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Sample records for seed treatments electronic

  1. DNA comet assay for rice seeds treated with low energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    As rice seeds are sometimes contaminated with phytopathogenic organisms such as blast disease fungi and nematodes, a novel non-chemical disinfection method for rice seeds is highly required. In order to develop a disinfection method, the effect of low energy electron ('soft-electrons') on seed DNA was examined by using the neutral comet assay. Rice seeds (whole grain) were treated with electrons of different acceleration voltages (180 kV to 1 MV) at a dose of 5 kGy. Nucleus suspensions were prepared from whole brown rice and subjected to electrophoresis. DNA from un-irradiated (control) seeds relaxed and produced comets with a short tail, most of the comets distributed within the range of comet length between 30 μm to 70 μm. In the case of seeds treated with electrons at acceleration voltages up to 190 kV, cells without seed coats were not damaged and the frequency histograms of comet length showed almost the same pattern as that for control. At acceleration voltages higher than 200 kV, the cells were distributed into two categories; DNA comets with a short tail (with little DNA damages, less than 70 μm in the comet length) and DNA comets with long tails (with sever strand breaks, more than 130 μm in the comet length). The ratios of damaged cells increased with increasing acceleration voltage. The growths of rice seedlings were not affected by the treatment with electrons at up to 200 kV. On the contrary, the cells of gamma-irradiated seed showed small variations in the comet length, and which were depending on radiation dose. The individual cells of gamma-irradiated seeds at 1 kGy showed shorter comet than the damaged cells with soft electron, seed treated with gamma rays (1-5 kGy) did not shoot nor root. (author)

  2. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Phoma valerianellae on lamb`s lettuce seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Stephan, D.; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Tinivella, F.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify seed treatment methods for eradicating Phoma valerianellae from lamb`s lettuce seeds in organic vegetable production. Using seeds naturally infested with the pathogen, the effect of three physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and

  3. Non- chemical methods of seed treatment for control of seed- borne pathogens on vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Wickstrom, M.; Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Jahn, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of EU-project "Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production" (STOVE) was to evaluate non-chemical methods for control of seed-borne pathogens in organic vegetable production. Physical (hot air, hot water and electron) and biologi-cal (microorganisms and different agents of natural

  4. Implementation of bioherbicides and seed treatment in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehne, Stefan; Verschwele, Arnd; von Hoersten, Dieter; Jahn, Marga

    2005-01-01

    The paper gives an overview over the prospects and risks of the application of bioherbicides in Organic Farming and wants to support the general acceptance by the EEC Council Regulation on Organic Production of Agricultural Products. Another problem of current importance is the maintenance of seed health. Several methods of seed treatments and their practical use are described (hot water, hot air, microwave steam, radio-frequency, low energy electrons, micro-organisms and natural substances).

  5. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin [Changwon Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber.

  6. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin

    2013-01-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber

  7. Measurements and simulations of seeded electron microbunches with collective effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hacker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the longitudinal phase-space distributions of electron bunches seeded with an external laser were done in order to study the impact of collective effects on seeded microbunches in free-electron lasers. When the collective effects of Coulomb forces in a drift space and coherent synchrotron radiation in a chicane are considered, velocity bunching of a seeded microbunch appears to be a viable alternative to compression with a magnetic chicane under high-gain harmonic generation seeding conditions. Measurements of these effects on seeded electron microbunches were performed with a rf deflecting structure and a dipole magnet which streak out the electron bunch for single-shot images of the longitudinal phase-space distribution. Particle tracking simulations in 3D predicted the compression dynamics of the seeded microbunches with collective effects.

  8. Preliminary report into the effects of nitrogen ion bombardment treatment on mustard seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Al-Hashmi, S.A.R.; Ahmed, N.A.G.; Pollard, M.

    1988-01-01

    Mustard seeds have been subjected to nitrogen ion bombardment. A range of conditions was found within which there was an enhancement in the growth of seedlings from the ion bombardment treated seeds relative to those grown from control seeds. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine seeds after treatment. It appeared that there had been an etching of the seed coating by the ion bombardment. This view was supported by experiments which showed that the rate of capillary water uptake by the treated seeds had been enhanced. (author)

  9. Electron beam irradiation: a novel technology to enhance the quality of soybean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, Shashi; Srinivasan, K.; Singh, Subadas; Thakur, Manju; Sharma, S.K.; Pramod, R.; Dwivedi, J.; Bapna, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Soybean seeds, rich in protein and oil, maintain their germinability only for short durations under ambient conditions. Loss of viability of stored seeds often hampers soybean production in harsh environments worldwide. Physiological factors favored by high temperature and high moisture content accelerate the seed deterioration in the tropics. Several chemical and physical treatments are being used to enhance quality. Irradiation is a novel technology for food preservation and is gaining importance all over the world. Low doses of irradiation bring about improvement in quality of food/seeds, which can be beneficial in several ways. Electron Beam (EB) irradiation is a new approach in this area. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of EB irradiation in enhancing the quality of low vigour soybean seeds

  10. Laser treatment of radish seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalov, P.; Nidal, T.

    1987-01-01

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  11. Effect of Electron Seeding on Experimentally Measured Multipactor Discharge Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Jonathan; Graves, Timothy; Lemon, Colby; Looper, Mark; Farkas, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Multipactor is a vacuum phenomenon in which electrons, moving in resonance with an externally applied electric field, impact material surfaces. If the number of secondary electrons created per primary electron impact averages more than unity, the resonant interaction can lead to an electron avalanche. Multipactor is a generally undesirable phenomenon, as it can cause local heating, absorb power, or cause detuning of RF circuits. In order to increase the probability of multipactor initiation, test facilities often employ various seeding sources such as radioactive sources (Cesium 137, Strontium 90), electron guns, or photon sources. Even with these sources, the voltage for multipactor initiation is not certain as parameters such as material type, RF pulse length, and device wall thickness can all affect seed electron flux and energy in critical gap regions, and hence the measured voltage threshold. This study investigates the effects of seed electron source type (e.g., photons versus beta particles), material type, gap size, and RF pulse length variation on multipactor threshold. In addition to the experimental work, GEANT4 simulations will be used to estimate the production rate of low energy electrons (< 5 keV) by high energy electrons and photons. A comparison of the experimental fluxes to the typical energetic photon and particle fluxes experienced by spacecraft in various orbits will also be made. Initial results indicate that for a simple, parallel plate device made of aluminum, there is no threshold variation (with seed electrons versus with no seed electrons) under continuous-wave RF exposure.

  12. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Krizmanić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  13. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study: Radiation Belt Seed Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes data, we study the radiation belt seed population and it associated with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storm events. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “non-preconditioned” and “preconditioned”. The statistical study shows that the storm intensity is of significant importance for the distribution of the seed population (336 keV electrons) in the outer radiation belt. However, substorm intensity can also be important to the evolution of the seed population for some geomagnetic storm events. For non-preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the peak fluxes and their L-shell locations of the seed population and relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1.0 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) is consistent with the energy-dependent dynamic processes in the outer radiation belt. For preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the features of the seed population and relativistic electrons is not fully consistent with the energy-dependent processes. It is suggested that the good correlation between the radiation belt seed population and ≤1.0 MeV electrons contributes to the prediction of the evolution of ≤1.0 MeV electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt during periods of geomagnetic storms.

  14. PROCEEDING OF THE SEEDED X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASER WORKSHOP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,X.J.; MURPHY,J.B.; YU,L.H.; FAATZ,B.; HUANG,Z.; REICHE,S.; ZOLOTOREV,M.

    2002-12-13

    The underlying theory of a high gain free electron laser (FEL) has existed for two decades [1-2], but it is only in the last few years that these novel radiation sources have been realized experimentally. Several high gain FELs have successfully reached saturation in the infrared, visible and the VUV portion of the spectrum: the High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) free electron lasers [3] at BNL and the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FELs at LEUTL, VISA and TTF [4-6]. The outstanding challenges for future FELs are to extend high gain FELs to the X-ray regime, improve the longitudinal coherence of the radiation using seeded FEL schemes and generate ultrashort pulses (<100 fs). The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) sponsored a Seeded X-ray Free Electron Laser Workshop on December 13-14, 2002 to explore these challenging issues. Representatives from BNL, DESY, LBNL, SLAC and UCLA made presentations on the novel schemes under consideration at their laboratories. Workshop participants had a lively discussion on the feasibility, performance and R&D issues associated with the seeded XFEL schemes. An improvement of the electron beam quality will certainly be necessary to drive the XFEL. Self-seeding SASE, cascaded HGHG, and SASE pulse compression FELs show the most promise for producing short pulse X-rays. Of these, only the self-seeded and HGHG schemes generate longitudinally coherent radiation. While the pulse length in the self-seeded scheme is determined by the electron bunch length ({approx}100 fs), the pulse length in the HGHG scheme is determined by the short pulse seed laser, and so can be much shorter ({approx} 20 fs).

  15. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing occurrence of major pests ON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protected against pests and seed corn should be treated with appropriately insecticides. Choosing better technological solutions and choosing and appropriate insecticide seed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pest attack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aim of this research was to obtain based upon result information on the impact of treatment on quality of maize seed as well as the means to improve the conditions of storage and preservation of semen quality. Investigation and checking if insecticide treated seed adverse phytotoxic effect on plant growth and development in field conditions. The results indicate a significant effect of insecticide seed treatments on germination energy and non standard germination. A very significant influence of treated seed storage was also found on quality seeds. Looking at the impact of the treated hybrid on germination vigor and standard germination, a very significant hybrid impact was found out. The highest quality of the seed semen during the study was noticed with the seed of hybrid “H2”, followed by hybrid “H1”, while the hybrids “H3” and “H4” possessed less. The research shows that hybrids “H2” and “H1” are more suitable for seed treatment with insecticides than “H3” and “H4” hybrids. The field observations and research results obtained indicate a very significant impact of the treated seed on the above ground parts of plants, above ground mass, stem thickness and a very significant impact on plant spacing. The positive effect of treatment with “T1” and “T3” insecticides is visible in all conducted field researches. Plants treated with common fungicides and insecticides “T1” and “T3” had a greater height of the above ground plant parts, a larger mass of the above ground stems, greater stem thickness and better plant density treatments, compared to

  16. Microbunching-instability-induced sidebands in a seeded free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the multishot-averaged, soft x-ray, self-seeding spectrum at the LCLS free-electron laser often have a pedestal-like distribution around the seeded wavelength, which limits the spectral purity and can negatively affect some user applications not employing a post-undulator monochromator. In this paper, we study the origins of such pedestals, focusing on longitudinal phase space modulations produced by the microbunching instability upstream of the free-electron laser (FEL undulator. We show from theory and numerical simulation that both energy and density modulations can induce sidebands in a high-gain, seeded FEL whose fractional strength typically grows as the square of the undulator length. The results place a tight constraint on the longitudinal phase space uniformity of the electron beam for a seeded FEL, possibly requiring the amplitude of long-wavelength modulations to be much smaller than the typical incoherent energy spread if the output sideband power is to remain only a couple percent or less of the amplified seed power.

  17. Electromagnetic treatment of loblolly pine seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. P. [Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA (United States); Krugman, S. L.

    1989-11-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus faeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process@, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed any improvement over untreated controls.

  18. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  19. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Adam; Krupke, Christian H

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn) seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  20. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Alford

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  1. Seeded free-electron and inverse free-electron laser techniques for radiation amplification and electron microbunching in the terahertz range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sung

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis is presented that describes amplification of a seed THz pulse in a single-pass free-electron laser (FEL driven by a photoinjector. The dynamics of the radiation pulse and the modulated electron beam are modeled using the time-dependent FEL code, GENESIS 1.3. A 10-ps (FWHM electron beam with a peak current of 50–100 A allows amplification of a ∼1  kW seed pulse in the frequency range 0.5–3 THz up to 10–100 MW power in a relatively compact 2-m long planar undulator. The electron beam driving the FEL is strongly modulated, with some inhomogeneity due to the slippage effect. It is shown that THz microbunching of the electron beam is homogeneous over the entire electron pulse when saturated FEL amplification is utilized at the very entrance of an undulator. This requires seeding of a 30-cm long undulator buncher with a 1–3 MW of pump power with radiation at the resonant frequency. A narrow-band seed pulse in the THz range needed for these experiments can be generated by frequency mixing of CO_{2} laser lines in a GaAs nonlinear crystal. Two schemes for producing MW power pulses in seeded FELs are considered in some detail for the beam parameters achievable at the Neptune Laboratory at UCLA: the first uses a waveguide to transport radiation in the 0.5–3 THz range through a 2-m long FEL amplifier and the second employs high-gain third harmonic generation using the FEL process at 3–9 THz.

  2. STOVE: Seed treatments for organic vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Jahn, M.; Kromphardt, C.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Roberts, S.J.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Forsberg, G.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Wikström, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the EU-financed research project „STOVE“ (Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production) is to evaluate different methods potentially suited for seed treatment of vegetables in organic farming regarding their efficacy, to optimise these methods, and where feasible to combine them with

  3. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  4. Technical feasibility for electron beam application on maize seeds disinfection for maize cultivation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, Claudia; Rela, Paulo Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Among the man made activities agriculture plays a fundamental rule on the interference with environment; new alternatives for clean technologies are being searched in order to reduce the impact and degradation of the environment. This work presents a feasibility study to implement in Brazil a technology using electron beam treatment to disinfect maize seeds avoiding the spoilage from pathogens microorganisms. This technology was developed in Germany by Fraunhofer Institut FEP (Dresden) and the private company Schmidt-Seeger AG. It was patented as 'e-ventus'. Concerning to the technical feasibility it shows to be quite useful due to the results of the experiments performed in other countries with maize seeds and properly for the large amount to be treated in the country. Under the environmental management it is quite advantageous when compared with the traditional technology that uses chemical seed dressing agents. Nevertheless for a large scale commercial application it is necessary a cost analyse comparison study between the traditional technology and the alternative using electron beam. (author)

  5. Pre-germination treatments on palm tree seeds

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    Maitê dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm tree seeds present slow and uneven germination. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatments in promoting germination and early seedling growth of palm tree (Euterpe edulis Martius. Treatments were: control, immersion in GA3 solution, exposure to ethylene, water immersion, H2SO4 immersion, mechanical scarification, stratification for 30 days at 10 °C, and scarification followed by stratification. Soaking seeds in gibberellic acid (GA3; 2000 µL L-1 for 24 h or their exposure to ethylene (1000 µL L-1 for 24 h are effective for promoting emergence, which started 30 days after seed treatment, and for early seedling growth of palm tree.

  6. Biophysical methods for disinfection and stimulation of wheat seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, S.; Marinkovic, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we are shown results of applying electron treatment (disinfection of seed by electrons), and RIES method (electromagnetic seed stimulation). Four cultivars of wheat were used in this trial: Renesansa, Durumko, NS-Rana 5 and Sonata. Seed was treated with fast electrons and just before sowing stimulated by ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (from 0 to 100 Hz). For seed disinfection was used chemical treatment as well, as control variant. Control variant for all treatments was seed without any disinfection. The highest number of spikelets per spike was obtained at variant H+RIES. The highest spike length was obtained at variants e sup(-) + RIES and control. At variant H+RIES was achieved the highest grain number. Treatment H had influence on decreasing of grain mass per spike in relation to control variant, for significant value of 0.15 g. The highest grain mass per spike was obtained at variant e sup(-) + RIES

  7. Process Control of Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment by Pulsed Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starodubtseva Galina Petrovna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper investigates the application of a line voltage changer to an installation for pre-sowing seed treatment by pulsed electric field (PEF in order to increase the sowing quality of seeds and to suppress pathogenic microflora. The installation comprises an AC voltage regulator, a high voltage source, a voltage inverter, a working chamber for seed treatment, a control unit, and current and voltage sensors. The proposed installation differs from the existing apparatuses as it automatically provides the transformation of the pulsed electric field parameters by constant monitoring of power processes in a layer of treated seeds and feedback sending to the control unit. Seed treatment efficiency depends on the dose being determined by the parameters of electric field, namely, intensity in the seed layer, pulse duration, pulse repetition frequency, and seed treatment time. The parameters of rational treatment were determined, and the minimum treatment dose was calculated on the basis of results from the laboratory tests on the effect of pulsed electric field on sowing qualities of winter wheat seeds. It was experimentally confirmed that the proposed installation provides automatic transformation of electric field parameters depending on the changes taking place in the seed layer on the example of seeds with different moisture content maintaining the necessary treatment dose, ensuring the stability and repeatability of results.

  8. Performance of seeds Crambe exposed to pre-germination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha Cardoso, Rebeca; Costa Nobre, Danubia Aparecida; Santos de Souza David, Andreia Marcia; Ribeiro Amaro, Hugo Tiago; Borghetti, Renato Antonio; Costa, Marcia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging the production and use of biodiesel, seeds of crambe today constitute one of the best options for the supply of raw material, is also an excellent alternative for autumn-winter crop rotation order. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of combined pre-germination treatments on the seed behavior of Crambe. From a seed sample of FMS Brilhante cultivar, an experimental design completely randomized with a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement was performed. it was formed from combination of two structural conditions, seeds with or without pericarp, and treatments with or without giberelic acid, being: control (no treatment); seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 24 hours as control; and seeds pre-soaked in gibberellic acid at 4 % at different concentrations (400, 500 and 600 mg.L"-1). Water content, first count germination, germination, seedling emergence and emergence rate index were determined. From these results it is concluded that removal of the pericarp in seed of Crambe, cultivar FMS brilhante, accelerated the germination rate, however, decreased your final percentage. The pre-soaking in gibberellic acid (400, 500 and 600 mg L"-1) for 24 hours, increased the germination and seed vigor crambe with pericarp.

  9. Technical feasibility for electron beam application on maize seeds disinfection for maize cultivation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, Claudia [Proenco Brasil Ltda. (Brazil)]. E-mail: clauzago@uol.com.br; Rela, Paulo Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Among the man made activities agriculture plays a fundamental rule on the interference with environment; new alternatives for clean technologies are being searched in order to reduce the impact and degradation of the environment. This work presents a feasibility study to implement in Brazil a technology using electron beam treatment to disinfect maize seeds avoiding the spoilage from pathogens microorganisms. This technology was developed in Germany by Fraunhofer Institut FEP (Dresden) and the private company Schmidt-Seeger AG. It was patented as 'e-ventus'. Concerning to the technical feasibility it shows to be quite useful due to the results of the experiments performed in other countries with maize seeds and properly for the large amount to be treated in the country. Under the environmental management it is quite advantageous when compared with the traditional technology that uses chemical seed dressing agents. Nevertheless for a large scale commercial application it is necessary a cost analyse comparison study between the traditional technology and the alternative using electron beam. (author)

  10. Electron beam irradiation: laboratory and field studies of cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Chauhan, S.K.; Prasad, T.V.; Pramod, R.; Verma, V.P.; Petwal, V.; Dwivedi, J.; Bhalla, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rich in protein and vitamins is emerging as one of the most important food legumes to tackle malnutrition. Pulse beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus) are the pests of economic importance causing enormous losses during storage. Although various pest management strategies exist for the control of these pests, environmental concerns necessitate developing ecofriendly strategies. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has the potential to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free strategy for management of pulse beetles during storage, but higher doses affect seed germination and viability. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to analyse the dosage effect of the irradiation on seed attributes of cowpea. Healthy cowpea seeds were irradiated with low energy electrons at different doses viz., 180, 360, 540, 720, 900, 1080, 1260, 1440 and 1620 Gy at 500 keV using the EB Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. EB irradiated seeds were tested for physiological viz., germination, seedling vigour and vigour index and biochemical parameters viz., electrical conductivity of seed leachate, seed viability/tetrazolium test and dehydrogenase activity. Germination and vigour of the irradiated seeds were evaluated as per the ISTA Rules (ISTA, 1996). Vigour index was calculated as the product of germination percentage and seedling vigour. About 3,000 irradiated seeds from each dose were grown in the field at the Experimental farm, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. Seeds harvested from 1500 individual plants of M 1 generation from each dose (50 seeds from each plant individually) were sown in next season and observed for chlorophyll mutations, if any. Results revealed that doses upto 1080 Gy (88%) did not affect the germination of cowpea seeds drastically as compared to untreated seeds (98%). Lower doses viz., 180 and 360 Gy had no impact on vigour components while higher doses (1080 Gy

  11. [Advances in research on mechanisms of seed pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian; Gao, Ya Ni; Wang, Quan Zhen

    2016-11-18

    Seeds play a vital role in nature and agro-ecosystems. The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling determine the propagation and survival of a plant species, but seed vigor is often seriously damaged because of seed aging, dormancy and the deterioration of natural habitat. Thus, exploring methods for improving germination quality is of great significance to ecology and the economy. Based on the latest international reports, seed pre-treatments are the most practical and effective methods for improving plant performance, increasing yields and enhancing stress resistance. This review provided a summary of the current pre-sowing treatment technologies and the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to these methods by addressing gene expression, cytological effects, enzyme system activities, material and energy metabolism, antioxidation mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. We also interpreted the mechanisms of the seed pre-treatment methods from aspects of seed germination acceleration and stress resistance enhancement. The bottleneck in seed pre-treatments at the cytological and molecular levels and the problems involved in their application were also discussed. Thus far, most studies had largely focused on the partial reaction alterations of plant biochemistry and enzyme activities, and they had generally been characterized by a lack of systematic and holistic study for applications to crop production. Finally, we proposed an outlook for further study in an attempt to provide a prospective and scientific reference for plant germplasm conservation, high-efficiency organic agriculture development and ecological environment re-construction.

  12. Organic Oils as Seed Treatments for Soybeans to Inhibit Fungal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Burgett, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Producing organic crops has become essential to satisfy the desires of the end consumer. To completely fulfill this task and meet the requirements of the National Organic Program in the U.S., the seeds planted must be organic. Seeds succumb to fungal infections without seed treatments. Organic seed treatments are not common. The purpose of this study is to test the ability of three organic oils (tea tree, coconut, and lemon) to act as organic seed treatments to inhibit fungal growth on soybea...

  13. Automated treatment planning engine for prostate seed implant brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yan; Zhang, J.B.Y.; Brasacchio, Ralph A.; Okunieff, Paul G.; Rubens, Deborah J.; Strang, John G.; Soni, Arvind; Messing, Edward M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a computer-intelligent planning engine for automated treatment planning and optimization of ultrasound- and template-guided prostate seed implants. Methods and Materials: The genetic algorithm was modified to reflect the 2D nature of the implantation template. A multi-objective decision scheme was used to rank competing solutions, taking into account dose uniformity and conformity to the planning target volume (PTV), dose-sparing of the urethra and the rectum, and the sensitivity of the resulting dosimetry to seed misplacement. Optimized treatment plans were evaluated using selected dosimetric quantifiers, dose-volume histogram (DVH), and sensitivity analysis based on simulated seed placement errors. These dosimetric planning components were integrated into the Prostate Implant Planning Engine for Radiotherapy (PIPER). Results: PIPER has been used to produce a variety of plans for prostate seed implants. In general, maximization of the minimum peripheral dose (mPD) for given implanted total source strength tended to produce peripherally weighted seed patterns. Minimization of the urethral dose further reduced the loading in the central region of the PTV. Isodose conformity to the PTV was achieved when the set of objectives did not reflect seed positioning uncertainties; the corresponding optimal plan generally required fewer seeds and higher source strength per seed compared to the manual planning experience. When seed placement uncertainties were introduced into the set of treatment planning objectives, the optimal plan tended to reach a compromise between the preplanned outcome and the likelihood of retaining the preferred outcome after implantation. The reduction in the volatility of such seed configurations optimized under uncertainty was verified by sensitivity studies. Conclusion: An automated treatment planning engine incorporating real-time sensitivity analysis was found to be a useful tool in dosimetric planning for prostate

  14. Longitudinal space charge assisted echo seeding of a free-electron laser with laser-spoiler noise suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hacker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed lasers are employed to improve the temporal coherence of free-electron laser (FEL light. However, when these seed pulses are short relative to the particle bunch, the noisy, temporally incoherent radiation from the unseeded electrons can overwhelm the coherent, seeded radiation. In this paper, a technique to seed a particle bunch with an external laser is presented in which a new mechanism to improve the contrast between coherent and incoherent free electron laser radiation is employed together with a novel, simplified echo-seeding method. The concept relies on a combination of longitudinal space charge wakes and an echo-seeding technique to make a short, coherent pulse of FEL light together with noise background suppression. Several different simulation codes are used to illustrate the concept with conditions at the soft x-ray free-electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH.

  15. Improve germination of caper (Capparis Spinosa l. seeds by different induction treatments of seed dormancy breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Labbafi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is a common phase of the plant life cycle; different treatments can be used for breaking dormancy. The aim of this study was to find the best treatment for breaking dormancy and improve germination of caper (Capparis spinosa L.. This study based on the completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replications was done at research Laboratory of Medicinal Plants Institute, ACECR, Karaj, Iran. After different induction treatments containing different levels of potassium nitrate (KNO3, GA3, soaking and soaking with runner water, sulfuric acid, thidiazuron, and benzyl amino-purine, seeds were placed in Petri-dishes and incubated in two temperature regimes, first at fixed 20 ͦC, and second, alternate between 20 and 30 ͦC. The result showed that the germination percentage and germination rate of caper increased up to 75% and 1.35 respectively when the seeds treated with sulfuric acid for 15 min, and 2000 ppm GA3 under alternate 20-30 ͦC temperatures. Caper seed dormancy is mainly due to the inhibitors and hard seed coat that it prevents seed germination.

  16. Effect of different seed treatments on maize seed germination parameters under optimal and suboptimal temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different seed treatments on germination parameters of three maize genotypes under optimal and suboptimal temperature conditions. Seed was treated with recommended doses of three commercial pesticide formulations: metalaxyl-m 10 g/L + fludioxonil 25 g/L, metalaxyl 20 g/kg + prothioconazole 100 g/kg and thiacloprid 400 g/L. Testing was conducted at 25°C and 15°C. Results of the study indicate that there are differences in response of maize genotypes to applied seed treatments, as well as to a specific treatment at optimal and suboptimal temperatures. Some treatments, depending on the mixing partner and temperature conditions, can affect final germination. In other cases, germination rate can be accelerated or prolonged, but with no effect on final germination. In order to provide fast and uniform emergence under different temperature conditions, further examination of the response of maize genotypes to specific seed treatments would be beneficial.

  17. Effect of Seed Quality and Combination Fungicide-Trichoderma spp. Seed Treatments on Pre- and Postemergence Damping-Off in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Good quality seeds of cotton cultivars often escaped pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae, and they were resistant to postemergence damping-off incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Poor quality seeds, however, were highly susceptible to both phases of seedling disease and required seed treatment in order to survive. Pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae could be controlled by seed treatment with biocontrol preparations of a number of Trichoderma spp., but these treatments were much less effective in controlling postemergence disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Postemergence seedling disease can be controlled by fungicides, but they were much less effective in controlling the pre-emergence phase of the disease. Combination seed treatments of poor quality cotton seeds with fungicides and Trichoderma spp. preparations, followed by planting in pathogen-infested soil, indicated that this technique will control both phases of seedling disease. Seed treatment with either the fungicides or the biocontrol agents alone did not achieve this goal. The optimum combination treatment for disease control was that of chloroneb plus Trichoderma spp., followed by chloroneb plus metalaxyl (Deltacoat AD) plus T. virens strain G-6.

  18. Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa (Benth) ... There has been emphasis on the use of indigenous tree species to check land ... out to investigate the most effective pre-sowing treatments to break seed dormancy and to ... Matured seeds of P. biglobosa were collected from farmers at Mbalagh ...

  19. Seed treatments to control seedborne fungal pathogens of vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Valeria; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2014-06-01

    Vegetable crops are frequently infected by fungal pathogens, which can include seedborne fungi. In such cases, the pathogen is already present within or on the seed surface, and can thus cause seed rot and seedling damping-off. Treatment of vegetable seeds has been shown to prevent plant disease epidemics caused by seedborne fungal pathogens. Furthermore, seed treatments can be useful in reducing the amounts of pesticides required to manage a disease, because effective seed treatments can eliminate the need for foliar application of fungicides later in the season. Although the application of fungicides is almost always effective, their non-target environmental impact and the development of pathogen resistance have led to the search for alternative methods, especially in the past few years. Physical treatments that have already been used in the past and treatments with biopesticides, such as plant extracts, natural compounds and biocontrol agents, have proved to be effective in controlling seedborne pathogens. These have been applied alone or in combination, and they are widely used owing to their broad spectrum in terms of disease control and production yield. In this review, the effectiveness of different seed treatments against the main seedborne pathogens of some important vegetable crops is critically discussed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, Al S.; Wikstrom, M.; Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D.; Jahn, M.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effec­tively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of

  1. Dependence of electron peak current on hollow cathode dimensions and seed electron energy in a pseudospark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetiner, S. O.; Stoltz, P.; Messmer, P.; Cambier, J.-L.

    2008-01-01

    The prebreakdown and breakdown phases of a pseudospark discharge are investigated using the two-dimensional kinetic plasma simulation code OOPIC PRO. Trends in the peak electron current at the anode are presented as function of the hollow cathode dimensions and mean seed injection velocities at the cavity back wall. The plasma generation process by ionizing collisions is examined, showing the effect on supplying the electrons that determine the density of the beam. The mean seed velocities used here are varied between the velocity corresponding to the energy of peak ionization cross section, 15 times this value and no mean velocity (i.e., electrons injected with a temperature of 2.5 eV). The reliance of the discharge characteristics on the penetrating electric field is shown to decrease as the mean seed injection velocity increases because of its ability to generate a surplus plasma independent of the virtual anode. As a result, the peak current increases with the hollow cathode dimensions for the largest average injection velocity, while for the smallest value it increases with the area of penetration of the electric field in the hollow cathode interior. Additionally, for a given geometry an increase in the peak current with the surplus plasma generated is observed. For the largest seed injection velocity used a dependence of the magnitude of the peak current on the ratio of the hole thickness and hollow cathode depth to the hole height is demonstrated. This means similar trends of the peak current are generated when the geometry is resized. Although the present study uses argon only, the variation in the discharge dependencies with the seed injection energy relative to the ionization threshold is expected to apply independently of the gas type. Secondary electrons due to electron and ion impact are shown to be important only for the largest impact areas and discharge development times of the study

  2. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF MACHINERY FOR PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF RADISH SEEDS FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pre-sowing treatment of radish seeds aimed at increasing of seed production, yield and its productivity in protected area are presented. The density fractionation of radish seeds by gravity separator is recommended for improvement of planting material quality and increasing of utilization efficiency of frame area.

  3. Physical Methods for Seed Invigoration: Advantages and Challenges in Seed Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Paparella, Stefania; Dondi, Daniele; Bentivoglio, Antonio; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical invigoration treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, "magneto-priming" and irradiation with microwaves (MWs) or ionizing radiations (IRs) are the most promising pre-sowing seed treatments. "Magneto-priming" is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigor and crop yield. IRs, as γ-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual 'priming' treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to MWs and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed invigoration agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV) radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination, and seedling vigor. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed invigoration treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed invigoration, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and advantages. The future perspectives related to

  4. Physical Methods for Seed Invigoration: Advantages and Challenges in Seed Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Paparella, Stefania; Dondi, Daniele; Bentivoglio, Antonio; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical invigoration treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, “magneto-priming” and irradiation with microwaves (MWs) or ionizing radiations (IRs) are the most promising pre-sowing seed treatments. “Magneto-priming” is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigor and crop yield. IRs, as γ-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual ‘priming’ treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to MWs and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed invigoration agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV) radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination, and seedling vigor. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed invigoration treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed invigoration, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and advantages. The future perspectives

  5. Physical methods for seed vigourization: advantages and challenges in seed technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eAraújo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical vigourization treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, magneto-priming and irradiation with microwaves or ionizing radiations are the most promissory pre-sowing seed treatments. Magneto-priming is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigour and crop yield. Ionizing radiations, as gamma-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual ‘priming’ treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to microwaves and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed vigourization agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination and seedling vigour. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed vigourization treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed vigourization, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and

  6. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes.In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls.Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  7. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  8. pre-germination treatments in castor seeds, cultivar IAC 226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Nobre, Danubia Aparecida; Gomes Damascena, Joyce; Marcia, Andreia; Santos de Souza, David; Pereira dos Santos, Marlucia; Rodrigues Pereira, Adriana; Goncalves Pereira, Cassio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different pre-germination treatments in castor beans, IAC 226. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 4 (four temperatures and four immersion times), with four replications. Pre-germination treatments were: immersion in water at room temperature (25 Celsius degrade) and immersion in hot water at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 Celsius degrade for 2, 4, 6 and 8 minutes. Water content of the seeds was determined before treatments. Before and after each treatment, seeds were subjected to germination test; 20-30 Celsius degrade alternating temperature, determining the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings, dormant and dead seeds. Independent of time, immersion in 70 Celsius degrade, water was the most efficient treatment for accelerating germination of castor bean cultivar IAC 226.

  9. Value of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Seed Treatments in Mid-South Corn (Zea mays) Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, J H; Gore, J; Catchot, A L; Stewart, S D; Lorenz, G M; Musser, F R; Cook, D R; Kerns, D L; Leonard, B R; Dodds, D M

    2018-02-09

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments are one of several effective control options used in corn, Zea mays L., production in the Mid-South for early season insect pests. An analysis was performed on 91 insecticide seed treatment trials from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee to determine the value of neonicotinoids in corn production systems. The analysis compared neonicotinoid insecticide treated seed plus a fungicide to seed only with the same fungicide. When analyzed by state, corn yields were significantly higher when neonicotinoid seed treatments were used compared to fungicide only treated seed in Louisiana and Mississippi. Corn seed treated with neonicotinoid seed treatments yielded 111, 1,093, 416, and 140 kg/ha, higher than fungicide only treatments for Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee, respectively. Across all states, neonicotinoid seed treatments resulted in a 700 kg/ha advantage compared to fungicide only treated corn seed. Net returns for corn treated with neonicotinoid seed treatment were $1,446/ha compared with $1,390/ha for fungicide only treated corn seed across the Mid-South. Economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treated corn were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated corn seed in 8 out of 14 yr. When analyzed by state, economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treatments were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated seed in Louisiana. In some areas, dependent on year, neonicotinoid seed treatments provide significant yield and economic benefits in Mid-South corn. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  11. Seed quality preservation advantage of gamma irradiation seed pre-treatment during long term storage in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, Sameer Kumar; Sumedha; Singh, Bhupinder

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to analyse the effect of gamma irradiation seed pre-treatment on insect damage and quality preservation of soybean seeds during long term storage at ambient temperature (27-42 ℃) and relative humidity (50-95%). Freshly harvested seeds of soybean (cv. Pusa-9814) were treated with control (0), 0.01, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 kGy gamma radiation on a Gamma irradiator (Gamma Chamber 5000, 60 Co source, activity 12000 Ci, BRIT, Mumbai, India) at the Nuclear Research Laboratory, IARI, New Delhi and were stored over one year in cotton cloth bags under ambient conditions. Protein and oil per cent and fatty acid profile was measured in freshly harvested zero time unirradiated control, aged unirradiated control and other treatments of ionizing radiation. Seed oil was extracted through the soxhlet extraction method and oil profiling was done by gas chromatography. Change in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids like palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolic, linolenic acid and oleic to linoleic ratio was measured. Oil content of unirradiated stored seeds compared to that of the freshly harvested control was lower. However, radiation in general, helped in maintaining a higher seed oil during storage when compared with that of the aged unirradiated control and was insignificantly reduced over the fresh unirrradiated control. Further, gamma irradiation treatment did not yield any adverse affect on the seed protein even after prolonged storage. The results reveal a reduced rate of lipid degradation and improved seed hardness over untreated control with no significant change in fatty acid profile of the irradiated and the unirradiated seeds over a long term storage period. (author)

  12. Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed germination and seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-sowing treatments were evaluated for Tetracarpidium conophorum. Mechanically scarified T. conophorum seeds soaked in indole acetic acid for 24 h yielded 90% seed germination. Smoked- and sun-dried seeds for 14 days yielded 73 and 33.3% seed germination, respectively. Poorest values were obtained from acid ...

  13. Seed treatments with essential oils protect radish seedlings against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Klein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of seedlings of economic crops is often reduced if there is not a steady supply of water. Essential oils (EO from plants are increasingly used instead of synthetic chemicals to protect plant and animal products against biotic and abiotic stresses. We investigated priming radish seeds by soaking or by matriconditioning with synthetic or natural compounds as a means of inducing resistance to drought stress, thus maintaining crop yield. Priming radish seeds for two hours in solutions of essential oils (EO thymol and carvacrol derived from Origanum syriacum, with “oregano natural product” (ONP; a solution of the residue remaining after EO extraction, or with the gibberellin synthesis inhibitor trinexapac ethyl (TE, was much more effective in inducing drought resistance than was matriconditioning with the same compounds in sawdust for two days. The latter treatment induced considerable fungal and bacterial infection in treated seeds if the substrate-matrix was not heat-treated beforehand. The increase in specific leaf area in plants from treated seeds was mostly consistent with an increase in leaf water content. Seed treatments with EO, ONP, and especially TE led to a three-fold increase in radish seedling survival compared with water-treated controls, when 21 day-old seedlings were irrigated after 6 days of drought. Under drought conditions, seedlings from treated seeds had a 2–3-fold increase in relative water content increased 2–3-fold, while membrane permeability decreased 20–50-fold as a result of the treatments. However, the physical benefits of the treatments often did not correlate with treatment-induced increases in physiological parameters such as pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin, pigment ratios (chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid/chlorophyll, or antioxidant activity. Seed treatments with biostimulants can be as effective as treatments with synthetic compounds in inducing drought resistance in seedlings.

  14. Femtosecond resolved diagnostics for electron beam and XUV seed temporal overlap at sFLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkeshian, Roxana

    2012-02-01

    sFLASH is a seeded experiment at the Free-Electron Laser FLASH in Hamburg. It uses a 38 nm High-Harmonic-Generation (HHG) scheme to seed the FEL-process in a 10m long variable-gap undulator. The temporal overlap between the electron and HHG pulses is critical to the seeding process. The use of a 3 rd harmonic accelerating module provides a high current electron beam with ∝ (400 fs) FWHM bunch duration. The duration of the HHG laser pulse is ≤ (30 fs) FWHM . The desired overlap is achieved in two steps. Firstly, the HHG drive laser is brought to temporal overlap with the incoherent spontaneous radiation from an upstream undulator with picosecond resolution. The temporal overlap is periodically monitored using a streak camera installed in the linear accelerator tunnel. Next, the coherent radiation from an undulator is used to determine the exact overlap of the electron beam in a modulator-radiator set-up with sub-picosecond resolution. The physical and technical principles of the setup providing the temporal overlap are described. Results of the system are analyzed. An analytical approach and simulation results for the performance of the seeding experiment are presented. First attempts at demonstration of seeding are discussed. Strategies for optimizing overlap conditions are presented. (orig.)

  15. Femtosecond resolved diagnostics for electron beam and XUV seed temporal overlap at sFLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkeshian, Roxana

    2012-02-15

    sFLASH is a seeded experiment at the Free-Electron Laser FLASH in Hamburg. It uses a 38 nm High-Harmonic-Generation (HHG) scheme to seed the FEL-process in a 10m long variable-gap undulator. The temporal overlap between the electron and HHG pulses is critical to the seeding process. The use of a 3{sup rd} harmonic accelerating module provides a high current electron beam with {proportional_to} (400 fs){sub FWHM} bunch duration. The duration of the HHG laser pulse is {<=} (30 fs){sub FWHM}. The desired overlap is achieved in two steps. Firstly, the HHG drive laser is brought to temporal overlap with the incoherent spontaneous radiation from an upstream undulator with picosecond resolution. The temporal overlap is periodically monitored using a streak camera installed in the linear accelerator tunnel. Next, the coherent radiation from an undulator is used to determine the exact overlap of the electron beam in a modulator-radiator set-up with sub-picosecond resolution. The physical and technical principles of the setup providing the temporal overlap are described. Results of the system are analyzed. An analytical approach and simulation results for the performance of the seeding experiment are presented. First attempts at demonstration of seeding are discussed. Strategies for optimizing overlap conditions are presented. (orig.)

  16. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of

  17. Plasma treatment of Seeds: effect on growth, spores and bacterial charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrico, P. F.; Simek, M.; Morano, M.; Ambrico, M.; Minafra, A.; Prukner, V.; de Miccolis Angelini, R. M.; Trotti, P.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the effect of low temperature plasma treatment on tomato, basil and tobacco commercial seeds. Seeds were treated in filtered ambient air volume, surface and plasma jet DBD at atmospheric pressure Sterile agar substrate, supplemented with a nutrient and vitamin mixture, was used to allow seeds germination in sterilized sealed plastic containers. The seeds were stored in controlled environmental condition (T = 26C, cycle of 14hrs light/10hrs dark condition). Since all the procedure was performed under sterile conditions, only bacteria and fungi carried by seeds could grow. Plasma treatment significantly reduced the presence of bacterial contamination, while some fungi could resist at shortest exposures Seeds germination was then followed by time lapse photography in sterile water on 3MM Whatman paper in a closed container. The effect of plasma treatment was a faster germination time of seeds and emergence of cotyledons, able to start photosynthesis in seedlings.The plasma treated seeds were also sow in a soil/peat moss mixture. Plants were cultivated for about 40 days, showing that plasma induced a faster growth in length and weight with respect to untreated seeds.Furthermore the effect of plasma on seeds surface was studied by SEM imaging. We acknowledge `SELGE' (Puglia) and TACR (TA03010098).

  18. Treatment of foods with 'soft-electrons' (low-energy electrons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2003-01-01

    Electrons with energies of 300 keV or lower were defined as soft-electrons'. Soft-electrons can eradicate microorganisms residing on the surface of grains, pulses, spices, dehydrated vegetables, tea leaves and seeds, and reduce their microbial loads to levels lower than 10 CFU/g with little quality deterioration. Soft-electrons can inactivate insect pests infesting grains and pulses and inhibit sprouting of potatoes. (author)

  19. Pre-germination treatments for Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto Garcia dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea stigonocarpa, known as Jatoba-do-cerrado, belongs to the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae and is included in the category "near threatened with extinction." It occurs in cerrado and cerradão areas, and its seeds have physical dormancy. Because of this characteristic, the aim of this study was to evaluate different pre-germination treatments and control in H. stigonocarpa seeds, namely: immersion in fire, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, acetone, ether and hot water (100°C, and mechanical scarification of the seed coat by roughing with sandpaper or cutting with nail clippers and washing in running water for 2 hours. The parameters analyzed were percentage of germination, germination speed index (GSI and the percentage of hard and firm seeds and dead seeds. The final results were: a germination: boiling water and sulfuric acid were superior to the control; b GSI: boiling water, sulfuric acid, fire and sandpaper were superior to the control and c percentage of dead seeds was not statistically different between the different treatments and control. In conclusion, boiling water and sulfuric acid, were the best treatments, with regard to the parameters examined.

  20. A seeded ambient temperature ferrite process for treatment of AMD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A seeded ambient temperature ferrite process for treatment of AMD waters: magnetite formation in the presence and absence of calcium ions under steady state operation. ... promising for AMD treatment. Keywords: Ferrite process, Magnetite seed, Calcium interference, Acid mine drainage (WaterSA: 2003 29(2): 117-124) ...

  1. Cytogenetic effects of electron-beam radiation on dry seed storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baojiang, G.; Qishen, P.; Kohlman, A.

    1989-01-01

    Dry seeds of Viciafaba were exposed to 5 MeV electron beam (10–30 Krad) and stored afterwards during 20,40 and 60 days- Induction of chromosomal aberrations in root-tip cells of irradiated seeds has been found dose-dependent. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (particularly, the bridges and the rings) and the frequency of micronucleated cells is proportional to the length of storage time, but is not significantly influenced by low temperatures (0–6°C) during storage. (author)

  2. Modeling of the water uptake process for cowpea seeds (vigna unguiculata l.) under common treatment and microwave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirhan, E.

    2015-01-01

    The water uptake kinetics of cowpea seeds were carried out at two different water absorption treatments - common treatment and microwave treatment - to evaluate the effects of rehydration temperatures and microwave output powers on rehydration. Water uptake of cowpea seeds during soaking in water was studied at various temperatures of 20 - 45 degree C, and at various microwave output powers of 180 - 900 W. As the rehydration temperature and microwave output power increased, the water uptake of cowpea seeds increased and the rehydration time decreased. The Peleg and Richards Models were capable of predicting water uptake of cowpea seeds undergoing common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated by fitting experimental absorption data to Fick second law of diffusion. The effective diffusivity coefficients for cowpea seeds varied from 7.75*10-11 to 1.99*10-10 m2/s and from 2.23*10-9 to 9.78*10-9 m2/s for common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. (author)

  3. Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies on irradiated cocoa beans and niger seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangaonkar, S.R.; Natarajan, V.; Sastry, M.D.; Desai, S.R.P.; Kulkarni, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of irradiated (10kGy) and unirradiated cocoa beans and niger seeds have been compared. Unirradiated cocoa beans failed to give any ESR signal, whereas after irradiation (10kGy) an ESR signal at g = 2.0042 was observed. However, ESR signals are given by both irradiated and unirradiated niger seeds. The intensity of signal was found to be dose-dependent up to 10kGy for both seeds. The signals were stable up to 180 days in both cases. The results indicate the possibility of using ESR for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated cocoa beans but not for niger seeds

  4. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T. indica (10 seeds per Petri dish) with ...

