emergence is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms. Research into the biochemistry and biomechanics of endosperm weakening has demonstrated that the reduction in puncture force of a seed's micropylar endosperm is environmentally and hormonally regulated and involves tissue-specific expression of cell wall remodelling proteins such as expansins, diverse hydrolases, and the production of directly acting apoplastic reactive oxygen. The endosperm-weakening biomechanics and its underlying cell wall biochemistry differ between the micropylar (ME) and chalazal (CE) endosperm domains. In the ME, they involve cell wall loosening, cell separation, and programmed cell death to provide decreased and localized ME tissue resistance, autolysis, and finally the formation of an ME hole required for radicle emergence. Future work will further unravel the molecular mechanisms, environmental regulation, and evolution of the diverse biomechanical cell wall changes underpinning the control of germination by endosperm weakening. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Improving seed potato quality in Ethiopia: a value chain perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, use of low-quality seed potatoes by the majority of potato growers is
    associated with underdevelopment of the seed potato value chains. Three seed potato systems are present in Ethiopia: the informal seed system, the alternative seed system and the formal seed system. This chapter

  9. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  10. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  11. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni Salni; Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Hanifa Marisa Hanifa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  12. Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni, Salni; Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati; Hanifa, Hanifa Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  13. Frequency-asymmetric gain profile in a seeded Raman amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repasky, K.S.; Carlsten, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of index guiding on Raman gain. The slowly varying Maxwell wave equation including both the real and imaginary parts of the Raman susceptibility for a seeded Raman amplifier is explored. Using a Gauss-Laguerre mode expansion for the Stokes field, the output Stokes energy is numerically studied as a function of gain and detuning from the Raman resonance. The calculations indicate that the real part of the Raman susceptibility causes the Raman medium to act as a lens when the Stokes seed is detuned from the Raman resonance. This focusing effect leads to higher peak Stokes energy when the Stokes seed is tuned to the blue side of the Raman resonance. Specifically for Raman scattering in H 2 with a pump laser at 532 nm and an input seed near 683 nm, the peak Stokes energy can shift by as much as 300 MHz from the Raman resonance. An experiment which confirms these predictions is also presented. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Seeded quantum FEL at 478 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Thirolf, Peter; Seggebrock, Thorben [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Habs, Dietrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We present for the first time a concept for a seeded {gamma} quantum Free Electron Laser (QFEL) at 478 keV (transition in {sup 7}Li). To produce a highly intense and coherent {gamma} beam, we intend to use a seeded FEL scheme. Important for the production of a highly brilliant and coherent {gamma} beam are novel refractive {gamma} lenses for focusing and an efficient monochromator, allowing to generate a very intense and coherent seed beam. To realize such a coherent {gamma} beam at 478 keV (1/38 A), it is suitable to use a quantum FEL design based on a new ''asymmetric'' laser-electron Compton back scattering scheme as pursued for the MeGaRay and ELI-NP facilities. Here the pulse length of the laser is much longer than the electron bunch length, equivalent to a {gamma}-FEL with laser wiggler. The coherence of a seeded QFEL can open up totally new areas of fundamental physics and applications. Especially, 478 keV can be attractive for ''green energy'' and life-science research, such as the detection of Li deposition in the brain for manic-depressive psychosis treatment with high spatial resolution or isotope-specific nuclear waste management and treatment.

  15. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  16. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  17. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    testing records. Genetic quality is documented as documents on origin or seed source. New types of tree planting by smallholders imply special problems in distribution and supply systems since production systems for tree seeds have large areas while many consumers have small space for planting....... A centralized forest seed supply contains large central units with good facilities for production and procurement but is far from seed users. Alternative decentralized systems with many small producers may have problems meeting high standards of seed quality and dealing with central regulations....