  5. The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating optimal conditions for germination of medicinal plants seed is essential for their cultivation. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of two medicinal species, Descurainia sophia and Plantago ovata collected in 2009 from Tehran Province, an experiment with a factorial ...

  6. The Effect of Fungicides for Seed Treatment on Germination of Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Stevanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemicals, such as fungicides for seed treatment, is one of the most reliable and perhaps most efficient measures for integrated preservation of crops, and its practicing has become a legal obligation for all seed producers. This investigation was carried out in the laboratory for seed quality and phytopathology of the Small Grains Research Center in Kragujevac. The objective was to establish the effect of fungicides on germination energy and seed germinability (determined after treatments. Two varieties were tested due to a possibility of specific sensitivities of some varieties, so that the results acquired on one variety would not necessarily be valid for another one. Fungicides based on active ingredients from the triasol chemical group had different effects on the energy of germination of barley seeds. Applying Raxil S040-FS, the average germination of barley seeds was 79.3% for the variety Record, and 91.3% for the Grand variety. The variety Record achieved a lower value than the minimum for barley seed germination (88% stipulated by the Rules on Seed Quality of Agricultural Crops.Regardless of barley type, the product Raxil S040-FS showed a statistically significant effect on the number of atypical seedlings and increase in the number of non-germinated seeds, compared to the control.

  7. Treatment of foods with 'soft-electrons' (low-energy electrons)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute (NFRI), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electrons with energies of 300 keV or lower were defined as soft-electrons'. Soft-electrons can eradicate microorganisms residing on the surface of grains, pulses, spices, dehydrated vegetables, tea leaves and seeds, and reduce their microbial loads to levels lower than 10 CFU/g with little quality deterioration. Soft-electrons can inactivate insect pests infesting grains and pulses and inhibit sprouting of potatoes. (author)

  8. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  9. Seeded quantum FEL at 478 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Thirolf, Peter; Seggebrock, Thorben [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Habs, Dietrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We present for the first time a concept for a seeded {gamma} quantum Free Electron Laser (QFEL) at 478 keV (transition in {sup 7}Li). To produce a highly intense and coherent {gamma} beam, we intend to use a seeded FEL scheme. Important for the production of a highly brilliant and coherent {gamma} beam are novel refractive {gamma} lenses for focusing and an efficient monochromator, allowing to generate a very intense and coherent seed beam. To realize such a coherent {gamma} beam at 478 keV (1/38 A), it is suitable to use a quantum FEL design based on a new ''asymmetric'' laser-electron Compton back scattering scheme as pursued for the MeGaRay and ELI-NP facilities. Here the pulse length of the laser is much longer than the electron bunch length, equivalent to a {gamma}-FEL with laser wiggler. The coherence of a seeded QFEL can open up totally new areas of fundamental physics and applications. Especially, 478 keV can be attractive for ''green energy'' and life-science research, such as the detection of Li deposition in the brain for manic-depressive psychosis treatment with high spatial resolution or isotope-specific nuclear waste management and treatment.

  10. Increasing Maize Tolerance to Drought and Flood with Seed Coating Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Jacob E; Sanghi, Achint; Kingsly Ambrose, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of irrigation in regions prone to drought, and flooding due to high rainfall or lack of drainage affects seed viability and the subsequent germination and crop establishment. Seed treatment in the form of coatings shows promise as an effective method to preserve the viability of corn (Zea mays) seeds in drought and flood conditions. Chemical formulations may help improve the seed corn vigor under these stressed conditions. This study examined the efficacy of β-aminobutyric acid [BABA...

  11. Ecotoxicological impact of two soil remediation treatments in Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rede, Diana; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Ramos, Sandra; Oliva-Teles, Filipe; Antão, Cristina; Sousa, Susana R; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been identified as environmental emerging pollutants and are present in different compartments, including soils. Chemical remediation showed to be a good and suitable approach for soil remediation, though the knowledge in their impact for terrestrial organisms is still limited. Therefore, in this work, two different chemical remediation treatments (Fenton oxidation and nanoremediation) were applied to a soil contaminated with an environmental representative concentration of ibuprofen (3 ng g(-1)). The phytotoxic impact of a traditional soil remediation treatment (Fenton oxidation) and of a new and more sustainable approach for soil remediation (nanoremediation using green nano-scale zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs)) was evaluated in Lactuca sativa seeds. Percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot length and leaf length were considered as endpoints to assess the possible acute phytotoxicity of the soil remediation treatments as well as of the ibuprofen contaminated soil. Both chemical remediation treatments showed to have a negative impact in the germination and development of lettuce seeds, exhibiting a reduction up to 45% in the percentage of seed germination and a decrease around 80% in root elongation comparatively to the contaminated soil. These results indicate that chemical soil remediation treatments could be more prejudicial for terrestrial organisms than contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Innovative physico-chemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa oleifera seed coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuptawat, Hitendra; Folkard, G K; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2007-04-02

    Moringa oleifera is a pan tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain a high quality edible oil (up to 40% by weight) and water soluble proteins that act as effective coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. The use of this natural coagulant material has not yet realised its potential. A water extract of M. oleifera seed was applied to a wastewater treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration. The study was laboratory based using an actual wastewater. Overall COD removals of 50% were achieved at both 50 and 100mg/l M. oleifera doses. When 50 and 100mg/l seed doses were applied in combination with 10mg/l of alum, COD removal increased to 58 and 64%, respectively. The majority of COD removal occurred during the filtration process. In the tests incorporating alum, sludge generation and filter head loss increased by factors of 3 and 2, respectively. These encouraging treatment results indicate that this may be the first treatment application that can move to large scale adoption. The simple water extract may be obtained at minimal cost from the presscake residue remaining after oil extraction from the seed. The regulatory compliance issues of adopting 'new materials' for wastewater treatment are significantly less stringent than those applying to the production of potable water.

  13. Comparison between Seed and Foliar Treatment as a Tool in Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2017-08-02

    A study into doses of seed treatments and foliar plant protection products containing an identical active substance registered to control the same pest in the same crops was carried out in the European Union. The results show that, for fungicides, the use of seed treatment is often connected with a significantly lower release of active substance per hectare when compared to foliar treatments. In 11 of 13 cases, the difference was 8-fold or higher. For insecticides, in most of the cases, the consumption of an active substance was several times higher for seed treatment, in one case for foliar application.

  14. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  15. Effects of Different Treatments on Seed Germination Improvement of Calotropis persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Farajollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatments on seed germination in the desert plant species Calotropis persica (Gand.. This species is known to have long time for seed germination considering arid region condition and short time of access moist. An experiment was performed with 13 treatments and 4 replications in a completely randomized design. Treatments included KNO3 with concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 percent, immersion in hot water for five min, acetylsalicylic acid 100, 200, and 300 mg L−1, ethereal sulfuric acid (60% for 5 and 10 min, thiourea with concentrations of 0.1% and 0.3%, and prechilling for 10 days. Tap water was used as the control. Our findings indicate that KNO3 0.1% and 100 mg L−1 acetylsalicylic acid were the most effective treatments for improvement of seed germination properties in this species. In a comparison of the two mentioned treatment, KNO3 0.1% treatments is the best.

  16. Effect of the activation of germination processes on the sensitivity of seeds towards physical sanitation treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Kromphard, C.; Forsberg, G.; Rop, N.; Werner, S.

    2008-01-01

    Physical treatments of seeds to eradicate pathogens have the risk of reducing vitality of the seeds. Seed lots may differ in sensitivity to these treatments, therefore factors influencing this sensitivity, including the physiological condition of the seeds, should be identified. In this study

  17. Seed treatment with an aqueous extract of Agave sisalana improves seed health and seedling growth of sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Marianne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Mbega, Ernest R.

    2015-01-01

    An aqueous extract of the sisal agave, A. sisalana, was prepared from dried stem tissue by boiling in water. The sisal extract (SE) displayed a broad inhibition of the seed-borne mycoflora when applied to farmer-saved seeds of Sorghum bicolor. Species of Fusarium (belonging to the Gibberella......-old plants (p agave, Yucca schidigera. Both extracts were found to reduce seed-borne Fusarium and crown rot more efficiently than fungicides based on tebuconazole, enilconazole...... and fludioxonil (p agave is a waste product in fiber production. From our findings A. sisalana stem appears to represent an abundant source of antifungal activity, simple to extract, easy to store and with a promising potential in biological seed treatment....

  18. Broiler performance fed jatropha curcas seed meal detoxified by fermentation, physic and chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds in the seed meal. The aim of this research is to evaluate feeding of jatropha seed meal detoxified using fermentation by two fungi and rumen microbes (as biological detoxification and using a combination of chemical and physical treatments on broiler performance. One hundred seventy five chicks (7 days old were used and were divided into 5 treatments in 7 replications and each replication in one cage consisted of 5 chicks. R1 was control feed (K without jatropha seed meal., 2 R2 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Neurosphora sitophila (FNS, R3 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FAS, R4 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by rumen microbes and R5 with 4% of Jatropha seed meal treated by autoclaved, refluxed by hexane and soaked in methanol (OEHM. Treated feed was given for 14 days at the end of the feeding treatment, two chickens from each replication were slaughtered and organ weights were recorded. Body weight of chicken and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The rest of the chicken was fed commercial feed for the next 7 days (recovery periode. Chicken mortality was almost 0% but 1 chicken from FAS treatment died at the recovery period. Feed consumption was lower at fermented jatropha seed meal than control (K or OEHM, resulted in lower body weight of chicken. The abdomen fat weight and organ weights especially pancreas or spleen resulted from treatment with jatropha were much lower than that of K. In the recovery period, body weight of chicken in the OEHM treatment was almost similar from that of control chicken. In conclusion, biological detoxification on BBJ was able to reduce chicken mortality but could not improve the daily gain higher than control treatment. The best method to detoxify jatropha seed meal was the combination of physical and

  19. Effects of cold plasma treatment on alfalfa seed growth under simulated drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinkui, FENG; Decheng, WANG; Changyong, SHAO; Lili, ZHANG; Xin, TANG

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different cold plasma treatments on the germination and seedling growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seeds under simulated drought stress conditions was investigated. Polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG 6000)with the mass fraction of 0% (purified water), 5%, 10%, and 15% were applied to simulate the drought environment. The alfalfa seeds were treated with 15 different power levels ranged between 0-280 W for 15 s. The germination potential, germination rate, germination index, seedling root length, seedling height, and vigor index were investigated. Results indicated significant differences between treated with proper power and untreated alfalfa seeds. With the increase of treatment power, these indexes mentioned above almost presented bimodal curves. Under the different mass fractions of PEG 6000, results showed that the lower power led to increased germination, and the seedlings presented good adaptability to different drought conditions. Meanwhile, higher power levels resulted in a decreased germination rate. Seeds treated with 40 W resulted in higher germination potential, germination rate, seedling height, root length, and vigor index. Vigor indexes of the treated seeds under different PEG 6000 stresses increased by 38.68%, 43.91%, 74.34%, and 39.20% respectively compared to CK0-0, CK5-0, CK10-0, and CK15-0 (the control sample under 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% PEG 6000). Therefore, 40 W was regarded as the best treatment in this research. Although the trend indexes of alfalfa seeds treated with the same power were statistically the same under different PEG 6000 stresses, the cold plasma treatment had a significant effect on the adaptability of alfalfa seeds in different drought environments. Thus, this kind of treatment is worth implementing to promote seed growth under drought situations.

  20. Omethoate treatment mitigates high salt stress inhibited maize seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Zhu, Lianhua; Li, Zuotong; Deng, Benliang

    2018-01-01

    Omethoate (OM) is a highly toxic organophophate insecticide, which is resistant to biodegradation in the environment and is widely used for pest control in agriculture. The effect of OM on maize seed germination was evaluated under salt stress. Salt (800mM) greatly reduced germination of maize seed and this could be reversed by OM. Additionally, H 2 O 2 treatment further improved the effect of OM on seed germination. Higher H 2 O 2 content was measured in OM treated seed compared to those with salt stress alone. Dimethylthiourea (DTMU), a specific scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, as did IMZ (imidazole), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, whereas fluridone, a specific inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, enhanced the effect of OM. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of ROS and ABA in the promotion of maize seed germination by OM under salt stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct measurement of the pulse duration and frequency chirp of seeded XUV free electron laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azima, Armin; Bödewadt, Jörn; Becker, Oliver; Düsterer, Stefan; Ekanayake, Nagitha; Ivanov, Rosen; Kazemi, Mehdi M.; Lamberto Lazzarino, Leslie; Lechner, Christoph; Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Manschwetus, Bastian; Miltchev, Velizar; Müller, Jost; Plath, Tim; Przystawik, Andreas; Wieland, Marek; Assmann, Ralph; Hartl, Ingmar; Laarmann, Tim; Rossbach, Jörg; Wurth, Wilfried; Drescher, Markus

    2018-01-01

    We report on a direct time-domain measurement of the temporal properties of a seeded free-electron laser pulse in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. Utilizing the oscillating electromagnetic field of terahertz radiation, a single-shot THz streak-camera was applied for measuring the duration as well as spectral phase of the generated intense XUV pulses. The experiment was conducted at FLASH, the free electron laser user facility at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. In contrast to indirect methods, this approach directly resolves and visualizes the frequency chirp of a seeded free-electron laser (FEL) pulse. The reported diagnostic capability is a prerequisite to tailor amplitude, phase and frequency distributions of FEL beams on demand. In particular, it opens up a new window of opportunities for advanced coherent spectroscopic studies making use of the high degree of temporal coherence expected from a seeded FEL pulse.

  2. Enhancement in seed germinability of rice (oryza sativa L.) by pre-sowing seed treatment with nitric oxide (NO) under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, N.; Ashraf, M.; Ahmad, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of two fine-rice (Shaheen and PB-95) and two coarse rice (IRRI-6 and KS-282) cultivars were soaked in varying levels of nitric oxide (NO) (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mM) and then exposed to 80 mM NaCl in sand culture. Application of salt stress significantly reduced seed germinability parameters of all four rice cultivars in terms of percent seed germinated, germination index and seedling fresh and dry weights. The toxic effects of salt stress in reducing seed germinability were greater in fine rice cultivars (Shaheen and PB-95) as compared to those in coarse ones (IRRI-6 and KS-282). Although, the application of lower levels of nitric oxide (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment showed a significant improvement, 0.1 and 0.2 mM NO were found to be the most effective in improving seed germinability under salt stress. With a further increase in NO concentration (0.3 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment, the seed germinability parameters differed non-significantly from those of control plants, while the highest levels (0.4 and 0.5 mM) showed significant inhibitory effects on seed germination and early seedling growth. It was concluded that lower levels of NO (0.1 and 0.2 mM) could be used to effectively enhance seed germination of rice plants under salt stress. (author)

  3. Control of seed-borne pathogens on legumes by microbial and other alternative seed treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinivella, F.; Hirata, L.M.; Celan, M.A.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Schmitt, A.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Koch, E.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse trials were carried out in order to test the efficacy of different seed treatments as alternatives to chemicals against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum cause of anthracnose on bean and Ascochyta spp. cause of Ascochyta blights on pea, respectively. Resistance inducers, commercially

  4. Efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, M.R.; Soumana, S.; Al-Khatib, K.; Kapran, I.; Toure, A.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Ochanda, N.W.; Salami, I.; Kayentao, M.; Dembele, S.

    2009-01-01

    Witchweed (Striga spp.) infestations are the greatest obstacle to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain production in many areas in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of sorghum. Seeds of an

  5. Biological activity of sedaxane---a novel broad-spectrum fungicide for seed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeun, Ronald; Scalliet, Gabriel; Oostendorp, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Sedaxane is a new broad-spectrum seed treatment fungicide developed by Syngenta Crop Protection for control of seed- and soil-borne diseases in a broad range of crops. Its physicochemical properties and activity spectrum have been optimised for use as a seed treatment providing both local and systemic protection of the seed and roots of target crops. Sedaxane inhibits respiration by binding to the succinate dehydrogenase complex in the fungal mitochondrium. Its activity spectrum covers seed-borne fungi such as Ustilago nuda, Tilletia caries, Monographella nivalis and Pyrenophora graminea, as well as the soil-borne fungi Rhizoctonia solani, R. cerealis and Typhula incarnata. Under greenhouse conditions, sedaxane showed high levels and consistent protection against U. nuda, P. graminea and Rhizoctonia spp. Under field conditions, efficacy against Rhizoctonia spp. resulted in increased yield compared with the untreated check. Efficacy against snow mould has been shown under very high disease pressure conditions. The combination of sedaxane plus fludioxonil against snow mould can provide resistance management for sustainable use. The broad spectrum and high level of activity in combination with excellent crop tolerance allow the use of sedaxane as a seed treatment in a wide variety of crops. It is a potential tool for precautionary resistance management when combined with other fungicides, especially against pathogens showing a potential for resistance development, such as M. nivalis. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Seed treatments for the control of insects and diseases in sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate insect and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxa...

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of adult medulloblastoma seeding in the intracranial-spinal subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-wei WANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical diagnosis and treatment of adult medulloblastoma seeding in the intracranial-spinal subarachnoid space. Methods Eleven cases of adult medulloblastoma seeding in the intracranial-spinal subarachnoid space were retrospectively analyzed on the clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cytology, radiological characteristics and treatments. Results All patients underment neurosurgical procedures to remove medulloblastomas. In 10 patients, tumor was removed through suboccipital posterior midline approach and in one patient through post-sigmoid sinus approach. In 7 patients tumor cell seeding was found in the intracranial-spinal subarachnoid space before postoperative radiotherapy and disappeared after radiological and chemical treatment, while in other 4 patients tumor cell seeding was found in the intracranial-spinal subarachnoid space at 3 months to 3 years follow-up period (average 20 months after radiotherapy. In 2 of all the patients tumor cells were found by CSF cytology before operation. All the patients were treated with radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Two patients were still alive, while 9 patients were dead. Conclusions Patients with adult medulloblastoma seeding in intracranial-spinal subarachnoid space have a poor prognosis. In the diagnosis of adult medulloblastomas seeding in the intracranial-spinal subarachnoid space, MRI is more sensitive than CSF cytology. Once the seeding in intracranial-spinal subarachnoid space was found, the patients should be treated with radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, which can prolong the survival time and improve the quality of life. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.012 

  8. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  9. Effect of atmospheric plasma treatment on seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penado, Keith Nealson M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Culaba, Ivan B.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple methods of improving plant development have been utilized over the past decades. Despite these improvements, there still exists a need for better planting methods due to the increasing population of a global community. Studies have reported that plasma treatment affects the growth and germination of a variety of plant species, including a multitude of grains which often takes the bulk in the diet of the average human being. This study explores the effect of atmospheric air plasma jet treatment on the seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The seeds were treated using an atmospheric air plasma jet for 1, 2, and 3 s. The effect of plasma exposure shows a reduction of trichomes on the surface of the seed. This caused a possible increase in wettability which significantly affected the seed germ length but did not affect the seed germination count after the germination period of 72 h.

  10. RICE SEED TREATMENT AND RECOATING WITH POLYMERS: PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND RETENTION OF CHEMICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOVANE KLEIN FAGUNDES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical seed treatment is an important tool in the protection of seedlings and has contributed to the increase of rice yield (Oryza sativa L.. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality and quantify the retention of chemical products in rice seeds treated with insecticide and fungicide coated with polymers. Six seed treatments were used: control, phytosanitary treatment and phytosanitary treatment and coating with the polymers, Florite 1127®, GV5® Solid Resin, Polyseed CF® and VermDynaseed®. The physiological quality was evaluated by the test of germination and vigor by first count tests, germination speed index, shoot length, radicle length, seedling dry mass and sand emergence. To determine the retention of the active ingredients metalaxyl-M and thiamethoxam, an equipment called extractor was used. The experiment was organized in a completely randomized design (DIC and the averages were separated by the Scott Knott test (p≤0.05. Seed treatment with the fungicide and insecticide, coated with the polymers, Florite 1127®, Solid Resin GV5®, Polyseed CF® and VermDynaseed®, did not affect the physiological quality of rice seeds. Solid Resin GV5®, Polyseed CF® and VermDynaseed® polymers were efficient at retaining thiamethoxam in the rice seeds, preventing some of the active ingredients of the insecticide from being leached through the sand columns immediately after the simulated pluvial precipitation.

  11. Application of electric corona discharge for grain seeds treatment before sowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsev, E. G.; Malozyomov, B. V.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper overviews directions for electrotechnology treatment of grain seeds before sowing. The hypothesis of the germination enhancement of seeds if treated with corona discharge is presented here. Besides, the description of electrotechnology installation and facilities for it including manufacturing process quality obtained as a result of scientific tests are also provided in the paper.

  12. Electronic structure of trypsin inhibitor from squash seeds in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haoping

    2000-10-01

    The electronic structure of the trypsin inhibitor from seeds of the squash Cucurbita maxima (CMTI-I) in aqueous solution is obtained by ab initio, all-electron, full-potential calculations using the self-consistent cluster-embedding (SCCE) method. The reactive site of the inhibitor is explained theoretically, which is in agreement with the experimental results. It is shown that the coordinates of oxygen atoms in the inhibitor, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and combination of distance geometry and dynamical simulated annealing, are systematically less accurate than that of other kinds of heavy atoms.

  13. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  14. Optically controlled seeding of Raman forward scattering and injection of electrons in a self-modulated laser-wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-T.; Chien, T.-Y.; Lee, C.-H.; Lin, J.-Y.; Wang, J.; Chen, S.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Optical seeding of plasma waves and the injection of electrons are key issues in self-modulated laser-wakefield accelerators. By implementing a copropagating laser prepulse with proper timing, we are able to control the growth of Raman forward scattering and the production of accelerated electrons. The dependence of the Raman intensity on prepulse timing indicates that the seeding of Raman forward scattering is dominated by the ionization-induced wakefield, and the dependence of the divergence and number of accelerated electrons further reveals that the stimulated Raman backward scattering of the prepulse plays the essential role of injecting hot electrons into the fast plasma wave driven by the main pulse

  15. Soybean seed treatment with nickel improves biological nitrogen fixation and urease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José eLavres Junior

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is an essential micronutrient required for plants’ metabolism due to its role as a structural component of urease and hydrogenase, which in turn perform nitrogen (N metabolism in many legume species. Seed treatment with cobalt, molybdenum and Bradyrhizobium strains has been widely practiced to improve crops. Additionally, seed treatment together with Ni fertilization of soybean might improve the efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, boosting grain dry matter yield and N content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soybean seed treatment with Ni rates (0, 45, 90,135, 180, 360 and 540 mg kg-1 on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, directly by the 15N natural abundance method (δ15N‰ and by measurement of urease [E.C. 3.5.1.5] activity, as well as indirectly by nitrogenase (N-ase activity [E.C. 1.18.6.1]. Soybean plants (cultivar BMX Potência RR were grown in a sandy soil up to the R7 developmental stage (grain maturity, at which point the nutrient content in the leaves, chlorophyll content, urease and N-ase activities, Ni and N content in the grains, nodulation (at R1 - flowering stage, as well as the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (δ15N ‰, were evaluated. The proportion of N derived from N2 fixation varied from 77 to 99% using the natural 15N abundance method and non-nodulating Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris canariensis as references. A Ni rate of 45 mg kg-1 increased BNF by 12% compared to the control. The increased N uptake in the grains was closely correlated with chlorophyll content in the leaves, urease and N-ase activities, as well as with nodulation. Grain dry matter yield and aerial part dry matter yield increased, respectively, by 84% and 51% in relation to the control plants at 45 mg kg-1 Ni via seed treatment. Despite, Ni concentration was increased with Ni-seed treatment, Ni rates higher than 135 mg kg-1 promoted negative effects on plant growth and yield. In these

  16. Effect of pre-plant treatments of yam (Dioscorea rotundata setts on the production of healthy seed yam, seed yam storage and consecutive ware tuber production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Olufunmilayo Claudius-Cole

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pests and diseases of yams are perpetuated from season to season through the use of infected seed material. Developing a system for generating healthy seed material would disrupt this disease cycle and reduce losses in field and storage. The use of various pre-plant treatments was evaluated in field experiments carried out at three sites in Nigeria. Yam tubers of four preferred local cultivars were cut into 100 g setts and treated with pesticide (fungicide + insecticide mixture, neem extract (1 : 5 w/v, hot water (20 min at 53 °C or wood ash (farmers practice and compared with untreated setts. Pesticide treated setts sprouted better than all other treatments and generally led to lower pest and disease damage of yam tubers. Pesticide treatment increased tuber yields over most treatments, depending on cultivar, but effectively doubled the production as compared to the control. Pesticide and hot water treated setts produced the healthiest seed yams, which had lower storage losses than tubers from other treatments. These pre-treated seed yams produced higher yields corresponding to 700 % potential gain compared to the farmers usual practice. Treatments had no obvious influence on virus incidence, although virus-symptomatic plants yielded significantly less than nonsymptomatic plants. This study demonstrated that pre-plant treatment of setts with pesticide is a simple and effective method that guarantees more, heavier and healthier seed yam tubers.

  17. Epoxy resins used to seal brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Natalia Carolina Camargos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment with brachytherapy is recommended for patients with cancer at an early stage. In this treatment, small radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate gland. These seeds are composed at least of one radionuclide carrier and an X-ray marker enclosed within a metallic tube usually sealed by laser process. This process is expensive and, furthermore, it can provoke a partial volatilization of the radionuclide and change the isotropy in dose distribution around the seed. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin. Three kinds of resins were utilized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in sodium iodine solution (NaI). The sealing process showed excellent potential to replace the sealing laser usually employed. (author)

  18. Preliminary data on some correlations of Rhizobium and radio-stimulation seed treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soos, T.; Toth, J.; Manninger, E.

    1979-01-01

    The seeds of peas, beans, soy-beans and lucerne were treated with 60 Co-irradiation (4-10 Gray). The size of the roots and the quantity of seed-crop were measured. Irradiation by itself had no significant effect. Treatment with Rhizobium bacteria and with Rhizobium plus irradiation had considerable positive effects. (L.E.)

  19. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared...... germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments at batch-scale of sludge samples from two WWTPs using anaerobic digestion, and thermal and ozonation pre......-treatments. Glyphosate and eco-labelled soil were used as references. Inhibition of germination of seeds exposed to the glyphosate and sludge was registered and thus germination was successfully applied for sludge ecotoxicity assessment, and using the root elongation as the end-point was both faster and more precise...

  20. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  1. Van Allen Probe Observations of Chorus Wave Activity, Source and Seed electrons, and the Radiation Belt Response During ICME and CIR Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, S.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Farrugia, C. J.; Paulson, K. W.; Huang, C. L.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler mode chorus waves are electromagnetic waves that have been shown to be a major contributor to enhancements in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. The temperature anisotropy of source electrons (10s of keV) provides the free energy for chorus waves, which can accelerate sub-relativistic seed electrons (100s of keV) to relativistic energies. This study uses Van Allen Probe observations to examine the excitation and plasma conditions associated with chorus wave observations, the development of the seed population, and the outer radiation belt response in the inner magnetosphere, for 25 ICME and 35 CIR storms. Plasma data from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument and magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) are used to identify chorus wave activity and to model a linear theory based proxy for chorus wave growth. A superposed epoch analysis shows a peak of chorus wave power on the dawnside during the storm main phase that spreads towards noon during the storm recovery phase. According to the linear theory results, this wave activity is driven by the enhanced convection driving plasma sheet electrons across the dayside. Both ICME and CIR storms show comparable levels of wave growth. Plasma data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) are used to observe the seed and relativistic electrons. A superposed epoch analysis of seed and relativistic electrons vs. L shows radiation belt enhancements with much greater frequency in the ICME storms, coinciding with a much stronger and earlier seed electron enhancement in the ICME storms.

  2. Report on seed born diseases in organic seed and propagation material

    OpenAIRE

    Micheloni, C.; Plakolm, G.; Schärer, H.

    2007-01-01

    The key questions which will be addressed in this report are: • Are seed born diseases an important factor that prevents seed companies from producing organic seeds and organic farmers from using them? • Which seed treatments are available in organic farming? Which treatments are or will be acceptable? To which degree are they effective? • Are the thresholds for seed born diseases different among Member States? Can this cause unfair competition among farmers and seed producers? • ...

  3. The Effect of Different Treatments on Seed Dormancy Breaking of Weed Stalked Bur Grass Tragus racemosus (L. AlI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam reza doraki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stalked Bur Grass (Tragus racemosus L. is an angiosperm annual plant with C4 photosynthesis pathway and stolon. It grows in hot and dry summers. This plant spreaded throughout the world from hot regions of Africa. It is regularly seen in barren lands or in between the generations with sequential initial stages with light-texture soils. Seed dormancy is in fact a physiological phenomenon which is observed in the seeds of most crops, pasture plants, medicinal herbs and weeds. Dormancy allows the plant to guarantee its germination and survival for long years and to survive through adverse environmental conditions through its spatial and temporal spread. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluation dormancy break of Tragus racemosus L. seeds, an experiment was carried out based a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications in research laboratory of Department of Agriculture, Birjand University during 2013. The initial experiments showed that the seeds of Stalked Bur Grass had initial dormancy and were unable to germinate at normal conditions, so that less than 5% of the seeds germinated. The studied treatments for breaking seeds dormancy included control (seeds disinfection by distilled water, wet chilling at 4°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeds, treatment with H2SO4 at 97% for 20, 40, 60 and 80 seconds, treatment with KNO3 at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% for 24 hours and treatment with Gibberellic acid (GA3 at 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm. In this study, 25 seeds of Stalked Bur Grass were uniformly placed in petri dishes with the diameters of 9 cm on Watmann filter papers and were applied with 5 mL distilled water. The number of germinated seeds was counted on a daily basis for 21 days. In the end, germination percentage and rate was determined. Results and Discussion: The results revealed that the effect of all studied levels of all treatments were significant on germination percentage and rate. The highest germination percentage (76% was

  4. Brazilian demand for Iodine-125 seeds in cancer treatment after a decade of medical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, João A.; Souza, Carla D.; Oliveira, Henrique B. de; Peleiras Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, CArlos A.; Rostelaro, Maria E.C.M., E-mail: olcosta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Iodine-125 and palladium-103 are radionuclides employed to made medical devices used in cancer treatment known as brachytherapy seeds. These radioactive sealed sources are applied in brain and ophthalmic cancer as a temporary implant to irradiate the tumor and in permanent implants to prostatic cancer. Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has the monopoly in Brazil of iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds distribution which is executed for Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Along a decade of use in Brazil more than 240 thousand seeds were implanted in patients or used to treat cancer tumors. In this article the Brazilian demand for iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds is analyzed. The demand behavior along a decade of using loose, strand, ophthalmic and brain brachytherapy seeds are shown. The annual quantity of seeds demanded by Brazil has dropped since 2012. The loose seeds which represented until 30% from total brachytherapy seeds used in Brazil decreased to less than 3%. The brain brachytherapy seeds had low demand along the decade and presented zero demand in several years. Concurrent treatment techniques are listed and main trends are discussed. The influence of Brazilian economic crisis and the demand behavior of the main hospitals and clinics that use Iodine-125 brachytherapy are shown. (author)

  5. Brazilian demand for Iodine-125 seeds in cancer treatment after a decade of medical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, João A.; Souza, Carla D.; Oliveira, Henrique B. de; Peleiras Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, CArlos A.; Rostelaro, Maria E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Iodine-125 and palladium-103 are radionuclides employed to made medical devices used in cancer treatment known as brachytherapy seeds. These radioactive sealed sources are applied in brain and ophthalmic cancer as a temporary implant to irradiate the tumor and in permanent implants to prostatic cancer. Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has the monopoly in Brazil of iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds distribution which is executed for Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Along a decade of use in Brazil more than 240 thousand seeds were implanted in patients or used to treat cancer tumors. In this article the Brazilian demand for iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds is analyzed. The demand behavior along a decade of using loose, strand, ophthalmic and brain brachytherapy seeds are shown. The annual quantity of seeds demanded by Brazil has dropped since 2012. The loose seeds which represented until 30% from total brachytherapy seeds used in Brazil decreased to less than 3%. The brain brachytherapy seeds had low demand along the decade and presented zero demand in several years. Concurrent treatment techniques are listed and main trends are discussed. The influence of Brazilian economic crisis and the demand behavior of the main hospitals and clinics that use Iodine-125 brachytherapy are shown. (author)

  6. Organic seed treatment of vegetables to prevent seedborne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadaro, D.; Herforth-Rahmé, J.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Seedborne pathogens of vegetables are responsible for the re-emergence of diseases of the past, as well as the introduction of diseases into new geographical areas. Seed treatment can be used to eradicate seedborne pathogens or to protect from soilborne pathogens. The European Commission Regulation

  7. Germination, seed diameter and pregerminative treatments in species with different purposes of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinicio Abril-Saltos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of vegetal species germination consents to know its characteristics and permits to understand the factors that influence this process. The aim of this research was to know the germination’s characteristics of some species, such as Eugenia stipitata McVaugh, Inga edulis Mart, Inga spectabilis (Vahl Wild, Piptocoma discolor (Kunth Pruski, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, and Verbena officinalis L., and also their reaction to pregerminative treatments depending on the seed’s diameter. This study was carried out in Pastaza, Province of Pastaza, Ecuador, between February and June, 2014. Different diameters of seeds and pregerminative treatments were used in species, which did not present germination percentages higher than 40%. In the first practice I. edulis and I. spectabilis exceeded this value without treatment. Other species had lower values. Seeds were classified considering two diameters and two doses of gibberellin acid, this was applied to, and evaluated in the E. stipitata. In addition, scarification with sulfuric acid was done. After 45 days of its application, 100 ppm of gibberellic acid with larger seed diameter reported higher percentages of germination in S. cayenennsis, and in E. stipitata, which also interacted with the scarification. V. officinalis and P. discolor, did not present any response to the applications made. I. edulis and I. spectabilis presented high germination percentages without pregerminative treatments, E. stipitata and S. cayenennsis showed response to seed diameter and the applied treatments, while P discolor and V. officinalis did not show any response.

  8. Radiobiologically based treatment plan evaluation for prostate seed implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Stathakis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Accurate prostate low dose-rate brachytherapy treatment plan evaluation is important for future care decisions. Presently, an evaluation is based on dosimetric quantifiers for the tumor and organs at risk. However, these do not account for effects of varying dose-rate, tumor repopulation and other biological effects. In this work, incorporation of the biological response is used to obtain more clinically relevant treatment plan evaluation.Material and methods: Eleven patients were evaluated. Each patient received a 145 Gy implant. Iodine-125 seeds were used and the treatment plans were created on the Prowess system. Based on CT images the post-implant plan was created. In the post-plan, the tumor, urethra, bladder and rectum were contoured. The biologically effective dose was used to determine the tumor control probability and the normal tissue complication probabilities for the urethra, bladder, rectum and surrounding tissue. Results: The average tumor control probability and complication probabilities for the urethra, bladder, rectum and surrounding tissue were 99%, 29%, 0%, 12% and 6%, respectively. These measures provide a simpler means for evaluation and since they include radiobiological factors, they provide more reliable estimation of the treatment outcome. Conclusions: The goal of this work was to create more clinically relevant prostate seed-implant evaluation by incorporating radiobiological measures. This resulted in a simpler descriptor of treatment plan quality and was consistent with patient outcomes.

  9. Fungicide seed treatments for evaluating the corn seedling disease complex following a winter rye cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed treatments have been used to manage corn seedling diseases since the 1970’s and they contain a combination of active ingredients with specificity towards different pathogens. We hypothesized that using different seed treatment combinations and assessing seedling disease incidence and severity ...

  10. Non-thermal plasma treatment as a new biotechnology in relation to seeds, dry fruits, and grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božena, ŠERÁ; Michal, ŠERÝ

    2018-04-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology offers wide potential use in the food technology, the same as in the unconventional agriculture. Some seeds, dry fruits, grains and their sprouts gain popularity in the culinary industry as ‘raw seeds’. This review paper draws the current research and trends in NTP pre-treatment of selected seeds/fruits that are useable as ‘raw seeds’. The main applications are connected with activation of seed germination, early growth of seedlings, microbial inactivation of seed/fruit surface, and possibility of increasing quantity of biological active compounds in sprouting seeds. The paper presents a list of plant species that are able to be used as ‘raw seed’ including current information about main type of NTP treatment implemented.

  11. Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

  12. Radiation pre-treatment of seed imparts metabolic stability and quality protection during storage under accelerated aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumedha; Singh, Bhupinder; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of seed is known to deteriorate due to unfavoured temperature and relative humidity during accelerated aging. Protecting the seed quality during storage is thus a priority challenge for the seed industry till the seeds end up with the end user. Gamma radiation treatment has been shown to improve source to sink transport of photosynthates during terminal heat stress in cereals. An experiment was conducted to measure seed irradiation induced biochemical changes in groundnut cultivar TG-37A stored under accelerated aging at 45±2 ℃ and 95-100 % humidity for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 days to aging. The gamma irradiation doses were control (0), 0.005, 0.025, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Seed samples were periodically evaluated for oil and fatty acid profile by the soxhlet extraction method and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy respectively. Here alike earlier studies variation in fatty acid profile of seed was used as an indicator of seed health under harsh storage conditions of accelerated aging. In the majority of plant species having oil rich seeds, the lipids that are at risk of auto-oxidation contain oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) fatty acid chain. Degree of unsaturation has a significant influence on degree of degradation. Decreased total lipid content in aged sunflower seeds have been reported. Auto-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids was noticed, especially for linoleic acid in seed of oil crop after seven years of storage. Our results showed radiation treatment did not cause any significant change in oleic (C18:1), linoleic acids (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acid content of seeds. This shows that gamma radiation essentially slows down the lipid peroxidation which essentially protects membrane permeability and reduces the rate of seed deterioration at high temperature and RH. Radiation treatment imparts metabolic stability in seeds during storage under accelerated aging conditions. (author)

  13. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrico, Paolo F.; Šimek, Milan; Morano, Massimo; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Minafra, Angelantonio; Trotti, Pasquale; Ambrico, Marianna; Prukner, Václav; Faretra, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Naturally contaminated basil seeds were treated by a surface dielectric barrier discharge driven in the humid air by an amplitude modulated AC high voltage to avoid heat shock. In order to avoid direct contact of seeds with microdischarge filaments, the seeds to be treated were placed at sufficient distance from the surface discharge. After treatment, the seeds were analyzed in comparison with control samples for their microbial contamination as well as for the capability of germination and seedling growth. Moreover, chemical modification of seed surface was observed through the elemental energy dispersive x-ray analysis and wettability tests. We found that treatment applied at 20% duty cycle (effective discharge duration up to 20 s) significantly decreases microbial load without reducing the viability of the seeds. On the other side, seedling growth was considerably accelerated after the treatment, and biometric growth parameters of seedlings (total length, weight, leaf extension) considerably increased compared to the controls. Interestingly, scanning electron microscopy images taken for the different duration of treatment revealed that seed radicle micropylar regions underwent significant morphological changes while the coat was substantially undamaged. Inside the seed, the embryo seemed to be well preserved while the endosperm body was detached from the epithelial tegument. A total of 9 different genera of fungi were recovered from the analyzed seeds. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that conidia were localized especially in the micropylar region, and after plasma treatment, most of them showed substantial damages. Therefore, the overall effect of the treatment of naturally contaminated seeds by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by plasma and the consequent changes in surface chemistry and microbial load can significantly improve seed vigor.

  14. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrico, Paolo F; Ambrico, Marianna; Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Morano, Massimo; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M; Trotti, Pasquale; Faretra, Francesco; Minafra, Angelantonio

    2017-01-01

    Naturally contaminated basil seeds were treated by a surface dielectric barrier discharge driven in the humid air by an amplitude modulated AC high voltage to avoid heat shock. In order to avoid direct contact of seeds with microdischarge filaments, the seeds to be treated were placed at sufficient distance from the surface discharge. After treatment, the seeds were analyzed in comparison with control samples for their microbial contamination as well as for the capability of germination and seedling growth. Moreover, chemical modification of seed surface was observed through the elemental energy dispersive x-ray analysis and wettability tests. We found that treatment applied at 20% duty cycle (effective discharge duration up to 20 s) significantly decreases microbial load without reducing the viability of the seeds. On the other side, seedling growth was considerably accelerated after the treatment, and biometric growth parameters of seedlings (total length, weight, leaf extension) considerably increased compared to the controls. Interestingly, scanning electron microscopy images taken for the different duration of treatment revealed that seed radicle micropylar regions underwent significant morphological changes while the coat was substantially undamaged. Inside the seed, the embryo seemed to be well preserved while the endosperm body was detached from the epithelial tegument. A total of 9 different genera of fungi were recovered from the analyzed seeds. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that conidia were localized especially in the micropylar region, and after plasma treatment, most of them showed substantial damages. Therefore, the overall effect of the treatment of naturally contaminated seeds by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by plasma and the consequent changes in surface chemistry and microbial load can significantly improve seed vigor. (paper)

  15. M1 chimerism following mutagen treatment of seeds in rice and some other cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.

    1983-01-01

    Articles reporting on M 1 chimerism following treatment of seed with mutagen in cereals were mostly published in the 1960's. Rice is a good material for making such studies because of its relatively large number of seeds per panicle, rather easily identifiable tillering and panicle branching systems and uniform growth after seedling transplanting. The present article summarizes results of studies on M 1 chimerism in rice and some other cereals which may serve as reference information in discussing M 1 chimerism of those plant species showing different development patterns, as dicotyledonous plants, following treatment of seed with mutagen. Studies on M 1 chimerism provide not only knowledge of the sporophyte development but also basic information for developing methods of harvesting M 2 seed which provide the maximum numbers of mutants of different origins in a limited number of M 2 plants. (author)

  16. Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiamwat, Jirawat; Wanlapa, Sorada; Kampruengdet, Sukit

    2016-03-31

    Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO₂ extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alkali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setback and final viscosity increased significantly for the alkali-treated flour, while pasting temperature decreased. The alkaline treatment decreased the least gelation concentration, but increased the apparent viscosity.

  17. Effects of Mulching, Fertilizer, Seeding and Seedling Treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Mulching, Fertilizer, Seeding and Seedling Treatments on Plant Species Recovery in Kondoa Irangi Hills, Tanzania. ... There were high significant correlations of 0.85 and 0.87 between seedling recruitment and mortality in both sites, indicating that other factors, probably aridity, rather than prevailing site conditions ...

  18. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  19. Static magnetic field treatment of seeds improves carbon and nitrogen metabolism under salinity stress in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghel, Lokesh; Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, Kadur Narayan

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of magnetopriming was assessed for alleviation of salt-induced adverse effects on soybean growth. Soybean seeds were pre-treated with static magnetic field (SMF) of 200 mT for 1 h to evaluate the effect of magnetopriming on growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and yield of soybean plants under different salinity levels (0, 25, and 50 mM NaCl). The adverse effect of NaCl-induced salt stress was found on growth, yield, and various physiological attributes of soybeans. Results indicate that SMF pre-treatment significantly increased plant growth attributes, number of root nodules, nodules, fresh weight, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic performance under both non-saline and saline conditions as compared to untreated seeds. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from magnetically treated plants gave a higher fluorescence yield at J-I-P phase. Nitrate reductase activity, PIABS , photosynthetic pigments, and net rate of photosynthesis were also higher in plants that emerged from SMF pre-treated seeds as compared to untreated seeds. Leghemoglobin content and hemechrome content in root nodules were also increased by SMF pre-treatment. Thus pre-sowing exposure of seeds to SMF enhanced carbon and nitrogen metabolism and improved the yield of soybeans in terms of number of pods, number of seeds, and seed weight under saline as well as non-saline conditions. Consequently, SMF pre-treatment effectively mitigated adverse effects of NaCl on soybeans. It indicates that magnetopriming of dry soybean seeds can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for alleviating salinity stress. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:455-470, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. depending on the presowing gamma irradiation and postradiational temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, A.

    1977-01-01

    In field experiments the seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. of the Big White 48/4 cultivar was determined after presowing gamma irradiation with 4000 R and 50000 R and postradiational temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes. The presowing gamma irradiation was carried out at the IRI-200O nuclear reactor with dose capacity of 630 R/min (1968 and 1969) and 504 R/min (1970), and the postradiational heating of the seeds in a drying oven at the laboratory. It is established that the presowing gamma radiation with 4000 R stimulates the seed yield of the large-fruited pumpkin (137.06%), and the 50000 R inhibits them (25.50%). The presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes is stimulating or indicates tendency towards seed yield stimulation. The postradiational presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 9Odeg C in the course of 30 minutes of the 4000 R stimulative variant decrease the seed yield stimulation, and with the 50000 R inhibitive variant - repairs or displays tendency towards seed yield reparation. (author)

  1. Influence of an imperfect energy profile on a seeded free electron laser performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Jia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A single-pass high-gain x-ray free electron laser (FEL calls for a high quality electron bunch. In particular, for a seeded FEL amplifier and for a harmonic generation FEL, the electron bunch initial energy profile uniformity is crucial for generating an FEL with a narrow bandwidth. After the acceleration, compression, and transportation, the electron bunch energy profile entering the undulator can acquire temporal nonuniformity. We study the influence of the electron bunch initial energy profile nonuniformity on the FEL performance. Intrinsically, for a harmonic generation FEL, the harmonic generation FEL in the final radiator starts with an electron bunch having energy modulation acquired in the previous stages, due to the FEL interaction at those FEL wavelengths and their harmonics. The influence of this electron bunch energy nonuniformity on the harmonic generation FEL in the final radiator is then studied.

  2. Assessment of Seed Germination and Dormancy of Thirty Seeds Lots of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R Ehyaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of medicinal plants due to ecological adaptation to environmental conditions have several types of dormancy. Hence, it's necessary to recognize ecological factors that affect dormancy and provide optimum conditions for germination in medicinal plant species. Thirty seed lots were used to estimate germination and dormancy of medicinal plants. Treatments were KNO3, (2% and scarification of seeds by sand paper, hypochlorite sodium and removing the seed coat with four replicates of 25 seeds. Maximum and minimum germination observed in H2O for Digitalis purpure 100% and Saponaria officinalis 0%. In KNO3 treatment, Portulaca oleracea had the highest germination of 91% and Hyocyamus niger had no any germinated seeds. In sand paper treatment, the Saponaria officinalis and Datura stramonium had maximum, 33% and minimum 0% germination respectively.

  3. The influence of temperature, light, salinity and seed pre-treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment of seeds in hot water, sulphuric acid or calcium sulphate had only minor effect on germination rate. The results are consistent with S. sesban being an opportunistic tropical wetland species capable of establishing itself in a wide range ...

  4. Dry Heat Treatment Reduces the Occurrence of Cladosporium cucumerinum, Ascochyta citrullina, and Colletotrichum orbiculare on the Surface and Interior of Cucumber Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry heat treatment has been identified as a method for disinfecting seed-borne pathogens in vegetable seeds. This study demonstrated that three seed-borne pathogens of cucumber (Cladosporium cucumerinum that causes scabs, Ascochyta citrullina that results in gummy stem blight, and Colletotrichum orbiculare that induces anthracnose could be effectively eradicated from cucumber seeds by dry heat treatment. In vitro growth of these three pathogens was inhibited by dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 40 min. These pathogens were inactivated after exposing infected seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 90 min. Seed infection was significantly reduced by exposing the seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 40 min. Seed moisture content and germination were slightly reduced after 70 °C heat treatment for 40–120 min. Seed vigor remained at a high level after dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 90 min. In conclusion, 70 °C dry heat treatment for 90 min was determined to be the optimal method for eradication of C. cucumerinum, Didymella bryoniae, and C. orbiculare from cucumber seeds.

  5. Results of gamma-ray treatment of vegetable seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshnakov, P

    1975-01-01

    Tests carried out (1973 and 1974) at the Chair of Gardening, VKHIA, Plovdiv, were aimed at producing stimulative effects through irradiation of vegetable seeds. Treatment with 2000 R enhanced the ripening of the early tomato variety Pioneer 2 by 18.6% and its overall yield by 14.0% on a two year mean, while the same treatment of Triumph variety proved ineffective. Kourtovska Kapiya pepper variety did not positively respond to gamma-rays irradiation with 1200 R. Irradiation with 2000 R raised the earliness of Bulgarski 12 eggplant variety by 10.8% and the yield by 6.0%.

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawat Eiamwat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO2 extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alakali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setback and final viscosity increased significantly for the alkali-treated flour, while pasting temperature decreased. The alkaline treatment decreased the least gelation concentration, but increased the apparent viscosity.

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopy using a self-seeded soft X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Thomas; Kern, Jan; Kubin, Markus; Ratner, Daniel; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D.; Löchel, Heike; Krzywinski, Jacek; Lutman, Alberto; Ding, Yuantao; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Turner, Joshua J.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Nordlund, Dennis L.; Rehanek, Jens; Weniger, Christian; Firsov, Alexander; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hill, Ethan; Borovik, Andrew; Erko, Alexei; Föhlisch, Alexander; Mitzner, Rolf; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Wernet, Philippe; Bergmann, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Optical Society of America. X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enable unprecedented new ways to study the electronic structure and dynamics of transition metal systems. L-edge absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for such studies and the feasibility of this method at XFELs for solutions and solids has been demonstrated. However, the required x-ray bandwidth is an order of magnitude narrower than that of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), and additional monochromatization is needed. Here we compare L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of a prototypical transition metal system based on monochromatizing the SASE radiation of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) with a new technique based on self-seeding of LCLS. We demonstrate how L-edge XAS can be performed using the self-seeding scheme without the need of an additional beam line monochromator. We show how the spectral shape and pulse energy depend on the undulator setup and how this affects the x-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  8. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  9. Soil Seed Bank Responses to Postfire Herbicide and Native Seeding Treatments Designed to Control Bromus tectorum in a Pinyon–Juniper Woodland at Zion National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Hondo Brisbin, graduate student; Andrea Thode, Associate Professor; Karen Weber, graduate student

    2013-01-01

    The continued threat of an invasive, annual brome (Bromus) species in the western United States has created the need for integrated approaches to postfire restoration. Additionally, the high germination rate, high seed production, and seed bank carryover of annual bromes points to the need to assay soil seed banks as part of monitoring programs. We sampled the soil seed bank to help assess the effectiveness of treatments utilizing the herbicide Plateau® (imazapic) and a perennial native seed mix to control annual Bromus species and enhance perennial native plant establishment following a wildfire in Zion National Park, Utah. This study is one of few that have monitored the effects of imazapic and native seeding on a soil seed bank community and the only one that we know of that has done so in a pinyon–juniper woodland. The study made use of untreated, replicated controls, which is not common for seed bank studies. One year posttreatment, Bromus was significantly reduced in plots sprayed with herbicide. By the second year posttreatment, the effects of imazapic were less evident and convergence with the controls was evident. Emergence of seeded species was low for the duration of the study. Dry conditions and possible interactions with imazapic probably contributed to the lack of emergence of seeded native species. The perennial grass sand dropseed outperformed the other species included in the seed mix. We also examined how the treatments affected the soil seed bank community as a whole. We found evidence that the herbicide was reducing several native annual forbs and one nonnative annual forb. However, overall effects on the community were not significant. The results of our study were similar to what others have found in that imazapic is effective in providing a short-term reduction in Bromus density, although it can impact emergence of nontarget species.

  10. Condicionamento fisiológico de sementes de couve-flor Priming seed treatment of cauliflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia P Kikuti

    2009-06-01

    conducted to define an adequate procedure for cauliflower seed priming and to verify whether the seed physiological potential affects priming results. Six seed lots, three of the cultivar Sharon and three of Teresópolis Gigante, were submitted to hydropriming between two, four and six sheets of towel paper and to osmopriming between four sheets of towel paper moistened with polietilenoglycol 6000 solutions (-0,1 and -0,2 MPa potentials. In all priming procedures, the seed water content was adjusted to 32% or 38% for cv. Sharon and 34% or 41%, for cv. Teresópolis Gigante seeds. The effects of treatments on germination and seedling emergence were compared to unprimed control. Results showed that hydropriming between four and six sheets of towel paper was efficient to favor speed of germination (VG and speed of seedling emergence (VE in both cultivars when seeds attained 38% (cultivar Sharon and 41% (cultivar Teresópolis Gigante. VG increased from 14,6 (control to 16,4 (hydroprimed seeds in cv. Sharon seed lots of higher and lower physiological potential; the same for VE that incresead from 8,9 to 11,3 and from 7,8 to 11,6 in seed lots of lower physiological potential. In seeds of cv. Teresópolis Gigante, hydropriming promoted increases in the VG and VE, independently of seed physiological potencial; VG values ranged from 16,4 to 21,4 and the VE from 9,5 to 13,5. Results showed that hydropriming between four and six sheets of towel paper, in which seeds attained moisture content close to the required for primary root protrusion is efficient to favor the speed of germination and seedling emergence of cauliflower seeds; the influence of vigor level on seed priming response is closely related to cultivar and seed lot management.

  11. Impact of Membrane-Induced Particle Immobilization on Seeded Growth Monitored by In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Rebecca G; Chen, Dennis P; Unocic, Raymond R; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2016-05-01

    In situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy probes seeded growth in real time. The growth of Pd on Au nanocubes is monitored as a model system to compare growth within a liquid cell and traditional colloidal synthesis. Different growth patterns are observed due to seed immobilization and the highly reducing environment within the liquid cell. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  13. Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Reza ROUHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h with control (none prime were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. �Sari� (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture. Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. �Sari�.

  14. Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Reza ROUHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h with control (none prime were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. Sari (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture. Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. Sari.

  15. Metabolites change in Jatropha plants due to seed treatment with rhizobacteria and Rhizoctonia bataticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the metabolite [salicylic acid (SA, jasmonicacid (JA, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and chitinase activity] changes owing to seed treatment with pathogen, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs - (P. maltophilia, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis alone and in combination was conducted at Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal. Jatropha curcas plants raised from root rot pathogen (Rhizoctonia bataticola treated seeds showed an initial increase in SA and hydrocyanic acid HCN content and an opposite trend was observed for JA level and chitinase activity. Though, PGPRs inoculation resulted in higher increase in SA level, JA level and chitinaseactivity in both the cases alone as well as in integration with pathogen, however, maximum increase in JA content was explicited in plants raised after seed treatment with P. fluorescens, the most effective rhizobacteria amongst PGPRs studied. Highest increase in HCN content (45 μg g-1 over control (24 μg g-1 was noticed for P. fluorescens followed by co-seed inoculation with P. fluorescens + pathogen (43 μg g-1 at 10 DPI. The co-seed inoculation elicited 68 units at 10 DPI whereas the pathogen challenged plants showed lower chitinase activity with 42 units. All the metabolites declinedslightly or sharply with age of the plant irrespective of inoculations.

  16. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  17. Effects of imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments on wheat aphids and their natural enemies on winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yunhe; Wei, Yan; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of winter wheat and has posed a significant threat to winter wheat production in China. Although neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments have been suggested to be a control method, the season-long efficacy on pests and the impact on their natural enemies are still uncertain. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of imidacloprid and clothianidin on the control of aphids, the number of their natural enemies and the emergence rate and yield of wheat during 2011-2014. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no adverse effects on ladybirds, hoverflies or parasitoids, and instead increased the spider-aphid ratios. Wheat seeds treated with imidacloprid and clothianidin were effective against wheat aphids throughout the winter wheat growing season and reduced the yield loss under field conditions. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments may be an important component of the integrated management of wheat aphids on winter wheat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effects of heat-shock treatment and genotype on radiosensitivity of maize seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Hirotada; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Harima, Kunio

    1975-01-01

    In order to clarify the internal and external factors responsible for radiosensitivity of seed, and to induce mutations more effectively, two experiments were conducted using maize. (1) Seeds of an inbred line were irradiated with γ rays at an extremely low temperature (-70 0 C) and then dipped in hot water (60 0 C, 30 sec.). Through such heat-shock treatment the radiosensitivity of maize seeds was remarkably reduced: LD 50 and RD 50 for growth rose as high as about three times and about twice, respectively. (2) Seeds of seven strains including four inbred lines, two single-cross hybrids and one double-cross hybrid were exposed to γ rays by the ordinary procedure. Hybrids, regardless of whether they were single cross or double cross, were clearly proved to surpass their parental strains in radiation tolerance, both in survival rate and in culm length. These descents of radiosensitivity were considered to be due mainly to the increased heterozygosity. (auth.)

  19. Investigation of the Effects of Irrigation and Nutrient Treatments on Biophysical and Biomechanical Properties of Safflower Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Feyzollahzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Safflower is a strategic plant regarding to its valuable nutrition value (45% extractable oil and industrial uses. Due to massive import of edible oil to the country as well as high potential for safflower cultivation, the research on production of safflower for oil extrusion purpose is of remarkable importance. The design of various processing and oil extraction units and also their optimization which are in relation to seed attributes is essential. In this paper the effects of different irrigation and nutrient treatments on some important physical and mechanical properties of IL111 varieties of safflower seed were investigated. The measured properties included size, mass, volume, surface area, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, bulk and true densities, porosity, static and dynamic coefficient of friction, rupture force, deformation at rupture point, rupture energy, modulus of elasticity and seed hardness. The results indicated a significant effect of treatments on the biophysical and biomechanical properties at p ≤ 0.01. The maximum seed mass, geometric mean diameter and rupture energy were obtained when the (cg treatment applied i.e. “Cut-off irrigation at the growth stage and bio sulfur nutrition”. Seed mass was found to be 0.040 gr to 0.055 gr. Results also showed a significant effect of geometric mean diameter on mass and rupture energy and also mass on seed hardness. Direct correlations observed between seed mass and rupture energy, which indicates that for larger and heavier seeds, much more energy required for oil extraction. The maximum rupture energy was measured as 0.033 J.

  20. Effect of seed size and pre-treatment methods of Bauhinia thonningii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... B. thonningii trees typically grow to a height of 6 to 12 m and their branches .... germination increased rapidly for hot water treatment for small seeds (S1P1) .... International Book Company Absecon Highlands: pp. 109-113.

  1. Effect of Different Dormancy Breaking Treatments on Seed Germination of Salsifis (Teragopogon collinus and Flixweed ( Descurainia Sophia as Two Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzie mazhari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weeds limit crops growth, development and yield through adjacency and competing and seed dormancy is a problem in controlling of weeds. Man has been always tried to optimize crop yield through weeds controlling. Weeds seed bank in the soil can affected weed management and their control methods. So identifying seed bank characters has important role in choice of management methods in seeds of many plant species which cannot germinate despite favorable environmental conditions. Main reasons for this problem, which is termed as seed dormancy, are hard and impermeable seed coat and presence of immature or dormant embryo. To break dormancy, a variety of methods are in vogue worldwide these days. Of all different methods of breaking dormancy, treatment of seed with certain chemicals including different types of plant growth regulators (PGRs is contemplated as the most effective one. Gibberellic acid (GA3 is the most widely used PGR to improve seed germination in different plant species. Also, nitrate (such as KNO3 clearly stimulates the germination of dormant seeds. KNO3 is the most widely used chemical for promoting germination. Solutions of KNO3 are common in routine germination testing and are recommended by the Association of Official Seed Analysts and the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA for germination tests of many species.Stratification refers to the method of placing seeds in layers alternating with layers of a moisture retaining medium, such as sand, peat or vermiculite, and keeping them at a cool temperature for a certain period, but it varies considerably from species to species. The combination of high moisture and low temperature appears to trigger off biochemical changes which transform complex food substances into simpler forms utilized by the embryo when it renews growth at germination. The use of the word “stratification” has recently been extended to include all forms of cold, moist treatment whether or

  2. Comparison of daily megavoltage electronic portal imaging or kilovoltage imaging with marker seeds to ultrasound imaging or skin marks for prostate localization and treatment positioning in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serago, Christopher F.; Buskirk, Steven J.; Igel, Todd C.; Gale, Ashley A.; Serago, Nicole E.; Earle, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of imaging modalities, immobilization, localization, and positioning techniques in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with prostate cancer had gold marker seeds implanted transrectally and were treated with fractionated radiotherapy. Twenty of the 35 patients had limited immobilization; the remaining had a vacuum-based immobilization. Patient positioning consisted of alignment with lasers to skin marks, ultrasound or kilovoltage X-ray imaging, optical guidance using infrared reflectors, and megavoltage electronic portal imaging (EPI). The variance of each positioning technique was compared to the patient position determined from the pretreatment EPI. Results: With limited immobilization, the average difference between the skin marks' laser position and EPI pretreatment position is 9.1 ± 5.3 mm, the average difference between the skin marks' infrared position and EPI pretreatment position is 11.8 ± 7.2 mm, the average difference between the ultrasound position and EPI pretreatment position is 7.0 ± 4.6 mm, the average difference between kV imaging and EPI pretreatment position is 3.5 ± 3.1 mm, and the average intrafraction movement during treatment is 3.4 ± 2.7 mm. For the patients with the vacuum-style immobilization, the average difference between the skin marks' laser position and EPI pretreatment position is 10.7 ± 4.6 mm, the average difference between kV imaging and EPI pretreatment position is 1.9 ± 1.5 mm, and the average intrafraction movement during treatment is 2.1 ± 1.5 mm. Conclusions: Compared with use of skin marks, ultrasound imaging for positioning provides an increased degree of agreement to EPI-based positioning, though not as favorable as kV imaging fiducial seeds. Intrafraction movement during treatment decreases with improved immobilization

  3. Electron transfer and photophosphorylation in mitochondria of buckwheat after irradiation of seeds with. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, V A; Kurganova, L N; Gorlanova, T M [Gor' kovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1974-11-01

    Pre-sowing irradiation of seeds at 500 R activates the transfer of electrons by photosynthetic electron transfer path of isolated buchwheat chloroplasts in the ontogenesis and stimulates the conjugated photosynthetic phosphorilation. An increased content of NADPxH/sub 2/ is observed along with an elevated level of ATP production. Intensification of oxidative phosphorilation and growth of the P/O ratio of mitochondria has been shown in the ''irradiated'' plants, together with a concomitant increase of ATPhase activity in chloroplasts and mitochondria.

  4. The use of Moringa oleifera seed as a natural coagulant for wastewater treatment and heavy metals removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tan Chu; Matar, Manaf Al; Makky, Essam A.; Ali, Eman N.

    2017-06-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) is a multipurpose tree with considerable potential and its cultivation is currently being actively promoted in many developing countries. Seeds of this tropical tree contain water-soluble, positively charged proteins that act as an effective coagulant for water and wastewater treatment. Based on this, water quality of "Sungai baluk" river was examined before and after the treatment using MO seed. MO seed exhibited high efficiency in the reduction and prevention of the bacterial growth in both wastewater and "Sungai baluk" river samples. The turbidity was removed up to 85-94% and dissolved oxygen (DO) was improved from 2.58 ± 0.01 to 4.00 ± 0.00 mg/L. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were increased after the treatment from 99.5 ± 0.71 to 164.0 ± 2.83 mg/L for COD and from 48.00 ± 0.42 to 76.65 ± 2.33 mg/L for BOD, respectively. Nevertheless, there was no significant alteration of pH, conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solid after the treatment. Heavy metals such as Fe were fully eliminated, whereas Cu and Cd were successfully removed by up to 98%. The reduction of Pb was also achieved by up to 78.1%. Overall, 1% of MO seed cake was enough to remove heavy metals from the water samples. This preliminary laboratory result confirms the great potential of MO seed in wastewater treatment applications.

  5. Physical and chemical contributions of a plasma treatment in the growth of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.T. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal synthesis. •Oxygen plasma was done on the surface of seed ZnO nanorods. •The ZnO nanorods with and without plasma treatment were characterized. •The results showed that the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods with plasma treatment were enhanced. -- Abstract: We analyzed the enhancement of optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods by using a plasma treatment. In this study, seed ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 1 h on a ZnO buffered Si substrate. The seed ZnO nanorods were then treated with an oxygen plasma. Next, ZnO was grown for an additional 4 h by hydrothermal synthesis. The resultant ZnO nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). The measurements showed that the plasma treatment of the seed ZnO nanorods increased the roughness of the buffer layer and the concentration of oxygen ions on the surfaces of the seed ZnO nanorods and the buffer layer, leading to improved optical and structural properties. In this study, we found that the plasma treatment on the seed ZnO nanorods enhanced the optical and structural properties of the ZnO nanorods.

  6. CT-guided radioactive 125I-seed implantation for the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma: a clinical observation of 19 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jian; Zheng Yunfeng; Zhang Huan; Wang Zhongmin; Chen Kemin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the dynamic changes of serum tumor markers after CT-guided radioactive 125 I-seed implantation treatment in patients with pancreatic carcinoma and to assess the therapeutic effectiveness of 125 I-seed implantation. Methods: CT-guided radioactive 125 I-seed implantation was performed in 19 patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer. Treatment planning system was used to reconstruct 3-dimentional images of the tumor, and the quantity and distribution of 125 I-seeds to be implanted were thus determined. Under CT guidance 125 I-seeds were embedded into pancreatic cancer. Before and after the 125 I-seed implantation the levels of serum tumor markers, including CEA, CA19-9 and CA50, were determined by using radioimmunoassay method. The clinical effects were observed and the therapeutic results were statistically analyzed. Results: The pain stared to be relieved 2 to 5 days after implantation. The total effective rate (CR + PR) at one and three months after treatment was 68.42% (13 /19) and 63.16% (12 /19) respectively. One month after 125 I-seed implantation, the levels of serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA50 were significantly different to that determined before implantation in all cases (P 125 I-seed implantation is a safe and effective interventional treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer with reliable short-term result and remarkable pain-relieving effect. Moreover, this therapy can significantly lower the levels of many serum tumor markers, which play some suggestive roles in evaluating the clinical curativeness. (authors)

  7. Electron beam agrobionanotechnologies for agriculture and food industry enabled by electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Y. S.; Revina, A. A.; Souvorova, O. V.; Voropaeva, N. L.; Chekmar, D. V.; Abkhalimov, E. V.; Zavyalov, M. A.; Filippovich, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    Electron beam (EB) radiation technologies have been employed to increase efficiency of biologically active nanochips developed for agricultural plants seed pre-treatment with purpose of enhancing crop yield and productivity. Iron-containing nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized in reverse micelles following known radiation-chemical technique, have served as a multifunctional biologically active and phytosanitary substance of the chips. Porous chip carriers activation has been performed by EB ionization (doze 20kGy) of the active carbons (AC) prepared from agricultural waste and by-products: Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) straw, rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg) straw, camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) straw, wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw. Three methods, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) have been used for process control and characterization of radiation-activated and NPs-modified ACs. The results show a notable effect of ACs activation by electron beam radiation, evidenced by FeNPs-adsorption capacity increase. Studies of the impact of Fe NPs-containing nanochip technology on enhancement of seeds germination rate and seedlings vigour suggest that reported electron beam radiation treatment techniques of the ACs from selected agricultural residues may be advantageous for industrial application.

  8. Control age - and irradiation-induced seed deterioration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by hydration-dehydration treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Bina; Basu, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    Hydration-dehydration treatment of stored lettuce seed (1-year-old, medium-vigour), greatly slowed down their deterioration during subsequent storage under accelerated and natural ageing conditions. Hydration-dehydration of seeds, before or soon after X- and γ-irradiation, considerably minimized the adverse effect of irradiation on the development of biological after-effects responsible for the fall in germinibility, especially the large reduction of root growth of seedlings. Pre- and post-irradiation treatments gave broadly similar effects. The results have been discussed in terms of a possible involvement of a cellular (biochemical) repair mechanism in the hydration phase and also on the basis of a physico-chemical control of free radical pathology in the aged and irradiated seed. (author)

  9. Control age - and irradiation-induced seed deterioration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. ) by hydration-dehydration treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punjabi, B; Basu, R N [University Coll. of Agriculture, Calcutta (India)

    1982-04-01

    Hydration-dehydration treatment of stored lettuce seed (1-year-old, medium-vigour), greatly slowed down their deterioration during subsequent storage under accelerated and natural ageing conditions. Hydration-dehydration of seeds, before or soon after X- and ..gamma..-irradiation, considerably minimized the adverse effect of irradiation on the development of biological after-effects responsible for the fall in germinibility, especially the large reduction of root growth of seedlings. Pre- and post-irradiation treatments gave broadly similar effects. The results have been discussed in terms of a possible involvement of a cellular (biochemical) repair mechanism in the hydration phase and also on the basis of a physico-chemical control of free radical pathology in the aged and irradiated seed.

  10. Dosimetry and treatment planning of Occu-Prosta 125I seeds for intraocular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Suresh; Deshpande, Sudesh; Anand, Vivek; De, Sandeep; Kannan, V.; Saxena, Sanjay; Dash, A.; Basu, Mahua; Samant, Preetam

    2008-01-01

    Intraocular malignant lesions are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Plaque brachytherapy represents an effective means of treatment for intraocular lesions. Recently Radiopharmaceutical Division, BARC, Mumbai, has indigenously fabricated reasonable-cost 125 I sources. Here we are presenting the preliminary experience of dosimetry of sources, configuration of treatment planning system (TPS) and quality assurance (QA) for eye plaque therapy with Occu-Prosta 125 I seeds, treated in our hospital, for a patient with ocular lesions. 125 I seeds were calibrated using well-type chamber. BrachyVision TPS was configured with Monte Carlo computed radial dose functions and anisotropy functions for 125 I sources. Dose calculated by TPS at different points in central axis and off axis was compared with manually calculated dose. Eye plaque was fabricated of 17 karat pure gold, locally. The seeds were arranged in an outer ring near the edge of the plaque and in concentric rings throughout the plaque. The sources were manually digitized on the TPS, and dose distribution was calculated in three dimensions. Measured activity using cross-calibrated well-type chamber was within ± 10% of the activity specified by the supplier. Difference in TPS-calculated dose and manually calculated dose was within 5%. Treatment time calculated by TPS was in concordance with published data for similar plaque arrangement. (author)

  11. Microbial quality evaluation and effective decontamination of nutraceutically valued lotus seeds by electron beams and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Sridhar, K.R.; Karim, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Lotus seeds are nutraceutically valued natural plant produce, which succumbs to microbial contamination, predominantly to toxigenic moulds. Results of the present study revealed seed coat portion to harbor higher proportion of microbial load, particularly fungi than cotyledon portion. Among the mycotoxins analyzed, aflatoxins (B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ) were below detectable limits, while the seeds were devoid of Ochratoxin-A (OTA). Application of different doses of electron beam and gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 30 kGy) for decontamination purpose revealed significant dose-dependent decrease in the fungal contaminants (P<0.05). However, the contaminant yeasts could survive up to 10 kGy dose, which could be completely eliminated at 15 kGy. From the results obtained, a dose range between 10 and 15 kGy is recommended for complete decontamination, as these doses have also been shown earlier to have minimal effects on nutritional and functional properties of lotus seeds.

  12. A Distributed Lag Autoregressive Model of Geostationary Relativistic Electron Fluxes: Comparing the Influences of Waves, Seed and Source Electrons, and Solar Wind Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Laura; Engebretson, Mark; Clilverd, Mark; Rodger, Craig; Lessard, Marc; Gjerloev, Jesper; Reeves, Geoffrey

    2018-05-01

    Relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit depends on enhancement and loss processes driven by ultralow frequency (ULF) Pc5, chorus, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, seed electron flux, magnetosphere compression, the "Dst effect," and substorms, while solar wind inputs such as velocity, number density, and interplanetary magnetic field Bz drive these factors and thus correlate with flux. Distributed lag regression models show the time delay of highest influence of these factors on log10 high-energy electron flux (0.7-7.8 MeV, Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites). Multiple regression with an autoregressive term (flux persistence) allows direct comparison of the magnitude of each effect while controlling other correlated parameters. Flux enhancements due to ULF Pc5 and chorus waves are of equal importance. The direct effect of substorms on high-energy electron flux is strong, possibly due to injection of high-energy electrons by the substorms themselves. Loss due to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is less influential. Southward Bz shows only moderate influence when correlated processes are accounted for. Adding covariate compression effects (pressure and interplanetary magnetic field magnitude) allows wave-driven enhancements to be more clearly seen. Seed electrons (270 keV) are most influential at lower relativistic energies, showing that such a population must be available for acceleration. However, they are not accelerated directly to the highest energies. Source electrons (31.7 keV) show no direct influence when other factors are controlled. Their action appears to be indirect via the chorus waves they generate. Determination of specific effects of each parameter when studied in combination will be more helpful in furthering modeling work than studying them individually.

  13. Effect of Seed Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Two Mustard Cultivars (Brassica compestris var. parkland and Goldrash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Goldani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: B. campestris is an old plant that commonly grows in arid and semi-arid areas. It has mucilage in the epidermal cells of canola seeds, a considerable variation in growth form and characteristics across the many cultivars. These species have in general, a flat root without an elongated crown, with stems that typically grow 30 to 120 cm tall. The leaves are large, soft, smooth or soft-hairy. The yellow flowers are small, usually less than 2 cm long (24. Seed priming is a procedure in which seed is soaked and then dried back to its original water content. Hydropriming uses only water in the process of controlled imbibitions, but osmopriming simply means soaking seeds in an osmotic solution. Seed priming is a technique of controlled hydration and drying that results in more rapid germination when the seed is reimbibed. Priming can be a valuable process for improving germination and uniformity of heterogeneously matured seed lots. Seed priming has been successfully demonstrated to improve germination and emergence in seeds of many crops, particularly vegetables and small seeded grasses. Seed priming is a presowing strategy for influencing seedling development by modulating pregermination metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle and generally enhances germination rate and plant performance. Fast germination and uniform emergence assist the farmer to “catch up” on the time lost to drought (17, 18. This research aimed to study the effect of the best treatments of osmopriming and hydropriming on varieties of mustard seed germination traits was conducted. Materials and Methods: The present research was conducted under laboratory conditions of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2012 to determine the seed priming effects on germination traits of two cultivars of mustard. The experiment was in completely randomized design with six treatments. Seeds of two mustard cultivars including Goldrash and Parkland (Brassica

  14. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  15. Electron beam collimation with a photon MLC for standard electron treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Fix, M. K.; Henzen, D.; Frei, D.; Frauchiger, D.; Loessl, K.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.; Manser, P.

    2018-01-01

    Standard electron treatments are currently still performed using standard or molded patient-specific cut-outs placed in the electron applicator. Replacing cut-outs and electron applicators with a photon multileaf collimator (pMLC) for electron beam collimation would make standard electron treatments more efficient and would facilitate advanced treatment techniques like modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) and mixed beam radiotherapy (MBRT). In this work, a multiple source Monte Carlo beam model for pMLC shaped electron beams commissioned at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 70 cm is extended for SSDs of up to 100 cm and validated for several Varian treatment units with field sizes typically used for standard electron treatments. Measurements and dose calculations agree generally within 3% of the maximal dose or 2 mm distance to agreement. To evaluate the dosimetric consequences of using pMLC collimated electron beams for standard electron treatments, pMLC-based and cut-out-based treatment plans are created for a left and a right breast boost, a sternum, a testis and a parotid gland case. The treatment plans consist of a single electron field, either alone (1E) or in combination with two 3D conformal tangential photon fields (1E2X). For each case, a pMLC plan with similar treatment plan quality in terms of dose homogeneity to the target and absolute mean dose values to the organs at risk (OARs) compared to a cut-out plan is found. The absolute mean dose to an OAR is slightly increased for pMLC-based compared to cut-out-based 1E plans if the OAR is located laterally close to the target with respect to beam direction, or if a 6 MeV electron beam is used at an extended SSD. In conclusion, treatment plans using cut-out collimation can be replaced by plans of similar treatment plan quality using pMLC collimation with accurately calculated dose distributions.

  16. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  17. How seed orchard culture affects seed quality: experience with the southern pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Tree improvement programs have influenced significantly the quality of southern pine seeds produced when compared to collections from native stands. Seed orchard management practices such as fertilization can increase seed size and reduce seed dormancy. These result in the need for less complex pregermination treatments. Repeated cone collections from the same clones...

  18. Effect of pre-treatments on the germination of jasmin box (Phillyrea latifolia) seeds in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spyroglou, Gavriil; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    The major problem in seedlings production of jasmin box (Phillyrea latifolia) is the poor and irregular germination due to seed dormancy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate methods of seed pre-treatments to increase germination. The effect of different solutions of KOH and NaOH, wood ash lye, GA3 and cold or warm stratification on germination were evaluated. Sets of four replicates of 25 seeds were soaked for 24 hours in KOH and NaOH solutions of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 %, in wood a...

  19. Effects of seed pretreatment and seed source on germination of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of seed pre-sowing treatment and geographic source of seeds on three germination parameters of five Acacia species (GP = germination percent; GMT = germination mean time (days) and GI = germination index) were studied. Pre-sowing treatment included immersion in concentrated sulphuric acid for 5, 10 and ...

  20. Comparison of Seed Germination and Recovery Responses of a Salt Marsh Halophyte Halopeplis Perfoliata to Osmotic and Ionic Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S. G.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity affects seed germination of halophytes by inducing ionic toxicity, osmotic constraint or both. Information about the effects of salinity on seed germination of a large number of halophytes exists, but generally little is known about the basis of salinity-induced germination inhibition. In order to partition salinity effects, we studied seed germination and recovery responses of a coastal salt marsh halophyte halopeplis perfoliata to different isotonic treatments (Psi/sub S/: -0.5, -1.0, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5, MPa) of various salts and polythylene glycol (PEG) under two light regimes (12-h light photo period and 24-h complete darkness). Highest seed germination was observed in distilled water under 12-h light photo period and reduction in osmotic potential of the solution decreased seed germination. However, some seeds of H. perfoliata could germinate in as low as -2.5 MPa (600 mM NaCl), which is equivalent to seawater salinity. Sea-salt treatment was more inhibitory than isotonic NaCl at the lowest osmotic potential (Psi/sub S/ -2.5 MPa). Generally, chloride salts with lowest Psi/sub S/ inhibited germination more than the isotonic sulfate salts. Comparable germination responses of the seeds in NaCl and isotonic PEG treatments as well as high recovery of germination in un-germinated seeds after alleviation of NaCl salinity indicated prevalence of osmotic constraint. These results thus indicate that the seeds of H. perfoliata could tolerate high levels of a wide variety of salts found in soil. (author)

  1. Imidacloprid seed treatments affect individual ant behavior and community structure but not egg predation, pest abundance or soybean yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Hannah J; Dale, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments are under scrutiny because of their variable efficacy against crop pests and for their potential negative impacts on non-target organisms. Ants provide important biocontrol services in agroecosystems and can be indicators of ecosystem health. This study tested for effects of exposure to imidacloprid plus fungicide or fungicide-treated seeds on individual ant survival, locomotion and foraging capabilities and on field ant community structure, pest abundance, ant predation and yield. Cohorts of ants exposed to either type of treated seed had impaired locomotion and a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality but no loss of foraging capacity. In the field, we saw no difference in ant species richness, regardless of seed treatment. Blocks with imidacloprid did have higher species evenness and diversity, probably owing to variable effects of the insecticide on different ant species, particularly Tetramorium caespitum. Ant predation on sentinel eggs, pest abundance and soybean growth and yield were similar in the two treatments. Both seed treatments had lethal and sublethal effects on ant individuals, and the influence of imidacloprid seed coating in the field was manifested in altered ant community composition. Those effects, however, were not strong enough to affect egg predation, pest abundance or soybean yield in field blocks. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Vegetational response to native seed treatment and biosolids application in the rehabilitation of a spoilpile at Cooranbong Colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M.; Whitehead, J. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science

    1998-08-01

    This study addresses two challenges which the minerals industry faces in the rehabilitation of minespoils. The first is to re-establish a soil ecosystem that will sustainably support native vegetation. The second is to overcome seed dormancy mechanisms that often lead to the failure of native plant establishment on sites affected by mining. This paper outlines the results of the ongoing study on the rehabilitation of a coal stockpile at Cooranbong Colliery, Dora Creek, New South Wales. The trial was established to determine the benefits of utilising dewatered biosolids as a soil conditioner for the growth of native trees by direct seeding techniques, and also to investigate the effectiveness of seed treatments on seed germination rates. Two seed treatment techniques, new to attempts to re-establish native species on minespoils, were trialed using, in turn, hot water and smoke. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Electron beam irradiation: a technology for quarantine disinfestation of green gram seeds against Callsobruchus maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, Shashi; Srinivasan, K.; Singh, Subadas; Thakur, Manju; Sharma, S.K.; Pramod, R.; Dwivedi, J.; Bapna, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilkzec) an important legume crop in India is grown in 33.4 lakh hectares. India accounts for ∼ 60% of the world's green gram area but contributes only 47% of its production. Major constraint in storage is the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), which may cause damage upto 100%. It is widespread throughout tropics and sub-tropics with wide host range and also has different strains. Fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) has been the most widely applied management practice for its control. However, the ozone depleting effect of MB has led to restrictions in its use. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative strategy for controlling the pests. Irradiation, an approved technology by International Plant Protection Convention, seems to be a viable non-chemical, residue-free strategy. Therefore, present studies were conducted to see the efficacy of electron beam (EB) irradiation as quarantine disinfestation treatment against green gram seeds infested with different stages of the target pest, C. maculatus

  4. Effects of pulsed magnetic field treatment of soybean seeds on calli growth, cell damage, and biochemical changes under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Leelapriya, Thasari; Kumari, Bollipo Diana Ranjitha

    2012-12-01

    The effects of magnetic field (MF) treatments of soybean seeds on calli growth, cell damage, and biochemical changes under salt stress were investigated under controlled conditions. Soybean seeds were exposed to a 1.0 Hz sinusoidal uniform pulsed magnetic field (PMF) of 1.5 µT for 5 h/day for 20 days. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. For callus regeneration, the embryonic axis explants were taken from seeds and inoculated in a saline medium with a concentration of 10 mM NaCl for calli growth analysis and biochemical changes. The combined treatment of MF and salt stress was found to significantly increase calli fresh weight, total soluble sugar, total protein, and total phenol contents, but it decreased the ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation, and catalase activity of calli from magnetically exposed seeds compared to the control calli. PMF treatment significantly improved calli tolerance to salt stress in terms of an increase in flavonoid, flavone, flavonole, alkaloid, saponin, total polyphenol, genistein, and daidzein contents under salt stress. The results suggest that PMF treatment of soybean seeds has the potential to counteract the adverse effects of salt stress on calli growth by improving primary and secondary metabolites under salt stress conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  6. {sup 125}I seed implant brachytherapy for the treatment of parotid gland cancers in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Zhang, J.; Song, T.; Zhang, J.; Yu, G.; Zhang, Y. [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: There is a lack of optimal treatment strategies for managing salivary gland cancers in children and adolescents. This study is aimed at assessing the effect of {sup 125}I seed implantation for the treatment of parotid cancers in children and adolescents. Patients and methods: A total of 12 patients younger than 16 years with parotid gland malignant tumors underwent {sup 125}I seed implant brachytherapy between October 2003 and November 2008. All patients were assessed after treatment and at the local tumor control appointments. Facial nerve function, maxillofacial development, and radioactive side-effects were assessed. Results: The follow-up period ranged from 41-104 months. One patient with T4b died of pulmonary metastasis. The other patients were alive during the follow-up period. There were no serious radiation-related complications. The treatment did not affect facial nerve function and dentofacial growth in any of the children. Conclusion: For parotid gland cancers in children, {sup 125}I seed implant brachytherapy may be an acceptable treatment without serious complications and with satisfactory short-term effects. (orig.)

  7. Biofibres from biofuel industrial byproduct-Pongamia pinnata seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, Puttaswamy; Srinikethan, Govindan; Shetty, K Vidya

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel production using Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) seeds results in large amount of unused seed hull. These seed hulls serve as a potential source for cellulose fibres which can be exploited as reinforcement in composites. These seed hulls were processed using chlorination and alkaline extraction process in order to isolate cellulose fibres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis demonstrated the morphological changes in the fibre structure. Cellulose microfibres of diameter 6-8 µm, hydrodynamic diameter of 58.4 nm and length of 535 nm were isolated. Thermal stability was enhanced by 70 °C and crystallinity index (CI) by 19.8% ensuring isolation of crystalline cellulose fibres. The sequential chlorination and alkaline treatment stemmed to the isolation of cellulose fibres from P. pinnata seed hull. The isolated cellulose fibres possessed enhanced morphological, thermal, and crystalline properties in comparison with P. pinnata seed hull. These cellulose microfibres may potentially find application as biofillers in biodegradable composites by augmenting their properties.

  8. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  9. Impacts of Mastication: Soil Seed Bank Responses to a Forest Thinning Treatment in Three Colorado (USA Conifer Forest Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akasha M. Faist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mastication is a forest fuel thinning treatment that involves chipping or shredding small trees and shrubs and depositing the material across the forest floor. By decreasing forest density mastication has been shown to lessen crown fire hazard, yet other impacts have only recently started to be studied. Our study evaluates how mastication treatments alter the density and composition of soil seed banks in three Colorado conifer forest types. The three forest types were (1 lodgepole pine, (2 ponderosa pine and (3 pinyon pine-juniper. Results showed that masticated sites contained higher seed bank densities than untreated sites: a pattern primarily driven by treatment effects in ponderosa pine forests. The seed bank was dominated by forbs regardless of forest type or treatment. This pattern of forb dominance was not observed in the aboveground vegetation cover as it demonstrated more even proportions of the functional groups. Graminoids showed a higher seed density in treated sites than untreated and, similarly, the identified non-native species only occurred in the treated ponderosa pine sites suggesting a potential belowground invasion for this forest type. These results suggest that presence of masticated material might not be creating a physical barrier hindering the transfer of seeds as predicted.

  10. Repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mung bean and radish seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Latiful; Sugiyama, Jun; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on the seeds prior to sprouting. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments with various chemicals to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 populations inoculated onto mung bean and radish seeds intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. The treatment time was 20 sec for quick hot and 20 sec for quick chilling in one repeat. Likewise up to five repeats were done throughout the experiments. The chemicals used for this study were electrolyzed acidic (EO) water, phytic acid (0.05%), oxalic acid (3%), surfcera(R), and alpha-torino water(R), and distilled water was used as control. The quick hot treatment was done with 75 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, and the chilling temperature was 0 degrees C. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of this treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens and the effects of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments on germination yield. It was found that repeating treatment at 75 degrees C for two or three repeats with phytic acid and oxalic acid could reduce 4.38-log colony-forming unit (CFU)/g of E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. EO water and distilled water were found equally effective at 75 degrees C for four or five repeats to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. However, alpha-torino water(R) and surfcera(R) were not found effective in comparison to other sanitizers used in this experiment. Irrespective of sanitizer used, the germination yield of the mung bean seed was not affected significantly. On the other hand, distilled water, EO water, and alpha-torino water(R) at 75 degrees C for five repeats were found effective in reducing 5.80-log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in radish seeds; however, the

  11. Multi-dimensional optimization of a terawatt seeded tapered Free Electron Laser with a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juhao, E-mail: jhwu@SLAC.Stanford.EDU [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hu, Newman [Valley Christian High School, 100 Skyway Drive, San Jose, CA 95111 (United States); Setiawan, Hananiel [The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao; Raubenheimer, Tor O. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Jiao, Yi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, George [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mandlekar, Ajay [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spampinati, Simone [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. di interesse nazionale, Strada Statale 14-km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Fang, Kun [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Chu, Chungming [The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Qiang, Ji [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-02-21

    There is a great interest in generating high-power hard X-ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) in the terawatt (TW) level that can enable coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules like proteins and probe fundamental high-field physics. A feasibility study of producing such X-ray pulses was carried out employing a configuration beginning with a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission FEL, followed by a “self-seeding” crystal monochromator generating a fully coherent seed, and finishing with a long tapered undulator where the coherent seed recombines with the electron bunch and is amplified to high power. The undulator tapering profile, the phase advance in the undulator break sections, the quadrupole focusing strength, etc. are parameters to be optimized. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is adopted for this multi-dimensional optimization. Concrete examples are given for LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and LCLS-II-type systems. Analytical estimate is also developed to cross check the simulation and optimization results as a quick and complimentary tool.

  12. Structural characterization of annatto seeds (Bixa orellana) by transmission and scanning electron microscopy submitted to gamma radiation for dormancy break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Arthur, Valter; Rossi, Monica L.; Rodriguez, Adriana P.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mnharder@cena.usp.br; nogueira@cena.usp.br; arthur@cena.usp.br; mnicalr@cena.usp.br; riana@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The annatto (Bixa orellana) is the only species of the Bixaceae family. From the seeds an important food colorant is obtained, bixin, for the industry and domestic use. More recently studies have focused more extensively in medicinal purpose of the species. Due to structural and physiologic characteristics, the seeds have low germination rate, around 30 %. The irradiation of seeds with gamma radiation can promote the increase and/or acceleration of germination, better plant development and productivity, among other aspects. The radiation doses used for this purpose should not cause genetic modifications in the organism, hence experimentation is needed to define the appropriate doses. Absence of research done annatto related to the use of the irradiation aiming at the increase of germination rates lead to the structural characterization of the annatto seeds submitted to gamma radiation through transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The objective of this study was to verify the effect of radiation on the seeds structures during the process of dormancy break. Dry seeds and seeds immersed in distilled water for 24 hours were submitted to gamma radiation from source of Co{sup 60} type Gammacell-220 at CENA/USP, at doses 100 Gy. After irradiation the seeds were processed for TEM and SEM. Preliminary results, showed structural modifications in the seeds. (author)

  13. [The research of Valeriana amurensis seed germination characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Yang, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Bo; Fang, Min; Du, Juan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect of different treatments on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Used different chemical reagents and seed soakings on the routine germination test and the orthogonal test of the Valeriana amurensis seed, calculated the germination rate under different germination condition. Valeriana amurensis treated with different chemical reagends had different germination rate. The suitable immersion time could enhance Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Different treatment time, different disposal temperature, different germination temperature would have an impact on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. In order to raise the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate, use appropriate treatment on the seed before plant seeds; The seed growing must under suitable time and temperature.