  18. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  19. Características físicas e nutricionais da matriz de encapsulamento na produção de sementes sintéticas de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. Physical and nutritional characteristics of the encapsulated matriz of long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. synthetic seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Silva Guedes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. é um arbusto da família Piperaceae, nativa da região amazônica, que vem despertando o interesse das indústrias de cosméticos e bioinseticidas pelo alto teor de safrol, óleo essencial extraído das folhas e talos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de características físicas e nutricionais da matriz de encapsulamento durante a produção de sementes sintéticas de pimenta-longa. Sementes germinadas de pimenta-longa foram utilizadas como material de encapsulamento. Em ambos os experimentos, a influência da constituição (água ou meio Murashige e Skoog e consistência da cápsula (alginato de sódio 1% ou 2% e do tempo de complexação (10, 20 e 30 min em CaCl2, na abertura das cápsulas, foi avaliada. Depois de encapsulados, os materiais foram transferidos para frascos com meio de MS e mantidos em sala de crescimento, onde, quinzenalmente, foi avaliada a taxa de emergência e crescimento das plântulas encapsuladas. Verificou-se que o emprego de um endosperma artificial composto por 1% de alginato de sódio em meio de MS foi o tratamento que promoveu os melhores resultados para a emergência e posterior crescimento de plântulas oriundas de sementes sintéticas aos 30 dias da semeadura em meio MS sólido, independentemente do tempo de complexação utilizado.Long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is a shrub of the Piperaceae family, native of the Amazonian region, with special interest of cosmetics and bio-insecticide industries due to its high concentration of safrol, an essential oil extracted from the leaves and stems. This work aimed to evaluate the physical and nutritional characteristics of the encapsulation matrix during the production of synthetic seeds of long pepper. Germinated long pepper seeds were used as vegetative material for encapsulation. For both experiments, the influence of capsule composition (water or MS and consistency (sodium alginate at 1% or 2

  20. Seed germination of Phillyrea angustifolia L., a species of difficult propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mira, Sara; Arnal, Alberto; Pérez-García, Félix

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The purpose was to determine the type of dormancy and the optimal germination conditions of Phillyrea angustifolia (Oleaceae) seeds. Area of study: Germination requirements of P. angustifolia seeds collected from wild plants growing in the province of Ávila (Central Spain) were studied. Materials and methods: Seed water uptake was measured. Seeds with and without an endocarp were germinated at different temperatures, and several treatments were tested. Main results: The lignified endocarp interferes mechanically with the emergence of the radicle, and the treatments that achieved the highest germination percentages were the total removal of the endocarp with pliers (84%) or the immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min (97%). Scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid did not significantly increase germination compared to the control seeds, and treatments with dry heat or wet heat were detrimental to seed germination. The optimum temperature for germination was 15 ºC. A pre-sowing treatment of soaking in distilled water for 24 h slightly increased germination speed. Neither cold stratification at 5 ºC nor soaking in a gibberellic acid solution improved seed germination. Research highlights: Phillyrea angustifolia seeds have physiological dormancy – that is, the embryo does not have enough growth potential to overcome the mechanical restriction of the lignified endocarp. The seeds do not exhibit physical dormancy, given their water-permeable lignified endocarp. Our results suggest that the optimum germination protocol for P. angustifolia would be the total removal of the endocarp or immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min, followed by immersion in distilled water for 24 h and then seed incubation at 15 ºC in light or darkness.

  1. GERMINATION STUDIES ON Tabebuia impetiginosa Mart. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling production of native forest tree species are an important step in ex situ conservation programs and in the reforestation with ecological purposes. Therefore, understanding seed germination and its regulation is mandatory for the complete success of the conservation programs and revegetation techniques. Thus, morphological studies, temperature requirements for seed germination and its control by gibberellins (GAs were studied in Tabebuia impetiginosa (“ipê-roxo” seeds. The best temperature for germination under constant light was 30oC. The imbibition of T. impetiginosa seeds followed the common triphasic pattern, with most of the seeds attaining phase II at 24 hours and phase III at 72 hours of imbibition. Visible germination, as radicle elongation, started at 30 hours in water-imbibed seeds and at 24 hours in GA-imbibed seeds. Seeds imbibed in Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, failed to germinate. However, application of exogenous gibberellins overcame inhibition and allowed germination, suggesting that GAs are regulators of Tabebuia impetiginosa seed germination. The results suggested that germination in Tabebuia impetiginosa seeds is controlled by elongation of the radicle and gibberellins may play an important role in regulating it. The possible role of gibberellins is discussed.

  2. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method.

  3. Is seed conditioning essential for Orobanche germination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Parasitic Orobanchaceae germinate only after receiving a chemical stimulus from roots of potential host plants. A preparatory phase of several days that follows seed imbibition, termed conditioning, is known to be required; thereafter the seeds can respond to germination stimulants. The aim of this study was to examine whether conditioning is essential for stimulant receptivity. Non-conditioned seeds of both Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. [syn. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel] were able to germinate in response to chemical stimulation by GR24 even without prior conditioning. Stimulated seeds reached maximal germination rates about 2 weeks after the onset of imbibition, no matter whether the seeds had or had not been conditioned before stimulation. Whereas the lag time between stimulation and germination response of non-conditioned seeds was longer than for conditioned seeds, the total time between imbibition and germination was shorter for the non-conditioned seeds. Unlike the above two species, O. crenata Forsk. was found to require conditioning prior to stimulation. Seeds of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca are already receptive before conditioning. Thus, conditioning is not involved in stimulant receptivity. A hypothesis is put forward, suggesting that conditioning includes (a) a parasite-specific early phase that allows the imbibed seeds to overcome the stress caused by failing to receive an immediate germination stimulus, and (b) a non-specific later phase that is identical to the pregermination phase between seed imbibition and actual germination that is typical for all higher plants.

  4. Seed counting system evaluation using arduino microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Escobar Paim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of automated systems has been highlighted in the most diverse productive sectors, among them, the agricultural sector. These systems aim to optimize activities by increasing operational efficiency and quality of work. In this sense, the present work has the objective of evaluating a prototype developed for seed count in laboratory, using Arduino microcontroller. The prototype of the system for seed counting was built using a dosing mechanism commonly used in seeders, electric motor, Arduino Uno, light dependent resistor and light emitting diode. To test the prototype, a completely randomized design (CRD was used in a two-factorial scheme composed of three groups defined according to the number of seeds (500, 1000 and 1500 seeds tested, three speeds of the dosing disc that allowed the distribution in 17, 21 and 32 seeds per second, with 40 repetitions evaluating the seed counting prototype performance in different speeds. The prototype of the bench counter showed a moderate variability of seed number of counted within the nine tests and a high precision in the seed count on the distribution speeds of 17 and 21 seeds per second (s-1 up to 1500 seeds tested. Therefore, based on the observed results, the developed prototype presents itself as an excellent tool for counting seeds in laboratory.

  5. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Claessens, Mascha; Soons, Merel B

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12-17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds.

  6. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Merel B.

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12–17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds. PMID:29614085

  7. Evaluation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Seed Quality of Certified Seed and Farm-Saved Seed in Three Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaei Fardin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the seed quality aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and the extent of weed seed contamination present in wheat seeds produced in different regions of Iran. Four districts (cities, each including 12 fields (six certified seed fields and six farm-saved seed fields, were selected in each regions (provinces. One kilogram of the wheat seed sample was collected from each field for analysis in the laboratory. Wheat seeding was commonly done by farm-saved seed sourced from within the farm due to the high costs of certified seeds purchased from outside sources, followed by the low seed quality. The use of a farm-saved seed resulted in a higher germination rate and a lower mean time to germination compared with another system. The more positive temperatures experienced by mother plants could decrease the number of normal seedling and seedling length vigor index. Generally there was virtually no difference about physiological quality between certified seed and farm-saved seed sector that is related to lower quality of certified seed. The certified produced seeds had the lower number of weed seed, species and genus before and after cleaning. The highest seed purity and 1000 seed weight was obtained from the certified seed production system. The need for cleaning the farm-saved seed samples before sowing is one of the important findings of this survey.

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte; Rolston, M P

    2013-01-01

    production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among...... species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like...