  14. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  15. A seed treatment to prevent shoot apical meristem arrest in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Goffman, Fernando D.; Kodde, J.; Angenent, G.C.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Brassica oleracea plants can suffer from shoot apical meristem arrest, when sown at cold temperatures, giving rise to so-called blind seedlings that stop development and the formation of new leaves. We developed a seed treatment that strongly reduces the occurrence of this meristem arrest in

  16. Beam energy distribution influences on density modulation efficiency in seeded free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beam energy spread at the entrance of an undulator system is of paramount importance for efficient density modulation in high-gain seeded free-electron lasers (FELs. In this paper, the dependences of high harmonic bunching efficiency in high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG, echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG and phase-merging enhanced harmonic generation (PEHG schemes on the electron beam energy spread distribution are studied. Theoretical investigations and multidimensional numerical simulations are applied to the cases of uniform and saddle beam energy distributions and compared to a traditional Gaussian distribution. It shows that the uniform and saddle electron energy distributions significantly enhance the bunching performance of HGHG FELs, while they almost have no influence on EEHG and PEHG schemes. A further start-to-end simulation example demonstrated that, with the saddle distribution of sliced beam energy spread controlled by a laser heater, the 30th harmonic can be directly generated by a single-stage HGHG scheme for a soft x-ray FEL facility.

  17. Ten cases of metastatic cervical cancer with the treatment of permanent 125I seeds interstitial implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongwei; Li Naibin; Li Qingxin; Liu Huiping; Meng Hui; Chao Dong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of permanent 125 I seeds interstitial implants for metastatic cervical cancer. Methods: Under the guidance of the B-sonography, 125 I seeds were implanted into the eleven cervical lymph nodes of ten patients who had been given tumor resection. The pain relief and tumor size were observed in regular follow-up after one-month treatment. Results: All the patients were followed up for 6-14 months,and the postoperative recovery was good with no complication. One month after the implantation, the pain symptom was alleviated entirely in two nodes and partly in nine nodes. The tumor size shrank in ten nodes while there was no change in one node after one month. Conclusion: Permanent 125 I seeds interstitial implants for metastatic cervical cancer is a safe, minimally invasive and effective treatment. (authors)

  18. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition and properties of two amaranth species: starch and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallem, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of two Amaranth species were studied. The starch contents were 543 and 623 g kg-1 while crude protein contents were 154 and 169 g kg-1 for Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds, respectively. The effect of several treatments, including cooking, popping and germination and flour

  19. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  20. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  1. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Gheethi AA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the efficiency of coagulation process by using chemical (ferrous sulphate and natural coagulants (Moringa oleifera seeds were investigated. The raw laundry wastewater samples were collected from laundromat located at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja. The characteristics of these wastes were determined and then the wastewater was subjected for the treatment process consisted of three units including aeration, coagulation and sedimentation process. The chemical and natural coagulants were used with four dosage (30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L−1 and the coagulation process was carried out at room temperature (25±2ºC for one hour. The results revealed that the laundry wastewater have high concentrations of turbidity (57.8-68.1 NTU and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD (423-450 mg L−1 with pH value between 7.96 and 8.37. M. oleifera seeds exhibited high efficiency for removal of turbidity (83.63% with 120 mg L−1 of dosage, while 30 mg L−1 of FeSO4 was the best for removal of COD (54.18%. However, both parameters still more than Standard B for wastewater disposal suggesting the need to increase the period of coagulation process with M. oleifera seeds or to subject of the treated effluents for a secondary coagulation process with natural coagulant products to improve the characteristics of laundry wastewater without a secondary products as that generated with the chemical coagulants.

  2. Effect of seed treatment with low-potency laser in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Álvarez Fonseca,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed treatment with low-potency laser radiation on some physiological parameters and yield of peppers plants, California Wonder variety, was studied. The seeds were irradiated with a laser He- Ne, 25 mW powers, at different exposure periods 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, using untreated seeds as controls. We evaluated plant height (mm, root length (mm, stem diameter (mm, polar average diameter (mm equatorial mean diameter (mm, mean fruit mass (g and yield per plant (kg.plant-1. The results showed a significant increase (p?0.001 in the indicators of plants height (50 %, root length (13 %, stem diameter (17 %, equatorial mean diameter (7 %, mean fruit mass (13 % and yield per plant (67 %, compared to control.

  3. Single-shot spectro-temporal characterization of XUV pulses from a seeded free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ninno, Giovanni; Gauthier, David; Mahieu, Benoît; Ribič, Primož Rebernik; Allaria, Enrico; Cinquegrana, Paolo; Danailov, Miltcho Bojanov; Demidovich, Alexander; Ferrari, Eugenio; Giannessi, Luca; Penco, Giuseppe; Sigalotti, Paolo; Stupar, Matija

    2015-08-01

    Intense ultrashort X-ray pulses produced by modern free-electron lasers (FELs) allow one to probe biological systems, inorganic materials and molecular reaction dynamics with nanoscale spatial and femtoscale temporal resolution. These experiments require the knowledge, and possibly the control, of the spectro-temporal content of individual pulses. FELs relying on seeding have the potential to produce spatially and temporally fully coherent pulses. Here we propose and implement an interferometric method, which allows us to carry out the first complete single-shot spectro-temporal characterization of the pulses, generated by an FEL in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. Moreover, we provide the first direct evidence of the temporal coherence of a seeded FEL working in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range and show the way to control the light generation process to produce Fourier-limited pulses. Experiments are carried out at the FERMI FEL in Trieste.

  4. An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for seeding high repetition rate free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höppner, H; Hage, A; Tanikawa, T; Schulz, M; Faatz, B; Riedel, R; Prandolini, M J; Teubner, U; Tavella, F

    2015-01-01

    High repetition rate free-electron lasers (FEL), producing highly intense extreme ultraviolet and x-ray pulses, require new high power tunable femtosecond lasers for FEL seeding and FEL pump-probe experiments. A tunable, 112 W (burst mode) optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is demonstrated with center frequencies ranging from 720–900 nm, pulse energies up to 1.12 mJ and a pulse duration of 30 fs at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Since the power scalability of this OPCPA is limited by the OPCPA-pump amplifier, we also demonstrate a 6.7–13.7 kW (burst mode) thin-disk OPCPA-pump amplifier, increasing the possible OPCPA output power to many hundreds of watts. Furthermore, third and fourth harmonic generation experiments are performed and the results are used to simulate a seeded FEL with high-gain harmonic generation. (paper)

  5. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  6. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition of two amaranth species: oil, sugars, fibres, minerals and vitamins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping, germination and flour air classification on several components of Amaranthus caudatus and A. cruentus seeds, including oil, sugars, fibre, minerals and vitamins were studied. The lipid, crude and dietary fibre, ash, and sugar contents were

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Gelatin Seed Treatment as a Biostimulant of Cucumber Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of gelatin capsule seed treatment on enhanced plant growth and tolerance to abiotic stress have been reported in a number of crops, but the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are poorly understood. Using mRNA sequencing based approach, transcriptomes of one- and two-week-old cucumber plants from gelatin capsule treated and nontreated seeds were characterized. The gelatin treated plants had greater total leaf area, fresh weight, frozen weight, and nitrogen content. Pairwise comparisons of the RNA-seq data identified 620 differentially expressed genes between treated and control two-week-old plants, consistent with the timing when the growth related measurements also showed the largest differences. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis, significant coexpression gene network module of 208 of the 620 differentially expressed genes was identified, which included 16 hub genes in the blue module, a NAC transcription factor, a MYB transcription factor, an amino acid transporter, an ammonium transporter, a xenobiotic detoxifier-glutathione S-transferase, and others. Based on the putative functions of these genes, the identification of the significant WGCNA module and the hub genes provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms of gelatin seed treatment as a biostimulant to enhance plant growth.

  8. Effects of chemical treatments and environmental factors on seed dormancy and germination of shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Medic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezvani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris is a problematic weed in citrus orchards and crop fields in northern Iran. In a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments, we evaluated the effects that treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3 and potassium nitrate (KNO3, as well as environmental factors, including temperature, the duration of pre-chilling (wet and dry, drought stress, salt stress, pH, and sowing depth, have on seed dormancy breaking and germination in C. bursa-pastoris. Treatment with GA3 strongly stimulated germination of C. bursa-pastoris in conditions of light/dark and continuous darkness. The germination rate was highest (40.08% for seeds treated with 400 ppm of GA3 in the light/dark condition. Treatment with KNO3 did not significantly influence seed germination. Longer wet pre-chilling promoted germination and was more successful in seed dormancy breaking than was dry pre-chilling. Seed germination occurred at 10-30ºC and within a range of pH of 3-11. Drought and salt stress both strongly inhibited germination. Seedling emergence decreased in proportion to sowing depth. The rates of C. bursa-pastoris germination and seedling emergence were highest for seeds on the soil surface.

  9. New innovative electrocoagulation (EC) treatment technology for BWR colloidal iron utilizing the seeding and filtration electronically (SAFETTM) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-01-01

    is 1) to break the colloid (i.e., break the outer radius repulsive charges of the similar charged colloidal particles), 2) allow these particles to now flocculate (floc), and 3) form a type of floc that is more readily filterable, and, thus, de-waterable. This task has been carried out with the innovative application of electronically seeding the feed stream with the metal of choice, and without the addition of chemicals common to ferri-flocking, or polymer addition. This patent-pending new system and technique is called Seeding And Filtration Electronically, or the SAFE TM System. Once the colloid has been broken and flocking has begun, removal of the resultant floc can be carried out by standard, back-washable (or, in simple cases, dead-end) filters; or simply in de-waterable HICs or liners. Such applications include low level radwaste (LLW) from both PWRs and BWRs, fuel pools, storage basins, salt water collection tanks, etc. For the removal of magnetic materials, such as some BWR irons, an Electro Magnetic Filter (EMF) was developed to couple with the Electro Coagulation (EC), (or metal-Flocking) Unit. In the advent that the waste stream primarily contains magnetic materials (e.g., boiler condensates and magnetite, and he-magnetite from BWRs), the material was simply filtered using the EMF. Bench-, pilot- and full-scale systems have been assembled and applied on actual plant waste samples quite successfully. The effects of initial feed pH and conductivity, as well as flocculation retention times was examined prior to applying the production equipment into the field. Since the initial studies (Denton, et al, EPRI, 2006), the ultimate success of field applications is now being demonstrated as the next development phase. For such portable field demonstrations and demand systems, a fully self enclosed (secondary containment) EC system was first developed and assembled in a modified B 25 Box (Floc-In-A-Box) and is being deployed to a number of NPP sites. Finally, a

  10. APPLICATION OF LASER TREATMENT WITH RADIATION STIMULATION IN ANNUAL SPECIES OF SEED GERMINATION DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS - VAR CHABAUD AND PETUNIA HYBRIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Niculita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Additional illumination with red light produced by laser diodes in continuous and different exposure times, was applied to seeds from two species of annual flowers: Garofita Dianthus caryophyllus - var. CHABAUD; FEUER KONING and romanian Petunia hybrid variety "WHITE CASCADE. The experimental results presented in the present study are a continuation of research initiated in 2009 ((P. Niculita , S. Danaila-Guidea, O. Livadariu , M. Ristici, J. Ristici si F. Burnichi, 2009 and were aimed at testing the germination of seeds and development morphology induced by treatment effect based on laser radiation fields in the early stages of development of seeds under the effect of intensity light in the spectral range 640 nm - 660nm. Sets of seeds were irradiated once mounted on the first day of the experiment at different energy doses by changing exposure time. Thus the experiences of dry seeds were irradiated with different doses four lots in 2009 and 2010 corresponding variants V1-V4 (5-20 minutes. The experimental results were analyzed in parallel with a control group of seeds that did not apply to treatment of red laser diodes. In all the seeds analyzed from the two flower species studied germination capacity and that the growth of seedlings, determining germination percentages every two days for 3 weeks. Results have shown a percentage of germination higher than control group of seeds (75% for all repetitions of variant V4 (95%, with exposure time of 20 minutes (1.53 joules / cm ² to treatment with red light produced by laser modulated at audio frequency.

  11. Effects of Presowing Pulsed Electromagnetic Treatment of Tomato Seed on Growth, Yield, and Lycopene Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspasia Efthimiadou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnetic field as a presowing treatment has been adopted by researchers as a new environmental friendly technique. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of magnetic field exposure on tomato seeds covering a range of parameters such as transplanting percentage, plant height, shoot diameter, number of leaves per plant, fresh weight, dry weight, number of flowers, yield, and lycopene content. Pulsed electromagnetic field was used for 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes as a presowing treatment of tomato seeds in a field experiment for two years. Papimi device (amplitude on the order of 12.5 mT has been used. The use of pulsed electromagnetic field as a presowing treatment was found to enhance plant growth in tomato plants at certain duration of exposure. Magnetic field treatments and especially the exposure of 10 and 15 minutes gave the best results in all measurements, except plant height and lycopene content. Yield per plant was higher in magnetic field treatments, compared to control. MF-15 treatment yield was 80.93% higher than control treatment. Lycopene content was higher in magnetic field treatments, although values showed no statistically significant differences.

  12. Seed Treatment Combined with a Spot Application of Clothianidin Granules Prolongs the Efficacy of Controlling Piercing-Sucking Insect Pests in Cotton Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqun; Zhao, Yunhe; Wang, Yao; Li, Beixing; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Xuefeng; Mu, Wei

    2017-09-13

    Seed treatments can directly protect cotton from early season piercing-sucking insect Aphis gossypii Glover but hardly provide long-term protection against Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür). Therefore, the efficacy of clothianidin seed treatments combined with spot applications of clothianidin granules at the bud stage of cotton was evaluated to control piercing-sucking pests during the entire cotton growing season. Clothianidin seed treatments (at the rate of 4 g ai/kg seed) combined with a clothianidin granular treatment (even at low rate of 0.9 kg ai/ha) at the bud stage can effectively suppress A. gossypii and A. lucorum infestations throughout the seedling and blooming stages after planting and can improve cotton yield. The spot application of clothianidin granules also reduced the population densities of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). The dynamic changes of clothianidin residues demonstrated that the control efficacy of clothianidin against A. gossypii and A. lucorum might be related to the residues of this neonicotinoid in cotton leaves. This pest management practice provided long-term protection against cotton piercing-sucking pests for the entire growing season of cotton plants and could supplement the short-term control efficiency of clothianidin used as a seed treatment.

  13. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.. Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P<0.05. The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM, or PEG (15% significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  14. Dry Priming of Maize Seeds Reduces Aluminum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Berenice Kussumoto; Machemer-Noonan, Katja; Silva Júnior, Francides Gomes; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is directly related to acidic soils and substantially limits maize yield. Earlier studies using hormones and other substances to treat the seeds of various crops have been carried out with the aim of inducing tolerance to abiotic stress, especially chilling, drought and salinity. However, more studies regarding the effects of seed treatments on the induction of Al tolerance are necessary. In this study, two independent experiments were performed to determine the effect of ascorbic acid (AsA) seed treatment on the tolerance response of maize to acidic soil and Al stress. In the first experiment (greenhouse), the AsA seed treatment was tested in B73 (Al-sensitive genotype). This study demonstrates the potential of AsA for use as a pre-sowing seed treatment (seed priming) because this metabolite increased root and shoot growth under acidic and Al stress conditions. In the second test, the evidence from field experiments using an Al-sensitive genotype (Mo17) and an Al-tolerant genotype (DA) suggested that prior AsA seed treatment increased the growth of both genotypes. Enhanced productivity was observed for DA under Al stress after priming the seeds. Furthermore, the AsA treatment decreased the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes in the DA genotype. In this study, remarkable effects using AsA seed treatment in maize were observed, demonstrating the potential future use of AsA in seed priming. PMID:26714286

  15. Seed Placement in Permanent Breast Seed Implant Brachytherapy: Are Concerns Over Accuracy Valid?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Daniel, E-mail: dmorton@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Hilts, Michelle [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Batchelar, Deidre [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate seed placement accuracy in permanent breast seed implant brachytherapy (PBSI), to identify any systematic errors and evaluate their effect on dosimetry. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans and postimplant computed tomography scans for 20 PBSI patients were spatially registered and used to evaluate differences between planned and implanted seed positions, termed seed displacements. For each patient, the mean total and directional seed displacements were determined in both standard room coordinates and in needle coordinates relative to needle insertion angle. Seeds were labeled according to their proximity to the anatomy within the breast, to evaluate the influence of anatomic regions on seed placement. Dosimetry within an evaluative target volume (seroma + 5 mm), skin, breast, and ribs was evaluated to determine the impact of seed placement on the treatment. Results: The overall mean (±SD) difference between implanted and planned positions was 9 ± 5 mm for the aggregate seed population. No significant systematic directional displacements were observed for this whole population. However, for individual patients, systematic displacements were observed, implying that intrapatient offsets occur during the procedure. Mean displacements for seeds in the different anatomic areas were not found to be significantly different from the mean for the entire seed population. However, small directional trends were observed within the anatomy, potentially indicating some bias in the delivery. Despite observed differences between the planned and implanted seed positions, the median (range) V{sub 90} for the 20 patients was 97% (66%-100%), and acceptable dosimetry was achieved for critical structures. Conclusions: No significant trends or systematic errors were observed in the placement of seeds in PBSI, including seeds implanted directly into the seroma. Recorded seed displacements may be related to intrapatient setup adjustments. Despite observed seed

  16. Methods for overcoming dormancy in Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Gonçalves Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is a phenomenon observed in several tropical species. This condition causes low and non-uniform germination. The present study was designed to identify an efficient method of breaking seed dormancy in Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum. Seeds of four mother plants were subjected to the following treatments: immersion in sulfuric acid for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 min and scarification on 150-grit sandpaper. Seeds were sown on substrate containing sand and sawdust (1:1. It was evaluate the days to onset seedlings emergence, seedlings emergence (SE, emergence speed index (ESI, germination (G, hard seeds (HS, dead seeds (DS, dormant seeds (DMS, abnormal seedlings (AS and dry mass of aerial part (DMAP and roots (DMR. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 25 seeds for each treatment. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. Significant differences among treatments were observed for ESI, SE, G, HS, DMAP and DMR. Highest HS was observed in control treatment (85%. Highest G was observed in seeds scarified with sulfuric acid for 10 min (82% and 12 min (74%. These treatments also showed highest ESI, DMAP and DMR, indicating that these scarification treatments were the most efficient in overcoming dormancy.

  17. Generating high-brightness and coherent soft x-ray pulses in the water window with a seeded free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaishang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new scheme to generate high-brightness and temporal coherent soft x-ray radiation in a seeded free-electron laser. The proposed scheme is based on the coherent harmonic generation (CHG and superradiant principles. A CHG scheme is first used to generate a coherent signal at ultrahigh harmonics of the seed. This coherent signal is then amplified by a series of chicane-undulator modules via the fresh bunch and superradiant processes in the following radiator. Using a representative of a realistic set of parameters, three-dimensional simulations have been carried out and the simulations results demonstrated that 10 GW-level ultrashort (∼20  fs coherent radiation pulses in the water window can be achieved by using a 1.6 GeV electron beam based on the proposed technique.

  18. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Claessens, Mascha; Soons, Merel B

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12-17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds.

  19. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Merel B.

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12–17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds. PMID:29614085

  20. Presowing treatments to breaking seed dormancy of Pterocarya stenoptera C. DC. as an indicator of potential invasiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Mihailo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Small-winged wingnut is a 12 to 20 metres tall, deciduous and fast growing tree with large substantial branches that spread as wide as the tree is tall. The 15 to 30 cm long winged fruit catkins, which turn brown in the autumn, are suspended below the branches. The species is not described by domestic authors in Serbia. The seed was introduced from Sofia (from the Arboretum of the Forestry University of Sofia, Bulgaria - Lesotehničeski universitet, Sofija, and subjected to classical stratification and naked stratification during the period of 1 and 2 months. Germination capacity varied among the treatments. The largest number of germinated seeds was observed in the shorter stratifications, (1 month the classical (56.5% and the naked (51.0% with no significant difference. The values of real germination of all treatments were between 69-88%. High value of RG, compared to GC, indicated that more than 40% of the seeds were empty. However, the results of the control as well as other parameters of seed germination clearly point to the fact that practically no deep embryo dormancy was observed, but the seed is recalcitrant and microbiotic. The results indicate a non-invasive character of the species in terms of reproductive potential.

  1. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  2. Self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125I seeds for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuo; Lu Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the curative effect and safety of the implantation of self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125 I seeds for the treatment of advanced esophageal carcinomas. Methods: Implantation of self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125 I seeds was performed in 32 patients with advanced esophageal canner. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The technical success rate, the operation time, the immediate and mid-term effectiveness, the survival time, the complications, the body weight, the blood picture, the immune indexes, the average hospitalization days and hospitalization expenses were analyzed. Results: The average operation time was (18±5) minutes. Successful stent implantation was achieved in all 32 patients (100%). No 125 I seeds fell off during the procedure. The remission rate of dysphagia was 100%. Esophageal restenosis occurred in four patients, and displacement of the stent was seed in one patient. One month after the treatment, 90% of patients had a Karnofsky performance score over 60. The mean survival time was (8.7±6.6) months. The average hospitalization time was (7.8±3.7) days and the mean hospitalization cost was (12±3) thousand Chinese Yuan. Conclusion: For the treatment of esophageal carcinomas, the implantation of self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125 I seeds is safe, effective and simple. This treatment can markedly improve the symptom of dysphagia and significantly prolong the patient's survival time. (authors)

  3. Transverse beam diagnostics for the XUV seeding experiment at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedewadt, Joern

    2011-12-15

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FEL) offer intense, transversely coherent, and ultra short radiation pulses in the extreme ultraviolet, the soft- and the hard-X-ray spectral range. Undulator radiation from spontaneous emission is amplified. Due to the stochastic emission process, the radiation exhibits a low temporal coherence, and the structure of the amplified radiation in the temporal and in the spectral domain shows large shot-to-shot fluctuations. In order to improve the temporal coherence, an external radiation pulse is used to induce (or seed) the FEL process. With this, only a defined wavelength range within the FEL bandwidth is amplified provided that the irradiance of the external radiation exceeds the noise level of the FEL amplifier. In addition to the improved longitudinal coherence, a seeded FEL provides the possibility to perform pump-probe experiments with an expected temporal resolution of the order of the pulse durations. In order to experimentally proof this statement, a test experiment for direct HHG-seeding at wavelength below 40 nm was installed at the free-electron laser facility FLASH at DESY. Crucial for the seeded operation of an FEL is the six-dimensional laser-electron overlap of the seed laser pulses with the electron bunches. Hence, dedicated diagnostics to measure and mechanisms to control the overlap are essential. Within this thesis, a transport beamline for the seed laser beam and the transverse diagnostics for seed laser- and the electron-beam were developed and commissioned. Results of the performance of the seed injection beamline are presented, and first measurements of the seeded operation of the FEL are analyzed and evaluated. (orig.)

  4. On the use of Kodak CR film for quality assurance of needle loading in I-125 seed prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fog, L S; Nicholls, R; van Doom, T

    2007-09-01

    Low dose rate brachytherapy using implanted I-125 seeds as a monotherapy for prostate cancer is now in use in many hospitals. In contrast to fractionated brachytherapy treatments, where the effect of incorrect positioning of the source in one treatment fraction can be diminished by correcting the position in subsequent fractions, the I-125 seed implant is permanent, making correct positioning of the seeds in the prostate essential. The seeds are inserted into the prostate using needles. Correct configuration of seeds in the needles is essential in order to deliver the planned treatment. A comparison of an autoradiograph obtained by exposing film to the seed-loaded needles with the patient treatment plan is a valuable quality assurance tool. However, the time required to sufficiently expose Kodak XOMAT V film, currently used in this department is significant. This technical note presents the use of Kodak CR film for acquisition of the radiograph. The digital radiograph can be acquired significantly faster, has superior signal-to-noise ratio and contrast and has the usual benefits of digital film, e.g. a processing time which is shorter than that required for non-digital film, the possibility of image manipulation, possibility of paper printing and electronic storage.

  5. Electron-beam flue-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Sinji; Suzuki, Ryoji

    1994-01-01

    The damage of forests in the world due to acid rain has become serious problems, and the development of high efficiency and economical desulfurization and denitration technologies for combustion exhaust gas has been desired. Japan leads the world in exhaust gas treatment technology. The conventional technologies have been the desulfurization by lime gypsum process and the denitration by ammonia catalytic reduction process. The solution by entirely new concept is the electron beam treatment technology for exhaust gas. This technology is a dry process without drain, and does not require catalyst. The byproduct from this technology was approved as a fertilizer. The electron beam treatment technology is called EBA (electron beam with ammonia). The exhaust gas treatment technology by electron beam process is constituted by the cooling of exhaust gas, ammonia addition, electron beam irradiation and the separation of byproduct. The features of the technology are the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, dry process, the facilities are simple and the operation is easy, easy following to load variation and the utilization of byproduct. The reaction mechanism of desulfurization and denitration, the course of development, the electron beam generator, and the verifying test are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Effect of the vigour and of the fungicide treatment in the germination and sanity tests of soybean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Delineide Pereira; Barrozo, Leandra Matos; Souza, Apolyana Lorraine; Sader, Rubens [UNESP; Silva, Gilvania Campos [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Soybeans seeds with different levels of vigour, treated and or no with fungicide were submitted to the test of germination in the sand and roll substrates of paper and the test of sanity. In test of germination, there were only significant differences between treatments that used soybeans with high vigour and with low vigour, regardless of the presence or absence of fungicide treatment, in the two substrates. The soybeans with low vigour no treated provided the largest percentages of seed con...

  7. Development and characterisation of iridium-192 seeds for brachytherapy treatment of ocular tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peleias Jr, F.S.; Zeituni, C.A.; Souza, C.D.; Rostelato, M.E.CM.; Mattos, F.R.; Banega, M.A.G.; Rodrigues, B.T.; Tiezzi, R.; Oliveira, T.B.; Feher, A.; Moura, J.A.; Costa, O.L.

    2014-01-01

    Even ocular tumors are not amongst the cases with a high incidence, they affect the population, particularly children. The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) in partnership with Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP), created a project to develop an alternative treatment for ophthalmic cancer that uses iridium-192 seeds in brachytherapy. This work aims to study and develop a seed of iridium-192 from a platinum-iridium alloy The prototype seed has a 3.0 mm long core sealed by a titanium capsule of 0.8 mm of outer diameter, 0.05 mm of wall thickness and 4.5 mm long. We developed a methodology that covered: characterisation of the material used in the core, creation of a device for neutron activation of the cores and leakage tests. The results show that this methodology is feasible. As a suggestion for future work, studies regarding metrology and dosimetry of these sources should be carried out. (authors)

  8. Detection Characteristics of Gamma-Irradiated Seeds by using PSL, TL, ESR and GC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Shon, J.H.; Kang, Y.J.; Jo, T.Y.; Park, H.Y.; Kwak, J.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Park, Y.C.; Kim, J.I.; Lee, H.J.; Lee, S.J.; Han, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the applicability of the photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods for 5 seeds which are not allowed to be irradiated in Korea. All 5 seeds including evening primrose seed, safflower seed, rape seed, sunflower seed and flax seed were analyzed. Samples were irradiated at 1~10 kGy using a 60 Co gamma-ray irradiator. In PSL study, the photon counts of all the unirradiated samples showed negative (lower than 700). The photon counts of irradiated (1, 5, 10 kGy) samples showed positive (higher than 5,000). In TL analysis, results showed that it is possible to apply TL method to all foods containing minerals. In ESR measurements, the ESR signal (single-line) intensity of irradiated foods was higher than non-irradiated foods. The hydrocarbons 1,7-hexadecadiene (C 16:2 ) and 8-heptadecene (C 17:1 ) from oleic acid were detected only in the irradiated samples before and after the treatment at doses ≥ 1 kGy, but they were not detected in non-irradiated samples before and after treatment. These two hydrocarbons could be used as markers to identify irradiated safflower seed, rape seed, Sunflower seed and flax seed. And then, the hydrocarbons 1,7,10-hexadecatriene (C 16:3 ) and 6,9-heptadecadiene (C 17:2 ) from linoleic acid were detected in the evening primrose seed, safflower seed and sunflower seed. According to the results, PSL, TL and GC/ MS methods were successfully applied to detect the irradiated foods. It is concluded that PSL, TL and GC/MS methods are suitable for detection of irradiated samples and a combined method is recommendable for enhancing the reliability of detection results. (author)

  9. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2010-01-01

    The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon...... electron microscopy, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was detected in 36% of tomato samples and in 8% of paprika samples using indicator Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Xanthinc and White Burley. Some 43% of cowpea samples were infected with Cowpea...

  10. Yield and seed oil content response of dwarf, rapid-cycling Brassica to nitrogen treatments, planting density, and carbon dioxide enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, J.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of N level (15 to 30 mM), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 +/- 12 micromoles mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mM) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mM) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mM) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

  11. Tratamento fungicida de sementes de soja inoculadas com Colletotrichum truncatum Fungicide treatment of soybean seeds inoculated with Colletotrichum truncatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade sanitária e o potencial fisiológico de sementes de soja são fatores determinantes para o estabelecimento de estandes adequados. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho das sementes de soja e o crescimento das plantas após inoculação das sementes com Colletotrichum truncatum e tratamento fungicida via peliculização. As sementes foram inoculadas com C. truncatum utilizando técnica de restrição hídrica e, posteriormente, tratadas com fungicidas e polímero. Os tratamentos utilizados foram carbendazin, fludioxonil+mefenoxan, thiabendazol+thiram, tiofanato metílico, caboxin+thiram e sementes não tratadas. As sementes foram tratadas com e sem polímero. Foram realizadas avaliações de germinação das sementes, teste de frio, emergência de plântulas e sanidade das sementes por meio do Blotter test. As plantas, cultivadas em vasos, foram avaliadas pelo comprimento da parte aérea, da matéria seca de raízes e da parte aérea. O tratamento das sementes de soja com fludioxonil+mefenoxan e thiabendazole+thiram é eficiente no controle de Colletotrichum truncatum e melhora o desempenho fisiológico das sementes. O desempenho das sementes de soja e o crescimento das plantas são reduzidos quando as sementes são tratadas com tiofanato metílico. A peliculização não afeta o potencial fisiológico e a qualidade sanitária das sementes de soja.The sanitary and physiological qualities of soybean seeds are determining factors for the establishment of appropriate stands. This research aimed to evaluate the soybean seed performance and plants growth after seed inoculation with Colletotrichum truncatum and fungicide treatment by film-coating. The seeds were inoculated whit C. truncatum by water restriction technique and then treated with fungicides and polymer. The used treatments were carbendazin, fludioxonil+mefenoxan, thiabendazole+thiram, thiophanate methyl, caboxin+thiram and untreated seeds. The seeds were treated with and

  12. Permanent Seed Implant Dosimetry (PSID)TM 4.5 version as isodose and Treatment Planning System (TPS) programme for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indra Saptiama; Moch Subechi; Anung Pujiyanto; Hotman Lubis; Herlan Setiawan

    2014-01-01

    The medical treatment using radiation therapy for cancer diseases is increasingly developed. One of the method used in radiotherapy is brachytherapy. Brachytherapy is radiation therapy method in which a radiation source is implanted in cancer cell directly so the dose accepted by cancer cell is the highest dose and the dose accepted by normal cell is the lowest dose. I-125 Seed have been made successfully in domestic. To support the implant of I-125 seed for brachytherapy needs computer programme for the isodose calculation and Treatment Planning System (TPS). Permanent Seed Implant Dosimetry (PSID) 4.5 is one of the isodose calculation and Treatment Planning System (TPS) programme that is owned by Center for Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical-BATAN. In isodose calculation, PSID 4.5 uses 1D formalism and 2D formalism based on AAPM-TG43 (Association of American Physicist in Medicine- Task Group No.43). Anisotropic function on 1D formalism depend on distance function while on 2D formalism count on distance and angle function therefore 2D formalism has isodose calculation better than 1D formalism usage. PSID 4.5 can display the isodose contour of the seed I-125 radiation source in 2 dimension (2D) and 3 dimension (3D). The computer programme of isodose calculation and TPS uses PSID 4.5 is expected able to help planning for seed I-125 implantation process for brachytherapy that used by paramedics and to support the usage of seed I-125 as domestic product. (author)

  13. Making use of guava seed (Psidium guajava L): the effects of pre-treatments on its chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying Ping; Tan, May Ping; Lok, Wai Li; Pakianathan, Suganthi; Supramaniam, Yasoga

    2014-03-01

    The guava processing industry in Malaysia produces by-products in the form of seed core and peel. These by-products can be regarded as underused resources but there are concerns about their composition that prevent their use in the food and feed industries. This study aims to analyze the respective effects of heat treatments (boiling or autoclaving) and germination periods on the nutritional composition and phytochemical content of guava seeds. The guava seeds were found to contain 618, 78, 72, and 5 mg/g dry weight total dietary fiber, fat, protein, and ash, respectively. The tannin and saponin contents, but not the phytic acid content, were below the respective anti-nutritional thresholds. The heat treatments did not affect the total dietary fiber and ash contents but reduced all other chemical components to different extents (15-91%). Boiling did not reduce the phytic acid content substantially but autoclaving caused a reduction of 91% to a level below the anti-nutritional threshold. Germination for 14 days caused a significant reduction in nutrient contents in the range of 16-79%. Germination also reduced the phytic acid content by 90% in the seed but did not significantly affect the saponin content. Thus, guava seed can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate its chemical composition to enable its use in the food and feed industries.

  14. Seed treatments enhance photosynthesis in maize seedlings by reducing infection with Fusarium spp. and consequent disease development in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a seed treatment on early season growth, seedling disease development, incidence Fusarium spp. infection, and photosynthetic performance of maize were evaluated at two locations in Iowa in 2007. Maize seed was either treated with Cruiser 2Extreme 250 ® (fludioxonil + azoxystrobin + me...

  15. Effect of seed treatment with milk powder and mustard flour in control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat and stem smut (Urocystis occulta) in rye

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders; Kristensen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In field trials mustard flour was able to control seed borne infection by common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat without decreasing the germination vigour of the treated seeds. Full control of common bunt by coating the seeds with milk powder could only be achieved at doses which reduced germination vigour of the seeds. Mustard flour can be recommended as a seed treatment in organic agriculture while a treatment based on milk powder should be developed in combination with biological control....

  16. Effect of seed sludge on characteristics and microbial community of aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiwei; Pan, Yuejun; Zhang, Kun; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated by using different kinds of seed sludge in sequencing batch airlift reactor. The influence of seed sludge on physical and chemical properties of granular sludge was studied; the microbial community structure was probed by using scanning electron microscope and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results showed that seed sludge played an important role on the formation of aerobic granules. Seed sludge taken from beer wastewater treatment plant (inoculum A) was more suitable for cultivating aerobic granules than that of sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (inoculum B). Cultivated with inoculum A, large amount of mature granules formed after 35 days operation, its SVI reached 32.75 mL/g, and SOUR of granular sludge was beyond 1.10 mg/(g x min). By contrast, it needed 56 days obtaining mature granules using inoculum B. DGGE profiles indicated that the dominant microbial species in mature granules were 18 and 11 OTU when inoculum A and B were respectively employed as seed sludge. The sequencing results suggested that dominant species in mature granules cultivated by inoculum A were Paracoccus sp., Devosia hwasunensi, Pseudoxanthomonas sp., while the dominant species were Lactococcus raffinolactis and Pseudomonas sp. in granules developed from inoculum B.

  17. Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 μg/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated

  18. Emergence of native plant seeds in response to seed pelleting, planting depth, scarification, and soil anti-crusting treatment, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Seed of native plants is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Reliable commercial seed production is desirable to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. Establishment of native seed crops has been difficult, because fall-planted seed is susceptible to bird damage, soil crusting, and soil erosion. Fall planting is important for...

  19. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  20. Studies on the treatment of surface water using rajma seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin S. Babitha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Indiscriminate disposal of wastewater with suspended solids have led to higher amount of pollution to the natural water bodies. Turbidity removal becomes an essential part in the water treatment when surface water is used for drinking purpose, this can be achieved by means of coagulation process. Coagulation process is the dosing of a coagulant in water, resulting in the destabilization of negatively charged particles. Commercial coagulants which were widely used can synthesize by-products in turn may pollute the environment and deteriorate the ecosystem at a slow rate. So, now-a-days natural coagulants are used as a potential substitute because it’s biodegradable, ecofriendly and non-toxic. In this study, the turbid surface water samples were treated using powdered seeds of Rajma (natural coagulant followed by variations in dosage, settling time and pH were also studied. From the results obtained, it was found that the Rajma seeds powder achieved 48.80% efficiency for 0.5 g/l of optimum dose at pH 6 for 20 min settling time respectively.

  1. Studies on the treatment of surface water using rajma seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, S. Babitha; Abirami, M.; Kumar, R. Suresh

    2018-03-01

    Indiscriminate disposal of wastewater with suspended solids have led to higher amount of pollution to the natural water bodies. Turbidity removal becomes an essential part in the water treatment when surface water is used for drinking purpose, this can be achieved by means of coagulation process. Coagulation process is the dosing of a coagulant in water, resulting in the destabilization of negatively charged particles. Commercial coagulants which were widely used can synthesize by-products in turn may pollute the environment and deteriorate the ecosystem at a slow rate. So, now-a-days natural coagulants are used as a potential substitute because it's biodegradable, ecofriendly and non-toxic. In this study, the turbid surface water samples were treated using powdered seeds of Rajma (natural coagulant) followed by variations in dosage, settling time and pH were also studied. From the results obtained, it was found that the Rajma seeds powder achieved 48.80% efficiency for 0.5 g/l of optimum dose at pH 6 for 20 min settling time respectively.

  2. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birima, A H; Desa, M N M; Muda, Z C; Hammad, H A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO 3 , KCl, NH 4 Cl and NaNO 3 . Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R 2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  3. Metabolites change in Jatropha plants due to seed treatment with rhizobacteria and Rhizoctonia bataticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the metabolite [salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and chitinase activity] changes owing to seed treatn1ent with pathogen, plant growth pron1oting rhizobacteria (PGPRs - (P. maltophilia, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis alone and in combination was conducted at Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal. Jatropha curcas plants raised from root rot pathogen (Rhizoctonia bataticola treated seeds showed an initial increase in SA and hydrocyanic acid HCN content and an opposite trend was observed for JA level and chitinase activity. Though, PGPRs inoculation resulted in higher increase in SA level, JA level and chitinase activity in both the cases alone as well as in integration with pathogen, however, maximun1 increase in JA content was explicited in plants raised after seed treatment with P. fluorescens, the most effective rhizobacteria amongst PGPRs studied. Highest increase in HCN content (45 micrograms g-1 over control (24 micrograms g-1 was noticed for P. fluorescens followed by co-seed inoculation with P. fluorescens + pathogen (43 micrograms g-1 at 10 DPL. The co-seed inoculation elicited 68 units at 10 DPI, whereas the pathogen challenged plants showed lower chitinase activity with 42 units. All the metabolites declined slightly or sharply with age of the plant irrespective of inoculations.

  4. Study of Dormancy Type and Effect of Different Pre-Sowing Treatments on Seed Germination of Bladder-Senna (Colutea bohsei Boiss. in Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BEIKMOHAMMADI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the existence and type of the dormancy and effects of different dormancy breaking treatments on seed germination of Colutea buhsei Boiss. (Fabaceae as one of the Iran native plants, arid-land and ornamental shrub with ability of usage in the urban landscape design. The experiment was performed with 15 treatments and 3 replications in a completely randomized design. Seeds were subjected to different treatments including various levels of GA3, concentrated (98% H2SO4, cold stratification (CS, soaking with tab water, floating in hot water (100�C followed by continual cooling for 24 hr in the same water and combined treatments. Afterwards seeds were sown in laboratory conditions to determine the factors� effects on germination percentage (GP, germination rate (GR, root and shoot length of Colutea bohsei seeds. All of these treatments, except for GA3 (250 and 500 ppm, increased the percentage and rate of the seed germination. Maximum germination percentage (66.25% and rate (14.9 seeds per day in 7 days was obtained at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min. Maximum root and shoot length was observed at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min plus GA3 (100 ppm, 24 hr. Use of GA3 (100 ppm in 24 hr after H2SO4 increased the germination rate and shoot length but this additive effect was not significant.

  5. Computational and Experimental Evaluations of a Novel Thermo-Brachytherapy Seed for Treatment of Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, Gregory R.

    of this seed was also quantified by Monte Carlo studies in the software package MCNP5. Experimental and computational analyses agree that the proposed seeds may heat a defined target with safe and attainable seed spacing and magnetic field parameters. These studies also point to the use of a ferrite-based ferrimagnetic core within the seeds, a design that would deliver hyperthermia of acceptable quality even for the high rate of blood perfusion in prostate tissue. The loss of radiation coverage due to the ISA effect of distributions of TB and HT-only seeds may be rectified by slightly increasing the prescribed dose in standard dose superposition-based treatment planning software. A systematic approach of combining LDR prostate brachytherapy with hyperthermia is thus described, and its ability to provide sufficient and uniform temperature distributions in realistic patient-specific implants evaluated. Potential improvements to the previously reported TB seed design are discussed based on quantitative evaluation of its operation and performance.

  6. Generation of a few femtoseconds pulses in seeded FELs using a seed laser with small transverse size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Heting, E-mail: liheting@ustc.edu.cn; Jia, Qika

    2016-09-11

    We propose a simple method to generate a few femtosecond pulses in seeded FELs. We use a longitudinal energy-chirped electron beam passing through a dogleg where transverse dispersion will generate a horizontal energy chirp, then in the modulator, a seed laser with narrow beam radius will only modulate the center portion of the electron beam and then short pulses at high harmonics will be generated in the radiator. Using a representative realistic set of parameters, we show that 30 nm XUV pulse based on the HGHG scheme and 9 nm soft x-ray pulse based on the EEHG scheme with duration of about 8 fs (FWHM) and peak power of GW level can be generated from a 180 nm UV seed laser with beam waist of 75 μm. This new scheme can provide an optional operation mode for the existing seeded FEL facilities to meet the requirement of short-pulse FEL.

  7. Evaluating the Effect of Seed Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide on Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat under Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Jafarian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water deficit is the major abiotic factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity around the world. In all agricultural regions, yields of rain-fed crops are periodically reduced by drought. Among various strategies, pre-sowing treatment and priming of seeds are easy, low cost, low risk and effective approaches to overcome the environmental stress problems. Various priming strategies include osmopriming, halopriming, hormonal priming or hydropriming, etc. Hydrogen peroxide, a stress signal molecule, was evaluated as seed treatment to produce the metabolic changes, which could lead to improved drought tolerance in wheat. The interaction of signals conferring stress tolerance in accomplishing better crop growth and yield is a priority area of research. Here we report some anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes induced by Hydrogen peroxide during seed treatment and their involvement in conferring drought tolerance upon wheat. Materials and Methods A field study was conducted out at the research farm of agricultural collage of Ilam university during 2014-2015 cropping season. This study was aimed to investigate the priming seed with hydrogen peroxide on two wheat genotypes (Cross Sabalan (bread wheat and Saji (durum wheat, under dryland farming system condition. Experimental design was factorial, arranged in randomized complete block, with three replications. Two main factors were wheat genotypes and four soaking treatments of seeds with different concentration (zero, 25, 50 and 80 Mm of Hydrogen Peroxide. Seeds of each genotype were sown at 6 rows of 3 m length with lines space of 20 cm in depth 5 cm. At heading stage physiological traits were measured on selected leaves and then samples were taken to determine leaf area, Leaf rolling, number and length of Stomata on the epidermis, RWC, electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigments concentrations (Chla, b and carotenoid and antioxidant enzyme contents (catalase, ascorbate

  8. Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-05-10

    We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

  9. Recent trends in post-wildfire seeding in western US forests: costs and seed mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna L. Peppin; Peter Z. Fule; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Jan L. Beyers; Molly E. Hunter; Pete Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used post-fire rehabilitation treatments to establish ground cover for erosion control and mitigation of non-native plant species invasions. Little quantitative information is available on overall trends of post-fire seeding expenditures and seed mixes used over time in forested ecosystems in the western USA. We reviewed...

  10. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  11. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: where do all the seeds go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.; Nicklas, Melissa B.; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert—sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application.

  12. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds, 100°C water immersion; boiling water immersion followed by 24 hours of soaking; scarification with number 100 and number 50 sandpaper opposite from root emergence; sulfuric acid immersion for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes. Seed immersion in 100°C and boiling water did not break the dormancy. The study species showed a greater vigor of seedling when its seeds were submitted to treatments associated with tegument rupturing by sandpaper or sulfuric acid. On the other hand, seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes or sandpaper favored seed germination and vigor.

  13. Re-induction of desiccation tolerance after germination of Cedrela fissilis Vell. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetto, Tathiana E; Faria, Jose M; Fraiz, Ana C R

    2014-09-01

    This work aimed to characterize the re-induction of desiccation tolerance (DT) in germinated seeds, using polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000). Cell changes were investigated through cytological assays (cell viability and transmission electronic microscopy) as well as DNA integrity during loss and re-establishment of DT. The loss of DT was characterized by drying germinated seeds with different radicle lengths (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm) in silica gel, decreasing the moisture content to ten percentage points intervals, followed by pre-humidification (100% RH / 24 h) and rehydration. To re-induce DT, germinated seeds were treated for 72 h with PEG (-2.04 MPa) and PEG (-2.04 MPa) + ABA (100 µM) before dehydration. Germinated seeds did not tolerate desiccation to 10% moisture content, irrespectively of the radicle length. However, when incubated in PEG, those with 1 and 2 mm long radicle attained 71% and 29% survival, respectively. The PEG+ABA treatment was efficient to re-establish DT in seeds with 1 mm long radicles (100% survival). The ultrastructural assays of the cells of germinated seeds with 2 and 5 mm length confirmed the obtained physiological results. Germinated seeds of C. fissilis constitute a useful tool for desiccation tolerance investigations.