  9. Noahs Ark of the seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristan, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    The so-called 'vault of the end of the world', located in the archipelago Arctic Svalbard, brings together more than 860,000 samples seeds from around the world. The purpose of your existence -like the of thousands of other banks of its kind in all the planet - is to preserve the genetic diversity of crops, most of them are now disappearing. An international treaty approved by the United Nations, and in force since 2004, allowed the construction of this 'Sanctuary' where more than one hundred countries maintain their own banks of seeds, freezing them to 18 degrees below zero to lower its biological activity. (Author)

  10. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan; Chen, Rujin

    2016-11-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes.

  11. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  12. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  13. Agrowaste: Phytosterol from Durian Seed

    OpenAIRE

    D. Mohd Nazrul Hisham; J. Mohd Lip; R. Suri; H. Mohamed Shafit; Z.Kharis; K. Shazlin; A. Normah; M.F. Nurul Nabilah

    2012-01-01

    Presence of phytosterol compound in Durian seed (Durio zibethinus) or known as King of fruits has been discovered from screening work using reagent test. Further analysis work has been carried out using mass spectrometer in order to support the priliminary finding. Isolation and purification of the major phytosterol has been carried out using an open column chromatography. The separation was monitored using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Major isolated compounds and pur...

  14. Preplanting irradiation of tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltseva, S.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties Pioneer-2, Drouzhba and Ace were treated prior to planting with Co 60 gamma rays in optimal doses of 2000 R and the varieties No 10 x Bison, Triumph and Extase with 1500 R. This treatment raised the germination energy and the plants started flowering and ripening earlier. The index of earliness was enhanced but the overall yield was equal to that of the control plants. (author)

  15. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  16. PHO1 Exports Phosphate from the Chalazal Seed Coat to the Embryo in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzaki, Evangelia; Baroux, Célia; Jung, Ji-Yul; Poirier, Yves

    2017-10-09

    Seed production requires the transfer of nutrients from the maternal seed coat to the filial endosperm and embryo. Because seed coat and filial tissues are symplasmically isolated, nutrients arriving in the seed coat via the phloem must be exported to the apoplast before reaching the embryo. Proteins implicated in the transfer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the seed coat to the embryo are unknown despite seed P content being an important agronomic trait. Here we show that the Arabidopsis Pi exporters PHO1 and PHOH1 are expressed in the chalazal seed coat (CZSC) of developing seeds. PHO1 is additionally expressed in developing ovules. Phosphorus (P) content and Pi flux between the seed coat and embryo were analyzed in seeds from grafts between WT roots and scions from either pho1, phoh1, or the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. Whereas P content and distribution between the seed coat and embryo in fully mature dry seeds of these mutants are similar to the WT, at the mature green stage of seed development the seed coat of the pho1 and pho1 phoh1 mutants, but not of the phoh1 mutant, retains approximately 2-fold more P than its WT control. Expression of PHO1 under a CZSC-specific promoter complemented the seed P distribution phenotype of the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. CZSC-specific down-expression of PHO1 also recapitulated the seed P distribution phenotype of pho1. Together, these experiments show that PHO1 expression in the CZSC is important for the transfer of P from the seed coat to the embryo in developing seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimates of genetics and phenotypics parameters for the yield and quality of soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambiazzi, E V; Bruzi, A T; Guilherme, S R; Pereira, D R; Lima, J G; Zuffo, A M; Ribeiro, F O; Mendes, A E S; Godinho, S H M; Carvalho, M L M

    2017-09-27

    Estimating genotype x environment (GxE) parameters for quality and yield in soybean seed grown in different environments in Minas Gerais State was the goal of this study, as well as to evaluate interaction effects of GxE for soybean seeds yield and quality. Seeds were produced in three locations in Minas Gerais State (Lavras, Inconfidentes, and Patos de Minas) in 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons. Field experiments were conducted in randomized blocks in a factorial 17 x 6 (GxE), and three replications. Seed yield and quality were evaluated for germination in substrates paper and sand, seedling emergence, speed emergency index, mechanical damage by sodium hypochlorite, electrical conductivity, speed aging, vigor and viability of seeds by tetrazolium test in laboratory using completely randomized design. Quadratic component genotypic, GXE variance component, genotype determination coefficient, genetic variation coefficient and environmental variation coefficient were estimated using the Genes software. Percentage analysis of genotypes contribution, environments and genotype x environment interaction were conducted by sites combination two by two and three sites combination, using the R software. Considering genotypes selection of broad adaptation, TMG 1179 RR, CD 2737 RR, and CD 237 RR associated better yield performance at high physical and physiological potential of seed. Environmental effect was more expressive for most of the characters related to soybean seed quality. GxE interaction effects were expressive though genotypes did not present coincidental behavior in different environments.

  18. Successful disinfection protocol for orchid seeds and influence of gelling agent on germination and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž JEVŠNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial propagation of endangered orchid species is one of the most important actions of conservationists often jeopardized by low numbers of acquired seed, its contamination and viability. Disinfection and chemical composition of media are two of the most important factors contributing to better germination in temperate orchid species. The article deals with three world genera (Epidendrum nocturnum, Prosthechea garciana, Maxillaria rufescens and one commercial hybrid (Zygopetalum and describes an effective method of orchid seed disinfection carried out in a centrifuge. Germination percentages of all three genera and one hybrid were between 60 and 90 % from which we concluded that the risk of physical damage to the seeds by centrifugation is not significant. The time needed for disinfected seeds (E. nocturnum, P. garciana, M. rufescens to swell-form protocorms was 10 days shorter compared to undisinfected seeds (Zygopetalum hybrid - green capsule method and some other studies. Adequate wetting and stratification of the seed is very important for successful germination, which resembles processes in natural environment. Additionally, this method solves the problems of collecting and transferring the seeds after disinfection. It is also important that the time needed for disinfection is shorter, which is desirable for some sensitive species. Our study also focuses on importance of gelling agent, namely Gellan gum and agar, since we noticed an obvious superiority of the former in all phases of in vitro development.

  19. Influence of grain boundary connectivity on the trapped magnetic flux of multi-seeded bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulks as representatives. A coupling ratio to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside multi-seeded bulks. An averaged trapped magnetic flux density parameter was introduced. The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.

  20. METHODS FOR OVERCOMING SEED DORMANCY AND THE INITIAL GROWTH OF Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. IN DIFFERENT SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSENARA DAIANE DE SOUZA COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the potential and importance of biodiversity of the Caatinga biome, studies on endemic species are relevant to conservation of its natural resources. The objectives of this work was to evaluate seed viability and physical methods for overcoming seed dormancy in juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. and assess the influence of different types of soil on the initial growth of juazeiro plants. The experiments were conducted in three stages. In the first stage, the viability of seeds from different lots was evaluated using the tetrazolium test. The second stage was conducted in a plant nursery, evaluating the application of physical processes (scarification with sandpaper and hammer in overcoming seed dormancy, and the initial growth of the plants. In the third step, the chlorophyll a and b contents, gas exchange and dry matter accumulation were evaluated in young juazeiro plants in three types of soil (Oxisol, Entisol and Vertisol. The results indicate that the viability of juazeiro seeds is greatly influenced by differences between the progenitor plants and by storage conditions, which enable a longevity of two years when stored at 22°C and 16% of relative humidity. The scarification methods with sandpaper and hammer are not efficient to reduce the time and uniform seed germination. The juazeiro plants have high growth potential in different edaphic environments, adapting well to soils of different textures and chemical compositions.

  1. Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, K.; Podder, T.; Buzurovic, I.; Hu, Y.; Dicker, A.; Valicenti, R.; Yu, Y.; Messing, E.; Rubens, D.; Sarkar, N.; Ng, W.

    2008-01-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

  2. Partial dehydration and cryopreservation of Citrus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí

    2011-11-01

    Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds.

  4. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  5. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Saez-Aguayo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

  6. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  7. Impurities in alfalfa seed and their impact on processing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Marković, Jordan; Terzić, Dragan; Anđelković, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine relevant parameters and optimal alfalfa seed processing technology by a comparative analysis of two systems of machinery for processing natural alfalfa seed of different purity (59.0% and 71.0%) and with different content of impurities. The relevant parameters monitored during the test were: pure seed (%), weed seeds and seeds of other crops (%), inert matter (%), amount of processed seed (kg), seed processing time (min), consumption of steel powder (...