  14. Re-induction of desiccation tolerance after germination of Cedrela fissilis Vell. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATHIANA E. MASETTO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize the re-induction of desiccation tolerance (DT in germinated seeds, using polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000. Cell changes were investigated through cytological assays (cell viability and transmission electronic microscopy as well as DNA integrity during loss and re-establishment of DT. The loss of DT was characterized by drying germinated seeds with different radicle lengths (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm in silica gel, decreasing the moisture content to ten percentage points intervals, followed by pre-humidification (100% RH / 24 h and rehydration. To re-induce DT, germinated seeds were treated for 72 h with PEG (-2.04 MPa and PEG (-2.04 MPa + ABA (100 µM before dehydration. Germinated seeds did not tolerate desiccation to 10% moisture content, irrespectively of the radicle length. However, when incubated in PEG, those with 1 and 2 mm long radicle attained 71% and 29% survival, respectively. The PEG+ABA treatment was efficient to re-establish DT in seeds with 1 mm long radicles (100% survival. The ultrastructural assays of the cells of germinated seeds with 2 and 5 mm length confirmed the obtained physiological results. Germinated seeds of C. fissilis constitute a useful tool for desiccation tolerance investigations.

  15. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  16. Effect of seed treatment using low doses of X-rays in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Fonseca, Alexander; Chavez Suarez, Licet; Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The influence of seed treatment with X-rays radiation on the growth and yield of peppers plants of the California Wonder variety was studied. The seeds were irradiated with X- rays irradiation source of low potency (11.47 Gy/min), with doses of 5, 10, 20 y 30 Gy, using untreated seeds as controls. Plant height (mm), root length (mm), stem diameter (mm), polar average diameter (mm) ecuatorial mean diameter (mm), mean fruit mass (g) and yield per plant (kg.plant''1 ) were evaluated. The results showed a significant improvement (p≤ 0.001) in the indicators of plants height (15%), root length (12%), stem diameter (7%), equatorial mean diameter (47%), mean fruit mass (16%) and yield per plant (107%), compared to control

  17. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment of plant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustey, A; Leighs, J A; Appleby, G J; Wood, D C; Hazael, R; McMillan, P F; Hazell, P J

    2014-01-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds has been investigated antecedently, primarily driven by interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia, respectively. However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods ofapplying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in collected data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder setup and shock compression via employment of a 50 mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set. Data collected has shown that cress seeds are extremely resilient to static loading, whereas the difference in the two forms of loading is negligible for lettuce seeds. Germination time has been seen to extend dramatically following static loading of cress seeds to greater than 0.4 GPa. In addition, the cut-off pressure previously seen to cause 0% germination in dynamic experiments performed on cress seeds has now also been seen in lettuce seeds.

  18. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment of plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustey, A.; Leighs, J. A.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Hazael, R.; McMillan, P. F.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds has been investigated antecedently, primarily driven by interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia, respectively. However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods ofapplying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in collected data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder setup and shock compression via employment of a 50 mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set. Data collected has shown that cress seeds are extremely resilient to static loading, whereas the difference in the two forms of loading is negligible for lettuce seeds. Germination time has been seen to extend dramatically following static loading of cress seeds to greater than 0.4 GPa. In addition, the cut-off pressure previously seen to cause 0% germination in dynamic experiments performed on cress seeds has now also been seen in lettuce seeds.

  19. Enhancement of radiation damage in germinating wheat seeds by hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fangqing; Gu Ruiqi

    1994-01-01

    Enhancement of X-ray induced radiation damage in germinating wheat seeds by heat treatment (44 degree C or 41 degree C, 20 min) has been investigated. The enhancement effect of heat treatment after irradiation was more significant than that of heat treatment before irradiation at dose range of 4.3-8.6 Gy. It was observed that germinating wheat seeds were very sensitive to heat treatment within 15 min after irradiation, which indicated that the repair of radiation damage was very active and rapid in a short period after irradiation. The repair of radiation damage in interval of fractionated irradiation was severely inhibited by heat treatment. The sensitivity of seeds to heat treatment corresponded with the levels of their repair activities. The more active the repairs of the seeds are, the more sensitive to heat treatment the seeds show. It was assumed that the enhancement of radiation damage by heat treatment in germinating wheat seeds was attributed to the inhibition of radiation damage repair by heat treatment, which is similar to the results of animal experiments

  20. Influence of forecrop and chemical seed treatment on the occurrence of take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Weber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was done in years 1998/1999 - 2000/2001 on plantations and field plot experiments. Aim of the work was evaluation of take-all occurrence on winter wheat in milk-wax growth stage in dependence on forecrop (oilseed rape, wheat or barley as well as seed treatment with Latitude 125 FS when wheat was planted on fields after wheat or barley. Percentage of infected plants when seeds were not treated with Latitude 125 FS varied from 82-100 on fields after wheat or barley, and 54-69 on fields after oilseed rape. In treatments with wheat grown after wheat or barley the percentage of infected plants amounted 20-100 when seeds were not treated with Latitude 125 FS and 13-86 when seeds were treated with Latitude 125 FS. Mean degree of infection was low when percentage of infected plants was low and high when percentage of infected plants was high.

  1. A greedy heuristic using adjoint functions for the optimization of seed and needle configurations in prostate seed implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Sua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3295, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Kowalok, Michael E [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, 401 College St., PO Box 980058, Richmond, VA 23298-0058 (United States); Thomadsen, Bruce R [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1530 MSC, 1300 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Henderson, Douglass L [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 153 Engineering Research Bldg., 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2007-02-07

    We continue our work on the development of an efficient treatment-planning algorithm for prostate seed implants by incorporation of an automated seed and needle configuration routine. The treatment-planning algorithm is based on region of interest (ROI) adjoint functions and a greedy heuristic. As defined in this work, the adjoint function of an ROI is the sensitivity of the average dose in the ROI to a unit-strength brachytherapy source at any seed position. The greedy heuristic uses a ratio of target and critical structure adjoint functions to rank seed positions according to their ability to irradiate the target ROI while sparing critical structure ROIs. Because seed positions are ranked in advance and because the greedy heuristic does not modify previously selected seed positions, the greedy heuristic constructs a complete seed configuration quickly. Isodose surface constraints determine the search space and the needle constraint limits the number of needles. This study additionally includes a methodology that scans possible combinations of these constraint values automatically. This automated selection scheme saves the user the effort of manually searching constraint values. With this method, clinically acceptable treatment plans are obtained in less than 2 min. For comparison, the branch-and-bound method used to solve a mixed integer-programming model took close to 2.5 h to arrive at a feasible solution. Both methods achieved good treatment plans, but the speedup provided by the greedy heuristic was a factor of approximately 100. This attribute makes this algorithm suitable for intra-operative real-time treatment planning.

  2. A greedy heuristic using adjoint functions for the optimization of seed and needle configurations in prostate seed implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Sua; Kowalok, Michael E; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Henderson, Douglass L

    2007-01-01

    We continue our work on the development of an efficient treatment-planning algorithm for prostate seed implants by incorporation of an automated seed and needle configuration routine. The treatment-planning algorithm is based on region of interest (ROI) adjoint functions and a greedy heuristic. As defined in this work, the adjoint function of an ROI is the sensitivity of the average dose in the ROI to a unit-strength brachytherapy source at any seed position. The greedy heuristic uses a ratio of target and critical structure adjoint functions to rank seed positions according to their ability to irradiate the target ROI while sparing critical structure ROIs. Because seed positions are ranked in advance and because the greedy heuristic does not modify previously selected seed positions, the greedy heuristic constructs a complete seed configuration quickly. Isodose surface constraints determine the search space and the needle constraint limits the number of needles. This study additionally includes a methodology that scans possible combinations of these constraint values automatically. This automated selection scheme saves the user the effort of manually searching constraint values. With this method, clinically acceptable treatment plans are obtained in less than 2 min. For comparison, the branch-and-bound method used to solve a mixed integer-programming model took close to 2.5 h to arrive at a feasible solution. Both methods achieved good treatment plans, but the speedup provided by the greedy heuristic was a factor of approximately 100. This attribute makes this algorithm suitable for intra-operative real-time treatment planning

  3. Physiological and proteomic analyses on artificially aged Brassica napus seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingfang eYang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant seeds lose their viability when they are exposed to long term storage or controlled deterioration treatments, by a process known as seed ageing. Based on previous studies, artificially ageing treatments have been developed to accelerate the process of seed ageing in order to understand its underlying mechanisms. In this study, we used Brassica napus seeds to investigate the mechanisms of ageing initiation. B. napus seeds were exposed to artificially ageing treatment (40 oC and 90% relative humidity and their physio-biochemical characteristics were analyzed. Although the treatment delayed germination, it did not increase the concentration of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Comparative proteomic analysis was conducted among the control and treated seeds at different stages of germination. The proteins responded to the treatment were mainly involved in metabolism, protein modification and destination, stress response, development and miscellaneous enzymes. Except for peroxiredoxin, no changes were observed in the accumulation of other antioxidant enzymes in the artificially aged seeds. Increased content of ABA was observed in the artificially treated seeds which might be involved in the inhibition of germination. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of ABA in the initiation of seed ageing in addition to the ROS which was previously reported to mediate the seed ageing process.

  4. Biological treatment to bean seeds before sowing them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Edel Castro Mayo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even in some bibliography about the bean cultivation is recommended the use of Rhizobium which association with the cultivation is very advantageous for the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen, as well as the employment of the antagonistic mushroom Trichoderma spp., for the control of fungous illnesses of the floor and knowing that the cultivation has its fertilization demands and of the plagues control and illnesses that are in definitive the causes that limit the yields of the cultivation, these practices are not used. We proceeded to the disinfection of bean seeds with the resulting solution of the laundry of 1Kg of Trichoderma harzianum of the stock A-34 with 2 liters of water and the mixture of this fluid with 1 Kg of Rhizobium, more a package (134 grams of Gaucho PS 70 for 45.35 kg (100 pounds of t seed. The disinfection of the seed was made by hand, 12 hour before sowing them and the results were very encouraging, so much in the delay of days in appearing the illnesses and the plagues and its low attack intensity as the increase of the yields with relationship to the not treated seed.

  5. Uptake of seed-applied copper by maize and the effects on seed vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Altomani Neves Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment is a low-cost and efficacious method to deliver a diversity of compounds to field crops. This study evaluated the uptake of seed-applied Cu by maize and the effect on seed vigor. The treatments were composed of a control (untreated seeds and five dosages of Cu: 0.11, 0.22, 0.44, 0.88 and 1.76 mg Cu seed–1, applied as cuprous oxide and copper oxychloride formulations. Seedling emergence and the speed of seedling emergence were determined in three periods: 1, 60 and 120 days after Cu application. Evaluations of root and shoot dry mass, Cu tissue concentration and efficiencies of Cu uptake and incorporation were conducted with two-leaf stage maize plants. Seed-applied Cu reduces the speed of maize seedling emergence, while the final emergence percentage is not affected. Shoot dry mass tends to increase with the application of Cu, while there is no interference on root dry mass within the dosages tested. Cu tissue concentration of both roots and shoots increases as higher dosages of Cu are applied to seeds, with higher accumulation in roots. Cuprous oxide promotes higher uptake of Cu by maize roots compared to copper oxychloride.

  6. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Virginia; Ruchi .; Paul Ajit

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10) served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organole...

  7. Treatments for improving seed germination in eggplant and related species

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert, Carmina; Prohens, J.; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    7 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, 19 references. Trabajo incluido en el Capítulo: Seed Genetics and Biotechnology, an Seed Germination and Vigour, presentado al Fith International Symposium on Seed, Transplant and Stand Establishment of Horticultural Crops, celebrado del 27/09 al 1/10 de 2009, en Murcia y Almería, España.

  8. Responses of the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to seed treatments of canola (Brassica napus L.) with the neonicotinoid compounds clothianidin and imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Lloyd M

    2009-12-01

    The cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), is a major pest in the production of canola (Brassica napus L.) in North America and Europe, and effective population control is often essential for economical crop production. In North America, neonicotinoid insecticides have been used for several years in canola as seed treatments for reducing herbivory by flea beetles. The neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid were investigated to determine their effects on preimaginal development and on emergence of new-generation adults of C. obstrictus in comparison with effects of lindane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon seed treatment. Mean numbers of second- and third-instar larvae were significantly higher in plants seed-treated with lindane than in plants treated with the neonicotinoid compounds, even though weevil oviposition was similar for all treatments. Emergence of new-generation adults was reduced by 52 and 39% for plants seed-treated with clothianidin and imidacloprid, respectively, compared with emergence from plants treated with lindane. Seed treatment with both clothianidin and imidacloprid produced systemic insecticidal effects on larvae of C. obstrictus, with clothianidin slightly more effective than imidacloprid. Use of clothianidin or imidacloprid as seed treatments can comprise an important component in the integrated management of cabbage seedpod weevil in canola. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of seed treatment with static magnetic field (SMF) and low dose gamma radiation (GR) on grain yield of aerobic rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Anand, Anjali; Singh, Bhupinder

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic rice cultivation is gaining popularity as it demands less water. However, poor germination of rice is an important issue in this situation. Seed pretreatment with static magnetic field (SMF) and gamma radiation (GR) at prescribed dose is known to influence the germination, seedling vigour and and yield of many crops. There is a possibility to improve the crop establishment under aerobic situation by physical seed treatment with static-magnetic field (SMF) and gamma radiation (GR) prior to sowing. Hence, a field experiment was conducted at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during kharif 2012 and 2013 to study the effect of SMF and GR-treated seeds on growth and yield of aerobic rice. The five seed treatments were: SMF 50 mT for 2 hrs, SMF 100 mT for 2 hrs, GR 0.0025 kGy, GR 0.10 kGy and an untreated control. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with four replications. Crop (variety 'Pusa Basmati-1121') was direct seeded on 25 th and 24 th June during 2012 and 2013, respectively at a spacing of 25 cm. Treatments GR 0.0025 kGy, SMF (50 mT) and SMF (100 mT) resulted in a significant improvement in grain yield of rice over control and GR dose (0.10 kGy) during both the years. Averaged across two years the grain yield increase by treating the rice seeds with GR 0.0025 kGy, SMF (50 mT) and SMF (100 mT) was 20.1, 17.6 and 14.5%, respectively over the control. Increase in GR dose (0.10 kGy ) was not effective in improving the yield, and was found to be similar to control. It is therefore concluded that treatment of rice seeds either with GR (0.0025 kGy) or SMF (50 mT) holds a great promise in increasing the grain yield of aerobic rice. (author)

  10. Tratamentos pré-germinativos de sementes da palmeira inajá Pre-germinative treatments for inaja palm seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi buscar técnicas promotoras ou aceleradoras da germinação de sementes da palmeira inajá (Maximiliana regia Mart., espécie produtora de palmito. Para tanto, frutos verdes e maduros (com e sem polpa foram submetidos a tratamentos de vernalização, KNO3, H2SO4, H2O-80°C, retirada do opérculo e armazenamento. Foi concluído que, entre os procedimentos pré-germinativos, o despolpamento dos frutos pode ser indicado para acelerar e elevar a germinação. Paralelamente, foi observado que sementes de frutos maduros despolpados são mais negativamente afetadas no armazenamento do que as dos frutos maduros não despolpados.Studies were carried out to evaluate inaja (Maximiliana regia Mart. seed germination promoters. Several treatments, including vernalization, KNO3, H2SO4, hot water (H(20-80°C, were applied to mature and imature fruits. The results showed that pre-germinative treatments, that promoted seed water uptake, contributed to enhance speed and germination rates. Among the treatments, unshelled of the fruits could be indicated. It was observed that inaja seeds were aparently recalcitrants and severely damaged by storage conditions which do not prevent dehydration.

  11. Fungicidal Effects of Plasma and Radio-Wave Pre-treatments on Seeds of Grain Crops and Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Irina; Azharonok, Viktor; Shik, Alexander; Antoniuk, Alexandra; Terletskaya, Natalia

    An influence of RF plasma and RF electromagnetic field pre-treatments on level of fungal infection of some important agricultural plants has been studied. It is shown that pre-sowing plasma and radio-wave seeds treatments contribute to their germination enhancement and plant productivity improvement owing to stimulative and fungicidal effect of plasma and RF electromagnetic field irradiation.

  12. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faheem Afzal; Ni, Jun; Chen, Jing; Wang, Qiaojian; Liu, Wenbo; Chen, Xue; Tang, Caiguo; Fu, Songling; Wu, Lifang

    2018-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum , an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen) and endospermic cap (ESC) contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE) or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum . We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs) suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum .

  13. Effect of radiation and non-Maxwellian electron distribution on relaxation processes in an atmospheric cesium seeded argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, C.A.; Veefkind, A.; Wetzer, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    A model, describing the time dependent behaviour of a noble gas MHD generator plasma, has been set up. With this model it is possible to calculate the relaxation for ionization or recombination as a response to a stepwise temperature development, once the initial and final conditions are given. In model radiative transitions and a deviation from Maxwellian electron distribution are included. Radiation causes an enhancement of both the ionization relaxation time and the recombination relaxation time. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution results in an increase of the relaxation time for an ionizing plasma because of an underpopulation of the high energy electrons. A decrease of the relaxation time for a recombining plasma is caused by an overpopulation of high energy electrons. The relaxation time is strongly dependent on the seed ratio and the temperature step. (Auth.)

  14. Long-term erectile function following permanent seed brachytherapy treatment for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Wee Loon; Hindson, Benjamin R.; Beaufort, Catherine; Pharoah, Paul; Millar, Jeremy L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Erectile function (EF) is commonly affected following prostate cancer treatment. We aim to evaluate the long-term EF following seed brachytherapy (BT) treatment. Materials and methods: The study consisted of 366 patients treated with BT at our institution, who completed the IIEF-5 questionnaire and reported no or mild erectile dysfunction (ED) pre-BT. The probability of EF preservation post-BT was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier methods. The difference in EF preservation by patient-, tumour- and treatment-related factors was assessed using the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate the effect of each factor on EF preservation. Results: Of the 366 patients, 277 (76%) reported normal EF, and 89 (24%) reported mild ED. The patients were followed-up for a median of 41 months (range: 3–124), and the 5-year actuarial rate of EF preservation was 59%. Age at BT seed implant, presence of medical comorbidities, Gleason score and the biologically effective dose (BED) are associated with EF preservation (P < 0.005). The association for these four factors remains statistically significant in multivariate analysis, with Gleason score having the strongest effect (HR = 3.7; 95% CI = 2.6–5.4). Conclusion: The 5-year actuarial rate of EF preservation post-BT in our cohort is 59%, and is influenced by multiple factors

  15. TREATMENT OF BIODIESEL WASTEWATER USING YELLOW MUSTARD SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCI, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, removal of original biodiesel wastewater (BOD, COD, oil&greas) by yellow mustard seeds was examined bya batch system. The effect of the adsorption time 300 minutes, adsorbent dose(1.0 g/L) and mixing rate (120 rpm) on the adsorption capacity of pollutants.The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined.According to the data obtained from experiments, biodiesel wastewater can betreated by adsorption using yellow mustard seeds.

  16. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tianbo; Dyer, Dan G.; McConnell, Laura L.; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large?scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee?relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed?treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin?treated seeds was 7.0?ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of ...

  17. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...... reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated...

  18. Effects of Portulaca oleracea L. seeds in treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus patients as adjunctive and alternative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mohamed-I Kotb

    2011-09-01

    ETHNPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: To investigate antidiabetic activity of purslane seeds on type-2 diabetic subjects and to provide scientific basis for the clinical use of Portulaca oleracea (PO). A thirty subject with type-2 diabetes divided into two groups, to receive 5 g of PO seeds twice daily while in the second group, their participants receive 1,500 mg of metformin/day. All participants were requested to report the effects of treatments on diabetic manifestations, their weights, body mass index (BMI), adverse effects, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose during treatment schedule. Blood samples from participants before and after treatment were taken for serum separation, which are used for measurement of serum lipids, liver enzymes, total and direct bilirubin, albumin, and insulin. It showed a significant decrease in serum levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (T(C)), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL(C)), liver alanine-, aspartate- and gamma glutamyl transaminase (ALT, AST, and GGT), total and direct bilirubin, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, insulin, body weight and BMI while a significant increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)) and albumin but non-significant change of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in PO seeds treated subjects. Metformin (M) group has the same results of PO group except in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)), LDL(C), and ALP levels had a different pattern. PO seeds could be effective and safe as adjuvant therapy for Type-2 diabetic subjects. These results demonstrated that PO seeds possessed notable hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and insulin resistance reducer effects; possibly due to its contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, IV, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10-5 .

  20. Mulching and seeding treatments for post-fire stabilization techniques in Laza (NW Spain: medium-term effects on soil quality and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díaz-Raviña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of fire and different post-fire stabilisation treatments like mulching and seeding on some selected physical, chemical biochemical and microbiological properties as well as the efficacy of these treatments on control of post-fire erosion was evaluated in a burnt area affected by a high severity wildfire located in Laza (NW Spain. Soil samples were collected from the A horizon (0-2 cm of the burnt soil 8 and 12 months after the wildfire as well as from the unburnt soil located in an adjacent plot used as control; sediments were periodically collected after precipitation events in the burnt soil with and without different post-fire stabilisation treatments. The results clearly showed that a significant medium-term impact of the wildfire on most soil properties analyzed was still observed 12 months after the fire event and that mulching and seeding treatments did not affect the overall soil quality (physical, chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of this burned soil. Sediments data indicated that both stabilisation treatments were effective to control post-fire erosion since, compared to the burnt control, soil losses were reduced by 85% in the mulching treatment and by 30% in the seeding treatment.

  1. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Afzal Shah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum, an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen and endospermic cap (ESC contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs. Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum. We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum.

  2. Joint use of fungicides, insecticides and inoculants in the treatment of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Cristiane Buhl Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interference of the joint application of pesticides with seed inoculation on the survival of Bradyrhizobium has been reported in the last years. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the joint use of fungicides, insecticides and inoculant in the treatment of soybean seeds on various parameters of Bradyrhizobium nodulation in soybean as well as on crop productivity parameters. The experiment was conducted during the 2013/2014 crop in the experimental field of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso - Campo Novo do Parecis Campus. The seeds of TMG 133 RR variety were sown in pots. It was used a randomized block design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial, four fungicides (1: fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M, 2: carboxine + thiram, 3: difeconazole and 4: carbendazim + thiram, four insecticides (1: fipronil 250 SC, 2: thiamethoxam, 3: imidacloprid + thiodicarpe and 4: imodacloprid 600 FC and an inoculant (SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 5080, common to all treatments, with three replications. The experiment was not repeated. The joint application of fungicide and insecticide with inoculant does not affect nodulation, foliar N content and vegetative growth of the plants as well as the masses of grains per plant and 100-grain mass. The use of the carbendazim + thiram mixed with fipronil and carbendazim + thiram mixed with imidacloprid provides less number of pods per plant and grains per plant, reflecting in reductions in the production of soybean grains. In this way, the fungicide carbendazim + thiram, regardless of the combined applied insecticide, is the most harmful to Bradyrhizobium spp.

  3. Rapid evaluation of seed vigor by the absolute content of protein in seed within the same crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Daxing; Hou, Hongcun; Meng, Aiju; Meng, Jie; Xie, Liuyong; Zhang, Chunqing

    2018-04-03

    Seed vigor, an important index of seed quality, determines the potential for rapid and uniform emergence of plants. The objective of this study was to explore a rapid method for evaluating seed vigor. To analyze the correlation of seed traits and seedling traits related to seed vigor, we designed five experiments including nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation and seed sorting treatments in wheat. The results showed that only the absolute content of protein (ACP) in wheat seed was significantly correlated with plant dry weight in five experiments. Subsequently, another experiment including 30 wheat seed lots was used to validate the above results. Although 100-grain weight was also correlated with plant dry weight (R = 0.799, p vigor and could potentially be used for processing and screening high vigor seeds.

  4. Stimulation treatments of large-seed leguminous plants Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Istvan; Borbely, Ferenc; Nagy, Janos; Dezsi, Zoltan

    1983-01-01

    The effect of low dose X-ray irradiation on the sprouting and initial growth of some leguminous plants was studied. After having the seeds of peas, beans, lupines and horse beans irradiated, the sprouting rate, the amount of sprouting plants, the length of the roots, the sprouts and the sprouting plants, the electrolyte conductivity and the water uptake were determined. The height and the amount of the plants were measured after a period of 6 weeks. According to the sprout-length values, an increased variation in the plant features can be observed as a result of irradiation treatment: both stimulation and inhibition of plant growth occured, depending on the variety of the leguminosae. The indices of sprouting and initial growth agree well with each other. (V.N.)

  5. Effect of Time and Burial Depth on Breaking Seed dormancy and Germination of Weed Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzie mazhari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weeds limit crop growth, development and yield through competing. Seed bank of weeds in field is one of the sources which can affect weed management and their control methods. Environmental conditions during seed maturation and following dispersal interact to influence the germination phenology of many species. Disturbance plays a key role in the maintenance of habitat for many plant species, particularly referrals, for example, fire ephemerals, desert annuals, and arable weeds. Seed germination and emergence depend on endogenous and exogenous factors. Viable seeds are dormant when all environmental conditions are appropriate for germination but seeds fail to germinate. Thus, dormancy plays an important ecological role in preventing seed germination, being a major contributor to seed persistence of some species in soil. Buried seeds of annual weeds are certainly subjected to different soil moisture conditions during their dormancy release season (winter according to the annual rainfall pattern and burial depth. Shallow buried seeds are exposed to soil moisture fluctuations that could affect their dormancy status. Laboratory studies showed that desiccation and subsequent re-hydration of seeds could stimulate germination and modify seed light requirements. Seeds buried in deeper layers of the soil would not be exposed to such fluctuations in soil moisture, but would be exposed to different soil moisture environments depending on weather and soil characteristics. The effects of interactions between temperature, and soil or seed moisture, on seed dormancy changes have been reported for several species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of time and burial depth treatments on seed germination and seedling emergence of Aegilops cylindrica, Agropyrom repens, Avena fatua, Bromus dantoniae, Cynodon dactylon, Cyprus rotundus, Setaria viridis, Anthriscus sylvestris, Centurea cyanus. Materials and Methods: In

  6. Qualidade de sementes de tomate influenciada pelos tratamentos térmico e osmótico Tomato seeds quality affected by dry heat and osmotic treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Souza Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento térmico via calor seco, visando o controle de patógenos associado às sementes, pode causar danos à qualidade fisiológica das mesmas, que podem ser recuperados, por meio do condicionamento osmótico. Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento térmico via calor seco na qualidade sanitária e fisiológica das sementes de tomate, assim como a influência do condicionamento osmótico na qualidade fisiológica das sementes submetidas à termoterapia. As sementes das cultivares Quadrado Mix, Topmec e Calmec VFN foram expostas ao tratamento térmico a 70; 72,5 e 75ºC, em estufa com circulação forçada, por períodos de zero, 48; 96 e 120 horas. O período zero, sem a aplicação de calor, foi considerado como testemunha. Posteriormente, estas sementes foram avaliadas quanto à sanidade, condicionadas em solução aerada de polietilenoglicol a 0,0 e -1,0 MPa e submetidas à avaliação do teor de água, da germinação e do vigor. Pelos resultados pode-se concluir que o tratamento térmico via calor seco não foi eficiente em eliminar os patógenos associados às sementes de tomate, dependendo da cultivar avaliada. Períodos prolongados de exposição ao calor seco causaram danos à qualidade fisiológica das sementes de tomate, que não foram recuperados com o subseqüente condicionamento osmótico.The dry heat treatment aiming to control microorganisms in the seeds can cause damage to the physiological quality of seeds. Osmotic conditioning can be useful tool for recovering the physiological quality of the heat treated seeds. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dry heat treatments on the tomato seeds sanitary and physiologic quality, as well as to analyze the effect of the osmotic conditioning on seeds submitted to dry heat treatment. The seeds of cultivars Quadrado Mix, Topmec and Calmec VFN were heated at 70; 72.5 and 75ºC by periods of zero, 48; 96 and 120 hours. After the heat treatment, the seeds were evaluated for

  7. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Diekmann, K.; Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Prayer, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  8. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  9. Effect of pre-sowing magnetic field treatment to garden pea (pisum sativum l.) seed on germination and seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Muhammad, D.; Haq, Z.U.; Jamil, Y.; Ahmad, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of garden pea ( Pisum sativum L. cv. climax) were exposed to full-wave rectified sumusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields of strength 60 mT, 120 mT and 180 mT for 5, 10 and 15 min prior to sowing. The magnetically treated seeds were sown according to the protocol of International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Magnetically treated seed showed significant increase in germination. The emergence index, final emergence index and vigor index increased by 86.43%, 13.21% and 204.60%, respectively. It was found that exposure of 5 min for magnetic field strengths of 60 mT and 180 mT significantly enhanced the germination parameters of the pea and these treatments can be used practically to accelerate the germination in garden pea. (author)

  10. [Reason for dormancy of Cuscuta chinensis seed and solving method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemin; He, Jiaqing; Cai, Jing; Dong, Zhenguo

    2010-02-01

    To study the reason for the deep dormancy of the aged Cuscuta chinensis seed and find the solving method. The separated and combined treatments were applied in the orthogonal designed experiments. The aged seed had well water-absorbency; the water and ethanol extracts of the seeds showed an inhibition effect on germination capacity of the seeds. The main reason for the deep dormancy of aged C. chinensis seed is the inhibitors existed in seed. There are two methods to solve the problem. The seeds is immersed in 98% of H2SO4 for 2 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 60 min, or in 100 mg x L(-1) of NaOH for 20 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 120 min.

  11. Influence of Seed Priming on Performance and Water Productivity of Direct Seeded Rice in Alternating Wetting and Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez Ur Rehman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct seeded rice is promising alternative to traditional transplanting, but requires appropriate crop and water management to maintain yield performance and achieve high water productivity. Present study evaluated the effect of seed priming and irrigation on crop establishment, tillering, agronomic traits, paddy yield, grain quality and water productivity of direct seeded rice in alternate wetting and drying (DSR-AWD in comparison with direct seeded rice at field capacity (DSR-FC. Seed priming treatments were osmo-priming with KCl (2.2%, CaCl2 (2.2% and moringa leaf extracts (MLE, 3.3% including hydro-priming as control. Among the treatments, seed osmo-primed with MLE emerged earlier and had higher final emergence, followed by osmo-priming with CaCl2. Tillering emergence rate and number of tillers per plant were the highest for seed priming with CaCl2 in DSR-AWD. Total productive and non-productive tillers, panicle length, biological and grain yields, harvest index were highest for seed priming with MLE or CaCl2 in DSR-AWD. Similarly, grain quality, estimated in terms of normal grains, abortive and chalky grains, was also the highest in DSR-AWD with MLE osmo-priming. Benefit cost ratio and water productivity was also the highest in DSR-AWD for seed priming with MLE. In conclusion, seed priming with MLE or CaCl2 can be successfully employed to improve the direct seeded rice performance when practiced with alternate wetting and drying irrigation.

  12. Efficiency of application of instantaneous radiation of seeds by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, A.R.; Gordeev, Yu.A.; Poddubnaya, O.V.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of application of instantaneous (impulse) radiation of seeds of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and oat (Avena sativa) by plasma was analyzed. Research results showed that presowing treatment of seeds with instantaneous helium radiation in course of 0,01 seconds (the total duration of seed treatment with plasmatron ion source impulses – one second). In course of the practical experiments there was proved possibility of application impulse radiation technologies in modern agricultural production. Seed germination capacity exceeded the control variants on 14%. Results of influence of applied irradiation on length of sprouts, length of roots and their germinating ability were presented. Irradiation efficiency developed in course of plant vegetation. In accordance with research results and accumulated experimental material on presowing seed treatment with impulses of low temperature helium plasma could make it possible to obtain yields with higher capacity and quality with the minimal expenses for seed treatment

  13. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: → Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. → EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. → EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. → Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. → EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  14. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R., E-mail: ebrahimiyazd@yahoo.com [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: > Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. > EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. > EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. > Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. > EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  15. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAIANE M. DRESCH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH, 5°C (34% RH, 15°C (60% RH and 25°C (34% RH, during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L−1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L−1 for 144 hours.

  16. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours).

  17. Laboratory evaluations of Lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two anthranilic diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, were evaluated as soybean, Glycine max L., seed treatments for control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Bioassays were conducted using 2nd instar larvae and plants from both field and greenhouse gr...

  18. The effects of seed coating treatment on yield and yield components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, coating fuzzy cotton seeds is proposed as an alternative to delintation. Coating makes fuzzy cotton seeds more suitable for the pneumatic spacing planter. Also, unlike delintation, sulphuric acid is not used for coating and this eliminates the problems associated with its usage such as seed loss, pollution and ...

  19. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao DAWK Mali 105 storability I: the case study of physiological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the perspective changes of several physiological performances of rice seeds cv. KDML 105 which were coated with various seed coating substances [chemical fungicide, captan (CA) and biological coating polymers; chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E + CL)] during storage (12 months). CA significantly increased seed moisture content and seed water activity through out the storage period. The qualities and viability of the seeds were seriously declined by this treatment. Moreover, CA inhibited the shoot and root development, seedling dry weight accumulation, delayed the seed germination and seedling growth rate. CA treated seeds were susceptible to stress conditions that declined the seed germination potential under cold, high moisture and temperature stress conditions. Nevertheless, CL and E + CL coating polymer could maintain seed storability, which significantly improved seed germination and seedling performances. These improvements were attributed to maintain the nutritive reserve and dehydrogenase activity in seeds. Moreover, the biological seed treatment stimulated the embryo growth and so speeding up the seedling emergence when compared untreated seeds.

  20. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yajing; Wang, Jianchen; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Weimin; Zhu, Liwei; Zhu, Shuijin; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR), rhodamine B (RB), and magnetic powder (MP) were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85) and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY). Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm). And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm). All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  1. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    Full Text Available Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR, rhodamine B (RB, and magnetic powder (MP were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85 and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY. Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm. And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm. All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  2. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Gibberellin on Seed Reserve Utilization, Germination and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Seeds Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming methods have been used to increases germination characteristics under stress conditions. The study aimed was to determine the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellin on seed reserve utilization, germination and enzyme activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was the seed treatments (unpriming, salicylic acid and gibberellin and the second factor was drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar. The results indicated that for these traits: germination percentage, germination index, weight of utilized (mobilized seed, seed reserve utilization efficiency, seedling dry weight and seed reserve depletion percentage was a significant treatment Ч drought interaction. Thus priming improved study traits in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Also, priming improves enzyme activity as compared to the unprimed seeds.

  3. Application of electron beam irradiation. 4. Treatment of pollutants by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Arai, Hidehiko

    1994-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation is capable of dissolving and removing pollutants, such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and organic compounds, by easy production of OH radicals in flue gas and water. This paper deals with current status in the search for techniques for treating flue gas and waste water, using electron beam irradiation. Pilot tests have been conducted during the period 1991-1994 for the treatment of flue gas caused by coal and garbage burning and road tunnels. Firstly, techniques for cleaning flue gas with electron beams are outlined, with special reference to their characteristics and process of research development. Secondly, the application of electron beam irradiation in the treatment of waste water is described in terms of the following: (1) disinfection of sewage, (2) cleaning of water polluted with toxic organic compounds, (3) treatment for eliminating sewage sludge, (4) promotion of sewage sludge sedimentation, (5) disinfection and composting of sewage sludge, and (6) regeneration of activated carbon used for the treatment of waste water. (N.K.)

  4. Effect of dates of closing cut on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramphrai Namsilee

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field research was to investigate the effect of dates of closing cut on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, during May 2003 to February 2004. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Experimental treatments consisted of five dates of closing cut spaced at about 14-day intervals (27 August, 10 September, 24 September, 8 October 2003 and uncut.The results showed that date of closing cut had a significant effect on seed yields and pure germinable seed yields (PGSY of S. guianensis CIAT 184. Plots closed on 10 September produced the highest seed yield and PGSY (P<0.05 of 564 and 553 kg/ha, followed by plots closed on 24 September and 27 August (422 and 406; 405 and 391 kg/ha. Uncut plots produced low yield and plots closed on 8 October produced the lowest seed yield and PGSY (401 and 388; 365 and 356 kg/ha. There were no significant differences in seed purity percentage, germination percentage and 1000-seed weight among treatments. Among the dates of closing cut studied, forage DM yield and CP yield were subsequently increased as date of closing cut was delayed. Based on this research, it was concluded that early-September was the optimum date of closing cut for S. guianensis CIAT 184 cultivation for seed production in Northeast Thailand.

  5. Rapid Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Annealing Methods on Seed Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Bo Shim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO nanowire arrays were successfully synthesized on a glass substrate using the rapid microwave heating process. The ZnO seed layers were produced by spinning the precursor solutions onto the substrate. Among coatings, the ZnO seed layers were annealed at 100°C for 5 minutes to ensure particle adhesion to the glass surface in air, nitrogen, and vacuum atmospheres. The annealing treatment of the ZnO seed layer was most important for achieving the high quality of ZnO nanowire arrays as ZnO seed nanoparticles of larger than 30 nm in diameter evolve into ZnO nanowire arrays. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a single-crystalline lattice of the ZnO nanowires. Because of their low power (140 W, low operating temperatures (90°C, easy fabrication (variable microwave sintering system, and low cost (90% cost reduction compared with gas condensation methods, high quality ZnO nanowires created with the rapid microwave heating process show great promise for use in flexible solar cells and flexible display devices.

  6. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  7. The role of seed coat phenolics on water uptake and early protein synthesis during germination of dimorphic seeds of halopyrum mucronatum (L.) staph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Z. S.; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Role of seed coat phenolics on water uptake and early protein synthesis of Halopyrum mucronatum dimorphic seeds during germination were tested. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed seed texture with differential deposition of secondary metabolites in both morphs. Ability of both seed morphs to retain secondary deposition was dependent on exposure to either saline or non-saline conditions. More phenols leached from the brown seed during the initial hours of soaking when compared to black seeds. Water uptake pattern was slightly different in both seed type particularly during initial hours when imbibition in black seeds showed little water uptake while in brown seeds absorption was quick in the first hour under both saline and non saline condition. Change in total protein was somewhat similar in both seeds morphs showing early increase (4 and 8 h), reaching to the maximum (12 h) and decreasing (24 and 48 h) afterward. The results are discussed in relation to seed coat phenolics, water uptake and early protein synthesis during germination. (author)

  8. Development of an automation system for iodine-125 brachytherapy seed production by ND:YAG laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Costa, Fabio E.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an automation system for iodine-125 radioactive seed production by Nd:YAG laser welding, which has been used successfully in low dose rate brachytherapy treatment. This small seed consists of a welded titanium capsule, with 0.8 mm in diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing iodine-125 adsorbed onto a silver rod. The iodine-125 seeds are implanted into the human prostate to irradiate the tumor for cancer treatment. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center, at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 iodine-125 seeds per year, for the clinics and hospitals in the country. However, the Brazilian market potential is now over 8,000 iodine-125 seeds per month. The local production of these iodine-125 radioactive sources became a priority for the Institute, in order to reduce the price and the problems of prostate cancer management. It will permit to spread their use to a larger number of patients in Brazil. On the other hand, the industrial automation plays an important role for iodine-125 seeds in order to increase the productivity, with high quality and assurance, avoiding human factors, implementing and operating with good manufacturing practices. The technology consists of appliance electronic and electro-mechanical parts and components to control machines and processes. The automation system technology for iodine-125 seed production developed in this work was mainly assembled employing a Programmable Logic Controller, a stepper motor, an Nd:YAG laser welding machine and a supervisory. (author)

  9. Development of an automation system for iodine-125 brachytherapy seed production by (Nd:YAG) laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir Luiz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an automation system for iodine-125 radioactive seed production by (Nd:YAG) laser welding, which has been used successfully in Low Dose Rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatment. This small seed consists of a welded titanium capsule, with 0.8mm in diameter and 4.5mm in length, containing iodine-125 adsorbed onto a silver rod. The iodine-125 seeds are implanted into the human prostate to irradiate the tumor for cancer treatment. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center, at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 iodine-125 seeds per year, for the clinics and hospitals in the country. However, the Brazilian market potential is now over 8,000 iodine-125 seeds per month. The local production of these iodine-125 radioactive sources becomes a priority for the Institute, in order to reduce the price and the problems of prostate cancer management. It will permit to spread their use to a largest number of patients in Brazil. On the other hand, the industrial automation plays an important role for iodine-125 seeds in order to increase the productivity, with high quality and assurance, avoiding human factors, implementing and operating with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). The technology consists of appliance electronic and electro-mechanical parts and components to control machines and processes. The automation system technology for iodine-125 seed production developed in this work was mainly assembled employing Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), stepper motors, drivers, (Nd:YAG) laser welding machine, photoelectric sensors and supervisory. (author)

  10. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  11. Dynamic observation on changes of serum tumor markers levels after implantation of 125I radioactive seeds as treatment for several malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qihe; Yang Jiali; Gao Mingzhong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the dynamic changes of serum levels of several tumor markers after implantation of 125 I seeds as treatment for breast, prostate and lung malignancies. Methods: Serum CA15-3 (in 48 cases of breast cancer), PSA (in 59 cases of prostate cancer) and CYFRA21-1 (in 59 cases of lung cancer) levels were measured with RIA both before and after implantation of 125 I seeds as treatment. Furthermore, dynamic observation on the serum markers levels was carried out every 3 months in ten patients in each category. Results: After treatment, levels of these markers dropped significantly. Dynamic observation revealed that in the 10 cases of breast cancer, the levels of CA15-3 dropped continually. However, in the 10 cases of prostatic cancer, the disease got worse and the PSA levels kept increasing. In the lung cancer group, the CYFRA21-1 levels rose markedly and all patients expired before 9 months. Conclusion: Dynamic observation on changes of serum tumor markers (CA15-3, PSA, CYFRA21-1) levels after 125 I seed implantation treatment was of definite prognostic value. (authors)

  12. Conventional Treatment of Surface Water Using Moringa Oleifera Seeds Extract as a Primary Coagulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman A. Muyibi, Ahmed Hissein M Birima, Thamer A. Mohammed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study involved the use of a model pilot scale water treatment plant to treat turbid surface water from a stream using processed Moringa oleifera seed with 25 % w/w oil extracted as primary coagulant. The water treatment plant was made up of four unit operations: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration (rapid sand filter. Test runs were carried out for three hours per run over a three-month period with turbidities ranging from 18 to 261 NTU. The turbidity, pH, and alkalinity as well as the filter head loss were measured every 30 minutes during the experimental runs. Average turbidity removal of up to 96 % at an effective doses of 20 and 30 mg/l of oil extracted M. oleifera for low (< 50 NTU and moderate turbidity (< 100 NTU water respectively was observed doses 50 – 80 mg/l for high turbidity (> 100 NTU water. M. oleifera seed extract was found to have no significant effect on pH or alkalinity of the water. The residual turbidities measured during most of the test runs satisfied the Malaysian Guideline for Drinking Water Supplies. Key Words: Moringa oleifera, primary coagulant, coagulation, pilot plant, filtration.

  13. Usefulness of pumpkin seeds combined with areca nut extract in community-based treatment of human taeniasis in northwest Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiaoying; Ito, Akira; Chen, Xingwang; Long, Changping; Okamoto, Munehiro; Raoul, Francis; Giraudoux, Patrick; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Xiao, Ning; Craig, Philip S

    2012-11-01

    Taeniasis refers to the infection with adult tapeworms of Taenia spp. in the upper small intestine of humans, which is also a cause of cysticercosis infection in either both humans and/or animals. Currently the most commonly applied anthelminthics for treatment of taeniasis are praziquantel and niclosamide. Praziquantel is very effective, but has the risk of induction of epileptic seizures or convulsions in carriers with asymptomatic concurrent neurocysticercosis. In contrast, niclosamide is safe and effective, but is not readily available in many endemic countries including China. In the current community-based study, we assessed the curative effect of either pumpkin seeds or areca nut extract alone in taeniasis, and also looked at synergistic effects of these two herb drugs on tapeworms. In the study group with the pumpkin seed/areca nut extract treatment, 91 (79.1%) of 115 suspected taeniasis cases (with a history of expulsion of proglottids within the previous one year) released whole tapeworms, four (3.5%) expelled incomplete strobila, and no tapeworms or proglottids were recovered in the remaining 20 cases. In these 115 persons, 45 were confirmed as taeniasis before treatment by microscopy and/or coproPCR. Forty (88.9%) of 45 confirmed cases eliminated intact worms following treatment. The mean time period for complete elimination of tapeworms in 91 taeniasis cases was 2 h (range 20 min to 8 h 30 min), and 89.0% (81) of 91 patients discharged intact worms within 3h after drug administration. In Control Group A with treatment of pumpkin seeds alone, 75.0% (9/12) of confirmed taeniasis cases expelled whole tapeworms, but the mean time period for complete elimination was about 14 h 10 min (range 3 h 20 min to 21 h 20 min), which was much longer than that (2 h) for the study group, whereas in Control Group B treated with areca nut extract alone, only 63.6% (7/11) of taeniasis cases discharged whole tapeworms, and the mean time period was 6 h 27 min (range 1-22 h

  14. Germination Response of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to Hot Water Pre-Treatment in Maiduguri, ... of Maiduguri under tree shade, to study the effect of hot water pre-treatment duration. ... Germination response, pre-sowing treatment, gum Arabic, orthodox seeds.

  15. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment on plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustey, Adrian; Leighs, James; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Hazael, Rachael; McMillan, Paul; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds have both been previously investigated (primarily driven by an interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia respectively). However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods of applying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in such data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder set-up and shock compression via employment of a 50-mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer-plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set.

  16. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianbo; Dyer, Dan G; McConnell, Laura L; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large-scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee-relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed-treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin-treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250-treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water-extractable (i.e., plant-bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  17. Effect of cesium seeding on hydrogen negative ion volume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacal, M.; Balghiti-Sube, F. El; Elizarov, L. I.; Tontegode, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of cesium vapor partial pressure on the plasma parameters has been studied in the dc hybrid negative ion source ''CAMEMBERT III.'' The cesium vapor pressure was varied up to 10 -5 Torr and was determined by a surface ionization gauge in the absence of the discharge. The negative ion relative density measured by laser photodetachment in the center of the plasma extraction region increases by a factor of four when the plasma is seeded with cesium. However the plasma density and the electron temperature (determined using a cylindrical electrostatic probe) are reduced by the cesium seeding. As a result, the negative ion density goes up by a factor of two at the lowest hydrogen pressure studied. The velocity of the directed negative ion flow to the plasma electrode, determined from two-laser beam photodetachment experiments, appears to be affected by the cesium seeding. The variation of the extracted negative ion and electron currents versus the plasma electrode bias will also be reported for pure hydrogen and cesium seeded plasmas. The cesium seeding leads to a dramatic reduction of the electron component, which is consistent with the reduced electron density and temperature. The negative ion current is enhanced and a goes through a maximum at plasma electrode bias lower than 1 V. These observations lead to the conclusion that the enhancement of pure volume production occurs in this type of plasma. Possible mechanisms for this type of volume process will be discussed

  18. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  19. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process

  20. Control of sugar beet pests at early season by seed treatment with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2001-2004, experiments were conducted in the region of Bačka (northern Serbia to assess the efficiency of insecticide treatment of sugar beet seeds in controlling soil pests (larvae of Elateridae family and reducing the damage caused by beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris G e r m and flea beetle (Chaetocnema tibialis I l l i g. Several insecticides mostly systemic ones (carbofuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and their combinations with pyrethroids in different doses were tested in field conditions. Stand density, percentages of plants damaged by B. punctiventris and C. tibialis, injury level and weight of juvenile plants served as parameters for evaluation of insecticide efficiency. Most of the insecticides applied to seeds provided a significantly better stand density compared with the untreated control. Because of their systemic action, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and their mixtures with pyrethroids provided very good protection of juvenile plants from C. tibialis and in some cases from B. punctiventris.

  1. Temperature Effects on Cuscuta campestris Yunk. Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of biological characteristics of seeds and conditions for their germination havea major importance for planning and executing rational measures of weed control. Theaim of this study was to investigate the effect of different temperatures on germinationof C. campestris seeds. Three treatments (T1- storage at room temperature; T2 – exposureto 4°C for 30 days; T3 – scarification by concentrated sulphuric acid differing in manipulationwith seeds before germination were tested at different temperatures (5°C, 10°C, 15°C,20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C. Germinated seeds were counted daily for ten days andthe length of seedlings was measured on the last day. The results showed that differencesin germination of C. campestris seeds were very prominent between temperatures, as wellas between treatments T1, T2 and T3. Seeds failed to germinate at 5°C and 45°C in all treatments(T1, T2, T3. Germination ranged from 6.25 at 10°C to 96.88%, the highest percentage,achieved at 30°C.

  2. [Study on influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Guang-Lin; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Long-Yun

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve reproductive efficiency and quality standard, the influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides werew studied. The fruit and seed morphological characteristics of L. macranthoides were observed, the seed water absorbing capacity was determined, and different wet sand stratification time, temperature and germination bed treatment were set up. The effects of the parameters on seed germination and seedling growth were analysed. There was no obstacles of water absorption on L. macranthoides seed, quantity for 22 h water absorption was close to saturation. In the first 80 d, with the increase of the stratification time, seed initial germination time was shortened, germination rate and germination potential was improved. Stratification for 100 d, germination rate decreased. At 15 ℃, seed germination and seedling growth indicators were the best. The seedling cotyledon width in light was significantly higher than that in dark. Seeds on the top of paper and top of sand germination rate, germination potential, and germination index was significantly higher than that of other germination bed and mildew rate is low. The optimal conditions of seeds germination test was stratified in 4 ℃ wet sand for 80 d, 15 ℃ illuminate culture on the top of paper or top of sand. The first seeding counting time was the 4th day after beginning the test, the final time was the 23th day. The germination potential statistical time was the 13th day after beginning the test. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  4. Biostimulant on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedling vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effects of biostimulant doses, applied through seeds, on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedlings vigor. Seeds were previously sulfuric acid scarified in two consecutive years experiments. On 2006 August (first experiment seeds were submitted on Stimulate®: 0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14 mL.0.5 Kg-1 doses (first experiment; and seeds picked in August, 2007, were Stimulate:0; 15; 20 and 25 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds treated (second experiment. After the biostimulant treatment seeds were sowed in cells trays containing 1:1 (v:v distroferric red latosol + plantmax®. The effect of different Stimulate® doses on Dimorphandra mollis seeds collected in different years were evaluated on the emergency percentage, speed emergency index, root length, aerial part height and dry seedling weight. It was conducted on entirely casualized with four repetitions of 25 seeds each treatment. The 14 mL (2006 lot and 15 mL (2007 lot 0.5Kg-1 of seeds doses provided larger percentage (50% and 66%, respectively and speed emergency indexes (0.67 and 0.9 respectively. The 20 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds dose treatment favored the aerial part length, but it didn't influenced the other Dimorphandra mollis seedlings vigor indexes.

  5. Effects of Ge-132 and GeO2 on seed germination and seedling growth of Oenothera biennis L. under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Long-Yu; Li, Qing-Mei; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Gao, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of β-carboxyethyl germanium sequioxide (Ge-132) and germanium dioxide (GeO 2 ) on improving salt tolerance of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidase and malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed under treatments of various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 μM) of Ge in normal condition and in 50 mM NaCl solution. The results showed that both Ge-132 and GeO 2 treatments significantly increased seed germination percentage and shoot length in dose-dependent concentrations but inhibited early root elongation growth. 5-30 μM Ge-132 and 10, 20 μM GeO 2 treatments could significantly mitigate even eliminate harmful influence of salt, representing increased percentage of seed germination, root length, ratio between length of root and shoot, and decreased shoot length. These treatments also significantly decreased peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and MDA content. The mechanism is likely that Ge scavenges reactive oxygen species - especially hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) - by its electron configuration 4S 2 4P 2 so as to reduce lipid peroxidation. This is the first report about the comparison of bioactivity effect of Ge-132 and GeO 2 on seed germination and seedling growth under salt stress. We conclude that Ge-132 is better than GeO 2 on promoting salt tolerance of seed and seedling.

  6. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  7. Bio-ecological consequences of crop seeds treatment with metal nano-powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilov, G

    2015-01-01

    As a result of our investigations we have determined the optimal concentrations of ferrum, cobalt and cuprum nano-powders recommended to be used as micro-fertilizers increasing the yield and feed value of crops at the expense of accumulating biologically active combinations by 25-35%. In unfavorable climate conditions, for example in a case of excess moisture or heat and drought, the plants development and ripening suffer. Our investigations have shown that the stimulating effect of nano-powders has lowered the effect of stress situations on plants development and simultaneously increased the rape seeds yield and quality. Treating the seeds with the drugs being studied has provided the high crop protection. If consider that the maximum efficiency of protectants Chinuk, SK (20 kg/t of seeds) and Cruiser, KS (10 kg/t of seeds) then for the same effect one needs nano-powders 0.1 g per hectare norm of seeds planting. (paper)

  8. Dosimetric effectiveness in implants with distinct HO166-seed distribution in prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Viviane V. B.; Campos, Tarcísio P. R.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is a need to produce new therapeutic techniques for the treatment of prostate tumors, considering the high incidence of the disease and significant morbidity rates associated with surgery and radiotherapy. Simulations in brachytherapy produce essential information about the efficiency and dosimetric efficacy compared to other techniques. Computational simulation by Monte Carlo method has been used to evaluate the absorbed dose and effective dose in radiotherapy and radiology. Virtual, analytical or voxelized phantoms are useful in the internal assessment of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose. This study estimated the efficiency of dosimetry by parameters of merit generated from volumetric distributions of absorbed doses simulating various spatial distributions of Ho-166 seeds in a prostate model. A computer model of voxels was developed, using the code SISCODES (Computational System for Dosimetry by Neutrons and Photons by Stochastic Methods applied to radiology and radiotherapy), representative of a real physical simulator predefined as a calibration method. The virtual model reproduced a cubic box, filled with muscle equivalent tissue (TE), where a 5-cm diameter ball with TE-prostate was positioned 2-cm from the air interface. A Ho-166 seed distribution, produced by 16 filet-implants distributed regularly (10-mm pitch) containing 04 separate 8-mm seeds, was employed. Two pitch were considered: 9 and 10 mm, with same distance between seed in a fillet. Based on SISCODE database of chemical composition of tissues and nuclear data, The code allowed the association of nuclear and chemical data to the voxels of the model, by the selection of the tissue of each voxel, as well as the positioning of the sources and their spatial distribution and spectra. The code MCNP5 simulated the transport of photons and electrons in the model, generating the energy deposited per unit mass in each voxel for photons in MeV.g-1 and energy absorbed in MeV for beta

  9. Dosimetric effectiveness in implants with distinct HO166-seed distribution in prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Viviane V. B.; Campos, Tarcísio P. R., E-mail: Vitoriabraga06@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there is a need to produce new therapeutic techniques for the treatment of prostate tumors, considering the high incidence of the disease and significant morbidity rates associated with surgery and radiotherapy. Simulations in brachytherapy produce essential information about the efficiency and dosimetric efficacy compared to other techniques. Computational simulation by Monte Carlo method has been used to evaluate the absorbed dose and effective dose in radiotherapy and radiology. Virtual, analytical or voxelized phantoms are useful in the internal assessment of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose. This study estimated the efficiency of dosimetry by parameters of merit generated from volumetric distributions of absorbed doses simulating various spatial distributions of Ho-166 seeds in a prostate model. A computer model of voxels was developed, using the code SISCODES (Computational System for Dosimetry by Neutrons and Photons by Stochastic Methods applied to radiology and radiotherapy), representative of a real physical simulator predefined as a calibration method. The virtual model reproduced a cubic box, filled with muscle equivalent tissue (TE), where a 5-cm diameter ball with TE-prostate was positioned 2-cm from the air interface. A Ho-166 seed distribution, produced by 16 filet-implants distributed regularly (10-mm pitch) containing 04 separate 8-mm seeds, was employed. Two pitch were considered: 9 and 10 mm, with same distance between seed in a fillet. Based on SISCODE database of chemical composition of tissues and nuclear data, The code allowed the association of nuclear and chemical data to the voxels of the model, by the selection of the tissue of each voxel, as well as the positioning of the sources and their spatial distribution and spectra. The code MCNP5 simulated the transport of photons and electrons in the model, generating the energy deposited per unit mass in each voxel for photons in MeV.g-1 and energy absorbed in MeV for beta

  10. MHD seed recovery and regeneration, Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by the Space and Technology Division of the TRW Space and Electronics Group for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for the Econoseed process. This process involves the economical recovery and regeneration of potassium seed used in the MHD channel. The contract period of performance extended from 1987 through 1994 and was divided into two phases. The Phase II test results are the subject of this Final Report. However, the Phase I test results are presented in summary form in Section 2.3 of this Final Report. The Econoseed process involves the treatment of the potassium sulfate in spent MHD seed with an aqueous calcium formate solution in a continuously stirred reactor system to solubilize, as potassium formate, the potassium content of the seed and to precipitate and recover the sulfate as calcium sulfate. The slurry product from this reaction is centrifuged to separate the calcium sulfate and insoluble seed constituents from the potassium formate solution. The dilute solids-free potassium formate solution is then concentrated in an evaporator. The concentrated potassium formate product is a liquid which can be recycled as a spray into the MHD channel. Calcium formate is the seed regenerant used in the Econoseed process. Since calcium formate is produced in the United States in relatively small quantities, a new route to the continuous production of large quantities of calcium formate needed to support an MHD power industry was investigated. This route involves the reaction of carbon monoxide gas with lime solids in an aqueous medium.

  11. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  12. An investigation of radiosensitivity of selected stored seed and seed borne fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Chatterjee, S.; Mishra, D.; Chakraborty, A.; Saha, A.; Santra, S.C.; Chanda, S.

    2004-01-01

    Spoilage of nutritional value of the grains by the microbes, especially those producing mycotoxins, is a worldwide economic problem. The decontamination method, using gamma ray or fast electrons, is receiving growing attention. The present investigation was designed to determine an appropriate dose-range of gamma radiation for the stored grains to reduce levels of pathogenic fungi with minimal loss in viability, food value and/or germinating potential of the selected seeds. Further the study also aimed at assessing response of specific fungus to gamma irradiation in isolated condition and when attached to seeds to discern host-specific interaction if any, of the concerned fungi

  13. Enhancement of germination, growth, and photosynthesis in soybean by pre-treatment of seeds with magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, M B; Guruprasad, K N; Anand, Anjali

    2011-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of static magnetic fields on the seeds of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. var: JS-335) by exposing the seeds to different magnetic field strengths from 0 to 300 mT in steps of 50 mT for 30, 60, and 90 min. Treatment with magnetic fields improved germination-related parameters like water uptake, speed of germination, seedling length, fresh weight, dry weight and vigor indices of soybean seeds under laboratory conditions. Improvement over untreated control was 5-42% for speed of germination, 4-73% for seedling length, 9-53% for fresh weight, 5-16% for dry weight, and 3-88% and 4-27% for vigor indices I and II, respectively. Treatment of 200 mT (60 min) and 150 mT (60 min), which were more effective than others in increasing most of the seedling parameters, were further explored for their effect on plant growth, leaf photosynthetic efficiency, and leaf protein content under field conditions. Among different growth parameters, leaf area, and leaf fresh weight showed maximum enhancement (more than twofold) in 1-month-old plants. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from magnetically treated plants gave a higher fluorescence yield at the J-I-P phase. The total soluble protein map (SDS-polyacrylamide gel) of leaves showed increased intensities of the bands corresponding to a larger subunit (53 KDa) and smaller subunit (14 KDa) of Rubisco in the treated plants. We report here the beneficial effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatment for improving germination parameters and biomass accumulation in soybean. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... bottles were seal-locked and kept in the accelerated ageing cham- ber at three ... Hundred (100) seeds of each treatment were performed in plastic ..... by heat stress: the activation state of Rubisco as a limiting factor in.

  15. Effect of Cesium and Xenon Seeding in Negative Hydrogen Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacal, M.; Brunteau, A.M.; Deniset, C.; Elizarov, L.I.; Sube, F.; Tontegode, A.Y.; Whealton, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that cesium seeding in volume hydrogen negative ion sources leads to a large reduction of the extracted electron current and in some cases to the enhancement of the negative ion current. The cooling of the electrons due to the addition of this heavy impurity was proposed as a possible cause of the mentioned observations. In order to verify this assumption, the authors seeded the hydrogen plasma with xenon, which has an atomic weight almost equal to that of cesium. The plasma properties were studied in the extraction region of the negative ion source Camembert III using a cylindrical electrostatic probe while the negative ion relative density was studied using laser photodetachment. It is shown that the xenon mixing does not enhance the negative ion density and leads to the increase of the electron density, while the cesium seeding reduces the electron density

  16. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g. cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  17. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G

    1998-07-01

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g., cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  18. Tratamento de sementes de soja com inseticidas e um bioestimulante Soybean seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e um bioestimulante na germinação no crescimento da planta e raiz de soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em que as sementes foram tratadas com aldicarb, thiametoxan, imidacloprid e duas testemunhas: uma sem produto e uma com bioestimulante. Em laboratório, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de rolos de papel toalha com sementes de soja, para avaliar o vigor, a germinação, as plantas anormais e mortas, o comprimento de radículas e de plântulas. Nos testes em casa de vegetação, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de tubos de PVC, com volume de 16 dm³, e foram avaliados: os teores de N, P e K; a matéria seca; o comprimento, a área e o raio médio radicular; a eficiência de absorção de N, P e K; e a taxa de crescimento radicular da soja. Os tratamentos de sementes de soja com os inseticidas e o bioestimulante levam à formação de raízes mais finas, o que caracteriza um efeito tônico. O produto aldicarb, na dose empregada, prejudica o vigor e a germinação das sementes de soja. O tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e bioestimulante não proporciona maior crescimento das raízes das plantas de soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant on soybean germination and plant and root growth. Two experiments were performed in complete randomized blocks, in which seeds were treated with aldicarb, thiamethoxan, imidacloprid and two checks: one without treatment and one treated with biostimulant. The experimental units at the laboratory were germination sheet rolls with soybean seeds. Plantlet vigor, germination, normal and abnormal plantlets, root and hypocotyl lengths were evaluated. For the greenhouse study PVC pots with 16 dm-3 were used, and determinations were made for: N, P and K contents; dry matter yield; root length

  19. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded

  20. High power electron accelerators for flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas treatment process based on electron beam application for SO 2 and NO x removal was successfully demonstrated in number of laboratories, pilot plants and industrial demonstration facilities. The industrial scale application of an electron beam process for flue gas treatment requires accelerators modules with a beam power 100-500 kW and electron energy range 0.8-1.5 MeV. The most important accelerator parameters for successful flue gas radiation technology implementation are related to accelerator reliability/availability, electrical efficiency and accelerator price. Experience gained in high power accelerators exploitation in flue gas treatment industrial demonstration facility was described and high power accelerator constructions have been reviewed. (author)

  1. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamura, Yokichi; Suda, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    1991-01-01

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  2. Effects of Hydration-Dehydration and Iodination on Seed-Borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dehydration (HD) and Iodination (I) treatment to enhance the seed quality as well as protect it\\'s deterioration during aging. The effect of the treatments was investigated on external and internal seed-borne fungi, levels of free-fatty acids, moisture ...

  3. The effects of seed coating treatment on yield and yield components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... 2University of Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Mechanization, ... Key words: Fuzzy cotton seed, seed coating, yield components. .... gin turnout (%) characteristics are statistically important.

  4. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  5. Soil seed-bank germination patterns in natural pastures under different mineral fertilizer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iannucci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Degraded native grasslands in Mediterranean areas can be improved by encouraging seedling regeneration from soil seed banks using chemical fertilization. The effect of mineral fertilizers on soil seed banks was studied in natural pastures at two locations in southern Italy: Carpino and Rignano Garganico. The aim was to determine if nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and combined nitrogen and phosphorus (NP fertilization can promote increased soil seed density. The seed-bank size and composition were analysed over two growth cycles (2004-2006 at two periods of the year: at the early summer and at the early autumn. The plant species were classified into three functional groups: grasses, legumes and other species (all other dicots. A two-pool model (ephemeral and base pools derived from the germination patterns was developed to quantify the dynamics of the germinated seed populations. The mean total seed number in the seed bank ranged from 2,915 to 4,782 seed m-2 with higher values in early summer than in early autumn. Mineral fertilizer applications increased the seed-bank size (by 27%, 23% and 46%, for N, P and NP, respectively and modified the composition in both localities. The three plant functional groups showed different potentials for ephemeral and persistent seed-bank production; however, within each plant group, the proportion between the ephemeral and base pool fractions did not change with fertilizer application. These data show that mineral fertilization can have positive effects on the seed-bank size of ungrazed natural pastures, and can be used to improve degraded Mediterranean pastures.

  6. Effect of industrial pollution on seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M.Z.; Qadir, S.A.

    1973-01-01

    The germination behavior of seeds in polluted waters and polluted soil extracts was found to be identical, only a few species behaved differently. Prosopis juliflora, Haloxylon recurvum, Acacia senegal showed best germination in the two conditions but Prosopis juliflora was the most resistant to pollution. In Suaeda fruticosa no germination took place in the control treatment whereas highest germination (70%) was seen in treatment with polluted soil extract of EPLA. Blepharis sindica showed a stimulating effect of polluted water on germination, whereas low germination was observed when their seeds were treated with the soil extract of the same site. 40% germination of Suaeda monoica was seen in polluted water of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., whereas 30% germination was found in a control treatment. Low percentage of germination was found when the seeds of Cassia holosericea were treated with polluted waters of different industries as compared to soil extract treatments of the same industries. Datura alba showed 50, 30 and 10% seed germination in polluted soil extract of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., in control and in polluted water of Darbar Soap Works, respectively. 5 references, 1 table.

  7. Nitric Oxide Regulates Seedling Growth and Mitochondrial Responses in Aged Oat Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Mao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plant cells and play a central role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycles; however, ROS production and regulation for seed germination, seedling growth, as well as mitochondrial responses to abiotic stress, are not clear. This study was conducted to obtain basic information on seed germination, embryo mitochondrial antioxidant responses, and protein profile changes in artificial aging in oat seeds (Avena sativa L. exposed to exogenous nitric oxide (NO treatment. The results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 in mitochondria increased significantly in aged seeds. Artificial aging can lead to a loss of seed vigor, which was shown by a decline in seed germination and the extension of mean germination time (MGT. Seedling growth was also inhibited. Some enzymes, including catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, maintained a lower level in the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH scavenging system. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of some proteins related to the TCA cycle were down-regulated and several enzymes related to mitochondrial ETC were up-regulated. With the application of 0.05 mM NO in aged oat seeds, a protective effect was observed, demonstrated by an improvement in seed vigor and increased H2O2 scavenging ability in mitochondria. There were also higher activities of CAT, GR, MDHAR, and DHAR in the AsA-GSH scavenging system, enhanced TCA cycle-related enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, succinate-CoA ligase, fumarate hydratase, and activated alternative pathways, as the cytochrome pathway was inhibited. Therefore, our results indicated that seedling growth and seed germinability could retain a certain level in aged oat seeds, predominantly depending on the lower NO regulation of the TCA cycle and AsA-GSH. Thus, it could be concluded that the

  8. Seed propagation of Allanblackia floribunda by mechanical pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanical pre-germination treatments were given to the viable seeds: total removal of seed coat, sand-paper scarification and laceration. These were sown in forest topsoil and washed river sand media respectively in completely Randomized Design in the Nursery. Seeds with testa totally removed and sown in forest ...

  9. Clomazone selectivity in cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hiroko Inoue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study objective was to evaluate the selectivity of pre-emergence applications the herbicide clomazone cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate. The 4 x 2 factorial arrangement was adopted (4 seed treatment methods and 2 clomazone dosages, distributed in a randomized block design with 4 repetitions. In treatments where dietholate and zinc acetate were applied, rates of 0.4 kg ha-1 and 8 ml per kg of seeds were used respectively. The clomazone rates used refer to 0.8 and 1.0 kg ha- 1. The cotton cultivar used was the Fiber Max 966 LL. Independent of treatment, all seeds were treated with tiametoxam insecticide and fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M fungicide at rates of 2.24 and 0.08 + 0.03 g per kg of seed, respectively, to control pests early and limit losses caused by pathogens in germination and seedling emergence. Dietholate and zinc acetate treatment had greater initial effect on cotton plants at 21, 30 and 45 days after application. In phytointoxication symptoms were observed for treatment with dietholate and zinc acetate during the evaluation periods. Seeds treated with dietholate, dietholate and zinc acetate or zinc acetate alone provided a higher number of bolls and seed cotton production compared to the control.

  10. Effect of planting dates on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chureerat Satjipanon

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of planting dates on seed yield and quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, during May 2003 to February 2004. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Experimental treatments consisted of four planting dates spaced at about 30-day intervals from 23 May to 23 August 2003.The results revealed that planting date had a significant effect on seed yields and pure germinable seed yields (PGSY of S. guianensis CIAT 184. Plots planted on 23 July produced the highest seed yield and PGSY of 630 and 601 kg/ha, respectively followed by plots planted on 23 June and 23 May (514 and 501; 443 and 421 kg/ha, respectively. Plots planted on 23 August produced the lowest seed yield and PGSY of 269 and 262 kg/ha, respectively. There were no significant differences in seed purity percentage, germination percentage and 1000-seed weight among planting dates. Based on this research, it was concluded that late- July was the optimum planting date for S. guianensis CIAT 184 cultivation for seed production in Northeast Thailand.

  11. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  12. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage.

  13. Selective Seed Abortion Affects the Performance of the Offspring in Bauhinia ungulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENA-ALÍ, JORGE I.; ROCHA, OSCAR J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Under the microgametophytic competition hypothesis, a non-random pattern of seed abortion is expected, in which only the most vigorous seeds reach maturity. In a previous study, it was found that Bauhinia ungulata (Fabaceae) exhibits a pattern of seed abortion dependent on the position of the ovule within the ovary; ovules located in the stylar half of the fruit, close to the point of entry of pollen tubes to the ovary, have a low probability of seed abortion, whereas ovules in the basal half of the fruit are aborted with a high probability. • Methods A series of experimental fruits was generated, in which ovules from either the stylar (treatments 1 and 2) or the basal (treatments 3 and 4) half of fruits were destroyed, to evaluate whether these patterns of selective seed abortion have an effect on the vigour of the offspring in B. ungulata. • Key Results Only 53 % of the seed from control fruits germinated. Seed set in fruits from treatments 1 and 2 showed a significantly lower (33–43 %) percentage of germination; the germination of seeds from fruits in treatments 3 and 4 (49–51 %) did not differ from control seeds. In addition, it was found that the differences in vigour of the offspring are not random with respect to the position of the ovule in the pod. • Conclusions The overall performance of the seeds correlated with their likelihood of maturation. Seeds located at the basal half of the treatment fruits showed lower values of vigour than seeds located on the stylar half. The differences were more marked for early measures of fitness. PMID:15749749

  14. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  15. Development of an automation system for Iodine-125 brachytherapy seed encapsulated by Nd:YAG laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, S.L.; Feher, A.; Sprenger, F.E.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Costa, F.E. da; Calvo, W.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an automation system for iodine-125 radioactive seed production by Nd:YAG laser welding, which has been used successfully in low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatment. This small seed consists of a welded titanium capsule, with 0.8 mm in diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing iodine-125 adsorbed onto a silver rod. The iodine-125 seeds are implanted into the human prostate to irradiate the tumor for cancer treatment. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center, at Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research, Sao Paulo, Brazil (IPEN-CNEN/SP) imports and distributes 36,000 iodine-125 seeds per year, for the clinics and hospitals in the country. However, the Brazilian market potential is now over 8,000 iodine-125 seeds per month. The local production of these iodine-125 radioactive sources became a priority for the Institute, in order to reduce the price and the problems of prostate cancer management. It will permit to spread their use to a larger number of patients in Brazil. On the other hand, the industrial automation plays an important role for iodine-125 seeds in order to increase the productivity, with high quality and assurance, avoiding human factors, implementing and operating with good manufacturing practices (GMP). The technology consists of appliance electronic and electro-mechanical parts and components to control machines and processes. The automation system technology for iodine-125 seed production developed in this work was mainly assembled employing a programmable logic controller (PLC), a stepper motor, an Nd:YAG laser welding machine and a supervisory. The statistical repeatability of correctly encapsulated sealed sources with this automation system is greater than 95%. (authors)

  16. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  17. High power electron accelerators for flue gas treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Flue gas treatment process based on electron beam application for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal was successfully demonstrated in number of laboratories, pilot plants and industrial demonstration facilities. The industrial scale application of an electron beam process for flue gas treatment requires accelerators modules with a beam power 100-500 kW and electron energy range 0.8-1.5 MeV. The most important accelerator parameters for successful flue gas radiation technology implementation are related to accelerator reliability/availability, electrical efficiency and accelerator price. Experience gained in high power accelerators exploitation in flue gas treatment industrial demonstration facility was described and high power accelerator constructions have been reviewed. (author)

  18. [Effects of seed priming on physiology of seed germination and seeding growth of Marsdenia tenacissima under NaCl stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue-feng; Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Li, Chao; Wang, Ping-li; Yang, Sheng-chao; Hang, Yue-yu

    2015-01-01

    To offer the reference and method for salt damage in the cultivation of Marsdenia tenacissima, the seeds of M. tenacissima collected from Maguan city ( Yunnan province) were taken as the test materials to study the effects of different priming materials on improving germination and growth under high-level salt stress condition. Four different treatments, which were GA3, KNO3-KH2PO4, PEG-6000, NaCl, combined with ANOVA were applied to test the performance of germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, MDA, SOD, and CAT. The results showed that the seed germination was obviously inhibited under salt stress and the soaked seeds with different priming materials could alleviate the damage of salt stress. Under these treatments, the activities of SOD, CAT the content of soluble protein significantly increased. While the content of MDA significantly decreased. The maximum index was obtained when treated with 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage increased from 52.67% to 87.33% and the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 219.44 respectively. Comparing with the treatment of 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage of treating with 300 mg x L(-1) GA3 increased from 52.67% to 80.67%, while the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 444.61.

  19. Image-Analysis Based on Seed Phenomics in Sesame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The seed coat (testa structure of twenty-three cultivated (Sesamum indicum L. and six wild sesame (s. occidentale Regel & Heer., S. mulayanum Nair, S. prostratum Retz., S. radiatum Schumach. & Thonn., S. angustifolium (Oliv. Engl. and S. schinzianum Asch germplasm was analyzed from digital and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images with dedicated software using the descriptors for computer based seed image analysis to understand the diversity of seed morphometric traits, which later on can be extended to screen and evaluate improved genotypes of sesame. Seeds of wild sesame species could conveniently be distinguished from cultivated varieties based on shape and architectural analysis. Results indicated discrete ‘cut off values to identify definite shape and contour of seed for a desirable sesame genotype along with the con-ventional practice of selecting lighter colored testa.

  20. The Effect of Osmo and Hormone Priming on Germination and Seed Reserve Utilization of Millet Seeds under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Asadi Aghbolaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of seed priming with osmo and hormone priming on growth and seed reserve utilization of millet seeds under drought stress. Treatments were combinations of 4 levels of drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar and 3 levels of seed priming and control with 3 replications. Results showed that with increase in drought stress, germination components such as germination percentage, germination index, mean time to germination, normal seedling percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight, weight of utilized (mobilized seed and seed reserve utilization efficiency decreased, but seed priming showed lower reduction. The highest germination characteristics and seed reserve utilization was obtained by priming in control conditions. It is concluded that priming results in improvement in germination components of millet in drought stress conditions.

  1. A Methodological Approach for Testing the Viability of Seeds Stored in Short-Term Seed Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. FORTE GIL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient management of ‘active’ seed banks – specifically aimed at the short-term storage at room temperature of seeds to be used locally in conservation/regeneration programmes of endemic or endangered plant species – requires establishing the optimal storage time to maintain high seed viability, for each stored species. In this work, germination of seeds of the halophytes Thalictrum maritimum, Centaurea dracunculifolia and Linum maritimum has been investigated. The seeds had been stored for different periods of time in the seed bank of ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park (Valencia, SE Spain after collection in salt marshes of the Park, where small populations of the three species are present. Seeds of T. maritimum and C. dracunculifolia have a relatively short period of viability at room temperature, and should not be stored for more than three years. On the other hand, L. maritimum seeds maintain a high germination percentage and can be kept at room temperature for up to 10 years. T. maritimum seeds, in contrast to those of the other two species, did not germinate in in vitro tests nor when sown directly on a standard substrate, unless a pre-treatment of the seeds was applied, mechanical scarification being the most effective. These results will help to improve the management of the seed bank, to generate more efficiently new plants for reintroduction and reinforcement of populations of these species in their natural ecosystems within the Natural Park.

  2. Study of Sowing Date and Seed Priming Effect on Seed Yield, Its Components and Some of Agronomic and Qualitative Properties of Two Spring Canola Cultivars in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohagheghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of planting date, cultivar and seed priming on yield, yield components, oil and protein content of seeds of two spring canola cultivars a field experiment was conducted in Bu-Ali Sina University in 2012. The experiment was factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors consisted of sowing dates (14 and 24th March and 3rd April, seed priming treatments (no-primed, primed with water and zinc sulfate solution and two canola cultivars (Hayola401 and RGS003. The evaluated traits were number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000 seeds weight, plant height, oil and protein percentage, yields of seed, oil and biologic and harvest index. The results showed that delay in sowing, except of seed protein percentage, decreased all traits. Seed priming could increase traits of plant height, 1000 seed weight, number of seed per pod, oil percentage and yield and protein percentage in all sowing dates. Seed priming with zinc sulfate solution and water increased the number of pod per plant 16.1 and 10.5 percent, respectively compared to no-primed treatment. The highest seed number per pod was achieved through the priming with water and zinc sulfate solution with an average of 14.3, in the first sowing date for Hayola401 cultivar. Priming with water, especially in the third sowing date increased oil yield by 56 percent in RGS003 cultivar in comparison with its no-primed treatment. Also priming with zinc sulfate and water, increased the harvest index 5.04 and 3.7% respectively compared to no-primed treatment. In general in the case of delay in sowing date in spring rapeseed cultivars especially for RGS003, primed seed preferably with zinc sulfate improves the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the production.

  3. Seed Priming with Melatonin Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Maize under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Li, H.; Song, X.

    2016-01-01

    The effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress by seed priming with melatonin were investigated. Seeds of maize cultivar Nonghua101 were soaked in 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM aerated solution of melatonin for 24 h, and primed seeds were germinated under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with paper media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin was the best performance of all the treatments to seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Then primed with 0.8 mM melatonin or water for 24 h and unprimed seeds were germination under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with sand media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin significantly improved germination energy, germination percentage, seedling vigor index, shoot and root lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, K/sup +/ content, relative water content, proline and total phenolic contents, superoxide dismutase, catalase and phenylalanin ammonia lyase activities; and significantly decreased mean emergence time, Na/sup +/ content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content compared with untreated seeds under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin alleviates the salinity damage to maize and seed priming with melatonin may be an important alternative approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress in maize. (author)

  4. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E M K; Sleem, Amany A; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Shaffie, Nermeen; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2012-02-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, the effects of treatment with pumpkin seed oil on hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (50 mg /kg/day) in rats were studied and compared with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Pumpkin seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg), amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) was given once daily orally for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood glutathione, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity were measured. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. L-NAME administration resulted in a significant increase in BP starting from the second week. Pumpkin seed oil or amlodipine treatment significantly reduced the elevation in BP by L-NAME and normalized the L-NAME-induced ECG changes-namely, prolongation of the RR interval, increased P wave duration, and ST elevation. Both treatments significantly decreased the elevated levels of MDA and reversed the decreased levels of NO metabolites to near normal values compared with the L-NAME-treated group. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal (but not L-NAME-treated) rats. Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO.

  5. Obtention of brachytherapy seeds by sealing process using polymer; Obtencao de sementes de braquiterapia pelo processo de selagem com polimero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lana, Diogo Alberto P.D.; Ferraz, Wilmar B.; Santos, Ana Maria M., E-mail: amms@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Carvalho, Luiz Claudio F.M. Garcia [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment where radioactive seeds or sources are placed near or directly into the tumor thus reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues. Several kinds of seeds have been developed in order to obtain a better dose distribution around them and with a lower cost manufacturing. These seeds consist of an encapsulation (titanium or stainless steel tube), a radionuclide carrier, and X-ray marker. The usual sealing process of the seeds is done with laser welding, but this process can promote radionuclide volatilization. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin and characterizations of two epoxy resins. These resins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Interactions of the resins and of the sealed seeds in a simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and by a counting gamma-rays. (author)

  6. Seed morphology and its taxonomic significance in the family malvaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, R.; Ather, A.

    2016-01-01

    The seed morphological studies of 75 taxa belonging to 6 sub-families of the family Malvaceae were carried out from Pakistan. In Pakistan the family Malvaceae is represented by 6 sub-families viz., Byttnerioideae, Dombeyoideae, Malvoideae, Bombacoideae, Helicteroideae and Sterculioideae. The seed macro and micro morphological characters are examined, using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Detailed seed morphological descriptions, micrographs and keys based on seed characters are also provided. A variety in various quantitative and qualitative seed characters was observed. The micro-morphological characters of seeds are quite significant to strengthen the taxonomic decisions within the family Malvaceae at various levels. The data obtained from the seed morphological characters were analyzed numerically to trace out the phylogenetic affinities for the taxa within the family Malvaceae from Pakistan. (author)

  7. Influence of He-Ne laser irradiation of soybean seeds on seed mycoflora, growth, nodulation, and resistance to Fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouf, S.A.; Abdel-Hady, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Laser irradiation of soybean seeds for 3 min caused a clear reduction in the number of seed-borne fungi which became more pronounced as the irradiation time was extended. Pretreatment of the seeds with methylene blue, methyl red and carmine enhanced the effect of laser. Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria tenuissima, Cercospora kikuchii and Colletotrichum truncatum were completely eliminated when the seeds were pretreated with a dye and irradiated for 10 min. Seed germination was stimulated on exposure of the seed to 1-min irradiation. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid content of developed plants differed, depending on the irradiation dose and dye treatment of the seeds. The number and dry mass of nodules were mostly greater (as compared to the corresponding control), when the seeds irradiated for 1 or 3 min were pretreated with methyl red, chlorophenol red, crystal violet and methylene blue. Irradiation of pre-sowing seeds greatly protected soybean stands against F. solani

  8. The Variability of Seed Viability and Seed Vigour of Mindi (Melia azedarachlinn. from Several Populations in The Community Forest of West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianti Bramasto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The procurement of good quality seeds for the development of mindi (Melia azedarach L. in the community forest is absolutely necessary. The purpose of this research is to investigate the diversity of the viability and seedling vigor of mindi from different populations with various treatments of dormancy breaking. The sample materials were mindi seeds that were collected from 6 locations (6 seed lots or seed sources which were located in the community forest of West Java. There are 10 treatments of dormancy breaking that were applied in this study. The experiment design was Randomized Complete Design (RAL. The breaking dormancy  was focused to the delignification of hard seed coat.  Results showed that the most effective dormancy breaking for mindi seed was soaking in consentrated Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4 as long as 30 to 45 minutes. The first count for germination of mindi was on the 16 day and the final count was on the 31 day.The average value of germination percentage (DB for all seed sources was 40 %, while the highest which is 60% was mindi from Sumedang seed source. The highest value of germination rate that is 6,543%/etmal was seed  from Sumedangand seed from Gambung was the lowest (1,400 %/etmal. Keywords : community forest, Melia azedarach L., variation, viability, vigor.

  9. Catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires on ITO seed/glass by thermal evaporation method: Effects of ITO seed layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsultany, Forat H., E-mail: foratusm@gmail.com; Ahmed, Naser M. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Hassan, Z. [Institute of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    A seed/catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires (ZnO-NWs) on a glass substrate were successfully fabricated using thermal evaporation technique. These nanowires were grown on ITO seed layers of different thicknesses of 25 and 75 nm, which were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Prior to synthesized ITO nanowires, the sputtered ITO seeds were annealed using the continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser at 450 °C in air for 15 min. The effect of seed layer thickness on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of ZnO-NWs were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and UV-Vis spectrophotometer.

  10. Maintenance of lettuce seed viability and counter-action of radiation damage by moisture equilibration-drying treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Bina; Basu, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    Lettuce seeds were subjected to X- and gamma-radiation after moisture equilibration-drying or they were equilibrated with a saturated atmosphere for 24 hrs immediately after irradiation followed by drying back to the original weight. Results showed that moisture-equilibration drying treatment either before or after irradiation counteracts the adverse effects of irradiation. (M.G.B.)

  11. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract: Impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Woolsey, Ian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  12. Maintenance of lettuce seed viability and counter-action of radiation damage by moisture equilibration-drying treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punjabi, B; Basu, R N

    1982-10-01

    Lettuce seeds were subjected to X- and gamma-radiation after moisture equilibration-drying or they were equilibrated with a saturated atmosphere for 24 hrs immediately after irradiation followed by drying back to the original weight. Results showed that moisture-equilibration drying treatment either before or after irradiation counteracts the adverse effects of irradiation. (M.G.B.). 14 refs.

  13. Order of 17 May 1985 on treatment by ionizing radiation of gum-arabic, dehydrated vegetables and cereal flakes and seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Order fixes the licensing conditions for the sale of gum-arabic, dehydrated vegetables and cereal flakes and seeds for use in dairy products, whose microbial decontamination was obtained through exposure to cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma-rays or electron beams with an energy below or equal to 10 MeV. (NEA) [fr

  14. Tillage and residue burning affects weed populations and seed banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, S; Sindel, B M; Jessop, R S

    2006-01-01

    An integrated weed management approach requires alternative management practices to herbicide use such as tillage, crop rotations and cultural controls to reduce soil weed seed banks. The objective of this study was to examine the value of different tillage practices and stubble burning to exhaust the seed bank of common weeds from the northern grain region of Australia. Five tillage and burning treatments were incorporated in a field experiment, at Armidale (30 degrees 30'S, 151 degrees 40'E), New South Wales, Australia in July 2004 in a randomized block design replicated four times. The trial was continued and treatments repeated in July 2005 with all the mature plants from the first year being allowed to shed seed in their respective treatment plots. The treatments were (i) no tillage (NT), (ii) chisel ploughing (CP), (iii) mould board ploughing (MBP), (iv) wheat straw burning with no tillage (SBNT) and (v) wheat straw burning with chisel ploughing (SBC). Soil samples were collected before applying treatments and before the weeds flowered to establish the seed bank status of the various weeds in the soil. Wheat was sown after the tillage treatments. Burning treatments were only initiated in the second year, one month prior to tillage treatments. The major weeds present in the seed bank before initiating the trial were Polygonum aviculare, Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. Tillage promoted the germination of other weeds like Hibiscus trionum, Medicago sativa, Vicia sp. and Phalaris paradoxa later in the season in 2004 and Convolvulus erubescens emerged as a new weed in 2005. The MBP treatment in 2004 reduced the weed biomass to a significantly lower level of 55 g/m2 than the other treatments of CP (118 g/m2) and NT plots (196 g/m2) (P < 0.05). However, in 2005 SBC and MBP treatments were similar in reducing the weed biomass. In 2004, the grain yield trend of wheat was significantly different between CP and NT, and MBP and NT (P < 0.05) with maximum yield of 5898

  15. Do Tillage Methods Affect Germination and Species Similarity of Soil Weed Seeds Bank?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahgholi Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural practices such as tillage used for crop production influence the composition of the weed seed bank in the soil. In order to investigate the effects of different tillage methods on seed bank properties, species diversity and similarity, two laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out as randomized complete block design with four replications in 2011. Treatments included: once tillage per year (T1, twice tillage per year (T2, more than twice tillage (T3 and no tillage (T4. Laboratory results showed that the T3 and T4 treatments had the highest and the lowest observed seeds numbers, respectively. Between the laboratory observed weed seeds, the maximum weed seed numbers were Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus in the T3 treatment, while Chenopodium album, Polygonum aviculare and Cuscuta campestris had the highest seed numbers in the T2 treatment. At the greenhouse study, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus and Hordeum morinum in the T2 treatment were dominant species. The highest diversity was observed in the T2 treatment, and Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were dominant species in the T2 and T3 treatments. Maximum species similarity index was achieved from the T1 and T3 treatments. Thereby this study concluded that increasing of tillage number could affect the similarity index of weed seeds and subsequently alters the weed community composition.