  8. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  9. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    smoke. While the mechanism behind smoke-induced germination is not known, it appears that smoke may be involved in overcoming different blocks to germination in different species. For example, in Emmenanthe penduliflora, NO2 in smoke was sufficient to induce germination, and most forms of physical or chemical scarification also induced germination. For Romneya coulteri, NO2 alone failed to induce germination, and scarified seeds required addition of gibberellic acid. In Dicentra chrysantha, none of these treatments, nor smoke alone, induced germination, but germination was triggered by a combination of soil burial followed by smoke treatment. Smoke-stimulated species differed substantially in the duration of smoke exposure required to induce germination, and this was inversely correlated with tolerance to smoke exposure. We suggest that such differences in response may affect postfire community structure.

  10. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  11. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mekala; Willoughby, Janna R; Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%), and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%). A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA) on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is consistent with a weak

  12. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  13. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  14. Involvement of Polyamine Oxidase-Produced Hydrogen Peroxide during Coleorhiza-Limited Germination of Rice Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Xian Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is a complicated biological process that requires regulated enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. The action of polyamine oxidase (PAO produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which promotes dicot seed germination. However, whether and, if so, how PAOs regulate monocot seed germination via H2O2 production is unclear. Herein, we report that the coleorhiza is the main physical barrier to radicle protrusion during germination of rice seed (a monocot seed and that it does so in a manner similar to that of dicot seed micropylar endosperm. We found that H2O2 specifically and steadily accumulated in the coleorhizae and radicles of germinating rice seeds and was accompanied by increased PAO activity as the germination percentage increased. These physiological indexes were strongly decreased in number by guazatine, a PAO inhibitor. We also identified 11 PAO homologs (OsPAO1–11 in the rice genome, which could be classified into four subfamilies (I, IIa, IIb, and III. The OsPAO genes in subfamilies I, IIa, and IIb (OsPAO1–7 encode PAOs, whereas those in subfamily III (OsPAO8–11 encode histone lysine-specific demethylases. In silico-characterized expression profiles of OsPAO1–7 and those determined by qPCR revealed that OsPAO5 is markedly upregulated in imbibed seeds compared with dry seeds and that its transcript accumulated to a higher level in embryos than in the endosperm. Moreover, its transcriptional abundance increased gradually during seed germination in water and was inhibited by 5 mM guazatine. Taken together, these results suggest that PAO-generated H2O2 is involved in coleorhiza-limited rice seed germination and that OsPAO5 expression accounts for most PAO expression and activity during rice seed germination. These findings should facilitate further study of PAOs and provide valuable information for functional validation of these proteins during seed germination of monocot cereals.

  15. Yield and quality of white mustard seed depending on the seeding dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sowing dates and harvest dates on yield and quality of white mustard seed been investigated in this study. During the experiment two sowing dates have been tested the first one based on the crops in March, and the other one when the direct sowing was carried out in late May, after the harvest of camomile crops. The harvest of the seed crops in the first seeding date was performed on 1st July, and the second on 15th September. Seed fractioning extracted the following fractions: large (3mm, medium (2 mm and small (1mm. I he objective of the laboratory' experiments was to observe the effect of the seed fraction size on the most important parameters of its quality (germination energy, total germination and absolute mass according to the stipulated terms. Based on the data obtained in the survey, it can be concluded that the seed yield is significantly affected by the varied seeding dates. Earlier seeding date produced significantly increased seed yield (1920 kg/ha than the later seeding date (1160 kg/ha. According to the seed quality parameters, the best characteristics are found in the seed fraction of 3 mm, in both seeding and harvest dates.

  16. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  17. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  18. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  19. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  20. Effects of seed priming and water potential on seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... (without seed drying), primed and 12 h drying on seed germination of wheat .... completely with the lower half and the paper were rolled and placed ..... water stress and control of germination: a review. Plant Cell Environ.