  16. Qualidade fisiológica e tratamentos de sementes de cedrela fissilis procedentes do sul do Brasil Physiological quality seeds and treatments of cedrela fissilis seeds from south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Lazarotto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cedro (Cedrela fissilis, procedentes de localidades do sul do Brasil, através de testes de vigor e avaliar diferentes tratamentos nas sementes para controle de patógenos e para promoção da germinação da espécie. Para tanto, foram utilizadas seis amostras com procedências dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná, as quais foram submetidas à determinação de teor de água, teste de germinação e primeira contagem, envelhecimento acelerado (testando períodos de exposição às condições de envelhecimento, emergência em viveiro e tratamento de sementes. Os tratamentos utilizados para controle de patógenos foram: testemunha (T0; físico com calor seco a 70°C±3°C por 48 horas (T1; extrato aquoso de alho (Allium sativum (T2; biológico à base de Trichoderma spp. - Agrotich Plus® (T3; e químico com fungicida protetor Captan (T4. A germinação variou de 56 a 87%; o período de 48 h sob temperatura de 41 °C foi o mais eficiente para estratificar as amostras em níveis de vigor; a emergência variou de 51 a 88% e as variáveis de desempenho de plântulas analisadas conseguiram estratificar as amostras em níveis de vigor. Quanto ao tratamento de sementes, o calor seco e o tratamento à base de extrato de alho se mostram eficientes no controle de microrganismos em semente de cedro, sem prejuízos ao vigor destas.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physiological quality of Cedrela fissilis seeds, from different origins, using different vigor tests and evaluating different seeds treatments for control of pathogens and to promote the germination of the species. Therefore, six samples from different places in states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná were used, which were subjected to determination of water content, germination and first count of germination, accelerated aging (testing different periods

  17. Effect of Estrogen and Progeterone on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy detection in dairy cattle is an integral part of a successful animal husbandry practice. A simple seed germination technique (Punyakoti test comprises observation of differential seed germination response of wheat seeds to diluted fresh urine samples as reflected by significant inhibition of germination percentage in pregnant cow urine when compared to non pregnant cow urine. Hormone metabolites excreted through urine might affect the seed germination in pregnant cow urine. In the present study an attempt was made to test the effect of hormones (in their natural forms at different concentrations of estrogen (17-ß estradiol and progesterone on wheat and green gram germination. Stock solutions of estrogen and progesterone were prepared in alcohol (1mg/ml and serial dilutions made using distilled water to get the concentrations of T1=10, T2=1, T3=0.1 and T4=0.01 μg/ml respectively in treatment groups. About 15 seeds each of wheat and green gram were taken in sterile Petri dishes into which 15ml of each test preparation was poured. The treatments were compared with distilled water and alcohol controls. The study was conducted for a period of five days during which seed germination was observed after 48 hrs and shoot lengths were also measured by the end of study. The average seed germination and shoot length in treatment groups did not vary significantly (P>0.05 when compared with that of control groups. Thus from the present study, it can be concluded that estrogen and progesterone in their natural form will not affect seed germination and shoot length. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 241-242

  18. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to large blood vessels using 1.5T MRI-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation combined with iodine-125 radioactive seed implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zheng-Yu, E-mail: linsinlan@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Chen, Jin, E-mail: snow8968851@163.com [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Deng, Xiu-Fen, E-mail: dxf197286@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: The objective is to study the technology associated with and feasibility of the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent to large blood vessels using 1.5T MRI-guided radiofrequency ablation combined with iodine-125 (I-125) radioactive seed implantation. Methods: Sixteen patients with a total of 24 HCC lesions (average maximum diameter: 2.35 {+-} 1.03 cm) were pathologically confirmed by biopsy or clinically diagnosed received 1.5T MRI-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment. Each patient had one lesion adjacent to large blood vessels ({>=}3 mm); after the ablation, I-125 radioactive seeds were implanted in the portions of the lesions that were adjacent to the blood vessels. Results: All the ablations and I-125 radioactive seed implantations were successful; a total of 118 seeds were implanted. The ablated lesions exhibited hypointense signals on the T2WI sequence with a thin rim of hyperintense signals; they also exhibited significant hyperintense signals on the T1WI sequence with clear boundaries. The average follow-up period was 11.1 {+-} 6.2 months. There were 23 complete responses and one partial response in the 24 lesions. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels of the patients significantly decreased. Conclusion: The 1.5T MRI-guided RFA combined with I-125 radioactive seed implantation for the treatment of HCC adjacent to large blood vessels is an effective technology.

  19. Effectiveness of post-fire seeding at the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In August 2007, the Milepost 17 and Wautoma fires burned a combined total of 77,349 acres (31,302 hectares) of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE), part of the Hanford Reach National Monument administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Mid-Columbia National Wildlife Refuge. In 2009, the USFWS implemented a series of seeding and herbicide treatments to mitigate potential negative consequences of these fires, including mortality of native vegetation, invasion of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), and soil erosion. Treatments included combinations of seeding (drill and aerial), herbicides, and one of six different mixtures of species. Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) also was planted by hand in a small area in the southern end of the fire perimeter. Due to differences in plant communities prior to the fire and the multiple treatments applied, treatments were grouped into five treatment associations including mid-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation drill seedings, high-elevation drill seeding, and no seeding treatments. Data collected at the mid-elevation aerial seedings indicate that the seeding did not appear to increase the density of seedlings compared to the non-seeded area in 2010. At the low-elevation aerial seedings, there were significantly more seedlings at seeded areas as compared to non-seeded areas. Low densities of existing perennial plants probably fostered a low-competition environment enabling seeds to germinate and emerge in 2010 during adequate moisture. Low-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant emergence of seeded grasses in 2009 and 2010 and forbs in 2010. This was likely due to adequate precipitation and that the drill seeding assured soil-to-seed contact. At the high-elevation drill seeding, which was implemented in 2009, there were a high number of seedlings in 2010. Transplanting of A. tridentata following the fires resulted in variable

  20. Effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of Beech (Fagus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مریم قربانی

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of beech according to EN113 and ASTM-D1037 standards respectively. The heat treatment with raw cotton seed oil was carried out in the cylinder at the temperatures of 130 and 170oC for 30 and 60 minutes. Oil uptake, density, volumetric swelling, water absorption and weight loss exposed to decay were measured. Oil uptake at 30 and 60 min were determined 10.5 and 13.3 Kg/cm3 respectively. Oil-heat treated samples at 30min and 130°C indicated the maximum density with 87.7% increase. According to results, oil-heat treatment improved water repellency and dimensional stability. Water absorption in 130°C and 60 minutes decreased 76% in comparison with control. Decay resistance of oil soaked samples for 60minutes was 80.2% more than control samples. Oil-heat treatment compared with oil treatment improved decay resistance, this effect was significant at 30 min. The temperature rise of oil–heat treatment at 30 minutes improved decay resistance, but the improvement under same level of temperature with increase time was not significant.

  1. Analytical studies of constraints on the performance for EEHG FEL seed lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Laser seeding technique have been envisioned to produce nearly transform-limited pulses at soft X-ray FELs. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) is a promising, recent technique for harmonic generation with an excellent up-conversion to very high harmonics, from the standpoint of electron beam physics. This paper explores the constraints on seed laser performance for reaching wavelengths of 1 nm. We show that the main challenge in implementing the EEHG scheme at extreme harmonic factors is the requirement for accurate control of temporal and spatial quality of the seed laser pulse. For example, if the phase of the laser pulse is chirped before conversion to an UV seed pulse, the chirp in the electron beam microbunch turns out to be roughly multiplied by the harmonic factor. In the case of a Ti:Sa seed laser, such factor is about 800. For such large harmonic numbers, generation of nearly transform-limited soft X-ray pulses results in challenging constraints on the Ti:Sa laser. In fact, the relative discrepancy of the time-bandwidth product of the seed-laser pulse from the ideal transform-limited performance should be no more than one in a million. The generated electron beam microbunching is also very sensitive to distortions of the seed laser wavefront, which are also multiplied by the harmonic factor. In order to have minimal reduction of the FEL input coupling factor, it is desirable that the size-angular bandwidth product of the UV seed laser beam be very close to the ideal i.e. diffraction-limited performance in the waist plane at the middle of the modulator undulator. (orig.)

  2. Analytical studies of constraints on the performance for EEHG FEL seed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-11-01

    Laser seeding technique have been envisioned to produce nearly transform-limited pulses at soft X-ray FELs. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) is a promising, recent technique for harmonic generation with an excellent up-conversion to very high harmonics, from the standpoint of electron beam physics. This paper explores the constraints on seed laser performance for reaching wavelengths of 1 nm. We show that the main challenge in implementing the EEHG scheme at extreme harmonic factors is the requirement for accurate control of temporal and spatial quality of the seed laser pulse. For example, if the phase of the laser pulse is chirped before conversion to an UV seed pulse, the chirp in the electron beam microbunch turns out to be roughly multiplied by the harmonic factor. In the case of a Ti:Sa seed laser, such factor is about 800. For such large harmonic numbers, generation of nearly transform-limited soft X-ray pulses results in challenging constraints on the Ti:Sa laser. In fact, the relative discrepancy of the time-bandwidth product of the seed-laser pulse from the ideal transform-limited performance should be no more than one in a million. The generated electron beam microbunching is also very sensitive to distortions of the seed laser wavefront, which are also multiplied by the harmonic factor. In order to have minimal reduction of the FEL input coupling factor, it is desirable that the size-angular bandwidth product of the UV seed laser beam be very close to the ideal i.e. diffraction-limited performance in the waist plane at the middle of the modulator undulator. (orig.)

  3. Radiation mutagenesis in lavender. I.Dose and emissive power as affecting the radiosensitivity of lavender seeds in gamma-ray treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, R.

    1977-01-01

    The radiosensitivity has been investigated of dormant seeds of the widely distributed aboriginal Hemus and Karlovo varieties and of the Soviet Stepnaya lavender variety in treatment with gamma rays using 60 Co. Doses within 1 to 100 kRad are applied at different emissive power of the emitter. Both irradiated and nonirradiated control seeds are gibberellic acid treated. The dynamics of seed sprouting is followed up. The number of survived plants and peculiarities of their growth are registered. The radiosensitivity of Lavandula vera D.C. seeds is modified by the emissive power in equal doses applied. Stepnaya variety showed highest resistance, followed by Karlovo and Hemus varieties. Doses are ascertained with a stimulating, inhibiting, semilethal and lethal effect in regard to the separate varietoes. Both stimulation and injuring prove to be of saltatory character. The radiation injuring of doses with an inhibitory, semilethal and lethal effect positively correlate with the dose of all tested emissive powers of the gamma-emitter. (author)

  4. Response of sunflower to various pre-germination techniques for breaking seed dormancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, S.; Khan, M.A.; Uddin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Seed dormancy is considered to be a serious constraint in sunflower seed production. Viable seeds sometimes do not germinate even in the presence of favorable environmental conditions. Such seeds are suspected to be dormant. The study was conducted under controlled/laboratory conditions during spring 2010 at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The objective of the study was to evaluate some techniques to convert a seed from dormant to non-dormant germinable state. Dormant seeds of 21 sunflower hybrids were treated with three hot water treatments (100/80 degree C) and four chemicals potassium nitrate, 0.2%, thiourea, 0.5%, ethanol, 25%, acetone, 25% for breaking seed dormancy .The untreated seed was taken as control. Soaking seeds in hot water (80 degree C) for 15 minutes followed by one day dry and seed treatment with acetone were found to be the most effective and successful techniques in converting the seed from dormant to non-dormant state. (author)

  5. Electron beam application in gas waste treatment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haifeng

    2003-01-01

    In the most recent decade, electron beam waste treatment technology attracted serious attention from environment policymaker and industrial leaders in power industry in China. Starting in middle of 1980's, Chinese research institute began experiment of electron beam treatment on flue gas. By the end of 2000, two 10,000 cubic meters per hour small scale electron beam gas purifying station were established in Sichuang province and Beijing. Several electron beam gas purifying demonstration projects are under construction. With robust economy and strong energy demand, needless to say, in near future, electron beam gas purifying technology will have a bright prospect in China. (author)

  6. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), and ferrihydrite (Fe 5 HO 8 · 4H 2 O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn 2+ , which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band (∼ 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe 3+ present in the goethite at g ∼ 2, and in the seeds exist free radicals at g = 2:004, at room temperature

  7. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 8} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn{sup 2+}, which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band ({approx} 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe{sup 3+} present in the goethite at g {approx} 2, and in the seeds

  8. Assessing the value and pest management window provided by neonicotinoid seed treatments for management of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) in the Upper Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Christian H; Alford, Adam M; Cullen, Eileen M; Hodgson, Erin W; Knodel, Janet J; McCornack, Brian; Potter, Bruce D; Spigler, Madeline I; Tilmon, Kelley; Welch, Kelton

    2017-10-01

    A 2-year, multi-state study was conducted to assess the benefits of using soybean seed treated with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam to manage soybean aphid in the upper Midwestern USA and compare this approach with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that included monitoring soybean aphids and treating with foliar-applied insecticide only when the economic threshold was reached. Concentrations of thiamethoxam in soybean foliage were also quantified throughout the growing season to estimate the pest management window afforded by insecticidal seed treatments. Both the IPM treatment and thiamethoxam-treated seed resulted in significant reductions in cumulative aphid days when soybean aphid populations reached threshold levels. However, only the IPM treatment resulted in significant yield increases. Analysis of soybean foliage from thiamethoxam-treated seeds indicated that tissue concentrations of thiamethoxam were statistically similar to plants grown from untreated seeds beginning at the V2 growth stage, indicating that the period of pest suppression for soybean aphid is likely to be relatively short. These data demonstrate that an IPM approach, combining scouting and foliar-applied insecticide where necessary, remains the best option for treatment of soybean aphids, both in terms of protecting the yield potential of the crop and of break-even probability for producers. Furthermore, we found that thiamethoxam concentrations in foliage are unlikely to effectively manage soybean aphids for most of the pests' activity period across the region. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Viability of Macrotyloma axillare cv. Guatá seeds under chemical scarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleize Rocha Terra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the associacion of grasses and legumes results in a good forage yield as well as a good animal performance due to maintenance of adequate levels of crude protein (CP in the animal diet, both the direct effect of the ingestion of legumes, or even through indirect effect of the introduction of nitrogen by legumes in the pasture, thereby increasing the production of forage mass. However, the seeds of legumines have the so-called hardness seeds or dormant according to their coats impermeable to water. The hardness of the seed prevents the germination of the same since these seeds have a hard shell impervious to water and gas exchange, not allowing the imbibition of water by the seed, or embryo oxygenation. This dormancy may be broken by various known methods such as scarification, promoting cracks in the seed coat allowing the entry of water therein. In the case of Macrotyloma axillare exposure of seeds to scarification method has proven to be an efficient way to break dormancy and promoting seed germination. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the viability of seeds after suffering dormancy by immersion seeds in sulfuric acid. The experiment to break dormancy Macrotyloma axillares cv. Guatá was conducted in the laboratory of Plant Physiology at the Intituto de Zootecnia in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State, using the seeds that were stored in a cold room with temperatures between 10-12 ºC, relative humidity (RH 30-33% and no light. The treatments studied were: control, chemical scarification with sulfuric acid for 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. We used a completely randomized design with two replications, being 100 seeds each repetition. After treatment the seeds were under to tetrazolium test resulting in viable seeds and seed viability. So the result of the tetrazolium test was obtained by average percentage of viable seeds, found in the repeats tested, respecting the maximum tolerances set out in Brazilian Rules for Seed

  10. DETERMINATION OF INHIBITORS, DORMANCY BREAKING AND SEED HEALTH IN CUTIEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Gomes Neves2

    2013-12-01

    was completely randomized, factorial 2 x 5, with two types of seed from freshly harvested fruits and remnants and five pre-germination treatments. The seed coat removal promotes increased germination and seed vigor derived from harvested fruits. Fungi identified in the cutieira seeds were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp.

  11. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  12. Protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against genotoxicity induced by azathioprine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Elfiky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin is a leafy green vegetable; it belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Pumpkin seed oil supplementation can prevent changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of azathioprine. Oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment of azathioprine was effective in the reduction of the frequencies of Mn-PCEs, decreased the DNA fragmentation, total sperm abnormalities and significantly increased sperm count, percentage of PCEs, and enhanced the ratio of PCEs to NCEs. However, random amplified polymorphism of DNA (RAPD showed distinct differences in animal groups intoxicated with azathioprine before and after pumpkin seed oil treatment, which reflected a DNA protective effect of pumpkin seed oil. Depletion of glutathione content in the testis was also observed in azathioprine treated mice, which was improved by an oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment with azathioprine.

  13. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, P.; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T 2 ). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T 2 ) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds

  14. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  15. Discrimination of transgenic soybean seeds by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Discrimination of genetically modified organisms is increasingly demanded by legislation and consumers worldwide. The feasibility of a non-destructive discrimination of glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybean seeds and their hybrid descendants was examined by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system combined with chemometrics. Principal component analysis (PCA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) models with the first and second derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation pre-treatments were applied to classify soybean seeds based on genotype. Results demonstrated clear differences among glyphosate-resistant, hybrid descendants and conventional non-transformed soybean seeds could easily be visualized with an excellent classification (accuracy was 88.33% in validation set) using the LS-SVM and the spectra with SNV pre-treatment. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy techniques together with chemometrics would be a promising technique to distinguish transgenic soybean seeds from non-transformed seeds with high efficiency and without any major sample preparation.

  16. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  17. The Effect of Seed Size on Seed Vigor Indices of Different Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tavakoli Kakhki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germination and beneficial seedling establishment is affected by different seed vigor indices. In order to study the effect of seed size on seed vigor indices of wheat, a factorial experiment with two factors was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications at the Agricultural Natural Resources Research Center Lab of Khorasan Razavi. The first factor was thirteen genotypes of wheat in three types of growth, containing winter, facultative and spring and the second factor was seed size in four levels including 3, 2.5, 2 and 1.5 millimeter. Germination percentage, germination rate, shoots and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio characteristics were investigated. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of wheat cultivars and seed size on traits was significant (p≤ 0.01 but interaction effect of seed size and wheat cultivar was significant (p≤ 0.01 only for shoot and root length, seedling growth rate and shoot:root length ratio. The highest and lowest seedling growth rate was (15.85 and 8.23 mg dry weight/germinal seedling that they were related to 3 and 1.5mm seed size, respectively. According to these observations the most and least percentage and germination rate was related to these seed size treatments. Correlation coefficient of seed size and seedling growth rate was highly significant (r=0.85 p≤ 0.01. Stepwise regression method indicated that the seed size (x1 and shoot length (x2 as independent variables could be described (r2=0.84 seedling growth rate as a dependent variable in y= -5.000955+(5.128078x1+(0.78494x2 equation. Keywords: Seedling growth rate, Germination rate, Correlation, Regression

  18. Seed germination of Phillyrea angustifolia L., a species of difficult propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mira, Sara; Arnal, Alberto; Pérez-García, Félix

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The purpose was to determine the type of dormancy and the optimal germination conditions of Phillyrea angustifolia (Oleaceae) seeds. Area of study: Germination requirements of P. angustifolia seeds collected from wild plants growing in the province of Ávila (Central Spain) were studied. Materials and methods: Seed water uptake was measured. Seeds with and without an endocarp were germinated at different temperatures, and several treatments were tested. Main results: The lignified endocarp interferes mechanically with the emergence of the radicle, and the treatments that achieved the highest germination percentages were the total removal of the endocarp with pliers (84%) or the immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min (97%). Scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid did not significantly increase germination compared to the control seeds, and treatments with dry heat or wet heat were detrimental to seed germination. The optimum temperature for germination was 15 ºC. A pre-sowing treatment of soaking in distilled water for 24 h slightly increased germination speed. Neither cold stratification at 5 ºC nor soaking in a gibberellic acid solution improved seed germination. Research highlights: Phillyrea angustifolia seeds have physiological dormancy – that is, the embryo does not have enough growth potential to overcome the mechanical restriction of the lignified endocarp. The seeds do not exhibit physical dormancy, given their water-permeable lignified endocarp. Our results suggest that the optimum germination protocol for P. angustifolia would be the total removal of the endocarp or immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min, followed by immersion in distilled water for 24 h and then seed incubation at 15 ºC in light or darkness.

  19. Effect of seed collection times and pretreatment methods on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Seeds were subjected to four treatment methods each at four ... were deep-green to brown while second collection was done when all .... discarded and the intact plump seeds were surface sterilized with .... Analysis of variance table for cumulative germination of Terminalia sericea for first seed collection.

  20. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Shulei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2)>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2)>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  1. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanping Han

    Full Text Available High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs. Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2>10% were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918 involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE and germination percentage (GP, and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440 that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360 mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  2. Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Beekman, W.

    2010-01-01

    Filtrates from crushed Moringa oleifera seeds were tested for their effects on growth and Photosystem II efficiency of the common bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa populations exhibited good growth in controls and treatments with 4- and 8-mg crushed Moringa seeds per

  3. SEED VIGOR TESTING OF SOME DOMESTIC SOYBEAN CULTIVARS (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Andrić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed ageing is an important cause of low vigor and bad field emergence, especially in adverse seedbed conditions. Therefore, in this investigation, soybean seed vigor was tested by four laboratory tests (germination energy GE, standard germination SG, cold test CT, electrical conductivity EC and in field trial, as well (early planting dates Epd and optimal planting dates Opd. The soybean seed of 5 cultivars from Agricultural Institute Osijek, produced in the 3 years (1999., 2000., 2001. was used in the investigation. The seed was stored in a warehouse conditions for 6, 18 or 30 months prior to testing. Tested soybean seed showed significant differences in seed vigor influenced by seed age, seed treatment with fungicide (Vitavax 200 FF, cultivar and planting date. High quality seed with GE and SG over 85%,performed quite well in both planting dates, as well as seeds with the CT over 70% or with EC under 42 μScm-1g-1. On the contrary, considering seed with reduced vigor there is a very great possibility of reduced FE especially in Epd. However, seed treatment with fungicide and sowing in optimal seedbed conditions can significantly contribute to improvement of soybean seed performance and stand establishment. Correlation analyses showed that all tested seed vigor parameters were significantly connected (sign. level 99%. At early planting, the strongest correlation was established between the field emergence and CT (untreated seed, r=0.949** and for treated seed r=0.951** whereas in optimal planting date was between the field emergence and SG (for untreated seed r=0. 938** and for treated seed r=0.942**. Laboratory seed health testing showed significant differences in fungal disease intensity influenced by fungicide seed treatment, cultivar and seed age. Total seed infection and infection with Fusarium spp. was adversely correlated with all vigor parameters. All tested vigor parameters of soybean seed had influence on grain yield indirectly by

  4. Seed disinfection effect of atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma on Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Terumi; Takai, Yuichiro; Kawaradani, Mitsuo; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Tanimoto, Hideo; Misawa, Tatsuya; Kusakari, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Gas plasma generated and applied under two different systems, atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma, was used to investigate the inactivation efficacy on the seedborne pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, which had been artificially introduced to brassicaceous seeds. Treatment with atmospheric plasma for 10 min markedly reduced the R. solani survival rate from 100% to 3% but delayed seed germination. The low pressure plasma treatment reduced the fungal survival rate from 83% to 1.7% after 10 min and the inactivation effect was dependent on the treatment time. The seed germination rate after treatment with the low pressure plasma was not significantly different from that of untreated seeds. The air temperature around the seeds in the low pressure system was lower than that of the atmospheric system. These results suggested that gas plasma treatment under low pressure could be effective in disinfecting the seeds without damaging them.

  5. The synthetic activities of TiO2-moringa oleifera seed powder in the treatment of the wastewater of the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaini; Legiso; Trilestari

    2018-04-01

    To process the coal wastewater, the combination of chemical based technology of Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) of a strong oxidizer using TiO2 photocatalyst and biological treatment of moringa seed powder (Moringa oleifera) is used in the composite form. AOP can be used as an alternative treatment of coal wastewater which is quite economical and environmentally friendly. The XRD results of TiO2 powder and the synthesis of TiO2 - is moringa seed powder in the form of tetragonal crystals. The degradation results of the quality of the coal wastewater using TiO2 powder reached a decrease of (TSS, Fe, Mn, Zn, Hg, Cu, Co, Cr, Al and Ni) by an average of 70% and the increase of pH value of 7 at 200 minute stirring time. The decrease of the wastewater quality using the synthesis of TiO2- moringa seed powder by using sunlight and without sunlight is detected negative (-) at 200 minute stirring time.

  6. Embolization of an iodine-125 radioactive seed from the prostate gland into the right ventricle: An unusual pattern of seed migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, Michael H.; Wong, William W.; Vora, Sujay A.; Ward, Lynn D.; Nguyen, Ba D.

    2009-01-01

    Transperineal permanent brachytherapy using iodine-125 or palladium-103 seeds is a standard treatment modality for localized prostate cancer. Migration of seeds to the lungs is a common phenomenon, whereas migration of seeds to the right ventricle is a rare event. We report a case of iodine-125 seed migration to the right ventricle as demonstrated by chest CT scan and add to the very few published reports on this finding. These rare patients did not suffer adverse effects from such event.

  7. Medicago Scutellata Seed Dormancy Breaking by Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari Meisam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study dormancy breaking of a hard-coated plant seed, Medicago scutellata, was investigated. The ultrasonic waves effect on the seed germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length and stalk length growth was assessed. Six treatments of waves exposure periods including 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 minutes were tested under laboratorial conditions. Statistical analyses were done at probability level of 0.01. Results revealed that the ultrasonic waves have a significantly positive effect on the seed dormancy breaking, but there was no linear correlation between the increasing times of exposure with any of the growth features. The best treatment for germination percentage and germination rate was the 7-minute one and the 3-minute one was the best for radicle length growth. Treatments of 3, 5 and 7 minutes had the same effect on stalk length growth and were better than all other treatments. The 9-minute treatment had a negative effect, even lessening the growth of all of the assessed features in comparison with the control treatment.

  8. Effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of alfalfa seeds on fodder and seed yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, Z.; Topchieva, A.; Michev, G.; Simeonova, L.; Stoyanov, S.

    1983-01-01

    The study was carried out at the experimental base of the Fodder Institute of Feeds, Pleven, with alfalfa cv. Pleven 6 in three field trials. The effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of air dry seeds at rates of 1000, 1300 and 1600 R on the yield produced was studied in the first trial (1980-1982). The effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of the seeds on seed production was studied in the second trial. Gamma-ray doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 R and three sowing rates (3, 5 and 10 kg/ha) were tested. The after effect of gamma-irradiation on the progeny was studied in the first trial (1981-1982). It was found that the treatment tested had a stimulating effect on seed production yields. Highest stimulating effect for the period of investigation, on the average, was observed with the 1500 R dose and the 3 kg/ha sowing rate. The same treatment produced highest net income. The gamma-ray doses tested had no radiation after-effect on the plant progeny. Sowing rates had a considerable effect on seed yield. In this respect the 3 kg/ha rate surpasses the 5 and 10 kg/ha rates by 6.00 and 19.64%, on the average. The 1000, 1300 and 1600 R gamma-ray doses had no stimulating effect on fodder yield

  9. Electron-beam and microwave treatment of some microbial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Ferdes, O.S.; Minea, R.; Tirlea, A.; Badea, M.; Plamadeala, S.; Ferdes, M.

    1998-01-01

    The experimental results concerning the combined effects of microwaves and accelerated electron beams on various microbial strains such as E. coli, Salmonella sp. and Monascus purpureus are presented. A special designed microwave applicator with a 2.45 GHz frequency CW magnetron of 850 maximum output power and with associate electronics that allow to control the microwave power, the current intensity, and the exposure time was used. The electron-beam irradiation was performed at different irradiation doses and at a dose rate of 1.5 - 2.0 kGy/min by using a linac at a mean electron energy about 6 MeV, mean bean current of 10 μA, pulse period of 3.5 μs and repetition frequency 100 Hz. The experiments were carried out in 5 variants: microwave treatment; electron-beam irradiation; microwaves followed by electron beam; electrons followed by microwaves; and simultaneous application of microwaves and electron beam. The microbiocidal effect was found to be enhanced by additional use of microwave energy to electron beam irradiation. Enhancement of inactivation rate is only remarkable for the microwave treatment or simultaneous electron beam and microwave irradiation at a temperature above the critical value at which microorganisms begin to perish by heat. Simultaneous irradiation with electron beam and microwaves results in a reduction of temperature and time as well as in the decrease of the upper limit of required electron beam absorbed dose for an assumed microbiological quality parameter. The results obtained indicate the occurrence of a synergistic effect of the two physical fields on a non-thermal basis. Hence, combined microwave-electron beam treatment may be applied as an effective method to reduce microbial load

  10. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  11. tannery wastes water treatment using moringa stenopetala seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    High amount of heavy metal ions like Cr in the environment has been harmful for animal and human health. Bioadsorption of ... Hence, in this study the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract ... seaweed or plants that exhibit adsorptive.

  12. Some aspects of the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of two Savanna tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Agboola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies were made on some aspects of the seed germination and seedling growth of two multipurpose trees. These include the effect of pre sowing treatments, seed sizes and gibberellic acid on the germination of seeds and seedling growth. The tree species include Prosopis africana (Guil & Perr Taub and Dialium guineense (wild. Two seed sizes designated small- size (Ss and Big-size (Bs were identified in the seed. The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 had a greater significance effect (P < 0.05 on seed germination of both D. guineense and P. africana seeds. The big size seeds had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the seed germination when compared to the small size seeds. The hydration/dehydration, pre sowing treatments on the seeds did not have any significant effects on germination.

  13. Therapeutic value of 3-D printing template-assisted 125I-seed implantation in the treatment of malignant liver tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han T

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tao Han,1,* Xiaodan Yang,1,* Ying Xu,2,* Zhendong Zheng,1,* Ying Yan,2 Ning Wang2 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of Radiotherapy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, Shenyang, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To explore the therapeutic value of 3-D printing template-assisted 125I-seed implantation in the treatment of malignant liver tumors.Materials and methods: Fifteen liver cancer patients with 47 total lesions were treated with 3-D printing template-assisted radioactive seed implantation (group A, and 25 liver-tumor patients with 66 total lesions were treated with 125I-seed implantation without a template auxiliary (group B. Operation time, in-hospital time, operation complications, dose distribution, and response rate (number were compared between the two groups. Results: Shorter operation times and better dose distribution were observed in group A than in group B, and the differences were statistically significant. The response rate after 2 months was 86.7% (13 of 15 in group A and 84% (21 of 25 in group B; differences between the two groups were not significant.Conclusion: Application of 3-D printing template-assisted radioactive seed implantation in the treatment of malignant liver tumors can help shorten operation time and optimize radiation-dose distribution, is worthy of further study, and has clinical significance. Keywords: brachytherapy, stereotactic techniques, iodine isotopes, liver, carcinoma 

  14. Utilization of Durian Seed Flour as Filler Ingredient of Meatball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Malini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Durian seed flour contains starch consisted of amylose and amylopectin like tapioca flour, so it can be utilized as a filler in meatball production. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the nutrient content and quality of durian seed flour, the best level of durian seed flour addition to the meatball production, and the quality of beef meatball during storage in room temperature and refrigerator. Complete randomized design (CRD was used with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments used different filler ingredients consisted of: 1 100% tapioca, 2 50% tapioca + 50% durian seed flour, and 3 100% durian seed flour utilization. The results showed that durian seed flour could affect the protein levels and hardness of beef meatballs. In the organoleptic test, the addition of durian seed flour had no effect on the appearance of the color, flavor, aroma, and texture. The meatballs with 100% durian seed flour had the lowest hardness. The protein content of the meatballs with 100% durian seed flour was the highest. The used of 50% durian seed flour gave the best effect to beef meatball during storage. Meatball could be stored up to 8 h in room temperature while refrigerator could keep it longer up to 12 d. It was concluded that the addition 50% durian seed flour may substitute tapioca flour as filler ingredient of beef meatball.

  15. A novel use of Moringa oleifera seed powder in enhancing the primary treatment of paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulaadjoul, Soumia; Zemmouri, Hassiba; Bendjama, Zoubida; Drouiche, Nadjib

    2018-05-02

    In this study, Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) performance as an eco-friendly coagulant in the enhanced primary treatment of paper mill effluent was investigated. Its performance in terms of turbidity removal and COD abatement was examined. Local M. oleifera seed powder from ADRAR-city, South of Algeria, was used. Conventional jar tests were conducted for enhancing the primary treatment of paper mill effluent from paper factory. For this reason, comparative coagulation tests were performed using aluminum sulfate (alum). Indeed, in terms of turbidity abatement, 96.02% and 97.1% were obtained for Moringa and alum, respectively. However, in the case of COD abatement, the abatement rate of M. oleifera seeds was slightly higher than that of alum, 97.28% and 92.67%, respectively. Because M. oleifera is a natural resource that is locally available, an eco-friendly coagulant, non-toxic, and biodegradable and does not affect the pH of water; thus, its use allows to avoid numerous disadvantages of conventional coagulants like alum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds: its physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, A N

    1972-12-01

    The germination and pregermination ethylene production of Grand Rapids lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) incubated at 20 C after a red light treatment are inhibited if the seeds are first imbibed at 30 C for 36 hours. In this study, low concentrations of ethylene were found to enhance the germination of seeds pretreated at 30 C more than that of untreated controls. In the presence of high concentrations of ethylene, pretreated seeds and controls germinated at a similar rate. These results are consistent with the view that a prolonged imbibition at 30 C inhibits germination at a lower temperature through its effect on the ethylene production of the seeds. As a further test of the hypothesis, estimates were made of the pregermination ethylene content of untreated seeds and pretreated seeds incubated in the presence of sufficient ethylene to make them germinate as rapidly as untreated seeds. The values obtained were 0.65 and 0.74 nanoliter of ethylene per gram (dry weight) of seeds, respectively.

  17. Treatment of breast cancer recurrence with fast electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gremilov, V A; Svistunova, T M; Migmanova, N Sh [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Onkologii

    1978-01-01

    Feasibility of treating mammary gland cancer recurrences by means of fast electron is investigated. Local recurrences and metastases were inradiated with 10 MeV fast electrons, and regional ones - with 15 MeV fast electrons. The irradiation technique used permitted the occurence of early and late local radiation responses as well as complications to be avoided. The treatment effect resulted from a value, form and clinical course of recurrence, as well as from cumulative dose with optimum value of 5000-6000 rad. The direct and nearest treatment results in respect of local criterion of the effect are recognized as satisfactory. Taking into consideration, that local and regional recurrences and metastases in the most part of patients are the beginning of clinical manifestation of tumor process generalization, it is assumed, that local treatment of local and regional recurrences and metastases of mammary gland cancer is not reliable therapeutic measure and must be combined with general treatment (chemo- and hormonotherapy) and specific measures enhancing the total resistance of the body.

  18. Inheritance of the characters glossy and mat of the seed coat in beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) in norm and after gamma rays and ethylmethanesulfonate treatment in Fo anf F1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriges, F.; Rukmanski, G.

    1990-01-01

    Reciprocal crosses were made between the following cultivars: 1) kidney bean cvs. Dobrudzhanski 7, Tyrnovo 13 and Astor, having glossy seeds, and Sataya 425 with mat seeds; 2) string bean cvs. Oreol and Zarya (glossy) and Starozagorski Cheren (glossy). Seeds of F o and F 1 were treated with 10 krad gamma rays and 0.01% ethylmethanesulfonate using the mutagens singly and in combination. Deviations from the expected segregation of the characters were observed in kidney beans, being most pronounced following the consequtive treatment, which may be explaned by arisal of mutations and increased frequencies of recombinatipon in the genetic material. This assumption was confirmed in string beans where post mutagen treatment mat seeds were found in hybrids from parental cultivars with glossy seeds and the mat seeds were presented in the following generation. These changes could be explained by arisal of recessive mutations. It is concluded that the combined application of hybridization and mutagenesis increases genetic diversity of the hybrid progeny in regard to glossy and mat bean seed coat. 4 tabs., 2 refs

  19. Treatment of textiles industrial wastewater by electron beam and biological treatment (sbr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Zulkafli Ghazali; Ting Teo Ming

    2008-08-01

    Study of treating textiles industrial wastewater with combined of electron beam and Tower Style Biological Treatment (TSB) was investigated in Korea. In this project, textiles wastewater was also treated with electron beam, but hybrid with Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The purpose of this research is to develop combined electron beam treatment with existing biological treatment facility (SBR), of textile industries in Malaysia. The objectives of this project are to determine the effective irradiation parameter for treatment and to identify effective total retention time in SBR system. To achieve the objective, samples fill in polypropyle tray were irradiated at 1 MeV, 20 mA and 1 MeV ,5 mA at doses 11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy respectively. Raw effluent and two series of irradiated effluent at 1 MeV 20 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) and 1 MeV 5 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) were then treated in SBR system. Samples were analysed at 6, 14 and 20 hrs after aeration in the SBR. The results show that, average reduction in BOD was about 2-11% after irradiated at 5 mA, and the percentage increased to 21-73% after treatment in SBR system. At 20 mA, BOD reduced to 7-29% during irradiation and the value increased to 57-87% after treatment in SBR system. (Author)

  20. Impulse approximation treatment of electron-electron excitation and ionization in energetic ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, T.J.M.; Lee, D.H.; Sanders, J.M.; Richard, P.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of electron-electron interactions between projectile and target electrons observed in recent measurements of projectile K-shell excitation and ionization using 0 projectile Auger electron spectroscopy are analysed within the framework of the impulse approximation (IA). The IA formulation is seen to give a good account of the threshold behavior of both ionization and excitation, while providing a remarkably simple intuitive picture of such electron-electron interactions in ion-atom collisions in general. Thus, the applicability of the IA treatment is extended to cover most known processes involving such interactions including resonance transfer excitation, binary encounter electron production, electron-electron excitation and ionization. (orig.)

  1. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract and impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Woolsey, Ian David; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  2. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  3. Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 ...

  4. Study on Seed Morphogenesis of Orobanchaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jao-Shien Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed morphogenesis of Orobanchaceae was not completely investigated previously. Here, we observed seed development of Orobanchaceous species in Taiwan using light and scanning electron microscopies. Results indicated that seeds of Aeginetia indica, Boschniakia himalaica, and Orobanche caerulescens all consisted of embryo, endosperm and testa. Ontogeny of the embryo in A. indica was Solanad type, while in both B. himalaica and O. caerulescens was Onagrad type. The mature embryos of the three species lacked embryonic organs, and their endosperm development was the cellular type and, at maturity, appeared as several cell layers of storage tissue. Ontogeny of the testa was all non-multiplicative, with the residues of the outermost cell layer and reticulately-thickened secondary walls of its cells at maturity. Mature seeds of A. indica and O. caerulescens were ovate whereas those of B. himalaica were oblate. As for Christisonia hookeri, due to lack of samples, only the cellular-typed endosperm was determined. The comparative development of Orobanchaceous seeds was discussed.

  5. Breaking of Judas tree seed dormancy by plant hormone treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Mihailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of growth regulators on the germination of Judas tree (Cercis siliquastrum L. seed which is double dormant. We simultaneously tested seeds prepared in the conventional procedure: scarification + stratification and scarified seeds treated with phytohormones from the groups of gibberellins, auxin and cytokinins. The results indicate a positive effect of gibberellic acid (GA, as well as some combinations of this phytohormone with others. Recommendations for practice are to combine the conventional procedure with GA. The procedure may shorten the duration of stratification; the application of GA should follow stratification because the temperature of 4°C does not provide growth regulators activity. The study results can serve as the base for easier generative reproduction of this valuable woody ornamental species which could have a wide use in changed climate conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  6. Using flotation in ethanol to separate filled and empty seeds of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... and empty seeds by the flotation method. It is quite important not to damage the seed embryo and con- sequently seed germination ability during or after the flotation treatment by these liquids that have different densities. On the other hand, when Crimean pine seeds are left in water, the seeds generally ...

  7. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, W.S.; Pereira, M.M.; Vasconcelos, W.L.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  8. Modification of the radiosensitivity of barley seed by post-treatment with caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.; Ahmad, A.

    1976-01-01

    Barley seeds of a hull-less variety (IB 65) were γ-irradiated (40 and 45 krad, 100 rad/sec) at 25 0 C, and the seeds were post-hydrated for 12 hours at approximately 3 0 C in oxygenated and oxygen-free water or caffeine solutions (3.8 x 10 -4 to 3.8 x 10 -2 M). Measurements of 8-day seedling growth showed that the different caffeine concentrations applied during oxygenated or oxygen-free hydrations produced no observable effects on the growth of unirradiated seeds. All caffeine concentrations afforded protection for the irradiated seeds under oxygenated conditions, and potentiated the damage under oxygen-free conditions. A maximum radio-protection occurred at a caffeine concentration of 3.8 x 10 -3 M, whereas radiosensitization under oxygen-free conditions was concentration-dependent. Possible mechanisms are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Partial dehydration and cryopreservation of Citrus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí

    2011-11-01

    Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, Deepti; Shegog, Rachel M; Ziegler, Gregory R; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    The pulp of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae) has been reported to have beneficial cardiovascular health effects. Avocado oil is used for dermatological applications and its unsaponifiable portion is reported to have beneficial effects against osteoarthritis. Although the seed represents a considerable percentage of the total fruit, scientific research on the phytochemistry and biological effects of avocado seeds is in the nascent stages,. Currently, the seed represents an under-utilized resource and a waste issue for avocado processors. There is ethno-pharmacological information on the use of seeds for the treatment of health-related conditions, especially in South American countries where avocados are endemic and currently grown on a large scale. Current research has shown that avocado seeds may improve hypercholesterolemia, and be useful in the treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions and diabetes. Seeds have also been found to possess insecticidal, fungicidal, and anti-microbial activities. The avocado seeds and rich in phenolic compounds, and these may play a role in the putative health effects. Historically, extracts of avocado seeds were also used as ink for writing and research in our laboratory has explored the potential colorant properties of a polyphenol oxidase-produced colored avocado seed extract. Here, we review the currently-available data on the bioactivity and other functional properties of avocado seeds. We discuss the strength of the available data, the putative active compounds, and potential directions for future studies.

  11. [Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopisferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Marcelo Nahuel; Giamminola, Eugenia Mabel; de Viana, Marta Leonor

    2013-03-01

    The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P ferox and P nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN) of the National University of Salta (Argentina). The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P ferox at the National Park Los Cardones and from two sites (Orán and Rivadavia) for P nitens. Desiccation tolerance was assessed following previous established methodologies. The moisture content (MC) of the seeds was determined by keeping them in oven at 103 degreeC and weighting the samples at different intervals till constant weight. Germination essays were carried out with two treatments (control and scarification), with different seed MC (fresh, 10-12%, 3-5%) and in desiccated seeds (3-5% MC) stored six months at -20 degreeC. The MC in P ferox seeds was 14.2% and 10% in P nitens, for both populations studied. Percentage germination in P ferox was higher in the scarification treatments (<82%). The difference between treatments increased with the reduction in MC and the storage for six months at -20 degreeC. Fresh seeds of P nitens do not need scarification treatment, but it is required with the reduction in MC and storage. Mean germination percentage of desiccated seeds stored six months at -20 degreeC was similar in both populations and greater than 82%.We concluded that both species are probably orthodox because seeds tolerated desiccation to 3-5% and storage for six months at -20 degree C.

  12. Effect of microwave irradiation on alfalfa seeds germination and nitrogenase activity of endophytic diazotrophs in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuqing; Li Jianfeng; Shi Shangli; Huo Pinghui; Zhu Xinqiang; Zhao Wenhan; Tao Rong

    2011-01-01

    Various microwave powers were used to irradiate alfalfa seeds with various time to study the effect of microwave irradiation on nitrogenase activity of endogenous azotobacter and germination of seeds. Germination rate, germination speed and nitrogenase activity of pure cultures that derived from seed-carried azotobacter were tested. The results indicate that : 800 W, 20 s and 500 W, 40 s are found with highest germination rate on the 1 st day, which is 122% and 88.9% times higher than the control group (P th day is 29.8% and 41.9% times longer than the control group, and more sensitive nitrogenase activity is found on condition of various time than various powers. Short time treatments on condition of the two irradiation powers can increase nitrogenase activity conspicuously, and the treatments that treated more than 32 s make nitrogenase activity lower than the control group, conspicuously. Nitrogenase activity is found 104.9% times higher than the control group on condition of 24 s. (authors)

  13. Sustained lasing of HHG-seeded FEL by using EOS-based timing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Okayasu, Yuichi; Togashi, Tadashi; Hara, Toru; Tomizawa, Hiromitsu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Aoyama, Makoto; Yamakawa, Koichi; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Ohwada, Shigeki; Sato, Takahiro; Yamauchi, Kaoru; Otake, Yuji; Ohshima, Takashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Togawa, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Takashi; Takahashi, Eiji; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Yabashi, Makina; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    High-harmonic-generation (HHG) based seeded FEL experiments were demonstrated at SCSS, SPring-8. Seeded FEL has advantageous features against SASE such that there is no intrinsic nature of shot-noise fluctuation and output FEL pulses are in principle fully coherent in both transverse and longitudinal axes. In practical user experiments, however, an overlap between electron bunches and seed laser pulses in six-dimensional phase space needs to be precisely maintained for securing the stable lasing. Otherwise, the overlap could be quickly lost and the lasing is no more sustained. For the stable lasing, we have developed an EO (electro-optic) based timing control system, which enables to observe a timing drift between electron bunches and laser pulses, and compensate for it. Experimental results of the seeded FEL with and without the EO timing control are compared, and the effectiveness of the timing system is discussed. (author)

  14. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jixiang; Hu Danhong; Liu Houli

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  15. Disinfection of Penicillium-infected Wheat Seed by Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-ah Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Olgeurumil were infected with Penicillium sp. at mean infection rate of 83%. Penicillium sp. was detected in endosperm with bran but not in embryo. Gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 effectively inhibited growth of Penicillium sp. at concentration of 5 to 20 mg/ml. As treatment duration was extended from 1 to 3 h, growth of Penicillium sp. was completely suppressed even at 10 mg/ml. There was no significant reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. at 30% relative humidity (RH. However, the incidence of Penicillium sp. was 27.7% at 50% RH, further those were 3.5% and 0.2% at 70% and 80% RH, respectively. Seed germination was not affected by ClO2 treatment at all the RH conditions. Water-soaked seeds (30% seed moisture content showed a drastic reduction in the incidence of Penicillium sp. when treated at more than 10 mg/ml of ClO2. The incidences of Penicillium sp. were 3.3, 1.8 and 1.2% at 10, 15 and 20 mg/ml, respectively. The incidence of Penicillium sp. in dry seeds with 9.7% seed moisture content did not reduce when treated with 5 and 10 mg/ml at 50% RH although it tended to decrease as ClO2 concentration increased to 20 mg/ml. Seed germination was not affected by ClO2 treatment at the tested concentrations. These results indicated that gaseous ClO2 was effective disinfectant to wheat seeds infected with Penicillium sp. and that the effectiveness of ClO2 strongly increased when moisture content around or inside of the seed was increased.

  16. Role of nano-range amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement of soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Pandey, Sushil

    2016-10-01

    Nano-size and wide-range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. An investigation was carried out to assess the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and pesticide carriers. Amphiphilic polymers with 127.5-354 nm micelle size were synthesized in the laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di-acids. After 6 months of storage, germination of uncoated soybean seeds decreased drastically from 97.80 to 81.55%, while polymer-coated seeds showed 89.44-95.92% germination. Similarly, vigour index-1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds but ranged from 3375.59 to 3844.60 for polymer-coated seeds after 6 months. The developed imidacloprid formulations retained more pesticide on soybean seed coatings than did a commercial formulation (Gaucho(®) 600 FS). The time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12-9.11 h for the developed formulations and 0.41 h for the commercial formulation. Nano-range amphiphilic polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Mathematical model of seed germination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gładyszewska, B.; Koper, R.; Kornarzyński, K.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical model of seed germination process was described. The model based on proposed working hypothesis leads - by analogy - to a law corresponding with Verhulst-Pearl's law, known from the theory of population kinetics. The model was applied to describe the germination kinetics of tomato seeds, Promyk field cultivar, biostimulated by laser treatment. Close agreement of experimental and model data was obtained [pl

  18. Preventing an increase in Verticillium wilt incidence in spinach seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2014-01-01

    A semifield assay was conducted from 2009 to 2011 to distinguish between different preventive methods of reducing Verticillium spp. in spinach seed production. The seed treatments for controlling seed infection levels included Thiram, Signum, Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium roseum and Natural II...

  19. UV-laser treatment of nanodiamond seeds - a valuable tool for modification of nanocrystalline diamond films properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlček, J; Fitl, P; Vrňata, M; Fekete, L; Taylor, A; Fendrych, F

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to study the UV-laser treatment of precursor (i.e. nanodiamond (ND) seeds on silicon substrates) and its influence on the properties of grown nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at the fourth harmonic frequency (laser fluence E L = 250 mJ cm -2 , pulse duration 5 ns) was used as a source, equipped with an optical system for focusing laser beam onto the sample, allowing exposure of a local spot and horizontal patterning. The variable parameters were: number of pulses (from 5 to 400) and the working atmosphere (He, Ar and O 2 ). Ablation and/or graphitization of seeded nanodiamond particles were observed. Further the microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition was employed to grow NCD films on exposed and non-exposed areas of silicon substrates. The size, shape and density distribution of laser-treated nanodiamond seeds were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and their chemical composition by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The resulting NCD films (uniform thickness of 400 nm) were characterized by: Raman spectroscopy to analyse occurrence of graphitic phase, and AFM to observe morphology and surface roughness. The highest RMS roughness (∼85 nm) was achieved when treating the precursor in He atmosphere. Horizontal microstructures of diamond films were fabricated.

  20. First operation of a harmonic lasing self-seeded free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Faatz, B.; Kuhlmann, M.; Roensch-Schulenburg, J.; Schreiber, S.; Tischer, M.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2016-12-01

    Harmonic lasing is a perspective mode of operation of X-ray FEL user facilities that allows to provide brilliant beams of higher energy photons for user experiments. Another useful application of harmonic lasing is so called Harmonic Lasing Self-Seeded Free Electron Laser (HLSS FEL) that allows to improve spectral brightness of these facilities. In the past, harmonic lasing has been demonstrated in the FEL oscillators in infrared and visible wavelength ranges, but not in high-gain FELs and not at short wavelengths. In this paper we report on the first evidence of the harmonic lasing and the first operation of the HLSS FEL at the soft X-ray FEL user facility FLASH in the wavelength range between 4.5 nm and 15 nm. Spectral brightness was improved in comparison with Self-Amplified Spontaneous emission (SASE) FEL by a factor of six in the exponential gain regime. A better performance of HLSS FEL with respect to SASE FEL in the post-saturation regime with a tapered undulator was observed as well. The first demonstration of harmonic lasing in a high-gain FEL and at short wavelengths paves the way for a variety of applications of this new operation mode in X-ray FELs.

  1. Study of annealing effect on the growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannakashappanavar, Basavaraj S.; Pattanashetti, Nandini A.; Byrareddy, C. R.; Yadav, Aniruddh Bahadur

    2018-04-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer was deposited on the SiO2/Si substrate by RF sputtering. To study the effect of annealing, the seed layers were classified into annealed and unannealed thin films. Annealing of the seed layers was carried at 450°C. Surface morphology of the seed layers were studied by Atomic force microscopy. ZnO nanorods were then grown on both the types of seed layer by hydrothermal method. The morphology and the structural properties of the nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The effect of seed layer annealing on the growth and orientation of the ZnO nanorods were clearly examined on comparing with the nanorods grown on unannealed seed layer. The nanorods grown on annealed seed layers were found to be well aligned and oriented. Further, the I-V characteristic study was carried out on these aligned nanorods. The results supports positively for the future work to further enhance the properties of developed nanorods for their wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  2. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON THE GERMINATION OF SEEDS CEDRELA FISSILIS VELLOZO (MELIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marchezan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate the Cedar seed germination and the handling of different substrates to elucidate what is the best condition for the species. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, without control of incidence of light or temperature, leaving them as much as possible under natural conditions. Treatments consisted of four treatments and four repetitions, each repetition consisted of 10 subrepetitions, totaling 40 units (plastic cups per treatment. Seeds were sown with two seeds per cup. The characteristics evaluated were the percentage of germination and germination speed index (GSI. It is concluded this way that the seeds subjected to the earth and sand worked to conduct tests for germination cedar seeds were those that gave higher percentages of germination and IVG. While the substrates, commercial and land forest were considered unfavorable for conducting germination tests for cedar seeds.

  3. Seed-mediated growth of patterned graphene nanoribbon arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael Scott; Way, Austin James; Jacobberger, Robert Michael

    2017-09-12

    Graphene nanoribbon arrays, methods of growing graphene nanoribbon arrays, and electronic and photonic devices incorporating the graphene nanoribbon arrays are provided. The graphene nanoribbons in the arrays are formed using a seed-mediated, bottom-up, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in which the (001) facet of a semiconductor substrate and the orientation of the seed particles on the substrate are used to orient the graphene nanoribbon crystals preferentially along a single [110] direction of the substrate.

  4. Managing the consequences of aggressive conservative treatment for refractory retinoblastoma with vitreous seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Brink

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 4 year-old girl with bilateral, non-familial retinoblastoma (RB was referred to our care after primary enucleation OS and active tumor OD refractory to multiple therapies (intravenous chemotherapy, laser/cryotherapy, and I-125 plaque radiotherapy. Vitreous seeding OD, initially controlled by several sessions of Ophthalmic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy (OAIC and periocular chemotherapy, recurred shortly thereafter. The patient underwent intravitreal (IVit Melphalan injections achieving tumor control despite the concurrent development of keratopathy, pupillary synechiae, cataract, and necrosis of the inferior fornix and the adjacent orbital fat, all secondary to the treatments administered. Repeated amniotic membrane implants and tarsorrhaphy were performed to alleviate the symptoms. Despite being tumor free for 6 months, a poor fundus view and treatment-related complications prompted us to consider enucleation, but parents declined. Following recent negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, her cataract was removed. She was then found to have tumor recurrence. Her eye was enucleated 12 months ago and she recovered well from the surgery. As ocular oncology embarks in eye-preserving treatments for retinoblastoma, it is important to address the cumulative effects and associated impact of such treatments and the possibility of failure.

  5. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  6. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S P C; Surki, A A; de Vos, R C H; Kodde, J

    2012-11-01

    Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. methods: Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice.

  7. Effect of corona discharge plasma jet on surface-borne microorganisms and sprouting of broccoli seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Je-Wook; Puligundla, Pradeep; Mok, Chulkyoon

    2017-01-01

    Different pathogenic microorganisms have been reported to cause sprouts-associated outbreaks. In order to sterilise and enhance the germination of seeds, non-thermal plasma has been increasingly investigated in the field of agricultural science as an alternative to the traditional pre-sowing seed treatments. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) on disinfection of the natural bio-contaminants of broccoli seed and also studied the plasma effect on sprout seed germination rate and physico-chemical properties of sprouts. Aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeasts, B. cereus, E. coli, Salmonella spp. were detected on the broccoli seed surface. After 0-3 min treatment using CDPJ, the detected microorganisms were reduced in the range of 1.2-2.3 log units. Inactivation patterns were better explained using pseudo-first-order kinetics. The plasma treatment of seeds up to 2 min exhibited a positive effect on germination rate, seedling growth. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of sprouts were unaffected due to the CDPJ treatment of their respective seeds. Corona discharge plasma jet can potentially be used for microbial decontamination of broccoli seeds. In addition, the plasma treatment of broccoli sprout seeds has enabled a significant enhancement in their germination rate and seedling growth without compromising physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of their corresponding sprouts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  9. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  10. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Plants in Sandy Soil 2- Seed production, oil content, oil constituents and heavy metals in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R. A.; Abo-El-Seoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil on fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.) productivity. In this regards, four rates of sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60 and 80 ton/ha) in addition to the mineral fertilizer treatment (control). Sandy soil amended with sewage sludge showed a promising effect on fennel seed yield. A linear gradual increase in seeds yield was observed as the sludge application rate increases. Seeds production increased by 41% to 308% over the control at 80 t /ha application rate, for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge treatments, respectively. Irradiated sewage sludge treatments showed higher fennel seed yield than non-irradiated sewage sludge treatments.Volatile oil percent exhibited no observable variation due to the use of sewage sludge. A few and limited fluctuations could be observed. However, total oil content (cc/plot) increased due to the increase in seeds yield. The magnitude of increase in volatile oil production in response to the sewage sludge application was parallel to the increase in seeds yield. The GLC measurements of the fennel volatile oil reveal that, the t-anethole is the predominant fraction. However, fenchone was detected in relatively moderate concentration. The applied sewage sludge treatment induced some variations in fennel volatile oil constituents. The t.anethole is relatively higher in volatile oil obtained from plants grown on sandy soil fertilized with non-irradiated sewage sludge than the one fertilized with irradiated sewage sludge or chemical fertilizer. In the meantime, the obtained increase in t.anethole was accompanied by a decline in fenchone content. Seeds heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were determined. Under all sludge application rates iron and zinc concentrations were in the normal plant concentration range whereas, Cd concentrations were traces.

  11. Modification of the radiosensitivity of barley seed by post-treatment with caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.; Nadkarni, S.

    1977-01-01

    The oxygen-dependent damage which developed in barley seeds with approximately 7.8 per cent moisture content disappeared after post-irradiation storage in vacuo for 48 hours at 40 0 C and for 24 hours at 50 0 C. When the duration of storage at 40 0 C was extended to 384 hours, oxygen-independent damage became potentiated. There was oxygen-dependent damage in seeds of approximately 13.3 per cent moisture content and after the seeds had been stored in vacuo at 50 0 C, the oxygen-independent damage began to increase by 168 hours, and it was significantly potentiated by 192 hours. Under these circumstances, caffeine acted as a radioprotector only as long as the precursors of oxic damage were present in the seeds. Once these sites were lost, caffeine acted only as a radiosensitizer. The oxygen-independent damage which increased with storage at high temperature was further potentiated by caffeine. (author)

  12. Toward reliable estimates of seed removal by small mammals and birds in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV. Christianini

    Full Text Available Birds are often considered seed predators of less importance when compared to rodents or granivorous ants in studies of seed predation using selective exclosures. However, it is possible that the role of granivorous birds interacting with seeds on the floor of Neotropical forests is being underestimated, if the selective exclosures designed to allow exclusive access to small rodents do not work properly in the Neotropics. We used an experimental approach to evaluate whether birds could remove seeds from selective exclosures designed to allow exclusive access to rodents. We compared seed removal from two paired treatments in the field: an open treatment (control allowing the access to all vertebrates, and a selective exclosure treatment, where seeds were placed under a cage staked to the ground and covered on top and on the laterals by wire mesh of varying sizes. Treatments were placed in the center of a sand quadrat in order to record the visit of vertebrates from their footprints. Although the selective exclosures are used to tell apart the small mammal seed removal from that of other animals, birds could persistently remove seeds from selective exclosures. Thus, the role of birds interacting with seeds on the floor of tropical forests may be underestimated for some plant species, due to an artifact of the exclosure method employed. Exclosures of 40 x 40 x 40 cm should be efficient to deter the removal of seeds by birds, allowing the consumption of the seeds by small mammals at the same time.

  13. Effect of hybrid, storage conditions and seed protection on sunflower field emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed emergence under field conditions decisively and directly determines the number of plants per hectare, which is one of three basic components of yield in the plant world. Influence of chemical treatment on field emergence of three commercial sunflower hybrids stored in different conditions was tested in 2007 and 2008 on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. On average, hybrid H1 had the highest value of field emergence (88.79% and for chemical treatment fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (87.71%. Seed kept in common storage had the highest emergence value in fi eld (87.92%. Seed treated with fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid and stored for one year in common storage had the highest field emergence (90.18%. Considering interaction between storage conditions and genotype, hybrid H1 seed sown after chemical treatment had the highest field emergence (91.82% and seed kept in common storage (90.48%. Hybrid H1 seed compared with other two had the highest field emergence treated with fludioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (91.84%.

  14. X-ray generator for radiographs of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Canner, E.

    1996-01-01

    It is presented an X-ray generator which is destined to obtaining X-ray radiographs of seeds. It utilizes a low power X-ray tube with fine focal point. It consist of an electronic block and an irradiation chamber

  15. The effectiveness of preplant seed bio-invigoration techniques using Bacillus sp. CKD061 to improving seed viability and vigor of several local upland rice cultivars of Southeast Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariati, G. A. K.; Bande, L. O. S.; Khaeruni, A.; Muhidin; Mudi, L.; Savitri, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    Research was aimed to evaluate the bio-invigoration techniques using Bacillus sp. CKD061 in improving seed viability and vigor of local upland rice. The research is arranged in factorial with completely randomized design (CRD). The different upland rice cultivars as first factor that consists of 11 cultivars, namely: Pae Tinangge, Pae Rowu, Pae Uwa, Pae Tanta, Pae Waburi-Buri, Pae Mornene, Pae Indalibana, Pae Lawarangka, Pae Huko, Pae Wagamba and Pae Momea. The second factor is the seed bio-invigoration technique, consists of 5 treatments, namely: without seed bio-invigoration (B0), NaCl + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B1), KNO3 + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B2), Ground burned-rice husk + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B3), and Ground brick + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B4). The results showed that seed bio-invigoration using Bacillus sp. CKD061 gave effect on the seed viability and vigor. Interaction of the seed bio-invigoration and upland rice cultivars were able to improve seed viability and vigor. Seed bio-invigoration ttreatment using ground brick + Bacillus sp. CKD061 was the best treatment, which could improve the viability and vigor of Pae Waburi-Buri, Pae Mornene and Pae Indalibana. The treatment increased vigor index by 133% in Pae Waburi-Buri and 127% in Pae Mornene, and Pae Indalibana compared with control.

  16. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  17. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) and other pathogenic bacteria in seeds and sprouted seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    Sprouted seeds are young seedlings obtained from the germination of seeds. They are ready-to-eat foods which have caused large outbreaks. The bacterial pathogens most frequently associated with illness due to contaminated sprouted seeds are Salmonella and to a lesser extent STEC. Bacillus cereus,...... of seed crops intended for sprouted seeds production before planting, and application of GAP, GHP, GMP, HACCP principles at all steps of the production chain. The relevance of decontamination treatments of seeds and of microbiological criteria is also discussed....

  18. Development of electron beam flue gas treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Namba, Hideki; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Doi, Yoshitake; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro.

    1995-01-01

    Smoke treatment system making use of electron beam irradiation made it possible to simultaneously eliminate SOx and NOn from exhaust gas. The fundamental study of the system was started in the seventies and at present, its application in practical use is under way. A pilot plant for the smoke treatment system was constructed in cooperation of Chubu Electric Power Company, Inc., Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Ebara Corporation and several tests with the actual exhaust gas were conducted during the period, Oct. 1992-Dec. 1993 and the treatment efficiency and the control capacity of this system was confirmed to be so high as the conventional systems and many engineering data were obtained. A high treatment efficiency (>94% for desulfurization and >80% for denitrification) was obtainable by choosing the optimum irradiation amount of electron beam and the optimum temperature of gas to treat. And this system was found superior from a financial aspect to the conventional smoke treatment system. (M.N.)

  19. Clinical implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment with a 6 MeV electron beam in high-dose total skin electron mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, J. F.; Rojas, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special treatment technique offered by modern radiation oncology facilities, given for the treatment of mycosis fungoides, a rare skin disease, which is type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. During treatment the patient’s entire skin is irradiated with a uniform dose. The aim of this work is to present implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films.

  20. Clinical implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment with a 6 MeV electron beam in high-dose total skin electron mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, J. F., E-mail: fernando.lucero@hoperadiotherapy.com.gt [Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Heredia (Costa Rica); Hope International, Guatemala (Guatemala); Rojas, J. I., E-mail: isaac.rojas@siglo21.cr [Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI, San José (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special treatment technique offered by modern radiation oncology facilities, given for the treatment of mycosis fungoides, a rare skin disease, which is type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. During treatment the patient’s entire skin is irradiated with a uniform dose. The aim of this work is to present implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films.

  1. Impact of Intensity and Exposure Duration of Magnetic Field on Seed Germination of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan FEIZI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of seed hydro priming and magnetic field on tomato seed germination an experiment was conducted in laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. The experimental treatments were all combinations of two levels of hydro priming (use of dry seed and soaked seed for five h in distilled water and eight levels of magnetic field treatments (pretreatment of seeds in 15 mT for 5, 15 and 25 minutes, pretreatment of seeds in 25 mT for 5, 15 and 25 minutes, continuous magnetic field with 3 mT and control with four replications. Results indicated that hydro priming of seeds reduced mean germination time significantly. Root length increased by 14 percent in seed hydro priming treatment in comparison with dry seed treatment. Shoot length, seedling length and vigor index of hydro primed seeds increased by 7, 12 and 13 percent, respectively compared with dry seeds. Exposure of seeds with 3 mT continuous magnetic field and 25 mT for 5 min increased root length by 29 and 25 percents, respectively in comparison with control. The highest shoot length, seedling length and vigor index were obtained in 3 mT continuous magnetic field and 25 mT for 5 min.

  2. SU-F-T-39: Comparing Nomograms for Ordering of Palladium-103 Seeds for Dynamic Intraoperative Prostate Seed Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P; Wang, L; Riegel, A [Northwell Health, Lake Success, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Several nomograms exist for the purpose of ordering palladium- 103 seeds for permanent prostate seed implants. Excess seeds pose additional radiation safety risks and increase the cost of care. This study compared three seed ordering nomograms with seed counts from dynamic intra-operative PSI to determine (1) the cause of excess seeds and (2) the optimal nomogram for our institution. Methods: Pre-operative and intra-operative clinical data were collected for 100 Gy (n=151) and 125 Gy (n=224) prostate seed implants. The number of implanted seeds which would have given D90=100% was normalized to that criteria and seed strength of 2U. This was plotted against intra-operative prostate volume and compared to two previously published nomograms and an in-house nomogram. A linear fit was produced and confidence intervals were calculated. The causes of excess seeds were assessed by comparing pre- and intra-operative prostate volumes, variability of D90 around 100%, and variance of seed strength from 2U. Results: Of the 375 total cases, 97.6% had excess seeds. On average, 27.17±12.91% of ordered seeds were wasted. Of this percentage, 6.98±5.47% of excess seeds were due to overestimation of pre-operative prostate volume, 1.10±0.88% were due to D90<100%, 1.17±0.67% were due to seed strength over 2U, and 17.36±7.79% could not be directly attributed to a specific reason. The latter percentage may be due to overestimation of the in-house nomogram. Two of three nomograms substantially overestimated the number of seeds required. The third nomogram underestimated the required seed number for smaller prostate treatment volume. A linear fit to the clinical data was derived and 99.9% confidence intervals were calculated. Conclusion: Over 85% of clinical cases wasted over 15% of ordered seeds. Two of three nomograms overestimated the required number of seeds. The upper 99.9% C.I. of the clinical data may provide a more reasonable nomogram for Pd-103 seed ordering.

  3. SU-F-T-39: Comparing Nomograms for Ordering of Palladium-103 Seeds for Dynamic Intraoperative Prostate Seed Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P; Wang, L; Riegel, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Several nomograms exist for the purpose of ordering palladium- 103 seeds for permanent prostate seed implants. Excess seeds pose additional radiation safety risks and increase the cost of care. This study compared three seed ordering nomograms with seed counts from dynamic intra-operative PSI to determine (1) the cause of excess seeds and (2) the optimal nomogram for our institution. Methods: Pre-operative and intra-operative clinical data were collected for 100 Gy (n=151) and 125 Gy (n=224) prostate seed implants. The number of implanted seeds which would have given D90=100% was normalized to that criteria and seed strength of 2U. This was plotted against intra-operative prostate volume and compared to two previously published nomograms and an in-house nomogram. A linear fit was produced and confidence intervals were calculated. The causes of excess seeds were assessed by comparing pre- and intra-operative prostate volumes, variability of D90 around 100%, and variance of seed strength from 2U. Results: Of the 375 total cases, 97.6% had excess seeds. On average, 27.17±12.91% of ordered seeds were wasted. Of this percentage, 6.98±5.47% of excess seeds were due to overestimation of pre-operative prostate volume, 1.10±0.88% were due to D90<100%, 1.17±0.67% were due to seed strength over 2U, and 17.36±7.79% could not be directly attributed to a specific reason. The latter percentage may be due to overestimation of the in-house nomogram. Two of three nomograms substantially overestimated the number of seeds required. The third nomogram underestimated the required seed number for smaller prostate treatment volume. A linear fit to the clinical data was derived and 99.9% confidence intervals were calculated. Conclusion: Over 85% of clinical cases wasted over 15% of ordered seeds. Two of three nomograms overestimated the required number of seeds. The upper 99.9% C.I. of the clinical data may provide a more reasonable nomogram for Pd-103 seed ordering.

  4. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang-Jae [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young-bong [Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Young Bin, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  5. Gene expression patterns regulating the seed metabolism in relation to deterioration/ageing of primed mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satyendra Nath; Maheshwari, Ankita; Sharma, Chitra; Shukla, Nidhi

    2018-03-01

    We are proposing mechanisms to account for the loss of viability (seed deterioration/ageing) and enhancement in seed quality (post-storage priming treatment). In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of these traits, we conducted controlled deterioration (CD) test for up to 8 d using primed mung bean seeds and examined how CD effects the expression of many genes, regulating the seed metabolism in relation to CD and priming. Germination declined progressively with increased duration of CD, and the priming treatment completely/partially reversed the inhibition depending on the duration of CD. The loss of germination capacity by CD was accompanied by a reduction in total RNA content and RNA integrity, indicating that RNA quantity and quality impacts seed longevity. Expression analysis revealed that biosynthesis genes of GA, ethylene, ABA and ROS-scavenging enzymes were differentially affected in response to duration of CD and priming, suggesting coordinately regulated mechanisms for controlling the germination capacity of seeds by modifying the permeability characteristics of biological membranes and activities of different enzymes. ABA genes were highly expressed when germination was delayed and inhibited by CD. Whereas, GA and ethylene genes were more highly expressed when germination was enhanced and permitted by priming under similar conditions. GSTI, a well characterized enzyme family involved in stress tolerance, was expressed in primed seeds over the period of CD, suggesting an additional protection against deterioration. The results are discussed in light of understanding the mechanisms underlying longevity/priming which are important issues economically and ecologically. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanism of fluridone-induced seed germination of cistanche tubulosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.L.; Tu, P.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study disclosed that fluridone, a synthesis inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA), could stimulate seed germination in the holoparasitic plant Cistanche tubulosa . Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the present study, an attempt was made to reveal the mechanism of fluridone breaking seed dormancy in C. tubulosa and to determine the contribution of hormones in this process. The ABA level in seeds initially decreased following fluridone treatment and was subsequently maintained at a concentration of 31 ng g/sup -1/ DW (dry weight) three days later. The contents of gibberellins (GAs) initially in creased and subsequently were maintained at a level of 40 ng g-1 DW after ten days. However, the increment of seed germination induced by fluridone was inhibited after the introduction of exogenous ABA or paclobutrazol (a synthesis inhibitor of GAs). Furthermore, inhibition from paclobutrazol was reversed by an additional treatment with exogenous GA3. When the ratio of endogenous GAs to ABA reached 4:3, C. tubulosa seeds initiated germination. By contrast, although the ratio of endogenous GAs to ABA content reached 2:1 by cold stratification, C. tubulosa seeds could not germinate unless exogenous GA3 was added. In summary, our current study revealed that (i) GAs and ABA play key roles for the seed germination of C. tubulosa , (ii) fluridone inhibited ABA biosynthesis but increased the concentration of GAs in seeds, and (iii) fluridone might initiate other processes associated with germination. (author)

  7. Biological control of Alternaria radicina in seed production of carrots with Ulocladium atrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Langerak, C.J.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Black rot of carrots is caused by seed-borne Alternaria radicina. Biological control of seed infestation by treatments applied to plants in flower during seed production with the fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum was investigated in laboratory and field experiments resulting in a reduction of seed

  8. Effects of glyphosate acid and the glyphosate-commercial formulation (Roundup) on Dimorphandra wilsonii seed germination: Interference of seed respiratory metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; da Silva Cruz, Fernanda Vieira; Bicalho, Elisa Monteze; Borges, Felipe Viègas; Fonseca, Marcia Bacelar; Juneau, Philippe; Garcia, Queila Souza

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate-formulations are widely used in the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna) with little or no control, threatening population of the endangered species Dimorphandra wilsonii. We investigated the toxicity of different concentrations (0, 5, 25 and 50 mg l -1 ) of glyphosate acid and one of its formulations (Roundup ® ) on seed germination in D. wilsonii. Glyphosate acid and Roundup drastically decreased seed germination by decreasing seed respiration rates. The activation of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase assure no hydrogen peroxide accumulation in exposed seeds. Glyphosate acid and the Roundup-formulation negatively affected the activities of enzymes associated with the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), with Complex III as its precise target. The toxicity of Roundup-formulation was greater than that of glyphosate acid due to its greater effects on respiration. The herbicide glyphosate must impair D. wilsonii seed germination by disrupting the mitochondrial ETC, resulting in decreased energy (ATP) production. Our results therefore indicate the importance of avoiding (or closely regulating) the use of glyphosate-based herbicides in natural Cerrado habitats of D. wilsonni as they are toxic to seed germination and therefore threaten conservation efforts. It will likewise be important to investigate the effects of glyphosate on the seeds of other species and to investigate the impacts of these pesticides elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of free and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterial co-inoculation on seed and seedling of soybean seeds produced under deficit water condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of free and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria on seed and seedling produced seeds under deficit irrigation was conducted in laboratory and field experiments in 2006. In laboratory of karaj’s Seed and Plant Research and Certificate Institute an experiment was conducted based on factorial in form of completely randomized design with four replications and in field’s of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch were split factorial in form of randomized completely block design with three replications. Treatments included water stress [Irrigation after 50 (Normal irrigation, 100 (Middle stress, 150 (Severe stress mm evaporation from pan class A], Cultivar [Manokin & Williams and SRF×T3 Line] and inoculation [Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium japonicum co-inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum, No seed inoculation]. Results showed that drought stress decreased the uniformity and germination speed and seedling emergence. Bacteria increased leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, leaf area and seedling vigor index but had no effect on emergence. In irrigation levels inoculated treatments had higher seedling length, leaf, stem, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor. Severs stress seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum had higher root dry weight than control. Therefore in seeds which were produced under deficit irrigation conditions, bacteria increased seedlings vigor.

  10. Structural changes of cotton seeds due to fast neurons-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osiris, W G [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of irradiation with different fast neutron fluences in the range 10{sub 5}- 10{sub 8} n/cm{sup 2} were studied on one egyptian cotton seeds (Dandara, Giza 31). Both pre-and post-irradiated seeds were implanted and the effects of fast neutrons on the first generation were investigated through the use of: X-ray fluorescence analysis, infrared spectral,combustion technique, analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy. The changes in cellulose and heme cellulose contents in the seeds relative to the unirradiated one were also detected. From the obtained results,it was found that significant structural changes are indicated which may be attributed to the variation in the internal mechanisms that occurred by the radiation effect on thr structure of seeds. In conclusion, irradiation with fast neutrons may cause genetic changes in seeds. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LARISSA C. SNEIDERIS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.

  12. Seed conditioning of red oak: a recalcitrant North American seed Condicionamento de sementes de carvalho vermelho: semente recalcitrante da América do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Struve

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A ten day aerated water soak was developed as a seed conditioning treatment for red oak (Quercus rubra L.. Conditioned seeds had higher germination completeness, uniformity and speed compared to control seeds. Seeds could be conditioned under a wide range of temperatures and durations. Conditioned seeds were maintained at 7(0C for 30 days without loss of seed quality. During conditioning, pericarps split in response to seed hydration. Split pericarps could be used as a pre-sowing indicator for high quality seeds. Seed conditioning was ineffective on dormant seeds. Increased crop uniformity and higher stand establishment can be realized by subjecting red oak acorns to an aerated water soak treatment followed by selecting seeds with split pericarps. These results are especially important in container production systems where limited numbers of value seeds are available.Sementes de carvalho vermelho (Quercus rubra L. foram condicionadas diretamente em água, sob aeração, durante 10 dias. As sementes condicionadas fisiologicamente apresentaram maior percentagem, velocidade e uniformidade de germinação, quando comparadas com a testemunha. O condicionamento das sementes pode ser efetuado sob ampla variação de temperaturas e períodos de exposição. Sementes condicionadas podem ser mantidas a 7ºC/30 dias, sem perda de qualidade. Durante o condicionamento ocorre ruptura do pericarpo, em resposta à hidratação da semente; essa ocorrência pode ser utilizada para estimar a qualidade da semente. O condicionamento não apresentou efeitos em sementes dormentes. O condicionamento das sementes de carvalho vermelho em água, com aeração, seguido pela seleção de sementes com ruptura do pericarpo, proporciona o rápido estabelecimento e uniformidade das plântulas.

  13. Mutational effects of space flight on Zea mays seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, M.; Qiu, Y.; He, Y.; Bucker, H.; Yang, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    The growth and development of more than 500 Zea mays seeds flown on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied. Somatic mutations, including white-yellow stripes on leaves, dwarfing, change of leaf sheath color or seedling color were observed in plants developed from these seeds. When the frequency of white-yellow formation was used as the endpoint and compared with data from ground based studies, the dose to which maize seeds might be exposed during the flight was estimated to be equivalent to 635 cGy of gamma rays. Seeds from one particular holder gave a high mutation frequency and a wide mutation spectrum. White-yellow stripes on leaves were also found in some of the inbred progenies from plants displayed somatic mutation. Electron microscopy studies showed that the damage of chloroplast development in the white-yellow stripe on leaves was similar between seeds flown on LDEF and that irradiated by accelerated heavy ions on ground.

  14. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  15. Seed germination of three species of Fabaceae typical of seasonally dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meira Arruda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seeds germination of Anadenanthera colubrina, Acacia polyphylla and Bauhinia cheilantha, typical species of deciduous forests. Seeds were submitted to pre-germination treatments and attack of native insects. The seeds of each species were grouped in: seeds scarified with sandpaper; seeds immersed in water heated to 70 °C, seeds with signs of attack by herbivore insects and the control group. The largest proportion of germinated seeds occurred in the first week of incubation and germination peak, ranged from first to third day. All groups of A. polyphylla and B.cheilantha showed high germination rate (> 90%, being reduced only when seeds were attacked by insects (< 25%. Mechanic scarification was efficient in A. polyphylla by enhancing germination to maximum (100% and accelerating germination. A. colubrina showed no difference among groups, and germination rate was lower (< 50%, which was attributed to infestation by fungi, commonly reported in this species and apparently independent of usual hygiene procedures. Finally, except the fungi infestation in A. colubrina, evaluated species were independent of pre-germination treatment to obtain a high rate of germination.

  16. Electron beam gaseous pollutants treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Emission of gaseous pollutants, mostly during combustion of fossil fuels, creates a threat to the environment. New, economical technologies are needed for flue gas treatment. A physico-chemical basis of the process using electron beam for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds are presented in this report. Development of the process and its upscaling has been discussed. (author)

  17. Tanned or burned: the role of fire in shaping physical seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Bruno; Pausas, Juli G

    2012-01-01

    Plant species with physical seed dormancy are common in mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Because fire breaks seed dormancy and enhances the recruitment of many species, this trait might be considered adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, to what extent the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire (i.e., for post-fire recruitment) or by summer temperatures in the bare soil (i.e., for recruitment in fire-independent gaps) remains unknown. Our hypothesis is that the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire and thus we predict higher dormancy lost in response to fire than in response to summer temperatures. We tested this hypothesis in six woody species with physical seed dormancy occurring in fire-prone areas across the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds from different populations of each species were subject to heat treatments simulating fire (i.e., a single high temperature peak of 100 °C, 120 °C or 150 °C for 5 minutes) and heat treatments simulating summer (i.e., temperature fluctuations; 30 daily cycles of 3 hours at 31 °C, 4 hours at 43 °C, 3 hours at 33 °C and 14 hours at 18 °C). Fire treatments broke dormancy and stimulated germination in all populations of all species. In contrast, summer treatments had no effect over the seed dormancy for most species and only enhanced the germination in Ulex parviflorus, although less than the fire treatments. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean species with physical dormancy, the temperature thresholds necessary to trigger seed germination are better explained as a response to fire than as a response to summer temperatures. The high level of dormancy release by the heat produced by fire might enforce most recruitment to be capitalized into a single post-fire pulse when the most favorable conditions occur. This supports the important role of fire in shaping seed traits.

  18. Tanned or burned: the role of fire in shaping physical seed dormancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moreira

    Full Text Available Plant species with physical seed dormancy are common in mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Because fire breaks seed dormancy and enhances the recruitment of many species, this trait might be considered adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, to what extent the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire (i.e., for post-fire recruitment or by summer temperatures in the bare soil (i.e., for recruitment in fire-independent gaps remains unknown. Our hypothesis is that the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire and thus we predict higher dormancy lost in response to fire than in response to summer temperatures. We tested this hypothesis in six woody species with physical seed dormancy occurring in fire-prone areas across the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds from different populations of each species were subject to heat treatments simulating fire (i.e., a single high temperature peak of 100 °C, 120 °C or 150 °C for 5 minutes and heat treatments simulating summer (i.e., temperature fluctuations; 30 daily cycles of 3 hours at 31 °C, 4 hours at 43 °C, 3 hours at 33 °C and 14 hours at 18 °C. Fire treatments broke dormancy and stimulated germination in all populations of all species. In contrast, summer treatments had no effect over the seed dormancy for most species and only enhanced the germination in Ulex parviflorus, although less than the fire treatments. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean species with physical dormancy, the temperature thresholds necessary to trigger seed germination are better explained as a response to fire than as a response to summer temperatures. The high level of dormancy release by the heat produced by fire might enforce most recruitment to be capitalized into a single post-fire pulse when the most favorable conditions occur. This supports the important role of fire in shaping seed traits.

  19. DOSES DE EXTRATO DE PRÓPOLIS NO CONTROLE DO FUNGO Aspergillus sp E NO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE PEPINO / EXTRACT OF PROPOLIS IN THE TREATMENT OF CUCUMBER SEEDS AND CONTROL OF Aspergillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The alternative control has as characteristics the absence of contamination and social and environmental toxicity, and an alternative is the extract of propolis, which objectified with this work verify the effect of solutions of propolis extract in vitro control of the fungus Aspergillus sp, and the physiological quality of the cucumber seeds after treatment with the same solutions. Isolate from the fungus was inoculated in BDA medium with concentrations of 0; 8; 12; 18 and 25% of aqueous Propamax® extract, totaling five treatments. For the seed treatment, were used the same concentrations of propolis extract. The design was completely randomized with six replicates. It was verified that with the linear increase of the dose of the propolis extract, there was interference in the fungus development reaching maximum with 25%. Cucumber seeds treated with propolis solutions do not affect the physiological quality, resulting in a possible alternative seed treatment.

  20. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K [Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio Economics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  1. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K; Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  2. 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Accumulation during Seed Development Represses Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anuja; Hernández, M. Luisa; He, Zhesi; Andriotis, Vasilios M.E.; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana COMATOSE (CTS) encodes an ABC transporter involved in peroxisomal import of substrates for β-oxidation. Various cts alleles and mutants disrupted in steps of peroxisomal β-oxidation have previously been reported to exhibit a severe block on seed germination. Oxylipin analysis on cts, acyl CoA oxidase1 acyl CoA oxidase2 (acx1 acx2), and keto acyl thiolase2 dry seeds revealed that they contain elevated levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and JA-Ile. Oxylipin and transcriptomic analysis showed that accumulation of these oxylipins occurs during late seed maturation in cts. Analysis of double mutants generated by crossing cts with mutants in the JA biosynthesis pathway indicate that OPDA, rather than JA or JA-Ile, contributes to the block on germination in cts seeds. We found that OPDA was more effective at inhibiting wild-type germination than was JA and that this effect was independent of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 but was synergistic with abscisic acid (ABA). Consistent with this, OPDA treatment increased ABA INSENSITIVE5 protein abundance in a manner that parallels the inhibitory effect of OPDA and OPDA+ABA on seed germination. These results demonstrate that OPDA acts along with ABA to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis. PMID:21335376

  3. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira, E-mail: camilo.urucum@hotmail.com [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA/EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Bicombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B., E-mail: jorgecazefilho@yahoo.com.br [Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria da Paraiba (EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  4. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira; Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B.

    2015-01-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  5. Another shock for the Bullet cluster, and the source of seed electrons for radio relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimwell, Timothy W.; Markevitch, Maxim; Brown, Shea; Feretti, Luigina; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lage, Craig; Srinivasan, Raghav

    2015-05-01

    With Australia Telescope Compact Array observations, we detect a highly elongated Mpc-scale diffuse radio source on the eastern periphery of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8, which we argue has the positional, spectral and polarimetric characteristics of a radio relic. This powerful relic (2.3 ± 0.1 × 1025 W Hz-1) consists of a bright northern bulb and a faint linear tail. The bulb emits 94 per cent of the observed radio flux and has the highest surface brightness of any known relic. Exactly coincident with the linear tail, we find a sharp X-ray surface brightness edge in the deep Chandra image of the cluster - a signature of a shock front in the hot intracluster medium (ICM), located on the opposite side of the cluster to the famous bow shock. This new example of an X-ray shock coincident with a relic further supports the hypothesis that shocks in the outer regions of clusters can form relics via diffusive shock (re-)acceleration. Intriguingly, our new relic suggests that seed electrons for reacceleration are coming from a local remnant of a radio galaxy, which we are lucky to catch before its complete disruption. If this scenario, in which a relic forms when a shock crosses a well-defined region of the ICM polluted with aged relativistic plasma - as opposed to the usual assumption that seeds are uniformly mixed in the ICM - is also the case for other relics, this may explain a number of peculiar properties of peripheral relics.

  6. Leaching and sorption of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides from seed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly; Hladik, Michelle; Sanders, Corey; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    Seed coatings are a treatment used on a variety of crops to improve production and offer protection against pests and fungal outbreaks. The leaching of the active ingredients associated with the seed coatings and the sorption to soil was evaluated under laboratory conditions using commercially available corn and soybean seeds to study the fate and transport of these pesticides under controlled conditions. The active ingredients (AI) included one neonicotinoid insecticide (thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (azoxystrobin, fludioxonil, metalaxyl, sedaxane thiabendazole). An aqueous leaching experiment was conducted with treated corn and soybean seeds. Leaching potential was a function of solubility and seed type. The leaching of fludioxonil, was dependent on seed type with a shorter time to equilibrium on the corn compared to the soybean seeds. Sorption experiments with the treated seeds and a solution of the AIs were conducted using three different soil types. Sorption behavior was a function of soil organic matter as well as seed type. For most AIs, a negative relationship was observed between the aqueous concentration and the log Koc. Sorption to all soils tested was limited for the hydrophilic pesticides thiamethoxam and metalaxyl. However, partitioning for the more hydrophobic fungicides was dependent on both seed type and soil properties. The mobility of fludioxonil in the sorption experiment varied by seed type indicating that the adjuvants associated with the seed coating could potentially play a role in the environmental fate of fludioxonil. This is the first study to assess, under laboratory conditions, the fate of pesticides associated with seed coatings using commercially available treated seeds. This information can be used to understand how alterations in agricultural practices (e.g., increasing use of seed treatments) can impact the exposure (concentration and duration) and potential effects of these chemicals to aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

  7. Characterization of physical and biochemical changes in plasma treated spinach seed during germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye Ji, Sang; Ki, Se Hoon; Kang, Min Ho; Choi, Jin Sung; Park, Yeunsoo; Oh, Jaesung; Kim, Seong Bong; Yoo, Suk Jae; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2018-04-01

    Despite the accumulating data on the effect of plasma on seed germination, mechanisms of plasma action need more extensive research. In a previous study, we observed that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma enhanced the germination of spinach seeds and subsequent seedling growth. As a follow-up study, we investigated the physico-chemical, biochemical, and molecular changes in seed after plasma treatment, focusing on the early germination stage, to elucidate mechanism(s) for the stimulating effects of plasma on seed germination. The primary radicle protruded from seeds exposed to high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot) slightly faster than the control seeds. The hydrophilicity of the seed surface significantly increased after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot). However, a very subtle increase in water uptake by plasma treated seeds was observed. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy analyses on chloroform extract of seed coats demonstrated no significant chemical etching on the surface of plasma treated seeds. This may be related to no dramatic increase in water absorption by seeds. The level of GA hormone and starch hydrolysis inside the plasma treated seeds was significantly elevated within 24 h. Taken together, our results suggest that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma may not only enhance hydrophilicity of the seed surface but also stimulate biochemical and molecular processes inside seed, leading to enhanced embryonic development.

  8. Evaluation of Aerated Steam Treatment of Alfalfa and Mung Bean Seeds To Eliminate High Levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O178:H12, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Patrick; Heller, Werner E.; Hummerjohann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Sprouts contaminated with human pathogens are able to cause food-borne diseases due to the favorable growth conditions for bacteria during germination and because of minimal processing steps prior to consumption. We have investigated the potential of hot humid air, i.e., aerated steam, to treat alfalfa and mung bean seeds which have been artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. In addition, a recently collected E. coli O178:H12 isolate, characterized by a reduced heat sensitivity, was exposed to the treatment described. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica on alfalfa and mung bean seeds could be completely eliminated by a 300-s treatment with steam at 70 ± 1°C as revealed by enrichment studies. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O178:H12 could not be completely eliminated from artificially inoculated seeds. However, bacterial populations were reduced by more than 5 log CFU/g on alfalfa and by more than 4 log CFU/g on mung bean seeds. The germination rate of mung beans was not affected by the 300-s treatment compared to the germination rate of untreated seeds whereas that of alfalfa seeds was significantly lower by 11.9%. This chemical-free method is an effective alternative to the 20,000-ppm hypochlorite treatment presently recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). PMID:23709507

  9. The Effects of Physical Primings of Seeds on Agronomical Characteristics and Alkaloid Content of Datura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Baser kouchebagh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of physical seed primings on yield and alkaloid content of datura an experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications and 10 different treatments was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Aazd University, Tabriz branch, Iran, during growing season of 2013. Treatments of moist seeds were: ultrasonic treatment of seeds with a maximum of 3 watts, gamma and beta irradiations of seeds at 2 microcurie (µc for 10 minutes, laser irradiation at 6328 angstrom (A° and magnetic field of seeds with 40 microtesla (mt each for 5, 10, 15 minutes respectively and control. Results indicated that seeds treated with gamma irradiation increased plant height over the control by 45%. Highest (206 g.m-2 and lowest (108.3 g.m-2 biological yields were produced when seeds treated with magnetic field for 10 minutes and laser for 5 minutes respectively. Similarly, highest (27.27 g.m-2 and lowest (14.96 g.m-2 seed yields were obtained by treating seeds with magnetic field for 15 minutes and ultrasonic respectively. Alkaloid content in the above ground plant parts was highest when seeds treated with gamma irradiation and lowest with the magnetic field irradiation for 5 minutes. It may be concluded that physical primings of seeds with magnetic field, gamma and laser irradiations would result in higher seed yields.

  10. Electron Beam Treatment Plant for Textile Dyeing Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Choi, Jangseung; Ahn, Sangjun

    2006-01-01

    High positive effect of electron-beam treatment involved into the process of wastewater purification is now well established. The most effective for the purpose seem to be combine methods including both electron beam and any conventional treatment stages, i.e., under conditions when some synergistic effects can take place. D